Very Low Frequency (VLF

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Michelle M. Gomez and April Rose G. Bogñalos

VLF Bandwidth  3kHz – 30 kHz Wavelengths  10km – 100 km .

VLF • can diffract around large obstacles • can propagate as a ground wave following the curvature of the Earth • has very low path attenuation. 2-3 dB per 1000 km • atmospheric noise is high in the band • VLF waves can penetrate seawater to a depth of roughly 10 to 40 metres (30 to 130 feet) .

VLF • propagates in vertical polarization .

VLF Allocation Below 9 kHz – International Telecommunication Union 11kHz-30kHz – Navy Communication Military communication(myriametre wave) Submarine communications Radio navigation services .

VLF Stations • worldwide radio signal propagation .

VLF Stations .

VLF Stations .

Each time the current changes direction. • Receiver coil .inner coil loop of wire. The polarity of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the coil of wire. .outer coil loop of wire. the polarity of the magnetic field changes.VLF as Metal Detector Induction balance(3kHz-30KHz) • Transmitter coil .

END .

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