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In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. Here is a list of examples of these tenses and their definitions: Simple Forms Present take/s Past took Progressive Forms am/is/are taking was/were taking Perfect Forms had taken will have taken Perfect Progressive Forms had been taking will have been taking

have/has taken have/has been taking

Future will/shall take will be taking

Simple Forms Present Tense
Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth. Example The mountains are tall and white. Every year, the school council elects new members. Pb is the chemical symbol for lead. Meaning Unchanging action Recurring action Widespread truth

Past Tense
Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized.

Example W.W.II ended in 1945.

Form Regular -ed past

Ernest Hemmingway wrote "The Old Irregular form Man and the Sea."

Future Tense

Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb. The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998. The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to. The surgeon is going to perform the first bypass in Minnesota. We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase to show future time. The president speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.)

Progressive Forms Present Progressive Tense
Present progressive tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense is formed by using am/is/are with the verb form ending in -ing. The sociologist is examining the effects that racial discrimination has on society.

Past Progressive Tense
Past progressive tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using was/were with the verb form ending in -ing. The explorer was explaining the lastest discovery in Egypt when protests began on the streets.

Future Progressive Tense
Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing. Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist language next week.

Perfect Forms Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present.This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized. Example Meaning

The researchers have traveled to many countries At an indefinite in order to collect more significant data. time Women have voted in presidential elections since 1921. Continues in the present

Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended.

Future Perfect Tense
Future perfect tense describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using will have with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting.

Perfect Progressive Forms Present Perfect Progressive
Present perfect progressive tense describes an action that began in the past, continues in the present, and may continue into the future. This tense is formed by using has/have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). The CEO has been considering a transfer to the state of Texas where profits would be larger.

Past Perfect Progressive
Past perfect progressive tense describes a past, ongoing action that was completed before some other past action. This tense is formed by using had been and the present perfect of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). Before the budget cuts, the students had been participating in many extracurricular activities.

Future Perfect Progressive
Future perfect progressive tense describes a future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. This tense is formed by using will have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years.

Reported Speech - Indirect Speech
Indirect Speech (also referred to as 'reported speech') refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English.

If the reporting verb (i.e. said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original. For example: He said the test was difficult. She said she watched TV every day. Jack said he came to school every day. If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (i.e. says) the tense is retained.
o o o

For example: He says the test is difficult. She has said that she watches TV every day. Jack will say that he comes to school every day. If reporting a general truth the present tense will be retained.
o o o

For example:The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important. Changing Pronouns and Time Signifiers When changing from direct speech to indirect speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence. For example:
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She said, "I want to bring my children." BECOMES She said she wanted to bring her children. Jack said, "My wife went with me to the show." BECOMES Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show.

It is also important to change time words (signifiers) when referring to present, past or future time to match the moment of speaking. For example:
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She said, "I want to bring my children tomorrow." BECOMES She said she wanted to bring her children the next day. Jack said, "My wife went with me to the show yesterday." BECOMES Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show the day before.

Indirect Questions When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/ no questions connect the reported question using 'if'. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question word. For example:
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She asked, "Do you want to come with me?" BECOMES She asked me if I wanted to come with her. Dave asked, "Where did you go last weekend?" BECOMES Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend. He asked, "Why are you studying English?" BECOMES She asked me why I was studying English.

The following chart includes sentences changed from quoted speech to reported speech using a past form. NoteSimple past, present perfect, and past perfect allchange to past perfect in the reported form. Check your understanding with this reported speech quiz: Reported Speech Transformations Quiz Advanced Reporting Verbs He said, "I live in Paris." He said he lived in Paris. He said, "I am cooking dinner." He said he was cooking dinner. He said, "I have visted London twice." He said he had visited London twice. He said, "I went to New York last week." He said he had gone to New York the week before. He said, "I had already eaten." He said he had already eaten. He said, "I am going to find a new job." He said he was going to find a new job. He said, "I will give Jack a call." He said he would give Jack a call.

How to Write an Essay
There are many ways to write an essay. However, the standard essay form follows the same basic patterns as discussed in this "how to".

Difficulty Level: Average

Time Required: 30 minutes

Here's How:
1. Select the topic of your essay. 2. Choose the central idea, or thesis, of your essay. For example: Information technology has revolutionized the way we work. 3. Outline your essay into introductory, body and summary paragraphs. 4. The introductory paragraph begins with an interesting sentence. For example: Home workers have grown from 150,000 to over 12 million in the past 5 years thanks to the wonders of the computer. 5. After this first sentence, add your thesis statement from above. 6. Use one sentence to introduce every body paragraph to follow. For example: The Internet has made this possible by extending the office into the home. 7. Finish the introductory paragraph with a short summary or goal statement. For example: Technological innovation has thus made the traditional workplace obsolete. 8. In each of the body paragraphs (usually two or three) the ideas first presented in the introductory paragraph are developed. 9. Develop your body paragraphs by giving detailed information and examples. For example: When the Internet was first introduced it was used primarily by scientists, now it is common in every classroom. 10.Body paragraphs should develop the central idea and finish with a summary of that idea. There should be at least two examples or facts in each body paragraph to support the central idea. 11.The summary paragraph summarizes your essay and is often a reverse of the introductory paragrah. 12.Begin the summary paragrah by quickly restating the principal ideas of your body paragraphs. For example: The Internet in the home, benefits and ease of use of modern computer systems... 13.The penultimate sentence should restate your basic thesis of the essay. For example: We have now passed from the industrial revolution to the information revolution. 14.Your final statement can be a future prediction based on what you have shown in the essay. For example: The next step: The complete disappearance of the workplace.

Tips:

1. Use strong verbs and avoid modals to state your opinion. It is better to write: The workplace has evolved than THe workplace seems to have evolved 2. Do not apologize for what you are saying. An essay is about your opinion. 3. Do not translate from your mother tongue, it will quickly get you into trouble!

Know your Auxiliary Verbs!
Auxiliary verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of a sentence. Here are a few examples of auxiliary verbs: Tom has lived in Boston for twenty years. They didn't come to the party last night. I was cooking dinner when you telephoned. What are you doing tomorrow afternoon? Knowing correct auxiliary verb usage is key to tense usage. Every tense takes an auxiliary form of the verb. There are three exceptions to this rule: 1. Simple present positive: She works at a bank. 2. Simple past positive: He bought a new TV last week. 3. Positive imperative statements: Hurry up! There are also a number of short forms that take ONLY the auxiliary form of the verb:

Yes / No answer short forms: Do you live in England? - No, I don't. Has she been to Paris? - Yes, she has.

Question tags: They enjoy learning English, don't they? He won't agree with me, will he?

Positive agreement / inclusion: I went to the beach last weekend.

Writing Descriptive Paragraphs
Descriptive paragraphs are often used to describe what a person looks and acts like. Read this example descriptive paragraph, notice how descriptive

paragraphs are arranged by putting together all the sentences about the same thing. Here is an example of a descriptive paragraph: I am forty years old, rather tall and I have blue eyes and short black hair. I wear casual clothes as I teach students in a relaxed atmosphere. I enjoy my job because I get to meet and help so many different people from all over the world. During my spare time, I like playing tennis which I play at least three times a week. I also love listening to classical music and I must admit that I spend a lot of money on buying new CDs! I live in a pretty seaside town on the Italian coast. I enjoy eating great Italian food and laughing with the likable people who live here. Written Exercise I Answer these questions about yourself on a piece of paper.
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How old are you? What do you look like? What kind of clothes do you wear? Why? What kind of job do you do? Do you like it? What are your favorite hobbies? Why do you like them? Where do you live? Do you like living there? Why or why not?

Written Exercise II Now that you have the information about yourself ready. Fill in the gaps in to complete this descriptive paragraph about yourself. I am _________ years old, I _________________ (your looks). I wear ________________ because ______________. I am a ______________. I like / don't like my job because _____________________. I enjoy ______________. I often _____________ (describe how often you do your hobby). I also like ________________ (write about another hobby) because ________________. I live in ____________. People in ____________ are ________________ . I enjoy / don't enjoy living in ______________ because ____________. Practice Ask your friends the same questions as in exercise I and write paragraphs about them. Practice Ask your friends the same questions as in exercise I and write paragraphs about them.

Conditionals
Listed below are examples, uses and formation of Conditionals followed by a quiz.

Examples Conditional 0 If I am late, my father takes me to school. She doesn't worry if Jack stays out after school. Conditional 1 If it rains, we will stay at home. He will arrive late unless he hurries up. Peter will buy a new car, if he gets his raise. Conditional 2 If he studied more, he would pass the exam. I would lower taxes if I were the President. They would buy a new house if they had more money. Conditional 3 If he had known that, he would have decided differently. Jane would have found a new job if she had stayed in Boston.

Usage Situations that are always true if something happens. NOTE This use is similiar to, and can usually be replaced by, a time clause using 'when' (example: When I am late, my father takes me to school.) Often called the "real" conditional because it is used for real or possible - situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met. NOTE In the conditional 1 we often use unless which means 'if ... not'. In other words, '...unless he hurries up.' could also be written, '...if he doesn't hurry up.'.

Often called the "unreal" conditional because it is used for unreal - impossible or improbable - situations. This conditional provides an imaginary result for a given situation. NOTE The verb 'to be', when used in the 2nd conditional, is always conjugated as 'were'.

Often referred to as the "past" conditional because it concerns only past situations with hypothetical results. Used to express a hypothetical result to a past given situation.

Structure Conditional 0 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a comma the present simple in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses. If he comes to town, we have dinner We have dinner if he comes to town.

Conditional 1 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a comma will verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If he finishes on time, We will go to the movies

we will go to the movies. if he finishes on time.

Conditional 2 is formed by the use of the past simple in the if clause followed by a comma would verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses. If they had more money, they would buy a new house. They would buy a new house if they had more money.

Conditional 3 is formed by the use of the past perfect in the if clause followed by a comma would have past participle in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses. If Alice had won the competition, life would have changed. Life would have changed if Alice had won the competition.

Punctuation
This guide provides instruction on the basic rules of using a period, comma, colon, semicolon, question mark and exclamation point. Each type of punctuation is followed by an explanation and example sentences for reference purposes. Period Use a period to end a complete sentence. A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and predicate. In British English a period is called a 'full stop'. Examples:

He went to Detroit last week. They are going to visit. Comma There are a number of different uses for a common in English. Commas are used to:

Separate a list of items. This is one of the most common uses of a comma. Notice that a comma is included before the conjunction 'and' which comes before the final element of a list. Examples: I like reading, listening to music, taking long walks, and visiting with my friends. They would like books, magazines, DVDs, video cassettes, and other learning materials for their library.

• •

Separate phrases (clauses). This is especially true after a beginning dependent clause or a long prepositional phrase.

Examples: In order to qualify for your certificate, you will need to take the TOEFL exam. Although he wanted to come, he wasn't able to attend the course.

Separate two independent clauses that are connected by a conjunction such as 'but'. Examples: They wanted to purchase a new car, but their financial situation would not allow it. I'd really enjoy seeing a film this evening, and I'd like to go out for a drink.

Introduce a direct quote (as opposed to indirect speech i.e. He said he wanted to come ...). Examples: The boy said, "My father is often away during the week on business trips." His doctor replied, "If you don't stop smoking, you run the risk of a heart attack."

Separate appositives (a noun, or noun phrase) or non-defining relative clauses. Examples: Bill Gates, the richest man in the world, comes from Seattle. My only sister, who is a fantastic tennis player, is in great shape.

Question Mark The question mark is used at the end of a question. Examples: Where do you live? How long have they been studying? Exclamation Point The exclamation point is used at the end of a sentence to indicate great surprise. It is also used for emphasis when making a point. Be careful not to use an exclamation point too often. Examples: That ride was fantastic! I can't believe he is going to marry her! Semicolon There are two uses for a semicolon:

To separate two independent clauses. One or both of the clauses are short and the ideas expressed are usually very similar. Examples: He loves studying; He can't get enough of school. What an incredible situation; it must make you nervous.

To separate groups of words that are themselves separated by commas. Examples: I took a holiday and played golf, which I love; read a lot, which I needed to do; and slept late; which I hadn't done for quite a while. They plan to study German, for their travels; chemistry, for their work; and literature, for their own enjoyment.

Colon A colon can be used for two purposes:

To provide additional details and explanation. Examples: He had many reasons for joining the club: to get in shape, to make new friends, to lose some weight, and to get out of the house.

She gave notice for the following reasons: bad pay, horrible hours, poor relations with colleagues, and her boss.

To introduce a direct quote (a comma can also be used in this situation).

Examples: He announced to his friends: "I'm getting married!" She cried out: "I never want to see you again!"

http://www.arts.uottawa.ca/writcent/hypergrammar/bldsent.htm l

What Is An Adjective?
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. for example, the adverb ``intricately'' modifies the adjective ``patterned.'' Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles (``the,'' ``a,'' ``an'') to be adjectives.

Possessive Adjectives

A possessive adjective (``my,'' ``your,'' ``his,'' ``her,'' ``its,'' ``our,'' ``their'') is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences: I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective ``my'' modifies ``assignment'' and the noun phrase ``my assignment'' functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``mine'' is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective ``your'' is used to modify the noun phrase ``phone number''; the entire noun phrase ``your phone number'' is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``yours'' is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. The bakery sold his favourite type of bread. In this example, the possessive adjective ``his'' modifies the noun phrase ``favourite type of bread'' and the entire noun phrase ``his favourite type of bread'' is the direct object of the verb ``sold.'' After many years, she returned to her homeland. Here the possessive adjective ``her'' modifies the noun ``homeland'' and the noun phrase ``her homeland'' is the object of the preposition ``to.'' Note also that the form ``hers'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood.

In this sentence, the possessive adjective ``our'' modifies ``way'' and the noun phrase ``our way'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``have lost''. Note that the possessive pronoun form ``ours'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents. Here the possessive adjective ``their'' modifies ``parents'' and the noun phrase ``their parents'' is the object of the preposition ``by.'' Note that the possessive pronoun form ``theirs'' is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard. In this sentence, the possessive adjective ``its'' modifies ``ball'' and the noun phrase ``its ball'' is the object of the verb ``chased.'' Note that ``its'' is the possessive adjective and ``it's'' is a contraction for ``it is.''

Demonstrative Adjectives
The demonstrative adjectives ``this,'' ``these,'' ``that,'' ``those,'' and ``what'' are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books. In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective ``that'' modifies the noun ``cord'' and the noun phrase ``that cord'' is the object of the preposition ``over.'' This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here ``this'' modifies ``apartment'' and the noun phrase ``this apartment'' is the subject of the sentence. Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these. In the subordinate clause, ``those'' modifies ``plates'' and the noun phrase ``those plates'' is the object of the verb ``preferred.'' In the independent clause, ``these'' is the direct object of the verb ``bought.'' Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.

Interrogative Adjectives

An interrogative adjective (``which'' or ``what'') is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, ``which'' can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, ``which'' modifies ``plants'' and the noun phrase ``which paints'' is the subject of the compound verb ``should be watered'': What book are you reading? In this sentence, ``what'' modifies ``book'' and the noun phrase ``what book'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``are reading.''

Indefinite Adjectives
An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.

The indefinite adjective ``many'' modifies the noun ``people'' and the noun phrase ``many people'' is the subject of the sentence. I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury. The indefinite adjective ``any'' modifies the noun ``mail'' and the noun phrase ``any mail'' is the direct object of the compound verb ``will send.'' They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound. In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun ``goldfish'' and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb ``found'': The title of Kelly's favourite game is ``All dogs go to heaven.'' Here the indefinite pronoun ``all'' modifies ``dogs'' and the full title is a subject complement.

What is a Conjunction?
You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example: I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready.

Co-ordinating Conjunctions
You use a co-ordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a coordinating conjunction: Lilacs and violets are usually purple. In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns. This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West. In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses. Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish. Here the co-ordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends."

Subordinating Conjunctions
A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction: After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause "After she had learned to drive." If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause "If the paperwork arrives on time." Gerald had to begun his thesis over again when his computer crashed. The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause "when his computer crashed." Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs. In this sentence, the dependent clause "because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs" is introduced by the subordinating conjunction "because."

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "so...as," and "whether...or." (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.) The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions: Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant. In this sentence, the correlative conjunction "both...and" is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: "my grandfather" and "my father". Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. Here the correlative conjunction "either...or" links two noun phrases: "a Jello salad" and "a potato scallop." Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school. Similarly, the correlative conjunction "whether ... or" links the two infinitive phrases "to go to medical school" and "to go to law school." The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub. In this example the correlative conjunction "not only ... but also" links the two noun phrases ("the school" and "neighbouring pub") which act as direct objects. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.

What is a Pronoun?
A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

Subjective Personal Pronouns
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they." In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence: I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack. You are surely the strangest child I have ever met. He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him. When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner. After many years, they returned to their homeland. We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m. It is on the counter. Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?

Objective Personal Pronouns
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them." In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun: Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him. The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced" and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with." After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can. The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw". The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, "Our leader will address you in five minutes."

In this sentence, the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address." Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market. Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet." Give the list to me. Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to". I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you. Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to". Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races. Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see."

Possessive Personal Pronouns
A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their." In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun: The smallest gift is mine. Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement. This is yours. Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement. His is on the kitchen counter. In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow. In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence. Ours is the green one on the corner. Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time. The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:

This must not continue. Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue." This is puny; that is the tree I want. In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker. Three customers wanted these. Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted".

Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun. You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals. "Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal. The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun: Which wants to see the dentist first? "Which" is the subject of the sentence. Who wrote the novel Rockbound? Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence. Whom do you think we should invite? In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite." To whom do you wish to speak? Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to." Who will meet the delegates at the train station? In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet". To whom did you give the paper? In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to." What did she say? Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."

Relative Pronouns

You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns. You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite whomever you like to the party. The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite". The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote". This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate." In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual. In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers." Whoever broke the window will have to replace it. Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke". The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet. In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate." I will read whichever manuscript arrives first. Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."

Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives. The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns: Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited". The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor. In this example ,"everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown." We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale. In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated." Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none. Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found." Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws. In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws." Give a registration package to each. Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."

Reflexive Pronouns
You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun: Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work. After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building. Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself. Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.

Intensive Pronouns
An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns: I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.

Building Phrases
A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate -- a group of grammatically-linked words with a subject and predicate is called a clause. The group "teacher both students and" is not a phrase because the words have no grammatical relationship to one another. Similarly, the group "bay the across" is not a phrase. In both cases, the words need to be rearranged in order to create phrases. The group "both teachers and students" and the group "across the bay" are both phrases. You use phrase to add information to a sentence and can perform the functions of a subject, an object, a subject or object complement, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. The highlighted words in each of the following sentences make up a phrase: She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night. In early October, Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs; unfortunately, squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed. Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.

Building Sentences
Some English sentences are very basic: Shakespeare was a writer. Einstein said something. The Inuit are a people. You could write an entire essay using only simple sentences like these: William Shakespeare was a writer. He wrote plays. It was the Elizabethan age. One play was Hamlet. It was a tragedy. Hamlet died. The court died too. It is not likely, however, that your essay would receive a passing grade. This chapter helps you learn to recognise different types of sentences and to use them effectively in your own writing.

Building Clauses
A clause is a collection of grammatically-related words including a predicate and a subject (though sometimes is the subject is implied). A collection of grammatically-related words without a subject or without a predicate is called a phrase. Clauses are the building blocks of sentences: every sentence consists of one or more clauses. This chapter will help you to recognise and (more importantly) to use different types of clauses in your own writing.

Definition of articles
English has two types of articles: definite (the) and indefinite (a, an.) The use of these articles depends mainly on whether you are referring to any member of a group, or to a specific member of a group: 1. Indefinite Articles: a and an A and an signal that the noun modified is indefinite, referring to any member of a group. These indefinite articles are used with singular nouns when the noun is general; the corresponding indefinite quantity word some is used for plural general nouns. The rule is:

• • • •

a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a user (sounds like 'yoozer,' i.e. begins with a consonant 'y' sound, so 'a' is used) some + plural noun: some girls

If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article:
• • •

a broken egg an unusual problem a European country (sounds like 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e. begins with consonant 'y' sound)

Note also that in English, the indefinite articles are used to indicate membership in a profession, nation, or religion.
• • •

I am a teacher. Brian is an Irishman. Seiko is a practicing Buddhist.

2. Definite Article: the The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is particular or specific. The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. Compare the indefinite and definite articles in the following examples:

Indefinite (a or an)
Singular a dog (any dog) an apple (any apple) some dogs (any dogs) some apples (any apples)

Definite (the)
the dog (that specific dog) the apple (that specific apple) the dogs (those specific dogs) the apples (those specific apples)

Plural

The is not used with non countable nouns referring to something in a general sense:

[no article] Coffee is a popular drink. [no article] Japanese was his native language. [no article] Intelligence is difficult to quantify.

The is used with non countable nouns that are made more specific by a limiting modifying phrase or clause:

The coffee in my cup is too hot to drink. The Japanese he speaks is often heard in the countryside. The intelligence of animals is variable but undeniable.

The is also used when a noun refers to something unique:

the White House the theory of relativity the 1999 federal budget

Note: Geographical uses of the Do not use the before:
• • • • • • •

names of countries (Italy, Mexico, Bolivia) except the Netherlands and the US names of cities, towns, or states (Seoul, Manitoba, Miami) names of streets (Washington Blvd., Main St.) names of lakes and bays (Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie) except with a group of lakes like the Great Lakes names of mountains (Mount Everest, Mount Fuji) except with ranges of mountains like the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn names of continents (Asia, Europe) names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands

Do use the before:
• • • •

names of rivers, oceans and seas (the Nile, the Pacific) points on the globe (the Equator, the North Pole) geographical areas (the Middle East, the West) deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas (the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Black Forest, the Iberian Peninsula)

Further Uses of Articles In addition, use of a, an, and the also depends on whether the noun following the article possesses one of these paired qualities:
• • •

Countable vs. non countable First vs. subsequent mention General vs. specific

1. Countable vs. Non countable A and an are used if the noun can be counted. I stepped in a puddle. (How many puddles did you step in? Just one. Therefore, use a.)

I drank a glass of milk. (Glasses of milk can be counted) I saw an apple tree. (Apple trees can be counted)

The must be used when the noun cannot be counted. I dove into the water. (How many waters did you dive into? The question doesn't make any sense because water is non countable. Therefore, use the.) I saw the milk spill. (How many milks? Milk cannot be counted)

I admired the foliage. (How many foliages? Foliage cannot be counted)

2. First vs. Subsequent Mention A or an is used to introduce a noun when it is mentioned for the first time in a piece of writing. The is used afterward each time you mention that same noun.

An awards ceremony at the Kremlin would not normally have attracted so much attention. But when it was leaked that Soviet President Konstantin Chernenko would be presenting medals to three cosmonauts, interest in the ceremony intensified. Time, Sept. 17, 1984.

Note: There is and there are can be used to introduce an indefinite noun at the beginning of a paragraph or essay.

There is a robin in the tree outside my window. When my cat jumps up on the desk, the robin flies away.

3. General vs. Specific A, an, and the can all be used to indicate that a noun refers to the whole class to which individual countable nouns belong. This use of articles is called generic, from the Latin word meaning "class."

A tiger is a dangerous animal. (any individual tiger) The tiger is a dangerous animal. (all tigers: tiger as a generic category)

The difference between the indefinite a and an and the generic a and an is that the former means any one member of a class while the latter means all of the members of a class. The omission of articles also expresses a generic (or general) meaning:

no article with a plural noun: Tigers are dangerous animals. (all tigers) no article with a non countable noun: Anger is a destructive emotion. (any kind of anger)

Omission of Articles While some nouns combine with one article or the other based on whether they are countable or non countable, others simply never take either article. Some common types of nouns that don't take an article are: 1. Names of languages and nationalities
α.Chinese β.English χ.Spanish δ.Russian

2. Names of sports
α.volleyball β.hockey χ.baseball

3. Names of academic subjects
α.mathematics β.biology χ.history δ.computer science

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