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Name:_______________________ Date assigned:______________ Band:________
Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute

Cofunctions and an Introduction to Trigonometric Identities

Section 0: Warm Up

What are the three Pythagorean trigonometric identities?

Section 1: Cofunctions

On the left is a right triangle. Draw in the right angle symbol at the right
angle.

One angle is labeled o (the Greek letter alpha).

In the diagram, write in the value of the other angle.

Now were going to come up with some relationships. You are going to be given the basic trig functions of o below.
How do they relate to the trig functions of the other angle?

(a) _____________ sin ____ o = & _____________ cos ____ o =

(b) _____________ tan ____ o = & _____________ cot ____ o =

(c) _____________ sec ____ o = & _____________ csc ____ o =

Because of these beautiful relationships, these trig functions are called co-functions.

(Ever notice COsine, COtangent, COsecant?)

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Introductory Problems:

So if I wanted to rewrite sin(20 )
o
as a cosine, I could simply write: cos(_____)

And if I wanted to rewrite ) csc( / 11 t as a secant, I could simply write: sec(_____)

Practice Problems (from Section 8.1 #19-28): Find the exact value of the expression without a calculator

1.
cos10
sin80
o
o
2.
2 2
1 cos 20 cos 70
o o

3.
2 2
1 tan 5 csc 85
o o
+ 4. sec35 csc55 tan35 cot 55
o o o o

5. What transformations does the parent function cos( ) y x = undergo when graphing cos(90 )
o
y x = ?

6. Below is a graph of cos( ) y x = . Put it through the transformations you listed above to graph cos(90 )
o
y x = .

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Section 2: Introduction to Trigonometric Identities

Everyone at your table should take out your graphing calculators. Did one of you forget it? TEN LASHES WITH A WET
NOODLE.

Each person should take a different one of these equations and enter it into Y1. DONT GRAPH IT THOUGH. Double check
your equation to make sure you didnt mis-enter anything or forget a parentheses!

Now BEING SURE TO HIDE YOUR GRAPH FROM THE REST OF YOUR MISCREANT GROUP MEMBERS use ZOOM TRIG and
graph. THIS IS FOR YOUR EYES ONLY.

A. tan
4
1 y x
t | |
+
|
\ .
= + B. 2 cos( ) sec
4
x y x
t |
+ =
|
|
\ .

C.
2cos( )
cos( ) sin( )
x
y
x x
=

D.
1 tan( )
1
1 tan( )
x
y
x
+
= +

Okay, are you all graphed? On the count of three there will be the big reveal.
One

TWO

REVEAL!

Whoa. Really? REALLY?

Yes, really.

The reason this is happening is because: _________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________.

1. Think independently (not in your group). What do you suspect will happen if you graph:
2
2
sin ( )
1 cos ( )
x
y
x
=

3. Everyone in the group should graph this function (ZOOM TRIG!). You can enter
2
sin ( ) x by either typing
(sin( ))(sin( )) x x or (sin( 2 ))^ x . Are you surprised by what you see? Now that you see it, can you explain what
is showing up?

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What this all is showing you is that sometimes two functions are equal even if their equations look very different.
They are identical to each other. Youve seen this a million times before

For example:
2 2
) ( 3 y x = + and
4 2
6 9 y x x + = + are the exact same when graphed. The points which make one
true also are the same points that make the second one true. The way you can see that is by simple algebraic
manipulation.

We call two expressions which look different but are essentially the same identities. Duh, they are identical. Since
we are dealing with trigonometry, we call identities with trigonometry (this is really shocking ready?):
trigonometric identities.

Check yoself: Graph the following on geogebra and see if you cant generate simple trigonometric identities:

(a) tan( ) cot( ) y x x = is equivalent to _________________________________

(b)
cot
csc
x
y
x
= is equivalent to _________________________________

(c) sec( )sin( ) y x x = is equivalent to _________________________________

Check yoself twice:

Are the following two equations identical? Graph them on geogebra to find out.

(a)
1 sin( ) cos( )
cos( ) 1 sin( )
x x
y
x x

=
+
and tan y x = ? YES / NO

(b) ln tan y x = and ln sin ln cos y x x = ?
1
YES / NO

(c)
2
(csc 1)(sec tan )
4(3)
csc sec
x x x
y
x x
+
= and
2
(2 3cos ) y x = ? YES / NO

(d)
3 3
sin cos
sin cos
x x
y
x x
+
=
+
and sin cos y x x = ? YES / NO

As we go through the next few days, we will be working to verify some identities are true.

Home Enjoyment:
Section 8.1#19, 20, 22, 25, 26, 27
Section 7.3 #9-18 (all) [Example 1 from the section should help you]

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Absolute value in geogebra is as follows: abs(x)