# Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Theory and Practice

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Examples of oscillation
ball on a spring pendulum rotating earth

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Pulse
The ball starts to oscillate as soon as it is pushed
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Oscillation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Movement of the ball over time Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Frequency Time From the duration of one oscillation T the frequency f (number of oscillations per second) is calculated: One full oscillation T 1  f T Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing The actual displacement a is termed as: a Time 0 90 180 270 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems  ni s A  a 360 Phase .

Quartz crystal Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems . music Bat.20 20 .Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Spectrum of sound Frequency range Hz Description Example 0 .000 > 20.000 Infrasound Audible sound Ultrasound Earth quake Speech.20.

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Atomic structures gas liquid solid • low density • weak bonding forces • medium density • medium bonding forces • high density • strong bonding forces • crystallographic structure Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Understanding wave propagation: Ball = atom Spring = elastic bonding force Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing T distance travelled Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing T During one oscillation T the wave front propagates by the distance : Distance travelled From this we derive: or Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems f  c  T c Wave equation .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Sound propagation Longitudinal wave Direction of oscillation Direction of propagation Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Sound propagation Transverse wave Direction of oscillation Direction of propagation Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Wave propagation Longitudinal waves propagate in all kind of materials. transverse waves travel at lower speeds. trans 330 m/s 1480 m/s 5920 m/s 3250 m/s Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems . Sound velocity mainly depends on the density and Emodulus of the material. Transverse waves only propagate in solid bodies. Air Water Steel. Due to the different type of oscillation. long Steel.

or an internal inclusion. wave propagation will change too: Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .g. the surface of a workpiece.e.Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Reflection and Transmission As soon as a sound wave comes to a change in material characteristics .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Behaviour at an interface Medium 1 Medium 2 Incoming wave Transmitted wave Reflected wave Interface Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Steel 1.87 Incoming wave 1.Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Reflection + Transmission: Perspex .0 0.87 Transmitted wave Reflected wave Perspex Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems Steel .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Reflection + Transmission: Steel .87 Reflected wave Perspex Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems Steel .Perspex Incoming wave 1.13 -0.0 Transmitted wave 0.

Steel Steel .Steel Copper .Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Amplitude of sound transmissions: Water .Air • Strong reflection with inverted phase • No transmission • Strong reflection • No reflection • Double transmission • Single transmission Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Piezoelectric Effect + Battery Piezoelectrical Crystal (Quartz) Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

due to a distortion of the crystal lattice Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Piezoelectric Effect + The crystal gets thicker.

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Piezoelectric Effect + The effect inverses with polarity change Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Piezoelectric Effect Sound wave with frequency f U(f) An alternating voltage generates crystal oscillations at the frequency f Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Piezoelectric Effect Short pulse ( < 1 µs ) A short voltage pulse generates an oscillation at the crystal‘s resonant frequency f0 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Reception of ultrasonic waves A sound wave hitting a piezoelectric crystal. Electrical energy Piezoelectrical crystal Ultrasonic wave Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems . induces crystal vibration which then causes electrical voltages at the crystal surfaces.

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Probes socket crystal Damping Delay / protecting face Electrical matching Cable Straight beam probe TR-probe Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems Angle beam probe .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing RF signal (short) 100 ns Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing RF signal (medium) Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Sound field Crystal Focus Accoustical axis Angle of divergence 6 D0 N Near field Far field Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Instrument 0 2 4 6 8 10 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Instrument - + Uh 0 2 4 6 8 10 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Instrument + Uh - 0 2 4 6 8 10 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Instrument + Uv + Uh 0 2 4 6 8 10 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Block diagram: Ultrasonic Instrument amplifier IP screen BE horizontal sweep clock pulser probe work piece Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Sound reflection at a flaw s Probe Sound travel path Flaw Work piece Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Plate testing IP BE F plate delamination 0 2 4 6 8 10 IP = Initial pulse F = Flaw BE = Backwall echo Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Wall thickness measurement s s Corrosion 0 2 4 6 8 10 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Through transmission testing Through transmission signal 1 T R 1 2 T R 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 Flaw Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .

t' ß = probe angle s = sound path a = surface distance a‘ = reduced surface distance d‘ = virtual depth d = actual depth T = material thickness x ß Work piece with welding a a' s Lack of fusion d Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .x d' = s cosß d = 2T .Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Weld inspection a = s sinß F s 0 20 40 60 80 100 a' = a .

single element probe Direct contact. Fixed delay dual element probe Through transmission Immersion testing Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Straight beam inspection techniques: Direct contact.

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Immersion testing 1 surface = sound entry backwall IP 2 water delay flaw IE 1 BE IP IE 2 BE F 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems .