SPANISH

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© Copyright 2003–2006, Wikibooks contributors. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". Images are either licensed under the GFDL or released into the public domain. Creators of GFDL images are listed in image captions. Principal authors: ThomasStrohmann (C) · Karl Wick (C) · Wintermute (C) · Mariela Riva (C) · Mxn (C) · Sabbut (C) · Javier Carro (C) · Fenoxielo (C) · Think Fast (C) · Celestianpower (C) · AnthonyBaldwin (C) · John D'Adamo (C) Cover: Zona costera de la Coveta Fuma en el término municipal de Campello, Alicante. By Kasiber and Celestianpower. The current version of this Wikibook may be found at: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Spanish

Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................03 Pronunciation....................................................................................................05

LESSONS.................................................................................................10
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 ¿Cómo te llamas?........................................................................................10 ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?.......................................................................18 Introducción a la gramática.......................................................................26 ¿Dónde vives?.............................................................................................33 ¿Qué te gusta hacer?..................................................................................41 ¿Qué comes?...............................................................................................51 ¿Qué hora es?.............................................................................................61 ¿Dónde vas a ir?.........................................................................................69 ¿Cuál es tu trabajo?....................................................................................83
THE BOOK.............................................................................. .........92

ABOUT

History & Document Notes...............................................................................92 Authors & Image Credits...................................................................................93 GNU Free Documentation License....................................................................94

Introduction
live version • discussion • edit introduction • comment • report an error

Book definition
• Scope: This Wikibook aims to teach the Spanish language from scratch. It will cover all of the major grammar rules, moving slowly and offering exercises and plenty of examples. It's not all grammar though, as it offers vocabulary and phrases too, appealing to all learners. By the end, you should be able to read and write Spanish skilfully, though you'll need a human to help with listening and speaking. • Purpose: The purpose of this Wikibook is to teach you the Spanish language in an easy and accessible way. By the end, as mentioned, you should be a proficient reader and writer, though listening and speaking require a human tutor. • Audience: Anyone who wishes to learn Spanish, though adult and teenage learners are likely to enjoy it more. • Organisation: This Wikibook requires no prior knowledge of the subject, and all relevant terms are explained as they are encountered. The book runs chronologically from lesson 1 to lesson 2 to lesson 3 and so on until the end. • Narrative: Generally engaging and thorough, with plenty of examples and exercises to aid learning. Once concepts are introduced, they are repeated, building a base of vocabulary and grammar that will stay in your mind.

You'll see what is meant by this as you learn your first verbs ser and estar. all languages share some simple components like verbs. each with a translation underneath.Chapter • Style: This book is written in British English. pronounce. learning a second language requires a basic understanding of your own language. however. Introduction You are about to embark on a course learning a second language. At the end. and plurals. nouns. If this is the first time you are attempting to learn Spanish. though key regional differences are explained as we go along. and each new concept or set of vocabulary is accompanied by examples. The formatting is consistent throughout. verb conjugation. This is not true for many other languages. you use these concepts on a daily basis. including the key grammar and vocabulary in the lesson. Do not become discouraged! You can do it. Following the grammatical conventions of Spanish will be very important. or usage of the various tenses. Years ago. Exercises are linked throughout. Today. do not become discouraged if you cannot understand. live version • discussion • edit introduction • comment • report an error 4 | Spanish . and can actually change the meaning of phrases. and the Spanish taught is generally "Spanish" Spanish. this is an introduction. with Spanish in italics and all tables using the same formatting. Again. Your first language comes naturally to you and you don't think about things like subject-verb agreement. there is a summary. Throughout education. In addition. the Spanish Language is taught by moving slower and covering grammar and spelling rules. many of the distinguishing grammar structures have been simplified over the years. that you learn a lot about English as well. explaining what has been achieved. or memorize some of the things discussed here. the Spanish Language was taught simply by memory. At their core. as you study Spanish. methods of teaching Spanish have changed greatly. yet. the Spanish Language! The first lesson begins with simple greetings. While English is described as a very complicated language to learn. Each lesson begins with a conversation. You may find. adjectives. and covers important ideas of the Spanish Language.

Ee e e Like e in ten. (Refer to the article Writing system of Spanish in Wikipedia for details on the Spanish alphabet and alphabetization. it should touch the Dd de d teeth themselves.Pronunciation 0 P RONUNCIATION live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error P ronouncing Spanish based on the written word is much simpler than pronouncing English based on written English. many letters and letter combinations in English represent multiple sounds (such as the ou and gh in words like cough. Gg ge x Before the vowels e and i.) Name of the IPA Pronunciation of the letter (English approximation) letter Aa a a Like a in father be. though. This is because. be Bb larga. but instead of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the teeth. like c in center (Americas) or Cc ce s/θ th in thin (Spain). but between vowels g (where the second vowel is a. Everywhere else. Before the vowels e and i. through. Letter-sound correspondences in Spanish The table below presents letter-sound correspondences in the order of the traditional Spanish alphabet. with few exceptions. Does not have an exact English equivalent. simple rules tell us which is the correct one. etc. o or u). Ff efe f Like f in four. the tongue should Letter Wikibooks | 5 . be b Like b in bad. k Everywhere else. but it's clearly different from Argentinian y (see below). like g in get. each letter in the Spanish alphabet represents a single sound.). the lips should not touch when β pronouncing the sound (somewhat similar to the v in value). alta Between vowels. Between vowels. In Argentina it sounds almost like j in Ch ch che tʃ jump. In contrast. and even when there are several possible sounds. like c in coffee Like ch in church. rough. Sounds similar to the d in day. the tongue should be lowered so as to not touch the teeth (somewhat similar to the th in the). like a Spanish j (see below).

Before y sound (y or ll). Like the k in ask. k . repeat the onomatopoeia of chewing: "ñam. and is written r ere.or hifollowed by another vowel at the start of the word stand hache for /w/ (English w) and /j/ (English y). ñam. it sounds like ñ. similar to Scottish rolled r (generally written rr). Only used in words of foreign origin ka k Spanish prefers c and qu (see above and below. The 'soft' pronunciation sounds like American relaxed pronunciation of tt in "butter". although in many dialects it sounds jota x/h like English h. Like the ch in loch. Very commonly simply pronounced as /j/ (English y). like gl in the Italian word gli. /nj/]] (ny) + vowel. Silent. un queso.Chapter 0 not touch the soft palate (no similar sound in English. erre r (always written r). respectively). where the y is very short. eme m Like m in more. unless combined with c (see above). un hueso. neither of which exist in English. it should touch the tip of the teeth themselves. un cubo. where it is pronounced like a Spanish j (see below). it approaches y in you. Properly. but shorter. or "clipped. As in English. i i Like e in he. The 'hard' pronunciation is a multiply vibrating sound. It is similar to the English "l" in line. un whisky. Does not have an doble ele.δo/). To practice. n or s. it is always followed by a u. f and v (and in some regions m) sounds as m in important. q). pe p Like p in port. Hu. b. when pronouncing "años". English equivalent. For example un paso sounds umpaso. but it's somewhat like Arabic ghain). Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Ll ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Pp Qq Rr 6 | Spanish . un juego. think of it as eñe ɲ "anyos". see below. The English /kw/ sound is normally written cu in Spanish (cuanto)." Instead of ele l the tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the teeth. For example. This has two pronunciations. ñam". Before g. or an-yos. Before other vowels. quórum). although qu can be used for this sound in front of a or o (quásar.ki. but before e or i. but it's somewhat similar to li in ʎ/j elle million. un kilo. Before p. Also used in foreign words like hámster. without the following r sound. k sound (c. Like n in no. Does not have an exact English equivalent. as in canyon. w and hu sounds ene n like n in anchor: un gato. the u is silent (líquido is pronounced cu k /'li. 'Hard' r is also the sound of r at the start of a word or after l. j. Like q in quit. o o Like o in more.

México and its derivatives are pronounced like Méjico. Pronunciation varies from word to word: watt is w pronounced like bat. hay rather than hai). the pronunciation of some consonants (such as b) does vary with the position of the consonant in the word. Each vowel represents only one sound. In words of Amerindian origin. but it's not common. like oo in pool. However. although in Andalusia it is not itself pronounced. but instead of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the teeth. doble ve. In many places it's aspirated in final position. zeta. Identical to Spanish b (see above). See c for details. ve baja uve doble. β Ww Xx Used only in words of foreign origin (Spanish prefers u). güi). Most notably. it is silent unless it has a diaresis (güe. in which case it is as above: w. ve corta. Technically. β. like w in twig. As the table indicates. In Argentina is pronounced similar to the English sh in she. each consonant also represents one sound. in some i ye places it is identical to English y. It can pronunciated as "v". s ceda Spain) or /s/ (elsewhere). whether it is between vowels Wikibooks | 7 . one sound Pronouncing Spanish based on the written word is much simpler than pronouncing English based on written English. b. (Note that x used to represent the sound of sh. but have modern pronounciation. it should touch the teeth themselves.Pronunciation Like s in six. In the combinations gue and gui'. but kiwi is pronounced like quihui. should be pronounced exactly as i.e. ve. which then evolved into the sound now written with j. and i griega. Always the same sound as a soft c i. (See regional variations). Like to the t in ten. Does not have an exact English equivalent. it is simply the preferred spelling of i + vowel at the beginning of a word or vowel + i at the end of a word (yeso rather than ieso. With some exceptions (such as w and x). ks ʃ Yy Zz Like ks (English x) in extra. like sh in she. Everywhere else. Many consonants sound very similar to their English counterparts. A few words have retained the old spelling. but changes the sound of the preceding vowel. but shorter. One letter. Ss ese s Tt Uu te u t w u Vv uve. and in Chile is pronounced /ʒ/ (like English si in vision). before another vowel (especially after c). either /θ/ (most of θ. doble u equis b. or English j in jump.

Also.Chapter 0 or not. This is entirely predictable." Inglés means "English. it sounds like "thin king". cinco (in Americas pronounced like sinko). provided they speak the cultivated versions of their respective cities. which has an explicit accent in the letter a. In Mexico. In spite of these differences. "think" is pronounced with stronger stress than "ing". If you don't put the stress on the correct syllable. To illustrate: in the English word "thinking". Word stress In Spanish there are two levels of stress when pronouncing a syllable: stressed and unstressed. speakers pronounce z's and soft c's as th's." Adverbs ending in -mente are stressed in two places: on the syllable where the accent falls in the adjectival root and on the men of -mente. For example: estúpido → estúpidamente. A Chilean is heard as saying mujier instead of mujer. means "is. The University of Iowa has a very visual and detailed explanation of the Spanish pronunciation. In Argentina and Uruguay ch and ll have a characteristic hard sound. in most parts of Spain. explicit accent). Even in Spain most people pronounce ll and y the same way nowadays. two Spanish speakers from different places will always understand each other. In Bolivia and Peru. people in different Spanish-speaking countries and areas speak with different accents." but ingles means "groins. and está. vowels are reduced to schwa (like in English about. celestial. The main difference is that in the Americas two sounds were lost in comparison to Spain: z sounds like s. z is lost but ll is kept. so it doesn't really represent a breaking of the "one letter. means "this (feminine)". For example. and ll sounds like y. the syllable with the accent mark is stressed and the other syllables are unstressed. gorilla). If both syllables are pronounced with the same stress. etc. If a word has an accent mark (´. For example: esta. comprehension may be impaired. all Spanish words have one stressed syllable. which has an implicit accent in the letter e . the stressed syllable is predictable by rule (see below). With one category of exceptions (-mente adverbs). would be pronounced as "thinko". In many countries j is not hard but it's like an English h (as in hot). the other person may have trouble understanding you. Local pronunciation differences Just as in the English-speaking world. In Puerto Rico and Cuba they confuse r and l. If a word has no accent mark (implicit accent). one sound" rule. If fast colloquial speech is used. 8 | Spanish .

The stressed syllable is in bold letters: • If a word has no accent mark and ends with a vowel or with n or s . if the u has a the diaeresis mark (¨).Pronunciation The vowel of an unstressed syllable should be pronounced with its true value. • live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Wikibooks | 9 . present subjunctive of the verb aguar). • Examples: • cara (ca-ra) (face) • mano (ma-no) (hand) • amarillo (a-ma-ri-llo) (yellow) • hablan (ha-blan) (they speak) • martes (mar-tes) (Tuesday) • If a word has no accent mark and ends with a consonant other than n or s. gui → [gi]). Here. The diaeresis ( ¨ ) In the clusters gue and gui. as shown in the table above. the diaeresis preserves the u (or [w]) sound in all the verb tenses of aguar. Don't reduce unstressed vowels to neutral schwa sounds. Examples: pingüino = penguin • agüéis (2nd person plural. Rules for pronouncing the implicit accent There are only two (or one) rules for pronouncing the implicit accent. the u is not pronounced. This mark is rather rare. However. it serves simply to give the g a hard-g sound. like in the English word gut (gue → [ge]. • Examples: • farol (fa-rol) (street lamp) • azul (a-zul) (blue) • español (es-pa-ñol) (Spanish) • salvador (sal-va-dor) (savior). güi → [gwi]). the next-to-last syllable is stressed. it is pronounced like an English w (güe → [gwe]. the last syllable is stressed. as occurs in English.

¿Qué tal hoy? Hello. hasta mañana means "see you tomorrow". Sofía: ¡Qué fantástico! Adiós. ¿Cómo se escribe Raúl? Raúl: Se escribe R-A-Ú-L. Raúl. Me llamo Sofía. gracias. ¿Cómo te llamas? Sofía: Hola. ¡hasta luego! Bye. clase! Good morning. you will learn more about them in lesson three. Raúl: ¡Hasta luego! Hello! Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cómo te llamas? ¡Hola! • Hello! Inglés Hello Good morning! Good day! Good evening! Good night! See you later! Goodbye Español Hola (listen) ¡Buenos días! (listen) ¡Buenas tardes! (listen) ¡Buenas noches! (listen) ¡Hasta luego! (listen) Adiós (listen) Notes Hasta means "until".Chapter 1 1 ¿C ÓMO Dialogue TE LLAMAS ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Raúl: ¡Hola! Me llamo Raúl. In the same vein. how are you today? Adiós. ¿Y tú? Raúl: Fenomenal. see you soon! 10 | Spanish . luego means "then". • Note the upside-down exclamation and question marks. • Examples • • • ¡Buenos días. Raúl. ¿Qué tal? Sofía: Bien. class! Hola.

use Cómo. you use the reflexive verb llamarse. In Spanish. singular) is/are called Se llama We are called Nos llamamos You (familiar. singular) are called Te llamas He/She/You (formal. plural) are called Os llamáis They/You (formal. In all other Spanish-speaking countries. "Se llaman" is used in both familiar and formal situations. to say your name.¿Cómo te llamas? What's your name? To ask someone else's name in Spanish. plural) are called Se llaman Inglés Notes • "Os llamáis" would only be used in Spain. which means literally to call oneself (Me llamo Robert is "My name is Robert"). Examples • • • • Me llamo Chris My name is Chris Se llaman Peter y Robert They're called Peter and Robert. ¿Cómo te llamas? What's your name? ¿Cómo se llama? What's his/her name? How are you? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cómo te llamas? ¿Qué tal? • How are you? Inglés How are you? Great! Español ¿Qué tal? (listen) ¿Cómo estás? Fantástico Wikibooks | 11 . Spanish Verb • ¿Cómo te llamas? Llamarse • To call oneself Español I am called Me llamo You (familiar. then one of the phrases in the table below (¿Cómo te llamas? is "What's your name?").

which is covered in future chapters. ¡Hasta luego! I'm good too. The one ending in "o" is for males. gracias. Accordingly. the Real Academia Española (Spanish Royal Academy) declared that CH and LL were not letters but digraphs. Please read the notes and sections below. but in 1994. Roberto? Very well. ¿Qué tal? Hello. They are alphabetized as separate letters. Robert? Roberto: Bien también. Rosa. ¿Y tú. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r rr s t u v w x y z Notes about Ñ and RR N and Ñ are considered two different letters. Rose. It's all to do with agreement. thanks. And you. there are two options. so Ñ always comes after N. See you later! The Spanish alphabet Here is the normal Spanish alphabet. Notes about K and W 12 | Spanish . words beginning with CH and LL are now alphabetized under C and L. regardless of where it appears in the word. words aren't alphabetized by it. and the one ending in "a" is for females. Ex: muñeca comes after municipal. (Blue letters are a part of the normal English alphabet). However. respectively. as are RR and R (though no words begin with RR).Chapter 1 Fantástica Muy bien Bien Mal Fatal ¿Y tú? Gracias (listen) Very well Well Bad Really bad And you? Thank you Note For some of the words above. and carro comes after carta. Notes about CH and LL CH and LL used to be considered as distinct letters of the alphabet. Examples • • • Roberto: Hola. How are you? Rosa: Muy bien.

like English s) • How do you spell that? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cómo te llamas? ¿Qué tal? • How are you? Inglés How is it spelt? It is spelt B as in Barcelona Español ¿Cómo se escribe? Se escribe B de Barcelona Examples • Roberto: Buenos días. My name is Robert.¿Cómo te llamas? K and W are part of the alphabet but are mostly seen in foreign derived words and names. u and other consonants. ¿Cómo te llamas? Good day. • z like the English th (in Latin America. Although the above will help you understand. What's your name? Wikibooks | 13 . like a soft d except at the beginning of a word or after l. except that it is voiced • g before a or o like g in “get” • h is always silent (except in the digraph ch) • j like the h in hotel • ll is pronounced like English y in “yes” • ñ like nio in “onion” (or gn in French cognac) • q like the English k • r slightly trilled. n or s where it is trilled • rr should be trilled longer than a single r • v is pronounced like b. Me llamo Roberto. there is no distinction whatsoever between B and V. kilo is commonly used to refer to a kilogram. o. For instance. like English d in dental • g before e or i like the Scottish pronunciation of ch in “loch”. proper pronunciation of Spanish consonants is a bit more complicated: Most of the consonants are pronounced as they are in American English with these exceptions: b like the English b at the start of a word and after m or n • c before a. like English k • c before i and e like English th in “think” (in Latin America is like English s) • ch like ch in “cheese” • d between vowels (even if it starts a word following a word ending in a vowel) or at the end of a word. such as karate and whiskey.

B (de Barcelona). O (as in Orangutan). ¿Cómo se escribe?). T (de Tigre). At 8:00pm? 2. • How to spell your name (Se escribe P-E-T-E-R). try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson page. • How to introduce others (Se llama Roberto). 1. How do you spell Robert? • Roberto: Se escribe R (de Rioja). ¿Cómo se escribe Roberto? Hello. How to introduce yourself (Me llamo Rosa). At 10:00am? 3. Goodbye. Roberto! Many thanks. adiós). • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found below). E (as in Spain). Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise • comment The answers can be found below. Also. Robert. Me llamo Sofía. R (as in Rioja). B (as in Barcelona). Hello! What greeting would you use. • How to ask others about any of the above (¿Cómo te llamas?. At 3:00pm? 4. ¡Adiós. R (de Rioja). you have learned How to greet people (Hola. 1. O (de Orangutan). • How to say how you are (Fenomenal. • Benjamín: Muchas gracias. buenos días. bien). 14 | Spanish . fatal. T (as in Tiger). Me llamo Benjamín. ¿Cómo estás?. E (de España). I'm Benjamin. O (as in Orangutan).Chapter 1 Benjamín: Hola. O (de Orangutan). • Summary In this lesson. It's spelt R (as in Rioja).. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson 2. When you're going to bed? What's your name? Translate the following phrases..

Pronounce them as you do so. His name is Raúl. I'm Sofía. And yourself? Wikibooks | 15 . How are you? Sofía: Well. My name is Santiago. ¿Cómo os llamáis? 3. How do you spell Raúl? Raúl: It's spelt R-A-Ú-L. • • • • • Bien Fantástico Fatal Mal Muy bien How do you spell that? Put the following letters in Spanish alphabetical order. Nos llamamos Peter y Carlos. ¿Cómo se llaman? 1.¿Cómo te llamas? 2. five being the worst). What's your name? Sofía: Hi Raúl. What are you called? 3. 4. 4. Her name is Sally. 2. How are you? Rank the following words from one to five (one being the best. • • • • • • • • RR Q N S R Ñ A D Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hello! I'm Raúl.

We are Peter and Carl. S 16 | Spanish . Buenas tardes mañanas días noches What's your name? 1. R 7. ¿Cómo te llamas? 3. N 4. Muy bien 3. Sofía: How fantastic! Goodbye! Raúl: See you later. 2. Bien 4. What are your names? 3. Fatal How do you spell that? 1. Me llamo Santiago (James in English). D 3.Chapter 1 Raúl: Doing great. Fantástico 2. 4. thanks. My name is Sophie. Se llama Sally. Q 6. 2. Buenas 2. 4. Ñ 5. Hello! 1. How are you? 1. Buenos 4. Se llama Raúl. Mala 5. Buenas 3. A 2. What are they called? 1. RR 8.

Cuatro 7. Diecinueve 20. ¿Cuántos años tienes? Sofía: Tengo veinte años. if the noun that Wikibooks | 17 . ¿Qué fecha es hoy? Sofía: Hola. then y. Diecisiete 15. Veintiséis 29. Ochenta 90. Veintisiete 25. Sofía: ¡Feliz cumpleaños! Raúl: Gracias. Cien Notes To form the numbers from thirty to one hundred. Sofía! Me llamo Raúl. "72" = setenta y dos). Treinta 40. Veintidos 23.¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? 2 ¿C UÁNDO Dialogue ES TU CUMPLEAÑOS ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Raúl: ¡Hola. Veintitrés 24. Raúl: Muchas gracias. Cinco 8. Raúl: Vale. Quince 18. Setenta 80. Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! The numbers 1. Veinticinco 28. Noventa 100. Dieciocho 16. Cuarenta 60. Diez 11. Dieciséis 19. Veintiocho 26. Siete 5. Tres 4. Veintiuno 22. Trece 14. Mi cumpleaños es el viernes. Seis 9. Nueve 10. masculine form often uses "un" instead. Hoy es el diecisiete de octubre. Veinte 21. Veintinueve 30. Cincuenta 70. Doce 13. Sesenta 50. Catorce 17. Raúl. Ocho 6. Adiós. Uno 2. you take the multiple of ten below it. then its units value ("54" = cincuenta y cuatro. Dos 3. Once 12. Sofía. Veinticuatro 27. When using "uno".

then your age. note that gender is applied as gender is now known) One. • Tengo un hermano. plural) have Español Tengo Tienes Tiene Tenemos Tenéis Tienen 18 | Spanish . use Cuántos años. Spanish Verb • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Tener • To have Inglés I have You (familiar. There are 22 students in this class. then one of the entries in the table below (¿Cuántos años tienes? means "How old are you?") To say someone's age in Spanish. • Hay veintidos alumnos en esta clase. Tengo trece años means "I have 13 years" or "I am 13 years old".Chapter 2 the word "uno" is referencing to is in the sentence. singular) have He/She/You (formal. then años (which means "years"). For example. you use the irregular verb tener (which means "to have"). Examples Tengo diecisiete gatos I have 17 cats. • Hay treinta y cinco aulas There are 35 classrooms. / I have a sister • ¡Quiero un caramelo! I want a candy! • ¡Quiero uno! I want one! • How old are you? To ask someone else's age in Spanish. / Tengo una hermana (note the use of "un" instead of "uno" for masculine form) I have a brother. singular)/It has We have You (familar. • ¿Cuántos hermanos tienes? How many brothers/sisters do you have? (when asking . plural) have They/You (formal. if gender is unknown) • Uno/una. the masculine form is used as neutral. (Short answer. • Tengo noventa y seis primos. I have 96 cousins.

In all other countries one would use "Tienen" in both familiar and formal situations. He is 87 years old. In reply. Hoy es martes. [date] de [month of the year] (For example. you use ¿Qué fecha es hoy? (meaning "What's the date today?"). • Examples • • • • Tengo veinte años I am 20 years old. el veinticinco de mayo is "Today is Tuesday. the 25th of May"). you would say Hoy es [day of the week].¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Note "Tenéis" would only be used in Spain. ¿Cuántos años tienen? How old are they? What's the date today? To ask for the date in Spanish. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Los meses del año • The months of the year Inglés January February March April May June July August September October November December Español enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Los días de la semana • The days of the week Inglés Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Español lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo Wikibooks | 19 . ¿Cuántos años tienes? How old are you? Tiene ochenta y siete años.

• On the first of the month. unless at the beginning of sentences. Today is Saturday. the 2nd of January. dos de enero. My birthday is on the 8th of December. the 15th of August. Today is Thursday. veintinueve de septiembre. Mi cumpleaños es el ocho de diciembre. Today is Wednesday. 20 | Spanish . quince de agosto. ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? When is your birthday? Mi cumpleaños es el sábado. My birthday is on Saturday. My birthday is on the 11th of July. primero de enero). the Spanish say primero (Hoy es domingo.Chapter 2 Notes Neither days of the week nor months of the year are capitalised. • Examples • ¿Qué fecha es hoy? What's the date today? Hoy es miércoles. the 29th of September Hoy es jueves. Hoy es sábado. • • • When's your birthday? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Cumpleaños • The days of the week Inglés When's your birthday? My birthday is On the first of May On Wednesday Happy birthday! Español ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Mi cumpleaños es El primero de mayo El miércoles ¡Feliz cumpleaños! Examples • • • • Mi cumpleaños es el once de julio.

53 9. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson 3. Tiene 3. noventa. Also. diciembre) • How to say your age (Tengo cuarenta años) • How to ask the age of others (¿Cuántos años tienes?) • How to say today's date (Hoy es jueves. 48 5. Tienen seis años y diez años. The numbers Write the following numbers using Spanish words. ¿Cuántos años tienes? 4. abril. mi cumpleaños es el martes) • How to ask the birthday of others (¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?) • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found below).¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Summary In this lesson. 1. ¿Cuántos años tienen? 8. 5 2. miércoles. Tenemos 7. el veintinueve de noviembre) • How to say your birthday (Mi cumpleaños es el primero de agosto. you have learned: The numbers from one to one hundred (uno. 38 10. 84 6. 2. ¿Tiene trece años? Wikibooks | 21 . 77 8. cien) • The days of the week (lunes. veintiocho. 1. octubre. 1 7. viernes) • The months of the year (enero. Tengo cuarenta y siete años. 69 4. 6. 100 How old are you? Translate the following phrases. Tengo 5. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson page. 27 3. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise • comment The answers can be found below.

singular) have 2. 1. Today is the 17th of October. The 2nd of April 4. The 3rd of May 3. Years 6. Raúl: Many thanks. Raúl. My birthday is on Friday.Chapter 2 1. 7. weekends and weekdays. ¿What's the date today? Sofía: Hi. Bye Sophie! Sofía: See you soon! 22 | Spanish . Sofía: Happy birthday! Raúl: Thanks. Sofía! I'm Raúl. Raúl: OK. plural) 12? 3. The 1st of June List the days of the week in two columns. He is 19 years old. The 25th of December 2. When's your birthday? Say the birthday of: • • • Yourself Your parent(s) Two of your friends Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hello. I'm 65 years old. How old are you? Sofía: I'm 20 years old. I have 8. You (familiar. Are you (familiar. The 9th of October 5. They have 4. How old is she? 5. What's the date today? • • Describe the following dates in Spanish.

Veintisiete 8. We have 7. Cien How old are you? 1. martes. Tienes 2. Tengo sesenta y cinco años. jueves. Años 6. 7. I'm 47 years old. Ochenta y 2. Tengo 8. miércoles. 1. Cinco 7. Cuarenta y ocho 1. viernes • • When's your birthday? You will have to check this one yourself. Treinta y ocho 6. 2. They are 6 and 10 years old. El veinticinco de diciembre (navidad = Christmas) 2. Sesenta y nueve 9. El tres de mayo 3. El primero de junio Weekends: sábado. What's the date today? 1. Tiene diecinueve años. Cincuenta y tres cuatro 3. El dos de abril 4. 6. How old are you? 4. How old are they? 8. Setenta y siete 5. ¿Cuántos años tiene? 5. I have 5. Tienen 4.¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? The numbers 4. Wikibooks | 23 . Uno 10. El nueve de octubre 5. domingo Weekdays: lunes. He/She/It has 3. ¿Tenéis doce años? 3. Is he/she 13 years old.

ma or another consonant: it's likely to be masculine. • If the noun ends in a vowel."cat". both for singular things and plural ones. The plural indefinite article is "some" in Spanish. However. the gender of Spanish nouns is usually pretty easy to work out. Spanish. Spanish gives each noun a gender: masculine or feminine. like English. to make it plural. depending on the number and gender of the noun. If it ends in o. to make it plural. add s (gato . Some very simple rules-of-thumb: • • If it ends in a. add es (papel "paper". gatos . • If the noun ends in a consonant. Happily. has two articles: the definite article ("the") and the indefinite article ("a" or "an"). Definite articles Spanish Grammar • Introducción a la gramática The definite article El artículo definido masculine feminine singular plural singular plural el los la las el hombre los niños la mujer las niñas the the the the man boys woman girls Indefinite articles Spanish Grammar • Introducción a la gramática The indefinite article El artículo indefinido masculine feminine singular plural singular plural un unos una unas un hombre unos niños una mujer unas niñas a man some boys a woman some girl 24 | Spanish . papeles ."papers"). z or ión: it's likely to be feminine.Chapter 3 3 I NTRODUCCIÓN Articles A LA GRAMÁTICA live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error As in many languages. there are 4 forms."cats"). d.

However. To conjugate them. both of these verbs are irregular verbs. most verbs follow an easy to understand conjugation scheme. "-er" or "-ir". Luckily. Spanish verbs in the infinitive end with "-ar". An example of an English verb in the infinitive might be to run or to speak. Unlike English. Person in English Singular Plural First I play We play Second You play You all play Third He/She/It plays They play The Present Tense Regular -ar Verbs Singular Plural First -o -amos Second -as -áis Third -a -an Regular -er Verbs Singular Plural -o -emos First -éis Second -es -en Third -e Regular -ir Verbs Singular Plural First -o -imos Second -es -ís Wikibooks | 25 . "-er" or "-ar") and add the desired suffix. That is. llamarse and tener. the conjugation depends on what the last two letters of the infinitive are.Introducción a la gramática Regular Verbs We have already seen the present tense conjugations of two Spanish verbs. The infinitive form is the form that is given in the dictionary. Spanish verbs conjugate depending on the person. As a result. remove the ending("-ir". they change depending on who is being talked about. This occurs in English in the third person singular (highlighted below) but in Spanish this occurs for every person. In Spanish. pronouns are often omitted because they can be inferred from the conjugation.

Notice the pattern: 1. A vowel that is not "O" denotes He/She/It 4. cocina. cocinamos. • The second person plural is highlighted because that tense is only used in the variety of Spanish used in Spain. Questions in Spanish are mainly done by intonation (raising the voice at the 26 | Spanish . "IS" denotes You All 6. "MOS" denotes We 5. you will need to know the person of the verb at a glance. vivís. bebe. • When reading texts. cubrís. questions always start with that. and finish with the regular question mark. llora. bebéis. you will have noticed that we use the funny upside-down question mark "¿". "S" denotes You 3. vivimos. cubrimos. vive. bebemos. It is the same for exclamations. comen Beber ("to drink"): bebo. vives.Chapter 3 Third -e -en Present Tense Examples hablar (to speak) Singular Plural hablo hablamos First habláis Second hablas hablan Third habla Llorar ("to cry"): lloro. In Spanish. viven Cubrir ("to cover"): cubro. cubre. cubres. bebes. coméis. comes. lloramos. "N" denotes They Questions and Exclamations In previous lessons. lloras. lloráis. beben Vivir ("to live"): vivo. Make sure you are most familiar with these endings. "O" denotes I 2. cocinas. cocináis. comemos. the funny upsidedown exclamation mark "¡" precedes exclamations. lloran Cocinar ("to cook"): cocino. come. cubren Notes • There are many more "-ar" verbs than "-er" or "-ir". In other Spanish dialects the third person plural form is used instead. cocinan • • • • • • Comer ("to eat"): como.

comes. cocinamos. you have learned: The Spanish articles (el. las. and ¿Te llamas Richard? means "Is your name Richard?". • How to question people and exclaim in Spanish (¿Cuántos años tienes?. unas). la. Spanish Vocabulary • Introducción a la gramática Questions Preguntas Español ¿Dónde? ¿Quién? ¿Qué? ¿Cómo? ¿Por qué? ¿Cuándo? Where? Who? What? How? Why? When? Inglés Examples • • • • • ¿Con quién? With whom? ¿Dónde está el banco? Where is the bank? ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? When's your birthday? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? What is the date today? ¡Hasta luego! See you later! Summary In this lesson. Wikibooks | 27 . How to conjugate regular verbs in the present tense (lloro. This is a very important topic for future lessons. ¡Qué fantástico!) • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found below) before moving on. uno. it's important that you know it well. un.Introducción a la gramática end of the question). los. vive. You can also use questions words. since questions are often identical to statements. unos. as indicated below. cubren). Te llamas Richard means "Your name is Richard". bebéis.

Los hombres 3. Some men 3. Tenemos 4. El gato 4. Un niño 6. The boy 4. A girl Which of the following nouns are masculine? 1. Un perro 7. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. 1. what person are they? 1. Las niñas 5. Some girls 6. Los chicos 2. The girls 5. 1. Unas cosas • • Regular verbs • The following are conjugated verb forms. Unas niñas 3. Cocináis 3. Unas uñas 6. Unos hombres 4. Las mesas 8.Chapter 3 Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. Articles • Translate the following from Spanish into English. Lloro 2. La manzana 5. Unas niñas 2. La mujer 8. The women 2. Some boys 8. El niño 7. Una mujer Translate the following from English into Spanish. Hablan 28 | Spanish . A man 7. Also.

Las mujeres 2. A boy 6. you plural 8. A woman 1. Temer. Comer. Vivimos • Conjugate the following verbs for the person indicated. ¿Dónde vivís? 8. Compro 6. Why do they cry? 3. Abrazas 7. Hablar. The girls 5. ¿Cuántos años tienes? 2. 1. ¿Qué comes? 6. familiar)? Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Articles 1.Introducción a la gramática 5. they 2. she 3. What's his name? 7. How old are you (plural. 1. Unos hombres Wikibooks | 29 . I 5. we 4. Where do they live? 5. llevo 8. The men 3. The woman 8. The boy 7. Some men 4. ¿Cómo te llamas? 4. Tener. Some girls 2. Vivir. or vice versa. Cocinar. Comer. you singular 6. I 7. he Questions and Exclamations Translate the following questions from English into Spanish. Amar.

Vive Questions and Exclamations 1. You plural 3. We 4. Hablas 6. El gato 3. ¿Cuántos años tenéis? 30 | Spanish . Amamos 4. Unas niñas 6. How old are you? 2. ¿Cómo se llama? 7. What do you eat? 6. Tengo 5. What's your name? 4. Coméis 8. Las niñas 5. Where do you lot live? 8. They 5. Los chicos 2.Chapter 3 3. Un hombre 7. Un perro Regular verbs 1. ¿Dónde viven? 5. Unos niños 8. Come 3. El niño 4. Temo 7. I 6. I 8. Una niña 1. We 1. Cocinan 2. You singular 7. ¿Por qué lloran? 3. I 2.

pero no hay nada para hacer en el campo. Sofía: ¿En el campo o la ciudad? Raúl: El campo. Raúl. then de (meaning "of" or "from"). Vivo en un piso en Londres. Vivo en el sur de España. Sofía! Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! Vocabulary London But Well Countries of the World El Reino Unido Inglaterra Escocia Gales Irlanda España Francia Alemania Italia Rusia Los Estados Unidos Canadá Nueva Zelanda Australia México Where do you live? To say you are from a country. To say you are currently living in a place or country. you use ser (meaning "to be [a permanent characteristic]"). Raúl: Pues. then the country or place. Wikibooks | 31 . you use De dónde. To ask where someone is from. To ask where someone else lives. you use vivir (meaning "to live"). ¡adiós. ¿Y tú? Raúl: Vale.¿Dónde vives? 4 ¿D ÓNDE Dialogue VIVES ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Londres Pero Pués Raúl: ¡Hola! ¿Dónde vives? Sofía: Hola. then en (meaning "in"). you use Dónde then vivir (¿Dónde vives? means "Where do you live?"). Inglaterra. then the country or place. Sofía: Sí. Las ciudades son ruidosas.

vive. They are from Spain. It is conjugated below. Soy del norte de Australia. The compass El noroeste El oeste El sudoeste Examples • • El norte X El sur El noreste El este El sudeste Vivo en el suroeste de México. I live in the Southwest of Mexico. vivimos. vives. Son de España. Habitations Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vives? Casas • Houses Español A house Una casa A detached house Una casa individual A semi-detached house Una casa adosada 32 | Spanish Inglés . vivís. Spanish Verb • ¿Dónde vives? Ser • To be Inglés I You He/She/It We You all They Examples • • Español Soy Eres Es Somos Sois Son Vivo en Inglaterra I live in England. pero viven en Alemania. viven). but they live in Germany. ser is about as irregular as they come.Chapter 4 then ser (¿De dónde eres? means "Where are you from?"). While vivir is totally regular (vivo. I'm from the north of Australia.

Examples • • • • • • Vivo en un piso.¿Dónde vives? A A A A terraced house flat bungalow room Un piso Un bungalow Una habitación Note It's una habitación. • • • • O for masculine singular nouns OS for masculine plural nouns A for feminine singular nouns AS for feminine plural nouns. ends in an "O" or an "A". If the adjective (in its natural form . Vive en un bungalow que tiene diez habitaciones. then you remove that vowel and add.the form found in the dictionary). I live in a flat. not before it. Vivo en una casa adosada en Canadá.. Also. but the adjective. it has to agree. This doesn't just affect the article. adjectives go after the noun.. I live in a semi-detatched house in Canada. Spanish nouns each have a gender. but the plural is unas habitaciones (without the accent). Adjectives As we already learnt. He lives in a bungalow that has ten rooms. Examples • • • • Un hombre bueno A good man Unos hombres buenos Some good men Una mujer buena A good woman Unas mujeres buenas Some good women Wikibooks | 33 .

you have learned 34 | Spanish .... Lo malo sobre la ciudad es que no queda ningunas plantas. The city is noisy. The countryside is boring.Chapter 4 City and Countryside ¿La ciudad? ¿O el campo? (Forest1. is that There are lots of things to do There isn't anything to do You can walk in woodlands There isn't any foliage Pretty Lively Quiet Boring Noisy Español La ciudad El campo Lo bueno sobre .. Summary In this lesson. The bad thing about the city is that there isn't any folliage. es que Hay mucho para hacer No hay nada para hacer Se puede caminar en los bosques No queda ningún follaje Bonito Animado Tranquilo Aburrido Ruidoso Examples • • • • La ciudad es ruidosa. El campo es aburrido. Lo bueno sobre la ciudad es que hay mucho para hacer. es que Lo malo sobre .. The good thing about the city is that there are lots of the things to do... is that The bad thing about .. by Eleassar777) Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vives? ¿La ciudad o el campo? • The city or the countryside? Inglés The city The countryside The good thing about .

Somos de Gales). and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson five. • How to ask where someone lives (¿Dónde vives?). los Estados Unidos). try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. el noroeste. Somos del norte de Irlanda 9. Es de Escocia 7. • The basics of adjectives ending in "O" or "A" (la mujer mala. • The points of the compass (el sur. Viven en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos 10. Why do you live in Australia? 6. Italia. ¿Vivís en Gales? 6. Son de España 3. She lives in eastern Germany Wikibooks | 35 • .Soy de Canadá Translate the following sentences from English to Spanish 1. He's from the UK 9. el oeste). He comes from the north of Mexico 4. Also. • How to describe your house (una casa. no hay mucho para hacer). Where are you from? 5. ¿Eres de Alemania? 4. • How to talk about the city of the countryside (la ciudad. • How to say where you and others live and come from (Vivo en Inglaterra. You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). They come from Canada 7. Francia. Countries of the World • Translate the following sentences from Spanish to English.¿Dónde vives? • Various countries of the world (Australia. Vivo en Inglaterra 2. We come from Spain 2. 1. un piso). I live in England 3. el niño bonito). ¿Dónde vive? 8. Do you lot live in Wales? 8. Vivimos en el sur de Francia 5. el campo.

El hombre buena 6. El campo es fantástica. Vivir e. I live in a house in the countryside 3. She is from the city 5. La niña bonito 7. 8. Un niño buenos 3. Habitación d. 2. Viven en el campo de Inglaterra 6. Un mujer buena 5. Casa adosada Adjectives Correct the following sentences. The city is lively. 1. hay mucho para hacer 7. Las hombres malas 2. Casa h. 5. 3. Lo malo sobre la ciudad es que no queda ninguna follaje 8. Unos hombres malas 8. La ciudad es ruidosa 2. 1. Casa individual c. Pisos g. Unas niñas malo 4. 9. 7. se puede caminar en los bosques 4. 4. Bungalow b. Room House Bungalow Apartment To live Terraced house Rooms Detatched house Flats a. Habitaciones f. Piso i. 1.Where does he come from? Habitations Match the Spanish to the English.Chapter 4 10. 6. Los mujers malos City and countryside Translate the following from Spanish to English and visa versa. Do you live in the city or the countryside? 36 | Spanish .

Es del Reino Unido 9. We are from Northern Ireland 9. I live in a flat in London. Son de Canadá 7. They live in Southwestern USA 10. Vivo en Inglaterra 3.¿De dónde es? Habitations 1. Es del norte de Méjico 4. Are you from Germany? 4.I am from Canada 1. Cities are noisy. I live in England 2. c 2. Do you lot live in Wales? 6. He/She/It is from Scotland 7. Sofía: The the countryside or the city? Raúl: The country. a 4. Where does he/she/it live? 8. h Wikibooks | 37 . Sofía: Yes. ¿Por qué vives en Australia? 6. I live in the South of Spain. They're from Spain 3. Raúl: Well. but there's nothing to do in the countryside. ¿Vivís en Gales? 8. bye Sophie! Sofía: See you! Countries of the World 1. And you? Raúl: OK. Somos de España 2. Raúl. Vive en el este de Alemania 10. g 3. England. ¿De dónde eres? 5. We live in the South of France 5.¿Dónde vives? Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hello! Where do you live? Sofía: Hello.

Chapter 4 5. there's loads to do 7. you can walk in woodland 4. Una mujer buena 5. Las mujeres malas City and Countryside 1. b 9. Es de la ciudad 5. La niña bonita 7. The city is noisy 2. Los hombres malos 2. d 6. e 8. The countryside is fantastic. f Adjectives 1. Vivo en una casa en el campo 3. The bad thing about the city is that there isn't any foliage 8. Unos hombres malos 8. Unas niñas malas 4. Un niño bueno 3. El hombre bueno 6. They live in the English countryside 6. La ciudad es animada. ¿Vives en la ciudad o el campo? 38 | Spanish . i 7.

es un juego muy divertido. me encanta. Me encanta jugar al fútbol. Sofía! ¿Te gustan los deportes? Sofía: Buenos días.¿Qué te gusta hacer? 5 ¿Q UÉ Dialogue TE GUSTA HACER ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary Todo el tiempo All the time ¡Hasta mañana! See you tomorrow! Divertido Fun Raúl: ¡Hola. Raúl! Raúl: ¡Hasta mañana! Sports and Activities Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Deportes y Actividades • Sports and Activities Inglés A sport A game An activity To play To practice Football American Football Rugby Tennis Cricket Swimming Judo Chess To sing To read To swim To watch TV Español Un deporte Un juego Una actividad Jugar Practicar El fútbol El fútbol americano El rugby El tenis El críquet La natación El judo El ajedrez Cantar Leer Nadar Ver la tele Wikibooks | 39 . Sin embargo. ¿Y tú? Raúl: No mucho. ¡Adiós. Sofía: Ah. ¿Juegas al ajedrez? Raúl: Sí. practico natación todo el tiempo. no puedo nadar. Sofía: Sí.

"he/she/it" and "they" forms. We do many activites ¿Por qué cantáis? Why do you sing a lot? ¿Cuándo lee? When does he or she read? Stem-changing Verbs Jugar the first type of irregular verb. I watch TV a lot Practico natación. Spanish Verb • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Jugar • To play Español I Juego You Juegas He/She/It Juega We Jugamos You all Jugáis They Juegan Other verbs that follow this pattern • Inglés poder ("to be able to"): puedo. For example. otherwise you "practice" it (practicar). Basically. podemos. in the "I". veis. it's jugar el tenis ("to play tennis") but practicar la natacíon ("to go swimming"). known as a stem-changing verb. ve. puede. puedes. The jugar example is written out below. ves. podéis. then you "play" it (jugar). pueden 40 | Spanish . ¿Practicas judo? Do you do judo? Practicamos muchas actividades. • The verbs are all regular.Chapter 5 A lot Many Notes • Mucho In Spanish. if an activity is a game. except: • Jugar (this is discussed in detail below) • Ver (veo. the u or o changes to a ue. ven) Examples • • • • • • Veo la tele mucho. I go swimming. vemos. "you.

making "I can do something". You use them just like you do in English. a el gets contracted to al and de el gets contracted to del. puede leer ("he can read"). • Poder (meaning "to be able to") is usually followed by another verb. duermes. encuentran Notes • The verb jugar always has a after it: jugar a. Also. encuentra. ¿Jugáis al ajedrez? Do you play chess? ¿Qué deportes juegas? What sports do you play? ¿Cuándo juegan al fútbol? When do they play football? ¿Puedes cantar? Can you sing? ¿Dónde duermes? Where do you sleep? • • • • • Compound Sentences So far.¿Qué te gusta hacer? • dormir ("to sleep"): duermo. and more meaningful. encuentras. we just add a word in front of the verb: no (meaning "not") or Wikibooks | 41 . it would be juego al rugby. I play tennis. The following verb must be in the infinitive. For example. To make it negative. I do that"). Examples • Juego al tenis. So. In Spanish. everything we've written has been simple sentences — "My name is Santiago" (Me llamo Santiago). "I play american football" (Juego al fútbol americano). encontráis. dormimos. dormís. duerme. Wouldn't it be fantastic if we could join them up? Below are some little words that will make our sentences longer. duermen • encontrar ("to find"): encuentro. everything we've written has been positive ("I do this. encontramos. "The city is noisy" (La ciudad es ruidosa).

Chapter 5 nunca (meaning "never"). For example, No juego al rugby (I don't play rugby"); Nunca como manzanas ("I never eat apples"). It's as simple as that. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Conjunctions • Conjunciones Inglés And Or Because But Also So Note

Español Y O Porque Pero También Así

Porque ("because") and Por qué ("why") are similar and easy to mix up; make sure you don't! Examples
• • • • •

Me llamo Chris y mi cumpleaños es el veinte de agosto. My name is Chris and my birthday is on the 20th of August. Me llamo Raúl, pero él se llama Roberto. My name is Raúl, but his name is Robert. No practica judo. He doesn't do judo. Juego al fútbol americano y practico natación también. I play american football and I go swimming too. No vivo en una ciudad porque las ciudades son ruidosas. I don't live in the city because cities are noisy.

¿Qué opinas sobre los deportes?
To ask someone about their opinions in Spanish, use Qué opinas sobre ("What is your opinion about") then the thing you want their opinion on (¿Que opinas sobre los deportes? means "What do you think about sport?").

Gustar
There is no verb for "to like" in Spanish. Instead, you use gusta (meaning "it pleases") and a personal pronoun; you say that "it pleases me" or "I am pleased by it". The personal pronouns are shown below. Spanish Verb • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Gustar • To please

42 | Spanish

¿Qué te gusta hacer? Inglés Me You Him/Her/It Us All of you Them Notes

Español Me Te Le Nos Os Les

Like any other verb, you can put no in front of it, to say "I don't like" (No me gusta). • If you like an activity rather than a thing, just use the infinitive afterwards: "I like swimming" (Me gusta nadar). • Gusta means "it pleases", so only works for singular things. If the thing that you like is plural (the women for example), you add "n" (Me gustan las mujeres - "I like the women").

Love and Hate
Just saying you like or dislike something is a bit dull. Saying you love something is really easy. Instead of gusta, use encanta (Me encanta leer means "I love reading"). To say you hate something, use the regular verb Odiar (odio, odias, odia, odiamos, odiáis, odian). You can also use nada or mucho to add emphasis to gusta. For example, No me gusta nada ver la tele ("I don't like watching TV at all"); Me gusta mucho el ajedrez ("I like chess a lot"). Examples
• • • • • • • •

¿Que opinas sobre el ajedrez? What do you think of chess? Me gusta el críquet. I like cricket. No le gustan los deportes. He doesn't like sports. Nos gusta jugar al rugby y fútbol. We like playing rugby and football. Les gusta mucho nadar, pero no pueden cantar. They like swimming but they can't sing. ¿Te gusta practicar la natacíon? Do you like going swimming? ¿Por qué os gusta el tenis? Why do you like tennis? Odian el ajedrez. They hate chess. Wikibooks | 43

Chapter 5

Me encantan los deportes, así vivo en la ciudad. I love sports, so I live in the city.

Summary
In this lesson, you have learnt: How to say some sports and activities (el rugby; la natación; cantar). How to say you play and do these things (juego al rugby; practicamos natación). • About a few stem-changing verbs (encuentro, encuentras, encuentra, encontramos, encontráis, encuentran) • How to make longer and negative sentences (no; nunca; así; pero). • How to ask for opinions (¿Qué opinas sobre el fútbol?; ¿Te encanta leer?) • How to express opinions (Me gusta; Le gustan; Me encanta; Odiamos)
• •

You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section), and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson six.

Exercises
live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. Also, try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson.

Sports and Activities
Match the English to the Spanish 1. Football 2. Cricket 3. Swimming 4. To sing 5. Rugby 6. Judo 7. To read 8. To watch TV 9. Tennis 10. Chess a. Rugby b. Ver la tele c. Fútbol d. Leer e. Judo f. Natación g. Ajedrez h. Cricket i. Cantar j. Tenis

44 | Spanish

What do you think of rugby? 2.... 1..... . 5...... I don't like singing at all..... Jugáis el fútbol.. 2. .... but I can't swim.. 5. 4. what's your name? 6.. 2.... I play tennis. Wikibooks | 45 .. Conjugate it below.. No practicamos natación.. 2. Tengo ochenta y nueve años y tiene ochenta y nueve años también. 6. 3.... 4.. 1. They can't play chess. No practico natación porque no puedo nadar.¿Qué te gusta hacer? Stem-changing Verbs • Volver ("to return") conjugates just like poder. They live in Italy because they don't like sports.. . así tengo cuarenta y ocho años. Me encanta el ajedrez. ¿Por qué jueges el críquet. 1. Correct the following sentences... 3... 5....... 7...... 1. So..... When do you sleep? • ¿Qué opinas sobre los deportes? Translate the following sentences from Spanish to English and visa versa. 3. 3. Jugo al rugby. 7.. Vivimos en la ciudad porque el campo es aburrido. ... Practico natacion... ¿Cuándo jugáis al críquet? Translate the following sentences from English to Spanish. 4. 6... Podemos cantamos en España. Can't you swim? 4.... • Compound sentences • Translate the following sentences from Spanish to English.. 2.. 5. 1. Her name is Georgina too..... Mi cumpleaños es el once de enero.... Juega al rugby y tenis........ . 3. .

I can't swim. no hay nada para hacer. The boys are cute when they sing.No me gusta llorar. I go swimming all the time. Así. Vuelves 3. j 10. I love it. And yourself? Raúl: Not much. bye Raúl Raúl: See you! Sports and Activities 1. 7. b 9. f 4.I love playing football. She likes the countryside because it's quiet. h 3. Volvemos 5. Vuelven 46 | Spanish . Do you play chess? Raúl: Yes. 5.Chapter 5 4. Vuelve 4. 8. e 7. However. c 2. Me gustan mucho los deportes porque son animados. a 6. No me gusta vivir en Boston. ¿por qué no pueden cantar? 9. it's a fun game. Sofía: Yes. Do you like swimming? 6. 10. Sofía: Ah. Volvéis 6. Vuelvo 2. i 5.g Stem-changing verbs 1. Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi Sophie! ¿Do you like sports? Sofía: Good afternoon. d 8.

Practico natación 2. 2. 3. Los niños son bonitos cuando cantan. ¿Que opinas sobre el rugby? 2. Wikibooks | 47 . 7. 10. No me gusta nada cantar. ¿Por qué juegas al críquet? Compound sentences 1. I'm 87 and he's 87 too. When do you all play cricket? 1. ¿No puedes nadar? 4. Jugáis al fútbol. why can't you sing? 9. so I'm 48 years old. 3. 5. Le gusta el campo porque es bonito. 5. ¿Te gusta nadar? 6. 6. No pueden jugar al ajedrez. Así. I don't like living in Boston. We don't go swimming. 7.I don't like crying. 3. 2. 5. 4. Juego al rugby. He plays rugby and tennis. there's nothing to do. Viven en Italia porque no les gustan los deportes. Podemos cantar en España. ¿Cuándo duermes? ¿Que opinas sobre los deportes? 1. 4.¿Qué te gusta hacer? 1. I like sports a lot because they're lively. Juego al tenis pero no puedo nadar. I don't go swimming because I can't swim. I love chess 3. 7. 8. So. We live in the city because the countryside is boring. My birthday's on the 11th of January. 5. ¿cómo te llamas? 6. Se llama Georgina también. 4.

Compro una barra de pan y una botella de leche. Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! Food and Drink Pan (m) (French bread. by Chiefio) Tomate (m) (Tomato je. by Fir0002) Arroz (m) (Brown rice. by Softeis) Lechuga (f) (Lettuce head batavia variety. by Bangin) Plátano (m) Naranja (f) Pera (f) (PearPhoto. by David Monniaux) Queso (m) Huevo (m) (Freerange eggs. by FoeNyx) Uva (f) 48 | Spanish . ¿tomas leche y pan tostada para tu desayuno? Sofía: Sí. by Fir0002) Pasta (f) (EMS-Rotelle-CU124553. Así.Chapter 6 6 ¿Q UÉ Dialogue COMES ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary Me he agotado I've run out Necesitar To need Zumo de Juice of Raúl: Hola. by Tilmann) Manzana (f) (Red Delicious. Adiós. by Rasbak) Pepino (m) Zanahoria (f) Patata (f) (Potatos cultivar Marabel. ¿Qué compras? Sofía: Hola. Sofía: Y ¿tienes la comida que necesitas? Raúl: Sí. Raúl. como zumo de naranja y una manzana. Raúl: Vale. ¿Qué desayunas? Raúl: Normalmente. Me he agotado.

sin means without (café con leche means "coffee with milk".¿Qué comes? Agua (f) Leche (f) (Stilles Mineralwasser. use Qué followed by a form of one of the verbs below (¿Qué comes? means "What do you eat?"). I don't like lettuce at all. las uvas — "the grapes") • In South America. • Wine comes in two varieties.Pilsak) Kühn) Vino (m) Café (m) (Turkishcoffee. by Miya) Notes m indicates that the noun is masculine (el queso — "the cheese". To ask what someone likes to eat. by Stefan by W. Me encanta el té con leche. but cucumbers are boring. "red" and "white". Spanish Verbs • ¿Qué comes? Eating and Drinking • Comer y Beber Español Comer Beber Inglés To eat To drink Wikibooks | 49 . I like eggs. café sin leche means "coffee without milk"). (Milk glass. wheras f indicated feminine (la lechuga — "the lettuce". los plátanos — "the bananas"). by Bertilvidet) Té (m) (Meissen-teacup pinkrose01. papa is used instead of patata. • Con means "with". No me gusta nada la lechuga. pero los pepinos son aburridos.J. they are vino tinto and vino blanco. • While agua is feminine. it takes the masculine articles un and el. For example. I love tea with milk Me gustan mucho las zanahorias. I like carrots a lot. el agua curiosa ("the strange water") and las aguas curiosas ("the strange waters"). • Examples • • • • Me gustan los huevos. What do you eat? To ask what someone else eats. In Spanish. use Qué te gusta then any of the verbs below (¿Qué te gusta comer? means "What do you like to eat?").

almuerzan. I eat oranges and bananas. ¿Bebes leche? Do you drink milk? A bottle of wine Spanish Verbs • ¿Qué comes? Eating and Drinking • Comer y Beber Español Algo de Un vaso de Una copa de Una botella de Una barra de Un kilo de Un kilo y mediο de Un kilo y cuarto de Μedio kilo de Un cuarto de kilo de Notes • You will have noticed "some" on the list. almuerza. almuerzo. which is one of the UE Verbs we learnt about in the last chapter. pero no me gustan las peras. it would be unas manzanas ("some apples") but that only works for plurals. but I don't like pears. almorzamos. • Also. Examples • • • • To To To To have (food/drink) (eat) breakfast (eat) lunch dine (eat dinner) ¿Qué te gusta almorzar? What do you like to eat for lunch? Como naranjas y plátanos. "Some bread" has to be translated as algo de pan. Copa is for glasses with Inglés Some A glass of A bottle of A loaf of A kilo of One and a half kilos of One and a quarter kilos of Half a kilo of A quarter of a kilo of 50 | Spanish . almorzáis.Chapter 6 Tomar Desayunar Almorzar Cenar Note All of these verbs are regular except almorzar. there are two ways of saying "a glass of". almuerzas. but "unos/unas" is some! Yes. Me gusta comer las uvas. I like to eat grapes.

. the un can be replaced with any number (Dos vasos de leche means "two glasses of milk"). cuestas. • With ahí está(n). as seen Wikibooks | 51 . Español Quisiera Querría Me gustaría Ahí está(n) Comprar La cuenta Costar Una tienda Inglés I would like There you go. compramos. compras.¿Qué comes? a stem (mostly wine: una copa de vino). cuestan for plurals. but obviously. you only use the third person. cuesta. as in English.. and vaso is used for without a stem. compráis. costamos. cuestan). • Me gustaría. Without is for singular. compran). in all these phrases.. with the n is for plural. costáis. there are many ways of expressing what you would like to buy. voila. Examples • • • • Tres botellas de vino tinto Three bottles of red wine Un medio kilo de arroz Half a kilo of rice Una barra de pan A loaf of bread Cinco kilos y media de patatas Five and a half kilos of potatoes In the Shop In Spanish. some of which are listed below. To buy The receipt To cost A shop Notes • Comprar is a totally regular verb (compro. You will also see some other useful words and phrases for when shopping for food. Spanish Verbs • ¿Qué comes? I would like. • Obviously. if you want to say "How much does it cost. you use ¿Cuánto cuesta(n)? (cuesta is for singular things.. Also. • Costar is a O => UE verb (cuesto. compra.

I would like an apple. por favor. please. • Examples • • • • El hombre amable The friendly man La mujer amable The friendly woman Los niños amables The friendly boys Las niñas amables The friendly girls • • • • El hombre difícil The difficult man La mujer difícil The difficult woman Los niños difíciles The difficult boys Las niñas difíciles The difficult girls 52 | Spanish . Me gustaría comprar una botella de vino tinto. Querría comprar una barra de pan. por favor. • • Adjectives ending in "e" add an "s" when in the plural.Chapter 6 below). it changes to a c in plural. Adjectives ending in a consonant add an "es" when in the plural. irrespective of gender. Notes When an adjective (or indeed a noun) ends in z. ¿Cuánto cuestan las uvas? How much do the grapes cost? ¿Cuánto cuesta un kilo de patatas? What does a kilo of potatoes cost? Adjectives "E" and Consonant Adjectives In Spanish. clearly not all adjectives end in "o" or "a". please. then adds the "es" (feliz/felices — "happy"). Examples • • • • • Quisiera una manzana. I'd like to buy a bottle of red wine. I'd like to buy a loaf of bread. The good thing about these is that they stay the same.

el morado means "the purple one". • The plural form of marrón is marrones (without the accent). so they still have to agree and go after the noun. They are shown below. el coche naranja.¿Qué comes? Colours Colours in Spanish are just adjectives. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué comes? Los colores • The colours Inglés Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Brown Pink White Grey Black Notes • All of these will function as nouns. las zanahorias marrones means "the brown carrots". la casa rosa. For example. • The colours naranja and rosa end in "a" even if they are applied to a masculine. you have learnt Wikibooks | 53 . if you add an article in front of them. "the orange car". "the pink house" Español Rojo Naranja Amarillo Verde Azul Morado Marrón Rosa Blanco Gris Negro Examples • • • • La manzana verde The green apple Los huevos blancos The white eggs El queso amarillo The yellow cheese Las naranjas naranjas The orange oranges Summary In this lesson.

. Agua 9. Also. 3..Chapter 6 How to say some foods and drinks (la lechuga....... An egg f.... Un pepino 2. Arroz 10.. . la cuenta).. 4.... Una manzana 4.... • How to say some simple quantities (un kilo de patatas. A cucumber g. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. una manzana.. comen).. 1. An apple What do you eat? • Conjugate the verb beber ("to drink") and cenar ("to dine") below: 1.. querría.. Food and Drink Match the English to the Spanish..... Rice d.. comemos. 2... comes.... come.. 54 | Spanish . la leche).. coméis. The carrots c... • How to form adjectives that don't end in "O" or "A" (la tienda verde....... Las peras 5.. Water b... Vino blanco a.. The pears j...... Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section.......... Las zanahorias 7. Tea h. White wine e..... Cheese i..... 6.. .... . los quesos azules) • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section)... and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on. .. 5.. Queso 3. .. How to say you eat and drink things (como. una copa de vino tinto) • What to say in a shop (quisiera. . Un huevo 8. Té 6.

......... c.. Muy bien...... 2......¿Qué comes? 1......leche Una copa de.. 5.... ........... Un kilo y media de.... b... . ...... ...pasta In the shop Pretend that you are a customer in a shop...vino tinto Algo de...pan Una barra de... .. [ vegano = vegan ] • I don't drink milk because it's white....patatas Un vaso de.... 4......... d............ 5.. ... gracias...... 3. Vale......... • ¿Querrías comprar una manzana? • Does she like pasta with tomatoes and carrots? Wikibooks | 55 . ¡Adiós! Adjectives • • Correct the following sentences...... • Odie pepinos.. • Ahí está tres tomates verde.... Buenos días.. ..... fill in your part..... . 1.... .. In the following dialogue............ ........... Translate the following between Spanish and English. ... • I hate eating tomatoes: they're boring...... • Los mujeres son difíciles... • No toma queso o leche porque es vegano.... • Me gusta hombres amable.. 4...... . a. e.. .. ¿Qué quisieras? ... A bottle of wine Match up the following to make sentences that make sense.. 3... • No les gustan comer patatas con queso. Ahí están.... 6.................... ... Cuestan tres euros.. 2...

a) Una copa de vino tinto 4. Bebe 4. Ceno 2. g) Tea 6.d) Red wine What do you eat? 1. e) Algo de pasta 3. c) Un kilo y media de patatas 2. c) Rice 10. 56 | Spanish . b) The carrots 7. Cenan A bottle of wine 1. b) Un vaso de leche 5.Chapter 6 Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Food and Drink 1. a) Water 9. Bebo 2. Cenáis 6. i) The pears 5. Bebemos 5. Beben 1. h) Cheese 3. Cena 4. Cenas 3. j) An apple 4. Cenamos 5. Bebéis 6. e) An egg 8. d) Una barra de pan In the shop Buenos días. Bebes 3. f) A cucumber 2.

[ can be anything.comer patatas con queso. ¡Adiós! Adjectives • • • • • • • • • • Ahí están tres tomates verdes. ¿Qué quisieras? Quisiera seis huevos. ¿Qué tal? Muy bien. Adiós. Gracias. Odia pepinos. ¿Cuánto cuestan? Cuestan tres euros. No bebo leche porque es blanca. Ahí están. so long as it's plural ] Vale. He doesn't have cheese or milk because he's vegan. gracias. Odio comer las patatas: son aburridas. Would you like to buy an apple? ¿Le gusta pasta con tomates y zanahorias? Wikibooks | 57 . No les gusta. Las mujeres son difíciles. Me gustan hombres amables.¿Qué comes? Buenos días.

and very similar to English. Raúl: Gracias. I hear you cry? For this. To ask the time. Son las tres y veinte would mean "It's twenty past three". this only works for times up to half-past the hour. you have to use menos (meaning "less") instead of y (Son las cuatro menos diez means "It's ten to four". ¡Adiós! Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! Telling the time Telling the time is easy in Spanish. de la tarde It's half-past [hour] Son las [hour] y media It's quarter-past [hour] Son las [hour] y cuarto It's quarter-to [hour] Son las [hour] menos cuarto 58 | Spanish Inglés .m. vale. me ducho y tomo mi desayuno. ¿cuándo almuerzas? Sofía: Suelo almorzar a la una. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? El tiempo • The time Español a. Usualmente. Raúl: Ah. Así. you just use the question ¿Qué hora es? (literally: "What hour is it?"). However. ¿Qué haces normalmente por la mañana? Sofía: Me levanto a las siete. How do you say "It's twenty to three". Other typical time-telling phrases are depicted in the table below.m. Raúl: Claro. You use this construction: Son las [hours] y [minutes] So. de la mañana p.Chapter 7 7 ¿Q UÉ Dialogue HORA ES ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary Luego Then Salgo I leave Raúl: ¡Hola Sofía! ¿Qué hora es? Sofía: Son las ocho y cuarto. salgo a las ocho. Luego.

only works for numbers greater than one. At 8:00am. tomo mi desayuno. Por la tarde. you use a las followed by the time as described above (a las tres means "at 3 o'clock"). To say "it's one o'clock". • Examples • • • • Son las ocho It's 8 o'clock Son las nueve y media It's half-past nine Son las seis menos cuarto It's quarter-to six Son las dos y veinte de la mañana It's 2:20 a.. I eat breakfast. • Remember: son means "they are". Now let's use it to describe when something happens. • Examples • • A las ocho de la mañana. you now know how to tell the time in Spanish. followed by one of the entries in the table (por la noche means "at night"): Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? Los tiempos del día • The times of the day Inglés Morning Afternoon Night Español Mañana Tarde Evening Noche Notes Since it's always "por la".. When? So.¿Qué hora es? Notes If there aren't any minutes. you have to say Es la una. just say son las cinco ("It's 5 o'clock") or son las once ("It's 11 o'clock"). Wikibooks | 59 .m. so son las. this means that these times-of-day are all feminine. le gusta ver la tele. To do this. But what if you don't know a specific time? What about just "In the evening"? Just use por la.

Normalmente a las cinco de la tarde. Suelo vivir en pisos. pero usualmente. living in a house is really difficult. bebemos vino tinto. ocasional and usual are all adjectives. practico judo.) • Soler is a UE stem-changing verb (suelo. Examples • • • • A veces. raro.. Sometimes. • Also. we drink red wine. then add mente. but usually I do judo.Chapter 7 In the evening. Sometimes. ruidosamente..they love drinking milk. 60 | Spanish . pero nunca vino blanco. • Thus. tranquilamente. Por la noche. soléis. etc. suele. but never white wine. De vez en cuando. I play football. suelen). sueles. but what about more habitual actions? What do you do usually? Normally? Sometimes? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? El tiempo • The time Inglés Usually Normally Often Sometimes Occasionally Rarely Soler Español Usualmente Normalmente A menudo A veces De vez en cuando Ocasionalmente Raramente To be in the habit of Notes • You should notice that all the words ending in "ly" in English end in mente in Spanish. les gusta mucho beber leche. Normally at 5pm. juego al futból. To turn an adjective into an adverb: take the feminine form of the adjective. are adverbs (you met tranquilo and ruidoso in lesson 4. meaning "I usually eat cheese with bread"). solemos. and it is followed by the infinitive (Suelo comer queso con pan. vivir en una casa es muy difícil. I play chess. • Time-related Adverbs It's all very well knowing how to say that you do things at a particular time. At night. I usually live in flats. normal. juego al ajedrez. He likes watching TV.

So. "To wash oneself" or "to get oneself up". along with a reflexive verb in the first lesson: llamarse ("to call oneself"). We've already met these relfexive pronouns. using the verb lavarse ("to wash oneself"): Spanish Verb • ¿Qué hora es? Lavarse • To wash oneself Español I wash myself Me lavo You wash yourself Te lavas He/she/it washes himself/herself/itself Se lava We wash ourselves Nos lavamos You wash yourselves Os laváis They wash themselves Se lavan So. we do this by using a reflexive pronoun before the verb. now that know how to conjugate them. here are the reflexive pronouns: Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? Reflexive pronouns • Pronombres reflexivos Inglés Español Myself Me Yourself Te Himself/Herself/Itself Se Ourselves Nos Yourselves Os Themselves Se So. here is an example. it'd be useful to give you some examples: Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? Relfexive verbs • Verbos reflexivos Inglés Levantarse Ducharse Bañarse Peinarse Maquillarse Relajarse Español get (oneself) up shower (oneself) bathe (oneself) comb one's hair put one's make-up on relax (oneself) Wikibooks | 61 Inglés To To To To To To . In Spanish.¿Qué hora es? Reflexive verbs Reflexive verbs are verbs where the subject and object are the same.

os lavantáis. nos gusta ducharnos. • A las nueve de la tarde. Ocassionally. you have learnt How to ask for the time (¿Qué hora es?) How to tell the time (Son las cuatro y media. a las tres y diez) • Various adverbs (ocasionalmente. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment 62 | Spanish . normalmente. Normalmente. nos levantamos. se maquillan) • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). pero usualmente.it's very quiet. tarde. me gusta mucho relajarme. le gusta bañarse por la tarde. Make sure you don't get them mixed up. a menudo) • How to use reflexive verbs (me baño. I drink wine.es muy tranquilo. I like to relax. se ducha. de vez en cuando. es la una menos cuarto) • How to say the times of the day (por la manana. • ¿Cuándo te bañas? When do you bathe? • A las ocho de la mañana. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson eight. we like to have a shower. • Me encanta bañarme por la noche . • Nunca nos bañamos por la mañana. me gusta ducharme means "I like showering". se ducha por la mañana. At 9pm. me maquillo y me peino. te relajas. the reflexive pronoun goes on the end of the verb as a suffix. • When in the infinitive. • Summary In this lesson. we get up. bebo vino. he likes to have a bath in the afternoon. At 8am. he showers in the morning. nos lavamos. Normally.Chapter 7 Notes These are very similar to the indirect object pronouns used with gustar. but usually. • Examples Por la mañana. We never have a bath in the morning. I love having a bath in the evening . In the morning. For example. I put my make-up on and comb my hair. • Ocasionalmente.

I play football. I usually play tennis at 3pm. (1)____ llamo Milagros. 6:15 7. Normalmente. 1. Occasionally.8:55pm Time-related adverbs Translate the following from English to Spanish and vice versa. Telling the time Write the following times in full Spanish. (15)____ ver la tele. no hay nada (16)____ hacer. I rarely have lunch at 1pm. en España. Nunca (8)____ duchamos por (9)___ mañana . Hola. 1:15am 10. pero usualmente. a (10)____ cuatro (11)____ la tarde. 2. Reflexive verbs Fill in the gaps in the following text. Por la noche. You might not need to put anything in the gap. (14)____ relajo: me gusta leer. (3)____ la mañana. cenamos a las siete. 8. 7:45 9. (2)____ vivo en un piso grande en Madríd. 6. Wikibooks | 63 . but I never eat tomatoes. Usualmente. Usualmente. practicamos (12)____ la natación. (6)____ peino. me gusta mucho comer arroz. 4:00 3. 3:00 2. (7)____ maquillamos. y desayuno con Rosa (mi hermana). 10:30 6. 3. Luego. Normalmente. Sometimes I eat lettuce. 7. Después. y tengo dieciséis años. (13)____ gusta mucho nadar. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson.¿Qué hora es? The answers can be found in the next section.me gusta bañarme por la noche. (4)____ levanto a las seis (5)____ media. 2:25 4. 9:10 5. 1. Also. 5. ¿Juegas al ajedrez a menudo? 4. 1:35 8. Por la tarde. but I really like rugby. almuerza a las dos.

7. Son las tres. 5. do my make-up and eat breakfast. Time-related adverbs 1. At night. he has lunch at 2:00. 7. 9. Almuerzo raramente a la una. Do you often play chess? 4. Goodbye! Sofía: See you soon! Telling the time 1.Chapter 7 Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi Sofía! What's the time? Sofía: It's 8:15. Raúl: Ah. 3. Usually. Son las dos menos veinticinco. Reflexive verbs Hola. I leave at 8:00. I have a shower. Son las cuatro. Suelo jugar al tenis a las tres de la tarde. Raúl: Ok. Son las ocho menos cuarto. 4. Es la una y cuarto de la mañana. Normalmente. 5. 10.Son las nueve menos cinco de la noche. when you you have lunch? Sofía: I normally have lunch at 1:00. 6. 2. Son las nueve y diez. Raúl: Thanks. ok. 8. 8. (2)____ vivo en un piso grande en Madríd. (3)____ la mañana. 2. y tengo dieciséis años. A veces. Then. Normally. como lechuga. Son las seis y cuarto. De vez en cuando. Son las dos y veinticinco. juego al futból. en España. (1)____ llamo Milagros. Usually. So. 6. (4)____ 64 | Spanish . Son las diez y media. pero me gusta mucho el rugby. I really like eating rice. 3. pero nunca como tomates. we have dinner at 7:00.What do you normally do in the morning? Sofía: I get up at 7:00.

Por la tarde.¿Qué hora es? levanto a las seis (5)____ media.Me 15. practicamos (12)____ la natación. (6)____ peino. (7)____ maquillamos. Me 5. Después.Para Wikibooks | 65 . Nos 9. Luego. (15)____ ver la tele. 3. Por 4. La 10.me gusta bañarme por la noche.13. no hay nada (16)____ hacer. 1. Usualmente. Nunca (8)____ duchamos por (9)___ mañana . y desayuno con Rosa (mi hermana). Nos 8.16. (14)____ relajo: me gusta leer. Me 2.De 12. (13)____ gusta mucho nadar. a (10)____ cuatro (11)____ la tarde. Me 7. pero usualmente. Y 6.Nos 14.Las 11.

and the same as in English. voy a Irlanda pero tengo un billete para Italia. Sofía: ¿Cómo vas a ir? ¿En tren? Raúl: No.Chapter 8 8 ¿D ÓNDE Dialogue VAS A IR ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Raúl: Hola Sofía. you must conjugate the (sadly irregular) verb ir (meaning "to go"). voy a ir a Italia. So. Sofía: Claro. Prefiero los aviónes también.Italia es buena también. Vocabulary para for otro other take tomarme myself un a month mes libre off work Sofía: Así. Odio los trenes . Puedo tomar el sol y experimentar la cultura nativa. voy a comer means "I'm going to eat". pero no puedo tomarme un mes libre. It's as simple as that! Ir is conjugated thus: Spanish Verb • ¿Dónde vas a ir? Ir • To go 66 | Spanish . followed by a (meaning "to"). Sofía: ¿Cuánto tiempo vas a pasar allí? Raúl: Dos semanas. Then you have the infinitive of the verb you are going to do.son muy ruidosos. Raúl: Usualmente. Quiero pasar un mes. You use this construction: [Ir] a [infinitive] Let's look at this more closely. ¿vas a comprar un otro billete? Raúl: No . La semana que viene. Sofía: Entiendo. First. ¡Hasta luego! The Simple Future tense Expressing what you're going to do in the future is simple in Spanish.

van a jugar al ajedrez. She's going to have a shower in the evening.. We're going to go to France. In the future. ¿Vas a jugar al futból con Paulo? Are you going to play football with Paulo? Va a ducharse por la tarde. Here are a few key expressions for saying when something is goig to happen..¿Dónde vas a ir? Inglés I go You go He/She/It goes We go You all go They go Español Voy Vas Va Vamos Vais Van Notes • For reflexive verbs. Inglés Español Tomorrow Mañana Tomorrow morning Mañana por la mañana The day after tomorrow Pasado mañana La semana que viene Next week La semana próxima Next month El mes que viene Wikibooks | 67 . At night.. they're going to play chess. We're going to relax.. meaning "I'm going to have a bath") or as a suffix of the infinitive (voy a bañarme. you have two options for where to put the reflexive pronoun. nos vamos a relajar. Vamos a ir a Francia. Examples • • • • • Voy a cenar a las ocho I'm going to have dinner at 8:00. You can either have it before ir (me voy a bañar. it'd be great to be able to say when we're going to do them.. • En el futuro. Now that we know how to express future actions.. Por la noche. It doesn't matter which you choose. meaning "I'm going to have a bath"). Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vas a ir? In the future.

In the same vein. these phrases mean "the week that comes" (la semana que viene) or "the year that comes" (el año que viene).Chapter 8 El mes próximo El año que viene El año próximo En el futuro Next year In the future Notes Notice viene in some of the phrases. voy a ir a España en avión. literally. me gustaría vivir en el campo. El año próximo. mañana por la tarde means "tomorrow afternoon" and mañana por la noche means "tomorrow night". Next year. I would like to live in the countryside. Holidays Grab your swimming trunks: you're off to the south coast of Spain! Journey So. This also means that you have to conjugate it when you're talking in the past tense: "The year that came". meaning "to come". The women are going to live in a flat in November. Tomorrow afternoon. This is made up of various parts: 68 | Spanish . ¿Vas a tener ocho años el mes que viene? Are you going to be eight years-old next month? ¿Vamos a cenar a las siete y media la semana próxima? Are we going to have dinner at 7:30 next week? Las mujeres van a vivir en un piso en noviembre. In the future. voy a jugar al tenis. • Examples • • • • • • Manaña por la tarde. vamos a ir a Francia. • Mañana por la mañana means "tomorrow morning". El año próximo. when. where are how are you going to go? Look at the following phrase. I'm going to play tennis. En el futuro. So. This is from the E=>IE stemchanging verb venir. but don't worry about that for quite some time yet. we're going to go to France. explained below.

• Then a España. pasa. but next month. Literally.¿Dónde vas a ir? Firstly. It is a perfectly regular verb (paso. • • You have all of the vocabulary here. pasas. as en means "in". how much time do you spend in Canada? ¿Dónde voy a pasar el mes que viene? ¿Los Estados Unidos? Wikibooks | 69 . • Then en avión. Normalmente. we have the time expression. by Antti Havukainen) Coche (m) Tren (m) Barco (m) ¿Vas a ir a Alemania en coche? Are you going to go to Germany by car? ¿Cómo vamos a ir a Galés? ¿En autocar? How are we going to go to Wales? By coach? Normalmente. Van a ir a los Estados Unidos en avión. Normally. ¿cuánto tiempo pasas en Canadá? Normally. Then. Examples • • • Vais a pasar un mes en Nueva Zelanda. Autocar (m) Examples • • • • Avión (m) (Air Pullmantur 747. They're going to go to the USA by plane. meaning by aeroplane. pasáis. you use the verb pasar (meaning "to spend". You're all going to spend a month in New Zealand. To ask how long someone else is going to spend somewhere. this means "in aeroplane". I'm going to go by boat. meaning "to Spain" .the location. I go by train. except for the modes of transport. voy a ir en barco. pasamos. ¿Cuánto tiempo van a pasar en Inglaterra? means "How long are they going to spend in England?". voy en tren. ir ("to go") in the simple future tense. you use cuánto tiempo ("how much time") followed by pasar. For how long? To say how long you're going to spend somewhere (or doing something). You would then follow it by a timespan (pasamos dos semanas en Irlanda means "we spend two weeks in Ireland"). pasan). pero el mes que viene. some of which are below. as in time).

Then. os alojáis. dos habitaciones). se aloja. which is regular (me alojo. as shown in the table below. 70 | Spanish .. I hear you cry. habitación loses the accent (una habitación.. what if you're already in Spain? How do you ask for accomodation? Below are a few useful phrases for asking for accommodation.Chapter 8 Where am I going to spend the next month? America? Accommodation To say "to stay" in Spanish. you use en (meaning "in"). se alojan). te alojas. Reception desk at a hotel. • When in plural. you use the reflexive verb alojarse. nos alojamos. However. "to go camping" is ir de cámping and "a tent" is una tienda. then the type of accommodation. ¿Tienes cuartos libres? Do you have any free rooms? • ¿Cuánto cobra por noche? How much does it cost per night? • ¿Puedes recomendarme un hotel barato? Can you recommend a cheap hotel? • ¿Se puede fumar en el cuarto? Can you smoke in the room? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vas a ir? Alojamiento • Accommodation • A A A A A A A Inglés single room double room family room hotel youth hostel villa camp site Español Una habitación individual Una habitación doble Una habitación familiar Un hotel Un albergue juvenil Un chalet Un cámping Notes • A "camp site" is un cámping (remember the accent).

you use para (meaning "for"). • ¿Tienes habitaciones dobles libres? Do you have any free double rooms? • ¿Cuánto cobra por noche en un habitación singular? ¿Se puede fumar allí? How much does a single room cost per night? Are you allowed to smoke there? • Puedes recomendarme un hotel barato que tiene habitaciones familares libres? Can you recommend a cheap hotel that has free family rooms? • Activities Right. their going to stay in a hotel. cuando van a España. but next year. followed by the infinitive. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vas a ir? ¿Porqué vas allí? Why go there? Inglés Español Experimentar una cultura diferente To experience a different culture Probar la comida nativa To try the local food Aprender el idioma To learn the language Wikibooks | 71 . pero el año próximo. I'm going to spend a day in a youth hostel. you could jugar al futból ("play football") or beber vino ("drink wine"). we're going to go camping in Francia. • Normalmente. Net year.¿Dónde vas a ir? Examples El año que viene. Irse de juerga Tomar el sol Nadar What about more general things? Why do you want to go there? What do you want to get out of the trip? To say "in order to". but clearly there are more activities than just these. voy a pasar un día en un albergue juvenil. • La semana próxima. they stay in a villa. when they go to Spain. Normally. What now? How are you going to spend your time? Obviously. vamos a ir de cámping en Francia. van a alojarse en un hotel.. So you've arrived and unpacked.. se alojan en un chalet. Next week.

bailas. aprendéis. pruebas. • Irse is explained in more detail below. vamos. sacáis. They're going to go to Greece in November. bailáis. nada. aprenden). sacamos.Chapter 8 Notes There are quite a few new verbs here. nos vamos.me encanta nadar y tomar el sol. toman). • Probar is an O=>UE stem-changing verb (pruebo. toma. When in France. • Bailar is regular (bailo. • Sacar is regular (saco. Next month. aprende. "he/she/it" and "they" forms. so it uses the reflexive pronouns learnt last lesson. • With the nouns mentioned here. probamos. • Obviously. probáis. • Nadar is regular (nado. • ¿Por qué te gustaría ir a España? ¿Para aprender el idioma? Why would you like to go to Spain? To learn the language? • Van a ir a Grecia en noviembre. but the se means that it's reflexive too. • Experimentar is regular (experimento. Another useful adjective to use in these phrases is nuevo. nadáis. I can relax . watch out for idioma and foto. saca. This time. • ¿Os gusta bailar y iros de juerga? Do you all like dancing and going clubbing? • Stem-changing Verbs The second type of irregular verb is another stem-changing verb. 72 | Spanish . prueban). nunca sacamos fotos buenas. experimenta. experimentas. aprendes. prueba. puedo rejarme . experimentáis. te vas. • Cuando en Francia. nadamos. vais. They like trying new foods and experiencing different cultures.. nadas. Thus. Luckily. It's the same ir as described above (voy. voy a ir a Ibiza para irme de juerga. most are regular. meaning "to want") is written in the table below. experimentan). However. I'm going to go to Ibiza to go clubbing. bailan). os vais. sacas. aprendemos. meaning "new". • Tomar is regular (tomo. "you". vas. baila. most of the genders are obvious. When we go to England. nativo and diferente are adjectives. • Examples El mes próximo. An example (querer. sacan). nadan). the e changes to ie in the "I". • Cuando vamos a Inglaterra. va. it's conjugated: me voy. tomáis. van).. se van. bailamos. • Aprender is regular (aprendo. tomamos.I love swimming and sunbathing. we never take good photos. experimentamos. Idioma is masculine and Foto is feminine. Les gusta probar comidas nuevas y experimentar culturas diferentes. since they have the opposite genders to what you would expect. • Irse is quite complicated. se va. tomas.

tiene. Pasado mañana. Wikibooks | 73 . tienes. preferemos. pero Santiago prefiere los chaletes. entiende. • Usualmente. • Remember tener? Well. empiezan. prefiere. • Inglés Notes • Querer can be followed by the infinitive (quiero empezar means "I want to start"). Do you all understand? • Cuando voy a Nueva Zelanda. empiezas. entendemos. tenemos. entendéis. pensáis. ¿Entendéis? • The day after tomorrow. I want to have lunch at 1:45. vamos a Rusia en noviembre. • pensar ("to think"): pienso. prefieren. but Juan prefers going to Spain. pensamos. that is a stem changing verb too: tengo. preferéis. Usually. prefieres. piensas. meaning "to think that".¿Dónde vas a ir? Spanish Verb • ¿Dónde vas a ir? Querer • To want Español I Quiero You Quieres He/She/It Quiere We Queremos You all Queréis They Quieren Other verbs that follow this pattern entender ("to understand"): entiendo. tienen! • Pensar is normally followed by que. empezáis. piensa. • preferer ("to prefer"): prefiero. quiero alojarme en un albergue juvenil. empezamos. entiendes. tenéis. vais a cenar en el hotel. he wants to learn the language. empieza. Examples • Quiero almorzar a las dos menos cuarto. piensan. you're going to dine in the hotel. • empezar ("to start"): empiezo. pero Juan prefiere ir a España: quiere aprender el idioma. entienden. we go to Russia en november.

I want to stay in a youth hostel. 74 | Spanish . pasa una semana) • How to say what sort of accomodation you'll be in (un cámping. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson nine.Chapter 8 When I go to New Zealand. vais a almorzar. but Santiago prefers villas. cierran) • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). voy a alojarme en una habitación familiar) • How to ask for accommodation (¿Tienes cuartos libres?. ¿no? I understand you can smoke in the single rooms. van a ir) • How to say various future time phrases (pasado mañana. en el futuro) • How to say when. vamos a ir a Irlanda en autocar) • How to say for how long you're going to stay (voy a pasar un mes. ¿Cuánto cobra por noche?) • How to say various holiday activities (me voy de juerga. Entiendo que se puede fumar en las habitaciones individuales. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. Como a las seis. 2. right? ¿Piensas que las mujeres van a ser amables? Do you think the women are going to be nice? • • Summary In this lesson. un albergue junenil. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. The Simple Future tense Put the following into the simple future tense. Also. you have learnt How to form the simple future tense in Spanish (voy a comer. 1. bailan. entendemos. mañana por la noche. Juegan al fútbol. where and how you're going on holiday (el mes que viene. probar comidas nuevas) • How to form I=>IE stem-changing verbs (quiero.

También.. Almuerza a las seis... En el futuro 7... (18)____ a cenar en un restaurante diferente cada noche. 9. 5.. y (14)____ la noche... . Mañana por la mañana Holidays Fill in the gaps in the following text. Vivimos en un piso en Inglaterra. Stem-Changing Verbs Comnjugate the following verbs in the present tense. Tengo doce años... Finalmente. El año próximo 3. 1. voy (2)____ ir (3)____ México en tren.. You might not need to put anything in the gap.español es fantástica.. 2. (16)____ encanta la comida allí . 6. Normalmente.... Pasado mañana 2. paso solamente una semana... Sois de Escocia.. 7. Pensar 1. In the future. hay (12)____ para hacer. Me peino a las tres.. Se llama Miguel. El mes que viene 6. Cuando allí. ¿Duermes a la una? 8. (19)____ voy a ir a México porque quiero aprender (20)____ idioma . Vamos a tomar (13)____ sol durante el día.los huevos (17)____ fantásticos.. pero (5)____ gustaría (6)____ relajarme totalmente.. Voy a (4)____ dos semanas allí. vamos a bailar y (15)____ de juerga...¿Dónde vas a ir? 3... El año (1)____ viene. Mañana por la noche 5. 1. 4... Wikibooks | 75 . La semana que viene 4.. Put the following in chonological order. Voy a alojarme en (7)____ chalet familiar con hombres amables que (8)____ en (9)____ Estados Unidos también. El chalet cobra (10)____ veinte euros (11)____ noche. .

. Next week. 2. Italy is good too........ Sofía: I understand.. .. .. ... .... 5.. 4... Vivir 6... . 1.. 6.. Sofía: How much time are you going to spend there? Raúl: Two weeks... .. The following are all verbs you have learnt........ See you later! The Simple Future tense 1..... 76 | Spanish . too..Chapter 8 3.. 3. Poder Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi Sofía... . . ... I prefer airplanes...... they're very noisy. Cenar 7. Almorzar 4... Jugar 2............... Voy a comer a las seis.. I hate trains.. Sofía: So...... Querer 5...... 2....... Tener 1.... or not.... 3. 6...... Raúl: Usually I go to Ireland.. I'm going to go to Italy. 4. 2.......... Sofía: Of course...... Comer 3.. but I have a ticket for Italy.... are you going to buy another ticket? Raúl: No..... and say if they're E=>IE or O/U=>UE. I'd like to spend a month. Van a jugar al fútbol. I can sunbathe and experience the native culture.. Say if they are stemchanging... 5..... . but I can't take myself a month off work... Entender 8... Sofía: How are you going to get there? By train? Raúl: No....

para 11. viven 8. a 4. 6.voy 17. un 7. 7. Piensas 3. que 2. por 10. En el futuro Holidays 1.el Stem-Changing Verbs Comnjugate the following verbs in the present tense.. El año próximo 7. 4.el 12. 9.irnos 14. El mes que viene 6. 5.por 13. a 3. Va a almorzar a las seis. Pasado mañana 4. los 9. Pensar 1. Mañana por la mañana 2. ¿Vas a dormir a la una? 8. Pienso 2. Va a llamarse Miguel. 1. Mañana por la noche 3. La semana que viene 5. Piensa Wikibooks | 77 .¿Dónde vas a ir? 3. Vamos a vivir en un piso en Inglaterra.me 15. Vais a ser de Escocia.. me 6. Voy a tener doce años. 1. pasar 5.son 16. In the future. Voy a peinarme a las tres.

Tienes 3. I=>IE stem changing verb 8. Tener 1. O=>UE stem changing verb 78 | Spanish . Tienen 3. U=>UE stem changing verb 2. Tengo 2. Pensamos 5. Regular verb 7. Regular verb 3. Tenemos 5. I=>IE stemn changing verb 5. Piensan 2. and say if they're E=>IE or O/U=>UE. 1. Tiene 4. O=>UE stem changing verb 4. or not. Say if they are stemchanging. Pensáis 6. Regular verb 6. The following are all verbs you have learnt. Tenéis 6.Chapter 8 4.

some jobs: Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Trabajos • Jobs Inglés Electrician Plumber Builder Teacher Lawyer Doctor Dentist Engineer Chef Español Electricista Plomero (m) or Plomera (f) Constructor (m) or Constructora (f) Profesor (m) or Profesora (f) Abogado (m) or Abogada (f) Médico (m) or Médica (f) Dentista Ingeniero (m) or Ingeniera (f) Cocinero (m) or Cocinera (f) Wikibooks | 79 . Rául: Sí. you use ser ("to be"). rather than "I am a dentist" like in English. Siempre hay clientes que quieren hablar en inglés. ¡Adiós! Jobs and ocupations In Spanish. entiendo. Sofía: Y tú. to say someone's job."I am dentist" (Soy dentista). So. Raúl: Vale. Sofía: ¡Qué bueno! ¿Hablas inglés nativamente? Raúl: No. Sofía. you use the phrase ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? (the name of this lesson). me encanta aprender idiomas. soy profesor de inglés. followed by the name of the job (some of which are given below). quiero aprender el inglés para mi trabajo. también. Es muy dfícil.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? 9 ¿C UÁL Dialogue ES TU TRABAJO ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary clientes customers Raúl: Hola. To ask what someone else does for a living. ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Sofía: Trabajo en una tienda. You use no articles . ¿cuál es tu trabajo? Raúl: Ah. Sofía: Sí.

¿Cuál es tu trabajo? ¿Eres electricista? What do you work as? Are you an electrician? A Few Important Words At this point. For electricista and dentista. there is no difference between the genders. They're Spanish teachers so they speak Spanish really well. but it costs a lot. pero cuesta mucho. or have generally not got much air-time. haven't really got a home. These are really important. and immediately raise your level of Spanish if you use them. • Examples • • • • • Es dentista. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Palabritos • Little words Inglés Too Today Now In order to A lot That How Currently Always Español Demasiado Hoy Ahora Para Mucho Que Qué Actualmente Siempre 80 | Spanish . I want to be a lawyer.Chapter 9 Notes For some of the above jobs. ¿Vas a ser médico? Are you going to be a doctor? Quiero ser abogada. there are two options: one for males and one for females. Even men can be dentistas. He's a dentist. we really need to go through a few important words that have been overlooked in previous lessons. Son profesores de español así qué hablan español muy bien.

It also means "too much" or "too many". It means currently. quiere almorzar a la una menos cuarto. I always dine at 7pm. then our friend en (meaning "in"). but today. ganáis dinero. it has to agree with the noun it describes. it has to agree with the noun.vivo en muchas casas diferentes). it would be undoubtedly useful to be able to say where you work. • Para. Cómo is the question word meaning "how". Like demasiado. Normally. • Mucho means "a lot" ("It has a lot of rooms" . • Qué means "how" only in the sense of "How fantastic!". When it's used as a sort of adjective. he wants to eat at two. you use the regular verb trabajar (trabajo. so is conjugated gano dinero. meaning "to earn money". I live in a terrace in New Zealand that has many rooms. • Workplaces As well as what your job is. Another important little phrase to mention here is ganar dinero. ¡Qué fantástico!. trabajan). trabaja. A shop? An office? A factory? To do this. he wants to have lunch at quarter to one. trabajamos.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Notes Demasiado means "too" as in "I am too nice" (Soy demasiado amable). trabajáis. ganan dinero. It's regular. as in "It costs too much" (Cuesta demasiado) or "It has too many rooms" (Tiene demasiadas habitaciones). • Examples ¿Por qué vas a Canadá? ¿Para aprender el idioma? Why are you going to Canada? In order to learn the language? • Vivo en una casa adosada en Neuva Zelanda que tiene muchas habitaciones. gana dinero. • Don't confuse actualmente with "actually". • ¿Qué vas a comer ahora? What are you going to eat now? • Normalmente.tiene muchas habitaciones). Wikibooks | 81 . Voy a ir a francia para relajarme means "I'm going to France in order to relax". trabajas. quiere comer a las dos. ganas dinero. or any other building or firm. then one of the options from this table. in the sense "in order to" is always followed by the infinitive. ganamos dinero. pero hoy. • ¿Van a jugar al tenis? ¡Qué fatal! They're going to play tennis? How awful! • Siempre ceno a las siete de la tarde. but also "many" ("I live in many different houses" .

pero prefieren trabajar en restaurantes. the future stem is simply hablar. in order to earn money. Luckily for us. which is formed by changing the verb itself. The Future Tense For the past two lessons. You add them to the future 82 | Spanish . and is translated at "will". • The endings are shown in the table below. but they prefer working in restuarants. They work in an office. Trabajan en una oficina. I'm currently working in a factory. Trabajo en una tienda que se llama Woolworths. it's the same as the infinitive. It is formed thus: [future stem][ending] Let's explain this: • The future stem is a form of the verb. you can also use a company name (Trabajo en Tesco meaning "I work at Tesco"). there is a real future tense in Spanish. • Examples • • • • • Trabajamos en un taller mecánico en España.Chapter 9 Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Workplaces • Lugares de trabajo Inglés An office A factory A shop A school A restaurant A studio A garage Español Una oficina Una fábrica Una tienda Un colegio Un restaurante Un taller Un taller mecánico Notes As part of this phrase. or even a country or place name (¿Trabajas en Alemania? meaning "Do you work in Germany?"). in most cases. for hablar (meaning "to talk"). So. Now. ¿Dónde trabajas? ¿En un colegio? ¿Eres profesor? Where do you work? In a school? Are you a teacher? Actualmente trabajo en una fábrica para ganar dinero. we have been using the phrase ir a to refer to the future. We work in a garage in Spain. I work in a shop called Woolworths.

tendrá. this only applies to three: Tener ("to have"): tendré. I will eat an apple. querrás. Summary In this lesson. podrás. Pasado mañana. tendrás. tendremos. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Suffixes • Sufijos Inglés I You He/She/It We You all They é ás á emos éis án Español Notes • Some verbs are have irregular future stems. vivirán en una casa nueva. Next year. podremos. you have learnt How to say what you and others do for a living (soy ingeniero. querremos. Assume a verb is regular unless you know otherwise. will you go to the shops? Será fontanera. querréis. El mes que viene. She will be a plumber. tendrán Poder ("to be able to"): podré. they will live in a new house. Next month. ¿irás a las tiendas? The day after tomorrow. podréis. Of the verbs you have learnt so far. El año próximo. querrán Examples • • • • • Comeré una manzana. son abogados) • How to ask what someone does for a living (¿Cuál es tu trabajo?) • Wikibooks | 83 . I will be 80. tendréis. podrán Querer ("to want"): querré.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? stem as suffixes. podrá. tendré ochenta años. querrá.

pero no ahora. Workplaces Complete the following sentences. un taller) How to form the future tense (podrán. almorzaremos) You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on. demasiado. De vez en cuando. Teacher h. You're a plumber? ¡How fantastic! 4. Electrician e. 84 | Spanish . 5. Jobs and occupations Match the English to the Spanish. Doctor f. querré.Chapter 9 • • • How to say various little. 1. mucho) How to say various workplaces (una fábrica. trabajo en una tienda para ganar dinero. 3. 3. 4. we're going to play tennis. 2. I have too many apples. Builder i. 2. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. Muchos niños quieren ser constructores. we go swimming. Electricista Fontanera Constructor Abogado Profesora Médico Concinera Dentista Ingeniero a. Lawyer c. but important words (que. Chef A Few Important Words Translate the following from English to Spanish and vice versa. Plumber b. 7. 1. but today. 8. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. 5. Usually. 6. Engineer d. 6. Dentist g. 9. quiero jugar al fútbol. Hoy. 7. Also. I prefer men that play rugby.

Raúl: Ok. I'm an English teacher. Sofía: Yeah. so that the verb is in the future tense. I understand. ¿Jugáis al tenis? 7. Sofía: What about you.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? 1. 5. Soy ingeniera. b Wikibooks | 85 . h 4. Voy a Canadá 2. I love learning new languages. Siempre es animado y ¡me encanta hablar! The Future Tense Rewrite the following sentences. 3. 6. too. porque es muy aburrido. Trabajamos en _____ que se llama Harrods. Ruál: Yeah. Tienen cuarenta y ocho años. Odio mi trabajo en _____. 8. Soy profesora: trabajo en _____. 1. 4. porque es demasiado ruidoso. Sofía. d 2. Sofía: Great! Do you speak English natively? Raúl: No. 2. I want to learn English for my job. ¿Ganas veinte euros por hora? ¡Qué bueno! 4. What do you do for a living? Sofía: I work in a shop. No hay mucho para hacer. what do you do for a living? Raúl: Ah. Goodbye! Jobs and occupations 1. 5. There are always customers who want to speak English. Trabajamos en un restaurante en la ciudad. No me gusta mi trabajo en _____. 3. It's very difficult. Quiero dormir. Va a Irlanda para experimentar una cultura diferente. Es concinero: trabaja en _____. a 3. Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi.

3. ¿Ganarás veinte euros por hora? ¡Qué bueno! 4. but not now. Tengo demasiadas manzanas. Workplaces 1. Una oficina 5. c A Few Important Words 1. I want to play football. Prefiero hombres que juegan al rugby. Un taller mecánico. i 8. ¿Eres fontanero? ¡Qué fantástico! 4. Occassionally. Irá a Irlanda para experimentar una cultura diferente. g 6. 8. Querré dormir. 86 | Spanish . 5. Un colegio 2. Today. Una tienda The Future Tense 1. f 9. 5. vamos a jugar al tenis. Usualmente. 3. Iré a Canadá 2. 6.Chapter 9 5. e 7. 6. una fábrica 4. 7. Seré ingeniera. Un restaurante 3. practicamos la natación. Trabajaremos en un restaurante en la ciudad. I'm working in a shop to earn some money. Many boys want to be builders. pero hoy. 2. ¿Jugaréis al tenis? 7. Tendrán cuarenta y ocho años.

The SXW source of this PDF document is available at Wikibooks:Image:Spanish. PDF Information & History This PDF was created on 2007-07-15 based on the 2007-07-14 version of the Spanish Wikibook.sxw. it underwent a complete archive and rewrite by Celestianpower.sxw. It was the first language book on Wikibooks. Wikibooks | 87 .wikibooks. The latest version may be found at http://en.org/wiki/Spanish. A transparent copy of this document is available at Wikibooks:Spanish/Print version. During December 2006. The template from which the document was created is available at Wikibooks:Image:PDF template.History & Document Notes 10 H ISTORY & D OCUMENT N OTES Wikibook History This book was created on 2003-08-02 by ThomasStrohmann and was developed on the Wikibooks project by the contributors listed in the next section.

Chapter 11

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0. PREAMBLE
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