1

Radio Planning and
Dimensioning
2
CeIIuIar CeIIuIar
Engineering Engineering
3
Radio Network Planning Area
4
- Adequate coverage ·Contiguous coverage of the required areas without
appreciable holes
- Adequate depth of coverage (i.e. outdoor or indoor, 1 W or 8 W mobiles)
to meet the companies marketing plans.
- Traffic handling capacity
Accommodating traffic in the busiest hour with only a low probability of blocking.
- Quality of Service (QOS) ·Adequate service quality across the required
areas (i.e. calldrop, congestion, setup success rate, voice quality levels) to
meet the companies marketing plans.
- Network growth accommodation: ·Extension of coverage to new areas ·
Expanding the network capacity so that the quality of service is maintained
at all times.
- Cost effective design:
Lowest possible cost over the life of the network while meeting the quality targets.
-ectives of Cellular Engineering
S
Design Constraint
6
SN Specific Parameters :
The SN·specific parameters have been taken from the European
Telecommunications Standards !nstitute (ETS!) recommendation dealing
with radio transmission and reception:
Frequency bands
Nobile Station (NS) transmit power
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) transmit power
Receiver sensitivities of the NS and BTS
Carrier·to·!nterference ratios (C/!)
Equalizer performance.
Design Constraint (1)
7
- Nanufacturer specific parameters
The main manufacturer specific parameters are:
BTS transmit power
Receiver sensitivity
Combiner performance
Cable losses
Antenna performance
Availability of frequency hopping and power control functions
Handover algorithms
Capacity: number of transceivers (TRXs) provided per BTS.
Design Constraint(2)

- %adio communication Some of the fundamentals are:
- Propagation loss
- Shadowing
- Nultipath fading
- Time dispersion
- Power link budgets
- !nterference effects
- The (un)predictability of radio wave propagation .
- Budgetary factors The following budgetary factors are important:
- overned by business plan
- Limited by shareholders investment resources
- Need to identify those areas for coverage which will maximize return on
investment
Design Constraints (3)

The radio planning methodology consists of:
- Define design rules and parameters
- Set performance targets
- Design nominal plan
- !mplement cell plan
- Produce frequency plan
- Optimize the network
- Expand the network.
Radio Planning Methodology
10
The radio planning methodology consists of:
- Define design rules and parameters
- Set performance targets
- Design nominal plan
- !mplement cell plan
- Produce frequency plan
- Optimize the network
- Expand the network.
Radio Planning Methodology
11
The radio planning methodology consists of:
- Define design rules and parameters
- Set performance targets
- Design nominal plan
- !mplement cell plan
- Produce frequency plan
- Optimize the network
- Expand the network.
Radio Planning Methodology
12
Mystery of Deci-el
13
Power
voltages
dB
P
P
P
lin
P dB
=

'

+
'
¦
= 10 10
0
10
log | |
.
( )
dB
E
E
E
lin
E dB
=

'

+
'
¦
= 0 10
0
0
log | |
.
( )
P
lin.
E
lin.

2
deciBel Definition
14
- Calculations in dB (deciBel)
- Logarithmic scale
- Always with respect to a reference
- dBW = dB above Watt
- dBm = dB above mWatt
- dBi = dB above isotropic
- dBd = dB above dipole
- dB3v/m = dB above 3v/m
- Rule·of·thumb:
- +3dB = factor 2
- +7 dB = factor S
- +10 dB = factor 10
30 dBm 1 3W
20 dBm 10 3W
10 dBm 100 3W
dBm 200 3W
3 dBm 500 3W
0 dBm = 1 mW
3 dBm 2 mW
dBm 5 mW
10 dBm 10 mW
13 dBm 20 mW
20 dBm 100mW
30 dBm 1 W
0 dBm 10W
50 dBm 100W
deciBel Conversion
1S
DecibeI is a reIative comparison between numbers... whatever the numbers are!
AbsoIute comparison in decibeI between numbers... whatever the numbers are!

!
!
(dB) 10 log
10
= -
1

!
!
(dBunity) 10 log
10
= -
:39
dBm = dBW + 30

!
(dBW) 10 log
10
= -
1 Wa99

!
(dBm) 10 log
10
= -
1 mllWa99
Warmingup: The deci-el definition
16
MuItipIying numbers means
adding the numbers in decibeIs
3 · 2 6
Arithmetic operations
DecibeI operations
5 dB

dB + dB

3 dB +
dB

dB =
Dividing numbers means
subtracting the numbers in decibeIs
÷ 2
9 dB

dB - dB

6 dB -
dB

3 dB =
The mystic of deci-els
17
Power absoIute
Iinear scaIe
13 dBm 3 dB = 16 dBm
dBm + dB dBm
1 mW
20 mW
40 mW
0 dBm
13 dBm
16 dBm
Power absoIute
Iogarithmic scaIe
3

d
B
3

d
B
DecibeI operations
16 dBm 3 dB = 13 dBm
dBm - dB dBm
16 dBm 13 dBm = 3 dB
dBm - dBm dB
13 dBm 16 dBm = 29 dBm
dBm + dBm
794 mW
18 dBm
Undefined!
20 mW + 40 mW = 60 mW
The mystic of deci-els
1
- 74 dBm
- 74 dBm - 86 dBm
-(74 dBm + 86 dBm )
Undefined!
10
-74/10
0.000000039 mW
10
-86/10
0.0000000025 mW
- 86 dBm
Linear scaIe
+
0.0000000415 mW
Power - absoIute
Iogarithmic scaIe
- 90 dBm
- 80 dBm
- 70 dBm
+
-
10 · Iog (0.0000000415) = -73.8 dBm
Logarithm scaIe
$truggling against deci-els
1
Radio Propagation Aspects
20
ree $pace Attenuation
PrincipIe The freespace attenuation refers to the decay of the signal,
travelling in freespace, as a function of the distance of the receiver from the transmitter.
21
sotropic Power Radiation
22
Practical Path Loss
23
$teep Path Loss $lope
TypicaI path-Ioss sIope n a mo-ile radio medium, n is usually assumed to -e
which results in a typical pathloss slope of 0 dBdecade.
24
- Linear
- !n field strength
- Reciprocal
- Dispersive
- !n time (echo, multipath propagation)
- !n spectrum (wideband channel)
a
m
p
I
i
t
u
d
e
deIay time
direct path
echoes
Radio Channel Main Characteristics
2S
Reflection, Diffraction and
$cattering
26
Free·space propagation
- Signal strength decreases exponentially with
distance
Reflection
- Specular reflection
amplitude A a*A (a < 1)
phase f · f
polarisation material dependant
phase shift
- Diffuse reflection
amplitude A a *A (a < 1)
phase f random phase
polarisation random
specular reflection
diffuse reflection
D
Propagation Mechanisms (12)
27
Absorption
- Heavy amplitude
- Attenuation material
- Dependant phase shifts
- Depolarisation
Diffraction
- Wedge · model
- Knife edge
- Nultiple knife edges
A A 5..30 dB
Propagation Mechanisms (22)
2
Scattering local to mobile
- Causes fading
- Small delay and angle spreads
- Doppler spread causes time varying effects
Scattering local to base station
- No additional Doppler spread
- Small delay spread
- Large angle spread
Remote scattering
- !ndependent path fading
- No additional Doppler spread
- Large delay spread
- Large angle spread
$cattering to mo-ile
$cattering to -ase station
Remote scattering
$cattering Macrocell
2
- Echoes due to multipath propagation
- 1 3s 300 m path difference
- SN F equalizer in the receivers
- Time window of 16 3s (~ 4.8 km path difference)
- 2·path·model as ¨worst case" situation
- Standardized delay profiles in SN specs:
- TU3 typical urban at 3 km/h (pedestrians)
- TUS0 typical urban at S0 km/h (cars)
- HT100 hilly terrain (road vehicles)
- RA2S0 rural area (highways)
- No hard limitation at 2S0 km/h
Time dispersion
30
t
P
4.
3.
2.
1.
$M window 16 3s
Maximum delay,
-ased on equaliser
1.
2.
=>
f1
f1
f1
f1
BTS
1st fIoor
2nd fIoor
3rd fIoor
4th fIoor
Multipath
propagation
Channel impulse
response
< Equaliser ena-les the use
of DA$
(Distri-uted antenna
systems)
Delay $pread
31
Typical values
Environment Delay $pread (3s)
Macrocellular, ur-an 0.53
Macrocellular,
su-ur-an
0.5
Macrocellular, rural 0.10.2
Macrocellular, HT 310
Microcellular < 0.1
ndoor 0.01...0.1
Delay $pread
32
- Average trend ~ 3S - S0 dB / decade (path loss)
- Slow fading: Caused by shadowing. Typically log·normal distributed (ƒ around 8 11
dB)
- Fast fading: Caused by local scatters near mobile. Typically Rayleigh distributed
- Time·selective fading: Short delay + Doppler
- Frequency·selective fading: Long delay
- Space·selective fading: Large angle
ading
33
Slow fading (Log·normal fading)
- Shadowing due to large obstacles on
the way
Fast fading (Rayleigh fading)
- Destructive interference of several
signals
- ¨fading dips", ¨radio holes"
10
0
10
20
30
0 1 2 3 5 m
level (dB)
920 MHz
v 20 kmh
ading $low & ast
34
time
power
2 sec sec 6 sec
20 dB
mean
value
20 dB
lognormal
fading
Rayleigh
fading
ading $low & ast (2)
3S
- Nost general form of distribution
- Superposition of several processes with any distribution function will always converge
towards a aussian distribution
- Applicable to all natural processes, also to slow fading
- Nean value m, standard deviation o
ading aussian Distri-ution
36
- Applicable to fast fading in obstructed paths
5 7
7 7
( ) exp( ) =
o o

ading Rayleigh Distri-ution
37
· Basic loss formula
· Clutter loss factors
· Landusage classes (in
dBdecade)
· e.g.:
free space 20 dBdec
open countryside 25 dBdec
su-ur-an areas 30
dBdec
ur-an area 0 dBdec
historic city centre >5 dBdec
L = L
0
+ ¬*log(d)
loss at reference point (e.g. 1km)
losses are exponential with distance
0,1 km 10 km 1 km
ERP level
coupling loss
L0
reference
distance
20 dBdec
30 dBdec
0 dBdec
Path Loss
3
25 dBdec
30 dBdec
20 dBdec
0 ..50 dBdec
path loss
Path Loss $ignal Attenuation
3
ur-an: 0 ..50 dBdec open: 25 dBdec open: 25 dBdec
open area curve
ur-an curve
actuaI
signaI IeveI
signal
level
distance
- Nixed land usage types on propagation path
Path Loss Mixed Path Loss
40
#adio #adio
Network Network
PIanning PIanning
Process Process
41
DESC#BE THE #AD NETW# PLANNNG P#CESS
DESC#BE THE MAJ# TASS N THE PLANNNG P#CESS
DESC#BE THE PLANNNG TLS F# DFFE#ENT PHASES
DESC#BE THE NPUT AND UTPUT DCUMENTS (DATA)
DESC#BE THE PLANNNG ENV#NMENT
t the end of this module you will be able to .
ModuIe objectives
42
NT#DUCTN AND P#E-PLANNNG
DETALED PLANNNG
PST-PLANNNG
DCUMENTATN
MEASU#EMENTS
Content of PIanning Process
43
Network pIanning team
· data acquisition
· site survey and selection
· field measurement evaluation
· NW design and analysis
· transmission planning
Network design
· num-er and configuration of B$
· antenna systems specifications
· B$$ topology
· dimensioning of transmission lines
· frequency plan
· network evolution strategy
Network performance
· grade of service (-locking)
· outage calculations
· interference pro-a-ilities
· quality o-servation
Customer requirements
· coverage requirements
· quality of service
· recommended sites
· su-scri-er forecasts
ExternaI information sources
· topo & morphological data
· population data
· -andwidth availa-le
· frequency coordination
· constraints
nteractions with
· external su-contractors
· site hunting teams
· measurement teams
· perator
· switch planning engineers
Network Planning
44
Coverage
PIanning and
Site SeIection
Parameter
PIanning
Propagation
measurements
Coverage
prediction
Site
acquisition
Coverage
optimization
ExternaI nterference
AnaIysis
Network
Configuration
and
Dimensioning
P#E-
PLANNNG
DETALED PLANNNG
Traffic distribution
Service distribution
AIIowed bIocking/queuing
System features
dentification
Adaptation
Area / CeII
specific
Handover
strategies
Maximum
network
Ioading
ther ##M
Network
ptimization
PST-
PLANNNG
Survey
measurements
StatisticaI
performance
anaIysis
QuaIity
Efficiency
AvaiIabiIity
Capacity #equirements
#equirements
and strategy
for coverage,
quaIity and
capacity,
per service
Network PIanning Process
4S
externaI inputs:
(traffic, su-s. forecast,
coverage requirements...)
nitiaI NW dimensioning
TRX, cells, sites
-andwidth needed
NW topology
suggestions for
site locations
cell parameters
coverage achieved
coverage prediction
signal strength
multipath propagation
$ite
prevalidation
site accepted ?
planning
criteria fulfilled?
go to
frequency
planning
nominal cell plan
site inspection
real cell plan
field measurements
N
N
N
create cell
data for
B$C
field measurements
Network PIanning Process
46
issue search
area &
requirements
find suita-le
site
candidates
calculate coverage
range of each
candidate
propagation
measurements
needed ?
transmission
links
availa-le?
sign contract
with site
owner
get -uilding permit
construction work
installing & testing
on air!
Network PIanning Process : Site BuiIding
47
radio
planner
fixed network
planner
measurement
teams
architect
network
operator
site acquisition
agent
site owner
Network PIanning Process Site Acquisition
4
- Key quantities for radio network dimensioning (EXCEL tool)
- # of BS needed for coverage reasons
- # of BS needed for capacity reasons
- Outage probabilities/percentages
- Frequency re·use rate (vs. interference)
- Bandwidth used
- Design goals are inter·dependant
- Network can only be optimised with respect to one single aspect
Design goals to -e applied must -e
clearly agreed with customer!
Preplanning: Dimensioning Key Quantities
4
AM&NT TRAC
N&MBER BA$E $TATN$ (CAPACTY)
ANTENNA HEHT (CAP. & C'.)
REQ&ENCY BAND AND RE&$E

PRPAATN PREDCTN$
ANTENNA HEGHT F# PLANNNG A#EA
MAXM&M ANTENNA HEHT
N&MBER BA$E $TATN$ R
PLANNN AREA (CAPACTY R C'ERAE LMTED)
PRPAATN PREDCTN
Antenna height?
Preplanning: Dimensioning Target
S0
- Before T
0
, the network is coverage limited
- After T
0
, the network is capacity limited
- The other constraint is automatically fulfilled
of B$
time
coverage
capacity
T
0
At the very -eginning, ust the coverage
planning is needed
Preplanning: Dimensioning Limiting factors
S1
- When the network is coverage limited, the expansion consists of:
- Adding new sites in not already covered areas
- When the network is capacity limited, the expansion consists of:
- Adding TRX's,
- Adding new sites in already covered areas,
- Adding software capacity...
Pre-pIanning: Dimensioning: Network Expansion
S2
- Nain purpose of the network?
- 1st operator in country plain coverage?
- 2nd operator competitive pricing?
- 3rd operator replacing wire line phones?
- Roamer volumes expected?
- Where?
- Neighbouring countries
- Existing international regulations?
- Use of microwave links for transmission?
Each network philosophy calls for
a different planning approach
Dimensioning nput Data Preliminary Questions
S3
Naps
- Nain cities
- !mportant roads
- Location of mountain ranges
- !nhabited area
- Shore lines
Local knowledge
- City skylines
- Typical architecture
- Structure of city
- Local habits
Dimensioning nput Data Morpho data
S4
Statistical yearbook
- Largest towns, cities
- Population distribution
- Where are expected customers?
Local knowledge
- Population migration routes
- Commuting traffic volumes
- Subscriber concentration points
2 mill.
pop.
300 000 pop.
00 000 pop.
00 000 pop.
250 000 pop.
Dimensioning nput Data Demographic Data
SS
- Roll·out phases S time schedules
- Coverage level requirements
- !ndoor coverage areas
- NS classes to plan for
- Operators cell deployment
strategies
- Omni·cells in rural areas?
- 3·sector cells in urban areas?
- Ninimum of 2 TRX per cell?
phase 1
NW launch
rollout
phase 2
rollout
phase 3
Dimensioning nput Data Coverage Requirements
S6
NT#DUCTN AND P#E-PLANNNG
DETALED PLANNNG
PST-PLANNNG
DCUMENTATN
MEASU#EMENTS
PIanning Process
S7
· Configuration planning
· PBT calculations (EXCEL tool)
· BT$ and antenna line equipment
· Coverage planning $ite selection
· Coverage thresholds (NetAct Planner)
· Coverage predictions (NetAct Planner)
· Prediction model tuning (NetAct Planner))
· Propagation slope measurements (TMNemo)
· Antenna directions (NetAct Planner)
· Capacity planning
· C$, P$ traffic (NetAct Planner)
· $ignaling needs (NetAct Planner)
· requency planning
· Reuse factor and C requirements (NetAct Planner)
· Parameter planning (BSSPA# course)
· B$C, BT$, TRX, T$L parameters (NM$NetAct)
load¸vec
3d
d9
load 3d 89ar9
¸89ar9
+ ¸ ) =
1 1. 1.4 1.6 1.8 13
0

4
6
8
The cell load
Tme / ho:r8

:
m
b
er o
I re8
erv
ed
9m
e8
lo
98
.
R
D
Detailed Planning
S
· Configuration planning
· PBT calculations
· DL: TX power, com-iner, -ooster, duplexer,
diplexer, ca-le, power amplifier, antenna
· &L: antenna, diversity, LNA, ca-le, diplexer,
duplexer, RX sensitivity
· BT$ type (macromicro, outdoorindoor, $MEDE3)
· $W features (H, H, ...)
Configuration Planning
S
· Coverage thresholds
· DL Path loss: TX power (max.) RX power (min.) margins
· BT$ type (macromicro, outdoorindoor, $MEDE3)
· $W features (H, H, ...)
· Coverage predictions
· Prediction model (kumuraHata)
· BT$M$ distance (max.) cell range coverage
· $ite selection (documentation)
· Antenna height, location (x,y), direction
· BT$ location > ca-le length
· PWR, TR$!!!
Coverage Planning
60
Radio criteria
- ood view in main beam direction
- No surrounding high obstacles
- ood visibility of terrain
- Room for antenna mounting
- LOS to next microwave site
- Short cabling distances
Non·radio criteria
- Space for equipment
- Availability of leased lines or
microwave link
- Power supply
- Access restrictions?
- House owner
- Rental costs
$ite $election Criteria
61
- Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells
- Sites are expensive
- Sites are long·term investments
- Site acquisition is a slow process
- Hundreds of sites needed per network
Base station site is a valua-le
longterm asset for the operator
$ite $election eneral Considerations
62
wanted cell
-oundary
uncontrolled, strong
interferences
interleaved coverage areas:
weak own signal, strong foreign signal
- Avoid hill·top locations for BS sites
- Uncontrolled interferences
- !nterleaved coverage
- Awkward HO behaviours
- But: good location for microwave links!
$ite $election Bad $ite Location
63
wanted cell
-oundary
- Prefer sites off the hill·tops
- Use hills to separate cells
- Contiguous coverage area
- Needs only low antenna heights if sites are slightly elevated above valley
bottom
$ite $election ood $ite Location
64
Collect all necessary information about site details
- Site coordinates, height above sea level, exact address
- House owner
- Type of building
- Building materials (photo)
- Possible antenna heights
- 360deg photo (clearance view)
- Neighbourhood, surrounding environment
- Drawing sketch of rooftop
- Antenna mounting conditions
- Access possibilities (truck?, road, roof)
- BS location, approx. feeder lengths
$ite $election $ite nfo
6S
- Nap
- (D)PS
- (Test) mobile
- Digital camera
- Binoculars
- Compass
- Clinometers and tape measure
- LOS checking tools: lights, mirrors, flags, balloons
$ite $election & $ite $urvey Tools
66
· Capacity planning
· TRXscell
· TRX layer purposes
· BCCH, PR$, ...
· T$L reservations for
· signaling, H$C$D, PR$, ...
· $ignaling needs
· $DCCH, PCH, ACH, ...
· $pecial $W features for TCH
· H, extended cell, ...
· $pecial $W features for signaling
· dynamic $DCCH, ...
load¸vec
3d
d9
load 3d 89ar9
¸89ar9
+
¸ )
=
1 1. 1.4 1.6 1.8 13
0

4
6
8
The cell load
Tme / ho:r8

:
m
b
e
r

o
I

r
e
8
e
r
v
e
d

9

m
e
8
l
o
9
8
.
Capacity Planning
67
· requency planning
· Reuse factor for speech and data (PR$)
· C requirements for BCCHTCH TRX
· $pecial requirements for intermodulation
· nterference pro-a-ility targets
· requency -and splitting needs
· Automatic frequency planning (AP)
· interference matrix
· measurements
· calculation areas
R
D
requency Planning
6
· Parameter planning (BSSPA# course)
· B$C level parameters
· BT$ level parameters
· TRX level parameters
· T$L level parameters
· $ignaling related parameters
· RRM related parameters
· MM related parameters
· Measurement related parameters
· Handover related parameters
· Power control related parameters
· ther $W feature related parameters
· H$C$D, PR$
· Extended cell
· Dual -and, Half rate, &H
Parameter Planning
6
NT#DUCTN AND P#E-PLANNNG
DETALED PLANNNG
PST-PLANNNG
DCUMENTATN
MEASU#EMENTS
PIanning Process
70
· 'erification or preoptimisation
· Coverage tests (TMNemo)
· Call setups
· Handover tests
· Monitoring
· KP values (Traffica)
· Drop call rates
· Blocking percentages
· Handover success rates
· Traffic in Erlangs
· ptimisation
· KP values
· Plan audit (configurations, ...)
· Counters (Network doctor)
· -servations (DX causes)
· M$ tracing
·BT$
·HC
·PC
·BT$
·HC
·PC
·BT$
·HC
·PC
ADCE ADCE
ADCE
$ %$ $
. REQUEST
(RA)
IMMEDIATE
ASSIGN(AG)
SERVIE REQUEST
(SD)
!ase 1 : !aging, initial $
AUTENTIATION
(SD) !ase 2 : signalling
IPERING MODE
(SD) !ase 8 : ipering
TMSI REALLOATION
(SD)
SETUP (SD)
!ase 2 : signalling
.RELEASE !ase 4 : Release
ALERTING & ONNET
(FA) !ase 2 : signalling
ONN. A. and
MEASUREMENT !ase 15 : onversation
DISONNET & RELEASE
(FA) !ase 4 : Release
ASSIGNMENT (SD
FA) !ase 3 : asic assignment
DX-cause
Post Planning
71
NT#DUCTN AND P#E-PLANNNG
DETALED PLANNNG
PST-PLANNNG
DCUMENTATN
MEASU#EMENTS
PIanning Process
72
- SARF
Site Acquisition Request Form
- S!R/SAR
Site !nformation (Acquisition) Report
- TSS report
Technical Site Survey Report
- TDRS
Technical Data for Radiating System
- ...
Site SeIection / Site Survey Documentation
73
- S!TE FOLDER
- BTS configuration
- Antenna line configuration
- PARANETER SET
- BTS !D, Frequency, NCC, BCC, LAC, neighbours
- Default parameters
- NON!TOR!N REPORTS
- Traffic history (TCH, signaling)
- KP! values (DCR, blocking, ...)
#adio Network PIan utput Documentation
74
P#E-PLANNNG
DETALED PLANNNG
PST-PLANNNG
DCUMENTATN
MEASU#EMENTS
PIanning Process
7S
- Propagation measurements
- Check coverage area of site,
propagation model tuning
- Site candidate evaluations
- Test transmitter, mast antenna
- CW· signal
- Functional test
- After commissioning of site
- Coverage audit
- Parameter checking (HO, power control ...)
- Performance measurements
- Drive tests
- Real network under live conditions
- The users view
detailed
planning
preoptimisation
phase "dry run
commercial phase
Measurements Types
76
- Propagation measurements
- Stay within coverage area of cell
- Functional tests
- Radial from site into neighbouring cells
- Check handovers in S out of cell
- Performance measurements
- Define a random route once
- Drive repeatedly
(comparable results !)
Measurements Choice of Routes
77
- Propagation measurements
- Signal averaging
- Lees criterium: min. S0 samples per 40 ì
- Estimate accuracy of prediction
- database resolution
- correct information
- Functional tests
- !dentify incorrect parameter settings
- Check missing HO relations
- Performance measurements
- Detect misbehaviour of network
- Calculate call success rate
- Key performance indicators
- Evaluate network behaviour under nominal conditions
Measurements Results
7
Configuration Configuration
PIanning PIanning
7
At the end of this module, the participant will be able to:
- List the different elements used in the SN network.
- Calculate the power budget.
- Describe how to balance uplink and downlink directions in the power
budget.
-ectives
0
· Base station transceiver
· maintain synchronisation to M$
· M$K modulation
· R signal processing (com-ining,
filtering, coupling...)
· diversity reception
· radio interface timing
· detect access attempts of
mo-iles
· de encryption on radio path
· channel de coding & interleaving on radio path
· perform frequency hopping
· forward measurement data to B$C
typ. 1.. TRX
1..3 sectors
avg. ,5 traffic channels per TRX
supports typ. 300 users
typ. 1.. TRX
1..3 sectors
avg. ,5 traffic channels per TRX
supports typ. 300 users
BT$ : unctions
1
Nokia MetroSite
Base Station
Connected to FXC ## or
FC ## indoor unit.
Connected to FXC ## or
FC ## indoor unit.
Nokia
MetroHopper #adio
Nokia MetroHub
Transmission Node
Nokia FIexiHopper
Microwave #adio
Nokia MetroSite
Battery Backup
Nokia MetroSite
Antennas
Citytalk
6 TRX
Extratalk, $ite
$upport $ystem
lexitalk
2 TRX
lexitalk
2 TRX
ntratalk
6 TRX
Nokia BT$ amily
2
#F Characteristics Metrosite PrimeSite nSite FIexitaIk ntrataIk CitytaIk UItrasite
EDGE
Max. T#Xs 4 1 1 2 6 6 6
Max. T#XsSpeciaI
Cabinet
12 12 108
Max. Sectors 4 1 1 1 4+4+4 4+4+4 36+36+36
Max TX Power
(dBm)
30 38 22 42 42 42 42
Dynamic sensitivity
(dBm) singIe branch,
#BE#2<2%
-106.0 -106.0 - 100 -102/-108 -102/-
108
-102/ -
108
- 108.5/ -
109

BT$ Configurations
3
Antenna $ystems
4
- Transport mechanism
electromagnetic energy transport by constant exchange between
electrical and magnetic field : ¨E·wave" and ¨H·wave"
Poynting· vector (energy) : E x H
- E· and H·wave are perpendicular at distances larger than the far
field distance (¨plane wave")
E- fieId
H- fieId
7

#
=


ì
ar ield Distance
S
- Energy in antenna only partly converts to
electromagnetic waves
- Radiated energy is only a fraction of received
energy
- Radiated energy is measurable only in a ¨reference
distance" from antenna
(minimum = far field distance!)
- Coupling losses are ~ S0 ... 60 dB for first few
meters, then use ¨free·space propagation" losses
Coupling Losses
6
- Antennas on base station
- receiver antenna
- receiver diversity antenna
- transmit antenna
- Transition point to / from radio
wave propagation
- ¨Best possible signal"
Take every effort to make optimum
use of the availa-le signal
Antenna $ystems
7
- Omnidirectional antennas
- same radiation patterns in all directions
- useful in flat rural areas.
- Directional antennas
- concentrate main energy into certain direction
- larger communication range
- useful in cities, urban areas, sectorised sites
Antenna Categories

Antennas
Eurocell panels
mounted on a
church.
Eurocell Panels
mounted on the wall of
an industrial -uilding.

- Dipoles
- most general type: omnidirectional
- Arrays
- combinations of many smaller elements
- high gains, special radiation patterns,
- ¨phased array" antennas ( ···> smart antennas )
- Yagi
- very common, high gain, directional antennas
- often used as Tv· antennas
- Paraboles
- very high gain, extremely narrow beam·widths
- commonly used for line·of·sight paths (satellites...)
Antenna Types
0
- Antenna gain
the measure for the antennas capability to transmit /
extract energy to/ from the propagation medium (air)
- dB over isotropic antenna (dBi)
- dB over Hertz dipole (dBd)
- Antenna gain depends on
- mechanical size: A
- effective antenna aperture area: w
- frequency band
Antenna gain :
=
4

x
ì
microwave ant. : w ~ 50 .. 60 %
optical ant. : w ~ 0 .. 5 %
Antenna Characteristics
1
- Lobes
- main lobes
- side / back lobes
- front·to·back ratio
- Halfpower beam·width
(3 dB· beam width)
- Antenna downtilting
- Polarisation
- Antenna bandwidth
- Antenna impedance
- Nechanical size
- windload
nput
Connector position
requency range
'$WR
ain
mpedance
Polarisation
rontto-ackratio
Halfpower -eam width
Max. power
Weight
Wind load
Max. wind velocity
Packing size
Height width depth
16 female
-ottom
0 960 MHz
< 1,3
15,5 dBi
50 hm
vertical
> 25 dB
Hplane: 65° Eplane: 13°
500 Watt (50 °C am-ient temp.)
6 kg
frontal : 220 N (at 150 kmh)
lateral: 10 N (at 150 kmh)
rear : 90 N (at 150 kmh)
110 x 20 x 10 mm
1290 255 105 mm
H plane E plane
Antenna Characteristics
2
Radiation Patterns
- Example: patterns for high·gain directional antenna
Horizontal pattern 'ertical pattern
3
Antenna Down Tilting
- Antenna (down·) tilting
- improve spot coverage
- signal attenuation
- 30 .. 40dB/decade
- reduce interference
- signal attenuation
- ~20dB/decade
- What is the difference between electrical and mechanical down
tilt?
5.. deg
4
Coupling Between Antennas
- Horizontal separation
- needs approx. Sì distance for sufficient decoupling
- antenna patterns superimposed if distance too
close
- vertical separation
distance of 1ì provides good decoupling values
good for RX /TX decoupling
- Ninimum coupling loss
main lo-e
5 .. 10 ì

S
- Recommended decoupling
- TX · TX: ~20dB
- TX · RX: ~40dB
- Horizontal decoupling distance depends on
antenna gain
horizontal rad. pattern
- Omnidirectional antennas
- RX + TX with vertical separation (¨Bajonett")
- RX, RX div. , TX with vertical separation (¨fork")
'ertical decoupling is much more effective
0,2m
omnidirectional.: 5 ..
20m
directional : 1 ... 3m
nstallation Examples
6
- Directional antennas
- sectorised sites
- three·sector cell with RX
diversity
- horizontal separation
nstallation Examples
7
Antenna Ca-les
- Cable types
- coaxial cables : 1/2", 7/8", 1 S/8"
- losses approx. 10 .. 4 dB/ 100m
==> power dissipation is exponential with cable length ! !
- Connector losses approx. 1 dB per connection (jumper
cables etc..)
- Thick antenna cables
lower losses per length
large bending radii
much more expensive
umper
(2 m)

0

.
.

0
m
umper
(2 m)
Keep antenna ca-les short

Antenna Ca-les
Type diameter 900MHz 1800MHz
(mm) dB/100m dB/100m
3 10 10 1
5 1 6 9
25 6
1 5 2 3
·Typical values for antenna ca-les

Near-y -stacles Requirement (13)
100
Height CIearance vs Antenna TiIt
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
,0
5,0
6,0
,0
,0
9,0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 50
#oof Edge d (m)
h (m)
rom 0 up to 6
down tilt
Ah
h
Near-y -stacles Requirement (23)
101
Near-y -stacles Requirement (33)
102
·
Time diversity
·
requency diversity
·
$pace diversity
·
Polarisation diversity
·
Multipath diversity
interleaving
frequency hopping
multiple antennas
crosspolar antennas
equaliser,
rake receiver
t
f
Diversity Techniques
103
·
Time diversity
·
requency diversity
·
$pace diversity
·
Polarisation diversity
·
Multipath diversity
interleaving
frequency hopping
multiple antennas
crosspolar antennas
equaliser,
rake receiver
t
f
Diversity Techniques
104
- Selection diversity
- Naximum ratio combining
- pre·detector combining:
- ==> add signals in correct
phasing
- C/!· improvement
CN
measuring
Phase
measuring
12
11
3
2
1

13
Diversity Reception
10S
- Diversity gain depends on environment
- !s there coverage improvement by diversity ?
- antenna diversity
- equivalent to SdB more signal strength
- more path loss acceptable in link budget
- higher coverage range
R
R(div) ~ 1,3 R
A 1, A ??
0% more coverage per cell ??
needs less cells in total ??
True only (in theory)
if environment is infinitely large and flat
Coverage mprovement?
106
Link Budget
107
- Link budget calculations consist of two parts:
- 1) Power budget calculations
- 2) Cell size evaluations
- Communication must be two·way
Power -udget must
-e -alanced
Link Budget
10
- !n addition to BTS and NS powers and sensitivities, several other factors
need to be taken into account when doing Link Budget calculations
- These factors can be classified into three categories:
- 1) Link Budget loss factors
- 2) Link Budget gain factors
- 3) Link Budget margins
Link Budget actors
10
- At base station
- connectors
- cables
- isolator
- combiner
- filter
- At mobile station
- body loss
- polarisation of antenna
m
a
n
y

m
e
t
e
r
s
ca-les &
connectors
filter
com-iner
B$ output
~3..5 dB losses
> 50 ..0% of
signal energy is lost
-efore even reaching
the transmit antenna
Link Budget Loss actors
110
- Antenna gain
- half·power beamwidth
- mechanical size
- antenna types
- Diversity gain
- Diversity can be implemented in many ways
- Frequency hopping
- !mproves average link quality, but is not typically taken into
account in link budget calculations
Link Budget ain actors
111
- Fast fading margin
- Fast variations in field strength levels that are caused by multipath
reception has to be taken into account in calculating the maximum
allowable path loss
- Slow fading margin
- Slow fading that is caused by shadowing has a direct effect on the
location probability, this has to be taken into account in evaluating
cell sizes
- Penetration losses
Link Budget Margins
112
WLL su-scri-ers
path loss 15 dB
com-iner
loss 5
dB
eeder
Loss dB
Rx $ensitivity
102 dBm
Tx Power
5 dBm (20W)
Antenna
ain 16dBi
102 dBm
52 dBm
36 dBm
0 dBm
Power Budget: Downlink
113
WLL su-scri-ers
path loss 15 dB eeder
Loss dB
Tx Power
33 dBm (2W)
Antenna
ain 16
dBi
Diversity
ain dB
33 dBm
121 dBm
101 dBm
105 dBm
Rx $ensitivity
105 dB
Power Budget: &plink
114
#AD LN PWE# BUDGET MS CLASS: 1
GENE#AL NF
requency (MHz): 1800 $ystem: GSM1800
8et 8tarting parameter8 here
#ECEVNG END: BS MS
RX Rinput sensitivity dBm -106,00 -100,00 A
ast fading margin dB 3,00 3,00 B
Ca-le loss connector dB 4,00 0,00 C
Rx antenna gain dBi 15,00 0,00 D
Diversity gain dB 4,00 0,00 E
sotropic power dBm -118,00 -97,00 ABCDE
ield strength dBµ'm 24,00 45,00
* Z = 77.2 + 20*log(freq[M()
T#ANSMTTNG END: MS BS
TX R output peak power W 1,00 25,00
(mean power over R cycle) dBm 30,00 44,00 K
solator com-iner filter dB 0,00 4,00 L
Rpeak power, com-iner output dBm 30,00 40,00 MKL
Ca-le loss connector dB 0,00 4,00 N
TXantenna gain dBi 0,00 15,00
Peak ERP W 1,00 125,90
(ERP ERP 2dB) dBm 30,00 51,00 PMN
sotropic path loss dB 148,00 148,00 QP
path lo88 8hall be balanced
can BS provide
output power needed ?
Power Budget Calculations
11S
Coverage Coverage
PIanning PIanning
116
DEFNE CVE#AGE TH#ESHLD
DESC#BE DFFE#ENT CVE#AGE PLANNNG MA#GNS
LCATN P#BABLTY
PENET#ATN LSS
CALCULATE CVE#AGE A#EAS
t the end of this module you will be able to .
ModuIe objectives
117
- Based on the calculated maximum allowed path loss in PBT, the coverage
threshold can be defined
- Coverage threshold depends on margins related to
- Location probability (= slow fading)
- Fast fading / !nterference degradation
- Polarization / Antenna orientation loss
- Body loss
- Penetration losses (vehicle or building)
Coverage Threshold Basics
11
"Real maximum
allowed path loss
function (location pro-a-ility)
rom power -udget calculations
function (morphological area)
kumuraHata
function (morphological area)
= Maximum aIIowed path Ioss => Coverage threshoId
¹
Cell radius
¹
CeII area
ERP
Minimum allowed receiving level
$low fading and other margins
Building penetration loss
Coverage ThreshoId DL CaIcuIation Process
11
ull coverage of an area can never -e
guaranteed!
· utages
· due to coverage gaps P
no_cov
· due to interferences P
if
· Total location pro-a-ility in a cell
(1 P
no_cov
) (1 P
if
)
· Both time and location pro-a-ility
· Typical required values are 9095%
Coverage ThreshoId Location ProbabiIity
120
- When calculating cell radius, LP is S0º by the cell edge and ~7Sº over
the cell area
- To get 30º LP, the cell radius has to be reduced
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,
0,5
0,6
0,
0,
0,9
1

3

2

1 0 1 2 3
o
o
90% of
the area
$low fading margin
Coverage Threshold $low ading Margin
121
- ETS! specific margin
!ower budget
GENE#AL NF#MATN
requency (MHz): 1800 System: DCS1800
Case description: MS CIass: 1
#ECEVNG END: BS MS
RX R nput $ensitivity dBm -108.00 -100.00 A
nterference Degradation Margin dB 3.00 3.00 B
Body Proximity Loss dB 0.00 2.00 C
Ca-le Loss Connectors dB 3.00 0.00 D
Rx Antenna ain dBi 18.00 0.00 E
Diversity ain dB 4.00 0.00
sotropic Power dBm -124.00 -95.00
ABCDE
ield $trength dBµ'm 18.31 47.31 H
T#ANSMTTNG END: MS BS
TX R utput Peak Power W 1.00 29.50
(mean power over R cycle) dBm 30.00 44.70 K
Body Proximity Loss dB 2.00 0.00 L
solator Com-iner ilter dB 0.00 2.20 M
RPeak Power, Com-iner utput dBm 28.00 42.50 NKLM
Ca-le Loss Connectors dB 0.00 3.00
TX Antenna ain dBi 0.00 18.00 P
Peak ERP W 0.63 562.11
(ERP ERP 2dB) dBm 28.00 57.50 QNP
* Z = 77.2 + 20*log(freq[M()
BT99 - AFE with combiner bypass (equiv. to
Coverage Threshold nterference Degrade Margin
122
- Body loss happens because of the existence of the human body
- Typical loss 3 dB depending on the distance between mobile and human
body
- Typically taken into account in coverage threshold
Coverage Threshold Body Loss
123
- Penetration losses have to be added as mean value, and standard deviation
need to be taken into account as well
- type mean sigma
- urban building 1S dB 7 dB
- suburban 10 dB 7 dB
- in·car 8 dB S dB
Coverage Threshold Penetration Loss
124
COMMON INFO DU U SU F O
$ a39e33a hegh9 (m): 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5
B$ a39e33a hegh9 (m): 30,0 30,0 30,0 45,0 45,0
$9a3dard Deva9o3 (dB): 7,0 7,0 7,0 7,0 7,0
BPL Average (dB): 15,0 12,0 10,0 6,0 6,0
$9a3dard Deva9o3 3door8 (dB): 10,0 10,0 10,0 10,0 10,0
OKUMURA-HATA (OH) DU U SU F O
Area Tpe Correc9o3 (dB) 0,0 -4,0 -6,0 -10,0 -15,0
WALFISH-IKEGAMI (WI) DU U SU F O
Road8 wd9h (m): 30,0 30,0 30,0 30,0 30,0
Road ore39a9o3 a3gle (degree8): 90,0 90,0 90,0 90,0 90,0
B:ld3g 8epara9o3 (m): 40,0 40,0 40,0 40,0 40,0
B:ld3g8 average hegh9 (m): 30,0 30,0 30,0 30,0 30,0
INDOOR COVERAGE DU U SU F O
Propaga9o3 odel OH OH OH OH OH
$low Fad3g arg3 ¹ BPL (dB): 22,8 19,8 17,8 13,8 13,8
Coverage Thre8hold (dBµV/m): 59,1 56,1 54,1 50,1 50,1
Coverage Thre8hold (dBm): -77,2 -80,2 -82,2 -86,2 -86,2
Loca9o3 Probabl9 over Cell Area(L°): 90,0º 90,0º 90,0º 90,0º 90,0º
Cell Range (km): 1,33 2,10 2,72 5,70 7,99
OUTDOOR COVERAGE DU U SU F O
Propaga9o3 odel OH OH OH OH OH
$low Fad3g arg3 (dB): 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5
Coverage Thre8hold (dBµV/m): 40,8 40,8 40,8 40,8 40,8
Coverage Thre8hold (dBm): -95,5 -95,5 -95,5 -95,5 -95,5
Loca9o3 Probabl9 over Cell Area(L°): 90,0º 90,0º 90,0º 90,0º 90,0º
Cell Range (km): 4,39 5,70 6,50 10,69 14,99
Cell range: Example of Dimensioning (EXCEL
-ased calculation)
12S
- After cell radius has been determined, cell area can be calculated
- When calculating cell area, traditional hexagonal model is taken into
account
R
mni
A 2,6 R
1
2
Bisector
A 1,3 R
2
2
Trisector
A 1,95 R
3
2
R
R
Coverage Area: Coverage Area in Dimensioning
126
· Three hexagons · Three cells
Coverage Area : Hexagons vs. Cells
127
ExampIe of PIanning TooI CaIcuIation
Coverage Area
12
Cell Area Terms
- Dominance area
- Service area
- Coverage area
6dB hysteresis margin
coverage limit
cell coverage range
cell service range
dominance
range
Coverage Area
12
- Achievable cell size depends on
- Frequency band used (4S0, 300, 1800 NHz)
- Surroundings, environment
- Link budget figures
- Antenna types
- Antenna positioning
- Ninimum required signal levels
Coverage Area : Conclusion
130
Coverage Coverage
Predictions Predictions
131
DESC#BE DFFE#ENT P#EDCTN MDELS
DESC#BE P#EDCTN MDEL TUNNG TPCS
CALCULATE CELL #ANGE
t the end of this module you will be able to .
ModuIe objectives
132
- Okumura·Hata
- The most commonly used statistical model
- Walfish·!kegami
- Statistical model especially for urban environments
- ]uul·Nyholm
- Same kind of a prediction tool as Hata, but with
different equation for predictions beyond radio
horizon (~20km)
- Ray·tracing
- Deterministic prediction tool for
microcellular environments
$
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
l

t
o

b
e

t
u
n
e
d
!
D
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
i
s
t
i
c
Propagation Models &sed in Nokia tools
133
additional attenuation due
to land usage classes
- Adapted for 300 NHz and 1800 NHz
- Different land usage classes
f frequency in NHz
h BS antenna height |m]
a(h
m
) function of NS antenna height
d distance between BS and NS |km]
A = 63.SS B = 26.16 (for 1S0 .. 1000 NHz)
A = 46.3 B = 33.3 (for 1S00 ..2000NHz)
B f h a h
h d
- 2
- 2475h4
= +
+ +
log . log ( )
( . . log )log
138
449 655
Propagation Models: kumuraHata
134
- Urban
- Small cells, 40..S0 dB/dec attenuation
- Forest
- Heavy absorption, 30..40 dB/dec, differs with season (foliage losses)
- Open, farmlands
- Easy, smooth propagation conditions
- Water
- Signal propagates very easily interference !
- Nountain faces
- Strong reflections, long echos
- Etc.
- Nany morpho types have been defined
Propagation Models: kumuraHata
13S
- Nodel for urban microcellular propagation
- Assumes regular city layout (¨Nanhattan grid")
- Total path loss consists of two parts:
h
w
-
d
NL$
· rooftostreet diffraction and scatter loss
· mo-ile environment losses
L$
· lineofsight loss
Propagation Models: Walfishkegami
136
- Line·of·sight path (LOS)
- Use free space propagation
- Applicable for microwave S satellite links
- ¨Non·line·of·sight" path (NLOS)
- Heavy diffraction, refraction situations
- Nany models exist in literature, none is satisfying
- reat uncertainties in modeling
- Needs detailed building databases (vectorial information)
- Use ray·tracing models?
"Manhattan grid
model
Propagation Models: Walfishkegami
137
- Deterministic model for microcellular environments
- Launch rays into every direction of space
- Certain number of rays calculated
- Reflections calculated based on dielectric coefficients
- very high computational load
- Nirror image method also possible
s
r
"single point
signal source
Propagation Models: Ray Tracing
13
- !t's aimed to get a more realistic propagation model
- !t should be done at the very beginning of a planning project, before any
dimensioning activity
- How?
- Select typical sites for measurements
- Define measurement routes
- Tune propagation model to make its predictions match the measurements data
Model Tuning: Basics
13
· What antenna height should -e used?
· Typical for the area?
· Model restrictions?
· kumuraHata stay a-ove 2 m!
· Keep away from existing antennas
· Mark L$ situations, tunnels, -ridges etc.
· Take these out of the measurement file
· A power -udget is needed. Note down:
· TX power, ca-le and connector losses
· Antenna type, height, direction, tilt
· $ite coordinates
Model Tuning: Measurements
140
- Neasure only interference free frequencies
- Neasure only in the main lobe of the transmitting antenna
- Avoid or erase line·of·sight measurement points
- Use differential PS if possible or match the coordinates with the map
- Check coordinate conversion parameters
- Neasure all the cable losses (both in transmitting and receiving end)
- Neasure the output power of the transmitter
- Check transmitter antenna installation and ensure that there are no
obstacles nearby
- Document the measurements very carefully
ModeI Tuning: Measurements
141
- Neasured field strength should be between - 3S dBm and - 60 dBm
- Stay in the main coverage area of the selected cell
- Not too close to cell edges
- Not too close to TX antenna
- Route long enough
- Ninimum 100 samples are needed
- O·H does not predict LOS situations
- Avoid routes with LOS situations
- Nake sure all wanted morpho classes and topo types are included
- Which coordinate system?
Model Tuning: kumuraHata Measurements
142
- !mport measurement results to a
planning tool
- min. distance > S00 m to filter out too
close samples
- Tune morpho corrections to best fit
- Tune only factors, which have more
than 3º
- Nean value +/· 1 dB
- !f a lot of LOS negative mean
- Standard deviation I 8 dB
- Correction factor for urban ~ 0 dB
Model Tuning: kumuraHata Model Tuning
143
- Why are the predictions and measurements different?
- !s the digital map accurate enough?
- What is the resolution of the map?
- !s the morpho data correct?
- Does the measured route match the roads?
- Do the measured routes have a lot of LOS situations?
Model Tuning: Measurements = Predictions?
144
$ite and cell data Digital map $ystem information
Calculate measurement route
Map matching
Measurement data
Coordinates
Model tuning
Compare
Analysis
$atisfactory model
End
ield strenght
No
Yes
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
14S
Prediction model tuning areas
- Propagation slope
- Effective antenna height
- Norphographic corrections
- Calculation distance
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
146
Assessment of propagation slope
- Okumura·Hata correction factor C:
d h C h f B
- - 10 10 10 10
log ) log 55 . 6 ( log log L + + =
propagation slope,
parameter C has to -e changed
as a function of antenna height and
environment
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
147
Effective antenna height definition
- 0 - 3 km: the average terrain height is calculated from base station to mobile station.
The effective antenna height is the difference between the absolute antenna height
and the average terrain height.
- 3 - 6 km: the average terrain height is calculated as a sliding average over 3 km
from the mobile station towards to the base station.
- 6 - 1S km: the average terrain height is calculated from 3 km (from base station) to
the mobile station.
- over 1S km: effective antenna height is the difference between the transmitting
antenna and the average terrain height between 3 and 1S km
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
14
30 29 2 2 26 25 2 23 22 21 20 19 1 1 16 15 1 13 12 11 10 9 6 5 3 2 1
Terrain type & & & & & & $ $ $ $ P P P P W W W W W $ $ $ $ $
Correction factor [dB] 0 0 0 15 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 15 5 5 5 5 23 23 23 23 23 5 5 5 5 5
Pixel size: 50 m x 50 m
Norphographic corrections
Example: Norphographic corrections
- The distance between the base station and the mobile station is 1.S km. On the
digital map there are 30 pixels (S0 m x S0 m) between the base station and the
mobile. Each pixel presents the terrain type within the S0 m x S0 m area.
The following notations are used:
U = Urban, S = Suburban, P = Park, O = Open and W = Water.
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
14
Norphographic corrections
- The morphographic correction calculated as an average of the pixels between the
mobile station and base station
- The average of the correction factors in this example is -3.4 dB
- The basic propagation model is corrected by adding the calculated correction to the
prediction result (correction factor L
morpho
in Okumura·Hata model).
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
1S0
Calculation distance
- !t is not very likely that the area close to the base station has a great impact
on the received power of the mobile station
- The areas close to the mobile are more important for the prediction thus there
are ways to weight the areas close to the mobile station
- The calculation distance can be shorter than the distance between the mobile
station and the base station
- Only the pixels close to the mobile stations are considered
- !n the previous example the calculation distance is changed from 1.S km
down to S00 meters the average of the correction factors is -14 dB.
Difference between the corrections is 4.6 dB.
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
1S1
Calc:la9o3 d89a3ce
1.0 1.0
1.0
.0
10 9 6 5 3 2 1
Terrain type W W W W W $ $ $ $ $
Correction factor [dB] 23 23 23 23 23 5 5 5 5 5
Weights 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1. 1.5 1.6 1. 1. 1.9
Normalized weights 0.6 0.3 0.0 0. 0.93 1.00 1.0 1.13 1.20 1.2
Normalized correction factors 15 1 1 20 21 5 5.3 5. 6 6.3
Calculation distance
Linear weights for terrain type correction factors (example). The average of the
normalized correction factors is 12.33 dB.
ModeI Tuning: DetaiIed Process
1S2
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
1 51 101 151 201 251 301 351 401 451 501
Measurement points
S
ig
n
a
I
I
e
v
e
I
[
d
B
m
]
Measured
Predicted
0
10
20
30
0
50
60
0
0
90
15 1 13 12 11 10 9 6 5 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 1 15 16 1 1 19
dB
Example: Morpho Corrections Tuning
1S3
100
90
0
0
60
50
0
100 1000 10000
Distance [m]
S
i
g
n
a
I

I
e
v
e
I

[
d
B
m
]
Example: Quality of Tuning
1S4
Morpho CIass VaIue [dB]
pen 20
Water 25
orest 11
Quasipen 5
Houses 12
$u-&r-an 10
&r-an 2
Buildings
ndustrial -uildings
High rise -uildings 1
Example: Tuning Results
1SS
Capacity Capacity
PIanning PIanning
1S6
DESC#BE T#AFFC THE#Y P#NCPLES
CALCULATE CAPACTY F DFFE#ENT
CNFGU#ATNS
DESC#BE SGNALLNG CHANNELS AND
CALCULATE SGNALLNG CAPACTY
DESC#BE MAN FEATU#ES F CAPACTY
ENHANCEMENT
t the end of this module you will be able to .
bjectives
1S7
T#AFFC
SGNALLNG
CAPACTY ENHANCEMENTS
Capacity PIanning
1S
- Estimate number of subscribers over time
- Long·term predictions
- Numbers available from marketing people?
- Expected traffic load per subscriber
- Different subscriber segments?
- Expected behaviour of user segments
- Particular phone habits of subscribers
- e.g. mainly heavy indoor usage
- Phoning while in traffic jams?
- Busy hour conditions
- Time of day
- Traffic patterns
Traffic: Traffic Estimations
1S
- Traffic is not evenly spread across the day
(or week)
- Dimensioning must be able to cope with peak loads
- ¨busy hour" is typically twice the ¨average hour" load
0
10
20
30
0
50
60
0
0
90
100
0 2 6 10 12 1 16 1 20 22 2hr
%
peak time
offpeak
Traffic: Traffic Patterns
160
load¸vec
3d
d9
load 3d 89ar9
¸89ar9
+
¸ )
=
1 1. 1.4 1.6 1.8 13
0

4
6
8
The cell load
Tme / ho:r8

:
m
b
e
r

o
I

r
e
8
e
r
v
e
d

9

m
e
8
l
o
9
8
.
Cell load
161
M potential customers
m availa-le resources
M >> m
- Problem: many customers, limited number of resources
- How many resources do we need to satisfy the demand?
Trunking Basics
162
- Trunking increases effective usage of limited resources
- When we increase the traffic, we may not need that many new lines
- Nain parameter: accepted blocking probability
- Blocking depends on
- Number of available resources
- Traffic statistical distribution
Trunking: Trunking Effect
163
time
CH 1
CH 2
CH 3
CH 4
CH ...
CH 5
CH n-2
CH n-1
CH n
ffered new
traffic
Trunking: Trunking Effect
164
- Erlang is the unit of traffic
- Definition
- 2 formulas
- Erlang B: for systems that support no queuing
- Erlang C: for systems that support queuing
$eco3d8 3600
) ( ) (
Erla3g8
9i20 4n c4nv078a9i av07ag0 h4:7 507 call8

-
=
Agner Krarup Erlang (11929)
Erlang Definition
16S
- Erlang B
- No queuing: blocked calls are
dropped
- Depends on call lengths S statistical
distribution of calls
- Applicable in mobile systems (e.g. air
interface)
- Erlang C
- Queuing
- Applicable in trunking systems
¿
= ¦
¦
|
¦

¸

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

=

i
i
k
k
i
k
5
0
! /
! /
3
ì
3
ì
¿

=
¦
'
+

'

+
= >
1
0
!
1 !
) 0 ( Pr
C
k
k
C
C
k

C

C

d0lay 4-
Erlang: Erlang ormulas
166
- Erlang B
- No queuing: blocked calls are
dropped
- Depends on call lengths S statistical
distribution of calls
- Applicable in mobile systems (e.g. air
interface)
- Erlang C
- Queuing
- Applicable in trunking systems
¿
= ¦
¦
|
¦

¸

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

=

i
i
k
k
i
k
5
0
! /
! /
3
ì
3
ì
¿

=
¦
'
+

'

+
= >
1
0
!
1 !
) 0 ( Pr
C
k
k
C
C
k

C

C

d0lay 4-
Erlang: Erlang ormulas
167
locking Probability locking Probability
Channels 1º 2º 3º 5º Channels 1º 2º 3º 5º
1 0, 01 0, 02 0, 03 0, 05 21 12, 80 14, 00 14, 90 16, 20
2 0, 15 0, 22 0, 28 0, 38 22 13, 70 14, 90 15, 80 17, 10
3 0, 46 0, 60 0, 72 0, 90 23 14, 50 15, 80 16, 70 18, 10
4 0, 87 1, 09 1, 26 1, 52 24 15, 30 16, 60 17, 60 19, 00
5 1, 36 1, 66 1, 88 2, 22 25 16, 10 17, 50 18, 50 20, 00
6 1, 91 2, 28 2, 54 2, 96 26 17, 00 18, 40 19, 40 20, 90
7 2, 50 2, 95 3, 25 3, 75 27 17, 80 19, 30 20, 30 21, 90
8 3, 13 3, 63 3, 99 4, 54 28 18, 60 20, 20 21, 20 22, 90
9 3, 78 4, 34 4, 75 5, 37 29 19, 50 21, 00 22, 10 23, 80
10 4, 46 5, 08 5, 53 6, 22 30 20, 30 21, 90 23, 10 24, 80
11 5, 16 5, 84 6, 33 7, 08 31 21, 20 22, 80 24, 00 25, 80
12 5, 88 6, 61 7, 14 7, 95 32 22, 00 23, 70 24, 90 26, 70
13 6, 61 7, 40 7, 97 8, 83 33 22, 90 24, 60 25, 80 27, 70
14 7, 35 8, 20 8, 80 9, 73 34 23, 80 25, 50 26, 80 28, 70
15 8, 11 9, 01 9, 65 10, 60 35 24, 60 26, 40 27, 70 29, 70
16 8, 88 9, 83 10, 50 11, 50 36 25, 50 27, 30 28, 60 30, 70
17 9, 65 10, 70 11, 40 12, 50 37 26, 40 28, 30 29, 60 31, 60
18 10, 40 11, 50 12, 20 13, 40 38 27, 30 29, 20 30, 50 32, 60
19 11, 20 12, 30 13, 10 14, 30 39 28, 10 30, 10 31, 50 33, 60
20 12, 00 13, 20 14, 00 15, 20 40 29, 00 31, 00 32, 40 34, 60
Erlang: Erlang B Ta-le
16
T#AFFC
SGNALLNG
CAPACTY ENHANCEMENTS
Capacity PIanning
16
- TDNA Frame = 8 Time Slots (0.S77 ms each)
- Physical Channel = 1 TS of the TDNA Frame on 1 specific carrier
- Logical Channel = the "purpose" a physical channel is used for
0 0
TDMA frame .615 ms
B&R$T PERD
0 0
Logical Channels: Definitions
170
0
TDMA frame .615 ms
26 MuItiframe 120 ms
51 MuItiframe 235 ms
TCH SGN.
0 1 2 2 25 0 1 2 9 50
Hyperframe 20 $uperframes 3.5 h
Superframe
26x51 or
51x26 Multiframes
6.120 sec
Logical Channels $tructure
171
- Same in SN300 and SN1800
CH
Traffic Channels
(TCH)
TCH9.6
TCH ., H
TCH 2., H
Dedicated Channels
(DCH)
Broadcast Channel
(BCH)
Control Channels
Common Control
Channel (CCCH)
$CH BCCH
($ys nfo)
TCH ACH RACH $DCCH ACCH Bm
ACCH Lm
TCHH PCH
Common Channels
(CCH)
LogicaI ChanneIs
$ACCH
verview of Logical Channels
172
Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)
- Unmodulated carrier: like a flag for the NS which enables it to find the frequency among
several TRXs
Synchronisation Channel (SCH)
- Contains the Base Station !dentity Code (BS!C) and a reduced TDNA frame number
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
- Contains detailed network and cell specific information as: Frequencies, Frequency hopping
sequence, Channel combination, Paging groups, !nformation on neighbour cells
- Careful frequency plan needed
- BCCH is not allowed to involve in FH, PC
Broadcast Channels (BCH)
173
Paging Channel (PCH)
- !t is broadcast by all the BTSs of a Location Area in the case of a mobile terminated call
Random Access Channel (RACH)
- !t is used by the mobile station in order to initiate a transaction, or as a response to a PCH
Access rant Channel (ACH)
- Answer to the RACH. Used to assign a mobile a SDCCH
Common Control Channels (CCCH)
174
Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)
- System signalling: call set·up, authentication, location update, assignment of traffic
channels and transmission of SNS
Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
- Transmits measurement reports (UL)
- Power control, time alignment, short messages (DL)
Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
- Nainly used for handover signalling
- !t is mapped onto a TCH and replaces 20 ms of speech
Traffic Channels (TCH)
- Transfer user speech or data, which can be either in the form of Half rate traffic (6.S kbit/s)
or Full rate traffic (13 kbit/s).
Dedicated Channels (DCH)
17S
CCH
$CH
$DCCH
PCH
ACH
BCCH
CCCH
Common
Channels
Dedicated
Channels
Logical Channels
Downlink
$ACCH
ACCH
$DCCH
TCH
TCHH
DCCH
TCH
176
RACH CCCH
Common
Channels
$DCCH
$ACCH
ACCH
TCH
TCHH
DCCH
TCH
Dedicated
Channels
Logical Channels
&plink
177
Search for frequency correction burst FCCH
Search for synchronisation sequence SCH
Read system informations BCCH
Listen for paging PCH
Send access burst RACH
Wait for signalling channel allocation ACH
Call setup SDCCH
FACCH
Traffic channel is assigned TCH
Conversation TCH
Call release FACCH
idle mode
'off' state
dedicated
mode
idle mode
Logical Channels &se
17
Beware of "homemade" -ottlenecks
- Example of mapping:
- combined CCCH/SDCCH/4 configuration
Downlink 51 TDMA frames 235 ms
1. 2. 3. 4.
f s b b bbc f c f c scccc c c cc f c f s t t t t t t t t f f t t t t t t t t f s f sss s s s s s s
i
t t t t r r s f s s s sssr r r r r r r s f r r r r r r r r r r f r r r r t r t t t r f t t t r t r t t t t
&plink 51 TDMA frames 235 ms
Logical Channels: Mapping 1 Example
17
- Nainly realised by Stand·alone Dedicated Control CHannel (SDCCH)
- SDCCH is mainly used in S cases:
- Call set·up
- SNS
- Location updates
- Emergency call
- Call re·establishment
- SDCCH channel is key in achieving successful S efficient call set·up
Cell Capacity $ignalling
10
- TS
0
of BCCH TRX always for BCCH + CCCH
- TS
0
may be configured to carry DCCH
- SDCCH channels may be configured in any other TS. Convention (but not
law!) is to put it on TS1
- 2 basic configurations
- Combined
- Non·combined
Com-ined configuration
0
7
ts0-cchsdcch/4pchagch
Noncom-ined configuration
0 7
ts0-cchpchagch
ts1sdcch/8
Cell Capacity: $DCCH Configurations
11
- Efficient network design is required to achieve 2 goals
- An appropriate signalling dimensioning strategy, on a cell per cell basis
- An appropriate upgrade philosophy
- SDDCH channels may be dimensioned in 3 ways
- On a cell per cell basis
- On a generic macro layer (not linked to macro/ micro cell layer definitions)
- On both of the above
Cell Capacity: $DCCH Dimensioning
12
1 T#X and 7 Traffic channeIs means that
· There can -e simultaneous $M data or speech calls
· The total traffic over a hour period (-usy hour) is 2.5 Erl and 1%
of call attempts is -locked
· Extra capacity of 6% ( (2.5)) is needed to guarantee 1%
-locking
(compare to the situation of 2 TRX > trunking effect!!)
1 T#X and 1 signaIIing channeI means that
· All signalling channels (BCCH, PCH, ACH, $DCCH) are sent on
the 1st time slot
· PCH and $DCCH capacities are the possi-le -ottlenecks!
Capacity Planning: Conclusion
13
Traffic channel capacity need is calculated estimated
1. Based on the average traffic per su-scri-er ( 25 mErl 90 s) and
num-er of su-scri-ers (250 $u-s) and the total traffic need 250
$u-s x 25 mErl$u-s 6.25 Erl
2. Next the required num-er of traffic channels will -e found from the
ErlangB ta-le -ased on the quality criteria that is usually 1%
-locking in $M.
3. ErlangB shows that 13 channels give 6.61 Erl @ 1% -locking
which exceeds the capacity demand 6.25 Erl.
. Next it can -e noted that 2 TRX equals 1 TCHs and 2 $CHs (
.35 Erl 6.25 1.1 extra capacity for the future).
5. 2 TRX will -e implemented to the cell!
Example: to estimate the $ervice for $u-scri-ers
14
T#AFFC
SGNALLNG
CAPACTY ENHANCEMENTS
Capacity PIanning
1S
Dual Band
16
- Dual Band means combining both SN 300 and
SN 1800 (previously DCS) in the same network
- SN 300 and SN 1800 are twins from the
technical point of view
SC
GSM900/1800
GSM1800
GSM900/1800
GSM900
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Dual Band Network Basics
17
- Capacity with SN300 is limited:
- Subscriber growth
- !ncreased usage
- Quality and capacity required:
New services
- WLL
- Wireless Office
- Data Services
- Roaming: High revenue from roaming traffic
Dual Band Network Basics
1
- Traffic management
- First priority is to camp on SN 1800 cells
- Transferring the Dual Band mobiles from SN 300 cells to SN 1800 cells is the key process
- Setting special BSS parameters.
- Planners should pay more attention to:
- Careful set of HO parameters
- Dualband network configuration
- LAC planning
Dual Band Network Effect on RNP
1
- Typically BSC and LAC areas are compact and bounded to
geographical location
- Nicrocells connected to same BSC with surrounding macrocells
- Compact BSC areas enable the effect use of Nokia features e.g.
ANH and traffic reason HO
- !ntra BSC HO success rate better than !nter BSC HO success rate
- Better candidate evaluation in !ntra BSC HO
- Optimised LAC borders decrease signalling load
- User mobility
- Highways and railroads
- eographical areas
LACB$C Borders
10
MSC
B$Ca B$C-
$M
900
$M
100
$M
900
$M
100
$M
900
$M
100
$M
900
$M
100
LACa
LAC-
Dual Band Network: $ame LAC and B$C
11
f you need to provide capacity for 20 Erlangs, 2 % -locking, how
many TRXs do
you need?
How many TRXs do you need to provide capacity for 10 Erlangs, 1
% -locking?
How many su-scri-ers can you serve with 2 TRXcell, 1%
-locking, with average
usage 20 mErl?
How many cells would you therefore need to give capacity for
Helsinki area (9.2 % penetration, population 1 million)?
n China the average usage is 30 mErl. How many su-scri-ers can
you serve with 2 TRXcell (1% -locking)?
n a small town A, with 1000 residents, the collected statistic data
shows that the average airtime in -usy hour is 90 seconds. f we
want to cover this town -y one cell, how many TRXs do we need
to achieve the -locking pro-a-ility of 1%?
12
Frequency Frequency
PIanning PIanning
13
DESC#BE F#EQUENCY PLANNNG
C#TE#A
CALCULATE THE F#EQUENCY #EUSE
FACT#
DESC#BE F#EQUENCY ALLCATN
METHDS
t the end of this module you will be able to .
ModuIe objectives
14
· Tighter reuse of
own frequencies
more capacity
more interference
· Target
· to minimise
interferences at an
accepta-le
capacity level
· irst when a
complete area has
-een finalised
· Automatic
frequency planning
tools
R
D
Frequency PIan: Basics
1S
- Why frequency re·use ?
- 8 NHz = 40 channels a 7 traffic timeslots = 280 users
- max. 280 simultaneous calls??!
- Limited bandwidth available
- Re·use frequencies as often as possible
- !ncreased capacity
- !ncreased interferences
- Trade·off between interference level and capacity
- Allocate frequency combination that creates least overall interference
conditions in the network
nterference is unavoida-le
minimise total interferences in network
requency Plan: Basics
16
Criteria
The frequency planning criteria include the
configuration and frequency allocation aspects. The
configuration aspects consider the:
· requency -and splitting -etween the macro and micro
-ase stations,
· requency -and splitting -etween the BCCH and TCH
layers,
· requency -and grouping and
· Different frequency reuse factors for different TRX layers.
requency allocation aspects include
frequency planning thresholds (Q$ requirements)
· C requirements
· Percentage of cochannel and adacent channel
interference
Frequency PIan : Frequency PIanning Criteria
17
Macro Micro
· needed -ecause of inaccurate coverage predictions
-etween macro and micro layers
· not needed if accurate coverage predictions availa-le in the
future
BCCH TCH
· needed to ensure a good quality on BCCH frequency (in
order to ensure signalling)
Frequency PIan: Frequency Band SpIitting
1
requency grouping
requency hopping (coherence -andwidth)
ntermodulation
requencies assigned to all TRX layers at one time
requencies evenly used
Limitations for automatic frequency planning algorithms
ixed frequency reuse factor
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 110 111 112 113 114
CCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2. TRX 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
3. TRX 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
Frequency PIan: Frequency Band Grouping
1
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 110 111 112 113 114 115
CCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
2. TRX 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
1. Micro 31 32 33 34 35 36 31 32 33 34 35 36 31 32 33
2. Micro 37 38 39 40 41 42 37 38 39 40 41 42 37 38 39
requency planning for different TRX layers
· different freqency reuse factors for different TRX layers
· frequency planning for different layers
Different Frequency #euse Factors for Different T#X Layers
200
C requirements
Cc 15 dB, Ca 6 dB (Note verlay&nderlay concepts)
nterference pro-a-ility
2% cochannel and 5% adacent channel interference
requency separations
cellsite separations
com-iner limitations
Frequency AIIocation ThreshoIds
201
- Do not use
- Hexagon cell patterns
- Regular grids
- Systematic frequency allocation
- Use
- !nterference matrix calculation
- Calibrated propagation models
- Ninimise total interference in network
R
D
f2
f3
f
f5
f6
f
f3
f
f5
f6
f2
f3
f
f5
f6
f2
f3
f
f5
f6
f
f2
f3
f
f5
f
f2
f3
f
f5
f2
f3
f
f5
f6
f
Best Method
202
- RuF
- Average number of cells that have different frequencies
- Neasure for effectiveness of frequency plan
- Trade·off: effectiveness vs. interferences
- Nultiple RuFs increase effectiveness of FP
- Compromise between safe, interference free planning and effective resource usage
1 3 6 9 12 15 1 21
safe planning
(BCCH layer)
normal planning
(TCH macro layer)
tight reuse planning
(& layer)
same frequency
in every cell
("spread spectrum)
Re&seactor
203
- Capacity increase with multiple RuFs
- e.g. network with 300 cells
- Bandwidth : 8 NHz (40 radio channels)
- Single RuF =12
- NW capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX
- Nultiple RuF
- BCCH layer: re·use =14, (14 frq.)
- Normal TCH: re·use =10, (20 frq.)
- Tight TCH layer: re·use = 6, (6 frq.)
- NW cap. = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX
Multiple Re&seactor
204
- Co·cell separation
- e.g. 3 (4 for SN1800)
- 600 (800 ) kHz spacing between frequencies in the same cell
- Co·site separation
- e.g. 2
- 400 kHz spacing between frequencies on the same site
- Co·channel interferences from neighbouring sites
- Adjacent channel interferences from neighbouring sites
requency Plan: Constraints
20S
A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 A2 B2 C2 D2
BCCH 1 26 3 2 5 30 32 9 3 11 36
TCH 25 2 2 29 6 31 33 10 35 12
E2 F2 G2 H2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 H3
BCCH 13 3 15 0 1 2 19 21 6 23
TCH 3 1 39 16 1 1 3 20 5 22 2
· With requency roups: groups, 6 ARCN each
A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 1 L1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2
1 2 3 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 1 15 16
G2 H2 2 L2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 H3 3 L3 M3 N3
1 1 19 20 21 22 23 2 25 26 2 2 29 30 31 32
3 P3 Q3 #3 M4 N4 4 P4 Q4 #4 M5 N5 5 P5 Q1 #5
33 3 35 36 3 3 39 0 1 2 3 5 6
BCCH
BCCH TCH
TCH
· With $eparated Bands: 10 groups BCCH, 6 TCH, 3
ARCN each
requency Plan: Manual Allocation
206
Allocation Criteria
- Take into account both:
- theoretical dominance area and
- planner's knowledge of the site
- Starting point:
- critical site or
- critical area
- "cluster approach"?
- "dynamic" BCCH allocation
- No more than 60·70 sites!!!
Conclusion
- Nethod 1 is simpler than method 2
- Nethod 2 is more accurate
(RuFBCCH > RuFTCH, intracell HO)
C/ C/A C/ C/A
groups x x x x
sub- bands x
TCH BCCH
simpIicity
requency Plan: Manual Allocation
207
· requency allocation algorithms
implemented in planning tools
· Compute compati-ility matrix across total cell area
(heavy computing!)
· Allocate same frequencies in "sufficiently
separated cells
· Allocate frequencies until traffic needs of all cells
are satisfied
· Boundary condition: minimise total network
interferences
· No closed solution availa-le for this pro-lem
· terative procedure
Frequency PIan: Automatic AIIocation
20
nterference
parameters setting
$eparation
parameters
setting
nterference matrix calculation
$eparation matrix calculation
requency allocation
AnaIyz
e
resuIts
- Choose the following parameters for all network layers
- Co·cell separation
- Co·site separation
- Target level for co·channel + adj channel interference
- Frequency band allowed
- Algohorithm:
requency Plan: Automatic Allocation
20
- !nterference matrix
- Element (i,j) = amount of interference caused on cell i by cell j
- Comparison parameter = co·channel (adj channel) C/!
- Separation matrix
- Element (i,j) = minimum channel separation between cell i and cell j
- Comparison parameter = maximum C/! (C/A) probability
- Co·site, co·cell and adj·cell separations manually set
requency Plan: Automatic Allocation
210
Evaluation criteria
- Check the avg co·channel
interference parameter
- Check the channel distribution
- Check the contraints violation list
- Use the !nterference Analisys tool
Automatic
frequency plan
Manual analysis and
error correction
FinaI
resuIt
Frequency PIan: Automatic AIIocation
211
A
B
C
15km
international
-orderline
- Regulations for international boundaries
- 18 dB 3v/m at borderline
- 18 dB 3v/m at 1Skm distance from border for preferential frequencies
- Set of preferential and reserved frequencies must be mutually agreed
between operators
Frequency PIan: Frequency Coordination
212
ntermodulation interference can -e avoided -y
· Ensuring that the -ase station site equipment quality is such high
that the
intermodulation does not exist,
· rouping the frequencies such that the intermodulation products
do not cause
interference or
· Allocating the frequencies such that the intermodulation products
do not cause
interference or
it's complex influence on the frequency planning can -e
made easier -y
· Preventing the power control (only for the downlink
intermodulation products) or
· Directing the intermodulation products to the BCCH frequencies
(there is no
downlink power control on the BCCH).
Frequency PIan: ntermoduIation
213
s the frequency grouping of the reuse factor 15 enough to
maximise the performance of the frequency hopping?
Does the 1800 MHz GSM network cause interference to the
900 MHz networks?
Why does the frequency band have to be spIit?
Exercises / Questions

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