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Name: Date: 11/29/12
Background Information: Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter. Fluids like ketchup and blood follow this behavior. Another type of fluid is known as non-Newtonian in which the viscosity changes in response to different shear rates. we are able to classify different fluids. Fluids like water and oil are Newtonian meaning that at constant temperatures their viscosity constants change by very small amounts. and a viscometer. shear rate. Plastic fluids behave like solids when under static conditions meaning that a yield stress must be applied before flow can begin. liquid matter with respect to viscosity. although. Looking at viscosity. or. To enhance the results from the system. Such equations are listed below: Bingham: τ = τ0 + ηγ Casson: √ √ √ + (1+a)√ η NCA/CMA Casson: (1+a) √ = 2√ Power Law: τ = kγ Herschel-Bulkley: τ = τ0 + kγη Methods: The materials used for this experiment were a stock solution of Xanthan gum. A pseudoplastic fluid has decreasing velocity as the shear rate increases while a dilatant fluid has increasing velocity as the shear rate increases.Objectives: The objective of this lab is to analyze how fluids differ in properties like viscosity and how their behavior could be predicted by these properties. and the viscosity for any fluid for further analysis. One type of fluid is described as Newtonian in which there is a linear relationship between stress and strain and the graph passes through the origin. they differ graphically because blood there are several types of non-Newtonian fluids. a pipette. To begin. water. which accurately describes Newtonian fluids. to describe non-Newtonian fluids. plasticity. and elasticity. there are many mathematical models that could be used to describe the fluids behavior. This will be done through the use of a viscometer. three 5 mL tubes. particularly. which has the ability to measure the shear stress. All of the models are variations of Newton’s law of viscosity. A viscometer is an instrument that measures the friction present in a fluid making it a powerful tool in Newtonian fluid analysis. 1 mL of water was placed in the . the friction of a fluid causing a resistance of flow.
.62101019 22.87456293 19.87 2.87468593 30.71 4.4422221 25.55 4.83 7.9 16.viscometer cup and attached to the machine.68626967 17. the shear stress.08 8.41161152 29.016620626 3. With the motor off.71 0.58 4.06 5.13726448 Table 1: Results from viscometer and the Herschel Bulkley data fit.133072901 2. Next.66 SS 2.09 1.2 225 375 450 750 37.14723459 28. samples of a xanthan gum/water mixture had to be prepared.788854382 1.9 6.67231557 24. the RPM of the motor was changed to the next setting and measurements were made again.72 6.69 0. The second and third samples also had their measurements recorded in the same fashion but at 6 different speeds.38924964 22. and viscosity were measured and recorded.7 3.5 90 225 375 450 750 22. This was repeated one more time giving a total of 3 measurements for 3 different speeds.271085447 3.646207763 2.928730152 2.07 9.58 2.463736999 3.91 3.545584412 3.749285568 2.21 1.9 8.93739111 19. The first sample consisted of 4mL of xanthan gum and 1 mL of water. The motor for the system was turned on and.15 3.2 12. shear rate. after checking to see if the spring deflection was between 10 and 90%. Results: Water Water Water RPM 50 60 100 Visc 0.2 2.1 14.03644529 3. the second had 3 mL of xanthan gum and 2 mL of water.962322551 1.197726098 2.1 10.5 21.3726851 38. From these measurements.22 1.22 14. analysis could be performed through graphical means.98 3.35 2.974841766 2.1 3. and the third had 1 mL of xanthan gum and 4 mL of water.51922508 39.7 15.63288754 40.24859546 Gum/Water mixture 1:4mL 30 1:4mL 50 1:4mL 60 1:4mL 100 3:2mL 3:2mL 3:2mL 3:2mL 3:2mL 3:2mL 4:1mL 4:1mL 4:1mL 4:1mL 4:1mL 4:1mL 5 12 30 50 60 100 3 4 10 20 50 60 1.48 9.31716887 17.244994432 SqRt cPSR 16.2 3.760681686 1.812472222 1.5 30 75 150 375 450 1.35 2. After mixing each solution thoroughly.64 3.46049894 17.624807681 1.024922359 16. 1 mL of the first sample was placed in the viscometer and the measurements were recorded in the same fashion as the water but at 4 different speeds.04 SR 375 450 750 SqRt SS 1.68585522 32.860051813 4.25 6.
08 1.16 1.9999 Gum & Water (3:2) R² = 0.18 1.9998 Gum & Water (1:4) R² = 0.22 1. Shear Rate 4.9996 Gum & Water (4:1) R² = 0. shear rate.9988 1:4 Gum to Water ratio 1. Water R² = 0.24 1.Shear Stress vs.12 1.06 0 200 400 Shear Rate (sec-1) Figure 2: Shear rate vs.2 Viscosity (cP) 1. viscosity for the 1:4mL mixture.5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Sqrt(cP*SR) Figure 1: Square root of shear stress vs.5 Sqrt(SS) 3 2.14 1.1 1. 1:5 Gum to Water ratio 600 800 .5 2 1.5 4 3.
4:1 Gum to Water Ratio y = 0.0001x2 .1432 0.5424 0.9463 Concentration of Xanthan Gum Constants k η τ0 r2 0.7091 1.6998 -1.9985 0.9986 Table 2: Constants used for the Herschel Bulkley fit calculated in Matlab.3:2 Gum to Water ratio 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 200 400 Shear Rate (sec-1) Figure 3: Shear rate vs.0. Viscosity (cP) 3:2 Gum to Water ratio 600 800 4:1 Gum to Water Ratio 16 14 12 Viscosity (cP) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Shear Rate (sec-1) Figure 4: Shear rate vs.2 0.853 R² = 0.08411 0.282 0.6 0.1379 0.8 0.084 1 0. . viscosity for the 4:1mL mixture.0755x + 14.5781 0. viscosity for the 3:2mL mixture.
(Original 1:4mL) Poly.0755x + 14. This all leads to the ultimate conclusion that it is a pseudo plastic. Do any of the plots show a yield stress? If so. increasing viscosity is seen with decreasing shear rates meaning that a greater force is needed to create deformations.Shear Stress vs.9995 R² = 0. skip to the next question. Shear Rate 18 Shear Stress (dynes/cm^2) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 200 400 Shear Rate (sec^-1) Figure 5: Shear stress vs. the equation would be: y = 0.999 Original 1:4mL HB Fit 1:4mL Original 3:2mL HB Fit 3:2mL Original 4:1mL R² = 0. As gathered from Figure 4.853 . derive an equation to predict the yield stress as a function of gum and water concentrations. Demonstrate whether the data supports the hypothesis that xanthan gum solutions are pseudoplastic. (Original 3:2mL) 600 800 Poly. the viscosities were not the same as the shear rate increased. If not.0. The graphs in Figure 2-4 don’t exhibit a yield stress.0001x2 . (Original 4:1mL) Questions: Do you observe the same viscosity at a given shear rate when increasing as you did when decreasing shear rates? No. Looking at the Table 1. R² = 0. Derive a polynomial equation describing viscosity as a function of shear rate over the range of values measured. shear rate with a Herschel Bulkley fit and polynomial fit.9919 HB Fit 4:1mL Poly.
exhibited behavior of a non-Newtonian fluid and more specifically. There are some cases where the equation over shot the actual values but they were still very close. If blood was used in this experiment. the “η” represents the flow behavior index. . and “τ0” represents the stress needed to induce flow. It is a better fit because it follows the data more closely. however. Is there any physical meaning that can be given to the coefficients of a polynomial or the Herschel-Bulkley equation? If so. the viscosity decreased which is a major characteristic of a pseudo-plastic. Conclusions: The graph clearly indicated that water was a Newtonian fluid. it too would be classified as a pseudo-plastic because the components in whole blood like hemoglobin and blood cells increase the resistance to flow. a pseudo-plastic fluid. Varying the concentration of the fluid to change the coefficients to desirable ones. what are they? How could you systematically vary the material to obtain a coefficient you needed? How is the Herschel-Bulkley equation better or worse than a polynomial curve fit? The Herschel Bulkley equation seems to fit much better graphically but comparing the R2 values the polynomials fit better for the 3:2mL concentration and 4:1mL concentration as seen in Figure 5 and Table 2. The Xanthan gum. as seen by its near linear relationship. The “k” represents the flow consistency index. This conclusion was based mainly on the fact that as the shear rate increased.Compare the polynomial equation goodness of fit (r2) with that given by fitting a HerschelBulkley equation to the data.
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