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2

CENTROID

AND

MOMENT

OF

INERTIA

Under this topic first we will see how to find the areas of given figures and the volumes of given solids. Then the terms centre of gravity and centroids are explained. Though the title of this topic do not indicate the centroid of line segment, that term is also explained, since the centroid of line segment will be useful in finding the surface area and volume of solids using theorems of Pappus and Guldinus. Then the term first moment of area is explained and the method of finding centroid of plane areas and volumes is illustrated. After explaining the term second moment of area, the method of finding moment of inertia of plane figures about x-x or y-y axis is illustrated. The term product moment of inertia is defined and the mehtod of finding principal moment of inertia is presented. At the end the method of finding mass moment of inertia is presented.

2.1

DETERMINATION OF AREAS AND VOLUMES

In the school education methods of finding areas and volumes of simple cases are taught by many methods. Here we will see the general approach which is common to all cases i.e. by the method of integration. In this method the expression for an elemental area will be written then suitable integrations are carried out so as to take care of entire surface/volume. This method is illustrated with standard cases below, first for finding the areas and latter for finding the volumes:

**A: Area of Standard Figures
**

(i) Area of a rectangle Let the size of rectangle be b × d as shown in Fig. 2.1. dA is an elemental area of side dx × dy. Area of rectangle, A =

d/2 O d/2

y dx dy x

z

b2 d2

dA =

b2 −b 2

−b 2 −d 2

z z

d2 −d 2

dx dy

b/2 b/2

= x = bd.

y

Fig. 2.1

70

2.3 (iii) Area of a circle Consider the elemental area dA = rdθdr as shown in Fig. 2 4 .2 (ii) Area of a triangle of base width ‘b’ height ‘h’.CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 71 If we take element as shown in Fig. we get the area of semicircle as πR 2 πR 2 and if the limit is from 0 to π / 2 the area of quarter of a circle is obtained as . 2.4.4 . 2.3. if we take variation of θ from 0 to π. 2. 2. let the element be selected as shown by hatched lines Then y dA = b′dy = b dy h y h b¢ b dy y A = dA = b dy h 0 0 = b y2 bh = h 2 2 0 h z h z h Fig. 2. Now.2. dA = rdθ dr r varies from O to R and θ varies from O to 2π 2π R ∴ A= 2π = 2π = = = zz z LMN z 0 0 0 0 y rdθ dr r2 2 2 O P Q R dθ 0 dr r dq q O R rdq x R dθ 2 2π 0 R2 θ 2 R2 2 Fig. d2 A= −d 2 z d2 dA = d2 −d 2 −d 2 z d/2 b ⋅ dy d/2 b dy y = b y = bd Fig. 2 π = πR 2 In the above derivation. Referring to Fig.

7 dA = y dx = A= kx dx z a y dx = 0 z a kx dx 0 . y = h i..e. dr y θ varies from –α to αand r varies from O to R ∴ A= = L R θO = M N2 P Q 2 −α z zz z LMN OPQ z dA = r2 2 α R −α 0 α R r dθ dr R dr rdG dθ = α 0 −α R2 dθ 2 0 r dG O a α = −α R2 2 2α = R α 2 Fig. when x = a. The elemental area is as shown in the figure dA = rdθ .5 is to be determined.72 ENGINEERING MECHANICS (iv) Area of a sector of a circle Area of a sector of a circle with included angle 2α shown in Fig.6 ka 3 h a3 1 1 = 2 = ha = rd the area of rectangle of size a × h 3 3 3 a 3 Case b: In this case y2 = kx Referring to Fig. ∴ h = ka2 or k = A= h a2 Fig. 2.6. 2. 2.5 a f (v) Area of a parabolic spandrel Two types of parabolic curves are possible (a) y = kx2 (b) y2 = kx Case a: This curve is shown in Fig. The area of the element dA = y dx = kx2 dx ∴ A= Lx O = kM P N3Q 3 z a dA = a 0 z a 0 0 y kx dx y = kx 2 2 ka = 3 3 h x=a dx x x We know. 2. 2.

when x = a. y= dA = 2π y dl = 2π = 2π ∴ A= x R dl h dl R a x y dx x dx R h sin α x2 2 πR h sin α 2 πRh = π Rl = sin α (vii) Surface area of a sphere Consider the sphere of radius R shown in Fig. a3 2 a 3 Fig. The element considered is the parallel circle at distance y from the diametral axis of sphere. .CENTROID AND MOMENT 2 OF INERTIA 73 = k x3 2 L M N 2 3 O P Q a 0 = k 2 32 a 3 y y = kx We know that. 2. h2 = ka A= A= h or h2 k= a h x dx x=a 2 .9.8. since x = R cos θ π2 L O M P N Q h h 0 Fig.. Now. y = h ∴ Hence i.8 ∴ S = 2π R2 = 2π R = 4π R2 2 −π 2 z cos θ dθ π2 −π 2 dy y q dq x Rdq sin θ Fig.7 2 2 ha = rd the area of rectangle of size a × h 3 3 (vi) Surface area of a cone Consider the cone shown in Fig. 2. dS = 2π x Rdθ = 2π R cos θ Rdθ. 2. 2.9 . x R h Surface area of the element.e. 2.

dx = π π h2 R 2 x x2 2 R dx . j L y OP = π MR y − 3 P M N Q L R a− Rf R | − S− R − = π MR ⋅ R − 3 3 M | T N L 1 1O 4 π R = π R M1 − + 1 − P = N 3 3Q 3 R −R z π R2 − y 2 dy 3 R e 2 −R 2 3 3 3 UOP | VP |Q W 3 3 . ∴ x2 + y2 = R2 x 2 = R2 – y2 dV = π (R 2 – y2)dy V= The surface areas and volumes of solids of revolutions like cone. 2. Let the size of the parallelpiped be a × b × c.9 π 2 h πR h = R 2 h 3 3 dV = π x2 dy But i. This will be taken up latter in this chapter.8 z c 0 = abc dV = πy2 .74 ENGINEERING MECHANICS B: Volume of Standard Solids (i) Volume of a parallelpiped.e. The volume of the element is dV = dx dy dz V= zzz abc 000 a 0 dx dy dz y b 0 = x (ii) Volume of a cone: Referring to Fig. spheres may be easily found using theorems of Pappus and Guldinus. since it needs the term centroid of generating lines. since y = R 2 h h π h2 2 V= z 0 h x dx = 2 3 R 2 LM x OP N3Q 3 h 0 = (iii) Volume of a sphere Referring to Fig.. 2.

10 The above method of locating centre of gravity is the practical method. Wxc = ΣWixi = Ü xdw Wyc = ΣWiyi = Ü ydw Wz c = ΣWizc = Ü zdw G Wi O yi zi xi xc z W yc zc x Fig.1) . Thus centre of gravity can be defined as the point through which the resultant of force of gravity of the body acts. . which states the moment of resultant force is equal to the sum of moments of component forces. The self weight of various parts of this body are acting vertically downward. (2. it is to be noted that the resultant of weight of various portions of the body is to be determined. yi.10a. 2. Let the line of action of the resultant weight be 2– 2 intersecting 1–1 at G. W be the total weight of the body. If one desires to locating centre of gravity of a body analytically. For this Varignon’s theorem.CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 75 2. 2. The only upward force is the force T in the string. It is obvious that if the body is suspended in any other position. . zc. Since W is the resultant of Wi forces. . it will reach equilibrium condition in a particular position. 2. W = W1 + W2 + W3 . and Wxc = W1x1 + W2x2 + W3x3 + .10b). Let the coordinates of the element be xi. . Now. yc.11. This point is called the centre of gravity of the body. zi and that of centroid G be xc.2 CENTRE OF GRAVITY AND CENTROIDS Consider the suspended body shown in Fig. let Wi be the weight of an element in the given body. = ΣWi and ∴ Similarly. can be used. if the position is changed and the body is suspended again (Fig. Referring to Fig. 2. 2.11 U | V | W Eqn. the line of action of resultant weight W passes through G. To satisfy the equilibrium condition the resultant weight of the body W must act along the line of string 1–1. T 1 1 T 2 w1 G W 1 2 W = å w1 W = å w1 1 1(a) (b) Fig.

hence we get g Mxc = Σmixi = Myc = Σmiyi = and Mzc = Σmizi = zidm If the body is made up of uniform material of unit weight g. This term is applicable to solids. Fig.1 reduces to Vxc = ΣVixi = Vyc = ΣViyi = z z z z z z z xidm yidm U | V | W U | V | W Eqn. The central points obtained for volumes. Equations 2. yc) dL Wi = g A dL Fig. 2. 2.3. Method of finding the centroid of a line for some standard cases is illustrated below: (i) Centroid of a straight line: Selecting the x-coordinate along the line (Fig.12 Fig. (2. 2. 2. Wi = g Ait (Ref Fig.12).2 in which only masses are used the point obtained is termed as centre of mass. z z x dL U V W 2. 2.5) Lyc = Σ Liyi = y dL The term centre of gravity is used only when the gravitational forces (weights) are considered.5.3) x dA y dA U V W Eqn.14 .2) xdV ydV Vzc = ΣVizi= zdV If the body is a flat plate of uniform thickness. 2. 2. (2.1 reduces to Lxc = Σ Lixi = Eqn.13) the equation 2. 2. then we know Wi = Uig. where U represents volume.4 and 2.13 If the body is a wire of uniform cross section in plane x.1 reduces to Axc = ΣAixi = Ayc = ΣAiyi = y z Eqn. y (Ref.76 ENGINEERING MECHANICS If M is the mass of the body and mi that of the element.4) W z xc yc Wi (xi.5) are termed as centroids. (2. Hence equation 2. in x-y plane. then M= W g and mi = Wi . surfaces and line segments (obtained by eqns. then equation 2.3 CENTROID OF A LINE dx O x L G x Centroid of a line can be determined using equation 2. (2.14) Fig.

15). 2. 2. . 2..17 by putting α = π/2 and for quarter of a circle shown in Fig. 2. L = Length of arc = R 2α dL = Rdθ Hence from eqn.16.16 R sin θ .15 (ii) Centroid of an Arc of a Circle Referring to Fig. Fig. xc R 2α = −α α −α α −α z z x Rdq xdL a O a dq q x R cos θ . y y L G O L 2 L O G x L 2 L cos 2 G L sin 2 x Fig. 2.18 by putting α varying from zero to π/2. Rdθ α −α = R2 − cos θ (ii) =0 ∴ yc = 0 From equation (i) and (ii) we can get the centroid of semicircle shown in Fig.CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 77 Lxc = ∴ xc = z 0 L x dx = LM x OP N2Q 2 L = 0 L2 2 L 2 Thus the centroid lies at midpoint of a straight line. 2. 2.e. whatever be the orientation of line (Ref.5 α xcL = i. Rdθ (i) = R2 sin θ ∴ α xc = yc L and −α z R sin α R 2 × 2 sin α = α 2 Rα α y dL = −α z Fig.

2. The method is illustrated with few examples below: Example 2. If the line segments is in space the expression zcL = ΣLizi may also be used.18 2R π yc = 0 For quarter of a circle.78 ENGINEERING MECHANICS G R G R Fig. y D G3 30 0 m m 45° C G2 G1 A 600 mm B 200 mm k Fig.19.1 Determine the centroid of the wire shown in Fig. 2.17 Fig. 2.19 .5 in the form xc = xcL = ΣLixi ycL = ΣLiyi may be used to get centroid xc and yc. 2. For semicircle xc = 2R π 2R yc = π (iii) Centroid of composite line segments: The results obtained for standard cases may be used for various segments and then the equations 2.

07 yc = 101.2 Locate the centroid of the uniform wire bent as shown in Fig.93. G2 (475. 92. xc = 407.. x3 = 400 + 300 + 2 × 150 π i. 100) and G3(600 – 150 cos 45°.25 mm 2 y3 = 125 sin 30 = 62.24. 0). Ans. 2. G2 250 G1 A 400 mm All dimensions in mm B 150 C 30° G3 D Ans. FG H IJ K 250 cos 30° = 808.93 ∴ Now. 2.49) G 2 475 . Taking A as origin the coordinates of the centroids of AB. G2(600. 200 + 150 sin 45°) i. 1121.20 Solution. The wire is divided into three segments AB.20 mm Lyc = ΣLiyi gives gives Ans. Lxc = ΣLixi. BC and CD.24 xc = 400 × 200 + 471. L3 = 300 mm L = 600 + 200 + 300 = 1100 mm ∴ Total length ∴ From the eqn. The composite figure is divided into 3 simple figures and taking A as origin coordinates of their centroids noted as shown below: AB—a straight line L1 = 400 mm. CD—a straight line L3 = 250.66 mm Example 2.5 mm ∴ Total length L = L1 + L2 + L3 = 1121.24 × 475 + 250 × 808.07) L1 = 600 mm.e.25 .20.44 mm Lyc = ΣLiyi 1100 yc = 600 × 0 + 200 × 100 + 300 × 306.CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 79 Solution.e. G1 (200. Fig.24 mm ∴ Lxc = ΣLixi xc = 451. L2 = 200 mm. 306. G3(493. 0) BC—a semicircle L2 = 150 π = 471. BC and CD are G1(300. we get 1100 xc = L1x1 + L2x2 + L3x3 = 600 × 300 + 200 × 600 + 300 × 493.

BC and CD are as shown in table below: Table 2. BC in y-z plane and CD in x-y plane. 1053. z r = 140 A x D r= 10 0 B C 45° y Fig.5 yc = 54.49 + 250 × 62.21.80 ENGINEERING MECHANICS 1121. From eqn.98 xc = 100π × 100 + 140π × 0 + 300 × 300 sin 45° xc = 90. Lxc = ΣLixi.19 mm Ans.24 × 95.4 FIRST MOMENT OF AREA AND CENTROID From equation 2. 2.13 zi 2 × 100 π 2 × 140 π 0 ∴ L = 100π + 140π + 300 = 1053.1 Portion AB BC CD Li 100π 140π 300 xi 100 0 300 sin 45° yi 0 140 280 + 300 cos 45° = 492.50 mm and 1053. 2.24 yc = 400 × 0 + 471. The length and the centroid of portions AB.17 mm Ans. we have xc = ∑ W i xi . Note: portion AB is in x-z plane.3 Locate the centroid of uniform wire shown in Fig.98 yc = 100π × 0 + 140π × 140 + 300 × 492.98 mm 1053. W yc = ∑ Wi y i W and zc = ∑ W i zi W .21 Solution. Example 2. 2.98 zc = 100π × 200 2 × 140 + 140π × + 300 × 0 π π z c = 56.1.13 yc = 198. we get Similarly. AB and BC are semi circular in shape.07 mm Ans. Ans.

23). This theorem can be proved as follows: Axis of symmetry Consider the area shown in Fig. but signs of distances are opposite. The moment of area ΣAix: is termed as first moment of area also just to differentiate this from the term ΣAix E . we can go on considering an area on one side of symmetric axis and corresponding image area on the other side. about the axis. we can say centroid of plane area from any axis is equal to moment of area about the axis divided by the total area. b d (2) Centroid of a rectangle of sides b and d is at distance and from the corner as shown 2 2 in Fig. 2.22. A A By terming ΣAix: as the moment of area about the axis. Use of Axis of Symmetry Centroid of an area lies on the axis of symmetry if it exits. This is useful theorem to locate the Y centroid of an area. It may be noted that since the moment of area about an axis divided by total area gives the distance of the centroid from that axis.CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 81 From the above equation we can make the statement that distance of centre of gravity of a body from an axis is obtained by dividing moment of the gravitational forces acting on the body.e. by the total weight of the body. xc = ∑ Ai xi .4. (2) Centre of gravity of a body is a point through which the resultant gravitational force (weight) acts for any orientation of the body whereas centroid is a point in a line plane area volume such that the moment of area about any axis through that point is zero. 2. Similarly from equation 2. Hence the distance of centroid from the symmetric axis is zero. Similarly. From eqn. centroid always lies on symmetric axis.4. the moment of area is zero about any centroidal axis. which are equal in size and are equidistant from the axis. .22. 2.22 areas and distances are the same. which will be dealt latter. i. 2. the distance of centroid from this axis is x x given by: ∑ Ai xi O X A Consider the two elemental areas shown in Fig. and centroid applies to lines. plane areas and volumes. but on either side. we have. 2. yc = ∑ Ai y i Difference between Centre of Gravity and Centroid From the above discussion we can draw the following differences between centre of gravity and centroid: (1) The term centre of gravity applies to bodies with weight. 2. Making use of the symmetry we can conclude that: (1) Centroid of a circle is its centre (Fig.24. and prove that total moments of area (ΣAixi) about the symmetric axis is zero. In this figure y-y is the axis of symmetry. Now the sum of moments of these areas cancel each other since the Fig.

z z ydA A xdA Centroid of a Triangle Consider the triangle ABC of base width b and height h as shown in Fig. Now. ∫ ydA = y 1 − h b dy 0 z Movement of area = Total area z ydA A h FG H y IJ K . Let b1 be the width of elemental strip of thickness dy at a distance y from the base.25. Let us locate the distance of centroid from the base.23 Fig. 2.25 Area of the triangle ∴ From eqn.24 Determination of Centroid of Simple Figures From First Principle For simple figures like triangle and semicircle.4 — y = Now. we can write: b1 h−y = b h b1 = ∴ A dy E b1 y F h FG h − y IJ b = FG 1 − y IJ b H h K H hK = 1− Area of the element = dA = b1dy FG H y b dy h 1 A = bh 2 IJ K B b C Fig. 2. 2. let us find centroid of some standard figures from first principles. Since DAEF and DABC are similar triangles.4 — y = x = — A The location of the centroid using the above equations may be considered as finding centroid from first principles.82 ENGINEERING MECHANICS b b/2 G G d/2 d Fig. Then equations 2. 2. 2. we can write general expression for the elemental area and its distance from an axis.

3π . Area of element = r dθdr.26 ∴ 2R 3 Moment of area — 3 = y = 1 2 Total area πR 2 4R = 3π Thus. Its moment about diametral axis x is given by: rdθ × dr × r sin θ = r2 sin θ dr dθ ∴ Total moment of area about diametral axis. radial width being dr and bound by radii at θ and θ + dθ. Y zz 00 πR r 2 Lr O sin θ dr dθ = z M P N3Q π 0 3 3 R sin θ dθ 0 dq r q O R X dr R π − cos θ 0 3 3 R3 2R 1+ 1 = = 3 3 1 2 Area of semicircle A = πR 2 = Fig. 2. Due to symmetry centroid must lie on y axis. consider an element at a distance r from the centre O of the semicircle.26. the centroid of the circle is at a distance 4R from the diametral axis. Centroid of a Semicircle Consider the semicircle of radius R as shown in Fig. 2. To find y . Let its distance from diametral axis be y .CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 83 = L y y OP = bM − M N 2 3h QP 2 3 z FGH h 0 y− y2 b dy h h I JK 0 = ∴ — y = bh 6 ydA 2 z A = bh 2 1 × 1 6 bh 2 ∴ — y = h 3 2h h from the base (or from the apex) of 3 3 Thus the centroid of a triangle is at a distance the triangle where h is the height of the triangle.

centroid lies on x axis. consider the elemental area shown.28.27. Area of the element Its moment about y axis = rdθ × dr × r cos θ = r cos θ drdθ 2 = rdθ dr Y dr r ∴ Total moment of area about y axis α R = −α 0 zz 3 dq q 2a a G X r cos θ drdθ 2 R α −α O Lr O = M P N3Q = Total area of the sector α R sin θ 0 R R3 2 sin α 3 Fig. 2. 2. Due to symmetry.84 ENGINEERING MECHANICS Centroid of Sector of a Circle Consider the sector of a circle of angle 2α as shown in Fig. To find its distance from the centre O.27 = −α 0 α = −α zz z LMN 2 rdrdθ r2 2 OP Q R dθ 0 R θ 2 = R 2α = α −α \ The distance of centroid from centre O = Moment of area about y axis Area of the figure 2R 3 sin α 2R 3 = sin α = 2 3α R α Centroid of Parabolic Spandrel Consider the parabolic spandrel shown in Fig. 2. Height of the element at a distance x from O is y = kx2 .

y ∴ ∴ k 2 a5 10 ka 4 ka 3 3a ÷ = 4 3 4 2 5 3 k a ka 3 ka 2 ÷ = 10 3 10 =h LM k x OP N2×5 Q 2 5 a 0 h = ka2 or k = h a2 y = Thus.2.28. 2. centroid of spandrel is FG 3a .CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 85 Width of element ∴ Area of the element = dx = kx2dx ∴ Total area of spandrel = z a 0 kx 2dx 3 a 0 = Moment of area about y axis = = L kx OP M3Q N = ka 3 3 Y y = kx 2 h L kx OP = M N4Q 4 z z a a 0 – y) G(x. – kx 2 dx × x kx 3 dx a O x a dx X 0 Fig. at x = a. 2.28 0 = Moment of area about x axis = α kx 2 = kx dx = 2 0 2 z z 0 a ka 4 4 dAy 2 z a 0 k2x4 dx = 2 = ∴ x = y = From the Fig. . 3h IJ H 4 10 K 3 3h h × a2 = 10 a 2 10 Centroids of some common figures are shown in Table 2.

86 ENGINEERING MECHANICS Table 2. etc. Assuming the area of the simple figure as concentrated at its centroid. triangle. In engineering practice. Centroid of Some Common Figures Shape Figure y N O Area Triangle h G x — h 3 bh 2 b y Semicircle G r x 0 4R 3π πR2 2 y πR2 4 Quarter circle G x R y 4R 3π 4R 3π Sector of a circle 2a G x 2R sin a 3α 0 αR 2 Parabola h G 2a x 0 3h 5 4ah 3 Semi parabola 3a 8 y 3h 5 2ah 3 Parabolic spandrel h G a x 3a 4 3h 10 ah 3 Centroid of Composite Sections So far. semicircle. use of sections which are built up of many simple sections is very common.2. its moment about an axis can be found by multiplying the area with distance of its centroid from the . To locate the centroid of composite sections. Such sections may be called as built-up sections or composite sections. the discussion was confined to locating the centroid of simple figures like rectangle. one need not go for the first principle (method of integration). circle. The given composite section can be split into suitable simple figures and then the centroid of each simple figure can be found by inspection or using the standard formulae listed in Table 2.2.

4 Locate the centroid of the T-section shown in the Fig.62 mm 4056 — — 200 g2 A2 12 Y All dimensions in mm Fig. Selecting the axis as shown in Fig. 20 Y All dimensions in mm Example 2.29. Ans.62 mm 4056 Movement about x axis Total area A1 y 1 + A2 y 2 A 1800 × 6 + 2256 × 106 = 61. . 70) respectively. 2. i.30. 10) and g2(0. 2.62 mm and y = 61. 106) L M N 1 200 − 12 2 a fOPQ O – y – x 150 12 g1 G A1 X x = = = y = = = Movement about y axis Total area A1 x1 + A2 x2 A 1800 × 75 + 2256 × 6 = 36.30 Thus. Solution. shown in Fig. 6) and that of A2 is: g 2 6 ..e.30.CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA 87 reference axis. x = 0. Solution. ∴ g2 (6. After determining moment of each area about reference axis. 12 + i. The centroid of A1 is g1 (75. 2. 2. ∴ The distance of centroid from top is given by: 100 – y A1 O g1 20 X G y = 100 × 20 × 10 + 20 × 100 × 70 100 × 20 + 20 × 100 g2 A2 100 = 40 mm Hence. the distance of centroid from the axis is obtained by dividing total moment of area by total area of the composite section. The centroid of A1 and A2 are g1(0. 2. centroid of T-section is on the symmetric axis at a distance 40 mm from the top. the centroid is at x = 36.62 mm as shown in the figure Ans.29 150 × 12 mm. Now the given T-section may be divided into two rectangles A1 and A2 each of size 100 × 20 and 20 × 100. Example 2.5 Find the centroid of the unequal angle 200 × Fig. 2. The given composite figure can be divided into two rectangles: A1 = 150 × 12 = 1800 mm2 A2 = (200 – 12) × 12 = 2256 mm2 Total area A = A1 + A2 = 4056 mm2 Selecting the reference axis x and y as shown in Fig.e.29. we can say due to symmetry centroid lies on y axis.

31 Solution. Selecting the co-ordinate system as shown in Fig. the composite section may be split into three rectangles A1 = 100 × 20 = 2000 mm2 Centroid of A1 from the origin is: Similarly 20 = 140 mm 2 A2 = 100 × 20 = 2000 mm2 y1 = 30 + 100 + 100 = 80 mm 2 A3 = 150 × 30 = 4500 mm2. due to symmetry centroid must lie on y axis. the centroid is on the symmetric axis at a distance 59.71 mm from the bottom as shown in Fig.6 Locate the centroid of the I-section shown in Fig. 2. x =0 Now. and y2 = 30 + 30 = 15 mm 2 A y + A2 y 2 + A3 y 3 y = 1 1 ∴ A 2000 + 140 + 2000 × 80 + 4500 × 15 = 2000 + 2000 + 4500 = 59. 2..e. Y 100 20 A1 g1 20 A2 100 g2 G – y 30 A3 150 g3 O X All dimensions in mm Fig. Ans.31.71 mm Thus. y3 = . 2.31.88 ENGINEERING MECHANICS Example 2.31. 2. i.

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