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Power System|Views: 52|Likes: 1

Published by Swasti Ranjan Khuntia

Book for power system basics

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/122903659/Power-System

04/29/2013

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REVIEW OF POWER NETWORK FUNDAMENTALS 1.1 Introduction The purpose of this course is to introduce a number of engineering concepts involved in the planning, operation and control of large power systems that are affected by economical, social and environmental constraints. Edison established the first electric power company in the US in 1880. The power generation was d.c. The first a.c. transmission of power was around 1896 in Buffalo, New York. Currently the installed generation capacity in the US is about 2.5 KW/person. 1.2 Voltage structure of the electric energy system An electric power system, even the smallest one, constitutes an electric network of vast complexity. The one factor that determines the system structure more than any others is the system size. By pointing out the great diversity in power system magnitude, we wish to make it clear that there are no general rules regarding system structure that apply to all systems. It is possible, however, to discern certain similarities characterizing the majority of power systems. As we shall see later, power transmittability increases and transmission losses decreases with increasing voltage level. The larger the blocks of power to be transmitted and the greater the distance over which they must be wheeled, the higher must be the operating voltage chosen. The US standard operating voltages are given in Table 1.1.

EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals

1

Table 1.1

Voltage Class

Low

**Nominal line voltage
**

120/240 V (single phase) 208 V 240 V 480 V 600 V 2.4 KV 4.16 KV 4.8 KV 6.9 KV 12.47 KV 13.2 KV 13.8 KV 23.0 KV 24.94 KV 34.5 KV 46.0 KV 69.0 KV 115 KV 138 KV 161 KV 230 KV 345 KV 500 KV 765 KV

Medium

High

Extra High

EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals

2

1.3 Generation Transmission (138 KV and higher) Subtransmission (23 KV-138 KV) Distribution (upto 23 KV) Transmission Level Transmission Level Subtransmission Level Very large customers TRANSFORMERS Large customers Distribution Level Small customer Medium customers EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 3 .

These units have low efficiency (energy waste). which heats a section of the earth's crust and warms underground pools of water (geothermal reservoirs). oil) Hydro Nuclear Renewable: 75 % 11 % 13 % 1 % Fossil Units (coal. produces heat or steam. Hydropower supplies 49% of all renewable energy used in the U. gas): The heat is obtained from burning fuel from steam of high temperature and pressure. wind.1. biomass. the height from turbines in the power plant to the water surface created by the dam.converts the energy in flowing water into electricity. where steam is either conveyed directly from the geothermal reservoir or from water heated to make steam and piped to the power plant. Nuclear Units: The heat source is the nuclear reactor that generates high grade heat to produce steam. Resources such as geothermal. minute amount of fuel. Geothermal. Geothermal energy may be used to produce electricity. The thermal energy transformed into mechanical form in turbine that will drive on electric generator. Renewable (Green Power Sources): nuclear fusion. With a capacity of more than 92. small hydro and solar generating technologies could sell their power production into the green energy market. the more electricity is produced.S. high construction time lag. The greater the flow and head. A summary of major renewable sources of electricity is given as follows: Geothermal energy: Geothermal energy is the heat transferred from the inner part of the earth to underground rocks or water located relatively close to the earth’s surface.enough electricity to meet the energy needs of 28 million households . which is located several miles below the earth’s surface. wind. oil. high initial cost. The dam construction cost is high which is usually combined with irrigation projects. No air pollution. Hydro Units: Hydropower . tidal.4 Generation Mix Fossil (Coal. The quantity of electricity generated is determined by the volume of water flow and the amount of head. The Geysers Geothermal Field located in the northern California is one source of geothermal power where this power plant is EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 4 . low reliability (very complex).S. the hot underground water may flow out to form hot springs. Molten rock (magma).000 MW . geothermal. By making an opening through the rock to the surface. It is the probable winner in future of electric power. Geothermal reservoirs may provide a steady stream of hot water that is pumped to the earth's surface by drilling wells deep below the surface of the earth.the U. gas. Solar. pollution problem and are difficult to control. problems with radiation. or it may boil to form geysers. or directly to consumers with a higher price. is the world's leading hydropower (including pumpedstorage) producer.

They power many of small calculators and wrist watches.22 per gallon. Instead of conventional fuels. Wind energy installations are going up across the country as generating companies realize the benefits of adding clean. fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. Wind energy projects provide cost-effective and reliable energy in the U.parabolic troughs. including generating electricity. which is enough to meet the annual electricity needs of 1 million people. Biomass energy . reliable wind energy to their resource portfolios. National renewable energy laboratory (NREL) researches have helped lower the cost of ethanol fuel from these sources to $1. The target of current researches is 70¢ per gallon. Today. Biomass power plants are fully dispatchable (i.is one of the most promising renewable energy technologies.S. powering communications equipment. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs. The National Photovoltaics Center at NREL is leading federal efforts to improve performance and lower costs. Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies .convert light energy into electricity. These technologies generate high temperatures by using mirrors to concentrate the sun’s energy up to 5000 times its normal intensity.considered the largest source of geothermal energy in the world and produces as much power as two large coal or nuclear power plants.the energy contained in plants and organic matter .S. while another 650 enterprises generate electricity with biomass for their own use as cogenerators.to power electric generators. Hydropower and biomass plants provide baseload power to utilities. and abroad. Solar-thermal electricity is the least cost electricity for grid-connected applications available today. power towers. In the last few decades. or crops grown specifically for energy production . low-cost. PV systems are already an important part of our lives.agricultural residues. In a surprising and increasing number of cases. Photovoltaic (PV) systems . While not currently competitive for utility applications in the United States.most commonly known as solar cells . heating homes.convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. This heat is then used to generate electricity for a variety of market applications. PV power is the cheapest form of electricity for performing many tasks. the cost of electricity from STE can be competitive in international EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 5 . and dish/engine systems . the technology uses biomass fuels . The U. and it has the potential for further. biomass power has become the second largest renewable source of electricity after hydropower. About 350 biomass power plants with a combined rated capacity of 7000 MW feed electricity into the nation's power lines. biomass energy account for nearly 45% of renewable energy used in the United States. More complicated PV systems provide electricity for pumping water. they operate on demand whenever electricity is required). Photovoltaics are cost competitive in rural and remote areas around the world. ranging from remote power needs as small as a few kilowatts up to grid-connected applications of 200 MW or more. wind industry currently generates about 3. Costs have dropped from 90¢ per KWh in 1980 to 22¢ today. significant cost reductions.5 billion KWh of electricity each year.e. and even lighting our homes and running our appliances.

OTEC system can produce a significant amount of power as long as the temperature between the warm surface water and the cold deep water differs by about 20°C (36°F). the industrial sector 11 trillion BTUs and utilities 500 billion BTUs. The oceans are thus a vast renewable resource. The goal for advanced STE technologies is to be below 5¢/kWh. annually uses more than 71 trillion BTUs of solar energy (1 million BTU equals 90 pounds of coal or 8 gallons of gasoline). where the price of energy is higher. However.S. The residential and commercial sectors use 60 trillion BTUs. The U.and domestic niche applications. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). OTEC is very promising as an alternative energy resource for tropical island communities that rely primarily on imported fuel. OTEC systems use the ocean's natural thermal gradient . with the potential to help us produce 1013 of watts of electric power.the fact that the ocean's layers of water have different temperatures .to drive a power producing cycle. is an energy technology that converts solar radiation to electric power. The economics of energy production have delayed the financing of OTEC plants. EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 6 .

1.5 Fundamentals of Power v(t) = Vrms Sin ( t + ) i(t) = Irms Sin ( t + ) p(t) = v(t) .= Vrms . Sin ( t + ) .) = Power factor angle Cos ( .) + j Vrms .) = Power factor S Q P Power Triangle EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 7 . I = Irms (Phasors) S = V I* = Vrms .) S = Complex Power (Volt Amp) P = Real Power (Watts) Q = Reactive Power (Vars) ( . Sin ( t + ) i(t) v(t) V = Vrms . Irms Cos ( . Irms = P + jQ Complex Power . Irms . Irms Sin ( . i(t) = Vrms .

) = -90 P=0 Q = -Vrms .) < 90 P>0 Q>0 V Lagging I Leading I V EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 8 . Irms I C V I /( j C ) V ( .)=0 P = Vrms . Irms Q=0 V I L V ( j L) I ( .V RI V R I ( .) = 90 P=0 Q = Vrms . Irms I C R V -90 < ( .) < 0 P>0 Q<0 V L R I 0 < ( .

I 3.62 EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 9 . I 2 cos( t 10) .07 10 V. v(t ) 150 2 In phase quantities 150 V 10 V. b) Determine load’s power factor.54 50 A a) S VI * (106. Assume 150 v(t ) cos( t 10) 2 5 i (t ) cos( t 50) 2 a) Determine the complex power drawn by load.24 324.97 P jQ 50 ) 375. c) Find the amount of additional reactive shunt capacitance across the load that would change power factor to 0.9 (lagging).24 60 187.Example 1. i (t ) 5 2 cos( t 50) 5 2 50 A V 106.97 60o 187.54 375. I V Load 1.62 j 324.07 10 )(3.

IS VS Z1 Z2 .03 ) 70.5 Since current is lagging the voltage c) Pf 0.68 36.03 )(3.03 2.5 lagging Pf new 0.16 Ω IS VS PS RT I S *ZT 1100 2.b) Pf cos[ 10 ( 50)] cos(60) 0.84 Notice that P (real power has not changed upon connecting the capacitor) Qnew P tan 187.86 var Reactive power supplied by the capacitor is QC 324. find Vs and Is. P1 and P2.98 (19. Z1 Z2 3 j4 Ω 10 Ω If Ps = 1100 W.86 234.62 tan 25.84 90.13 13. IS 3Ω VS Z1 Z 2 10 Ω j4 Ω Ps = 1100W (3 j 4)(10) ZT 3 j 4 10 50 53.6 17.21 36.98 j 2.11 var __________________________________________ Example 2.9 cos cos 1 0.68 36.21 IS 19.21 19.03 36.69 0 V EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 10 .97 90.9 25.1 3.

Z 1* P1 = 600 W Similarly.692 10 500 VA ___________________________________________ 1.69) 2 3 j4 70.13 1000 53.6 3 Phase Network (Balanced network) ca c ab Va V 0 Vab 3V 30 Vb V 120 Vbc 3V 3V 150 90 a Vc V 120 Vca b bc The sum of three phasors is zero Per Phase Analysis of balanced system a Source b c a’ Load a y-connected n ---(neutral line carries zero current)---b’ n’ c’ c b EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 11 .69) 2 10 70.692 5 53. S1 V S2 (70.13 600 j800 VA S2 V S2 Z 2* P2 = 500 W (70.

Z c Z b .Z a ) /( Z a ) Z c .Z bc ) /( Z ab ( Z bc .Z b Z b .Per phase model a a’ n n’ 1. Z b . Z c are given) Z ab ( Z a .Z ca ) /( Z ab ( Z ab .Z a ) /( Z c ) Z c .Z a ) /( Z b ) Za Zca Zc c Zb Zbc b Zab Z bc Z ca EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 12 .Z c Z c .Z c Z b .Z b ( Z a . Z ab are given) Za Zb Zc ( Z ab .Z b ( Z a . Z bc .Z ca ) /( Z ab Z bc Z bc Z bc Z ca ) Z ca ) Z ca ) a ( Z a .7 .Y Transformation a Za Zca Zc c Zb Zbc b Zab ( Z ca .

Example: (Balanced system) a’ j1 1 0 ZC n ZL c b j1 j1 b’ ZC ZL n’ ZL ZC a c’ Assume Z L j10 ZC cap j10 Find Ia.3125 V bn = 1 -120 30 V cn = 1 120 -90 V c’a’ = 2.25 = -j5 90 0 = Z Load I a (j.2165 S Load = 3 V a’n I a * = 3 x (.165 30) / -j 0. Z Load ZC / 3 j10 / 3 = (j10) || (-j 10/3) = -j5 0 / (j1 – j5) = .25) 30 = 2.10 = .165 V a’b’ = 2.165 30 120 -90) I Cap = (2. SLoad. Solution: Transform where Z C Ia = 1 V a’n to Ycap.165 150 (90+120) Ia = .25) = 1.25 90 Ib = .165 V b’c’ = 2.25 (90-120) Ic =1 EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 13 .25 V a’b’ = 3 (1. ICap.

After adding the capacitor. We can adjust the power factor by adding – to the circuit.) = Cos –1 (0. Determine the KVA rating of the capacitor in order to increase power factor to 0.load draws 25 KVA (3 phase) at 0. Also.6 A (with caps) EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 14 .96 Kvar 53 V 53 S Q S ST P Q QT QC I P S = 3 V I* I = 25000/ 3 (110) = 131.) = QT / P So. Solution: ( .900 ST = 3 V I * I * = S T / 3 (110) = 92.000 + j 92.QT = 10.21 A (without caps) By adding capacitor to the load.6) = 15 KW Q =(25) Sin 53 = 19.85 lagging. So. ( .78 tan ( . (tan 31.29 Kvar And QC = Q .6) = 53 S = 25 KVA P = (25)(. calculate the line current after adding the capacitor.67 Kvar.Example: Power Factor Correction: The aim is to reduce power factor angle to zero in order to minimize the reactive power consumption. the real power consumption of the system will not change.6 lagging power factor from a 110 V (line voltage) source.85) = 31. inorder to reduce ( . QT = (15).) = 0 Example: A 3.) = Cos –1 (0. S T = P + j QT =15.78) = 9.

then Vab 10 208 30 then.Example: Assume Ia = 10 A is in phase with Vbc = 208 volts. 208 3 120 V. Determine the load if a) Y connected b) Δ connected Ia a VLL=208 b Balanced Load c Solution: VLL = 208 V. V Assume Van Ia 120 0 . 90 A (since it is in phase with Vbc) a) Y connected load V an 120 0 Ia Z Z 10 90 b) Δ connected load Ia Iab Ib Ibc Ic Ica j12 Ω Using KCL. I a I ab I ca EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 15 .

In other words.So if we assume the following relation among the balanced three phase currents.77 60 Since Vab Z Vab I ab 208 30 then. 3) Actual values of quantities differ significantly depending on the rating or capacity of the system. EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 16 . PER UNIT SYSTEM Definition: Per Unit = actual / base We summarize the advantages of the pu system as follows: 1) The difference between the single phase and the 3 phase values will be eliminated. I = S/ V and Z = V(2) / S All laws of circuits apply to PU quantities as well. I a I ab I ca 3I ab Accordingly. 2) The turns ratios of transformers will be eliminated. I ab Ia 3 30 10 3 90 30 5. 2. This makes it possible to estimate unknown pu quantities. we will be able to determine the base values for all quantities.1 Single Phase: If we specify the base values for power (Sb) and voltage (Vb). j36 ______________________________________________________ 2. the pu values are fairly constant. However. Ica Ica Iab -30o Iab Ibc Ibc 30 Ia Then.

AS WE SPECIFY THE VALUES FOR PU. we divide the first equation by the second one. Vb = b Ib if. S / Sb = VPU IPU or. ____________________________________ EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 17 .2 Per Unit For a 3-phase system: base values: Sb(3) = 3Sb Vb(3) = 3Vb(1) per unit values: SPU(3) = S(3) / Sb(3) = 3S(1) / 3Sb(1) = SPU(1) (indicating that the single phase value is the same as the three phase value once specified in PU) VPU(3) = V(3) / Vb(3) = 3V(1) / 3Vb(1) = VPU(1) (indicating that the single phase value is the same as the three phase value once specified in PU) Zb(3) = Vb(3) . WE DO NOT HAVE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SINGLE PHASE AND 3 – PHASE VALUES. SPU = VPU IPU SPU = PPU + j QPU . V / Vb = I / V PU = PU IPU b Ib then. (this is the per unit equation which follows the Ohm’s law) Also.For Example: If V = I (Ohm’s law) then for base values. where PPU = P / Sb and QPU = Q / Sb _________________________________________ 2. S = VI (amplitude) and Sb = Vb Ib Hence. Vb(3) / Sb(3) = ( 3Vb(1) ) 2 / 3Sb(1) = (Vb(1))2 / Sb(1) = Zb(1) (indicating that the single phase value is the same as the three phase value once specified in PU) SO.

S1b = S2b V2 I1pu r V1pu x I2pu V2pu 2. Z1pu = Z1/ Z1b = Z2/ n2/ Z2b/ n2 = Z2/ Z2b = Z2pu So we can determine the pu values on either side of the transformer.3 For a transformer: I1 I2 V1 1:n Assume losses are negligible (ideal transformer). If we define Vb and Sb for side 1. V2pu = V2 / V2b = nV1 / nV1b = V1 / V1b = V1pu Since Z2b = n2Z1b Then.4 Change of per unit base: Z = Z /Zb = Z /(Vb) 2/Sb If we are planning to determine the pu values in a new base.2. then V2b = nV1b Since V1pu = V1 / V1b Then. Z0 = Z /(Vb0) 2/Sb0 Zn = Z /(Vbn) 2/Sbn old base new base 18 EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals .

Since Z (actual value) is the same in both cases. we must consider a common base for the entire network and determine the pu values of all components using the common base.000 KVA Voltage ratio 13. For an ideal transformer.000 KVA 10. However. Zn = Z0 (Vb0/Vbn) 2 (Sbn/Sb0) Example: Show the pu diagram Assume the new base is 138 KV.8/138 KV 138/69 KV A-B B-C EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 19 . the KV base will change according to the turns ratios of transformers. the MVA base will be the same throughout the network. Find the value of impedance on 3 different bases. 10.000 KVA at B. The old base values (input dada) on A and C sides are given as follows: Power 10. 1 : 10 2:1 R=300 A B C Solution: In order to represent the pu diagram of this network.

The base values for voltage.000. EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 20 .000 KVA (13. Again: We list the advantages of the pu system as follows: 4) The difference between the single phase and the 3 phase values will be eliminated.1)2 = 12 (actual value) (actual value) Rpu = 300/476 = 0.000)2/10. 5) The turns ratios of transformers can be eliminated.000 = 1900 C 138 (0.000 KVA (138. This makes it possible to estimate unknown pu quantities.63 Rpu = 12/19 = 0.000 = 476 Then the actual value of R: C: B: A: R = 300 R = 300(2)2 = 1200 R = 1200(. we can eliminate the transformers and their turns ratios in our computations as the pu value of R is the same based on 3 different bases. the pu values are fairly constant.000.8*1000)2/10.63 Rpu = 1200/1900 = 0. power and impedance at A.000 KVA (69.000 = 19 B 138 KV 10.63 So.5) = 69 KV 10. 6) Actual values of quantities differ significantly depending on the rating or capacity of the system.8 KV 10.8/138) = 13.000) 2/10.000. B and C are: A (138)(13. However.

25 pu XT5 = XT6 = 0. 50 MVA in the 40 Solution: XG1 = XG2 = 0. j40 1 2 j20 j20 3 G1 : G2 : M3 : : : 20MVA. Assume the base is 138 KV. 18KV 20MVA. 13.2 X = 0.105 pu X20 = 20/381 = 0.33 pu Base line impedance = (138)2/50 = 381 X40 = 40/381 = 0. 138 /20 15MVA. 138 /13.333 pu XT1 = XT2 = XT3 = XT4 = 0.1 line.2 X = 0.053 pu EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 21 .8KV 20MVA.Example: Determine the pu diagram for the following system. 18KV 30MVA.2 (18/20)2 (50/20) = 0.8 X = 0.1 (50/20) = 0.1 X = 0.405 pu XM3 = 0.2 X = 0.2 (50/30) = 0.1 (50/15) = 0.

VD VD 0 I I Z = jX + V1 Since.25 j0.405 1 3 3 3 j0.053 j0. if V1 = V1 Since S D VD I * = V D [( V1 – V D ) / jX] * = VD [ (V1 .33 2 3 j0.405 __________________ 4.25 j0.33 j0.25 j0. where PD = VD I cos = tan S D = PD (1 + j ) I + VD SD (1) Also.105 j0.053 j0.33 j0. COMPLEX POWER TRANSMISSION Assume.VD) / jX] * 22 EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals . = VD I (cos + sin ) = VD I cos (1 + tan ) = PD (1 + j ) So.25 j0. S D V D I * then.j0.

the voltage collapse occurs for a smaller PD. EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 23 .(VD2 90 / X) PD = (V1 VD sin ) / X QD = ((V1 VD cos ) / X) . So.(VD2 / X) by using sin2 + cos2 = 1 then. if we eliminate ( PD + (VD2 / X))2 = (V1 VD / X)2 . VD lagging cos =1 leading PD So VD is stable for a leading power factor and as PF changes to lagging. Now. QD = PD So.PD2 In this equation. by providing enough capacitance at the load side.(VD2 / X) (2) From (1). PD = (V1 VD sin ) / X PD = ((V1 VD cos ) / X) . using (1) and (2). if we assume V1 and X are fixed and plot VD as a function of PD for different power factors.S D = ((V1 VD S D = PD + jQD . we can control the voltage magnitude.+ 90) / X) .

HW # 1 1) If the voltage across the source is 1 volt.1 3) If Z = r + jx.1 j0.1 j0. R = 10 .1 + - Zc ZL R 2) Find Va n .1 -j1 c’ b’ c’’ b j0. Z c = -j0. find the Complex Power delivered to the load. a’ a’’ + 1 0 b’’ a + 1 0 n c j0.2 . Vb n .1 j0. determine the relation between r and x so that Va’ b’ > Vab (balanced system) a + j1 1 a’ 1 0 j1 c b j1 1 1 c’ Z b’ EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 24 . Z L = j0. Vc n and Va b .1 j0.

8 Pf lagging. Z L 2 0.4 j1.8 lagging. then determine V L (load) b) If load is 30 KW at 0.6 .8 j1 460 (line voltage).000 watts .4) Determine I b if Vca =10 0 and Z =2 -30. PG1 15. then determine VG 2 and PG 2 Z L1 Z L2 VG1 Source VG 2 Source EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 25 . Pf = 0. Z power and I ab Ia a 12 j9 Assume Vab Ea Z I ab c b 6) In the following figure Z L1 a) If VG1 1. (System is balanced) Ia a Z Z c Z b Ib 208 0 and determine the 3-phase 5) In the following figure.

Determine the pu diagram of the network.2 KV/161 KV 13.4 KV X = 0.2/161 KV 25 MVA.7) Consider the following case: 50 + j100 G T1 T2 Load = 4 MVA at 0. 8) Draw the pu diagram (assume base is 100 MVA.8 pf lagging G: M: T1 : T2 : 15 MVA 10 MVA 25 MVA 15 MVA 13. 14.15 pu X = 0.2/161 KV 15 MVA. 13. 13. 0.8 KV 20 MVA.15 X = 0.1 60 MVA.2 KV 13.1 pu X = 0.8 pf lag EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 26 . 154 KV on 20 + j80 20 + j80 G1 T1 T2 line) G2 10 + j40 10 + j40 G1 : G2 : T1 : T2 : Load : 50 MVA.1 X = 0.15 pu X = 0.15 X = 0.1 pu M Assume that the base MVA is 20 MVA and base voltage is 161 KV across the line.8 KV/161 KV X = 0. 13.8 KV 13.

determine the load current in p.6Pf X = .12 p. and determine the PU /Y G j25 /Y j30 Y/ M Load Y/ G: 15MVA. 20MVA on 25 diagram. T: 20MVA.7 j2. 13. X = .26 and V2 500 0 Find the complete power for each machine and determine whether they are delivering or receiving real and reactive power. M: 12MVA.u.11 p.4 I V1 + + - V2 EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 27 . Also. 13. line.9) In the following figure. Load = 5MVA at . assume the base is 138KV. if Vload = 18KV.u.u. 10) Find the real power loss 1 V I2 j1 I1 -j1 11) If V1 500 16. 13. Also find power losses in the line.1 p.3KV. 0.8KV. X = .u.5/160KV.

45KV Line 1 : X 48.22 KV X T1 : 50MVA.5MVA. Find the value of Q D accordingly.4% X 8% X 18.220 / 11KV T3 : 40 MVA. G : 90 MVA.110 / 11KV M : 66.10.43 Base : 100 MVA.5% T1 Line 1 T2 G M T3 Line 2 T4 (on the generator side) 14) Find the value of in order to maximize the real power PD received by load. SD j1 V1 1 G V2 1 0 EE 420 – Analytical Methods in Power System Review of Power Network Fundamentals 28 .22 / 110 KV T4 : 40MVA.22 KV 18% X 10% X 6% X 6.4 Line 2 : X 65.22 / 220 KV T2 : 40MVA.12) Find the power consumption by R1 and find I1 and I 2 R2 R1 1 1 S 27 j9 j1 I1 I2 Z= -j1 13) Find the per unit diagram.

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