NORTH DAKOTA RESIDENTS’ USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THEIR HUNTING AND SHOOTING PARTICIPATION

Conducted for the National Shooting Sports Foundation By the North Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports, and Responsive Management 2012
This project is supported by the Hunting Heritage Partnership, a grant program of the National Shooting Sports Foundation, Inc.
Grant #26, Reporting Period: April 1, 2012 - March 12, 2013

NORTH DAKOTA RESIDENTS’ USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THEIR HUNTING AND SHOOTING PARTICIPATION
2012

North Dakota Game and Fish Department
Terry Steinwand, Director Greg Link, Chief, Conservation and Communications Division

The Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports
Bill Creighton, CEO

Responsive Management National Office
Mark Damian Duda, Executive Director Martin Jones, Senior Research Associate Tom Beppler, Research Associate Steven J. Bissell, Ph.D., Qualitative Research Associate Andrea Criscione, Research Associate Patrick Doherty, Research Associate Lauren Jefferson, Research Associate Amanda Ritchie, Research Associate Carol L. Schilli, Senior Statistician Tim Winegord, Survey Center Manager Alison Lanier, Business Manager 130 Franklin Street Harrisonburg, VA 22801 Phone: 540/432-1888 Fax: 540/432-1892 E-mail: mark@responsivemanagement.com www.responsivemanagement.com

Acknowledgments
The North Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports, and Responsive Management would like to thank Melissa Schilling of the National Shooting Sports Foundation for her input, support, and guidance on this project.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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STUDY OVERVIEW
This study was conducted under a grant from the National Shooting Sports Foundation® (NSSF®) to determine the extent to which social media influences North Dakota residents’ participation in outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and shooting. The study entailed a telephone survey of members of the general population in North Dakota, as well as hunters and target shooters residing in the state. Overall, the data suggest that while many North Dakotans visit social media websites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to obtain information about recreational activities and opportunities, such sites have not replaced more traditional means like the Internet in general, word-of-mouth from family, friends and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers. However, because about half of North Dakota residents, slightly less than half of North Dakota hunters, and a little over a quarter of North Dakota shooters are fairly regular users of social media, and because social media, relative to many other outreach methods, provide timely and cost-effective opportunities for information dissemination, social media communications strategies should certainly be utilized by agencies as often as possible. Additionally, the survey data appear to confirm that social media outreach will be most effective in the targeting of younger markets: social media use was more common among members of the general population and hunters than among shooters, and shooters as a whole tended to be older than the other two respondent groups (respondents younger than the median age of 47 years old also showed greater propensity for social media use than did respondents the median age or older). Also, because the survey found that social media use is more common among females than males, agencies may be able to help generate increased interest and participation from younger women by focusing on this type of outreach. At the same time, it is critical to keep in mind that while social media may be an effective way to transmit various messages, the use of such media does not in itself guarantee the successful reception of any specific message. Rather, social media represent a means to an end, the end in this case being social influence from family members and friends in the form of invitations encouraging those around them to try hunting or shooting. Indeed, the overriding importance of invitations and encouragement from friends and family members in getting people to try hunting and shooting is demonstrated by the fact that among North Dakota residents and hunters surveyed, encouragement from family members is a greater motivator to trying a new activity than is the expectation of personal enjoyment—that is to say, many people are likely to try a new recreational activity, even if they are unsure they will enjoy themselves, if they are invited to do so by a family member. In this way, the research findings suggest that, rather than constituting any “silver bullet” in agency outreach and communications techniques, social media as a whole are more promising for the extent to which they expand ways for family members, friends, and others to communicate with and entice one another through the sharing of experiences, photos, and other invitational information. Whereas such sharing was certainly possible before the popularization of social media, social media websites now make this sharing (including invitations and other influence) simple and commonplace. Thus, one of the most important ways an agency can take advantage of social media will be to encourage its constituents to use social media platforms to share things with friends and family members about their own experiences hunting and shooting.

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NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

The survey found that among North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters, Facebook is by far the most popular social media website, and the most important appeal of such a site is the opportunity it provides to communicate with family and friends; further, apart from receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in an activity, the next most important action that would influence people to participate in a new activity is the ability to view images and pictures of friends and family members engaging in the activity—one of the essential functions of a social media site like Facebook. Just as these findings reinforce the importance of social media communication within existing networks of people (families, circles of friends, groups of coworkers, etc.), one limitation in the way an agency might communicate with its constituents through social media is illustrated by the fact that, currently, only about one in five North Dakota social media users engage with or follow a specific agency, organization, or provider of recreational opportunities through a social media platform. Still, despite such a modest level of present social media engagement with agencies and organizations, the survey results suggest that numerous other pieces regarding North Dakotans’ interest and involvement in social media are currently in place: • • Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters who use social media feel that such sites are effective at helping people make decisions about whether to engage in recreational activities; While non-social media contact such as phone calls, emails, and text messages are likely to be more influential than social media in encouraging people to participate in recreational activities, a substantial percentage of those who already use social media agree that they are more likely to participate in an event or activity if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media; Around half of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters own a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet, and social media use is highly correlated with ownership of such devices; In line with the above, large majorities of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners are likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity; Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often.

• • •

Finally, the data reinforce that, because support for hunting and target shooting among North Dakotans is nearly universal, there exists a considerable margin by which participation in these activities can increase. The key, as stated earlier and as reinforced elsewhere by the quantitative results, will be for agencies and other organizations to encourage their constituents at every opportunity to post about and describe their recreational experiences on their preferred social media platforms. Utilized in this manner, the overall effectiveness of social media as an outreach tool will be self-sustaining, particularly with regard to the promotion of new recreational opportunities like hunting and shooting.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY This study was conducted under a grant from the National Shooting Sports Foundation® (NSSF®) to determine the extent to which social media influences North Dakota residents’ participation in outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and shooting. The study entailed a telephone survey of members of the general population in North Dakota, as well as hunters and target shooters residing in the state.

For the survey, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium because of the almost universal ownership of telephones among North Dakota residents (both landlines and cell phones were called). The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by the North Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports, and Responsive Management. The software used for data collection was Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL). The analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences as well as proprietary software developed by Responsive Management.

Responsive Management obtained a total of 1,509 completed interviews with North Dakota residents, including 1,004 interviews with members of the general population, 255 interviews with hunters, and 250 interviews with target shooters.

Throughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidence interval. For the entire sample of North Dakota residents, the sampling error is at most plus or minus 3.09 percentage points, based on a sample size of 1,004 and a population size of 522,720 North Dakota residents ages 18 years old and older. For the sample of hunters, the sampling error is at most plus or minus 6.13 percentage points, based on a sample size of 255 and a population size of 111,660 hunters in the North Dakota license database used for the sample. Finally, because no reliable source exists to identify the size of the target shooter population in North Dakota, sampling error was not calculated for this respondent group.

iv SURVEY FINDINGS AT A GLANCE •

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Overall, the most common sources of information for recreational activities among North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters include the Internet in general, word-ofmouth from family, friends, neighbors, and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers. About half of North Dakota residents, slightly less than half of North Dakota hunters, and a little over a quarter of North Dakota shooters are fairly regular users of social media (i.e., they visit social media sites at least sometimes). Among all three respondent groups, Facebook is by far the most popular social media website, distantly followed by YouTube and Twitter. The most important appeal of social media websites is the opportunity to communicate with family and friends. Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters who use social media feel that such sites are somewhat effective, rather than very effective, at helping people make decisions about whether to engage in recreational activities. Only about one in five North Dakota social media users engage with or follow a specific agency, organization, or provider of recreational opportunities through a social media platform. Less than half of North Dakota social media users regularly use social media to actively seek information about recreational activities, share things with others about recreational activities, or organize outings or events with friends or family members. Contact such as phone calls, emails, and text messages from friends or family members are generally more influential than social media invitations and reminders in encouraging people to participate in recreational activities. Among North Dakota residents and hunters, encouragement from family members is a greater motivator to trying a new activity than is the expectation of personal enjoyment. Most North Dakota resident social media users and about half of hunter and shooter social media users agree that they are more likely to participate in an event or activity if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media. Around half of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters own a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet. While only small percentages of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners currently use mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities, large majorities of each group are likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity. Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often.

• • •

• •

• •

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Support for hunting and target shooting among North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters is nearly universal, and interest in going hunting or target shooting in North Dakota in the next year is quite high among all three groups. Relatively small percentages of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters regularly play video games; however, a number of those who play hunting- or shooting-related video games agree that such games increase their interest in actually going hunting or target shooting.

GENERAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES An initial question in the survey asked respondents about the main sources they used to learn about recreational activities, and the most common are the Internet, word-of-mouth from family, friends, neighbors, and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers: • Among general population North Dakota residents, 39% use the Internet, 37% rely on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, and 25% use print newspapers. Smaller percentages use television (18%) and print magazines (13%). • Among North Dakota hunters, nearly half (46%) depend on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, while a third (33%) use the Internet to learn about recreational activities. Meanwhile, 13% use print newspapers, 11% use television, and 10% use print magazines. • Among North Dakota shooters, the top source of information is the Internet (38%), followed by word-of-mouth from family, friends, and others (33%), and print newspapers (23%). Similar to the other groups, smaller percentages of shooters use print magazines (12%) and television (11%), while a further 11% name the North Dakota Game and Fish Department print magazine (as opposed to the online version) as a source of information on recreational activities. ATTITUDES TOWARD AND USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA General Use of Social Media Substantial percentages of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters visit social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube at least sometimes (the survey measured usage on a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never):

vi •

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM Slightly more than half of North Dakota general population residents (51%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; meanwhile, nearly a third (30%) say they visit such sites daily, while 39% never visit social media sites. • Just under half of North Dakota hunters (43%) and slightly more than a quarter of shooters (28%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; at the same time, almost half of hunters (42%) and well over half of shooters (58%) never visit social media sites. (At the other end of the spectrum, 24% of hunters and just 12% of shooters visit such sites daily.) Respondents who said they visited social media sites at least rarely were asked which sites they visited most often: by far, the most commonly used social media site is Facebook, distantly followed by YouTube and Twitter: • Among North Dakota general population residents who visit social media sites, 86% use Facebook. The next most commonly visited sites among those who use social media are YouTube (24% of residents who use social media visit this site) and Twitter (14%). Meanwhile, less than a tenth of residents use Google+ (7%), Pinterest (4%), or LinkedIn (1%). • Facebook is also by far the most popular site among North Dakota hunters and shooters who visit social media sites (76% of hunters and 79% of shooters who use social media visit Facebook). This is followed by YouTube (29% of hunters and 13% of shooters who use social media), Twitter (3% of hunters and 13% of shooters who use social media), and Google+ (7% of hunters and 2% of shooters who use social media). A follow-up question asked respondents what they liked most about the social media sites they visited most often, and the most common response is that the site(s) allows communication with family and friends: • Among North Dakota general population residents who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site (respondents could name up to three preferred sites), 66% say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, while a further 29% say that their favorite site(s) helps them stay informed. Other important aspects are that the site is entertaining (16%), that the site is easy to use or relevant (15%), or that the site allows the person to look up information (14%).

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Preferred qualities among North Dakota hunters and shooters who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site generally resemble responses from general population residents: 53% of hunters and 49% of shooters say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, 18% of hunters and 26% of shooters say that their most-visited site(s) is informative, 18% of hunters and 16% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) is convenient and accessible, and 21% of hunters and 8% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) has entertaining content.

Opinions Regarding the Effectiveness of Social Media in Influencing DecisionMaking The survey asked respondents who used social media their opinions on the effectiveness of social media to accomplish two separate things: provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions in general, and provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them. Large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters feel that social media are effective at doing both of the two things, although respondents in all three groups more often say that social media are somewhat effective, as opposed to very effective: • Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions in general:
o

76% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 30% saying very effective;

o

77% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 29% saying very effective;

o

72% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with just 16% saying very effective;

Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them:
o

74% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 27% say very effective;

o

69% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 24% say very effective;

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o

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM 59% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 20% say very effective.

Engagement With Specific Agencies and Organizations Via Social Media The survey asked respondents who used social media whether they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities on social media platforms such as Facebook or Twitter (this could include “following” an agency or organization or being signed up for regular updates or alerts via a social media website). Among respondents who used social media, no more than a fifth of each of the three respondent groups said they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities: • Among North Dakota general population residents who used social media, 19% said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media.
o

North Dakota residents who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with a non-profit organization (28%), followed by an outdoor recreation club (16%), a school or college (14%), or a business of some type (10%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (45% of those who engaged with an agency or organization gave this reason), followed by being a member of or working for the agency or organization (29%), or having shared or common interests with the agency or organization (22%).

Among North Dakota hunters and shooters who used social media, 17% of hunters and just 7% of shooters said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media.
o

North Dakota hunters who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (28%), a non-profit organization (20%), a business of some type (16%) or an outdoor recreation club (12%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization among hunters who do so are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (40%), having shared or

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common interests with the agency or organization (16%), or being a member of or working for the agency or organization (16%).
o

North Dakota shooters who engage with a specific agency or organization overwhelmingly engage with various types of businesses (43% of shooters who engage with specific agencies or organizations mentioned this type), followed by nonprofit organizations (38%), and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (25%). Shooters’ most common reasons for engaging with a specific organization include having shared or common interests with the organization (57%) or seeking specific information of some kind (25%).

Specific Uses of Social Media Respondents who used social media were asked how often they visited social media sites for three specific reasons (as in a previous line of questions, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): to actively seek information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with; to share things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate; and to organize outings or events with friends or family members. In general, less than half of each of the three respondent groups do these things at least sometimes: • Regarding actively seeking information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with:
o

44% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 25% do this never;

o

35% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 32% do this never;

o

17% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 43% do this never.

Regarding sharing things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate:
o

45% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 23% do this never;

x
o

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM 43% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 27% do this never;
o

39% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 50% do this never.

Regarding organizing outings or events with friends or family members:
o

33% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 31% do this never;

o

31% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 41% do this never;

o

18% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 54% do this never.

Opinions on Actions Influencing Recreational Participation All respondents (not just those who visited social media sites) were read a list of things that could potentially influence their participation in recreational activities, and were asked whether each item on the list would influence them a great deal, a moderate amount, a little, or not at all in helping them to decide whether to participate. The list included the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with you; Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; Receiving text alerts on your mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity; Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity; Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before you decide to try it; Being able to post a picture of yourself participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram; Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment; Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on your own likes and interests listed on your Facebook page.

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In general, the actions having the most degree of influence involve personal or direct contact or invitations from friends or family members; on the other hand, items involving websites or the distribution of automatic information generally receive lower ratings of influence. The most instructive ranking concerns the items that would influence respondents to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal: • Among North Dakota general population residents, the top item in the ranking, by far, is receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (54% of residents say this would influence them a great deal). Other important items in the list had at least a fifth of residents saying they would influence them to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal:
o

Being able to see images and pictures of friends and family members engaging in the activity before they decided to try it (32% say this would have a great deal of influence);

o

Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (31%);

o

Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (26%);

o

Receiving text alerts on a mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity (21%).

Among North Dakota hunters and shooters, the top item in the ranking is, again, receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (56% of hunters and 46% of shooters say this would influence them a great deal). The only other items with at least a fifth of hunters and shooters rating them as having a great deal of influence are receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (34% of hunters and 21% of shooters) and receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (27% of hunters and 28% of shooters).

Individuals who used social media were asked whether they had ever decided to participate in an activity or other event primarily because of an invitation or reminder received from a friend or family member through social media: slightly more than half of North Dakota resident social media users (55%), more than a third of North Dakota hunter social media

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NDGFD / CAHSS / RM users (38%), and about a quarter of North Dakota shooter social media users (24%) said that they had done so. • Individuals who decided to participate in an activity because of a social media invitation from a friend or family member most commonly attended social events with friends or family (44% of general population residents, 56% of hunters, 31% of shooters) sports events or activities (12% of general population residents, 16% of hunters, 25% of shooters), or fishing or hunting trips (8% of general population residents, 8% of hunters, 23% of shooters).

In a similar question, respondents who used social media were asked whether they had ever purchased a product or participated in an activity or other event primarily because they received a coupon, invitation, or reminder from a company or organization through social media: slightly more than a third of North Dakota resident social media users (35%), a third of North Dakota hunter social media users (33%), and nearly half of North Dakota shooter social media users (47%) had done this. • Social media users who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder most commonly mentioned general coupons or marketing promotions (36% of general population residents, 56% of hunters, 15% of shooters), sports events or activities (18% of general population residents, 7% of hunters, 4% of shooters), or fishing or hunting trips (9% of general population residents, 15% of hunters). Note that the vast majority of North Dakota shooters who had purchased a product or participated in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder received through social media (74%) could not recall the specific type of product, activity, or event.
o

Residents, hunters, and shooters who purchased a product or participated in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder most commonly received such coupons and reminders from known, trusted companies and organizations, rather than new or unknown companies and organizations: 83% of residents, 81% of hunters, and 62% of shooters who made use of such coupons and reminders did so with known, trusted companies, compared to just 11% of residents, 15% of hunters, and 4% of shooters who received and used coupons and reminders from new or

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unknown companies and organizations. (Note that 35% of shooters said they were unsure of whether the company/organization was known and trusted or new and unknown.)

Respondents who used social media were asked whether they agreed or disagreed that they are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if they receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site: • Among North Dakota general population social media users, 61% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 33% disagree: • Among North Dakota hunter social media users, 54% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 37% disagree: • Among North Dakota shooter social media users, 45% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 44% disagree: OWNERSHIP AND USE OF MOBILE DEVICES The survey measured ownership of various computer and smartphone devices: large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters own personal computers and laptops, while generally no more than half of each group own smartphones or tablet devices. • Among North Dakota general population residents:
o o o o

82% own a personal computer; 70% own a laptop; 41% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; 29% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook.

Among North Dakota hunters:
o o o

75% own a personal computer; 66% own a laptop; 51% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android;

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o

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM 26% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook.

Among North Dakota shooters:
o o o o

82% own a personal computer; 60% own a laptop; 35% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; 19% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook.

Smartphone owners most commonly use their smartphones to browse websites or surf the Internet, check email, for professional networking or business purposes, or to check the weather.

Common uses of tablets are fairly similar to those of smartphones, with tablet owners most often mentioning browsing websites or surfing the Internet, read books or e-books, checking email, professional networking or business purposes, or playing games.

Substantial percentages of mobile device (i.e., smartphone or tablet) owners use their device at least sometimes to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of recreation (as before, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): • Among North Dakota general population mobile device owners, 48% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (24% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose). • Among North Dakota hunter mobile device owners, 57% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (22% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose). • Among North Dakota shooter mobile device owners, 27% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (38% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose).

While only small percentages of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners currently use mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities, large

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majorities of each group say they would be likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity.

Less than half of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners have ever used a mobile device to scan a QR (Quick Response) code anywhere, but notable percentages of each group say they would be likely to use their mobile device to scan QR codes containing information on how, when, or where to participate in a preferred recreational activity. GENERAL RECREATIONAL PREFERENCES In a question regarding preference for indoor recreational activities, outdoor recreational activities, or both types about equally, North Dakota general population residents are split between preferring outdoor activities (46%) and both types about equally (46%). Just 8% say they generally prefer indoor recreational activities. On the other hand, majorities of both hunters (64%) and shooters (62%) express a preference for outdoor activities, while about a third of each group (34% of hunters and 33% of shooters) say they enjoy both indoor and outdoor activities about equally.

Hunting, fishing, and other outdoor activities top the lists of recreational activities in which residents, hunters, and shooters most enjoy participating.

Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters say they are interested in participating in new recreational activities that they have never tried, although they more often say they are somewhat interested, rather than very interested.

The survey asked respondents to rate on a scale of 0 to 10 the importance of three different factors in helping them to decide whether to participate in a new activity: that the respondent thought that they would personally enjoy the activity, that friends invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement, and that family invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement. Among members of the general population and

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NDGFD / CAHSS / RM hunters, the item with the highest mean rating of importance is that family invite them to participate and encourage their involvement (among general population residents, this item receives a mean rating of 7.45; among hunters, the mean rating is 6.93). By contrast, the item with the highest mean rating of importance among shooters is that the respondent himself or herself thought that they would personally enjoy the activity (in the latter group, this item receives a mean rating of 7.19). Meanwhile, for all three groups, the item with the lowest mean rating of importance is that friends invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement.

ATTITUDES TOWARD AGENCY USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN PROMOTING RECREATION Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often.

Similar to the above, strong majorities of all three respondent groups would look for information from the Department at least as often as they do now if the Department were to offer information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.

Substantial percentages of residents, hunters, and shooters are interested in receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube: • Among general population residents, 60% are interested in receiving information from the Department through social media, with 21% very interested (38% say they are not at all interested in receiving information in this way). • Among hunters, 55% are interested in receiving information from the Department through social media, with 26% very interested. Just under half (42%) are not at all interested.

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Shooters express the least amount of interest in receiving information from the Department through social media: 45% are interested, with just 16% very interested; meanwhile, more than half (55%) say they are not at all interested.

ATTITUDES TOWARD HUNTING AND SHOOTING Support for hunting among all three groups of respondents is quite strong: 87% of North Dakota residents, 91% of hunters, and 89% of shooters support legal, regulated hunting, with most expressing strong, rather than moderate, support. • • • Among North Dakota general population residents, 60% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 44% very interested. Among North Dakota hunters, 95% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 89% very interested. Among North Dakota shooters, 78% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 62% being very interested.

As with hunting, support for legal target shooting is nearly universal among all three groups of respondents: 91% of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters support legal target shooting. Again, most support is strong. • • • Among North Dakota general population residents, 59% are interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year, with 34% very interested. Among North Dakota hunters, 79% are interested in going target shooting in the state in the next year, with 47% very interested. Among North Dakota shooters, 68% are interested in going target shooting in the state in the next year, with a third (33%) very interested.

North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters most commonly say that there are too few public shooting ranges in the state, rather than too many or about the right amount: • • Among general population residents, 43% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 23% say there are about the right amount, and 34% are unsure. Among hunters, 56% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 25% say there are about the right amount, and 16% are unsure.

xviii •

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM Among shooters, 41% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 25% say there are about the right amount, and 34% are unsure.

OPINIONS ON HUNTING AND SHOOTING VIDEO GAMES The survey explored propensity for video games, particularly video games involving or focused on hunting or shooting activities. In general, no more than about a quarter of residents, hunters, or shooters play video games at least sometimes. However, hunting and shooting games do appear to be fairly commonly played by regular video game players: • Among North Dakota general population residents:
o

Around a quarter (27%) play video games at least sometimes, while 55% say they never play video games.

o

Among video game players, 45% currently play or have played hunting video games, while 31% currently play or have played shooting video games. The most common hunting- and shooting-related video games include various Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter.

o

General population residents who play hunting video games are fairly split regarding whether such games make them more interested in actually going hunting: 54% agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport, while 37% disagree; 10% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. By far, the most common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, and not the actual activity.

o

There is slightly more agreement that shooting-related video games increase interest in the actual activity: 57% of residents who play shooting-related video games agree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting, while 33% disagree (10% are again unsure or neither agree nor disagree). The most common reasons for disagreeing are that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity, or that the respondent has no interest in shooting an actual firearm.

Among North Dakota hunters:
o

Nearly a fifth (18%) play video games at least sometimes, while 56% say they never play video games.

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o

Among video game players, 50% currently play or have played hunting video games, and 47% currently play or have played shooting video games. As before, the most common hunting- and shooting-related video games include various Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter.

o

52% of hunters who play hunting-related video games agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport; at the same time, 32% disagree, and 17% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. As before, a common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, and not the actual activity (note that a substantial percentage of those who disagree were unsure of a specific reason for their disagreement).

o

While 41% of hunters who play shooting-related video games agree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting, 49% disagree (10% are unsure or neither agree nor disagree). Once again, the most common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity.

Among North Dakota shooters:
o

15% play video games at least sometimes, while 64% say they never play video games.

o

Among video game players, 55% currently play or have played hunting video games, and 25% currently play or have played shooting video games. (Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter remain the most common games.)

o

A third of shooters who play hunting-related video games (33%) agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport; at the same time, 38% disagree, and 29% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. The most common reasons for disagreeing are that the respondent’s interest is only in video games or that video games are more fun; note that, as with hunters, a substantial percentage of shooters who disagree were unsure of a specific reason for their disagreement.

o

Shooters who play video games most commonly disagree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting: 67% are in disagreement, with just 29% agreeing and 5% neither agreeing nor disagreeing. Among those who disagree, the unanimous reason is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity.

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NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction and Methodology ........................................................................................................1 Use of Telephones for the Survey ...........................................................................................1 Questionnaire Design ..............................................................................................................1 Survey Sample.........................................................................................................................1 Telephone Interviewing Facilities ...........................................................................................2 Interviewing Dates and Times.................................................................................................2 Telephone Survey Data Collection and Quality Control.........................................................2 Data Analysis...........................................................................................................................3 Sampling Error ........................................................................................................................4 Additional Information about the Presentation of Results in the Report ................................5 General Sources of Information on Recreational Activities ............................................................6 Attitudes Toward and Use of Social Media...................................................................................10 General Use of Social Media.................................................................................................10 Opinions Regarding the Effectiveness of Social Media in Influencing Decision-Making..........................................................................................12 Engagement With Specific Agencies and Organizations Via Social Media.........................13 Specific Uses of Social Media...............................................................................................15 Opinions on Actions Influencing Recreational Participation................................................16 Ownership and Use of Mobile Devices .........................................................................................76 General Recreational Preferences ................................................................................................105 Attitudes Toward Agency Use of Social Media in Promoting Recreation..................................117 Attitudes Toward Hunting and Shooting .....................................................................................125 Opinions on Hunting and Shooting Video Games.......................................................................148 Demographic Data .......................................................................................................................164 About Responsive Management ..................................................................................................185

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INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY
This study was conducted under a grant from the National Shooting Sports Foundation® (NSSF®) to determine the extent to which social media influences North Dakota residents’ participation in outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and shooting. The study entailed a telephone survey of members of the general population in North Dakota, as well as hunters and target shooters residing in the state. Specific aspects of the research methodology are discussed below.

USE OF TELEPHONES FOR THE SURVEY For the survey, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium because of the almost universal ownership of telephones among North Dakota residents (both landlines and cell phones were called). Additionally, telephone surveys, relative to mail or Internet surveys, allow for more scientific sampling and data collection, provide higher quality data, obtain higher response rates, are more timely, and are more cost-effective. Telephone surveys also have fewer negative effects on the environment than do mail surveys because of reduced use of paper and reduced energy consumption for delivering and returning the questionnaires.

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by the North Dakota Game and Fish Department, the Council to Advance Hunting and the Shooting Sports, and Responsive Management, based on the research team’s familiarity with studies examining sources of information for hunting, sport shooting, and other types of recreation. Responsive Management conducted pre-tests of the questionnaire to ensure proper wording, flow, and logic in the survey.

SURVEY SAMPLE The samples of North Dakota general population residents and target shooters were obtained from professional sampling firms that specialize in providing scientific samples for surveys, including representative samples with cell phones. The sample of hunters was provided by the North Dakota Game and Fish Department, based on its licensing records. All three North Dakota general population, shooter, and hunter survey samples were representative of their respective populations.

2 TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING FACILITIES

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

A central polling site at the Responsive Management office allowed for rigorous quality control over the interviews and data collection. Responsive Management maintains its own in-house telephone interviewing facilities. These facilities are staffed by interviewers with experience conducting computer-assisted telephone interviews on the subjects of outdoor recreation and natural resources.

To ensure the integrity of the telephone survey data, Responsive Management has interviewers who have been trained according to the standards established by the Council of American Survey Research Organizations. Methods of instruction included lecture and role-playing. The Survey Center Managers and other professional staff conducted a project briefing with the interviewers prior to the administration of this survey. Interviewers were instructed on type of study, study goals and objectives, handling of survey questions, interview length, termination points and qualifiers for participation, interviewer instructions within the survey questionnaire, reading of the survey questions, skip patterns, and probing and clarifying techniques necessary for specific questions on the survey questionnaire.

INTERVIEWING DATES AND TIMES Telephone surveying times are Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday from noon to 5:00 p.m., and Sunday from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., local time. A five-callback design was used to maintain the representativeness of the sample, to avoid bias toward people easy to reach by telephone, and to provide an equal opportunity for all to participate. When a respondent could not be reached on the first call, subsequent calls were placed on different days of the week and at different times of the day. The survey was conducted in October 2012.

TELEPHONE SURVEY DATA COLLECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL The software used for data collection was Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL). The survey data were entered into the computer as each interview was being conducted, eliminating manual data entry after the completion of the survey and the concomitant data entry errors that may occur with manual data entry. The survey questionnaire was programmed so that QPL

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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branched, coded, and substituted phrases in the survey based on previous responses to ensure the integrity and consistency of the data collection.

The Survey Center Managers and statisticians monitored the data collection, including monitoring of the actual telephone interviews without the interviewers’ knowledge, to evaluate the performance of each interviewer and ensure the integrity of the data. The survey questionnaire itself contains error checkers and computation statements to ensure quality and consistent data. After the surveys were obtained by the interviewers, the Survey Center Managers and/or statisticians checked each completed survey to ensure clarity and completeness.

Responsive Management obtained a total of 1,509 completed interviews with North Dakota residents, including 1,004 interviews with members of the general population, 255 interviews with hunters, and 250 interviews with target shooters. It is important to note that the survey asked some questions only of specific respondents. In particular, this was done when a followup question did not apply to some respondents. For instance, only those who said they visited social media websites daily, often, sometimes, or rarely were asked follow-up questions about social media. In the results, these follow-up questions generally include a parenthetical statement indicating that the question was asked only of certain respondents and/or that the graph shows responses only among a specific subgroup in the sample.

DATA ANALYSIS The analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences as well as proprietary software developed by Responsive Management. The results were weighted by demographic characteristics so that the samples were representative of North Dakota residents as a whole.

On questions that asked respondents to provide a number (e.g., number of years lived in North Dakota), the graph shows ranges of numbers rather than the precise numbers. Nonetheless, in the survey each respondent provided a precise number, and the dataset includes this precise number, even if the graph only shows ranges of numbers. Note that the calculation of means and medians used the precise numbers that the respondents provided.

4

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Crosstabulations were run on many questions, including crosstabulations by the hunter and shooter samples. Other crosstabulations were run, as appropriate, as part of the analysis. Finally, some questions show the results broken down by various individual respondent categories, particularly major demographic categories.

SAMPLING ERROR Throughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidence interval. For the entire sample of North Dakota residents, the sampling error is at most plus or minus 3.09 percentage points. This means that if the survey were conducted 100 times on different samples that were selected in the same way, the findings of 95 out of the 100 surveys would fall within plus or minus 3.09 percentage points of each other. Sampling error was calculated using the formula described below, with a sample size of 1,004 and a population size of 522,720 North Dakota residents ages 18 years old and older. For the sample of hunters, the sampling error is at most plus or minus 6.13 percentage points, based on a sample size of 255 and a population size of 111,660 hunters in the North Dakota license database used for the sample. Finally, because no reliable source exists to identify the size of the target shooter population in North Dakota, sampling error was not calculated for this respondent group.

Sampling Error Equation

⎛ ⎜ B=⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

⎞ Np (.25) − .25 ⎟ Ns ⎟(1.96 ) ⎟ Np − 1 ⎟ ⎠

Where:

B = maximum sampling error (as decimal) NP = population size (i.e., total number who could be surveyed) NS = sample size (i.e., total number of respondents surveyed)

Derived from formula: p. 206 in Dillman, D. A. 2000. Mail and Internet Surveys. John Wiley & Sons, NY.

Note: This is a simplified version of the formula that calculates the maximum sampling error using a 50:50 split (the most conservative calculation because a 50:50 split would give maximum variation).

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PRESENTATION OF RESULTS IN THE REPORT In examining the results, it is important to be aware that the questionnaire included several types of questions:
• • •

• •

Open-ended questions are those in which no answer set is read to the respondents; rather, they can respond with anything that comes to mind from the question. Closed-ended questions have an answer set from which to choose. Single or multiple response questions: Some questions allow only a single response, while other questions allow respondents to give more than one response or choose all that apply. Those that allow more than a single response are indicated on the graphs with the label, “Multiple Responses Allowed.” Scaled questions: Many closed-ended questions (but not all) are in a scale, such as excellent-good-fair-poor. Series questions: Many questions are part of a series, and the results are primarily intended to be examined relative to the other questions in that series (although results of the questions individually can also be valuable). Typically, results of all questions in a series are shown together.

Some graphs show an average, either the mean or median (or both). The mean is simply the sum of all numbers divided by the number of respondents. Because outliers (extremely high or low numbers relative to most of the other responses) may skew the mean, the median may be shown. The median is the number at which half the sample is above and the other half is below. In other words, a median of 150 means that half the sample gave an answer of more than 150 and the other half gave an answer of less than 150.

Most graphs show results rounded to the nearest integer; however, all data are stored in decimal format, and all calculations are performed on unrounded numbers. For this reason, some results may not sum to exactly 100% because of this rounding on the graphs. Additionally, rounding may cause apparent discrepancies of 1 percentage point between the graphs and the reported results of combined responses (e.g., when “strongly support” and “moderately support” are summed to determine the total percentage in support).

Finally, some graphs pertain to more than one section of the report, so these graphs are discussed in more than one section of the report. In these instances when the graph is discussed in more than one section, the graph is only shown in one section with a call-out in the other section indicating where the graph is located.

6

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

GENERAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
An initial question in the survey asked respondents about the main sources they used to learn about recreational activities, and the most common are the Internet, word-of-mouth from family, friends, neighbors, and others, and print (rather than online) newspapers: • Among general population North Dakota residents, 39% use the Internet, 37% rely on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, and 25% use print newspapers. Smaller percentages use television (18%) and print magazines (13%).
o

A second graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who use the Internet or online resources (including the Internet in general, specific websites, and/or social media sites) to learn about recreational activities. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who have played hunting or shooting video games before (63% of whom use the Internet or any online resource to learn about recreational activities), followed by those with children under the age of 18 living in their household (62%), those who own a smartphone (58%), those who use Facebook (58%), and those who own a tablet device (58%). At the bottom of the ranking are those who do not use Facebook (just 31% of this group use the Internet or any online resource to learn about recreational activities), those who visit social media sites rarely or never, and those the median age of 47 or older (34%).

Among North Dakota hunters, nearly half (46%) depend on family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, and general word-of-mouth, while a third (33%) use the Internet to learn about recreational activities. Meanwhile, 13% use print newspapers, 11% use television, and 10% use print magazines.

Among North Dakota shooters, the top source of information is the Internet (38%), followed by word-of-mouth from family, friends, and others (33%), and print newspapers (23%). Similar to the other groups, smaller percentages of shooters use print magazines (12%) and television (11%), while a further 11% name the North Dakota Game and Fish Department print magazine (as opposed to the online version) as a source of information on recreational activities.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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Q15. In general, what sources do you use to learn about recreational activities to participate in or become involved with? (Among all North Dakota residents)
Internet Family / friends / co-workers / neighbors / general word-of-mouth Newspapers - PRINT TV Magazines - PRINT 18 13 7 6 5 25 39 37

Multiple Responses Allowed

Radio Facebook North Dakota Game and Fish Department magazine - PRINT Internet - specific website North Dakota Game and Fish Department official website Newspapers - DIGITAL/ONLINE Pinterest Google+ YouTube North Dakota Game and Fish Department magazine - DIGITAL/ONLINE Other Don't know

General population
3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 7

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

8

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Percent of each of the following groups who use the Internet or any online resource to learn about recreational activities:
Has played hunting or shooting video games Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Owns a smartphone Uses Facebook Owns a tablet device Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes Is younger than the median age (47) Education level is bachelor's degree or higher Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Is female Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Has been shooting Has never been hunting Lives in a small city / town or rural area Lives in an urban or suburban area Has been hunting Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Is male Has never been shooting Does not own a tablet device Has never played hunting or shooting video games Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more Education level is less than a bachelor's degree Does not own a smartphone Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Is the median age (47) or older Visits social media sites rarely or never Does not use Facebook

63 62 58 58 58 57 57 54 52 51 48 48 47 46 45 44 44 43 42 42 41 40 39 38 38 36 36 34 32 31 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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Q15. In general, what sources do you use to learn about recreational activities to participate in or become involved with? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
Family / friends / co-workers / neighbors / general word-of-mouth Internet Newspapers - PRINT TV Magazines - PRINT Multiple Responses Allowed North Dakota Game and Fish Department magazine - PRINT Internet - specific website North Dakota Game and Fish Department official website Radio Facebook North Dakota Game and Fish Department magazine Newspapers - DIGITAL/ONLINE YouTube Other Don't know 0
7 13 11 11 10 12 11 23 46

33 33 38

8 6 8 5 5 6 4 2 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 3 4 5

Hunters Target shooters

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

10

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

ATTITUDES TOWARD AND USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
GENERAL USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA Substantial percentages of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters visit social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube at least sometimes (the survey measured usage on a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): • Slightly more than half of North Dakota general population residents (51%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; meanwhile, nearly a third (30%) say they visit such sites daily, while 39% never visit social media sites.
o

A second graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who use Facebook (89% of whom visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes), those younger than the median age of 47 (72%), those who own a smartphone (71%), those who have lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of 35 years (67%), and those who have played hunting or shooting video games before (67%).

o

Another graph shows a breakdown of the top groups who visit social media sites rarely or never: in this analysis, the top groups include those who do not use Facebook (90% of whom visit social media sites rarely or never), those the median age of 47 or older (67%), those who do not own a smartphone (62%), and those who have lived in North Dakota for the median of 35 years or more (62%).

o

North Dakota residents who said they never visited social media sites were asked why they never did so, and the most reason, by far, was simply having no interest (59% of those who never visit social media sites gave this answer). Other, less common reasons included having no time (15%) or not having enough patience with electronics or computers in general (12%).

Just under half of North Dakota hunters (43%) and slightly more than a quarter of shooters (28%) visit social media sites at least sometimes; at the same time, almost half of hunters (42%) and well over half of shooters (58%) never visit social media sites. (At the other end of the spectrum, 24% of hunters and just 12% of shooters visit such sites daily.)

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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o

As before, the most common reason among hunters and shooters for never visiting social media sites is a lack of interest (57% of hunters and 58% of shooters gave this answer). Other common reasons included not having patience with computers or electronics (19% of hunters and 15% of shooters who never visited social media sites said this), not owning the necessary computers, smartphones, or other electronics (17% of hunters; 13% of shooters), or not having enough time (8% of hunters; 19% of shooters).

Respondents who said they visited social media sites at least rarely were asked which sites they visited most often: by far, the most commonly used social media site is Facebook, distantly followed by YouTube and Twitter: • Among North Dakota general population residents who visit social media sites, 86% use Facebook. The next most commonly visited sites among those who use social media are YouTube (24% of residents who use social media visit this site) and Twitter (14%). Meanwhile, less than a tenth of residents use Google+ (7%), Pinterest (4%), or LinkedIn (1%).
o

Another graph shows responses to this question out of all respondents to the survey, including those who said they never visit social media sites: this graph shows that, in total, 52% of North Dakota residents use Facebook, 15% visit YouTube, and 9% use Twitter.

o

A graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who use Facebook. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes (91% of whom use Facebook), those the median age of 47 or younger (72%), those who own a smartphone (71%), those who have lived in North Dakota for less than the median of 35 years (69%), and those who get information about outdoor recreation from digital or online sources (67%).

Facebook is also by far the most popular site among North Dakota hunters and shooters who visit social media sites (76% of hunters and 79% of shooters who use social media visit Facebook). This is followed by YouTube (29% of hunters and 13% of shooters who

12

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM use social media), Twitter (3% of hunters and 13% of shooters who use social media), and Google+ (7% of hunters and 2% of shooters who use social media).
o

As before, a graph shows responses to the question out of all hunters and shooters surveyed, including those who said they never visit social media sites: in total, 44% of hunters and 34% of shooters use Facebook, 17% of hunters and 6% of shooters visit YouTube, 2% of hunters and 6% of shooters use Twitter, and 4% of hunters and 1% of shooters use Google+.

A follow-up question asked respondents what they liked most about the social media sites they visited most often, and the most common response is that the site(s) allows communication with family and friends: • Among North Dakota general population residents who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site (respondents could name up to three preferred sites), 66% say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, while a further 29% say that their favorite site(s) helps them stay informed. Other important aspects are that the site is entertaining (16%), that the site is easy to use or relevant (15%), or that the site allows the person to look up information (14%). • Preferred qualities among North Dakota hunters and shooters who use social media and who named at least one most-visited social media site generally resemble responses from general population residents: 53% of hunters and 49% of shooters say that the site(s) allows them to communicate with family and friends, 18% of hunters and 26% of shooters say that their most-visited site(s) is informative, 18% of hunters and 16% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) is convenient and accessible, and 21% of hunters and 8% of shooters say that their favorite site(s) has entertaining content.

OPINIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN INFLUENCING DECISION-MAKING The survey asked respondents who used social media their opinions on the effectiveness of social media to accomplish two separate things: provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions in general, and provide opportunities to engage with others in ways that help people to make decisions specifically about recreational

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activities and whether to participate in them. Large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters feel that social media are effective at doing both of the two things, although respondents in all three groups more often say that social media are somewhat effective, as opposed to very effective: • Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions in general:
o

76% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 30% saying very effective;

o

77% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with 29% saying very effective;

o

72% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, with just 16% saying very effective;

Regarding the effectiveness of social media to help people make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them:
o

74% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 27% say very effective;

o

69% of North Dakota hunters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 24% say very effective;

o

59% of North Dakota shooters who use social media say that social media are effective at doing this, while 20% say very effective.

ENGAGEMENT WITH SPECIFIC AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS VIA SOCIAL MEDIA The survey asked respondents who used social media whether they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities on social media platforms such as Facebook or Twitter (this could include “following” an agency or organization or being signed up for regular updates or alerts via a social media website). Among respondents who used social media, no more than a fifth of each of the three respondent groups said they engaged with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities: • Among North Dakota general population residents who used social media, 19% said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media. A second graph shows

14

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM the responses to this question out of all respondents to the survey, including those who said they never visit social media sites: this graph shows that, in total, 12% of North Dakota residents follow a specific agency or organization through social media.
o

North Dakota residents who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with a non-profit organization (28%), followed by an outdoor recreation club (16%), a school or college (14%), or a business of some type (10%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (45% of those who engaged with an agency or organization gave this reason), followed by being a member of or working for the agency or organization (29%), or having shared or common interests with the agency or organization (22%).

Among North Dakota hunters and shooters who used social media, 17% of hunters and just 7% of shooters said they followed a specific agency or organization through social media. As before, an additional graph shows the responses to this question out of all North Dakota hunters and shooters surveyed, including those who said they never visit social media sites: in total, 10% of North Dakota hunters and 3% of North Dakota shooters follow a specific agency or organization through social media.
o

North Dakota hunters who engage with a specific agency or organization most commonly engage with the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (28%), a non-profit organization (20%), a business of some type (16%) or an outdoor recreation club (12%). The most common reasons for engaging with a specific agency or organization among hunters who do so are because the individual sought specific information, such as activity or special event dates (40%), having shared or common interests with the agency or organization (16%), or being a member of or working for the agency or organization (16%).

o

North Dakota shooters who engage with a specific agency or organization overwhelmingly engage with various types of businesses (43% of shooters who engage with specific agencies or organizations mentioned this type), followed by nonprofit organizations (38%), and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department (25%). Shooters’ most common reasons for engaging with a specific organization include

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

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having shared or common interests with the organization (57%) or seeking specific information of some kind (25%).

SPECIFIC USES OF SOCIAL MEDIA Respondents who used social media were asked how often they visited social media sites for three specific reasons (as in a previous line of questions, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): to actively seek information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with; to share things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate; and to organize outings or events with friends or family members. In general, less than half of each of the three respondent groups do these things at least sometimes: • Regarding actively seeking information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with:
o

44% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 25% do this never;

o

35% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 32% do this never;

o

17% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 43% do this never.

Regarding sharing things with other people about recreational activities in which they participate:
o

45% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 23% do this never;

o

43% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 27% do this never;

o

39% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 50% do this never.

Regarding organizing outings or events with friends or family members:
o

33% of North Dakota general population residents who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 31% do this never;

16
o

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM 31% of North Dakota hunters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 41% do this never;
o

18% of North Dakota shooters who use social media do this at least sometimes, while 54% do this never.

OPINIONS ON ACTIONS INFLUENCING RECREATIONAL PARTICIPATION All respondents (not just those who visited social media sites) were read a list of things that could potentially influence their participation in recreational activities, and were asked whether each item on the list would influence them a great deal, a moderate amount, a little, or not at all in helping them to decide whether to participate. The list included the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity; Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with you; Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; Receiving text alerts on your mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity; Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity; Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity; Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before you decide to try it; Being able to post a picture of yourself participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram; Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment; Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on your own likes and interests listed on your Facebook page.

In general, the actions having the most degree of influence involve personal or direct contact or invitations from friends or family members; on the other hand, items involving websites or the distribution of automatic information generally receive lower ratings of influence. The most instructive ranking concerns the items that would influence respondents to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal:

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

17

Among North Dakota general population residents, the top item in the ranking, by far, is receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (54% of residents say this would influence them a great deal). Other important items in the list had at least a fifth of residents saying they would influence them to participate in a new activity or type of recreation a great deal:
o

Being able to see images and pictures of friends and family members engaging in the activity before they decided to try it (32% say this would have a great deal of influence);

o

Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (31%);

o

Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (26%);

o

Receiving text alerts on a mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity (21%).

Among North Dakota hunters and shooters, the top item in the ranking is, again, receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (56% of hunters and 46% of shooters say this would influence them a great deal). The only other items with at least a fifth of hunters and shooters rating them as having a great deal of influence are receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (34% of hunters and 21% of shooters) and receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity (27% of hunters and 28% of shooters).

Individuals who used social media were asked whether they had ever decided to participate in an activity or other event primarily because of an invitation or reminder received from a friend or family member through social media: slightly more than half of North Dakota resident social media users (55%), more than a third of North Dakota hunter social media users (38%), and about a quarter of North Dakota shooter social media users (24%) said that they had done so. • Individuals who decided to participate in an activity because of a social media invitation from a friend or family member most commonly attended social events with friends or family (44% of general population residents, 56% of hunters, 31% of shooters) sports

18

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM events or activities (12% of general population residents, 16% of hunters, 25% of shooters), or fishing or hunting trips (8% of general population residents, 8% of hunters, 23% of shooters).

In a similar question, respondents who used social media were asked whether they had ever purchased a product or participated in an activity or other event primarily because they received a coupon, invitation, or reminder from a company or organization through social media: slightly more than a third of North Dakota resident social media users (35%), a third of North Dakota hunter social media users (33%), and nearly half of North Dakota shooter social media users (47%) had done this. • Social media users who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder most commonly mentioned general coupons or marketing promotions (36% of general population residents, 56% of hunters, 15% of shooters), sports events or activities (18% of general population residents, 7% of hunters, 4% of shooters), or fishing or hunting trips (9% of general population residents, 15% of hunters). Note that the vast majority of North Dakota shooters who had purchased a product or participated in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder received through social media (74%) could not recall the specific type of product, activity, or event.
o

Residents, hunters, and shooters who purchased a product or participated in an activity because of a coupon, invitation, or other reminder most commonly received such coupons and reminders from known, trusted companies and organizations, rather than new or unknown companies and organizations: 83% of residents, 81% of hunters, and 62% of shooters who made use of such coupons and reminders did so with known, trusted companies, compared to just 11% of residents, 15% of hunters, and 4% of shooters who received and used coupons and reminders from new or unknown companies and organizations. (Note that 35% of shooters said they were unsure of whether the company/organization was known and trusted or new and unknown.)

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

19

Respondents who used social media were asked whether they agreed or disagreed that they are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if they receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site: • Among North Dakota general population social media users, 61% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 33% disagree:
o

The most common reason residents agree with the above is that social media reminders simply help them to remember, followed by being able to see if others they know are involved, and that the information is accessible and convenient.

o

The most common reason residents disagree with the above is that the person simply prefers to be asked or invited in person, followed by not using any social media sites with invitation features, thinking that social media reminders are not convenient or not checking such sites often enough, and that social media reminders have no real influence one way or the other.

Among North Dakota hunter social media users, 54% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 37% disagree:
o

The most common reason hunters agree with the above is that social media reminders simply help them to remember, followed by information through social media being accessible and convenient, and that they would not know about such information or reminders otherwise.

o

The most common reason hunters disagree with the above is that they do not use social media sites with invitation features, followed by such sites not being convenient enough or the respondent not checking them enough, and that social media reminders have no real influence one way or the other.

Among North Dakota shooter social media users, 45% agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive an invitation or reminder through social media, while 44% disagree:
o

The most common reason shooters agree with the above is that social media invitations or reminders help them to remember.

20
o

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM The most common reason shooters disagree with the above is that they do not use social media sites with invitation features, followed by simply not liking social media sites, and that such sites are not convenient enough or the respondent does not check them enough.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

21

Q24. In general, how often do you visit social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Daily

30

Frequently

11

51% of North Dakota residents use social media at least sometimes

Sometimes

10

Rarely

10

General population

Never

39

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

22

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Percent of each of the following groups who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes:
Uses Facebook Is younger than the median age (47) Owns a smartphone Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) Has played hunting or shooting video games Gets information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Owns a tablet device Has never been hunting Is female Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has never been shooting Education level is bachelor's degree or higher Lives in a small city / town or rural area Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Lives in an urban or suburban area Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Education level is less than a bachelor's degree Has been shooting Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has been hunting Does not own a tablet device Has never played hunting or shooting video games Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Is male Does not get information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more Does not own a smartphone Is the median age (47) or older Does not use Facebook

89 72 71 67 67 65 65 62 61 61 54 53 53 52 52 52 51 51 50 50 47 47 46 44 41 40 38 38 33 10 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

23

Percent of each of the following groups who visit social media sites rarely or never:
Does not use Facebook Is the median age (47) or older Does not own a smartphone Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more Does not get information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Is male Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Has never played hunting or shooting video games Does not own a tablet device Has been hunting Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has been shooting Education level is less than a bachelor's degree Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Lives in an urban or suburban area Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Lives in a small city / town or rural area Education level is bachelor's degree or higher Has never been shooting Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Is female Has never been hunting Owns a tablet device Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Gets information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Has played hunting or shooting video games Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) Owns a smartphone Is younger than the median age (47) Uses Facebook

90 67 62 62 60 59 56 54 53 53 50 50 49 49 48 48 48 47 47 46 39 39 38 35 35 33 33 29 28 11 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

24

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q27. What are the reasons you never visit social media sites? (Asked of those who never visit social media sites.)

No interest

59

No time

15

Not enough patience with electronics / computers Multiple Responses Allowed Do not own necessary electronics / smartphone / laptop / etc.

12

9

Note: results are among the 39% of North Dakota residents who never visit social media sites.

Privacy or security issues

3

General population

Do not have applicable account

3

Health reasons

2

Other

1

Don't know

4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

25

Q24. In general, how often do you visit social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, or YouTube? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

24 Daily 12

10 Frequently 6

43% of North Dakota hunters and 28% of North Dakota shooters use social media at least sometimes

9 Sometimes 10

14 Rarely 14

Hunters Target shooters

42 Never 58

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

26

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q27. What are the reasons you never visit social media sites? (Asked of those who never visit social media sites.)

No interest

57 58

Not enough patience with electronics / computers

19 15

Multiple Responses Allowed

Do not own necessary electronics / smartphone / laptop / etc.

17 13

Note: results are among the 42% of North Dakota hunters and 58% of North Dakota shooters who never visit social media sites.

No time

8 19

Hunters Target shooters

Do not have applicable account

5 1

Other

1 0

Don't know

4 6

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

27

Q29/31/33. Social media sites used. (Among those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Facebook

86

YouTube

24

Twitter Multiple Responses Allowed

14

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Google+

7

General population Pinterest
4

LinkedIn

1

Other

10

Don't know

3

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

28

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q29/31/33. Social media sites used. (Among all North Dakota residents)

Facebook

52

YouTube

15

Twitter Multiple Responses Allowed

9

Google+

4

Pinterest

3

General population

LinkedIn

1

Other

6

Don't know

2

N/A: Do not visit any social media sites 0 20

39

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

29

Percent of each of the following groups who use Facebook:
Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes Is younger than the median age (47) Owns a smartphone Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) Gets information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Has played hunting or shooting video games Owns a tablet device Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Is female Has never been hunting Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has never been shooting Education level is bachelor's degree or higher Lives in a small city / town or rural area Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Lives in an urban or suburban area Education level is less than a bachelor's degree Has been shooting Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has been hunting Has never played hunting or shooting video games Does not own a tablet device Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Is male Does not get information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Does not own a smartphone Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more Is the median age (47) or older Visits social media sites rarely or never

91 72 71 69 67 66 66 65 64 61 55 55 54 53 52 52 51 51 51 51 49 48 47 46 41 40 39 38 34 12 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

30

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q29/31/33. Social media sites used. (Among those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Facebook

76 79

YouTube

29 13

Twitter Multiple Responses Allowed

3 13

Google+

7 2

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.
Hunters Target shooters

LinkedIn

2 4

Pinterest

1 2

Other

13 5

Don't know

7 3

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

31

Q29/31/33. Social media sites used. (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

Facebook

44 34

YouTube

17 6

Twitter Multiple Responses Allowed

2 6

Google+

4 1

LinkedIn

1 2

Hunters Target shooters

Pinterest

1 1

Other

7 2

Don't know

4 1

N/A: Do not visit any social media sites 0 20 40

42 58

60 Percent

80

100

32

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q35/36/37. What do you like most about the site you visit the most / second most / third most? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

The site allows me to communicate with family and friends

66

The site helps me stay informed

29

The site is entertaining / I watch games and play videos Multiple Responses Allowed

16

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

The site is easy to use, relevant

15

The site allows me to look up information

14

General population

The site is popular

4

I'm familiar with the site

1

Other

7

Don't know

7

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

33

Q35/36/37. What do you like most about the site you visit the most / second most / third most? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

The site allows me to communicate with family and friends The site is informative
18 26

53 49

Multiple Responses Allowed

The site is convenient and accessible The content (music, videos, etc.) is entertaining

18 16

21 8

The site is popular

7 7

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

No particular reason

12 8

Hunters Target shooters

Other

8 3

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

34

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q38. How effective do you think social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are at providing opportunities to engage with others in ways that help you make decisions in general? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Very effective

30

Somewhat effective

46

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

General population

Not at all effective

22

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

35

Q38. How effective do you think social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are at providing opportunities to engage with others in ways that help you make decisions in general? (Asked of those who visit social media sites often, sometimes, or rarely.)

29 Very effective 16

Somewhat effective

48 56

20 Not at all effective 24

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Hunters Target shooters 3 Don't know 4

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

36

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q39. How effective do you think social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are at providing opportunities to engage with others in ways that help you make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Very effective

27

Somewhat effective

47

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

General population Not at all effective 24

Don't know

2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

37

Q39. How effective do you think social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are at providing opportunities to engage with others in ways that help you make decisions specifically about recreational activities and whether to participate in them? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

24 Very effective 20

Somewhat effective

45 39

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

29 Not at all effective 39 Hunters Target shooters 3 Don't know 3

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

38

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q40. In terms of Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites you might visit, do you engage with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Yes

19

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

No

80

General population

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

39

Q40. In terms of Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites you might visit, do you engage with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Yes

12

No

49

General population

N/A: Do not visit any social media sites

39

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

40

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q41. Which agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities do you engage with on Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites? (Asked of those who engage with agencies, organizations, or providers of recreation on social media.)
Non-profit organization
28

Outdoor recreation club

16

School / college Multiple Responses Allowed

14

Business North Dakota Game and Fish Department Tourism / travel office

10

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

8

General population
8

State / local parks and recreation

7

Church

1

Other

10

Don't Know 0

4

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

41

Q42. What made you decide to engage with this specific agency, organization, or provider of recreational activities or opportunities? (Asked of those who engage with agencies, organizations, or providers of recreation on social media.)

Seeking specific information (activities, special events, etc.)

45

Member of / work for / otherwise involved with agency or organization Multiple Responses Allowed

29

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Have shared interests / interests in common with agency or organization

22

General population Referred by friend or family member
4

Other

4

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

42

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q40. In terms of Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites you might visit, do you engage with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

17 Yes 7

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

82 No 93

1 Don't know 0

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

43

Q40. In terms of Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites you might visit, do you engage with any specific agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

10 Yes 3

47 No 39

1 Don't know 0 Hunters Target shooters

N/A: Do not visit any social media sites

42 58

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

44

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q41. Which agencies, organizations, or providers of recreational activities or opportunities do you engage with on Facebook, Twitter, or other social media sites? (Asked of those who engage with agencies, organizations, or providers of recreation on social media.)
North Dakota Game and Fish Department Non-profit organization
20 38

28 25

Multiple Responses Allowed

Business

16 43

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Outdoor recreation club
8 0

12 13

Hunters Target shooters

School / college

State / local parks and recreation

4 0

Other

4 13

Don't know

8 0

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

45

Q42. What made you decide to engage with this specific agency, organization, or provider of recreational activities or opportunities? (Asked of those who engage with agencies, organizations, or providers of recreation on social media.)

Seeking specific information (activities, special events, etc.)

40 25

Have shared interests / interests in common with agency or organization

16 57

Multiple Responses Allowed

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Member of / work for / otherwise involved with agency or organization

16 0

Site is aesthetically pleasing

4 13

Hunters Target shooters

Referred by friend or family member

8 0

Other

16 0

Don't know

4 13

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

46

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q44. How often do you visit social media sites to actively seek information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Daily

3

Frequently

9

44% of North Dakota social media users visit social media sites to actively seek information about recreational activities at least sometimes.
32 General population

Sometimes

Rarely

31

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Never

25

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

47

Q44. How often do you visit social media sites to actively seek information about recreational activities in which to participate or become involved with? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

1 Daily 0

12 Frequently 8

35% of hunters and 17% of shooters who use social media visit social media sites to actively seek information about recreational activities at least sometimes.

22 Sometimes 9

Hunters Target shooters

34 Rarely 40

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

32 Never 43

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

48

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q45. How often do you visit social media sites to share things with other people about recreational activities in which you participate? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Daily

4

Frequently

14

45% of North Dakota social media users visit social media sites to share things with other people about recreation at least sometimes.
27 General population

Sometimes

Rarely

33

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Never

23

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

49

Q45. How often do you visit social media sites to share things with other people about recreational activities in which you participate? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

4 Daily 10

17 Frequently 6

43% of hunters and 39% of shooters who use social media visit social media sites to share things with other people about recreation at least sometimes.
22 23 Hunters Target shooters 30

Sometimes

Rarely 11

27 Never 50

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

50

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q46. How often do you visit social media sites to organize outings or events with friends or family members? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Daily

1

Frequently

12

33% of North Dakota social media users visit social media sites to organize outings or events with friends or family members at least sometimes.
20

Sometimes

General population Rarely 36

Never

31

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

51

Q46. How often do you visit social media sites to organize outings or events with friends or family members? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

1 Daily 0

9 Frequently 6

31% of hunters and 18% of shooters who use social media visit social media sites to organize outings or events with friends or family members at least sometimes.
21

Sometimes 12 Hunters Target shooters 27 Rarely 28

41 Never 54

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

52

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would influence them a great deal to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota residents)
Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page

54 32 31 26 21 19 General population 14 13 10 10 10 9 8 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

53

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would influence them a great deal or a moderate amount to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota residents)
Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity

83 68 64 60 42 42 General population 39 37 34 33 31 31 30 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

54

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would influence them a great deal, a moderate amount, or a little to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota residents)
Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them

93 82 81 69 65 57 56 54 54 51 51 49 General population 48 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

55

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would not influence them at all to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota residents)
Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity

50 50 47 47 45 42 42 41 34 31 18 18 6 0 20 40 60 80 100 General population

Percent

56

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would influence them a great deal to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment

46 21 34 27 28 6 11 7 3 4 1 3 1 1 19 18

56

16 13 12

10 8 7 6 6 6 Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

57

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would influence them a great deal or a moderate amount to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page

73 62 58 53 38 35 21 13 18 16 16 13 39 35 33 29 26 26 24 23 23 23 0 20 40 60 80 49 45 61

83

Hunters Target shooters

100

Percent

58

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would influence them a great deal, a moderate amount, or a little to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram

91 90 72 72 63 71

69 63 60 54 41 36 32 52 50 50 48 38 45 60

42 41 38 40 29 0 20 37 40 60 Hunters Target shooters

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

59

Q48-Q61. Percent who indicated that each of the following would not influence them at all to participate in a new activity or type of recreation: (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
Q59. Being able to post a picture of themselves participating in the activity on a site like Facebook, Tumblr, or Instagram Q61. Automatically receiving personalized information about opportunities to participate in things based on their own likes and interests listed on their Facebook page Q60. Being able to use a site like GroupOn to get discounts on activity participation or equipment Q54. Receiving timely information via Twitter or another social media site regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q57. Being able to read blog or message board posts from friends, family members, or other participants about their experiences with the activity Q53. Being able to use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media site to reach out to friends or family members to invite them participate in the activity with them Q52. Receiving a Facebook invite from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q56. Being able to watch YouTube videos of other people participating in the activity Q55. Receiving text alerts on their mobile phone regarding how, when, or where to participate in the activity Q58. Being able to see images and pictures of friends, family members, or other people engaging in the activity before they decide to try it Q51. Receiving a text message from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q49. Receiving an email from a friend or family member to participate in the activity Q48. Receiving a phone call from a friend or family member to participate in the activity

60 58 58 54 56 51 47 48 47 44 38 38 44 27 33 27 26 28 9 8 0 20 40 60 35 59

66

64 62 56

Hunters Target shooters

80

100

Percent

60

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q64. Have you ever decided to participate in an activity or other event primarily because you received an invitation or reminder from a friend or family member through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Yes

55

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

No

44

General population

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

61

Q64. Have you ever decided to participate in an activity or other event primarily because you received an invitation or reminder from a friend or family member through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

38 Yes 24

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Hunters Target shooters

62 No 76

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

62

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q65. What type of activity or event was it? (Asked of those who decided to participate in an activity or event because they received an invitiation or reminder through social media.)

Social event with family or friends

44

Sports event or activity

12

Multiple Responses Allowed

Fishing or hunting trip

8

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Shopping event such as craft fair, expo, home-based business (e.g., Tupperware)

7

General population

Concert

5

Benefit

4

Camping

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

63

Q65. What type of activity or event was it? (Asked of those who decided to participate in an activity or event because they received an invitiation or reminder through social media.)

Social event with family or friends

56 31

Sports event or activity

16 25

Multiple Responses Allowed

Fishing or hunting trip

8 23

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Benefit

8 0

Hunters Target shooters
8

Shopping event such as craft fair, expo, home-based business (e.g., Tupperware)

0

Camping

4 0

Other

0 17

Don't know

12 8

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

64

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q66. Have you ever decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity or other event primarily because you received a coupon, invitation, or reminder from a company or organization through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Yes

35

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

No

64

General population

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

65

Q66. Have you ever decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity or other event primarily because you received a coupon, invitation, or reminder from a company or organization through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

33 Yes 47

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

65 No 51

Hunters Target shooters

2 Don't know 2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

66

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q67. What type of product, activity, or event was it? (Asked of those who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of hearing from a company or organization through social media.)

Coupons or marketing

36

Sports event or activity

18

Fishing or hunting trip or activity Multiple Responses Allowed

9

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Social event with family or friends Shopping event such as craft fair, expo, home-based business (e.g., Tupperware) Benefit

6

General population
3

1

Concert

1

Other

1

Don't know

29

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

67

Q67. What type of product, activity, or event was it? (Asked of those who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of hearing from a company or organization through social media.)

Coupons or marketing

56 15

Fishing or hunting trip or activity

15 0

Multiple Responses Allowed

Sports event or activity

7 4

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.
Hunters Target shooters

Benefit

7 0

Shopping event such as craft fair, expo, home-based business (e.g., Tupperware)

4 4

Social event with family or friends

4 0

Other

7 0

Don't know

7 74

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

68

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q68. Was the company or organization whose coupon, invitation, or reminder you received a known or trusted one with which you were familiar, or a new or unknown one with which you were unfamiliar? (Asked of those who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of hearing from a company or organization through social media.)

Known, trusted company/organization

83

New, unknown company/organization

11

General population

Don't know

6

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

69

Q68. Was the company or organization whose coupon, invitation, or reminder you received a known or trusted one with which you were familiar, or a new or unknown one with which you were unfamiliar? (Asked of those who decided to purchase a product or participate in an activity because of hearing from a company or organization through social media.)

Known, trusted company / organization

81 62

New, unknown company / organization

15 4

Hunters Target shooters

4 Don't know 35

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

70

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q69. In general, do you agree or disagree that you are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if you receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Strongly agree

24

Moderately agree

37

Neither agree nor disagree

Note: results are among the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

6

General population Moderately disagree 19

Strongly disagree

14

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

71

Q70. Why do you agree that you are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if you receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who use social media and who agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive a social media reminder.)

It helps me remember

48

I can see if others I know and like are involved Information is accessible and convenient I feel special when I am invited through Facebook I am more persuaded to attend if invited through Facebook

13

Multiple Responses Allowed

13

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

10

General population
6

I would not know about it otherwise

2

Other

10

Don't know

6

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

72

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q71. Why do you disagree that you are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if you receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who use social media and who disagree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive a social media reminder.)

I prefer to be asked in person Don't use Facebook / don't use any social media sites with invitation features It's not convenient / I don't check social media often enough It does not influence my decision one way or the other I have concerns about personal security / privacy I don't like social media I don't get invitations through Facebook Other
6

24

19

19

Multiple Responses Allowed

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 61% of North Dakota residents who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

16

General population

5

3

8

Don't Know 0

7

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

73

Q69. In general, do you agree or disagree that you are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if you receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Strongly agree

15 3

Moderately agree

39 42

Neither agree nor disagree

6 8

Note: results are among the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.
Hunters Target shooters

Moderately disagree

16 25

Strongly disagree

21 19

Don't know

3 3

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

74

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q70. Why do you agree that you are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if you receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who use social media and who agree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive a social media reminder.)
35 48

It helps me remember

Information is accessible and convenient

18 4

Multiple Responses Allowed

I would not know about it otherwise

13 2

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

I can see if others I know are involved

10 6

Hunters Target shooters

I am more persuaded to attend if invited through Facebook I feel special when I am invited through Facebook

6 10

6 6

Other

14 21

Don't know

6 2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

75

Q71. Why do you disagree that you are more likely to participate in an activity or other event if you receive an invitation or reminder through a social media site like Facebook? (Asked of those who use social media and who disagree that they are more likely to participate in an activity or event if they receive a social media reminder.)
Don't use Facebook / don't use any social media sites with invitation features It's not convenient / I don't check it often enough It does not influence my decision one way or the other Multiple Responses Allowed I don't like social media
4 21 11 9 11 2 2 0 0 2 6 6 4 2 19 13 15 9 33 39

Note: Graph reflects subset of the 57% of North Dakota hunters and 42% of North Dakota shooters who visit social media sites daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.
Hunters Target shooters

I prefer to be asked in person

I don't get invitations through Facebook

It's easy to say no I have concerns about personal security / privacy Other

Don't know 0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

76

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

OWNERSHIP AND USE OF MOBILE DEVICES
The survey measured ownership of various computer and smartphone devices: large majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters own personal computers and laptops, while generally no more than half of each group own smartphones or tablet devices. • Among North Dakota general population residents:
o o o o o

82% own a personal computer; 70% own a laptop; 41% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; 29% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook. A second graph following the general population results shows a breakdown of the top groups who own a smartphone. At the top of this ranking of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample are those who own a tablet device (68% of whom own a smartphone), those younger than the median age of 47 (58%), those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes (56%), those who have children under the age of 18 living in their household (56%), and those who use Facebook (56%).

o

Another graph shows the breakdown of major demographic and participatory subgroups within the general population sample that own a tablet device: in this analysis, the top groups include those who own a smartphone (48% of whom own a tablet device), those who have children under the age of 18 living in their household (40%), those who get information about outdoor recreation from digital or online sources (37%), those who have played hunting or shooting video games before (37%), and those who use Facebook (37%).

Among North Dakota hunters:
o o o o

75% own a personal computer; 66% own a laptop; 51% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; 26% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook.

Among North Dakota shooters:
o

82% own a personal computer;

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

77

o o o

60% own a laptop; 35% own a smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android; 19% own a tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook.

Smartphone owners most commonly use their smartphones to browse websites or surf the Internet, check email, for professional networking or business purposes, or to check the weather: • Among North Dakota general population smartphone owners, 53% use their device to browse websites or surf the Internet, 25% check email, 13% use their device for professional networking or business purposes, and 11% check the weather. • Among North Dakota hunter smartphone owners, 48% use their device to browse websites or surf the Internet, 29% check email, 11% use their device for professional networking or business purposes, and 11% check the weather. • Among North Dakota shooter smartphone owners, 31% use their device to browse websites or surf the Internet, 26% check email, 11% use their device for professional networking or business purposes, and 21% check the weather.

Common uses of tablets are fairly similar to those of smartphones, with tablet owners most often mentioning browsing websites or surfing the Internet, read books or e-books, checking email, professional networking or business purposes, or playing games: • Among North Dakota general population tablet owners, 43% use their device to browse websites or surf the Internet, 27% read books or e-books, 19% check email, 15% use their device for professional networking or business purposes, and 14% play games. • • Among North Dakota hunter tablet owners, 45% use their device to browse websites or surf the Internet, 30% check email, 18% read books or e-books, and 17% play games. Among North Dakota shooter tablet owners, 35% use their device to browse websites or surf the Internet, 28% read books or e-books, 15% check email, and 9% play games.

Substantial percentages of mobile device (i.e., smartphone or tablet) owners use their device at least sometimes to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of

78

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM recreation (as before, the survey used a scale of daily, frequently, sometimes, rarely, or never): • Among North Dakota general population mobile device owners, 48% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (24% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose).
o

A second graph shows the results of this question out of all North Dakota residents, including those who do not own a mobile device: in this analysis, a total of 25% use a mobile device to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes.)

Among North Dakota hunter mobile device owners, 57% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (22% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose).
o

A second graph shows the results of this question out of all North Dakota hunters, including those who do not own a mobile device: in this analysis, a total of 31% use a mobile device to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes.)

Among North Dakota shooter mobile device owners, 27% use a smartphone or tablet to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes (38% say they never use their mobile device for this purpose).
o

A second graph shows the results of this question out of all North Dakota shooters, including those who do not own a mobile device: in this analysis, a total of 11% use a mobile device to learn about recreational activities or opportunities at least sometimes.)

While only small percentages of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners currently use mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities, large majorities of each group say they would be likely to use a hypothetical free app providing automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity: • Among North Dakota general population mobile device owners, 14% currently use an app related to recreational activities or opportunities. (As before, a graph of the results

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

79

out of all residents surveyed shows that a total of 7% of North Dakota residents use a recreational activity app.)
o

More than three-quarters of North Dakota general population mobile device owners (77%) would be likely to download and use a free app for automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity (31% are very likely to use such an app).

Among North Dakota hunter mobile device owners, 13% currently use an app related to recreational activities or opportunities. (As before, a graph of the results out of all hunters surveyed shows that a total of 7% of North Dakota hunters use a recreational activity app.)
o

Nearly three-quarters of North Dakota hunter mobile device owners (71%) would be likely to download and use a free app for automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity (34% are very likely to use such an app).

Among North Dakota shooter mobile device owners, 7% currently use an app related to recreational activities or opportunities. (As before, a graph of the results out of all shooters surveyed shows that a total of 3% of North Dakota shooters use a recreational activity app.)
o

More than three-quarters of North Dakota shooter mobile device owners (76%) would be likely to download and use a free app for automatic reminders, updates, and other information on how to participate in a preferred recreational activity (22% are very likely to use such an app).

Less than half of North Dakota resident, hunter, and shooter mobile device owners have ever used a mobile device to scan a QR (Quick Response) code anywhere, but notable percentages of each group say they would be likely to use their mobile device to scan QR codes containing information on how, when, or where to participate in a preferred recreational activity: • Among North Dakota general population mobile device owners, 39% have ever used their mobile device to scan a QR code somewhere. (A graph of the results out of all

80

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM residents surveyed shows that a total of 20% of North Dakota residents have ever used their mobile device to scan a QR code somewhere.)
o

More than half of North Dakota general population mobile device owners (54%) would be likely to use their mobile device to scan QR codes containing information on how, when, or where to participate in a preferred recreational activity, with 19% being very likely.

Among North Dakota hunter mobile device owners, 34% have ever used their mobile device to scan a QR code somewhere. (A graph of the results out of all hunters surveyed shows that a total of 18% of North Dakota hunters have ever used their mobile device to scan a QR code somewhere.)
o

Almost half of North Dakota hunter mobile device owners (46%) would be likely to use their mobile device to scan QR codes containing information on how, when, or where to participate in a preferred recreational activity, with 14% being very likely.

Among North Dakota shooter mobile device owners, 21% have ever used their mobile device to scan a QR code somewhere. (A graph of the results out of all shooters surveyed shows that a total of 8% of North Dakota shooters have ever used their mobile device to scan a QR code somewhere.)
o

Similar to hunters, nearly half of North Dakota shooter mobile device owners (44%) would be likely to use their mobile device to scan QR codes containing information on how, when, or where to participate in a preferred recreational activity, although just 8% are very likely to do so.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

81

Q74. Computer, smartphone, and tablet devices owned. (Among all North Dakota residents)

A personal computer

82

A laptop computer Multiple Responses Allowed

70

A smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android

41

General population

A tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook

29

None of these

7

0

20

40

60 Percent

80

100

82

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Percent of each of the following groups who own a smartphone:
Owns a tablet device Is younger than the median age (47) Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Uses Facebook Gets information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has been shooting Education level is bachelor's degree or higher Has been hunting Is male Lives in a small city / town or rural area Lives in an urban or suburban area Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Is female Education level is less than a bachelor's degree Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Does not get information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more Does not own a tablet device Has never been shooting Has never been hunting Is the median age (47) or older Does not use Facebook Visits social media sites rarely or never

68 58 56 56 56 53 53 53 48 47 47 46 45 41 39 38 37 36 33 32 31 31 30 28 28 25 25 25 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

83

Percent of each of the following groups who own a tablet device:
Owns a smartphone Has children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Gets information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Has played hunting or shooting video games Uses Facebook Education level is bachelor's degree or higher Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes Is younger than the median age (47) Is very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Has lived in North Dakota for less than the median number of years (35) Has been shooting Is male Lives in a small city / town or rural area Is very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Has been hunting Did not indicate being very interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year Is female Has never been hunting Has never played hunting or shooting video games Lives in an urban or suburban area Did not indicate being very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year Has lived in North Dakota for the median number of years (35) or more Is the median age (47) or older Education level is less than a bachelor's degree Does not have children under the age of 18 living in his / her household Has never been shooting Visits social media sites rarely or never Does not get information about outdoor recreation from digital / online sources Does not use Facebook Does not own a smartphone

48 40 37 37 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 26 26 26 24 24 23 23 23 22 21 16 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

84

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q74. Computer, smartphone, and tablet devices owned. (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

A personal computer

75 82

66

A laptop computer Multiple Responses Allowed
60

A smartphone, such as an iPhone or Android

51 35

Hunters Target shooters

A tablet, such as an iPad, Kindle Fire, or Nook

26 19

11

None of these
13

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

85

Q77. Excluding talking and texting, what are the main things you use your smartphone for? (Asked of those who own a smartphone.)

Browsing websites / surfing Internet Checking email Professional networking / business purposes Checking weather Multiple Responses Allowed Using apps Playing games Using camera / taking pictures Watching videos / watching YouTube Reading news / checking headlines Listening to music / playing mp3s / using iPod / iTunes Location-based searches Other Don't know 0
7 6 4 4 3 2 2 14 13 11 9 25

53

Note: results are among the 41% of North Dakota residents who own a smartphone.

General population

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

86

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q77. Excluding talking and texting, what are the main things you use your smartphone for? (Asked of those who own a smartphone.)
48 31 29 26 11 21 11 11 8 6 3 11 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 0 2 0 13 6 7 6

Browsing websites / surfing Internet Checking email Checking weather Professional networking / business purposes Multiple Responses Allowed Using apps Playing games Using camera / taking pictures Reading news / checking headlines Location-based searches Listening to music / playing mp3s / using iPod / iTunes Watching videos / watching YouTube Other Don't know 0

Note: results are among the 51% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who own a smartphone.

Hunters Target shooters

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

87

Q84. What are the main things you use your tablet for? (Asked of those who own a tablet.)

Browsing websites / surfing Internet Reading books / e-books Checking email Professional networking / business purposes Multiple Responses Allowed Playing games Listening to music / playing mp3s / using iPod / iTunes Using apps Watching videos / watching YouTube Reading news / checking headlines Checking weather Using camera / taking pictures Other Don't know 0
3 5 19 27

43

15

14

Note: results are among the 29% of North Dakota residents who own a tablet device.
General population

5

4

3

2

1

12

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

88

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q84. What are the main things you use your tablet for? (Asked of those who own a tablet.)

Browsing websites / surfing Internet Checking email Reading books / e-books Playing games Multiple Responses Allowed Professional networking / business purposes Watching videos / watching YouTube Using apps Listening to music / playing mp3s / using iPod / iTunes Using camera / taking pictures Checking weather Reading news / checking headlines Other Don't know 0
5 2 0 3 4 5 2 3 2 2 0 2 0 15 17

45 35 30 15 18 28 17 9 8 6 9

Note: results are among the 26% of North Dakota hunters and 19% of North Dakota shooters who own a tablet device.

Hunters Target shooters

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

89

Q89. How often do you use a mobile device to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of recreation? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

Daily

7

Frequently

22

48% of North Dakota mobile device owners use a smartphone or tablet to learn about opportunities to participate in recreation at least sometimes

Sometimes

19

General population

Rarely

27

Note: results are among the 50% of North Dakota residents who own a smartphone or tablet device.

Never

24

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

90

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q89. How often do you use a mobile device to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of recreation? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Daily

4

Frequently

11

25% of all North Dakota residents use a smartphone or tablet to learn about opportunities to participate in recreation at least sometimes

Sometimes

10

Rarely

14

Never

12

N/A: Do not own a mobile device

50

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

91

Q89. How often do you use a mobile device to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of recreation? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

12 Daily 9

22 Frequently 11

57% of North Dakota hunters and 27% of North Dakota shooters who own a mobile device use their smartphone or tablet to learn about opportunities to participate in recreation at least sometimes

23 Sometimes 7

Hunters Target shooters

21 Rarely 35

Note: results are among the 55% of North Dakota hunters and 41% of North Dakota shooters who own a smartphone or tablet device.

22 Never 38

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

92

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q89. How often do you use a mobile device to learn about opportunities to participate in new activities or types of recreation? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

6 Daily 4

12 Frequently 4

31% of all North Dakota hunters and 11% of all North Dakota shooters use a smartphone or tablet to learn about opportunities to participate in recreation at least sometimes

13 Sometimes 3

11 Rarely 14

12 Never 16

Hunters Target shooters

N/A: Do not own a mobile device

45 59

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

93

Q90. Do you currently use any mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

Yes

14

Note: results are among the 50% of North Dakota residents who own a smartphone or tablet device.

No

85

General population

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

94

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q90. Do you currently use any mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Yes

7

No

43

General population

N/A: Do not own a mobile device

50

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

95

Q92. If a free app were available for download that provided automatic reminders, updates, and other information regarding how, when, or where to participate in one of your preferred recreational activities, how likely would you be to download and use it? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

Very likely

31

Somewhat likely

46

Note: results are among the 50% of North Dakota residents who own a smartphone or tablet device.

General population Not at all likely 22

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

96

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q90. Do you currently use any mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

13 Yes 7

Note: results are among the 55% of North Dakota hunters and 41% of North Dakota shooters who own a smartphone or tablet device.

86 No 92

Hunters Target shooters 1 Don't know 1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

97

Q90. Do you currently use any mobile apps related to recreational activities or opportunities? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

7 Yes 3

47 No 38

Hunters Target shooters

45 N/A: Do not own a mobile device 59

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

98

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q92. If a free app were available for download that provided automatic reminders, updates, and other information regarding how, when, or where to participate in one of your preferred recreational activities, how likely would you be to download and use it? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

34 Very likely 22

37 Somewhat likely 54

Note: results are among the 55% of North Dakota hunters and 41% of North Dakota shooters who own a smartphone or tablet device.

29 Not at all likely 25

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

99

Q93. Have you ever used a mobile device to scan a QR code anywhere? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

Yes

39

Note: results are among the 50% of North Dakota residents who own a smartphone or tablet device.

General population

No

61

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

100

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q93. Have you ever used a mobile device to scan a QR code anywhere? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Yes

20

No

31

General population

N/A: Do not own a mobile device

50

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

101

Q94. Assuming your mobile device was able to scan QR codes, how likely would you be to use your mobile device to scan QR codes that contained information on how, when, or where to participate in one of your preferred recreational activities? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

Very likely

19

Somewhat likely

35

Note: results are among the 50% of North Dakota residents who own a smartphone or tablet device.

General population

Not at all likely

45

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

102

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q93. Have you ever used a mobile device to scan a QR code anywhere? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

34 Yes 21

Note: results are among the 55% of North Dakota hunters and 41% of North Dakota shooters who own a smartphone or tablet device.

Hunters Target shooters

66 No 79

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

103

Q93. Have you ever used a mobile device to scan a QR code anywhere? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

18 Yes 8

36 No 32

Hunters Target shooters

45 N/A: Do not own a mobile device 59

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

104

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q94. Assuming your mobile device was able to scan QR codes, how likely would you be to use your mobile device to scan QR codes that contained information on how, when, or where to participate in one of your preferred recreational activities? (Asked of those who own a smartphone or tablet.)

14 Very likely 8

32 Somewhat likely 36

53 Not at all likely 55

Note: results are among the 55% of North Dakota hunters and 41% of North Dakota shooters who own a smartphone or tablet device.

1 Don't know 1

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

105

GENERAL RECREATIONAL PREFERENCES
In a question regarding preference for indoor recreational activities, outdoor recreational activities, or both types about equally, North Dakota general population residents are split between preferring outdoor activities (46%) and both types about equally (46%). Just 8% say they generally prefer indoor recreational activities. On the other hand, majorities of both hunters (64%) and shooters (62%) express a preference for outdoor activities, while about a third of each group (34% of hunters and 33% of shooters) say they enjoy both indoor and outdoor activities about equally.

Hunting, fishing, and other outdoor activities top the lists of recreational activities in which residents, hunters, and shooters most enjoy participating: • Among general population residents, the most preferred activities include fishing (37% say they most enjoy participating in this), hunting (36%), walking/jogging/running (19%), camping (13%), boating (11%), and watching television or movies (10%). • • Among North Dakota hunters, the top activities are hunting (81%), fishing (59%), camping (15%), boating (10%), and watching television or movies (10%). Among North Dakota shooters, the most preferred activities are hunting (62%), fishing (55%), camping (12%), boating (12%), and golf (10%).

Most North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters say they are interested in participating in new recreational activities that they have never tried, although they more often say they are somewhat interested, rather than very interested: • Among North Dakota general population residents, about three-quarters (74%) are interested in trying new recreational activities, with 15% very interested. Meanwhile, 26% say they are not at all interested in doing so. • Among North Dakota hunters, two-thirds (66%) are interested in trying new recreational activities, with 13% very interested. At the same time, a third (33%) are not at all interested. • Among North Dakota shooters, almost two-thirds (63%) are interested in trying new activities, although just 7% say they are very interested. However, over a third (36%) are not at all interested in doing so.

106

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

The survey asked respondents to rate on a scale of 0 to 10 the importance of three different factors in helping them to decide whether to participate in a new activity: that the respondent thought that they would personally enjoy the activity, that friends invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement, and that family invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement. Among members of the general population and hunters, the item with the highest mean rating of importance is that family invite them to participate and encourage their involvement (among general population residents, this item receives a mean rating of 7.45; among hunters, the mean rating is 6.93). By contrast, the item with the highest mean rating of importance among shooters is that the respondent himself or herself thought that they would personally enjoy the activity (in the latter group, this item receives a mean rating of 7.19). Meanwhile, for all three groups, the item with the lowest mean rating of importance is that friends invite the respondent to participate and encourage their involvement.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

107

Q95. In terms of recreational activities you enjoy doing in your free time, do you generally prefer indoor activities, outdoor activities, or both about equally? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Indoor activities

8

Outdoor activities

46

General population

Both about equally

46

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

108

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q95. In terms of recreational activities you enjoy doing in your free time, do you generally prefer indoor activities, outdoor activities, or both about equally? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

2 Indoor activities 5

64 Outdoor activities 62

Hunters Target shooters 34 Both about equally 33

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

109

Q98. Specifically, what recreational activities do you enjoy participating in most? (Among all North Dakota residents) (Part 1)
Fishing Hunting Walking / jogging / running Camping Boating Watching TV / watching movies Reading

37 36 19 13 11 10 9 8 8 7 7 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3

Multiple Responses Allowed

Hiking / trail use for physical fitness Biking / mountain biking Team sports Gardening Golf Relaxing Winter sports (cross country skiing, snowboarding, snowshoeing, snowmobiling) Swimming in pools / natural waters Artistic activities Motorsports (ATVs, motorcycles) Equestrian activities Target shooting Weightlifting / working out / strength training Cooking

General population

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

110

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q98. Specifically, what recreational activities do you enjoy participating in most? (Among all North Dakota residents) (Part 2)
Listening to music Knitting / sewing / crocheting Video games / computer games Playing cards Spectating at sports events

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

Multiple Responses Allowed

Picnicking / BBQing / cooking out Outdoor or wildlife photography Attending special events (festivals, concerts) Other watersports (waterskiing, kayaking, jetskiing) Pool / billiards / table tennis / ping pong / foosball / darts Playing on the computer / Internet surfing / Web browsing Playing board games, completing puzzles Bowling Other None; do not participate in any recreational activities Don't know

General population

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

111

Q98. Specifically, what recreational activities do you enjoy participating in most? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters) (Part 1)
Hunting Fishing Camping Boating Watching TV / watching movies Walking / jogging / running 7 15 12 10 12 10 62 59 55 81

8 8 6 10

Multiple Responses Allowed

Golf Hiking / trail use for physical fitness Team sports Target shooting Relaxing Reading Gardening Biking / mountain biking Spectating at sports events Winter sports (cross country skiing, snowboarding, snowshoeing, snowmobiling) Playing on the computer / Internet surfing / Web browsing Attending special events (festivals, concerts) Motorsports (ATVs, motorcycles) 1

7 8 5 7 7

4 4 2 6

Hunters Target shooters

4 4 3 4 0 3 3 0 0 4 4 6

1 2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

112

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q98. Specifically, what recreational activities do you enjoy participating in most? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters) (Part 2)
2 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 2 1 1 1 0

Equestrian activities Swimming in pools / natural waters Playing cards Cooking Weightlifting / working out / strength training Video games / computer games

Multiple Responses Allowed

Knitting / sewing / crocheting Picnicking / BBQing / cooking out Outdoor or wildlife photography Pool / billiards / table tennis / ping pong / foosball / darts Artistic activities Other watersports (waterskiing, kayaking, jetskiing) Tennis Bowling Working in or around the home Other None; do not participate in any recreational activities Don't know

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

113

Q103. In general, how interested are you in participating in new recreational activities that you've never tried before? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Very interested

15

Somewhat interested

59

General population

Not at all interested

26

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

114

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q103. In general, how interested are you in participating in new recreational activities that you've never tried before? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

13 Very interested 7

Somewhat interested

53 56

Not at all interested

33 36 Hunters Target shooters 2

Don't know 1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

115

Q106-Q108. On a scale of 0 - 10 where 0 is not at all important and 10 is extremely important, the mean rating of importance of each of the following in helping respondents decide whether to participate in a new activity in which they have never participated: (Among all North Dakota residents)

Q108. That family members invite you to participate and encourage your involvement

7.45

Q106. That they think they might personally enjoy the activity

7.40

General population

Q107. That friends invite them to participate and encourage their involvement

6.90

0

2

4 Mean

6

8

10

116

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q106-Q108. On a scale of 0 - 10 where 0 is not at all important and 10 is extremely important, the mean rating of importance of each of the following in helping respondents decide whether or not to participate in a new activity in which they have never participated: (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

Q108. That family members invite you to participate and encourage your involvement

6.93 7.12

Q106. That they think they might personally enjoy the activity

6.91 7.19 Hunters Target shooters

Q107. That friends invite them to participate and encourage their involvement

6.65 6.58

0

2

4 Means

6

8

10

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

117

ATTITUDES TOWARD AGENCY USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN PROMOTING RECREATION
Overwhelming majorities of North Dakota general population residents, hunters, and shooters agree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage them to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often: • • • Among general population residents, 71% agree, with 39% strongly agreeing. Meanwhile, 21% disagree, with 10% in strong disagreement. Among hunters, 74% agree, with 34% strongly agreeing (20% disagree, with 10% strongly disagreeing). Among shooters, two-thirds (67%) agree, with a quarter (24%) strongly agreeing. At the same time, 27% disagree, with 15% in strong disagreement.

Similar to the above, strong majorities of all three respondent groups would look for information from the Department at least as often as they do now if the Department were to offer information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube: • Among general population residents, 38% would look for information more often than they do now, while a further 43% would look about as often as they do now. On the other hand, 16% say they would look for information less often than they do now. • Among hunters, 36% would look for information more often than they do now, while a further 36% would look about as often as they do now. At the same time, 19% say they would look for information less often than they do now. • Among shooters, 20% would look for information more often than they do now, while 68% would look about as often as they do now. However, 8% say they would look for information less often than they do now.

Substantial percentages of residents, hunters, and shooters are interested in receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube:

118 •

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM Among general population residents, 60% are interested in receiving information from the Department through social media, with 21% very interested (38% say they are not at all interested in receiving information in this way).

Among hunters, 55% are interested in receiving information from the Department through social media, with 26% very interested. Just under half (42%) are not at all interested.

Shooters express the least amount of interest in receiving information from the Department through social media: 45% are interested, with just 16% very interested; meanwhile, more than half (55%) say they are not at all interested.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

119

Q110. Do you agree or disagree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage you to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Strongly agree

39

Moderately agree

32

Neither agree nor disagree

5 General population

Moderately disagree

11

Strongly disagree

10

Don't know

3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

120

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q110. Do you agree or disagree that receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media would encourage you to gain knowledge about the outdoors and participate in outdoor activities more often? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

Strongly agree

34 24

Moderately agree

40 43

Neither agree nor disagree

6 4

Moderately disagree

10 12 Hunters Target shooters

Strongly disagree

10 15

Don't know

1 2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

121

Q111. If the North Dakota Game and Fish Department were to offer information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, would you look for information from the Department more often than you do now, about as often as you do now, or less often than you do now? (Among all North Dakota residents)

More often

38

About as often as now

43

General population

Less often

16

Don't know

4

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

122

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q111. If the North Dakota Game and Fish Department were to offer information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, would you look for information from the Department more often than you do now, about as often as you do now, or less often than you do now? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

36 More often 20

About as often as now

36 68

19 Less often 8 Hunters Target shooters

9 Don't know 4

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

123

Q112. Are you very interested, somewhat interested, or not at all interested in receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Very interested

21

Somewhat interested

39

General population Not at all interested

38

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

124

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q112. Are you very interested, somewhat interested, or not at all interested in receiving North Dakota Game and Fish Department information about special events, opening dates, and other activities through social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

26 Very interested 16

Somewhat interested

29 29 Hunters Target shooters

Not at all interested

42 55

3 Don't know 1

0

20

40

Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

125

ATTITUDES TOWARD HUNTING AND SHOOTING
Support for hunting among all three groups of respondents is quite strong: 87% of North Dakota residents, 91% of hunters, and 89% of shooters support legal, regulated hunting, with most expressing strong, rather than moderate, support. • Among North Dakota general population residents:
o

60% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 44% very interested.
o

A crosstabulation of the question comparing those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes with those who visit social media sites rarely or never found that those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes are more likely to be somewhat interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year (p < 0.01).

o

Similarly, a crosstabulation comparing general population residents who use Facebook with those who do not found that those who use Facebook are more likely to be somewhat interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year (p < 0.05).

o

Those who indicated being interested in going hunting but who had not done so previously were asked if anything had prevented them from going hunting: while most of these respondents said that nothing had prevented them from going, lack of time and age/health reasons for two fairly common answers.

o

Those who said they were not at all interested in going hunting were asked if anything would make them more interested in going hunting in North Dakota: among the 8% who said that something would make them more interested in hunting, having someone to go with, better health, and more access were the top answers.

• •

Among North Dakota hunters, 95% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 89% very interested. Among North Dakota shooters, 78% are interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, with 62% being very interested.

126

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

As with hunting, support for legal target shooting is nearly universal among all three groups of respondents: 91% of North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters support legal target shooting. Again, most support is strong. • Among North Dakota general population residents:
o

59% are interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year, with 34% very interested.
o

A crosstabulation of the question comparing those who visit social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes with those who visit social media sites rarely or never found that residents who visit social media sites rarely or never are more likely to be not at all interested in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year (p < 0.05).

o

A crosstabulation comparing general population residents who use Facebook with those who do not found no significant differences in responses to this question.

o

Those who indicated being interested in going target shooting but who had not done so previously were asked if anything had prevented them from going: again, most of these respondents said that nothing had prevented them from going; however, lack of time was the next most common response.

o

Those who said they were not at all interested in going target shooting were asked if anything would make them more interested in going: among the 12% who said that something would make them more interested in target shooting, having someone to go with and better health were again the top answers.

• •

Among North Dakota hunters, 79% are interested in going target shooting in the state in the next year, with 47% very interested. Among North Dakota shooters, 68% are interested in going target shooting in the state in the next year, with a third (33%) very interested.

North Dakota residents, hunters, and shooters most commonly say that there are too few public shooting ranges in the state, rather than too many or about the right amount: • Among general population residents, 43% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 23% say there are about the right amount, and 34% are unsure.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

127

• •

Among hunters, 56% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 25% say there are about the right amount, and 16% are unsure. Among shooters, 41% say that there are too few public shooting ranges, 25% say there are about the right amount, and 34% are unsure.

128

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q113. In general, do you support or oppose legal, regulated hunting? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Strongly support

62

Moderately support

25

Neither support nor oppose

3 General population

Moderately oppose

3

Strongly oppose

2

Don't know

3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

129

Q113. In general, do you support or oppose legal, regulated hunting? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

75 Strongly support 70

Moderately support

16 19

Neither support nor oppose

4 3 Hunters Target shooters

Moderately oppose

3 2

2 Strongly oppose 2

1 Don't know 5

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

130

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q115. How interested are you in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Very interested

44

Somewhat interested

16

General population

Not at all interested

39

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

131

Q115. How interested are you in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among North Dakota general population residents)

44 Very interested 43

Somewhat interested

20 13

36 Not at all interested 42 Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes Visits social media sites rarely or never 0 Don't know 2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

132

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q115. How interested are you in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among North Dakota general population residents)

44 Very interested 44

Somewhat interested

19 13

37 Not at all interested 41

Uses Facebook Does not use Facebook 0 Don't know 2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

133

Q118. Is there anything that has prevented you from going hunting? (Asked of those who indicated being somewhat or very interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year, but who have not been hunting.)
No; nothing has prevented me from going hunting Lack of time (nonspecific) Lack of time (family obligations) Age / health reasons Weather

46 11 9 8 6 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

Multiple Responses Allowed

No one to hunt with Lack of time (work obligations) I do not have a license Lack of access / nowhere to hunt / can't find hunting lands I have a license but did not get drawn for a tag Lack of knowledge Costs of equipment / firearms Cost of licenses Safety concerns I have not taken the hunter safety course Complicated regulations / difficulty understanding Have to travel too far

General population

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

134

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q120. Is there anything that would make you more interested in going hunting in North Dakota? (Asked of those who indicated being not at all interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year.)

Yes

8

No

91

General population

Don't know

Less than 1%

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

135

Q121. What would make you more interested in going hunting in North Dakota? (Asked of those who indicated that something would make them more interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year.)

Someone to go with

38

Better health Multiple Responses Allowed

22

More access

15

General population More time
9

Other

13

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

136

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q115. How interested are you in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

89 Very interested 62

6 Somewhat interested 16

Hunters Target shooters 4 Not at all interested 22

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

137

Q122. In general, do you support or oppose legal target shooting? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Strongly support

65

Moderately support

26

Neither support nor oppose

4 General population

Moderately oppose

1

Strongly oppose

2

Don't know

3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

138

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q122. In general, do you support or oppose legal target shooting? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

71 Strongly support 73

Moderately support

20 18

Neither support nor oppose

4 4

Moderately oppose

2 1 Hunters Target shooters 0

Strongly oppose 0

3 Don't know 4

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

139

Q124. How interested are you in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Very interested

34

Somewhat interested

25

General population

Not at all interested

39

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

140

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q124. How interested are you in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among North Dakota general population residents)

36 Very interested 32

Somewhat interested

27 24 Visits social media sites daily, frequently, or sometimes Visits social media sites rarely or never 43

36 Not at all interested

2 Don't know 1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

141

Q124. How interested are you in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among North Dakota general population residents)

36 Very interested 32

Somewhat interested

25 25

37 Not at all interested 42 Uses Facebook Does not use Facebook 2 Don't know 1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

142

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q127. Is there anything that has prevented you from going target shooting? (Asked of those who indicated being somewhat or very interested in going shooting in North Dakota in the next year, but who have not been shooting.)

No; nothing has prevented me from going target shooting Lack of time Lack of ranges / areas in which to shoot Multiple Responses Allowed Lack of time Age / health reasons Lack of time Weather No one to shoot with Costs of equipment / firearms / ammunition / range fees Have to travel too far Don't have equipment 0
5 14

60

5

4

4

General population

3

2

2

1

1

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

143

Q129. Is there anything that would make you more interested in going target shooting in North Dakota? (Asked of those who indicated being not at all interested in going shooting in North Dakota in the next year.)

Yes

12

No

87

General population

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

144

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q130. What would make you more interested in going target shooting in North Dakota? (Asked of those who indicated that something would make them more interested in going hunting in North Dakota in the next year.)

Someone to go with

51

Better health Multiple Responses Allowed

15

More time

8

General population More access

2

Other

25

Don't know

2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

145

Q124. How interested are you in going target shooting in North Dakota in the next year? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

47 Very interested 33

Somewhat interested

32 35

Not at all interested

20 31 Hunters Target shooters

1 Don't know 1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

146

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q131. To the best of your knowledge, would you say there are too many, about the right amount, or too few public shooting ranges in North Dakota? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Too many

0

About the right amount

23

General population

Too few

43

Don't know

34

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

147

Q131. To the best of your knowledge, would you say there are too many, about the right amount, or too few public shooting ranges in North Dakota? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

2 Too many 0

About the right amount

25 25

56 Too few 41 Hunters Target shooters 16 Don't know 34

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

148

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

OPINIONS ON HUNTING AND SHOOTING VIDEO GAMES
The survey explored propensity for video games, particularly video games involving or focused on hunting or shooting activities. In general, no more than about a quarter of residents, hunters, or shooters play video games at least sometimes. However, hunting and shooting games do appear to be fairly commonly played by regular video game players: • Among North Dakota general population residents:
o

Around a quarter (27%) play video games at least sometimes, while 55% say they never play video games.

o

Among video game players, 45% currently play or have played hunting video games, while 31% currently play or have played shooting video games. The most common hunting- and shooting-related video games include various Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter.

o

General population residents who play hunting video games are fairly split regarding whether such games make them more interested in actually going hunting: 54% agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport, while 37% disagree; 10% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. By far, the most common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, and not the actual activity.

o

There is slightly more agreement that shooting-related video games increase interest in the actual activity: 57% of residents who play shooting-related video games agree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting, while 33% disagree (10% are again unsure or neither agree nor disagree). The most common reasons for disagreeing are that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity, or that the respondent has no interest in shooting an actual firearm.

Among North Dakota hunters:
o

Nearly a fifth (18%) play video games at least sometimes, while 56% say they never play video games.

o

Among video game players, 50% currently play or have played hunting video games, and 47% currently play or have played shooting video games. As before, the most common hunting- and shooting-related video games include various Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

149

o

52% of hunters who play hunting-related video games agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport; at the same time, 32% disagree, and 17% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. As before, a common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, and not the actual activity (note that a substantial percentage of those who disagree were unsure of a specific reason for their disagreement).

o

While 41% of hunters who play shooting-related video games agree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting, 49% disagree (10% are unsure or neither agree nor disagree). Once again, the most common reason for disagreeing is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity.

Among North Dakota shooters:
o

15% play video games at least sometimes, while 64% say they never play video games.

o

Among video game players, 55% currently play or have played hunting video games, and 25% currently play or have played shooting video games. (Cabela’s games, Call of Duty, and Buck Hunter remain the most common games.)

o

A third of shooters who play hunting-related video games (33%) agree that the games increase their interest in the actual sport; at the same time, 38% disagree, and 29% neither agree nor disagree or are unsure. The most common reasons for disagreeing are that the respondent’s interest is only in video games or that video games are more fun; note that, as with hunters, a substantial percentage of shooters who disagree were unsure of a specific reason for their disagreement.

o

Shooters who play video games most commonly disagree that such games make them more interested in actually going shooting: 67% are in disagreement, with just 29% agreeing and 5% neither agreeing nor disagreeing. Among those who disagree, the unanimous reason is that the respondent’s interest is only in video games, not the actual activity.

150

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q132. How often do you play video games, either on a console in your home or on a personal computer? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Daily

6

Frequently

9

27% of North Dakota residents play video games at least sometimes

Sometimes

12

General population

Rarely

19

Never

55

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

151

Q135/138. Do you currently play or have you ever played any video games focused on or related to hunting or shooting, such as Buck Hunter or Call of Duty? (Asked of those who indicated playing video games daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Yes - currently play or have ever played hunting video games

45

Multiple Responses Allowed

Note: results are among the 46% of North Dakota residents who play video games daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.
Yes - currently play or have ever played shooting video games

31

General population

No

42

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

152

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q139. Which hunting- or shooting-related video games have you played? (Asked of those who have played hunting- or shooting-related video games.)
Cabela's hunting game (e.g., Big Game Hunter, Outdoor Adventures)

34

Call of Duty

31

Multiple Responses Allowed

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 46% of North Dakota residents who play video games.

Buck Hunter

18

General population

Duck Hunt

8

Other hunting game

5

Halo

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

153

Q140. Do you agree or disagree that playing hunting-related video games makes you more interested in actually going hunting? (Asked of those who have played hunting-related video games.)

Strongly agree

28

Moderately agree

26

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 46% of North Dakota residents who play video games.

Neither agree nor disagree

8 General population

Moderately disagree

18

Strongly disagree

19

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

154

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q143. Why do you disagree that playing huntingrelated video games makes you more interested in actually going hunting? (Asked of those who disagree that playing hunting-related video games makes them more interested in actually going hunting.)
Interest is only in video games, not actual activities
52

No interest in killing anything

11

No interest in shooting an actual firearm Multiple Responses Allowed

4

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 46% of North Dakota residents who play video games.

Real hunting is more expensive

3

Real hunting is dangerous

3

General population

Video games are more fun

3

Not allowed to hunt / spouse, parent, or guardian won't let respondent go

1

Other

8

Don't know

18

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

155

Q145. Do you agree or disagree that playing shooting-related video games makes you more interested in actually going target shooting? (Asked of those who have played shooting-related video games.)

Strongly agree

36

Moderately agree

21

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 46% of North Dakota residents who play video games.

Neither agree nor disagree

8 General population

Moderately disagree

17

Strongly disagree

16

Don't know

2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

156

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q148. Why do you disagree that playing shootingrelated video games makes you more interested in actually going target shooting? (Asked of those who disagree that playing shooting-related video games makes them more interested in actually going shooting.)

Interest is only in video games, not actual activities No interest in shooting an actual firearm Multiple Responses Allowed No time to actually go shooting Real shooting is more expensive Video games are more fun Real shooting is dangerous
3 25

60

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 46% of North Dakota residents who play video games.

2

General population
1

1

Other

3

Don't know

21

0

20

40

60 Percent

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

157

Q132. How often do you play video games, either on a console in your home or on a personal computer? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

Daily

4 6

Frequently

4 2

18% of North Dakota hunters and 15% of North Dakota shooters play video games at least sometimes 10 7

Sometimes

Rarely

25 20

Hunters Target shooters

Never

56 64

Don't know

1 1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

158

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q135/138. Do you currently play or have you ever played any video games focused on or related to hunting or shooting, such as Buck Hunter or Call of Duty? (Asked of those who indicated playing video games daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.)

Yes - currently play or have ever played hunting video games Multiple Responses Allowed

50

55

Yes - currently play or have ever played shooting video games

47

25

Note: results are among the 43% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who play video games daily, frequently, sometimes, or rarely.

Hunters
29

Target shooters

No
30

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

159

Q139. Which hunting- or shooting-related video games have you played? (Asked of those who have played hunting- or shooting-related video games.)

Cabela's hunting game

29 43

Call of Duty

39 18

Buck Hunter Multiple Responses Allowed

15 28

Other hunting game

4 7

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 43% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who play video games.
Hunters Target shooters

Duck Hunt

8 0

Halo

3 0

Other

1 0

Don't know

11 5

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

160

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q140. Do you agree or disagree that playing hunting-related video games makes you more interested in actually going hunting? (Asked of those who have played hunting-related video games.)
22 10

Strongly agree

Moderately agree

30 23

Neither agree nor disagree

11 27

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 43% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who play video games.

Moderately disagree

15 25

Strongly disagree

17 13 Hunters Target shooters 6

Don't know

2

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

161

Q143. Why do you disagree that playing huntingrelated video games makes you more interested in actually going hunting? (Asked of those who disagree that playing hunting-related video games makes them more interested in actually going hunting.)
Interest is only in video games, not actual activities Video games are more fun Multiple Responses Allowed
6 17 47 44

Real hunting is dangerous

6 5

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 43% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who play video games.
Hunters Target shooters

Real hunting is more expensive No time to actually go hunting No interest in killing anything

6 0

6 0

0 5

Other

6 6

Don't know

24 26

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

162

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q145. Do you agree or disagree that playing shooting-related video games makes you more interested in actually going target shooting? (Asked of those who have played shooting-related video games.)
12 5

Strongly agree

Moderately agree

29 24

Neither agree nor disagree

6 5

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 43% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who play video games.

Moderately disagree

24 57

Strongly disagree

25 10

4 Don't know 0

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

163

Q148. Why do you disagree that playing shootingrelated video games makes you more interested in actually going target shooting? (Asked of those who disagree that playing shooting-related video games makes them more interested in actually going shooting.)

Interest is only in video games, not actual activities

64 100

Real shooting is dangerous Multiple Responses Allowed

12 0

Real shooting is more expensive

4 0

Note: graph reflects a subset of the 43% of North Dakota hunters and 35% of North Dakota shooters who play video games.

No time to actually go shooting

4 0

Hunters Target shooters
8

Other

0

Don't know

8 0

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

164

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
A graph shows the mean and median number of years lived in North Dakota among respondents: • • • Among general population residents, the mean number of years lived in the state was 38.32, while the median was 35. Among hunters, the mean was 37.69, the median 37. Among shooters, the mean was 42.05, the median 44.
o

Respondents who said they had lived in North Dakota for less than 10 years were asked whether the recent oil boom had been a major reason, minor reason, or not a reason at all for their move to the state: while only 11% of general population residents indicated that the oil boom was a reason for their move, 32% of hunters and 39% of shooters who had lived in North Dakota for less than 10 years said that the oil boom had been a major reason for their move to the state.

Residence categories of respondents are shown, with small cities or towns and rural areas being fairly prevalent.

Regarding education levels, 40% of the general population sample, 35% of the hunter sample, and 33% of the shooter sample had completed a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Income and ethnic background categories are shown. Around a third of general population residents, hunters, and shooters said they had children under the age of 18 living in their household.

The general population resident mean age was 45.50 years, while the median was 47; mean age of hunters was 44.12 years, the median 42.5; mean age of shooters was 50.16 years, and the median was 50.5.

The general population gender split was even, while most hunter and shooter respondents to the survey were males.

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

165

Q151. How many years have you lived in North Dakota? (Among all North Dakota residents)

More than 50 years 46-50 years 7

31

41-45 years

4

36-40 years

8

31-35 years

13

26-30 years

7

21-25 years

11

General population

16-20 years

9 Mean = 38.32 Median = 35

11-15 years

3

6-10 years

3

5 years or less

5

Refused 0

1 20 40 Percent 60 80 100

166

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q151. How many years have you lived in North Dakota? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
More than 50 years 46-50 years 41-45 years 36-40 years 31-35 years 26-30 years 21-25 years 16-20 years 11-15 years 6-10 years 5 years or less Don't know Refused 0 5 6 8 3 6 13 13 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 8 Hunters Target shooters 10 Hunters: Mean = 37.69 Median = 37 Target shooters: Mean = 42.05 Median = 44 10 10 10 26

36

0 1 1

2 3 20 40 Percent 60 80 100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

167

Q154. Was North Dakota's recent oil boom a major reason, a minor reason, or not a reason at all for your move to the state? (Asked of those who have been a North Dakota resident for less than 10 years.)

Major reason

7

Minor reason

4

General population

Not a reason at all

85

Don't know

4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

168

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q154. Was North Dakota's recent oil boom a major reason, a minor reason, or not a reason at all for your move to the state? (Asked of those who have been a North Dakota resident for less than 10 years.)

32 Major reason 39

5 Minor reason 0

59 Not a reason at all 48

Hunters Target shooters 5 Don't know 13

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

169

Q155. Do you consider your place of residence to be a large city or urban area, a suburban area, a small city or town, a rural area on a farm or ranch, or a rural area NOT on a farm or ranch? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Large city or urban area

27

Suburban area

6

Small city or town

31 General population

Rural area on a farm or ranch

24

Rural area NOT on a farm or ranch

11

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

170

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q155. Do you consider your place of residence to be a large city or urban area, a suburban area, a small city or town, a rural area on a farm or ranch, or a rural area NOT on a farm or ranch? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

Large city or urban area

30 18

Suburban area

3 3

Small city or town

33 38

Rural area on a farm or ranch

19 33

Rural area NOT on a farm or ranch

13 5

Don't know

1 2 Hunters Target shooters

Refused

1 2 0 20 40 Percent 60 80 100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

171

Q156. What is the highest level of education you have completed? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Not a high school graduate High school graduate or equivalent Some college or trade school, no degree Associate's or trade school degree Bachelor's degree

1

22

21

15

General population 29

Master's degree

9

Professional or doctorate degree

2

Don't know

1

Refused

1

0

20

40

60 Percent

80

100

172

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q156. What is the highest level of education you have completed? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

Not a high school graduate High school graduate or equivalent Some college or trade school, no degree Associate's or trade school degree Bachelor's degree

3 3 24 29 22 16 13 16 29 21 4 10 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 20 40 Percent 60 80 100

Master's degree

Professional or doctorate degree

Don't know

Hunters Target shooters

Refused

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

173

Q157. Which of these categories best describes your total household income before taxes last year? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Under $20,000

3

$20,000-$39,999

12

$40,000-$59,999

12

$60,000-$79,999

12

$80,000-$99,999

13

General population

$100,000$119,999

8

$120,000 or more

15

Don't know

6

Refused

19

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

174

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q157. Which of these categories best describes your total household income before taxes last year? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)
Under $20,000 4 2 14 8 18 10 15 14 11 8 6 6 13 18 4 6 16 26 0 20 40 60 80 100 Hunters Target shooters

$20,000-$39,999

$40,000-$59,999

$60,000-$79,999

$80,000-$99,999

$100,000$119,999

$120,000 or more

Don't know

Refused

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

175

Q158. Do you consider yourself to be of Hispanic or Latino origin? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Yes

Less than 1% 0

No

98

General population Don't know Less than 1% 0

Refused

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

176

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q158. Do you consider yourself to be of Hispanic or Latino origin? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

1 Yes 4

96 No 93

0 Don't know 1

2 Refused 2

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

177

Q161. What races or ethnic backgrounds do you consider yourself? Please mention all that apply. (Among all North Dakota residents)

White or Caucasian

96

Multiple Responses Allowed

Native American or Alaskan native or Aleutian

2

General population

Refused

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

178

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q161. What races or ethnic backgrounds do you consider yourself? Please mention all that apply. (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

White or Caucasian

93 90

0

Hispanic or Latino Multiple Responses Allowed
4

Native American or Alaskan native or Aleutian

2 1

Hunters Target shooters

4

Refused
3

0

Don't know
2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

179

Q163. Do you have children under the age of 18 currently living in your household? (Among all North Dakota residents)

Yes

35

General population No 64

Don't know

1

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

180

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q163. Do you have children under the age of 18 currently living in your household? (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

31 Yes 36

65 No 61

4 Don't know 3 Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

181

Q164. Respondent's age. (Among all North Dakota residents)

65 years old or older

18

55-64 years old

15

45-54 years old

18

35-44 years old

14

General population

25-34 years old

17

18-24 years old

15

Mean = 45.50 Median = 47

Refused

4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

182

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q164. Respondent's age. (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

65 years old or older

11 14

55-64 years old

17 22

45-54 years old

17 23

35-44 years old

16 16 Hunters: Mean = 44.12 Median = 42.5 Target Shooters: Mean = 50.16 Median = 50.5

25-34 years old

23 18

18-24 years old

11 0

Don't know

0 1

Hunters Target shooters 4 5

Refused

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

183

Q171. Respondent's gender. (Observed; not asked.) (Among all North Dakota residents)

Male

50

General population

Female

50

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

184

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Q171. Respondent's gender. (Observed; not asked.) (Among all North Dakota hunters and shooters)

84 Male 90

15 Female 10

Hunters Target shooters

0

20

40 Percent

60

80

100

North Dakota Residents’ Use of Social Media and Its Influence on Their Hunting and Shooting Participation

185

ABOUT RESPONSIVE MANAGEMENT
Responsive Management is an internationally recognized public opinion and attitude survey research firm specializing in natural resource and outdoor recreation issues. Our mission is to help natural resource and outdoor recreation agencies and organizations better understand and work with their constituents, customers, and the public.

Utilizing our in-house, full-service telephone, mail, and web-based survey center with 50 professional interviewers, we have conducted more than 1,000 telephone surveys, mail surveys, personal interviews, and focus groups, as well as numerous marketing and communication plans, needs assessments, and program evaluations.

Clients include the federal natural resource and land management agencies, most state fish and wildlife agencies, state departments of natural resources, environmental protection agencies, state park agencies, tourism boards, most of the major conservation and sportsmen’s organizations, and numerous private businesses. Responsive Management also collects attitude and opinion data for many of the nation’s top universities.

Specializing in research on public attitudes toward natural resource and outdoor recreation issues, Responsive Management has completed a wide range of projects during the past 22 years, including dozens of studies of hunters, anglers, wildlife viewers, boaters, park visitors, historic site visitors, hikers, birdwatchers, campers, and rock climbers. Responsive Management has conducted studies on endangered species; waterfowl and wetlands; and the reintroduction of large predators such as wolves, grizzly bears, and the Florida panther.

Responsive Management has assisted with research on numerous natural resource ballot initiatives and referenda and has helped agencies and organizations find alternative funding and increase their membership and donations. Additionally, Responsive Management has conducted major organizational and programmatic needs assessments to assist natural resource agencies and organizations in developing more effective programs based on a solid foundation of fact.

186

NDGFD / CAHSS / RM

Responsive Management has conducted research on public attitudes toward natural resources and outdoor recreation in almost every state in the United States, as well as in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan. Responsive Management has also conducted focus groups and personal interviews with residents of the African countries of Algeria, Cameroon, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Responsive Management routinely conducts surveys in Spanish and has conducted surveys in Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese and has completed numerous studies with specific target audiences, including Hispanics, African-Americans, Asians, women, children, senior citizens, urban, suburban and rural residents, large landowners, and farmers.

Responsive Management’s research has been upheld in U.S. District Courts; used in peer-reviewed journals; and presented at major natural resource, fish and wildlife, and outdoor recreation conferences across the world. Company research has been featured in most of the nation’s major media, including CNN, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and on the front pages of USA Today and The Washington Post. Responsive Management’s research has also been highlighted in Newsweek magazine.

Visit the Responsive Management website at: www.responsivemanagement.com

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