NASA

SP-367

INTRODUCtiON TO THE AERODYNAMICS OF FLIGHT

Theodore Langley Research

A. Talay Center

Prepared at Langley Research Center

Scientific and Technical Information NATIONAL AERONAUTICS

O_ce AND

1975 SPACE ADMINISTRATION Washington, D.C.

For sale by the National Technical Springfield, Virginia 22161 Price - $7.00

Information

Service

CONTENTS

FOREWORD I. A SHORT

...................................... HISTORY OF FLIGHT .......................... ..........................

lit 1 5 5 10 13 25 9.5 9.5 31 39 59 59 84 91 96 103 119 123 127 ........................... 131 131 131 133 137 137 137 149 .......................... ........................... 147 151 151 169

II. BACKGROUND The Atmosphere Winds The

INFORMATION ..................................

and Turbulence

...............................

Airplane FLOW

.................................... ...................................

III. FLUID The The Ideal Real Fluid Flow

...................................... ...................................... Flow Flow FLOW .................................. .................................. EFFECTS ...........................

Fluid Fluid

IV. SUBSONIC Airfoils

and Wings Devices of Airplane

................................. ............................... ............................... ............................... ................................ ...............................

Aerodynamic Total Drag

Propellers V. TRANSONIC

and Rotors FLOW FLOW

VI. SUPERSONIC The Sonic

SST ....................................... Boom ..................................... THE Flight SUPERSONIC

VII. BEYOND Hypersonic Lifting Space VIII.

................................. ...................................

Bodies Shuttle

.................................... ................................ ...............................

PERFORMANCE of an Airplane 1 Motion 2 Motion

Motions Class Class Class

................................... ................................... Flight

3 Motion-Hovering

IX. STABILITY Stability Control

AND CONTROL

....................................... .......................................

V

APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX

A -

AERONAUTICAL AND

NOMENCLATURE UNITS

................

181 187 193 197

B - DIMENSIONS C - COORDINATE

..................... ......................

SYSTEMS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

...................................

vi

Specialization is indicated but a background This ductory Research the The subject result volume knowledge is a result is an essential of several semesters of the author's and technicians teaching of an introLangley treatment of course Center. college level. various only one human at Kitty Hawk phenomenal For aspects those separated manned heavier-than-air The last few of aerodynamics encom- landing. more the teaching process. °°. 111 . A thorough resulted the of these with considerable It is hoped that up-to-date this volume many material will has in the text interest as presented to pursue stimulate of reader's specialized education in the topics aerodynamics. qualitative.FOREWORD The nings powered decades but. and technology the task and no letup passing who possess subject of education all the of the is staggering. of any education. courses which. airplane flight witnessed is in sight. to fulfill the illustrated objectives notes herein. in aerodynamics The problem to apprentices faced was at the NASA than a layman's on the through to provide more but not the detail is a highly was modified revision as taught in many individual set of notes better. have science an interest. science of aerodynamics can be traced life from growth span the in the back has first thousands the moon of years first to its begin- remarkably.

.

influenced relative As a result intended But these for the ry man ple and Through others. that were by man. A SHORT HISTORY OF FLIGHT The It probably through theory began of aerodynamics with Early ability and prehistoric man.) the Constructed distinction thereafter not fly where devices. began a basic individuals. Heavier-than-air Sir George of modern glider of the flat cept which number success. at the mercy ballooning and could and popular Gradually. to power During of inventors Meanwhile. was (See fig. of a large it was balloon. bird and fly to copy the air. with one as a passenger. but they still years a of man into the atmosphere. his brothers from France. Pascal proved is compressible. Instead hot-air first did not imitate took the form the birds. the into the heavens philosophers Aristotle formed and bodies Bacon. da Vinci) foresaw the shape of things that In the years to come. Cayley of England (1773-1857) is generally forces recognized acting as the and father built a aerodynamics.I. used flew with the of dihedral he built their an important In 1853 it is believed of his to use the flying crashing the servants a steam engine a man-carrying the late airplanes a German He recorded 3 shows Today. Figure flight. Lilienthal successful designs. attributed to his gods What that is this air has But the air and serious can man law to question: the notion principle that of air substance weight fly in it? conceived Archimedes' Men like and its 1500 one studies correctly resulting of floating Roger decreases (Leonardo flight that lighter-than-air is a gas. (See fig. those to carprinciin 1783 by produced ornithopters he designed of a bird's to copy designs the the muscle His 1. man was balloon of the winds small engines designs acquired steering flight lighter-than-air aerostat devices. successfully before proved of his own design. on the lighter-than-air 2. surfaces would use that He realized produce more importance than conglider 1800's and had named over a little Otto 2000 of attack in his very day: tried and that designs curved came lift force ones. around his avid Da Vinci and the studies. the balloon Although of initiating became he willed. called being is the man's unable culmination desire to soar Greek of the the works actions of many of the himself. designs flying first helicopter a parachute. vehicles. remained away. holds the two Montgolfier the first ascent pastime. action pressure man with altitude.) based power other The supplied included machine did not leave and the drawing board. was toward end of the nineteenth in gliders to his century. to the air of these of bird reaction came that the principles it was the the - and designs concluded several wing - movement lift necessary machines being of the wing to fly. flights Lilienthal death one of his this form of concept of heavier-than-air . in 1896. to fly. Galileo. and a tail He understood unit which the basic flew on a wing the with a wing wing angle Stability to this once successfully.

Figure 2 2. Figure 3.- Lilienthal glider (1896)..- Montgolfier balloon (1783).Designs of Leonardo da Vinci.Helicopter Parachute Figure 1. .

.C. Although there various as to who really are generally Institution the Germans. or the Russians).- Samuel have spurred War Langley's developed advances I (1918). 1903. forward research is being in the space of transonic. lay in continually Figure Aviation and numerous 4." of the same it to crash brothers Their 1 kilometer Dr. sectors advanced Soon swept commonplace end of World propulsion Today areas shuttle. pushed (See fig. comeback. airplanes.flying. version caused a pilot. and the following on the how and why of an air- . The design. light lifting bodies. Samuel Pierpont was Langley steam-powered (fig. "the Aerodrome. over flew successful with a steam a 5-meter engine from Unfortuof driving tandem he built biplane two propellers. Congress nately. Americans At the Smithsonian was wing designing span small which in Washington. are now called claims hang-gliding. 1903. Backed by a grant to carry October success a full-scale gear failure 17. plane's by the end of World War II (1945) pointed concepts wings at the the way to the and the civilian and jet 5. Two world Aerial combat wars was and aerodynamics limited wars have in the airplane. 1903. His in 1896. most fitted airplane twice French. 4). launching On December during and December in a gasoline- the Wright achieved success engine-powered improving their machine designs. supersonic.) dominated at Langley both the Research military Center of aviation. D. material and hypersonic will shed some transports. is enjoying flew given a substantial first the (the credit. and German future. "Aerodrome" rapidly since (1903). of their own design.

.Designs showing advance of aeronautics.World War I (1918) P-51 World War D II (1945) Modern (1974) Figure 5. 4 .

Not included although nitrogen the gases. . (H2) (N20). is given etc. Standard atmosphere.NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AIR NEAR OF SEA CLEAN. dust level bacteria. hydrogen oxide nitrogen (CO). discussions concerning Appendix information this is basic paper.. to light the percentages are in the table highly variable.. the various surface. throughout both general B discusses scalars. 1962] Constituent Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon Neon (N2) (02\ (Ar) dioxide (Ne).41-percent represent total volume. craft's aid coordinate The to define bibliography on the materials at the end of the the reader in locating presented. nomenclature aeronautical dimensions and relative systems discussion C describes the Earth's further of vectors. surroundof approx- aerodynamicist atmosphere of several makes and represents fluctuating in nearly air near sea winds the Up to altitudes turbulence general atmospheric The I. This the reader is urged to examine the appendixes. (CO2) (He).084 20.934 . BACKGROUND INFORMATION As a background material required aeronautical descriptions this paper. percent 78. estimated together position the air at 0. Earth 90 km. in table Water Interestingly. of the total and oxygen That the 99 percent to vary of all comby monthan can be made pollution has been brought dramatically areas in recent times problem where in industrialized other harmful of carbon higher oxide. sulfur (NH3).S. dioxide carbon monoxide and iodine . are is mixed proportions. air of the Air atmosphere. vapor. information motion used included. in all directions of clean. volume normal composition atmospheric vapor.948 .031 by volume krypton (CH4) (Kr). The Nature namely ing the imately keep dry water the air. gaseous about envelope one fluid.up the The Earth's a mixture and same Atmosphere is concerned the gases. sulfur dioxide. and represents Appendix definitions and units A contains and as used is also an airpaper will in for the types. TABLE DRY pollutants markedly I. helium (Xe) . nitrogen (SO2'..003 Traces of each gas for xenon ozone ammonia _O3) . a total of 0.. taken local particles. and numerous in nonindustrialized areas. presented background of aircraft A general Appendix motion above for the in the material presented.. dioxide (NO2) (12) . ethane gas and formula Content.II. LEVEL [U.

the composition composition Above common 90 km where Although used with altitude. the are ure the most the composition is one way of distinguishing shells In ascending criterion is the temperature mesosphere. were developed between in the the 1920's in both were recon- standard United atmospheric States. vapor The may be expected. exosphere. extends begins in which The indefinitely It represents constituents where gravitation. atmosphere model is known of dust. temperature. the different gases begin order to settle one would of all or separate find high the gases. of the solar For is negligibly altimeter purposes design. absorbing The Without the beneficial life in the stratosphere not have and harmful ionosphere." homosphere. constant and cal distribution sound lar is required. about 90 km. the solar a dominant Sun.performance extends small. Aviation accepted tables new ICAO the basis and forms of tables mean report extended to 20 km above 6 . troposphere. densities. Based and In ascending which there then hydrogen then. knowledge density. is. of such quantities the real as pressure. model with is assumed respect The Europe ciled Civil cially The to the first to be devoid and water and to be at rest no winds models slight model This or turbulence). of pressure and of plasma which influence density atmosphere. never remains Since at any particuto what air in the time a hypothetical This Earth model (that be employed standard as an approximation atmosphere. constant the out according concentrations of respective helium. It is the tics man since lives most here solar atmospheric occurs here layer and. most important Most ozone weather layer variation troposphere aircraft also. or place. of the speed vertiof and their so forth. the atmospheric exosphere to note that particles can move subject It is interesting (streams 500 km). shell is called or layers. known the layer. sea International was offi1235. order Fig7 shows the heterosphere. in 1952 5 km below and the and differences was models an internationally Organization by NACA from introduced Standard in 1952 by the Atmosphere in NACA level. ultraviolet a popularly in the various which fly in this is the region. calibrations. particles an "atmosphere" however. becomes way to the The aircraft of high-energy so that one has wind. and shells. to aeronauof course. Below 90 km where two atmospheric is essentially varies layers. The accepted (ICAO).Above to their oxygen. both the stratosphere. spheric atmosphere the Earth's radiation. Figure 6 shows temperature and temperature-defined shells. is the lightest are on composition. strata. outwards. standard and rocket The wind ionization of one or more represents in free at these the outer orbits altitudes of the atmoregion (greater from the of the only to than Sun) all the is significant. must as the moisture. the or shell is the "shells. distribution. composition- thermosphere. region as we know it would in the mesosphere developed.

Balloons .:' radiation) .the U....-. ' ' _ ' . North Pole : :: ._/f/'i//_ili//I/Stratosphere/ff/////i//////.With increased knowledgesince 1952becauseof the large scale use of highaltitude soundingrockets andsatellites. ."'/J_'//' /IdWIIJYI' '/_l_i'. ...'7/i///I .._ / .iiiiiiii!ii 80 .'.l'_ '"_. %.._ I ff. Meteorological Mesos ...-__ l ] ¢J e© n: ..D ): : : :i .ii! ! _ 10__20 .". _.._l 40 ''....ti I_'_ .'.._/'_' . extendedtables above 20 km were published. with altitude Exos }here ?.7 weather ¢ ..iii:_i::}:_i.W/. '...'..'.'Ii$ !iillillll Illl'] . '.. with the ICAO Atmosphere to 700 kin..z.::::: ::.' " ' . Finally in 1962... T ropopause ::-:: :-:-:-"._.'. Satellites : o % :: : : ... For all practical Uncertainty purposes..- Atmospheric structure.i: .i::!ili:ii::i::iiii!ii ::. _'_ ' "_ "'_ " f i / ' [' "/. _:_ ij::: ___::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 500 : : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: c) 2 Thermosphere x-15 :ii ii. Mesopause ::)::i!ii::!ii::!::i:::ii!#..'ilill' ill ' '.' tl 'i' 'ill' _ ["'ili' '.'1i'7''. i /' " 30 .'_...' tAzom layer ......S.. StandardAtmosphere (1962)was publishedto take into account (1962) range able this new data.. _i:. :.I_'.''llll'_'"' '[li71]iitHii.S.. increased Standard over their Atmosphere common altitude as availis in agreement but extends data decreased...." I///i/l '!/////i_ _ t_ I ....:::::7:!:i::::/:i:::_f¢::!>:i':::¢':'¢:':'::"_':_'_ _ ] 10 .'. :_i....._t_ [ aire_r_ level laircr'_t Equator Figure 6. [ Jhere Meteors burn up 70 -." '7 ! ' | [ !.'.""'/.".' _t' t'/'..__. !:.."]]/'_ "--'..'_l. (absorbs solar ultra_mlet . Standard in values the U.'.'....'" I'_i!.___[ ..".._ _ Light __.'i. .::::::7: : _:i:rDi:ti:::..."]'/'.'./_l_ tSeaSea I /toommerclal." _ "- i .

properties variation.Geometric pressure.S.Mesopause 70 @ o 6O " _ \\\ 5O --Stratopause _J *$ O 4O _ J e_ ¢d i 30 2O 10 f Tropopause Troposphere 150 I 0 I 0 l 200 200 K(temp) I 5 I . of sound 1962 speed Atmosphere /// 9O 8O .0 I 300 300 15 [:104 I 1. U.) Standard Atmosphere.Atmospheric on U.S.5 I 250 kg/m 3_ (density) N/m2(pressure) 250 I 10 I 1. 100 - altitude density.. Standard vs. (Based 1962 .5 l 350 m/sec (speed of sound) Figure 7. . temperature.

S. that decreases Both curve remains a similar with the lift The real constant at about of variation. 120km to 1000kin. The model atmospheresbelow 120km are given for every 15° of latitude for 15° N to 75° N and in most cases for January andJuly (or winter and summer).S. T o = 288. of gravity. the corpres- It would atmospheric and the responded ence to a standard but thermal rotation of continents and oceans.one set for altitudes below 120km andone for altitudes. stratosphere speed seen since.807 m/sec2 a o = 340. temperature. go = 9. if the Earth's effects all real of the atmosphere Sun. The 217 K before the increasing density altitude. of sound to decrease as will be is seen first shows rapidly seen. density is directly is of particular importance on an airfoil atmosphere. StandardAtmosphereSupplements(1966).225 kg/m 3 Temperature. the shells and general are speed variation of sound of to 100 km. Essentially there are two sets of tables . models are presented to take into accountvarying solar activity. Above 120kin.0 N/m2 Po = 1. In the temperature-defined (from sea level atmospheric also included. density. 101 325. it it troposphere the temperature type to 10 to 20 km in the linearly with altitude. combine to stir up the 9 . Po = Density. and pressure standard In the The are atmosphere).the U. The older 1962model is classified in the 1966supplementsas an average mid-latitude (30 N to 60° N) ° spring/fall model.15 K (15 ° C) Acceleration Speed of sound. The result was the publication of the most up-to-date standard atmospheres . StandardAtmosphere is the more general model andit is useful to list the standard sea level conditions: Pressure. The It is intended merely to indicate parameters. again.With the expansionof this nation's spaceprogram requirements.- dependent be fortunate model Earth's on the density. The 1962U. a needwas generatedfor information on the variability of atmospheric structure that would be used in the design of second-generationscientific andmilitary aerospacevehicles. Systematic variations in the troposphere due to seasonandlatitude had been knownto exist andthus a neweffort was begunto take those variations into account.294m/sec Figure from these sea level 7 gives a multiplot of pressure.

which is the relative is motionless an airplane Its of the atmosphere. of the The Earth. of winds. and one receiving Although of motion and space in with and of late. considerable the that standard the air attention atmosphere mass through the most important and Turbulence real atmospheric motion flies effect. nonstandardmass of gasesin motion. Winds Unquestionably. Wind drift causes actual flight path AC. A (b) Aircraft yawed into wind Figure with 8. disThis nonstandard performance cussed in this section. 10 . in a state both in time the air with respect is constantly is variable it is known respect to the surface complex. and affect may be divided Large-scale performance into two classes: motions (1) large-scale (or (2) small-scale the navigation of the atmosphere Figure of an aircraft.atmosphereinto a nonuniform. to the Earth.- angle Effect _ to account for wind drift. motion motions. it is essential that "nonstandard" performance shows in the real up in numerous atmosphere ways. and the motion is exceedingly motions winds) one effect. 8 illustrates (a) Aircraft heading parallel to AB. Although a standard atmosphere provides the criteria necessary for design of an aircraft. some be anticipated of which are also.

11 . of horizontal wind speed as a function curve.In figure 8(a) the pilot is attempting to fly his aircraft He sets motion flight point were his heading and flies directly for point ground) which finds him B but winds are blowing have at point of the atmosphere path. for wind conditions and forecasts along his intended 2C o 3 10 J J J J J f i i I i 50 Maximum wind speeds. time or less Again. The to his intended the pilot winds. pilot flight should path.- A typical USAF statistical Handbook maximum of Geophysics. were into pilot This relative required no winds. to which for off would himself off course. 3O of wind airports drift then. (representing crosswise brought C. forced pointed have requires In order drifting to compensate of the aircraft velocity the winds. wind speed curve. the aircraft canceled slightly out any into the wind as illustrated Compensation velocity knowledge of both the aircraft's and the wind Statistical been calculated to the ground. and a standard in the case one such wind typical statistical atmosphere. account. After the B if there not taken the 8(b). should change for with had have would drift respect values the to the flight time pilot from point A to point large-scale B. in figure course. of a real Figure of altitude 9 represents the the curve. from velocity at any particular In the consult case local place will vary rather than considerably use a statistical cal average. real statistithe have average and represent more curve. m/see I 100 Figure 9.

The small-scale motion of the atmosphereis called turbulence (or gustiness). The responseof an aircraft to turbulence is an important matter. In passengeraircraft, turbulence may cause minor problems such as spilled coffee and in extreme cases injuries if seat belts are not fastened. Excessive shaking or vibration may render the pilot unableto read instruments. In casesof precision flying such as air-toair refueling, bombing, andgunnery, or aerial photography,turbulence-induced motions of the aircraft are a nuisance. Turbulence-inducedstresses and strains over a long period may causefatigue in the airframe andin extreme cases a particular heavy turbulence may causethe loss of control of an aircraft or evenimmediate structural failure. There are several causesof turbulence. The unequalheating of the Earth's surface by the Sunwill causeconvective currents to rise and make the plane's motion through such unequalcurrents rough. On a clear day the turbulence is not visible but will be felt; hence,the name "clear air turbulence (CAT)." Turbulence also occurs becauseof winds blowing over irregular terrain or, by different magnitudeor direction, winds blowing side by side andproducing a shearing effect. In the case of the thunderstorm, one has oneof the most violent of all turbulences where strong updrafts anddowndrafts exist side by side. The severity of the aircraft motion causedby the turbulence will dependupon the magnitudeof the updrafts anddowndrafts and their directions. Many private aircraft have beenlost to thunderstorm turbulence becauseof structural failure or loss of control. Commercial airliners generally Figure lences fly around 10 illustrates such the storms flight path for the comfort and safety of their passengers. turbuof an aircraft through the various

described. Another real atmospheric form, effect is that for of moisture. in the pure dry Water in the air, in either and of pre-

its will

liquid affect

or vapor an aircraft that

is not accounted degrees. aircraft physical

standard with as icing

atmosphere the forms

in varying affect and

Everyone performance damage humid air

is familiar such

cipitation zero less less tance

can adversely in fog or snow, dry dry air air air. than and

on the wings, vapor vapor) take-off is will disbe

visibility dense dense than than

caused (air

by hail.

Water water

consequently of this, dense

containing

Because in the more

an aircraft dry air. in the lift, and conditions airport

requires

a longer

in humid Air density

is a very depends does

important upon the

factor temperature true

drag,

and

engine

power Since

output the it

of an aircraft standard is important

and

pressure

locally.

atmosphere for

not indicate

at a particular local

time

and place, conditions.

a pilot

to contact

a local

for the

atmospheric

12

.,i..t.,. .

;i? iL !iLk ?¸

71 ii iiii

Ii ii
pressure power readings, output

?iii?iiiii!i!i iiiiii j'iiiiiN
density may be obtained and,

i iiiiii!!iii!iii!_!:i:i_i:!:i:i:i:i:i:i:i_i:!:i:i:i!iiiiiiii!iiii!ii!i!iii!i!i!iiiii!:i:i:!:i:!:i Figure I0.- Flight path of an aircraft through various forms of turbulence. Relatively stable air exists above thunderstorms. From hence, the local temperature distance pressure pressure and

take-off The local his

and engine is important altimeter

may be determined. using pressure altimeters. pressure readings rather above A pilot than sea to

in aircraft measured

must level.

zero

to local

sea-level altitude

standard

sea-level

pressure

if he is to obtain

accurate

Although nonstandard still remains

the preceding atmosphere as a primary

discussion

considers

only a few of the the design

many

effects

of a

on aircraft reference

design in the

and performance, preliminary

standard stage

atmosphere

of an aircraft.

The Basic known airplane.Our Before attention proceeding it would airplane. in exploded as follows: will

Airplane be centered mainly on that class of aircraft theory and

as airplanes.

into any be well

discussion

of aerodynamic in some detail

its application physical makeup As figure into several

to airplanes, of a typical 11 demonstrates components gear,

to consider

the overall

view fuselage, The

form,

an airplane tail

may be resolved and control components are

basic landing later

wing,

assembly of these

surfaces, considered

and powerplant(s).

aerodynamics

in the discussion. The body for of an airplane operating and is called controlling the fuselage. airplane. It houses It may the crew and space

Fuselage.the controls

necessary

the

provide

13

_Controt

_

assem

y

.
_n

t
ge3.r

Figure for cargo and passengers

11.-

Basic

airplane

components. sorts. In addition, the basic to it. with the 12. an strucIt is

and carry in the fuselage.

armaments

of various

engine ture

may be housed of the airplane streamlined to be performed Wing.The wing the

The fuselage other large

is, in one sense, components drag. are Designs

since

many

of the

attached vary

generally mission

as much and the provides action

as possible variations the principal of the wing as the

to reduce are endless,

as illustrated of an airplane. to the air. The airfoil

in figure Lift is The crosssection depend airplane

lifting with airfoil

force respect section.

obtained sectional planform airplane Figure

from shape shape mission

dynamic

of the wing of the wing, and

is known

shape, upon the design.

and placement compromise

of the wing necessary often

on the fuselage in the used. overall

the best the shapes and control

13 illustrates Tail assembly

and placements surfaces.rear

The tail of the airplane.

assembly

(appendage) assembly stability

represents consists in yaw, in of

the

collection

of structures stabilizer

at the (fin) and

The tail directional

(1) the vertical and pitch. (2) the

rudder

which

provide

horizontal

stabilizer the

and elevator numerous

which forms

provide that a tail

longitudinal assembly

stability may take.

Figure

14 illustrates

14

/

|

B-26B

Twin-engine

bomber

WWII

/

l

%

P -47N

Albatross

Flying

boat
j/_- /

I (+

,

/

B-52G

Long

range

8-engine

bomber

Figure

12.- Various

fuselage

designs.

15

. 16 . Figure 13.Wing Wright Brothers P-36 (Subsonic) L F-51 (Subsonic) F-104 (Supersonic) (a)Examples of airfoilshapes.Wing shapes and placements.

- planform.Rectangular straight wing Tapered straight wing Rounded or straight elliptical wing Slightly swept wing Moderately swept wing Highly swept wing Simple delta wing Complex delta wing (b) Examples Figure of wing 13. 17 . Continued.

- Tail assembly forms. i zter - _ _ evatlw _ fin Twin tail V-butl(. .vertical stabiliz(._. ' __'_. Rudder --_ // _ Fin .High-wing Mid-willg Low -wing (c) Examples Figure of wing 13._._il Figure 18 14.l'lZdlntitl Nl:t|)lltZ_l" H orizo nal Rightfin s ta hi.- placements.r fl}:-t._ _ [t.ri Elevator .. Concluded.

the move pilot the (2) to maintain wishes elevators. aileron airliner. an alternate figure to increase off. that forces airplane between may act and this the on suris the a There flight. of the attached Special absorbing landing arrester modern-day gear struts or air cushion floats of landing. type). Body force steady act a distance. gear. (or turboprop. the without setting (3) to help necessary pilot ailerons are pressures relieve pivoted rudder. retractable. that use skis used. act because gravitational weight. Surface forces of contact 19 .or forces or accomplished placements types be termed of the engine general may possible.device propeller.Included used or trol for right) (nosing attitude. located hinged functions heavy at to fly whatever on the the parts airspeeds. to move edges for wing surfaces. Power_plants. are to the Pitch left con- provided the airplane rudder or down) which is to the provided Roll control near by the (rolling the elevators the wing which generally right or left) attached is provided tabs aileron to the by are horizontal the small ailerons stabilizer. reciprocating turbojet. or and undercarriage. elevator. control and by the up surfaces drag control.on or the The ground Figure and flap of the the and they control provide surfaces 15 illustrates installation attitude a more and complicated arrangement Landing it is at may be rest fixed landing or gear. rudder. is in the lift. found on hooks Figure 17 shows arrangements airplanes. rotating 18 illustrates Forces on an piston and accessories. For gear carrier of include are snow landings. crankshaft some airplane. and/or used on trailing primarily of the landing quickly. maintairting and hinged lift at are thus or or or (1) to balance cruise tail wing ailerons in a stable particular controls. The wheels to and landing. engine's Figure or power to sustain and the if present). the and Flaps auxiliary whose surface elevator. used on both pilot to the edge generally control are outer inserts the trailing on airplane the of the wing. are all Yaw is those control generally moving (turning attached surfaces the of an airplane airplane fin. on the of forces as For body the body face in unaccelerated forces. of the effort condition. oil for _tirplanes blow water. if it is too rudder. into a thrust many are of a reciprocating by the propeller. rocket engine. nose the surfaces heavy. Spoilers reduced devices to reduce sides an airplane may operating of roll a simple large jet independently control. With plant few exceptions flight. related and the an The airplane power must plant The engines the is possess consists main such energy as a thrust-producing of the engine the engine are pulse (and the jet. Trim and heavy. during of most the for several the supports take-off are and the airplane The to shocktypes while gear in water. reaction Converting force varied two They body from types ram jet. wing and used takeBy form 16 shows used on a of the leading They the are lift wing.

AHeron-_ (b) Control Figure 15. \_ Speed---. surfaces. 2O .Flaps Spoiler Flaps (a) Control surfaces on F-4B Phantom. Rudder _ Side view _-T_\ Rudder -_ _ Aileron .- surfaces Main control on T-28B. 'el I Aileron trim tab _ "_ _ .RuddE Elevator (all-movir Spoiler -.-_ J .

. 2! .Flaps and ailerons. Figure 16. Outboard flap Inboard aileron / Inboard flap (b)Jet airlineraileron and flap assembly on Wing.Left aJleron Right aileron (a) Simp/e Outboard aileron flap arrangement.

.- gear - skis. two main wheels. forms.gear Main gear Arrester hook (a) Tricycle gear - nose wheel. skids. Skids (c) Unconventional Figure 17. two main wheels. Landing-gear 29. or floats. • _ _Tail wheel (b) Conventional gear - tail wheel.

Reciprocating or turbo-engine propeliors ] Jet engine Starfighter Single engine F-104 Twin engine Phantom _ F-4 Three engines Trident Four engines Multi engine Figure 18.Forces on an airplane in normal flight.- Power-plant placements. 23 .. Lift Thrust =- Weight Figure 19.

now in some 24 . along itself. engine. force decreases. are weight. payload. line by the flow It represents the airplane. force the component In the resultant flight aerodynamic situation force of flight. and the and thrust physical attributes and or can be easily dynamic movement is the determined of the controlled. arises from the flow of air along will the around line the airplane but is Again. main acting includes forces weight on an airplane the flies. Basically. of the simplest velocity. (except is the thrust. the major aerody- is generated the wing. thrust They drag major arise. equals generally arise Figure this Weight 19 shows basic flight disposition of the forces To maintain the drag. are thrust. are the lift equals the weight. Weight and the acts as the center The airplane of the Earth. and the body. forces. and drag. Since Weight: fuel is consumed tion toward Thrust: propeller. the surface. drag forces The because airplane the concern This of aerodynamics subject is considered manner in which detail. through lift and But lift and the air. of an airplane. and level under flight these an airplane the travel in straight four at a uniform conditions. surface drag. the the other four The the that three is. It may take-off engine be taken driven to act jet engine. in a direc- driving rocket axis of whatever and propulsive system is used. fuel. of the resultant portion namic resulting force Drag: normal the component to the this of flight. all Lift.medium and thrust. airplane the weight lift. for of air vertical around the longitudinal Lift: This force from airplane airplanes). between forces the air acting and the airplane on an airplane. are known of the situation. of the so forth.

III. FLUID FLOW The Fluid Viscosity.- There are basically three states of matter - solid, liquid, andgas. H20 is commonly called "ice" in the solid state, "water" in the liquid state, and "water vapor" in the gaseousstate. Assume onehas a piece of ice andside forces are applied to it (called shearing forces). Very large forces are neededto deform or break it. The solid has a very high internal friction or resistance to shearing. The
word for internal Liquids a solid. ers, air friction is viscosity are considered of water and one and for a solid its since value they is generally behave are very large. from layand gases to be fluids or air. sustained than differently to these

Imagine

two layers a substantial faster must over

If shear relative the water the fluids

forces motion layers. indicates

applied

one discovers layers sliding

of the layers However, that they

with the the fact also possess

another

that a shear force internal friction. Water, under

be applied

to deform

normal more

temperatures, viscous than

is about air. fluids higher

fifty

times

more that,

viscous in general, Under Air,

than

air.

Ice is 5 × 1016 times have gory mary extremely of fluids, interest

One concludes have

solids the cate-

high viscosities liquids generally

whereas possess has

low viscosities. than gases.

viscosities small zero

of pritheories,

in aerodynamics, as a perfect that fluid even

a relatively one that has

viscosity viscosity

and in some or is "inviscid." friction)

it is described

-

But it will be shown important effects

this

small

viscosity

of air drag. (that are

(or internal

has

on an airplane All fluids to some Even not great. be treated At higher

in terms are

of lift and

Compressibility.increasing compared speeds pressure) with involved air gases. are may

compressible but liquids

is, density highly

increases

under

extent, gases For

generally

incompressible provided below about the flow

may

be treated flow

as incompressible over (that an airplane is, no change

subsonic

150 m/sec, throughout into account.

as incompressible speeds the effects

in density must be taken

the flow).

of compressibility

The Pathlines ways the standpoint, time. The and streamlines.approach is chosen out by that ocean buoy A fluid and the

Flow be described approach. as it moves a particle Its position in two different From the Lagrangian space with An exammarked at through pathline. has been

flow may Eulerian

Lagrangian one particle line traced

and it is followed one particle shown in figure

is called 20(a).

ple is a transmitting

25

6-hour intervals over a period of several days. The path observed is the particle pathline. In order to obtain a clearer idea of the flow field at a particular instant, a Eulerian approachis adopted. One is looking at a "photograph" of the flow. Figure 20(b) showsthe surface oceancurrents at a particular fixed time. The entire flow field is easily visualized. The lines comprising this flow field are called streamlines.
,'_ + 48
f /

hrs

t_t+ Particle pathline _-_._ /

42

hrs

it+ ]

36 hrs

., _1+ 30 hrs Coast 2_i + 24 hrs Buoy position at 6 hour intervals

/_+ 18 hrs ! + 12
I

hrs

•_/+
J

6 hrs

_

0 hrs

(a) Particle

pathline.

Streamlines

Flow

at + 6 hours

Coast

(b) Streamlines. Figure 20.Particle pathline and streamlines.

26

It is line.

important refers

to note to the the line

the

differences

between particle

a particle in time at the

pathline and space time. is

and

a streamwhereas The a

A pathline presents particle flow

trace of motion and

of a single of many

streamline of whether Stsady fluid person direction "gusty" if its does or velocity not To house of time flow time. on

particles are ever Of basic of a "steady it blows speed flow or

a fixed same

question next.

pathlines compared about

streamlines unsteady is the flow.concept he stands the the

considered

with

importance flow." constantly direction about remains at fluid all points On

in understanding a windy the day same the wind is a

movements calls the

an object steady speed. In a similar and direction) that

wind

if where If,

from changes, an

at a constant unsteady. (speed

however, manner at the each velocity 21(a) of time flow is

of a fluid flow

object constant in the

is steady this

point be presents and unsteady. are

in the the

necessarily consider a windy later. this day One

require further, at one sees that the

same the

fluid. a

figure instant this

flow

(of air) the flow areas and

about

figure

21(b) There their

shows are

an instant where shape the with

many

pattern

is different;

streamlines

changing

position

Particle pathlines and streamlines

for this flow are not equivalent.

(a)

Streamlines

at

time

t 0.

y

(b) Streamlines Figure 21.Unsteady flow

at time of air

t 1. about a house. 27

Figure house) At time develops through not the appear line t 5.

22 shows tunnel. tunnel at time

a nicely At time is started t2

"streamlined" tO the tunnel begins reaches time is,

body

(as opposed

to the bluff-shaped and no air the body; is flowing. the flow t 3. are The

in a wind t1 the

is not running flowing about

and air finally t4 and that

further an unsteady same. fixed

and state; t3

a constant t 5. When the pathlines

pattern flow and

at time starts, streamlines

flow appears

unchanged

at time

it passes

transient time with

particle

From in position t3

onwards

a steady body. that the

flow is established. A particle P shown

Streamlines on a streamt4 and

respect

to the along with

at time The

moves pathline

downstream coincides

streamline

as shown

at times

particle

streamline.

====2,.i

Tunnel

at

time

t o

Tunnel

at

t 1

r

Tunnel

at

t 2

Tunnel

at

t 3

......

.........

:,:::

'_:"

_'_

Tunnel at t4
Steady flow: Particle pathline : Streamline

Tunnel at t 5

Figure Summarizing, are for equivalent and flow visualization. Rotational the elements and irrotational of fluid at each point this the means

22.that

Unsteady for a steady

and steady flow is the

flow. pathline Eulerian and streamline approach

a particle same

Lagrangian

point

of view

as the

flow.-

Fluid

flow

can be rotational no net angular

or irrotational. (spin) velocity about

If

in the flow have

28

at the cross The velocity distance density. The The fluid is con- to be inviscid steady and incompressible flow is consid- and one dimensional. viscosity effects of the airfoil and in its wake. in general. For sidered ered stated.__ velocity out Many (actually streamlines infinitesimal form duct boundary) thickne_ Fluid velocity t/ in _ _ Stream. flow.constant velocity. uniform temperature.tube (outside streamlines (a) Stream Figure 30 24. tube. must it as if in a tube. if zero region viscosity the near As the surface airflow passes In real about life. are of the it is assumed. 24(b). remains limited irrotational to a small still It is irrotational. for the and other flow properties dimensional. the bundle it as. through across tubes flows an even a pipe individual varying stream for example. flow. introductory purposes. section then along The vevelocuniform according One ity variation. as shown in figure can easily imagine actual an "average" of velocity 24(c). of steady comprise through to the the "one often employed 24(a) the to aid in undershows a bundle tube tube of since One-dimensional standing streamlines fluid nent.Stream tubes tubes. Simply destroyed.A simplifying of a one-dimensional Each streamline In the case of stream water argument flow. of mass energy conservation of energy. made. together. can be thought of as a stream stream larger or channel. . section to represent as indicated it varies only in figure with is considered the tube where dimensional" are the particular pressure. at each In order observations In addition also be to velocity. the airfoil Most section. simplifying assumptions (and hence. flow may be treated as irrotational. Fluid __. arise. the is permatube. two basic and can neither cross flow to be one forces and to understand They they are the convey how aerodynamic laws facts of conservation that mass the principles be created must nor be considered. and one-dimensional flow. are "perfect"). Fluid locity value flows Taken flows varies basic ideas of a simple along is that Figure flow.. streamline value since made.

wheel One can imagine a small paddle If the wheel in a flow. translates as illustrated without in rotates (a) Irrotational flow. Ik (c) Inviscid. if a fluid flow is to irrotational.the points. wheel rotating. Figure 23. is rotational. an observer is fixed of the airfoil section is uniform and of 29 . According initially the airfoil to a theorem it remains shown. figure immersed the 23(b). section 23(c). (b) Rotational flow. the fluid flow is said to be irrotational. is irrotational.- irrotational Rotational flow about and irrotational an airfoil. The of Helmholtz. flow far ahead assuming In figure zero viscosity. in a moving motion the flow fluid as in figure If the 23(a). irrotational. flow.

-- One-dimensional velocity profile idealized --} (c) (e) One-dimensional Figure 24. Let as the in a system. the Fluid Flow equation which in figure fluid. assumption is violated. profile. time rate" no leaks equation mass value creation" in the states continuity equal the the "mass fluid same mass unit passing passing at any - 2 per section steady time. being pumped and is is uniform 25(a). tions. is flowing A 1 cross and sections pipe that station cross and the assumed previously 2 have the stated direction respectively. Ideal The tion but tube. at both a venturi assumpa constriction Furthermore. (one-dimensional nor the is fluid fluid 1 and V2 be cross-sectional flow is The must that speeds there at are average A further in through station this is an 1 per "mass assumption the unit sides. areas these of mass has continuity equation. there flow must - be examined flow accumulation Simply of mass stated.The Consider between it is in the A2. (Mass rate) 1 = (Mass rate)2 (1) 31 .flow Concluded./-Transverse velocity ion _ __'-- Ave ra4Ie veloeit y luidvelocity (b) Real velocity flow profile. or In fact. under the a statement in diameter This is called of the conservaends. continuity a pipe ends that indicated. Stations V1 flow).

as average equation values equation for inviscid.A2 V1 (5) Since greater made. decreases shows at the station called this ends. one obtains A1 V 2 . of several energies. This constriction AV commonly remains of the venturi product a constant 25(c) streamlines a tube the of flow allows pattern interpretation the venturi of the streamline tube. it can be concluded It states. The regions flow.where Mass This equation rate = Density to x Area x Velocity (2) reduces PlA1V1 Since reduces the fluid to = P2A2V2 to be incompressible. In the area wide part. of the throat. onestill are (4) dimensional be valid If the flow were of Vl and statement cross would section the used. the Figure the shows streamline crowd closer must together and the spaced indicate than fluid in the speed distance between streamlines speaking. p is a constant and equation (3) (3) is assumed AlV 1 = A2V 2 This is the simple flow as long continuity with no leaks. a larger speed important where result. The of energy. kinetic energy arises flow is composed because of the 32 . By rearranging (4).- Assume a fluid The flow which. indicate conclusion of low-speed is that. 25(a)). picture. that V2 is than V 1. longer by the arrow contiis at tube. This is a most that the flow speed increases where the area increases. viscous. Hence. an in at Figure flow speed constriction equation. decreases the nuity the A1 is greater than A2 (see fig. incompressible. spaced decreases widely streamlines increases. energy in as before. flow relatively and closely streamlines regions Bernoulli of high-speed 's theorem - the conservation steady. narrowest The fact indicating the part that highest of the the is reached at the of smallest the throat along area. the area 25(b) than under the assumptions and the flow speed with the In fact. incompressible. and one dimensional. the is inviscid. V2 across the steady.

- Venturi tube and continuity principle.directed motion of the fluid. Expressed concisely. pressure energy. then the potential energy of the flow is a constant. I Station 1 I Ca) ' > (b) increased flow speed Figure 25. for example. airflow approachingan aircraft in level flight). of pressure If one and considers (6) of potential the dimensions Bernoulli's theorem be expressed of pressure. the sum of the kinetic energy. Bernoulli's theorem is an expression of the conservationof the total energy. the constant value energy one obtains in terms Constant energy. If it is further assumedthat the fluid flow is horizontal (as. andthe potential energy is due to the position of the fluid abovesome referencelevel. Bernoulli's theorem reduces to Kinetic energy + Pressure energy = where the the constant per may unit includes volume. that is. the pressure energy is due to the random motion within the fluid. the sum total of these energies in a fluid flow remains a constant along a streamline. 33 . and potential energy remains a constant.

exists speed pressure. fluid flow about called tube after The inventor. readout flow is closed is called as before. shows at the stagnation when the pressure tube is. the dynamic the total pressure but may vary flow.are measured. acts to a pressure the fluid measuring instrument everywhere. the other Pressure pressures hollow bent measurement. Since normal to the 34 . Let us now examine Figure 27(a) its fluid how total. up immediately the rest pressure to zero device. total remains the same. total pressure Pt" motion within the fluid) is the symbol is called the Bernoulli's reduces Dynamic or pressure + Static pressure = Total pressure (7) 1 _V 2 _p + P : Pt (8) For rotational from streamline usual same case flow the total pressure Pt is constant along a streamline to streamline as shown in figure 26(a). The static a static and a number tube drilled and may be connected point. dams is connected at the fluid measurement and comes the readout to rest tube. such that There their a simple between pressures decrease. In an irrotational for airflow approaching as shown that an aircraft. a pitot instrument. the fluid flow density and speedat the point in question. the is the considered value constant Bernoulli's everywhere states static equation less the in a streamline an_t the less exchange the the and speed greater static must of the flow.The kinetic energy per unit volume is called dynamic pressure q andis deter1 mined by q=_p AV2 where p and V are. in figure 26(b). Except pressure at the stagnation of the fluid is parallel tube's to the tube surface. The pressure energy per unit volume (due the static The pressure constant of the fluid energy equation per and is given unit volume to to random p. pitot a total-pressure the fluid flow about of holes Figure facing This the tube except into the now the end tube's side. respectively. 22(b) the dynamic pressure reduces measuring another have flow stagnates. hollow been tube of the at the "stagnation point" equation while the static divides around the The total By Bernoulli's since therefore. As one increases. and dynamic a simple to a pressure tube entrance up to flow point is in a flow tube. the static the pressure. the greater of the flow. fluid the flow. shows the which static.

7 / Pt.I _ _'I_ _ _J (b) Irrotational flow.2 Pt. the static pressure The normal to the holes is communicated into the interior of the tube. will automatically mounted forward directly to an airspeed display the aircraft airspeed device is sometimes 35 . The by proper gearing. Total pressure varies from streamline to streamline.1 /""'_ _/ __ t/ . Pt.. pressure must be continuous. 26. the pitot-static tube is conindicator which. Bernoulli's the difference is measured.1 Pt.4 (a) Rotational flow. When properly connected between to total flow direction.1 _ Pt. Total pressure Figure same constant value Pt. to the pilot.l everywhere in flow. the fluid the dynamic flow speed nected defined as If the fluid density can be calculated.Total-pressure variation.1 Pt. is a static-pressure Figure opposite pressure 27(c) shows a combined pitot-static tube. equation this difference is p is known..1 /"'_"_ Pt. with the holes parallel to the measuring device. 1 _ Pt. therefore. 1 _pV 2. measuring instrument.1 Pt. readout By ends of a pressure and static pressure pressure.Pt. In actual use on aircraft.1 Pt. static tube. 1 Pt.

measuring to insure called tube its static pressure instrument Middle tube communicates total pressure to readout instrument devices. having pressure levels the a U-shape measured in the tube are alcohol. extending from the 27. as closely condition).airplane flow Pressure nose (also tube. pressures or below of fluid free-stream by a decrease or increase in the level in the tube. to a "U-tube as colored manometer" When pressure.. measuring. than the and the Bernoulli venturi be used pressure the static-pressure free-stream of static static tube holes the a tube static similar are distribution undisturbed ing the tube tube ure tube "static within at the at some pressure then 28 holes of figure taps" which static equal are be used been as a reference value into the drilled Any variation free-stream venturi These of the pressure is a greater or lesser pressure. earlier. static free-stream But static the fluid above reference indicated level. _rarzc pressure g _ 1/ - I'll /I II I! !l M Outer tube communicates to readout ! (c) l>itot-static Figure on a boom sible. (b) Static tube. the walls static to measure connected such the pressure. the fluid continuity along enterin the In figto the commonly static called flow as pos- the undisturbed Returning to the equations tube. 36 . Smalll --_hoes " Sta... may have 27(b) and are is a liquid tap equals The approaching discussion may static the free-stream introduced of the venturi to describe of the value._ Total p_ p..:--/ pressure entrance To T pressure readout instrument --"Jl-T To pressure readout instrument (a)Pitot tube. Total_1 pressure .

of manometers the speed the at at of a venturi By the 1 V1 to measure is greater is the pressure one pressure.UUlll] Figure Figure and static 2 taps V2 also total 28 shows the complete static than that speed 28. is the highest.[nviscid. it follows the The static of for as the hence pressure diagrams must decrease to maintain a constant value below the venturi tube show this interchange the venturi in the region This is also the than throat free-stream the flow tube. dynamic speed throat the highest Pt in the venturi in the Pt By Bernoulli's irrotational equa- is constant 1 and 2 +p2 everywhere pressure equation 2 using flow (assuming in terms Therefore. a point throat is the mini- pressure airfoil since in an ideal fluid._ q Static pressu P re. at station achieved continuity as seen station the tion flow). The conclusion drawn of total pressure Pt" of dynamic and static from this is that the pressures pressure low-speed where and mum all along decreases flow. pressures can express the total of the static and at stations 1 =_p2V2 (8). increases.setup Venturi tube flow. incompressible P_oyV_ _ I _I r I Station _/I _ Station 2 (throat) free-strea_ static pressure andvetocity St'ttic tap manometer _ _ __ q pressure. lplV122 +pl =pt (9) Since that static block P2 V2 is less is greater than Pl' than V1 and dynamic P2 = Pl pressure.- To supply section of reference the previous in the discussion discussions of venturi to follow of a real following expands 37 . the fluid. (fluid is incompressible) speed. tube and a set equation previously tube. namely. of high-speed flow and by the liquid risen increases levels above At the in the of the the region demonstrated the liquid static speed manometers level as one indicates static The reaches lower level has reference this pressure.

the point Beyond reached this point as one moves along static the the rear surface increases equal the static of the airfoil. symmetry This airfoil the is tilted upper and at an angle and lower the main stream. The free-stream velocity is denotedby Vo_ and the free-stream static pressure by Po_. point 2. and lower is symthe pressure lift is determined and is zero static-pressure particular case between pressure to the free surfaces metrical. It is the always This fluid. are the flow speed returns for until free-stream to free-stream the center-line velocin fig- ity and static-pressure ures 29(b) Note maximum whereas ent). the drag defies is always physical a fluid the orientation as D'Alembert's components surface on the rear seemingly result forces exactly The intuition of zero is known The of assuming parallel balance viscosity. the velocity increases and the static pressure airfoil. From Bernoulli's equationthe static pressure at the nose. distribution force since the If. zero norma] For no matter and in the real to the a planar what free-stream airfoil and the drag to the operating of the airfoil paradox. the an is not a perfect and Bernoulli fluid. of the airfoil in a peris. point 2. in the real With world. is equal to the total pressure. principles It possesses still apply viscosity. until points 3 edge. airflow over continuity 38 . Beyond to 4. Following the particle pathline (indicatedby the dotted line andequal to a streamline in this steady flow) which follows the airfoil contour. the velocity decreasesfrom the free-stream value as one approachesthe airfoil nose (points 1 to 2). the flow comesto rest (stagnates)..flow to the ideal fluid flow past an airfoil. point value. Figure 29(a)showsa "symmetric" (upper and lower surfaces the same) airfoil operating so that a line drawn through the nose and tail of the airfoil is parallel to the free-stream direction. the velocity its highest pressure velocity decreases comes edge static and the with pressure static increases pressure at the trailing pressure. acquired as one reaches value the thickest and the static point on the its 3. direction of the pressure of the static-pressure to the free-stream the components by the for this the on the front forces difference surface the upper distribution of the airfoil. modification. Air desirable section. lowest decreases. particularly thickness). By the continuity has equation. however. between is very surfaces function no longer of the airfoil slight The exists and a lift results. At the airfoil nose. and 29(c). direction section pressure gradi- relationship lift is defined free-stream will be of importance as the force direction. value is These shown 4. Moving from the noseup along the front surface of the airfoil (points 2 to 3). the flow the trailing and the to rest pressure to the total pressure. on the This The parallel fect rear distributions streamline that one on the front surfaces pressures of the airfoil (a negative pressures (up to the pressure station gradient) of has decreasing one has surfaces increasing (a positive fluid case.

. laminas shows a laminar layers the uniform from the left rectilinear to right. reduction past in lift and repreand a different forms.-'_ / . streamlines need the direction line.\_x_ . of air be considered of movement 30(b) shows flow: Figmoving Laminar laminar ure the 30(a) adjacent fluid and and turbulent.. with an accompanying The discussions of the assumption existence basic viscous of drag principles. will appear to be slightly in several From 29.vOSl_-I ._'" g > / Leading edge (b) (V = O) Trailing edge Distance IV = O) along [low Leading-edge highest I Increasing P = pressure Pt <)o ._ _ Pt D.. Figure of these flow not be in a straight 39 ._'°e?b_ " g "_-----'-77.. _ _Ve Pr _raclient) ess Ure I l / Lowest pressure at shoulder (c) Distance along flow 0_ Figure airfoil the sent real. (laminas) and then Laminar fluid in layers flow.._.] (posing e pressure r adient] N eb '_ _o _ \_ve. turbulent flow. Real Fluid are Flow two different moves The indicate types of real called may fluid laminas.c reasing PrOssur . P_ Zero High (Total speed pressure (al High (Tot al spee_ pressure pressure) pressure) v 4 \ _'x_ _" _reatcr than \ \ \ cce.- Ideal fluid flow about an airfoil. the inviscid flow of air is allowed to exist.e.9 "<$'-e _ " Traili highest _g-edge pressure 1) : /L. few pages is dropped this point on..- There flow the In laminar flow. consisting in straight-line streamtubes layers.......lowest pressure speed static mu mu v_ ® _ .

an ideal shows the of a curved in laminas. airfoil. as indicated the fluid one another fluid being exchanged shows a disorganized of streamlines. . fluid layers the slower layers However. later. In turbulent flow. to be discussed they move.Laminar and turbulent For 30(c) flow. ofile (c) _'_ Laminar flow l fluid the are flow follows flow airto the complex by the stream° between (e) Figure a small case foil lines. 30. 4O Figure 30(d) flow. layers. (d) generally is highly profile _b) Fluid layers (lamina) move more slowly as one approaches the surface but still slide over one another. Figure the curved the more for a real surface.Infinitesimal fluid layers (laminas) w No distinct layers Fluid exchange free No fluid exchange between layers l Uniform flow rectilinear (a) Turbulent moves Adjacent laminas have same Fluid follows curved surface speed in laminas flow . secondary random motions number are superimposed on the principal They are evidently segment surface fluid of the surface smoothly.Flow left to right but disorganized. slide over The closer here without also.

since been known form as the the a dimensionless a quantitative parameter. was of the up low. slow smoke a cigarette. Reynolds of the laminar introduced gave a quantitative indication to turbulent transition. For but do momentum 30(e) rises this flow which to the shows slower the particles rising which ments tance turbulent Another faucet.not More ticles fluid layers and there there is is an exchange an exchange particles of fluid from one such adjacent that slow sector moving to another. appear by assume characteristic In some smoke be flow less rising depending cases. of 31(b). The confused both rapids. tube. that fluid when maintained the flow the the turbulent existed Reynolds through defined section. turbulent a laminar downstream surfaces a number flow will cases. flow to turbulent 31(a). the brook the flow faucet the flow over at low fully water churns airfoil upon turbulent air. is the water laminar filadisand identity. motion between room is flow filaments The some laminar disturbed.) flow colored However. into illustrated the end of in figure the tube A large the a long tube the outlet faired at the length broke speed. moves suddenly this up into turbulent. (See 31(c). a confused The eddying flow is transition air and out in the turbulent flow example Opened But open closer to the cigarette when of laminar the of a common slightly. fluid parmoving importantly. occurrence speeds and may the slide the flow water speeds flows out in a clear column turbulent in a cloudy rocks column. the filament (See fig. as to how one a laminar can tell changed is to be parameter to a turbulent laminar which or question In 1883. number to give R is In equation R . speed and from may (or above up and of monmntum give Consider up their figure the smoke fast down moving themselves. and It will turbulent the may of factors. the the speed of the its speed cross through entire filament fig. description Reynolds Reynolds number. to control of colored When the experimental with smoothly the tube mouth. streamtubes) the cigarette. flow.) which of the has flow. In the In a mountain Colorado be seen River that over smooth in the in laminas. injected water identity was tank. wave around some not distance lose break their in smooth is laminar. whether a dimension- turbulent. in the "naturally" in a laminar flow as flow in the can a In other flow. A thin filament fluid into flowing for high.pVf # (I0) 41 . in a tube Reynolds changes setup a stopcock into the is at from demonlami- circumstances of the had The tube.In his the The tube was flow experiments. Reynolds strated nar the fact number that over effects under a given water flow was certain region tank on the flow field. causing arises Osborne a disturbance.

o flow . kg/m 3 V mean velocity of fluid. t" | -- / Dye in [il../zz'z/zz'zzzzi////// tank -_--_ . z_/. .. .... by using water..pVf density of fluid. p._- [ / (/ Figure where 31. m coefficient discussion).5 Water level drops flow continues as / [ [ t/ /-Smooth fairing F .Dependence . Long Valve control--. V.] rI --I [] _ye Reynolds experimental [ [ I [ -- ... the flow in value was as evidenced by the distinct colored of regardless of his varying laminar combinations of values A transi2100 tion between and turbulent flow occurred for Reynolds numbers between 42 .unent flow "° 1_'_ Outlet -NN "_' (a) S remains speed distinct Low flow (R / 2100) indicating throughout (b) R " 40000 Filament _-turbulent laminar ._ __ . tuoe speed \ x // I Water [ ..Filament flow breaks flow up indicating .el of flow on Reynolds number. laminar Reynolds found. R = 2100 This f.% -. m/sec characteristic length.. that below filament. l R . of viscosity kg/m-sec (called simply "viscosity" in the earlier For the pipe true this was setup. or p..

the chord would in the Reynolds number experiment laminar airfoils are transition and turbulent operate evident. An airfoil is shown. Dust flow.- The effect near of surface the body the point Figure case roughness to go from occur- of a in a flow field flow will surface it causes roughness the flow increases. however. general flows are trends. The number surface is seen roughness is increased further and the Reynolds upstream in each is held The to go turbulent Reynolds 43 . of turbulent of first move upstream along In each airfoil. the case The number of an airfoil. The laminar and high Reynolds number Reynolds number may be viewed another way: Reynolds number = Inertia Viscous forces forces friction of the fluid. numerical values given for the f transition is the and are diameter trailing for this particular For flows flow experiment an airfoil. an be far of about the characteristic be the Thus. 32 illustrates of flow and point. succeeding number case. low Reynolds turbulent. The inertia (ii) The forces viscous forces arise the fluid's because natural are number of the internal resistance negligible flows the represent flow the in high forces. Surface body rence this immersed laminar contrasts flow will flow and high roughness effects As the on the flow is that surface field. the degree fixed. number Some very are In a high laminar the results Reynolds as typically experienced interesting number Reynolds in the flight of aircraft. compared viscous forces flow oil. different several the leading between Typically.and40 000dependingupon howsmooth the tube junction was andhow carefully the flow entered the tube. for distance was the water length between used chosen of the pipe. variable The fact that the transition that Reynolds induced turbunumber (between 40 000) was indicates the effect on the flow. case number flows forces particles These flows through laminar. edge called air whereas would Additionally. between be demonstrated and turbulent of low Reynolds shortly. as evidenced by the lence colored has The since fluid filament 2100 and breaking up quickly. Above R = 40 000 the flow was always turbulent. the to turbulent. at Reynolds For a particular flows are numbers body. mostly million. are number such present. slowly the air the liquid. another of a low Reynolds flow. are In a low Reynolds forces to the flow) is a small relative Stoke's ball falls number whereas inertia small through are inertia Reynolds forces with the viscous An example dropped viscous into of a low Reynolds a container are number silicon (called The settling of heavy large. steel ball to acceleration. length. airfoil.

in a laminar flow will damp out and the an airfoil flow (or up to the region. All cases at same Reynolds number. Pressure transition the static from pressure gradient laminar effects on the flow field.. result. 44 . static before of maximum the point A laminar thickness will be encouraged of the airfoil) and may shoulder increased.Another important gradient disturbances If the the static static factor in the in the If to turbulent flow is the pressure distance.surface roughnessare not independentof eachother and both contribute to the determination of the laminar to turbulent transition. flow field. edge. sition SY_ly r rough mrwu _//_ . of maximum The laminar. Laminar _.///7- v_ v_ Figure 32. increases with downstream flow will that over in a laminar pressure pressure decreases flow decreased in this the flow will be amplified with will downstream tend to remain point Beyond pressure the trailing and turbulent disturbances Recall thickness._tion v_ Tran. laminar flow now is hindered go turbulent _ran. distance.Surface roughness and flow field. A very low Reynoldsnumber flow will be laminar evenon a rough surface and a very high Reynoldsnumber flow will be turbulent eventhoughthe surface of a bodyis highly polished.

edge smooth of the fluid At all plate plate would points parallel is to the free over surface moves perthe of a uniform slip the one If the with the fluid is. Consider approaching stream. forces that also create gradients. force referred mentioned An layer needed important and skin-friction to show how drag._- Hydrostatic pressure Real fluid at rest Pressure normal forces to surface . surface the plate.The vided real the force the fluid shear is boundary background flow. the 34(a). the 34 flow were V_ which ahead ideal. This on has proin a produced during surfaces on a body low-speed of the aerodynamic flow over force force the flight shear is caused to as - by viscous the skin-friction number. the real . to the fluid._ ___-_-./. the distribution of velocity 45 . variation simply along as velocity velocity in figure (that is. normal these drag.drag is The foregoing discussion immersed subsonic vehicle. as shows of the that shown a very leading thin. ideal and is strongly dependent and act pressure the factors previously Figure a body cous 33 Reynolds surface roughness.Static-pressure forces flmd in a real fluid flow Figure 33. inviscid. visto shows that in addition pressure forces and everywhere It is fluid immersed forces which in a moving modify the viscous fluid lift are help present. figure flow.- Pressure and viscous forces.

until this adheres to the surface. the turbulent directed difference is a random in the at the layer boundary as the downstream important builds is no slip boundary from velocity up more thickness in figure from quickly is greater. the disappears. the boundary number becomes boundary However. layer of the fact the that total friction. of the boundary velocities friction layers and an internal the body. (See This point is the It states away that from at the surface the body the a of a body. force The is present. The Reynolds viscosity). and more on the plate a turbulent There laminar away viscosity fluid continues down thickens is is slowed the by internal boundary (See fig. flow layer. the wall important as moves the wall.) fluid. near force edge is referred of the plate. very a very important thin film no-slip is zero. thickness Yet. the flow velocity gradually case moves point V_. of the boundary must It is clearly in this region. effect drag leading and extends these friction forces is to produce drag. boundary Eventually. and/or As the decreasing the be the (caused thickens by increasing more slowly. to act to as skin-friction one has a laminar boundary laminar and the boundAs one layer a point and flow. layer where boundary motion laminar layer. however. of the boundary the velocity edge must layer vary on an airfrom zero layer. surface is the although undergoes As is usual Another 34(b). moves ary layer also is steady layered a laminar and the further as more reached becomes there motion. 34(b). friction) be acting skin-friction 46 . of fluid condition. layer that than the velocity never at the of the body Thus. increases of a flat zero are plate A the velocity The layer becomes of fluid where in the the velocity Within is changing layer friction cumulative This the from there to a constant relative This of all internal value is known between as the boundary the particle to the surface a drag layer. of the fluid value. Reynolds zero. from one This This the downstream. transition for on the plate. As one at some value is constant value of Voo. 34(c). velocity constant B. moving near the wall will be shown to produce Reynolds number number increases layer has an important effect on the the flow boundary speed layer.pendicularly drag would away result from if the the surface) fluid were would frictionless be a uniform (inviscid).) as well plate. surface to hundreds tremendous rise to the of m/sec shearing at the outer forces (internal drag. Initially. It is interesting craft at the wing is generally of the evident This to note less wing that gives a typical a centimeter. No In a real fig. boundary-layer as shown further condition tendency the can be seen in a turbulent slower by comparing boundary fluid the two profiles layer of the fluid away to reenergize consequences. hence. surface even though must large.

as for the ideal a stagnation maximum on along point occurs edge of the airfoil (total or stagnation changes._j | layer thickness " [--_ _ tilickncss l I"_ Flat plate v_ BW_ Laminar layers botmdal_ "__] Turbulent layer boundary _ / (b) Viscous flow along a flat plate. B_-oundary_ layer thickness [. er I__z/ energy profile exchange and Laminar taycr boundary Turbulent layer boundary (c) Comparison Figure 34.- of laminar and turbulent flow in a real flow.v_ v_ Flat )late (a) Inviscid flow along a flat plate.- Figure in figure p_ 35 illustrates 29. _rl _l I :1 (/ Steetl.. fluid... Boundary-layer The foil surface and airfoil in a real fluid. The The the the same velocities real fluid flow over the airV_ originally static considered pressure free-stream ahead and static velocity of the airfoil pressures at the leading free-stream modified apply. and the pressure reaches its pressure). From this point value of the airfoil. purposes Again flow field is only are slightly the same and for all practical fluid case. Pt at this point the picture 47 .... v_ v.

in thickness are because appear before rear along moving the is reached. a boundary outside layer begins to form of viscosity. flow along is the on the upper As noted because very the earlier in the example This boundary fluid._/ /--Note / -Flow laver . continues and viscosity The the to thicken downstream. surface.- Real fluid flow about an airfoil. like that is very thin and of it the on the layer. As the gradient particles forces.': boundary layer Turbulent (S_alled flow) Figure wake 35. The fluid is unfavorable must At the layer push (increasing against both this point. pressure boundary at all. and thus feels flow acts surface This acts as if static of much airfoil of an ideal by the through the static outside layer But the pressure the acting is determined is transmitted layer were respond boundary pressure the to the surface boundary layer boundary not present to it. static the of the flat layer Also.Sh¢. (pressure The decreasing flow is laminar layer grows with distance and a laminar laminar boundary however. boundary layer dient pletely. becomes the with downstream pressure of the flow boundary unfavorable character gradient changes This and the and the turbulent viscous transition quickly laminar boundary gracom(Rememcase.ulder of airfoil maxh_mm speed outside . flow will flow the trailing surface.a[ Ihe llI)w_d_l'vh_yer _ I _--. Bottom Thickness lower of boundary surface layers same and as greatly exaggerated. the the pressure is too much layer the has for the flow. plate. an assisting downstream). Pushing against an unfavorable point. with viscosity edge present. ber that shoulder pressure the static-pressure distance). fluid boundary flow reached trailing trailing before in the ideal 48 . stalled edge short and at some of reaching stopping flow stops edge. at some the condition It would distance to the at the trailing come moves to rest from now. to rest This the fluid particles than ideal is an unfavorable edge. this pressure Over pressure speeds present. is reached. the ideal just that shoulder fluid came the and will the front surface of the airfoil up to the shoulder. slower previous favorable The layer flow is When in the flow gradient up along This exists the airfoil. boundary the airfoil.) a turbulent layer. outside boundary is in_is(id flow ' ". case.

free-stream static-pressure now exceeds acting direction force due This acting on the surface.. 1 Separatmn OCCURS near . The toward and This a region flow field represents flow "dead" outside as tile shown air which air disrupting is Thus.- drag). edge. Real fluid (c) effects Real on fluid an airfoil airfoil... before All Beyond turning along this around.. Figure 49 . surface point. region dead in region 35 is to flow wake away tile of eddies figure called behind 36(a) and compares center-line differences the ideal streamline are fluid case with static-pressure the real but fluid once the shoulder) rear this case. distribution Note that occurs at up the to the the airfoil separation pressure force stream (See fig. airfoil.site upper surface static-pressure distributions. field acting exactly 36(b). and from around airfoil. canceled in the surfaces symmetry on cancellation surface parThe pressure due to the of forces allel net drag. (net pressure drag)... These conll)ollents no lonR'er stream 7 equal component - Net downstream Pressure (b) Ideal fluid airfoil (no pressure 36. shearing tion ideal of the fluid to the result destroyed. free on the airfoil that real acting fluid (up to the on case force that the opposed Now.. surface and however. stalling. _[deal .) is the is not very ideal large fluid separation net greatly front modified.This point moving eddies away and the stall point is into known the as the the separation flow the is nose point.. in the pressure 36(c). called drag the is a drag (See fig. is a line line. / PressuJ'e distribution _reatlv inodified '" 0 ] Distance in real case alon_ flow here fluid (a) Airfoil Pressure parallel equal alld to forces free opp_. to the is asymmetric in addition boundary causes pressure to the layer. starting tile flow is the forced the from is this outward back. Figure flow. trailing edge . The net In the of the case static-pressure parallel of the and the rear front to the airfoil. " x _ _--- / . Real fluid fluid _ k p _' [ leadim. actually of upstream whirlpools the it.. a decrease distribution skin-friction Additionally.) (internal a drag forces friction) distribution in the modificalift from the static-pressure case.

\\*. _. reduced. Concluded. in this the are total The points being number. \\... 50 . be occurring beyond the the total that viscosity components to treat discussed. case. has is Reynolds to the pressure The the (R = 107). to one but the degree effects this viscosity drag. very similar strongly. N\ .. _\\\\-. is a little drag.. processes another.X \\ . extent section the result of the observes The of a real a boundary of viscosity of the The arises. In summarizing are hence.. Both of these are detrimental effects. the occurs.the lift is reduced anda total drag composedof skin-friction drag and pressure drag is present. in the higher broadside Four flight 37 shows of the five bodies bodies are aircraft placed operating (R = 104 in a real fluid flow numThe fifth of streamlining. section.. .. is still that skin-friction same a relatively has operating separation dra_ pressure effects a smaller boundary-layer The smaller skin-friction than plate. field when will discussion. a large the result. considers Effects effects of "streamlining._-4 "...'\. normally is operating flat of subsonic number flow drag cylinder. before case drag already the than has at the A large component.that on an airfoil." Figure field. shoulders for been the plate. flow causes because lift is a skin-friction that a pressure the is disrupted the net pressure Also. drag or It is noted one fluid.._ \\ \\_\\ "_\ X\. fluid layer to the The next flow and. small flow of air bers body and at Reynolds to 105).the resultant encountered at plate plate a much placed edge. _ < "_ (d) Viscosity Figure effects 36. One sees the effects of viscosity .. wake the at the with separation drag Reynolds in this larger Overall. although are the previous on scope airplane the effects all discussion the of this drag other text is was lim- It should ited of the these to an airfoil aircraft in detail be noted. x\\\\\ t \\\\\'.Figure 36(d)showsfiguratively the lift anddrag for an airfoil producing lift in both an ideal andreal fluid case. wake and cylinder. of the but from reduced of the flat some of streamlining evident.\_ \\ \\--_ \\" © = .

Also. shape. fact that area the over This has been accomplished drag has been increasing slightly as the bodies became skin-friction exposed to the drag flow is due and to the thus One can explain that the increase body the boundary has more layer area may in streamlined which has act. may There assume is ahnost no boundary-layer streamline separation may and the wake One then that a Operand in shape be defined as the absence of boundary-layer separation. 51 .IL' lye f(lrce plate _Br(adside) Separation R _ 105 point- R _ 10 5 -Separation point R = 10 4 )aration point Skin-friction cl rag Pressure drag Figure 37. noticeable is the very large reduction by only overall drag compared eliminating the pressure with the cylinder or plate. --_ Hehtl ] ) I'. component ating in the condition shown. the pressure the skin-friction drag now Even more is the dominant drag is very small. drag since the sMn-friction more siml)le a greater streamlined. at the same Reynolds number is a streamlined is very small.Separationpoint R _ 105_ Flat ]D..Effects of streamlining at various Reynolds numbers.

contradictory be explained been compared. the need in the for A considerably However. under felt resistance at 20 km/hr. To illustrate. when thickness. drag From is demonstrated in the coefficient. of subsonic the resistance depends (velocity) is five at the In the preceding example. is a cylinder flow at a much velocity). Reynolds on (velocity) velocity about number times everyday on a body. of 100 km/hr 25 times as great along times higher of 20 km/hr.Finally. the aerodynamic velocity. of resistance. aerodynamic resistance more to doing difficult. factor sheet Area cardboard length times up against length) A considerable is another exposed determining by stating is dependent and the the relative that. so. the and previously the actual that measure section pressure the flow may have discussed drag actual of the same These under is higher by A is much drag larger. airflow factor piece in the resistance by a body. if Density If one walks But try to wade a beach. the small (velocity) that factor considering relatively or flow problems viscosities). is one consider his hand the factors broadside speeds determines (high directly the is although resistance that to a along Aerodynamic determine flow outside at 100 km/hr. of (or experiment: is experienced. experience.- is needed. resistance Velocity but if one that flight is considerable. body. This measure of the performance to be the nondimensional coefficients. to imagine is large slow because of the the turbulent early drag of the biplanes could It is not hard all the realized better shown wire speeds bracing wire used were is considered. is little speed. in the flow of the size. and the air. to generalize the aerodynamic the properties the discussion resistance of the fluid. realizing better next values. a stiff wind. 1/10 drag in figure of the larger 37 at a Reynolds streamline streamlined shape number of 104 is a cylinder Surprisingly. streamlined. of the fluid One Little of water is much the density felt represents more determining hold a small Now hold stiff to the wind. of air. The the shape. this wire reduced have been and body if the structures the introduction bracing. the resistance. between as the aero- on the of the velocity defined and the fluid (air). up against similarly resistance resistance a much shaped is felt. real It is now possible fluid. pressure reason drag for the approximately it has the same of the diameter as the much wake. different flow speeds. the same of cardboard larger. 2. consider lift force 52 . facts is evidenced. at the there same in the water The density another It is considerably greater than not impossible. attitude body about a body. If one places is felt. and a much Reynolds tion points (accomplished downstream This result of the would cylinder by increasing shoulders lead one free-stream cylinder a smaller However. little the aerodynamic a car the window force In fact. higher The smaller drag speed than separawake for monoplane The fifth number are eliminated operating the of the to expect size. shape.

oV_ or viscosity roughness flow. did not From and the pre- velocity). a real the fluid. free-stream speed of sound of fluid (S series is a characteristic of comparison times (chord the its length particular previously a. a laminar past the Mach with the The whereas dimensionless associated the with number the fluid was to have represents the effects of influenced the degree transition wake from formed to a turbulent separation points.__ V_ body frontal area For that is usually chosen be to be the consistent with of the a experiments. perpendicular lift depends fluid on to the (size. / Lift = p_. air turbulence) \ (12) / PoC. where x V 2 × S × Factor 'is. 53 . for velocity fluid direction. span of shown S a cylinder however. properties density) and influence properties however. Also. is the Reynolds Reynolds the shown number number Mach is It has or the is R. diameter to be it is the cylinder area check taken Thus. the In addition on the force. and the elastic. free-stream shape. surface ' a_ roughness. properties. a rectangular for it would it is usually wing). planform to for necessary definition been is defined quantity used the a body. that quantity number fluid Surface to be the associated compressibility. to the Based shape on viscous. important. \ p_V_C p V_ . (except attitude.. turbulence of the Furthermore. attitude turbulent body. times For wing a wing. free-stream fluid density Vo_ free- stream velocity characteristic body frontal area characteristic body length ot attitude of body P coefficient of viscosity a ¢_3_. that of the surface roughness it may introductory discussion of this section. length. Air M. an effect demonstrated reaction discussion. the are lift also has be an ideal For fluid.) P.dynamic vious For force.

aerodynamic One obtains drag is the aerodynamic equations resistance to equations parallel (14) and to the (15). area. important shape. Drag 1 = C D x_p_V_ 2 xS (16) or CD = Drag 1 p_V 2 2 × S coefficient.attitude called and shape K. 2K pressure in equation may of a fluid (13) and by flow was the value C L. then. previously of K defined is doubled as 1 _V 2 _p so if a value the of to keep the equation be replaced 1 Finally. of a body are lumped together into the factor. pressure CL lift times is known is deterthe (14) as (14) is the fundamental of lift. dependent on the previously enumerated (17) where CD is the drag parameters. Letting the factor be Lift =p_xV_ 2 xSxK (13) The dynamic 1. . experiments of the Lift body number. roughness.is included 2 same. lift Thus. The of lift by a coefficient body times the coefficient equation the aerodynamic the free-stream dynamic char- It is very ent tude. dependattiby and found the Reynolds or flight number. having upon and body to realize Mach that the lift coefficient CL CL is a number air turbulence. free-stream analogous namely. Lift Equation mined acteristic = C L ×_ p_V_ 2 x S lift formula states for simply usual that aircraft flight. is generally wind-tunnel free-stream conditions a knowledge CL- 1 (15) 2. 54 . surface a constant. and the It is not by any means by measuring dimensions. × S p_V_ The direction.

equation acting 38.2 R = 10 5 S ep. to the and drag equations (14) and (16) such Moment or 1 2 × S x _ = Cm × _ p<V_. (18) Cm = Moment 1 5 P_V_2S (19) _ 55 . tendency aerodynamic may to turn force about times on a body moment is a measure represents that This a moment moment Let it be stated as used for the lift a similar be applied that.1 10 d CD = 1. distance...- Drag coefficients of various of the body's the resultant derivation bodies.6 Figure The its center moment of gravity../rat point i on Streamline bed y thickness :d CD = 0. Cylinder diameter : d CD = 1.12 Separation Cvlinder diameter =.Separati point on Flat (B roa( length plate s ide) d CD = 2.2 R = 10 7 Cylinder diameter =d CD = 0.0 Separati point R _ 10 5 on " ----_ _ .

These values include the combined The reduced From the skin-friction operating cylinder. flow close forces to the and the of the surface the fluid pressure a smaller lower cylinder Separation this viscous unfavorable and at the downstream with the shoulders and wake Compare condition separation Reynolds 39 is a plot of drag The determined Reynolds numbers of the values curve coefficient for each of the body CD 105. as large 0. and air _ is necesCm are turbulence. for all the proportional that now the Reynolds shape of the are. The drag and. CD are (based shown. half The and streamline operating as the aerodynamic number drags. replaced for streamline respectively. and 0. the dimension assumed was. Figure Reynolds subcritical separates along stalling. experimentally of cylinders the laminar and in wind tunnels. coefficient the frontal (17). upstream At high Reynolds along the cylinder. and correct. to return dependent attitude. of 104 with examples. stalls broad up to about of the boundary produces upstream shoulders cylinder 56 . the small The cylinder last is.2. effects d. the in figure number. the 2.0. and turbulent reenergizes against occurs turbulence drives gradient wake in the boundary further before results.12. to obtain of the the effect Its aerodynamic the higher smaller Reynolds wake numbers. number. aerodynamic S is the and were to be smooth therefore. and 37 except C D. boundary 37 is large smaller because drag drag V_ coefficient coefficient further the smaller layer pressure becomes layer the component. number. drag and drag. By assuming bodies to the relative number symmetrically and the drag pressure. the of progressively same Reynolds and entirely a unit alined drag length streamlining. Figure been values drag. Mach and body It is now possible pare first had Mach The area CD the three the five same bodies basic bodies to the force the discussion coefficient associated as a measure with figure of the more number 37 and comThe All same by using demonstrated body the resistance. CD resistance of this same resistance.6. is a measure for the bodies. it to be dimensionally Reynolds shape. the effect has of larger with the flow. of 107. has CD pressure number By equation 38 repeats by the the flat is then directly At the effects small the results drag coefcylinplate. surface roughness. that discussed been increased indicates previously. as is the dynamic measured drag force of 105. of figure ficients der. length CD.2. number. on frontal Also. 1. tested the area) solid layer a very against line is an At and wake number. has a CD of cylinder. an additional To reiterate. R = 105. and to one-tenth equation basic effect dimension of smaller shape at the cylinders has of the previous size have higher nullifies equivalent Reynolds (16).Cm sary is the for coefficient on the of moment number. characteristic CL. the at a Reynolds its diameter a CD CD of 1. hence.

These becomes A rather values to note is delayed. of cylto Golf of today boundary distances thus dimpled and once a turbulent driving discussion and thus decrease coefficient. between numbers. Much result. erences layer and to airfoil unsteady since as well boundary is two- flow velocity as dimensional direction craft parameters these ideas vary in mind. induce improved The tant ideas values. the numbers the supercritical turbulent abrupt are that are layer are far has the the numbers separation occurs Reynolds laminar smaller of 105 layer values. operating in a subsonic 57 .At Drag coefficients as Reynolds and transition function of Reynolds from 106 number. or Fluid streamline in the and flow shapes turbulent other demonstrated.'[indcr g c_ 1. flow. 39. been and has introduced many Numerous flow The to the may now of the flow imporref- principles.(_-O O Flat Lart_e pIate cylinder shape Streamline [] /N Curve 2. Reynolds 106 . normal one free-stream study air- parallel to it. Viscous examined. critical interesting bails spheres exhibit rather than behavior smooth their to that were.0 O I 10 I 102 I 103 I 104 I 105 I 106 t 107 I 108 I 109 Royllo[ds nu l/ib¢_ F Figure and high CD boundary CD and It is inders. and larger. very as drag similar they hence..( for Hiah Small t_evnolds cylinder number c.I 3. been rather behavior have wake flow With general has been have been made.

58 .

by the Royal Committee information for Aeronautics as possible produced The (NACA). the few airfoil "cut and try" helped surface. about results that "families" are that of airfoil still shapes. The and purpose by much finally here in use are better. ments adopted. as to how this is determined. performance. investigations or influence based con- the design siderably The airfoil: of today's NACA airplanes. Cayley more lift lift but the drag that Figure 13 shows is excessive. objective A flat plate of an airfoil at an angle is to obtain of attack. rounded The systematic National determine World War The came early usual from days of canvas at that and wood time was wings.it from the simply Figure side. Sir George produced section used the lift necessary could to keep be used Lilienthal drag than an airto in the flat plane create 1800's surfaces. NACA of most on these following used at G/Jttingen. by the was to During methods Advisory as much II. discussions follow results. the desirability evolved from procedure experimentation. in the the for example. shapes method. The ultimate air. Improveit was of a If the modification in addition trailing of these to a curved edge. SUBSONIC FLOW EFFECTS Airfoils The wing cross shape airfoil section. early days were Air Early leading hit and tests edge miss showed.IV. curved surfaces the airfoil and Otto and less demonstrated by the Wright Brothers in their 1903 airplane. 13 showed one has and that Wings by taking of the question a slice airfoil arises out of an airplane called the airfoil and viewing section the shape The or more airfoil section. and a sharp methods replaced Force. In those theory. are essential in determining the shape of a typical six terms (1) The (2) The (3) The (4) The (5) The (6) The Figure (1) the leading trailing chord camber upper lower edge edge line line surface surface the step-by-step of the airfoil geometric section construction of an airfoil the section: leading and 59 (or mean line) 40 illustrates desired length is determined by placing .

foil When line. this final of thickness surfaces.Chord Set up leading edge and trailing edge and construct chord line between them. sections. greatly about the their desired 40. with Camber line Upper Wrap camber upper thickness line to surface. (__ Figure trailing points curvature "wrapped" and below (4) the last edges together. the two This is above distance (2) the amount aids the an airfoil of curvature section's that is. the line. for several differently line shaped (or airline). If the (the upper characteristics all its own which be determined 41 illustrates Figure camber surface line all the aforementioned 42 illustrates is the same an important as the chord terms aspect line. Lower surface added 4. line is drawn by the connecting line. Final airfoil shape. construction The chord of an airfoil. Figure airfoil line). about form surface added Chord line Wrap about form same camber lower thickness line to surface. Add curvature camber line.- Geometric apart. is determined lifting one adds abilities. and lower It has from step set of aerodynamic testing. a specific wind-tunnel camber shows thickness result - determines a typical may the upper airfoil shape.Trailing edge 2. the same camber (3) a thickness amount function camber line. line \ Leading edge . chord line mean of the camber has a symmetric about the along the one surface is a mirror velocity The image of the lower airstream a chord the the free-stream no lift is produced. of the angle oncoming of attack is alined angle is the between chord 6O .

a L = 0 <0° v_ ve camber "lift" Asymmetric Negative "lift" airfoil at -Camber aL line below chord line: a = 0 °.0 °. 61 . Zero camber Symmetric no i.- Airfoil camber line variations. = 0 > O° Figure 42. lift eL at a = 0 airfoil . Angle _z ift v_ ve camber Asymmetric Positive lift airfoil at -- Camber line above chord line: a = 0 °.- Airfoil terminology._. _ 0 °. O.surface G/Jttingen airfoil Upper 387 Leading edge Chord surface line Camber_ line _ Trailing edge NACA 0012 f Upper surface symmetric airfoil Leading edge surface Chord line equal to camber line Whitcomb Trailing edge er surface //---Chord line supercritical airfoil Leading edge ----' / A Lower surface c._.n / / "'"_ -- Trailing edge Figure 41. . _='"_" |'. -- Camber of zero line lift Chord is also line.e.

in this 0 = 0 °.in a spanwise A two-dimensional direction. asymmetrical airfoil the two-dimensional wing. the same The as at station is the flowing span. case two namic wing of the wind when wall that tunnel 43(b). point of this effects to prevent (to around One three-dimensional aerodynamic course.) lift stream airfoil When results. possible flow Kutta leaves and tangentially value smoothly such theorem 44(c)). the It is or chord zero aL= line. condition to the lift required The moves section trailing by Kutta-Joukowsky relates to the l = p_V_r (20) 62 . Thus.The _. a = 0 °. may in length section.) the tunnel to the can other. that the spans for no wing model the minor that be discussed from the later). edge the the the ab_o_ut _a _tw_oz_diln?j}s_ional of two airfoil airfoil is. answer. to give call the the (see (see a circulatory coexist lation. (See for). span has on spanwise will variation show the airfoil that section limiting A later the aerodynamic discussion characteristics. free-stream free-stream flow. characteristics. B or anywhere air wing In fig_are along from has 43(a) no variation the airfoil and the the of aerodysection wing wing is tips at limitand characteristics A is in span. then of the (c_ = 0o). patterns and the other two is fluid one is flows flow is the about an airfoil may motionof or the circutotal flow be Circulation viewed the fluid as consisting about around The by about infinite. that the condition turn a real a sharp fluid.and the the angle free-stream of attack camber for velocity zero lies vector. that is. represented The These flow question F the if the prescribed. (except tunnel-wall is. stream chord lift line surface above an asymmetrical lower surface. to obtain manner OtL= 0 the section freeThe zero negais (Upper velocity line must is. supcrimposed fig. If the results. wing's is trying to separate effects. lift is zero. This stagnation circ_daliop. pattern. 44(a)) 44(b)). rear th. case. the is not along a mirror the inclined chord image line is alined be angle an a positive free negatively of zero with 0 is respect less where than to the 0°'!. there is effects no be corrected of the iMluence wing dimensionally. angle (that lift aL= In a similar of zero lift tive camber greater than The namic station less causing the yields 0 °. fig. one but a close placed insuring surements. the velocity the it be of any pointed As this value? edgc A physical caImOt with (fig. }__'illg . be obtained for meaIn this behaves aerodythe by airfoil's Of characteristics is infinite airfoil from three-dimensional simulation in the wind fig. provides corner the is the point circulation. flow trailing is and of F not without instead becoming trailing sets edge.

- section's aerodynamic characteristics a two-dimensional Two-dimensional (2D) wing... 63 . wing testing...Infinite length infinite__ length (a) Two-dimensional (2D) wing. _ms on de mounted slae mo near wall _ (b) Testing for airfoil by using Figure 43. . This side mounted Free this stream direction from _ _' j_'V_ / _ } Wing spans to show wine in tunr_el _ \ L.

elocity about trailing sharp edge

(a) Flow

with

no circulation.

(b) Circulatory

flow only.

Flow edge

leaves smoothly

trailing

(c) Flow Figure 44.-

with

circulation. about a 2D wing.

Circulation

where

lift/unit free-stream

span

of two-dimensional air density

wing

Poo

Voo

free-stream circulation

velocity strength

F

64

Thus, the circulation strenglh I' is set by a necessary physical condition, and the lift l is uniquely determined. For a perfect fluid the drag per unit length is zero.
However, drag wing along in a viscous fluid ilow one loss must include Latex" the a skin-friction changes that drag occur and when a pressure a finite with a resulting of lift.

is considered The

wi]l be shown. coefficiel:ts.q'h,., point :force into is the lift Figure of intersection center of pressure. components 45(a) shows of the the chord resultant line aerodynamic line of

two-dimensional on an airfoil, resultant

force action force drag, attack because has chord dynamic

acting of this may

and the

The as shown

resultant in figure to vary center this

aerodynamic 45(b). The lift, of

be resolved

and drag for

and center is changed. the line

of pressure of action mounted

are

the cambered moments are force along

airfoil present passes the chord,

shown at the through for

as the angle of pressure point. If one

No aerodynamic

of the aerodynamic at seine fixed edge,
point

the airfoil length force The

point the

example, the

a quarter resultant

of a aero-

behind

the leading or the

moment

is not zero to the center

unless

is zero

corresponds point of angle center, the lift,

of pressure. a function of angle about of the

moment Figure point

about -

the quart(,r-chord a system functions all are

is generally a lift, of attack. where drag, the drag,

attack.

45(c)

shows

of reporting

and moment

quarter-chord There the angle

is a point,

the aerodynamic 45(d) shows

moment

is independent about the aerody-

of

of attack. This

Figure system

and moment for a number

namic

center.

of r,,porting

is convenient

of aerodynamic

calculations. The data obtained data. by wind-tunnel Aerodynamic Cd, the testing of NACA families of airfoil include the sections lift coeffiare

two-dimensional cient point These moments el, the drag

characteristics moment

recorded coefficient about

coefficient and the are length moment

the quarter-chord center the forces (em)ac. and

(Cm)0.25c, coefficients per unit

coefficient by measuring,

about

the aerodynamic tests,

obtained of the

in wind-tunnel

airfoil

wing

and nondimensionalizing

as follows:

c/ where dynamic Similarly, l is the pressure

qc

z

(21)

measured lift per unit length of the airfoil wing, q is the testing 1 section. or _pV 2, and c is the chord length of the airfoil

d c d -=_-_ where d is the measured drag per unit length of the airfoil wing

(22)

65

Resultant aerodynamic force

of V_ Chord line --] Line of resultant action force of

pressure

(a)

Lift

Lift

_

=

00_

v_

/_enter

of pressure moves forward as of attack increases

angle

Chordwise on shape

of

position camber

depends line

(b)

Lift Quarter chord point Aerodynamic__.._ center chord o) point Moment about aerodynamic center (independent of a)

.__

Moment one-quarter (depends

about on

(c) Figure 45.Airfoil aerodynamic

(d)

characteristics.

and,
Cm = m qc 2 (23)

where

m

is the

measured or the been

moment aerodynamic shown chosen), and air need

per

unit length center the

acting other

on the airfoil point desired). are

(whether

at the

quarter-chord It has body Mach number shape number, effects

point previously (airfoil are

or any

that

aerodynamic (angle turbulence.

coefficients

dependent number, flow, Mach

on

section negligible and

attitude and air

of attack For is dependent

or), Reynolds low subsonic on the

surface

roughness,

turbulence

Reynolds

number Figure 46 The on

and surface shows main angle 66 data point

roughness reported of this

not be indicated airfoil the shape,

as a separate namely, of the

dependency. an NACA 2415

for a particular figure is to show number,

airfoil.

dependence

aerodynamic

coefficients

of attack,

Reynolds

and surface

roughness.

This of shape, number, Air cl,

indicates Cd, an_le and turbulence number and of

the c m

dependence on airfoil Reynolds rout_hness. included and roughlless number in tile -.2 0 .2 ,4 .C, .8 1 .C_ _.0_l .2

attack,

surface is

_=g<

o

Reyl]olds dependency. effects 2.0 -

Math not includ(!d.

-o

.020

--

--

1.6

.016

1.2

g

.01_
.008

.8

.4

•_

.004

g
0 o 0 0

ca _,| -.4 -.l

8
-,2 slber -.3 -1.2 _ I_" -.4 -1.6 Angle -.5 of attack variation K2" z2_-;;at|at|on Sur face roughness variation -•3 4"_ -.4 9.0 -•8 -.2 O [] 3.0 6.0 x 10 6

Aerl)d;llat!lic

ct,ll[/,l

p_)sltD_ll

x/,,
.241 .246 .246 Standard

y/i.
.014 .013 •013 roughness

,_X 6.0

-2.o
-32

l
-24 Section NACA

,
-[6 -8 angle 2415

,
of Wirlg

t
0 attack, Section

_
8 o0,

t
16 deg

T
24 32

-.5
-1.6

____1
-l.2 -.8 Section NACA -.4

----L_A J 0 lift 2415 coefficit, wine se .4 nt, :tio .8 cl

J 1.2

J 1.6

Specific

body

shapu

(see

upper

right)

Figure x

46.and

Aerodynamic y denote

coefficient distances

dependencies, along X and Y

c

denotes

chord

length,

axes,

respectively.

It is best at this point to examine,

in a general some

manner,

the variation of the coef-

ficients with angle of attack and to discuss informative Figure graphs of these results.

typical features often found in the

47 is a typical graph One

of coefficient of lift cI

against the angle of attack

of the airfoil section.

of the first things noticed is the fact that at an angle of positive lift. This One must move is the

attack of 0 °, there is a positive coefficient of lift,and, hence, case of most cambered airfoils and was discussed earlier.

to a nega-

tive angle of attack to obtain zero bered to have

liftcoefficient (hence zero lift). It will be rememlift. A symmetric be expected. is almost a airfoil was shown

that this angle is called the angle of zero an angle of zero liftequal to 0 ° as might next that from There

Notice straight line. Above

0 ° up to about 10 ° or 12 ° the "liftcurve"

is a linear increase

in the coefficient of liftwith angle of attack. a peak and then declines. The

this angle, however,

the liftcoefficient reaches

angle at which

the liftcoefficient (or lift)reaches

a maximum

is called the stall angle.

67

change of attack the stall Beyond in is angle.. L -16 -8 Angle of 0 attack. The coefficient the stall angle..._ . g .- Coefficient of lift as a funcliun uf angle of attack. of attack and 47) that stall curve" also.ma x.xinmm one may state that the airfoil is stalled has occurred. the "lift occurs of attack angle. the the separated flow is to decrease to note that (fig. an airfoil Note raised from of attack. continues through negative an for a negative angle angle In general. the flow being pattern of lift at the stall angle is the ma. necessary will be operating at a positive to obtain 68 . points the forward greatly abruptly. the lift however.0 o Negative stall ] . It is interesting angles aircraft flight. 0 ° to past on the the the airfoil stall Figure stall 48 shows angle lift coefficient and a remarkable whose that angle below el. slowly the separation the trailing the pressure increased points edge. drag move angle Past the forward but remain move effects relatively rapidly of the close to and Near rises separation stall lift.de_ Figure 47.

The wing of the infinite-span shown two- Two-dimensional wing compared with three-dimensional in figure 50 is a finite-span three-dimensional (3D) version 69 . Usually._ ___'__ ----_ _ Separated expands flow region and reduces lift 5 Large (Reduced lift turbulent and large _ pressure drag) "-3 Figure 48. Figure 49 is a typical graph of the of attack of the airfoil section.. because coefficient of drag the minimum drag to a positive nears the stall amount lift c d as a function coefficient occurs coefficient however.. be plotted coefficient curve as a function up to the much stall the as shown function the same coefficient Since the lift the cd of angle of attack._ = 5° . /--Separation point moves Maximum 16°._.points Separation c_ = 00 Turbulent wake __:. comments apply.. wing. coefficient near-linear before and The of an aircraft in As one of the curve angle. of moment be discussed appears is an important when that parameter subject in the stability and control and will is introduced.. lift Separation point jumps (Stall = angle_ _ .. is rapid drag greater may also of turbulent coefficient in figure 46.- Stall formation. and of angle at a and builds the separated of the lift angle same is a as flow only gradually increase occurring.. small positive angle at the cd The of attack lower corresponding angles.

Thus 43). The wing area is S S = bc (24) This on is this also known and chord as the planform area.I u .- Coefficient of drag of airfoil as a function of angle of attack section. nondimensionalizes length. and moment dynamic of the 3D wing and CL. (fig. aerodynamic characteristics CD. drag. by obtains the If one using 3D measures the wing the area. wing. deg 8 12 Figure 49. lift..O2O Rapid increases / incd towards . Cm one where free-stream pressure. 4 _.01C u ¢9 _--_Minimum drag at small cr i -12 i -8 I I I I -4 Angle of attack. and is dimensional the chord (2D) length wing c tested times the in the wing wind span tunnel b. and (L = Total lift on wing) (25) (D = Total drag on wing) (26) M C m =_ qSc (M = Total moment acting on wing) (27) 7O .

and modified to account of three- dimensional Circulation discussion the vortex sy./ / Particularly . Cl. NACA finite CD. the the 2D wing possibility is freely results is wrong! in the wind about free Where spanned tips. CL. coefficients the finite-span for 2D coefficients case the letters. freely conclude does the that spanwise for the c d = CD. 3D wing stream two-dimensional flow. lower from This is the notation used to distinguish coefficients The airfoil wing? C m./" //{¢_>" same 'd ct u_lL il(__qiL( x_in_ hi VES_ I)ifferenl IIIGY_IStlFt_d C'tJ¢'i'P't_ it'ltl. has how simply At first But this drag. Cd.- Two-dimensic)md for compared 3I) flow are with c:_pitallzed three-dimensional whereas the conditions. did The tested of airflow exposed nmst in the be wing spanwise flow effects may of air. In figure tips are and is that for moved one Why? tunneI the so that c l = CL. c(p cm _ CL._ I)t) I)!P! t'('lli+tiI1 _}1(" 5all/O coeffici_mts <'{. 2D 3D and the important characteristics Or to put to obtain way. moments cm in the related lree it another 50 the wing exposed. and problem walls lie? and fIow occur. wing infinite-span quvstion data now coefficients. arises: the are been glance lift. C m Figure Notice flow are that the 50. How can one and and out might use experimental on a real. C D. the airfoil _ing.could be As was shown earlier in the of a two-dimen_sion:d represented by a free-stream 71 . answer not But The allow the c m = C m.vina.'ste m or'_ _}f![Utc. W: sinlp]c . '." _ //_--- . to stream that the tunnel is.

Physically. two movements on the oncoming surface and flow is strongest by the flow about stream). _ f free-stream " _-1-1-_'_ static pressure . a line of the wing. tendency tend wing must operating become at a normally equal at the wing in figure pressures A pressure from is a continuous faces._fpre==." the the wing or "wing-tip F. for a finite For wing. 1". midspan on the upper The point spanas an inclined flow at the wing and decreases being parallel evidenced (fig. wing. flow direction there to the free-stream direction Head-on view of wing Lower Equal pressures-- than . surface flow them to trail vortices. 51(b).flow and For wing case a circulation of strength F wing. in front exists This of the no net is not the an infinite. since lower As pressure sur- on the lower 51(a). the the wing. tip vortices trailing static same circulation formation can be explained on the upper surface the of the The than shown that of a wing is for the most positive tips part lift. 52(a)). outside tips. function. the the vortex the wing hence.. forces line cannot Instead. there downward movement a finite the wing circulation three-dimensionai of Helmholtz.re= \ than free-stream pressure b | (a) Figure 72 51.) the If surface there these wing wing wise (from exists of high to the of low pressure). outward inward lower to zero flow of air wing at the surface. spanwise the oncoming of air free free-stream are combined one tips flow approaching (superimpose has an inclined of air on the (See fig. exactly for two-dimensional balances the downflow of air past at the wing. cles The of air gradient wing exists surface region between around the upper differences the wing and lower so that of the air is to equalize the lower pressure any pressure parti- to move the region tip to the upper In addition. . have vortices pressure the line tips the By a theorem midair. /_-_" / / 1 / / / /1 Higher static _- _'Equal l]_. by the the upflow so that F. determined at subsonic rear caused by the Kutta-Joukowsky speeds.Finite-wing flow tendencies.. condition. end in but the vortex back an infinite vortex cannot to infinity end at the is permissible continues from These of these where names the free-stream "trailing vortices" strength as follows. of circulation extends simply or vortex which wingtips..

vortices. I (b) Figure 52. Flow over top surface Flow over bottom surface lll//j "" i l I I t . the vortex (See at the tips to zero up and at midspan. the air from the upper result.) of vortices and decreasing the wing.- Concluded. being cylindrical the surface A strongest disvorti- the trailing lower back rapidly roll surface from and helical paths or vortices "strength" fig.Formation edge of wing-tip of the wing.- Continued. 52(b)." replacing the vortex simplified picture of the tip vortex distribution discussed.i I' I I I I i I l (a) Figure When is inclined whole tance ces line the air to that leaves from the trail 52.Tip flow (b) Figure 51. 73 . combine A short downstream which constitute the vortices the so-called system into two distinct Figure 52(c) shows just "tip vortices.

. the modifications of the 2D airfoil constitutes coefficients vortex in the vortex.Complete-wing vortex system.Tip vortex vortex (c) Figure An account aerodynamic The called a finite system vortex stant starting because rapidly of the tip-vortex into wing their (which effects 52.Concluded. back the wing If the the wing lift of the wing the their starting continually are Generally.. are air's as the horseshoe manner when and is accomplished starts is being vortices from by the so-called rest in the case changed.F Tip vortex (b) Figure 53.. viscosity. is equivalent shows to the lift of the wing vortex system). behind 53(c)).4----(a) 1/4c (at vortex 1/4 c line) F .. . the 53(a)) vortex starting of connew is for the bound wing must which vorticity vortices of the Figure known in some 53(b) the bound and the tip vortices (sometimes be closed is left (fig. vortex Also. are left._ . 74 . (fig. soon dissipated a wing decays influence on the flow behind the further they f __ /_ ____/. shed. 3D counterparts.(.. Also.

The and roll dissipate.- Concluded. and vortex rotates counterclockwise (when viewed from (when the bound The the left side). eventually by viscosity. additional 75 . are important of air the right-tip vortex of the vortex in figure The left-tip viewed directions due to the vortex rotates clockwise related wing the system. vortex For is directly a finite to the relation lift on the wing becomes as in the dimensional L = p_V_bF where L lift on three-dimensional free-stream free-stream wing span (spin strength) the upflow (or upwash) caused The in front by the of the wing balanced But.F F _-_(_. two- bound case. in the down- finite-wing influence into account the tip vortices tip vortices (assuming the of the is negligible). Indicated rotates behind). to be dangerous are shown aircraft. _- 'rip vortex r CY C_ Tip (c) vortex (Lef 2tairport when off influence drag) plmm takes it does not lift or Figure 53. toward their may downstream transformed time and may Again. and they have a tendency the to sink tip vortices later. this change The the tip vortices each energy take trail other being some effects movement back from the wing of the tips wing. vortex from clockwise. that air density wing (28) Poo Voo velocity b F circulation In both the 2D and 3D cases in back also vortex take the downflow (or downwash) case one must starting of the wing bound cause vortex. prove system As will be discussed to other 54.

.. During are compounded these times the by the speed take-off and landings is new generation the airplane Aviation of jumbo is operating of the airplane flight. The the tip low and Federal 76 at high that lift for coefficients a 0. tip vortices is an airplane plane to roll in the airplane Note that there a tip vortex. all the air Note that outside the vortex flying is moving (this upwash). and the tip vortices. the pilot or in a violent case tip vortices jets. Note vortex One that upwash and downwash are due wash the air behind (fig. to upwash. control surfaces is a large are control tendency for the enough of the airplane may lose not effective counteract experience The of the the airplane structural problems roll failure. plane._ _ .. of severe tendency. Upwash ahead of airplane _ _. for an observer downwards upwards path (this fixed in within air 55) all the whereas the vortex system is moving system is called is downwash) called plane order. creating The the an aircraft pattern perpendicular upwash. and cause flying over. Downwash . to the flight downwash.¢_'et'" "-h' / Rear view _'\.JqBound vortex v/ Downwash behind the airplane Figure 54..- Vortex flow effects. q t tf_\ \ _. can become flying through and of the airin that at the shown airto vortex will encounter of downwash motions upwash large Also gradient. or change extreme into If the very it.27 MN to maintain (600 000 lb) Agency has shown .. can see that. the wing to both the within the bound wing span.. " _.11. "_--..

will with a fluid's a skin-friction possess ratio may viscosity.._. to induce known may be associated the net lift It may way associated as induced effects. the large jets tip vortices contribute to the downwash contribution required drag force field requires at and the this behind the wing. (_.L " _ -__-_ f /sL_.. be rolled accidents Realizing between and a small a vortex at rates 100 airplane phenomenom..I I I // i .. • _ J. is requesting and small separation during times take-offs and distances and landings... incidents downwash light Between could much aircraft be may air- the airplane also show other exceeding 160 meters into 1969 at least vortex (500 ft/min).-------"_ Very ride across vortices turbulent in flying ] I /_ in tip vortex t.. / / in tip vortex Aircraft rolls over in tip vortex Figure vortices approach craft flying 1964 and traced greater especially The create per ally. may extend 55. To downwash unit time due to finite-wing The wing at this power with an additional on the expenditure component drag..back per Upwash strongly minute could and downwash for 5 miles over fields from Tests around an airplane. Downwash k [ _ _ [ . and the that 90°/sec. "'. [ I _ _ n .. of energy of downwash Addition- or power.9b) 77 . or pressure an induced be defined (Wing in an ideal often called thus not possess drag) (taken together but will still The aspect if generating lift and a circulation span) 2 area (29a) Aspect or ratio = Wing S for any wing. countless the FAA to this this.. is decreased point that by the tip vortex induced A finite drag drag as drag wing be noted is an ideal operating fluid effect not in any fluid parasitic r.

shown in figure say 50.xa of attack to obtain the the same flow (C L = c/) lift is due to the seen by the wing effect where (31) of tip vortifor small in angle downwash ces on the angles in changing relative w Vo_ It may wing 2D drag be stated coefficient that the drag coefficient drag for the coefficient finite or 3D wing is the infinite- (32) plus the induced CD = c d + (CD)induce d (33) 78 . ratio of lift is the wing. (30). With The compared this in mind. characteristics. the angle that is. 3D wings as such. it has 2D wing is the equivalent ratio. a high aspect span length ratio is a measure with of the a short slenderness stubby wing of a wing.For the special case of a rectangular wing S=b×c so that AR = b = Wing c Chord for a rectangular has wing. This of attack effect. The Figure of an infinite 3D wing has one can value ('2ift that the an infinite mined obtained ces have aspect aspect whose curves effect the is detercurves") tip vortiis flattened aspect ratio by equation 56 shows coefficient evident w at the for both wings in creating at the the same by experiment. wing From 56. of attack C L = c l. or namely. return to the case of the span a finite the 2D and wing and. of low aspect (30) Aspect ratio a long thin wing ratio. this over is achieved that of the of the finite by a small amount a3D This increase = a2D + . additional angle Readily downwash less lift lift curve smaller out so that wing. is obtained for the is not a beneficial the case where Consider predicted ure by the one wants to get the same lift from the finite wing fig- as 2D aerodynamic by raising 2D wing.

data the same in To summarize lift angle yields coefficient of attack an induced It is important represents. drag plus pressure a3D at necesa2D. If one a finite-span angle in the In this the drag of attack parasitic way. are drag modified. coefficient one finds 79 . force that it it is the 2D wind-tunnel with induced coefficient to actual the actual drag. operating than the at the higher original aspect value of attack cd AR operating and elliptic (CD)induce factor" distribution (CD)induced is inversely relating shown proportional one to give to to the comes ratio an "efficiency spanwise Also. of a 2D wing slightly. is proportional CL 2. (C L = c/) only if its causes drag an increase coefficient. Angle zero of lift I iO3D of attack. will give This and. is the parasitic of the This 2D wing is greater coefficient) to get d e C L.Infiaite aspect ratio Finite aspect ratio I I I . lift how close by theory to achieving induced an ideal drag minimum Thus (e = 1). (CD)induce d = KCL2 (34) where K is related to the aspect to this point. ratio and the efficiency version factor.- Effect drag of aspect coefficient ratio on coefficient (skin-friction angle of of lift. not to confuse converts the is raised drag increase coefficient in addition. I _a2D Angle 0 Figure where drag sary cd here 56.

factors with the that may for up to 70 percent e and wing The efficiency trolled Both only by proper wings are factor design. span are be conwings. longer This a greater wing would spans. difference the wing second is twice that of the first longer Ideally. The wing. be reduced? to as close /k_). small. (2) the wing span squared (3) the free-stream of reducing velocity induced Methods NACA 3D wing corrections may the b fact and drag ponent the drag. lift with discussion velocity at high would to be as small induced drag as possible the least drag. dynamic pressure. (higher ciency. as figure 58 of first pl_e Figure 57. Figure lift 57 shows two airplanes and they have wing rectangular wing at the is that same coefficient span of the the same same area. not make nearly both wings aspect ratio) should has arises produce one-fourth that lift and drag. coefficient. But the span wing effiwhy the induced less induced and therefore.inversely b 2.- Wing-span same lift effect on induced and drag same for airplanes having same wing area. and proportional to (1) the span efficiency squared factor V_ 2. give The thought a wing with flow. the stated e.- From to obtain results and drag it can be seen acting One on the like that entire these How 2D wind-tunnel if proper data may corrections be used for the the lift are most tip vortices to get the included. drag. (2) increase (3) increase is a small induced drag since speeds (cruising unimportant speeds. with drag (high very an extremely the tip vortex long wing effects span being idealized In fact. with AR). 80 . (1) increase wing last flight) span This span efficiency (or aspect points relatively at those since ratio up that factor as possible. it accounts it constitutes (take-off about 5 to 15 percent of the total com- At low speeds or landing) of the total physical it is a considerable drag. and From to the previous e = 1 the free-stream component only one may the Vow.

58. may the airfoil length along First. do have factor. the section airfoil wing. further at methods For of reducing a general the size induced wing. is necessarily size allowances. give structural of decreased the weight drag per- necdue to support vortex This to smaller A compromise also optimum capacity. the of the airfoil of the taper taper section also as one moves change are along along the the wing. wing requires There essary formance. the same (or aspect drag reduction looking and twist ways Normally. ratio).) 81 . drag.- High-aspect-ratio induced wing. and to vary in Before define three the give taper distinct shape for a wing. very A very long slender considerations structural where wing weight the span thin long to support a point increased effects. with dependent as fuel control and numerous an aspect 6. angles of attack the wing Planform sections terms wing.illustrates. disadvantage counteracts aspect of increasing the advantage ratio on factors other would such factors. 60(a). characteristics. wings. change may that or chord second. categories planes with ratio of _. variations and twist is the (near remain now considered. a dominant it. fighter an aspect of about supersonic with an aspect HP-8 (1958) Figure Another tanks ing wing as shown the formation span interesting in figure way 59. These lastly. length and thickness wing as one proceeds tip) so that the reduction the fuselage) of the chord to the from airfoil the root sections tip section (See (at the fig. it is necessary sections may may change. sailplanes But structural a large comes that must rely on high become efficiencies. drag tends AR = 24. and ratio A survey single-engine airplanes of airplane light air- show sailplanes ratio of 15 or more. use of tip plates or tip of reducing This is by the to promote physical since arrangement They have these are a 2D flow by inhibiteffect there as an increase are other more in of tip vortices. geometrically similar. not used valuable methods.

) taper the The chord constant. Thickness from tions shows this ness fig.- Tip plates and tip tanks. inverse and thick(See and wider than the inboard 82 .Tip plates inhibit tips _ v Loe _ k_ _iPw ta_kuSt inhibit wing tip Figure 59. the root taper section tip. One taper both planform XF-91 were fighter thicker and thickness which has taper.lnd sections charltte Thickness Ch.)rd = Constant Reduction in chord length . at the wing a typical normal so that 60(d).airfoil sections sinnlar (a) Planform taper. Figure 60.reduction tip section fig. 60(b). ileduction in thickness airfoil thickness . thickness results taper.) Planform of only this and thickness the airfoil's reduction remains (b) Thickness taper. wing was wing is the to the (See with the tips as one proceeds airfoil 60(c) exception to sec- in thinner Figure notable in planform stations.

Root section NACA 4 -221 X-Tip section NACA 0024 (b) Aerodynamic Figure 61. Redtlctbnl and ('hl)rd iirf.."_tk\ _o_x\\\\ _'/positi" / ve _ used throughout \ Neg./ Washout sR2:tlon / Washin-_ (a) Geometric twist.nl m thickness length secti(ms (c) Planform and thickness taper. of changing induced be as close A number lift distribution in a spanwise that is the (fig. _. of methods Same used Root s e c ti o n _< NACA of an elliptic the spanwise S. are given twist so that toward the angle of attack tip is called washin. To give factor lift e distriof lift.ative "-I. A in angle of attack of attack toward the wing washout Geometric whereas twist whereas an increase (fig.. 61(a)) the wing method airfoil it was tip is called a geometric different the drag of changing sections demonstrated This available sections the lift distribution. Figure 60. method minimum should bution..- (d) Inverse Concluded. Wings decrease in angle represents twist. the spanwise case efficiency to 1 as possible. varies along the span.__.Geometric and twist..'une NACA spanwise distribution sections are to modify _ throughout . aerodynamic twist. the span represents manner aerodynamic by using along an aerodynamic 61(b)). taper in planform and thickness. 83 .

spoilers.ma flight be affected. of a better or decreases to a simple flaps. 62(b).) wing is very drag the may Surprisingly. to obtain taper which to obtain is remarkably an elliptic elliptic. for want increases brakes. considerably that indicate wing may is the untapered. Of course. of these An elliptical point This there efficient cant. equal would a near-level For in which (take-off airplane to the lift be operating (L = W). yields (35) Vmin = t p_ 2c_. nearly as a square-tipped the gains fact to the tips and elliptic so that induced wing be insignifi- result be traced lift distribution distribution. (See plane manufacturers. minimum lift or minimum speed x. well think of the most fascinating term. the The affixed slots. air wing in lift and devices is a piece With that all these the wing hanging on a wing. art. of air travel take-off the But a purpose is dependent and normal landing flying the safety and economy It is in the a speed interest of safety one to perform does flight at as low to is as possible. untwisted from wing. appears 62(d) indi- off to zero wing-tip at the wing shape. the of construction. a less importance Figure favorable and twist later. subjects "aerodynamic drag such Devices of flight is the vast number to achieve and dive might opening "coming for all of of aerodynamics devices" as slats. does of view is used are This fall The induced cates data as the planform is hard the best by light that to manufacture type of wing and is costly. are perhaps being approximates of production an elliptical at the point a good of the tip vortices. aerodynamic (1) planform wing. or planform as shown in twist of Spitfire twist (2) a geometric (3) a combination elliptic lift distribution. maneuvers characteristics weight the the unknowledgeable. solving velocity. or landing) (25) after wing at maximum for the From equation Vmi n some manipulation. unsuspecting sound of flaps traveler slats of modern combined and as one approaches apart these at the devices seams" and for a landing may the unnerve with a visual inspection of the wing exists on them.These methodsinclude figure and/or all 62(a) for the methods. rectangular in reduced that for a real fig. minimizing Taper is discussed of greater importance when the problem of stalling Aerodynamic One of. Consider But also. in minimizing presents tip vortex wing-tip formation shape. and thus whereas figure to be of more drag. not want condition flying CL. 62(c) one.WmaxS 84 .

q/ Low induced drag Aero Commander 100 (b) Untapered. flows and the through Figure through the air the use 63(a) the of a by a leading-edge principle. CL.ma x and/or to be constant then it is obvious area and if the weight that Slots is considered to reduce used a fixed Vmi n for this is characteristic to increase purpose. untwisted wing. Figure 62. I. Slots. The When called the air illustrates slot and over slot is a boundary-layer layer about angle the control wing and device retards stall thus channeled The get airfoil a higher energizes can then the boundary be flown separation.slot the the formed operating airfoil.High cost Minimum complex induced drag (a) Elliptic wing - Supermarine Spitfire Mk. may be increased a slat. and thus at a higher of attack before occurs 85 . drag. tip shape drag) corner Good tip shape for low induced drag Less favorable (Higher induced Rounded Sharp corner (c) Good tip shape.Reduction (d) Poor of induced tip shape. the only way and flaps the wing S. The density Po_ is considered of the airplane. are The maximum coefficient auxiliary the slot of lift airfoil is open.

are two types of slots slat it creates rocket fixed and automatic. main German wing. Notice particularly than the stall angle. rIncreased slat _/ Angle of attack. 63. A curve showing C L as a function of airfoil is given in figure 63(b). a fixed drag the distance The fixed from slot is selfIts a the leading-edge is that War is mounted excessive fighter the airfoil. Figure slots from disadvantage World The at high speeds. 86 or closed. Me-163 lifting the 64 shows in the the wing II designed slot with fixed slat away automatic depends on air pressure . operation. airfoil Normal Unslotted |/ I angle with _'_stall .- CL. a (b) Slat Figure aerodynamic Slat-slot effects.ma slotted less x value.Slat Slot (a)Slat. the airfoil lift curve is relatively a for the normal and the that for angles of attack unaffected whether the slot is opened There explanatory.

at high angles of against slot. maximum coefficient 65(a) shows lift coefficient.- Fixed the lift slots. the airfoil coefficients in figure simple of lift are 65(b). flap A change in the maximum be realized or by increased Figure of accomplishing with a simple for the a normal in the down with the position flap for increased is greater over the maximum unflapped attack tially lift coefficient airfoil. Note airfoil. is the high nose-up of both types a landing created. may camber. of slots complexity.Flaps wing change flap same area. than entire angle to the reduces that the to increase section this. increased also This flapped that angle-ofis essenslot opera- range. shape method airfoil in the may of the be used airfoil 64. slot Me-163 Figure F_. angle which disadvantages disadvantage approach for weight. reduces its added At low angles drag at high of attack speeds the slat is flush with the fixed compared and stall attitude cost. promotes The in an extreme visibility.llaps. The angles. unchanged is shown that the stall from of the angle has unflapped obtained.. The increase by a and the The for the trailing-edge airfoil camber. is opposed airfoil tion where disadvantage a higher that the stall slot was the in high landing 87 . is one shaped or both. This Also. the Its One airplane reduced wing main main must attack leading to open the edge and are slot.

- flap Types of Boeing of flaps. max normal airfoil Simple flapped _. a aerodynamic Simple effects. flap operation. 737. 88 . CL CL. Slot-----_ X_Flap Closed position system Open position • (b) Complex Figure slotted 66.Inc reased r Normal airfoil flapped airfoil (a) Flap.Normal airfoil-_ airfoil //// (b) Flap Figure 65.- Angle of attack.ma. Increases 1) 2) camber wing area Closed position (a) Fowler flap.x flapped CL.

A very large increase in maximum lift coefficient is realized. /_--Add energy to boundary by blowing high pressure through holes or slots layer air (b) Reenergizing Figure 6'/. This combination is a highly efficient lift-increasing arrangement. top surface slots The slot was of a wing. control.Forms the boundary of boundary-layer layer.Figure 66(a)shows a Fowler flap which is hinged such that it can move back and increase the airplane wing area.boundary-layer control. and to be one means of passing high-energy The low-energy in figure backward boundary 67(a) facing holes layer or slots may air thus a higher flow over the through CL. Also. the airfoil. It may also be notedthat flaps in an extreme downposition (50 to 90o) act as a ° high-drag device andcan retard the speedof an airplane before and after landing. above layer over methods and x is by segment of the a lamia and let it be replaced or by adding maintain allow flow for one to get larger shown angle of attack before stall occurs.ma x. layer controlled as shown suction (a) Suction of boundary layer. Figure 66(b)showsthe arrangement on a Boeing 737airplane which utilizes a leadingedgeslat and a triple-slotted trailing-edge flap. Boundary-layer control. The boundary kinetic nar layer energy to the a longer boundary distance Another method of increasing CL. There are many combinations of slots andflaps available for use on airplanes. 89 . Both delay flow from of these separation. The slots in the flaps help retard separation over the flap segmentsand thus enhancelift. in the layer wing be sucked may or holes boundary as shown through or high-energy be blown in figure Boundary by into the 67(b). it may be rotated downto increase the camber.ma idea is to either remove the low-energy by high-energy directly.

aircraft discussion Essentially. the lift is quickly destroyed and the airplane may quickly settle on its landing gear without bouncing. with spoilers up. adequate spin root tions after section should brakes. Or on large commercial jets they may be usedto help the aileron control by "dumping" lift on one wing and thus help to roll the airplane.Spoilers are devices used to reduce the lift on the airplane wing.Dive slowing aerodynamic and increase (or speed) down quickly brakes 68. by "forcing" the wing ailerons the and the tips. o Figure Dive speed. f / // ?. they helpful. used in airplanes for to control after descent landing.Spoi. condition favorable (2) the stall CL. Figure 68 showsthe spoiler arrangement on a Boeing 707wing.Spoilers. remain word about stalling is in so that (1) the pilot has (3) there stall The is little tendency wing-tip to sta- may be achieved to stall wake).brakes when are Use are ol spoilers. They may serve the purpose as on gliders to vary the total lift and control the glide angle. a large aircraft or Whether these wake approaching a landing. first be the "dead of the This and last air" stall.- and two military The present arrangements. drag. separation speed-brake Stall operating order. Figure dive has brake promote a civilian the pressure 69 shows arrangement characteristics.. rs p. considerably on concentrated near or at the stall A wing should possess warning a stall. in a dive. on landing. so that Use to occur outboard. namely washout. Also. A further stall characteristics is gradual. (are at the wingnot immersed employed so let it progress toward effective in a turbulent of twist.ma x. is often 9O .

Fokker

F-28

Speed

brakes

Speed

brakes F-105D

open

x.
_-..___ _ _ F-IOOD Speed bra.ke

Figure

69.-

Dive

(speed)

brake

arrangements.

that

the

wing-root

section stall (See root pilot's

reaches

the

stall

angle are

first.

(See favorable

fig.

70(a).) ones

Also,

airfoil

sections stall

with gradual

characteristics fig. 70(b).) stall,

more

than

with quick

characteristics. As the inboard the

stations controls.

turbulent This

flow from

the wing

strikes stall

the

tail-

plane device. with

and buffets With few spin

condition the plane

is an adequate should maintain

warning attitude

a gradual tendencies.

stall

on both wings,

a level

Total Up to now the shown and and that three drag acting are

Drag

of Airplane has been considered. drag, of many airplane It has (2) pressure other been drag,

on a finite present: an airplane drag

wing

components drag.

(1) skin-friction is composed Possible

(3) induced each

Of course, a total

components drags 91

will introduce

of its own.

component

V_

o


--_ Negative Washout

..

J/iHtEIA.oo<

(a) Twist toward

and wing

stall.

Note

that angle

stalled

region

moves

tip as wing

of attack

increases.

_ACA

651-212

/__

spread

out"

-\NACA 64,-,18

i
(b) Gradual Figure 70.Stall include (4) drag stores, aircraft are (1) drag of wing, wing flaps, (2) drag gear, of nacelles, (7) drag (5) drag of landing and sum (8) drag of the aircraft, These component drag one

Wing

angle

of attack

stall. characteristics.

of fuselage, (6) drag

(3) drag of wing parts. tanks

of tail

surfaces,

and external The net the drag of an

of engines, the

of miscellaneous of the components.

is not simply into

When

components and the

combined the drag in the

a complete

component are called

can affect interference interference

the flow field, effects, drag. and Thus,

hence, change

of another. sum of the

effects drags

is called

(Drag)l+

2 = (Drag)l

+ (Drag)

2 + (Drag)interference

92

Generally, interference drag will addto the componentdrags but in a few cases, for example, addingtip tanks to a wing, total drag will be less than the sum of the two componentdrags becauseof reduced induceddrag. Interference drag can be minimized by proper fairing andfilleting which induces smooth mixing of air past the components. Figure 71 showsa Grumman F9F Panther Jet with a large degree of filleting. No adequatetheoretical methodwill predict interference drag; thus, wind-tunnel or flight-test measurementsare required. For rough computational purposesa figure of 5 percent to 10 percent can be attributed to interference drag on a total aircraft.

(
F9F Panther Jet

Figure Small they craft changes items also reduce War add to the the aircraft's II and shows are total

71.aircraft

Wing

fillets. and although 72 shows coefficient seemingly a TBF as these trivial, Avenger small air-

drag

can greatly from and Figure World

top speed. the increase for. fighter

Figure in drag

components 73 shows breakdown 74 presents

accounted

a Me-109G of the drag a graph Doing

German (includes of how the away with

from

World drag) drag

War of the

II.

Shown is the

percentage Figure decreased streamline all aided upon what

interference total bracing airplane wires,

components. has behind have

coefficient engines

over

the years. use

shielding of polished

cowls, in the has

of flush-riveting of drag. about

techniques, It is beyond total drag airplane measurements the

and use scope drag

surfaces

reduction been

of this

discussion speeds. does Even yield here,

to expand Although good however, pilot tech-

introduced

at subsonic of models tests.

prediction results, the

of drag final drag of the subsequent

and wind-tunnel evaluation measurements proper must

be obtained is dependent

by flight

accuracy and

on flight-test data.

equipment,

nique,

evaluation

of test

93

(National

Advisory

Committee

for

Aeronautics.) Reference condition (see column 1) _C D

C D at C L Condition 1 2 3 4 Airplane Flat Seals Seals gaps Exhaust Canopy sealed plate Airplane completely removed from from replaced removed, arresting-hook and turret leaks 0.0222 and openings 0.0223 trailing antenna tube 0.0227 leak seals removed 0.0230 0.0234 0.0236 0.0237 0.0251 gaps 0.0260 0.0264 change .......... configuration = 0.245 sealed from and nose air hinge-line 0.0203 stacks fairing 0.0211 exits faired 0.0183 0.0189 0.0199

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 11 12 13

0.0006 0.0010 0.0004 0.0008 0.0011 0.0001 0.0004 0.0003 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0014 0.0009

removed removed

flapped-cowling cowling-flap

Tail wheel uncovered

Aerial, mast, installed 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Canopy and

turret

Leak seals removed cover plate, and Leak seals removed and miscellaneous Fairings Wheel-well Seals over

from shock strut, wing-fold axis from leak bomb-bay doors seals removed removed

catapult

hooks

cover

plates

removed

removed

from

tail-surface

Plates over removed.

wing-tip slot openings Airplane in service condition Total-drag

14

0.0004 0.0081

Figure 72.- Small item influence on total airplane drag.

94

...... Fuselage .4 7... ... Induced drag ....O2 - homs P-B_1 • • N P-80 • Comet o 1900 I 1910 I 1920 I 1930 Date.5 13.- Decrease in airplane drag coefficient with time...............10 S 73. rail surfaces .... .Component Wing .. Engine and radiator ......................... 95 ..7 6...Typical fighter-drag breakdown............... Appendages .......3 11.............06 _ _hers _9 .04 B 17 St.....0_ D Wright -" .. years I 1940 1 1950 I 1960 I 19q0 Figure 74..2 drag j Figure .................9 23.. Percent of total 37.

the airplane is very on the ground. . backward moving noticeable. backward If one has crankshaft by the ever this to the velocity behind propeller the slipstream. equal and the propeller opposite to the rotates propeller at a constant torque. 75 shows Basically. 76.- Various propeller configurations. airplane (See of this discussion. second a spinning air. be resolved in the plane (thrust).into the thrust per force.Propellers Propellers. determined Two-bladed Beagle propeller Pup oa Three-bladed Me-109G propeller on Four-bladed propeller B-29 on Eight-bladed contrarotating on Antonov AN-22 propellers Figure 96 75. force along a variety of propeller blade a propeller for axis producing may a resultant into of the the rotary a aerodynamic force pointing which the the purposes of the force). configurations is a small wing used on military and civil- Figure jan airplanes.) and a force The torque propeller motion blades of the (the torque by acting force opposes engine rate as a "drag" by the engine on it. fig. propeller stood The propeller This times thrust the converts is equal added while and Rotors the turning mass imparted was power of air to this at rest of an engine's forced air. torque In equilibrium.

angle the root blade sections to be twisted large blade with angles the due sections with in main to the increase is also called the pitch angle.- Thrust and torque of a propeller. As tions fixed (fig. of the as shown the Thus. angles helix approaches inclined helix angle oncoming 90 ° . of a set of the of airfoil-shaped Although flow and seca wing of air an is which with 78(a)). propeller relative of the faster comes is. or This may be pitch angle may be fixed on the for a propeller ground pitch hence pitch The a fixed-pitch propeller) efficiency or propeller. figure may respect the relative and the 77 shows. the 78(b). of the is known in figure as blade blade in A propeller and angle. (adjustable propeller). airplane The the angle to the propeller flow propeller and the sees only with relative to the of the it sees oncoming velocity relative angle root which the vector free-stream angle helix varies than between angle from the or the root this rotational plane of the velocity. the sections. closer approaches To attack peller angle angle.) is called helix revolving vector that velocity of advance. vary the propeller from and rotating is the blade tip consists to the root the respect sum (See rotation velocity fig. in shape airplane is of air also blade. free-stream velocity obtain an relative aerodynamic velocity chord section appears with line force. propeller airplane of the root. blade airfoil the section blade total section angle from sum This tip is placed the plane helix at an angle proand of to the rotation of attack of the angle the small to the for that is the 78(c). to the tip As to the For since one the a particular tip sections the this are velocity aircraft. free-stream airplane. vector. controlled is adjustable in the by hand air by automatically power output (controllable power input of a propeller divided 97 . The blade blade.Direction of rotation _'rhrust T Figure 76.

Helix angle (b) 5 /9 Angle of attack----_ . a. denotes angle of attack of airfoil sections.o¢. Wing 7 3 fixed to airplane Free-stream velocity (a) Plane of rotation Velocity and of airplane motion q fT'U Blade Rotational velocity of this blade section relative to airplane .blade __ller _ Airfoil _ _ections v--" Propeller Figure 77.z_ _x /_#angle -Tntai a.- Propeller blade sections.Propeller terminology. .ng[e blade angle or pitch angle of blade (c) Figure 98 78.

maximum uses a different blade or is high angle pitch-angle or is small used an airplane high low of attack) and to provide gives low revolutions per minute.// _'X 2/ \ / Fin(' (low) pitch 'rake. brake. This A coarse effect pitch cruising revolutions illustrated in figure 79(a). fig. on the of attack. The mission rounded blades Some In this means alined that the blades free-stream an engine reversible are so that to the Feathering the propeller is used drag.) angle an airplane.Cruise (high) flight (a) Pitch control. high is by many factors. are influenced shape performed. is overall to be tips. to avoid propellers case. This are (c) Landing brake.) 79(c). efficiency a fine per minute.off Coarse pitch .q _'°_'_'_''_:'_ _ q Negative thrust (b) Feathered propeller. to a large on a stopped (See (See fig. contradictions dependent cause is determined For speeds low largely blade blades is usually are used or slender more with propeller 99 . by speeds larger some comprothe paddle- of a propeller. For used. I % l _ _ r % I I I I I I I II I] ! I I I I I I I I l I % I \I l t I I o I / / % I I I I f I I _ _ _ 1\ \ I I / / I I 4- fl I_I • .and would desirably is be as close to the to a value free-stream setting. or The efficiency requires pitch (flat proportional velocity For take-off.propeller stopped fi_" . Some turned velocity. angle for of one (or 100 and percent) for as possible. decrease for use as propellers the leading may be edges feathered of the in flight. (brake) ... damaging have and pitch to a landing the design blade negative thrust is obtained by turning The of which mise propellor shaped and negative like in design. airfoil sections propeller 79(b).Use of pitch control. Figure 79.

effective surfaces This may and slipstream is produced core it strikes The of the moves by a propeller of spiraling the tailplane slipstream air producing that has flows thrust back than parts by forcing over the - air backand It is a cylindrical The some that The fact that beneficial. device. . velocities slipstream the tailplane since of the and is beneficial forces air in providing produced over control are by the tail in the surfaces square the aerodynamic velocity of the when or take-off dependent on the cases moving is important be low. have causes the air on the propellers to strike and the tail- plane at an angle may and not headon. 80 shows used this of a thrust- Douglas XB-42 Lockheed XFV-I VTO Figure 100 80. by using three effects of the motion contrarotating aircraft that (spinning form directions). The rotary of taxiing the free-stream motion of the slipstream. the drag fuselage some important effects detriflow.- Contrarotating propellers. tailplane. over tailplane. to it is for by these them. This may however.The wards. (considered be counteracted Figure an effect The stability rotary control of in of the airplane the propeller opposite producing in a later discussion). flow is faster and other the free-stream exposed means fuselage. mental this larger.

aspect helicopters. The ratio). helicopter.Lifting blades The of the number rotors. 101 .- Helicopters with varying rotor blade blades numbers. shaped with the rotor Figure is the lift-producing slender (large three device. each must the heavier to reduce the load Bell AH-16 Heuy-Cobra Two-bladed Hughes OH-6A Four-bladed Sikorsky CH-3C Six-bladed Figure As for defined blades. controlled the airplane 81. the the helicopter plane may of rotation be controlled as the angle The pitch between of the of the blades collectively blades (collective pitch) individually (cyclic pitch). each more airfoil and are long and the design.rotor are of blades For vary a helicopter. 81 shows for carry. employing blades are a different used number of blades. that Generally. have and a pitch the chord angle line of the or propeller.

fly forward. When a pilotwishes to As each rotor blade approaches the forof its As the cycle. to the The lift vector rear. of the body is given produces direction.- Helicopter forward motion. thrust to the helicopter.Collective pitch changes the pitch of allblades together and with changes in engine power settings. the swashplate is tiltedforward. and descend. disk forward thrust main and the flight angle. The to the desired component blades the total 82) and a forward rotation helicopter rotor. blade path its pitch decreases. is increased._ i Thrust component yielding forward m orion Thrust Axis of blades is forwardJ rotation o[ 1 I Main Main rotors rotors V_ Figure 82. copter the in the opposite is accomrotational tend- by a tail Additionally. Cyclic pitch is controlled by the swashplate of the rotor head which allows the pitch of individual blades to vary as they rotate about the hub. (toward and the the direction its flight path of flight) descends. ward position lift is reduced. net the blade the pitch effect is rotated is rotates ascends. the whole fig. /. climb. rotate plished ency.produces the lift necessary for the helicopter to take-off. to tilt (see blade rotor lift is increased.hover. may It provides sufficient the thrust by controlling of the tail the heading of the heli- be controlled. torque control this which tends to rotor a reactive Directional to counteract rotor. 102 .

the distance The shell varies by the time from it takes disturbance as shown propagates in figure the cannon shown in an expanding in figure hemispherical of sound of the K) the As was precise. The air was treated as thoughit were incompressible and a study of the aerodynamics involved using this simplifying assumption was made. as a result. for example. of the airairplane 84(c)) the pulses time and closer the time arrival speed which The through and forces 84(b)) in front of the between actual same wave" density. under altitude 7.V. however. the air loses its assumedincompressibility andthe error in estimating. The him between but observer and the out 83. becomesgreater andgreater. (or the wave is felt) some compute of sound sound by dividing to reach him. in the Air ahead out pressure receives in all directions before airplane together as shown the airplane approaches (fig.1 This difference an airplane therefore. Consider the instance of a cannon fired at sea level. At the speed They of sound merge (fig. the speed square root with altitude. the temperature indicates speed. as the airplane. A disturbance in the air will sendpressure pulses or wavesout into the air at the speedof sound. merge elapses closer of sound. is down that and.7 is only 295. is 340. temperature. impending approach for and abruptly away from in the shock those is a tendency it. of the the there sible air and the pulses airplane airplane's move at the time. to 216. passes the air a warning approach pressure of the pressure. An observer situated the sound can easily cannon away some wave distance is heard the from speed the the cannon pressure will see the flash almost time instantaneously later. encounters the compressibility An airplane air and sends speed of sound at a slower effects sooner. airplane to break no warning system. Oneimportant quantity which is an indicator is the speedof soundof the air through which the airplane is flying. The question arises as to howfast an airplane nmst be moving before one must take into accountcompressibility. aerodynamic experienced 103 . TRANSONIC FLOW Up to this point the airplane was considered to be in motion at subsonic speeds. is an almost air the has together line ahead in into a "shock and instantaneous of the There about of change temperature.3 K the flying comes To be more At sea m/sec speed at this level but at an of sound altitude it depends standard upon the absolute speed conditions (T o = 288. As the airplane speedincreases. gets of the airplane separates the plane pressure and little around "messages" But as the and the speed flow the airplane.15 where of sound of 15 kilometers m/sec. at low incompres- the airplane not flow smoothly from is a change flow speeds. drag. flying well below pulses these the up against speed of sound creates a disturbance in figure arrives the 84(a).

change flow from flow pertains to supersonic problem area of speeds about Mach describ- Transonic presents as neither equations ing subsonic the regime. flow. of the that In other of warning after given Ernst to an airplane professor For than Mach (1838 The Figure than Mach number is named the names subsonic Austrian regimes. patterns supersonic and for transonic subsonic a special Mach numbers greater to the or vice than range versa. flow nor those describing supersonic flow may be accurately applied to 104 . to 1916). greater 85 shows one has to various for Mach 5 the numbers one.2.- Speed of sound ratio may of a disturbance. may have Mach number words.t1 time elapses _Direetion of I Time = tB is heard I BOOM A of sound = Distance Elapsed D time Speed Figure The sound. flow.Time = t 0 Cannon flash observed Cannon fires BOOM Distance D Time . is hypersonic which to 1. one. air an flight numbers name in 0.8 used of is a measure it is a number approach. of the airplane relate the degree speed to the speed that Mach. 83. flow Additionally. less flow.

/- Pressure move pulses away Disturbanee__ f tom sour Pressure ce i_ Disturbance at rest putses" // begin to [ pile up -J \\ _ _/_ _" • t-Pressure left by / _ D_ isturbance...air in front has no warning of particle (or airplane) approach 1 j (b) Nearing Mach 1.. (c) Mach 1. Shock-wave pressure Pressure pulses / / _\\_ \\_ M = 0. / 1 / discontinuity _ _-_ /_ / _ / __ / / _ _ .75 / ) . 84.{{_: _i{i::ii: . n _" _._ransonie . Figure f/fil/1Utl//fl t Subsonie/J . 105 .- Flight regime terminology. _-" / ] / just barely out racing the dmturbance _-_/ Pressure pulses cannot outrace disturbance .2 3 Maeh number 5 6 7 Figure 85. begms movmg pulses disturbance (a) Zero and low-speed disturbance.. .Shock-wave formation.8 1.

and wing speeds drag composed The drag represented coefficient However. drag At transonic of the airplane and supersonic due to funda- is a substantial in the increase wing. The encountered or for that are drag wave erable of the drag part airplane increases is due of the from part of the airplane.With flow sonic pressure speeds mental at high speeds. to fly supersonically transonic the airplane is encountered.0 Figure 106 86. one may now examine was main considered components in a little more detail the speeds._.. shows drag lift Throughout in the supersonic Once the of the drag erratic been coef- of the airplane formation however. Drag and Up to now.. / Due 2_ ... further increases which sharply This a considseparation and large in thrust unstable necessary formation to obtain in speed. was induced composed drag the airplane of three (or drag due to be in motion skin-friction at subdrag. of the flow ficient shock lished. the transforms available the airplane propulsive surfaces.- Variation of wing drag coefficient with Mach number. a real and the barrier drag thrust of tranOnce past is flight. drag. regime. coefficient l° wave drag ... barrier the drag the transonic required speeds. Figure The coefficient can be divided and wave of induced infamous that into two categories: drag to lift) shows provide early speeds..=_ /-Drag-divergence / Mach number 0 Mach number 1. though "Sound Barr[er"-__ r\ / \ / ?o \\ \ / "_ ]/ _. the drag increases as it proceeds the drag coefficient supersonic a decrease). . at these matter. there changes This drag to lift). (even The a supersonic flow has estab86 total flow stabilizes of an airplane supersonic the drag drag coefficient with is reduced. the variation at transonic and the and is greater general because flow instabilities.. high any of shock into speeds is called wave rises drag... waves heat. to the pressure increase in the total distribution. these definitions in mind. Mach number... thrust to fly supersonically. than energy and to the induced transonic range range. and less higher show (1) zeroof zero (or drag composed of skin-friction drag due (or pressure-related) drag "sound (drag barrier" must In the to higher decreases. toward may due lift and (2) lift-dependent drag 86 since maximum the sound and wave up rather enough days pressure-related) clearly to exceed sonic in figure the to lift.. .

As the freestream Mach number is increased beyondthe critical Mach number andcloser to Mach 1.) in temperature. of insufficient The but early prototype flight It will speed F-102A that will be limited was originally by the drag-divergence as a supersonic it would for this never airplane designed interceptor achieve through this indicated later because of high drag. airflow the wave the shocks due to curmust drag shock. Another case of perpetual motion. 87(a)). The flow is subsoniceverywhere (fig. etc. that is. below is greater the shock the 1.7 to 0. anywhere fuselage. usually near the point of maximumthickness and indicates that the flow at that point has reachedMach 1 (fig. 87(d) large Mach shows regions number airfoil the are character of the flow at a free-stream flow and the 1. may of velocity This heat is accompanied represents drag.0 and the flow of sound transonic would interacts be estimated with a loss layer of energy so that This through a separation the boundary the layer immediately which Mach is called behind shock. of the Large speed. airplane increases in free-stream markedly increases thrust has Mach are the drag-divergence any thrust. it must pass by an an These where. and the The flow shocks appears begins are Mach very number strong. of the for a through increase expenditure appear vature decelerate increase In fact. Convair tests further its increases required to produce in airplane If an airplane an engine number. allel Most to the in supersonic than greater around to realine of the body is in supersonic and stabilize. untrue of course. of the pilot who flew his plane beyondthe soundbarrier andthen got trapped there becauseof insufficient reverse thrust to get back below the speedof sound. from and thickness. There eventually occurs a freestream Machnumber called the critical Machnumber at which a sonic point appears somewhereon the airfoil surface. surface shock-induced separation is reduced. condition accounts increase The is known number as shock-induced at which the drag Mach (boundary-layer) coefficient number. compressibility effects have only minor effects on the flow pattern anddrag. boundary large a shock (pressure discontinuity). figure 87 showsthis shock formation about an airfoil. separation.8. 87(b)). of propulsive on the the speed than wave occurs in drag energy airplane localized as wave nacelles. 107 . a bow shock flow. Up to a free-stream Mach number of about0. was achieved goal. Mach (fig. be presented engine exceeds For to subsonic flow. 87(c)). be explained how success proper Figure redesigning. As the flow must speedup as it proceeds aboutthe airfoil. the local Mach number at the airfoil surface will be higher than the free-stream Mach number. In order for this supersonic flow to return This loss of heat. the airfoil itself parclose At to one where a free-stream nose. larger andlarger regions of supersonic flow appear on the airfoil surface (fig. number 88(a)).There is a famous little story. It is a large loss in propulsive energy due to the formation of shocks that causes wavedrag. a production which (wing.

0) 0 Subsonic Subsonic flow everywhere (Critical Mach number) Subsonic (b) (a) Supersonic rsonic M_ Moo = . to probe the sound With where proper flying configurations posed little gradually evolved to the point the transonic region or no difficulty in terms of wing buffeting lift(fig. and forth can predict the wellthe aero- coefficients. are adequate behaved dynamic and the thus feels and moments waves and back and first present. The This result This sends is that condition unsteady surfaces of both types of the airplane.95 \ Subsonic s \. and controls. surface the Often.ock / Supersomc . especially however.Bows. 108 .85 Subsonic = .Shock (leads wave formation to wave drag) Sao = °8 point(M= 1.Shock formation. may in transonic jump back the wing tail flow is unsteady the surface. barrier. through or loss of on the body separating to the tail vibration airplane along disrupting flow a buffeting in the airplane flow over wing surface. 88(b)). wraPoSs_°en_/// / (d) Figure This condition than forces shock results transonic in lower flow and drag there 87.90 Subsonic Subsonic Subsonic Supersonic (c) flow Subsonic A M_ = . pulsing the pilot occurred design. Supersonic theories flow is more that flow.

6 I 0. the drag-divergence aerodynamic velocities drag.8 Mach number i 1.0 I 1. Supersonic may delay of novel characteristics._ F-100 f e_ (1954) / . increasing drag-divergence forward or back (3) Low-aspect-ratio (4) Removal of boundary and vortex generators 109 ._ (1949) _ X-15 (1964) i. the same Mach number What this available of ways of to a to 1 is a fascinating is the ability before closer of thin of sweep subject to fly at near-sonic large rise include wave encountering wave to 1). $ h_ F-84 0. airfoils of the wing wing layer drag These a number the the transonic (or equivalently.= 0.2 (b) Improving Figure The question value really engine delaying Mach closer suggests thrust number (1) Use (2) Use as to whether 88. e.4 e. b_ / x 0.one transonic flight. There with are designs."_---------M>I (a) Total aircraft shocks.

perpendicularly to some that In figure approaching is now swept airfoil chord section number delayed results. that section number Busemann on the is delayed transonic in particular. data numbers. wave drag possible speed untrained drag.) the wing encounters of thickness airfoil maximum been reduced. and they can accommodate stations. now discussed The wave drag airfoils: to the square rise associated ratio with transonic (t/c). of lift disadvantages in the tanks. Additionally. critical number these sweep. from 91 shows experimental as a wing effect is swept to a high degree using with of sweep. The F-104 speeds 89(b)) the thickness-chord to achieve As a result. a thinner as the in which and The. past support the armament used than a thicker over have the Figure airfoil have was sections increased. flow has a sonic values.) (wing wing. ratio If the wing new to angle are A. are and area-rule technology individually.(5) Supercritical These methods Thin portional is used. jet in the or sweepback airplane stability employing disadvantages. value. were the the minimum landing among decreased. appears of using subsonic tural shows the (fig. in transonic over all Mach will delay Mach formation of the it encountered wave this drag result view the to a higher Figure no sweep number. the same previously. A major wing. than flow is roughly airfoil thicker pro- of the around thickness-chord the airfoil If a thinner those section airpoint the flow one speeds may will be less Mach for the Thus. 93 shows (See fig. to a greater who proposed wing Sweep: reduce shock reduces confirming One section (t/c the waves the It was effects in 1935 A swept flow sweep the may delay and of compressibility. will thicken In the case of sweepback. by three etc. fighters ratios three decades. roots II0 has sections has to the wing. is an early and .S. are desired Forward Mach (at which to higher Figure appears) the drag-divergence will Mach accomplish forward Sweepforward a modern however. of sweep than longer a typical flow over The section. designed lift. foil. sweep speeds. struc89(a) As are (in terms less structure produced) fuel range members. but was was penalized with low subsonic high and the effect the drag landing of using divergence of this airplane Figure particularly 90 illustrates that common pilots. 92(b). more point time One is effectively to adjust to the using situation. airfoil may of sweep 92(a) of a wing a straight Notice as effectively wing is shown airfoil a thinner the airflow reduced). Notice. mishaps a thinner Mach Adolf U. and handling characteristics at low disadvantage layer of swept wings is that toward there the tips there is a spanwise for sweepback flow along and toward separation the the and the boundary for sweepforward. fly at a higher one reaches that they free-stream number Mach before a sonic The and before thin wings speed the drag-divergence are less effective number.

q = Constant.o6 I 0 Mach A . (b) F.0 Figure 90.- Effect of airfoil thickness on transonic Mach drag.18 O t/c= . number. t/c = . i i 1. Lift = 0.5 number I I .Chord P-51 (1940' s) Thickness _-r _ZZZZzzz_- F-86 (1950' s) T (a) Changes Very F-104 (1960' s) in airfoil thin wings sections. MUD .104G airplane. drag divergence III .Thin airfoils. Figure 89. I .

transonic Effects drag of sweep coefficient.8 . on wing I (a) Unswept wing (b) Swept wing Chord v_ [- Chord swept [ Figure 92. 112 .9 1.0 1.0.- Sweep reduces effective thickness-chord ratio.7 .05 I 40 ° Sweep I 49 1/4 ° Sweep 0 .1 Mach number Figure 91.10 0° Sweep 10 1/2 ° Sweep 0.

stall of the wing-tip sections andthe ailerons lose their roll control effectiveness. which are thin plates parallel to the axis of symmetry of the airplane..Figure 93...HFB 320Hansa Jet with forward sweep. In this manner a strong boundarylayer buildup over the ailerons is prevented. 94(a).) Wing twist is another possible solution to this spanwiseflow condition...-%_ _ _ Vortex generators (b) Figure 94. Stall fence Wing (a) Mig-19 __.- Stall fences and vortex generators. The spanwiseflow may be reducedby the use of stall fences. 113 . (Seefig.

the transonic airfoil as shown airfoil in figure high 96. This increase results from the reduction or elimination of shock interactions betweenthe subsonicboundarylayer andthe supersonic flow outside of it. Supercritical and area-rule technology: One of the more recent developmentsin transonic technologyanddestined to be an important influence on future wing design is the NASAsupercritical wing developedby Dr. trailing of the flattened to counteract edge. penalty. the of the supercritical wing two the near Mach has airfoil. low-aspect-ratio wings are at a disadvantageat subsonic speedsbecauseof the higher induceddrag. the drag-divergence Mach number can be increased. A small increase in the drag-divergence Mach number can be achieved. subsonic drag by using cruise thickness-chord 1 before the the supercritical drag airfoil reduces rise. increased advantages lift is reduced. They are small wings. Removal or reenergizing the boundarylayer: By bleeding off some of the boundary layer along an airfoil's surface. number shock-induced even up to 0. A substantial rise in the drag-divergence Mach number is realized. a thicker weight at lower wing and section divergence without numbers. of the separation This a flattened closer and strength shocks to a point Additionally. First. (supercritical arated same tion boundary Mach Figure 95(a) beyond layer. This condition reduces the adverse pressure gradients andprevents the boundarylayer from stalling. andby creating a strong tip vortex. This methodis economically beneficial to airplanes designedfor cruise at the highest possible drag-divergence Mach number. The surface new is greatly delay represents decreased. a major is delayed airplane increase in commercial curvature of a wing gives the wing its lift.Low aspect ratio: The wing's aspect ratio is another parameter that influences the critical Mach number andthe transonic drag rise. Whitcomb of the NASA Langley Research Center. permits Mach Alternatively. Mach shocks operating delays the Figure airfoil the supercritical upper to the The surface trailing critical at the formathe number. mountedalong the surface of a wing and protruding perpendicularly to the surface as shownin figure 94(b). camber at the supercritical There are main same of the supercritical ratio. Substantialincreases in the critical Machnumber occur whenusing an aspect ratio less than aboutfour. upper this. Because However. Richard T. from previous discussions. Vortex generators are small plates. However. the generators feed high-energy air from outside the boundarylayer into the slow moving air inside the boundarylayer. supercritical This airfoil permits structural to be used higher 114 lift a drag speeds. permits at lower . performance.99. The shows the a classical critical 95(b) has Mach shows airfoil number) operating with near the Mach 1 region and sepits associated airfoil which edge.

into a body along its of revolution Or. Richard to supercritical T. Whitcomb airplanes area the and 96. supercritical airfoils. obtained nal axis changes area when ruling cross-sectional area of the airplane which is smooth is made longitudino abrupt can be projected in cross body section position.Classical and airfoil. ( _M cruise 15"{ r_ _9 Thickness-chord ratio Figure Coupled Dr. _ Separated boundary l_ayer (a) Classical Weak shock _Smaller airfoil. separated boundary layer ( (b) Supercritical Figure 95. if a graph is smooth.- Two uses of supercritical "area-rule" Center flight transonic wing. of the cross-sectional curve. curve length. and supersonic along and the shows drag is Basically. 115 against the resulting If it is not a smooth . concept also developed 1950's for by technology of NASA Langley is the Research in the early transonic later applied states to supersonic that minimum distribution in general.I trong shock ---.

But early tests indicated that supersonic flight was beyond its capability becauseof excessive transonic drag andthe project was aboutto be canceled. airplane. In addition 98 shows Notice this The configuration obtained and the smooth are resulting indicates to a cross-sectional now is completely and drag divergence and delayed that the shape is near optimum. The original Convair F-102A was simply a scaled-upversion of the XF-92A with a pure delta wing. however. ll6 .the Convair F-102A. capable critical the area-rule at Mach Figure plot.99.Area has around the curve shocks ruling been (b) F-102A of F-102A applied after area ruling. Notice that the curve is not very smoothas there is a large increase in cross-sectional area whenthe wings are encountered. Figure Recently. Figure 97 presents the classic example of the application of this concept. transport a super- concept numbers of cruising wing is used. near-sonic Mach number. Area ruling.then the cross section is changedaccordingly. Bulges at rear_ _ /-Indent. savedthe airplane from this fate.fuselage _ o_ [eal ____ Actual Ideal _ /Actual Nose Body station Tail Nose Body station Tail (a) YF-102A before area ruling. as shownin the plot. 97. to design a near-sonic to area ruling. Figure 97(a) showsthe original form of the F-102A andthe cross-sectional area plotted against bodystation. The F-102A was then able to reach supersonic speedsbecauseof the greatly reduced drag andentered military service in great numbers. area 0. Figure 97(b)showsthe F-102A with a coke-bottle-waist-shaped fuselage and bulges addedaft of the wing on each side of the tail to give a better area-rule distribution.

98.- transport 117 .--'-_-. e_ /-- Completely smooth surve o t / I \ % / Figure / Body station \ Near-sonic \ area ruling.

118 .

a straight against effectiveness disadvantages. include for been preferable. the disadvantages or low aspect of trailing-edge For and of attack straight-wing and reduced not have for example. returns will exist to the discussion of shock Mach formation. flow becomes wing increasingly back As long as over most of is swept behind the the wing sweep loss and relatively but also low drag.) In as it Mach If one shock three extends cone the wave for free-stream dimensions. 119 . 103 shows swing-wing But technolog- is the advances solving these Figure a variety of modern airplanes employing a swing-wing. This a measure straight-wing configurations swing-wing better airplane ical than angles The wave They used primarily Mach drag lift.VI. shown (See that fig. above in shape it was 1. to combine sweep plotted swept for equal that or swing-wing. the airplane in designing to fly with drag regime. has over qualitatively at higher Mach a straight or delta numbers. (L/D)max. the a straight drag advan- (no sweep) that becomes wing has drag. wing tage may approach the total of even rapidly causes to increase 101 shows wing and. SUPERSONIC FLOW The through directly supersonic previous discussion has centered mainly Many on the transonic of the techniques minimum drag used wave rise also and how. (due to small of minimizing wing span At subsonic high induced maximum airplane however. cone) that the a bow 88. transonic and are ratio). role. leading to compensate supersonic a highly swept of lift usually the This Mach condition experienced cone in sweepback. can in a multimissioned airplanes weight individually. be advantageous for the variable subsonic wing Mach supersonic wing design. are in the proper applicable design. the drag Figure a swept numbers. not necessarily it is evident over the in their capability the other added are respective an airplane speed of the regime. cruise and these an airplane is designed it would is the logic to be multimission. in fact. airplane. and complexity problems total major sweep drawback mechanisms. which cruise. high flaps. it may be delayed. 99 demonstrates Mach is subsonic 100) has swept at still edge numbers. Figure 102 shows of aerodynamic and swept-wing efficiency. wing. greater wing A delta area wing the advantage wing higher of a large for the Mach delta angle than a simple But.0. does in the interest numbers. back from the bow shock the nose is in reality (a Mach of the airplane. Sweepback supersonic dominant. numbers a cone Figure increasing there (fig. speed number an optimum to the optimum with be a Although regimes. swept back Mach with cone. One of the also.

0 English Lightning Figure 99. area supersonic ruling. cambered drag and improve Conical bow shock M_= 1.- Mach cone and use of sweep.3 F-100D Conical bow shock_ 1_= 2. distribution. lift drag minimized slender. the spanwise Also wave long. 120 .In addition may also be to low-aspect-ratio by fuselages employing minimize wings thin at wings supersonic and also using speeds.

0 1.5 Mach number I 2.- Delta-wing airplane.F-106 Figure 100.0 Figure 101. 121 . St raight-wi ng Swept-back advantage __ J 1. wing __ Straight ¢) Swept / '.- Wing design drag coefficients as functions of Mach number.

-1 10 _ Optimum swept wing ! ! J 0 1.0 Mach number 2. Variable sweep airplane. .0 3. 122 .- Variation of (L/D)ma x with Mach number._'l.0 Figure 102.- Modern variable-sweep airplanes.25 2O 15 .-Ji ¢_::! Mirage III G F-14A Figure 103.

. " What lay aheadwas years of development. Eventually. the Lockheeddesign useda double-delta configuration (fig. starting in 1959. 1963in a speechbefore the graduating class of the United StatesAir Force Academy. One problem associatedwith the SSTis the tendencyof the noseto pitch down as it flies from subsonic to supersonic flight. This is important since three-quarters of the airplane accidents occur in take-off andlanding. controversy. NASAdid considerablework.speed -Canards lble delta I i (a) Lockheed CL-823.competition. 104(b))and the canards were no longer needed. In landing. The swing-wing can maintain the airplane balance andcounteract the pitch-down motion. too.The SST On June 5. President Kennedycommitted this nation to "developat the earliest practical date the prototype of a commercially successful supersonictransport superior to that being built in any other country in the world . 123 . Lockheedneededto install canards (small wings placed toward the airplane nose (fig.Lockheed (b) Lockheed SST configurations. uses They use a variation concept of the double delta in the ogee subsonic the vortex-lift for improvement low. Figure 104. andultimately rejection of the supersonic transport (SST)by the United States. There evolved four basic types of layout which were studied further by private industry.and it remains to be seenwhether the British-French Concordeor Russian TU-144 designs will prove to be economically feasible andacceptableto the public. At low speedsthe vortices trailing from the leading edgeof the double delta (fig. This design proved to have many exciting aerodynamic advantages. prototypes. TU-144 It. flight.. double delta. Figure 106showsthe British-French Concorde wing called and the Russian wing. 104(a))to counteract pitch down. whereas. Lockheedchoseto go with a fixed-wing delta design. This meansthat many flaps and slats could be reducedor done awaywith entirely anda simpler wing design was provided.on basic configurations for the SST. the doubledelta experiences a ground-cushion effect which allows for lower landing speeds. Boeing initially chosea swing-wing design. 105(a))increase lift as shownin figure 105(b).. The forward delta begins to generatelift supersonically (negating pitch down).

75 to 8. U. The were Despite incorporated increased exhaust for 2707-100 ratio the 6. from Boeing 105.S.2 and the on the concept.(a) Vortices on double delta wing. of double was delta wing. of the swing-wing 124 . rear tail sur- aft to alleviate previously did not appear quoted a swing-wing Because technologimech- cal advances in construction in time. engines faces. design. Nonlinear coefficient vortices excess lift due to on wing Angle of attack (b) Lift Figure Ultimately. design cruise further advantages coefficient Lifting increase vortices design the due to vortices. one of the NASA Major supersonic moved the evolution airplane of the requirements. as the winner design to meet the Boeing originally airline of the derived payload a swing-wing 107 shows The changes lift-drag size were selected of this grew into from impinging SST competition.with Figure designs.

Russian TU-144 Figure i06.- Evolution of Boeing SST design. 125 . Model 733-197 Model 733-790 Model 2707-100 Y I ' _ Model 2707-300 Figure 10'/.- British-French. and Russian SST airplanes.

tested NASA Langley Center is shown in figure Figure 126 108. research States. incurable problems in reducconcept.2 to 2. design supersonic cruise with at transports M = 2. speed Research of Whereas.7.anisms and beefed-up resulted. structure Boeing due to engine placement. . cruised and TU-144 configurations at the and the Boeing M = 3. tion of payload Figure and environmental While continuing Concorde M = 2. economic.4.- Langley advanced SST design. 108. design had no recourse adopted States - but to adopt a fixed-wing the B2707-300. is still the at One such the British-French into advanced and Russian in the TU-144 United fly. to cancel 107 shows the final factors configuration led the United Concorde in 1972.2 a cruise are being analyzed. the project Political.

airplane Bow shock Tail shock underpressures Overpressures with distance decay and Overpressure -Underpressure "N" shaped pulses Figure 109.) shock). shocks some waves with coming the main wing distance engine nacelles. and heard recompression or less total in one-tenth of a second as a double or boom. them. this pulse pulse changes is felt appear To an observer pressure as an abrupt below The compression atmospheric change jolt takes atmospheric and a final followed by a rapid to atmospheric and is felt decompression pressure. atmospheric As shown of attack first overpressures sectional decrease area. as shown.. airplane altitude. 109. tend The two main Shock to merge resulting on the one at the nose off the canopy. in figure and crossand then by factors atmo110. cross-sectional and terrain. pressure ground. 127 . angle and are controlled Mach number. altitude. with will increase will decrease increase increasing Mach number. sonic to a description A typical one plane.Sonic-boom The such spheric sonic boom. conditions. angle or the overpressures of attack. area. the airshaped generates (tail etc." formation shock to as the of the To explain about waves. flying one transport must return is of the problems boom. (bow shock) leading from to be "N" and edges. with increasing with increasing that generation. (See fig. above pressure place off the airplane tail shock-wave an airplane supersonically.Sonic One commonly of the referred more objectionable "sonic Boom facing any supersonic boom. the cause as airplane turbulence.

- Refraction of shock waves. profile the cause speed and thus lessen in the atmosphere boom or. to nothing boom is felt path.- Factors affecting may other smooth hand.(_?:S_)_: _W ropopau s e t///_i:_:_/( _ Troposphere Boom .I heard _ _Maximum boom on ground Figure 111.1 f 6 Angle of attack o O9 0 Cross-sectional area 1 Altitude Mach number Figure Turbulence the impact Reflections post-boom of the of the 110. sonic-boom the overpressures. Orthogonals shock refracted (normal waves) by to -Supersonic airplane Stratosphere _/. on the "N" wave amplify may the may in fact overpressures. aftershocks. 128 . set directly airplane to note where that on either may of the flight the It is interesting waves locally a turning they supersonic the airplane ground concentrate of shock intersect and produce a superboom. multiple of sound booms increases or overpressures by terrain and buildings profile. are refracted In a normal Figure in this The strongest atmospheric that with decreasing sures away and travel from decreases 111 shows normal sonic side the directions that they will in which at some beneath the overprespoint the curve case and the Earth. altitude.

This necessitates. the world's airlines have been forbidden to operate supersonically over the continental United States. for SST operation. The effects run from structural damage (cracked building plaster and broken windows) down to heightened tensions and annoyance of the citizenry. Research for ways in which to reduce the sonic boom continues.Perhaps the greatest concern expressed about the sonic boom is its effecton the public. For this reason. 129 . that supersonic flightbe limited to overwater operations.

130 .

across strong of a drastic For temperature sustained melt. Control encounter from the lift-drag a flat-plate must them is used. at high This is the ramjet numbers away with the engine. works for on the the prinin pro- most ciple the promising that engine. Additionally. an efficient pulsion method. airplanes research has will be ineffective. may these shocks. that most the they part. for example. from being realized. Secondly. flight about a high design of sweepback. shock waves compress parts and in this combustion many is also moving represents field. NASA research continuing Lifting Because tering landing ballistic spacecraft from of the must cost and safety. would in today's airplanes quickly materials or methods of the that can withstand leading edge the high-temperature of the airplane to obtain surfaces a good wing temperature degree wing be reduced ratio. encountered at such at these angle the generated with are by a body trail a high For interact layers undergoes the boundary highly turbulent layers the body. that it has would Bodies long been enable the recognized crew have site. that designs the of reencraft to a near and 131 be found to maneuver reentered Large a great with distance. studies Fig- are ure being conducted by NASA to obtain the basic necessary 113 shows Propulsion is another prospect Mach does problem at hypersonic The ramjet speeds. the shock seriously boundary the air been flight is arbitrarily are defined evident Flight as flight to define at speeds this. beyond Mach 5 of this flow changes achieved Several waves To date. and the speeds only by rockets formidable problems and spacecraft are back about NASA X-15 speeds. they placed Otherwise.VII. the body used no drastic have airplane. engine the air Economically. in nature. are effects may increase. by using Aerodynamic flight new The most normal heating metals is a major problem. exhibited shows the much highly of this swept Figure design delta tips 112 shows The X-20 control. wing and the NASA X-15 reentry craft airplane control surfaces out on the wing for effective Although hypersonic hypersonic major flight transport is a long way knowledge (HST). so that they for hypersonic dynamic pressure be strategically to operate. sufficient approaching if shielded flow by the fuselage. for design. BEYOND THE SUPERSONIC Hypersonic Hypersonic although magnitude research First. little Up to now spacecraft control over the landing and followed forces entries recovery . hypersonic therefore required. commercial a proposed two proposed modified Dynasoar hypersonic that philosophy.

and yet resemble but obtain lift spacecraft. aircraft Proposed hypersonic transport 1950's.. than (HST).Figure 112. because are called body shapes. drag NASA has Starting in the late more lift have involved in designing They that produce bodies.necessary. lifting for they no wings of their 132 . ° sport Figure operations been were usually 113. however.Examples of hypersonic designs.

to developing The basic a lowdesign of delivering is shown returning l15(a). how control Representative is the over ratio aid in the of more benefiting advanced from of a new Shuttle. payloads The booster to and stage in figure consists tank stage return of two recoverable used by the orbiter llS(b) rockets and a large nonrecoverable into orbit. Martin in contrast Marietta to the X-24A M2 vehicle. and it now has a double-delta a more Northrop M2-F3 Northrop HL- 10 Martin X-24B Martin X-24A J Figure The sonic speed lifting ranges bodies being flight-tested 114. nose. with M2 vehicle belly ratios developed the NASA Ames advantages speeds. like planform the HL-10. optimum 10+ and.- Lifting are bodies. it is more rounded although it. generation of vehicles primarily this research Space Space The cost settled solid-fuel stage method upon Space Shuttle represents and the United Shuttle States' commitment from orbit. the subsonic may and low superlanding exploring the lift-drag to show vehicles.Figure teristics 114 shows four of the shapes of this unusual being tested to evaluate The the handling type characat the and flight qualities concept. NASA Research is it posin has to provide a rounded from bottom. external The orbit fuel orbiter and engines to complete part of the the boost total vehicle shown to Earth in figure is the actual to go into to a controlled 133 . is very top and a flat The different the previous Rebuilt two since as the X-24B. shaped sesses shape a flat pointed Research Center at hypersonic is flat topped a rounded lift-drag Langley and combines at subsonic Center of stability The HL-10 speeds with high by the lifting body trim developed at Mach belly.

boost entire some and landing range unique stages of the about The are of Mach problems acting numbers associon the vehicle. orbiter are vehi- to deorbit a conventional with this airplane. capability. mission from ated Aerodynamic when subsonic with the dynamic interest pressures 115. part of the numerous aerodynamic The hypersonic landing capability attack - research orbiter flight (fig. Cargo bay _ udder (b) Orbiter. 2000 reenters the atmosphere to concentrate of This angle of attack is used maximum 134 . as the of dynamic solid-fuel pressures boosters staging aerodynamics.Liquid fuel _. orbiter a side-to-side at a high the of about about 30 °.is centered are evident. problems l15(b)) associated uses a double-delta still provide the wing for orbiter configuration a good has lift-drag to optimize ratio in the range angle the characteristics With this lift-drag km. and landing be able control phase recovery by parachutes.-Delta-wing- orbiter (a) Space Shuttle. as well as stability The cle must considerations of the and mission land like both at low and high is an area of great concern. Figure landing. high The and phase. The There mission. to supersonic boost phase the such is covered. Mach numbers. There range of the Space Shuttle the designs.

to come flight. a reaction system.aerodynamic tection control become parachute challenge further heating on the underside In the upper of the vehicle where the greatest attitude to control thermal is controlled tail and proby (to roll) and a a is provided. control and yaw) reaches elevators rudder orbiter of the atmosphere. On landing. pressure and splits ailerons builds. elevons but as the (combined the the dynamic the vertical pitch effective. represents for probing research for years and is a stimulus the unknowns of high-speed 135 . to slow open to act as a speed The Space Shuttle brake is deployed to aerodynamic into to a stop.

136 .

Class 1 Motion Straight flight dition may has Figure is horizontal always altitude. considered later. appears. As indicated earlier. For performance purposes the airplane is assumedto possessstability and a workable control system.these include lift. Stability and control. In the interest of brevity. (2) accelerated and/or curved flight. weight. and (3) hovering flight. one Expanding obtains (25) and combining condition 137 . it is usually considered the standard on before the force surface condition of an airplane. aspects of airplane flight are considered. must be sufficient closely. it is relatively easy to follow the results of the application of the fundamentalforces on a complete airplane. to produce that there a lift equivalent to the of veloc- velocity If one which it with of the airplane this may examines the the plane statement fly straight that Lift it says is a range equation and level.flight. Performance of an airplane is a very broad subject and much could be written on it alone. andthrust. the conceptsof lift anddrag were explored extensively to discover howthese forces arise. With these basic ideas in mind.VIII. to be consideredfirst. flight. in curved flight another force. is the effect that these forces have over a short term on the attitude of the airplane itself. that The 117 shows to the along flight path Earth's this and for plane. but probably the most important. the centrifugal force. therefore. only the simplest. celerated) The weight. design comments and level Although it is very straight important This and level since con- over of the total in the additional for straight simplicity the flight weight. will be made. = Weight. tile thrust or constant velocity (unac- horizontal that lift it is easily the thrust seen must must To fly at constant equal the drag. PERFORMANCE In the earlier discussions. drag. there are four basic forces that act on an airplane . All the motions may be groupedinto oneof three classes: (1) unacceleratedlinear flight. Motions of an Airplane Figure 116illustrates the various flight conditions encounteredby an airplane. For equal it is assumed to be horizontal. Performance. Additionally. ities over acts occur been and level only touched unaccelerated a small flight section but some system (cruise flight). is basically the effects that the application of these forces have on the flight path of the airplane.

Minimum CL.1 Weight = _ p_V_2CL If it is assumed one easily observes which flying that value is. flight occurs the wing in the wing when lift coefficient angle of attack. flying speed straight also is limited This condition requires angle of attack. Maneuver (or combat) Maneuver (or combat) Descent turn _lP Indicates flight direction linear and/or flight curved flight _Unaccelerated. is operating and decreases. of speed near by the CL that that may for S air density V_ p_. as the velocity straight constant. flight a small be accomplished by a decrease and level The from the wing for the stall thrust and hence angle. 138 . and wing area S are (36) the weight. available a small maximum the engine.max. [III]ffm]Accelerated Figure 116. CL at level increases.- Airplane flight conditions.

flight systems unaccelerated for the assumed climb cases ascent (climb) or descent (dive). 118(b)). l18(a)) whereas for high speeds the airplane angle of attack is small (fig. at low speedsto fly straight andlevel the airplane angle of attack is large (fig. on straight Straight. been The that or descent is given If the 139 .. lies by along +_ the or constant-velocity free-stream ->. It has path. and level flight. Thrust = Drag.- Straight and level flight. Need to less generate angle same of attack lift Horizontal z Flight path High speed (b) Straight Figure 118. Lift = Weight. Low speed (a) Straight and level - low speed. respectively.Speed and effects level - high speed. Lift Thrust Flight path Weight F-106 horizontal to ground Figure 117.- Figure 119 illustrates climb direction or or of an airplane the thrust angle line in a straight.In conclusion. the force dive.

equal path. In the the the lift (Dive) equals of the the climb component condition component the component (37) (38) (39) of to T = D + W sin y T =D +W To maintain weight maintain retarding weight for 140 a straight sin (-y) =D- climbing to the velocity motion the flight the (or diving) path thrust (eq. Figure forces weight are force summed parallel 119.and unaccelerated.+ y (Horizontal _ Weight t (a) Climb. . unaccelerated. must perpendicular a constant the forward component case drag case plus a weight of the flight airplane. it is seen that the Unaccelerated perpendicular to the flight One obtains is resolved L=W cos y= into two components. ascent and descent. path. helps In the the thrust of the dive the condition drag along path by reducing constant velocity. W cos (-y) (Climb or dive) (Climb) W siny flight (37)). J J J Horizontal (b) Dive.

hence It is interesting (38). airplane This is equal the lift (T = D + W). and sin Lift _. (37). is shown (L = 0). and vertically tical climb. climb. = 1 to the equals drag zero y = 0. a hill. in figure Horizontal / = 90 ° Thru Weight Drag_ (c) Unaccelerated Figure 119. and First.The conclusion velocity ation from the and of a car slowing car from use less is that thrust one must in going one must use an increased velocity. (apply thrust This more gas" to climb at constant to the the situcar to dive "give going at constant it the and down three level the gas" "let is analogous to prevent less thrust) where down speeding thrust) (use up a hill up on the to prevent up when also _. Thus. weight condition cases climb derived Secondly the thrust of the angle use of equations that climb to climb for a ver119(c).- vertical Concluded. sin _. cos to examine and yields This in straight Thrust and plus V is zero. 141 . = 90 °. special flight. = 0 (39). = Weight (L = W) and hence = Drag cos the _. = 1. the previously (T = D). conditions in a vertical necessary Also.

final condition It is therefore to be discussed necessary Equation is gliding to balance (37) remains flight. and hence The liftposrely on 120(b). If one divides equation (40) by equation (41). to consist of three climbout off distance distance. design as shown Sailplanes since they in figure is a measure lift-drag them to keep ratio angle of the aerodynamic ratios aloft.25-m transition and (3) the 142 . Take-off. banked. (42) In nonmathematical maximum drag sess air the with this ratio currents lift-drag the ratio glide gliding range. nose the with For angle the greatest excellent a particular of attack There the angle aerodynamic airplane.- constant-altitude is a case roll to the take-off begins of an airplane its take-off continuous the instant the leaving the ground. but equation yg (40) (41) D = W sin Vg as shown in figure 120(a). The airplane motion and the and curved 2 Motion flight is considered.) (1) the over. of accelerated time it begins (See fig. (50-ft) be considered distance. airplane. For maximum glide pilot range instead. glide the is less and the for a is increased. range. the lift-drag efficiency is the maximum. In gliding flight reaction the thrust forces (39) is of zero. with the This any other hence.turn. needed (2) the obstacle. its 121.The equals lift and simplified. angle of attack. drag the aerodynamic unchanged with the In a glide L = W cos weight. the result is L _ D tan 1 _g language is obtained this means when that the smallest ratio of the glide angle. parts: distance motion. varies of the airplane of attack the lift-drag results. is then angle is a particular is a maximum. it is under may acceleration. climbout The total From after takespecifically for the of take-off. for (not to be confused angle of attack glide for which angle and minimum ratio of the flight path). ground-roll say. the airplane this gives a steeper (increase maximum It is a natural to try tendency maximum to raise angle of attack) ratio. to get but unless lift-drag the descent will be steeper Class Class cases 2 accelerated landing. a 15.

(b) Glide aerodynamic Figure 120.0 --.Lift Flight path 'L Weight \ cos _. 143 .. 3O 12.g W sin _.g (a) Unaeeelerated glide conditions.- Glide characteristics. 16 20 24 j 28 | angle of attack characteristics. I' 4 J 8 J 12 a.4 r_ _or%_=_u_=_e p_ o_ 2O _Jl _ e _ 10 0 0 0 ) -'JO / -4 I 0 u.

forces to zero at liftoff. gear. sum the zero drag.AB A-37 Viggen .- Forces acting during take-off ground roll. climbout (38)) (37) and in this //" L I I SA. The during frictional is a rolling direction force of the airplane forces down (thrust in a horizontal the runway.. At the its end of transition. 122 shows and lift.Figure Figure weight. airplane climb begins (eqs.t f //11 Z'-_ ///I/ Rolling _resistance Weight //// Rollins resistance II/I/I/I11 Figure 122.. to the In addition landing acting lift and under to thrust. decreases 20 percent velocity. usually apply about at constant case. the net acceleration and drag (about the the velocity until increases some velocity at which angle build. friction weight. and the total drag greatly above The the ordi- as the landing stall nary velocity. the forces there 121. equations is retracted. the airplane airplane's the ground. ground as dynamic is still no winds). Acting to accelerate drag are and lift At the beginning zero total (assuming retarding the of the force). 144 .. ground due roll.acting Total take-off the distance. velocity The and pitch for attitude safety) 10 percent above is reached the airplane leaves point of Rolling airplane the is "rotated" lift quickly drop gear the for or pitched exceeds the increases attack. pressure exceeding airplane the is equal to the net force roll. The remains airplane in a horizontal stall up.

aborted maximum which take-off for deceleration by the use use since to a stop.25 m (50 ft) required from from for the start of its is important the so that The and determines pilot sufficient distance there should know runway the amount the exists of runway speed design the purposes. which 123. They The dition airplane This engine are rolling the as during is greater the the take-off except are Spoilers direction. touchdown lift equals it is assumed The previous that the vertical about velocity flaps is near indicates they zero that discussion velocity. but only the two terminal phases. Figure 123 presents same friction near the forces acting on an airplane for their during magnitude For safe are after the landing and rollout. airplanes the parachute brake laid is at touchdown. of flaps they also and other contribute an optimum airplanes These acceleration the form units for high lift to increased flap may setting also take-off However. namely. consists The of touching phase and horizontal will and ground approach to a landing not be considered. increase by equa- maximum as indicated (35). operation used occurs lift condition thrust end of the rollout. velocity advantageously lift coefficient to decrease and decrease the landing the landing Indeed. From be increased there is a net braking by setting deceleration used maximum airplane therefore. down and its at the lowest associated possible techniques the Landing. where flying increase On board speed in thrust an aircraft is achieved and carrier. the take-off There is usually an airplane rocket-assisted which minimize to take distance. This reversers. on the to slow is the it to a Another is opened favorite device On board by military carriers. or The fig- is negative. retard the may be reduced is a limit to their devices. aircraft hook usual landing a cable mechanical across to large the in the flight structural of the arresting Deceleration on the airplane swift and engaging is exceedingly the airplane is subjected 145 . for large commercial reversible the thrust for and military pitch force airplanes. form deck. drag for use and airplane's will units acceleration. rollout. drag. is increased. in a matter of a catapult.The roll total distance for the airplane to clear 15. forces. distance. drag condition For may is accomplished ground roll during by using landing the flaps acting propellers is retarding. or two.vertical touchdown Under and they the tion that are the used Landing an airplane velocities. thrust airplane ure stop. of high takes Some off in the provide this minimum a means method of a second represent short a transitory periods. this conthe as the brakes applied. conditions the weight. more on the wings into the normal air force to "dump" The to prevent increases is zero rebounding as the touchdown. the airplane rolling usually from friction the or. may be Additionally.

motion plane the etal of direction By Newton's in that same line in motion line acted that law by an external To maintain toward this.turn. But in a turn in a straight force. of the turn Voo is the velocity flight massive path. 116. Thus. turn. force. sees tight m and that turns. a body upon of an airplane. called by the body. in figure cases the of curved flight-path include banked In the climbing maneuvers and descending required maneuvers and aerobatics. For a constant-altitude lift must turn the vertical the total turn. of motions insignificant. it is the horizontal the curved flight path. This is balanced component constant centrifugal equal the weight. The By Newton's force. This Notice angle and is the by of the wings lift on the When resolved component into vertical of lift force that it is seen to maintain force. not all motions flight in combat heading paths. 123. force opposite by: centripetal centrifugal mVoo 2 R mass centrifugal is given FC where curve. discussions of flight first unless were law.Rolling resistance and brakes Weight Rolling resistance and brakes Figure Constant-altitude plane cases One altitude are of the in a straight the basic banked line. Figure particularly causes horizontal centripetal the lift reaction must the is the R (43) of the airplane. in a properly _ to the executed horizontal. path requires second an acceleration the force required required force be supplied to perform to maintain the center called curved the By Newton's is proportional third the law centripflight. the an airof in a curved curve. is the constant- to change turn. of the airplane this in the equation speeds one in is the radius centrifugal or curved occur for From the highest forces airplanes at high 124 shows that resultant components. to the acceleration there is a reactive force. of an airThese As shown are ample turns.There Forces acting after landing. be increased to maintain altitude 146 when entering a banked . force needed the disposition are banked wings that of forces at an angle to bank also. accelerations they acquire will due to a added continue sigin previous change nificance.

and 3 motion has flight this lift be been there results and drag 3 Motion-Hovering to a special motion aerodynamic of the Flight flight aircraft reaction the Hence. is._t i of lift I [ I $ I i Lift I I I t I Horizontall component of lift I I I I Centrifugal force Weight Figure 124. The the banking smaller angle to hold the must the turning be. forces.t I I i I ] Vertical compone. as In equilibrium. hovering must balanced shown Thrust By vertically properly as shown = Weight controlling in figure the 126. Vertical force. sphere. enough the larger lift required turn.- Forces in a properly Horizontal lift is or banked = Centrifugal the greater turn. condition. the assigned is no In hovering As that weight. thrust. airplane radius This is in the in a turn. The the chief aircraft advantage may be made to rise and (44) descend ability of such aircraft is their 147 . whole. with forces remaining for respect of the that of hovering to the aircraft atmoon thrust flight. no in no forces. to produce a large horizontal component Class Class flight. such. in figure 125. the velocity lift = Weight.

148 .- VTOL ascent and descent. Thrust _ Thrust Weight Thrust Vehicle > weight rises Weight Thrusq Vehich < weight descends Figure 126. Thrust = Weight./ Thrust of engines / Weight of airplane Figure 125.- Hovering flight.

and in hovering is supplied by reaction in the wing Lockheed XFV- I Convair XFY- 1 Ryan X. in a conventional The but tilt engines the vertical LTV-Hiller-Ryan in figure an aircraft. 149 . are usually not included in this grouping.- Early VTOL airplanes. incapable of the speedsandmaneuvers of conventional airplanes. The first thrust VTOL landing concept the wing XC-142A two used needed airplanes and the tried and turboprop-powered whereas were need the X-13 the tricky to tilt contrarotating was jet powered. the Convair XFY-1. jets Control at low flight tips. and velocities tail. take-off flight and regime. sense the entire the was main such aircraft body conventional was to keep from 128(a) was level of the aircraft to the horizontal. separate But this powerplants added Siddeley plane used uses dead for weight vertical to each (fig. at present. They are. This is why helicopters. the Lockheed XFV-1. They have the addeddistinction of being able to perform at high speedsas a conventionalairplane in flight. of the land- Another ing and For best where down concept to use flight.to land and take-off in small spaceswithout the use of long runways. the Hawker This are in figure Harrier the concept the 128(b)) is one of "vectored from thrust" vertically rotating exhaust nozzles to deflect exhaust to directly flight behind as shown 128(c). althoughcapableof hovering flight. The first conceptsto be tried were three "tail sitting" airplanes. nose. VTOL aircraft. maneuvering over into piloting propellers The main required to supply problems in the the vertical and The next with these take-off flight. and the RyanX-13 Vertijet as shown in figure 127. conventional simplicity present-day four and efficiency.13 Vertijet Figure 127. Sincethey land andtake-off vertically they are called VTOL aircraft.

(b) Harrier GR MKI.Wing.- flight.142A. concepts. tilts down (a) XC. Forward flight Transition Hover (c) Example Figure 128. VTOL 150 .

up still further. equilibrium. of an airplane to change to fly a preflight Control of stability the airplane's an airplane to be in equilibrium on it must for a particular be zero. it may undergo noseup. ideally. that hand. is dynamically amplitude. of decaying continue the airplane at a constant 130(b)) or. forces to its moments by the condi- airplane tion. The subject stability is the tendency. Now. in the worst unstable may the Or it may is said nose to nose neutral with The case. and its equilibrium. For all flight defined. unstable tendency stability. to bring equilibrium straight it is statically If it is assumed the airplane It may nose is statically down. produce motion a will is and moments. the weight. of the forces now to on an airplane this subject It remains in view of the presented Stability Simply scribed conditions. 151 .) has is statically If the initial neutral and static tendency diverge to hold fig. overshoot condition motion up and dynamic three to a of straight indicates down there- forms smaller and that after (fig. STABILITY AND CONTROL The chapters acting consider subject been kept of stability in the and and control of an airplane has throughout the study the previous background the related so as not to complicate performance considerations. of the airplane (See generated and level the disturbed the airplane if restoring it back 129(c). if the pilot uses not need which is be dynamically elevators of this stable in this design he should to do this. return to its type former equilibrium oscillatory level (See fig. statically necessary An airplane and dynamically has poor An airplane can be flown off" by a pilot with no control except to change the equilibrium flight condition. (fig. flight condition. caused the the airplane in equilibrium. unstable last and instance. of attack for example. airplane it may to have stability magnitude up and down increasing and be dynamically An airplane control by working 130(c)).IX. of motion degree. and up slightly new forces to nose from increases). consider the sum of of it. lift equals acting an airplane the thrust flying equals as in figure are 129(a).) that On the other tend initially stable. flying "hands still be flyable But. noses If the if the airplane (angle is disturbed. with time.) This stable. condition. is the ability is considered or lack of a pilot first. (See fig. by the angle-of-attack airplane 129(b). stable. For Then the the forces straight and moments and level and there example. material. by atmospheric is no longer increase. position. flight. It is in the drag. and eventually overshoot. no net rotating moments on it. are turbulence. 130(a). qualities.

- static Static stability. "t-5-----'')---stable. (a) Equilibrium flight. Statically to return stable.. . . dynamically unstable.. to return do not to equilibrium Equilibrium . airplane dynamically to equilibrium stable moments .Dynamic 152 stability. Moments but tend towards are equilibrium divergent [ _ oscillations (b) Statically Equilibrium "_/ \\_/ (c) Statically stable.Lift = weight Thrust = drag No net moments --n_=======dm_ .oscillations tend decay Equilibrium (a) Statically Moments tend but oscillations and dynamically airplane decay stable... neutral dynamic stability. Figure 130.. stability.....airplane holds disturbed condition Equilibrium Disturbed 4 (c) Neutral Figure 129. I lq _ Statically unstable divergent Disturbed moments increase disturbed condition j Equilibrium (b) Statically unstable No airplane.... moments .

times the lift in this the distance case. If the To fly in a particular angle. that the tend then if disturbed the away airplane from to the the trim to return equilibrium It is customary the center statically there for below moment nondimensionally as a coefficient of moment about Figure 132 shows the longitudinal against negative moments the angle of attack. the airplane the in figure is zero. can be considered Consider independent "trim- stability. the lift and drag The at the aeroof the In this may lie the cen- and the is very in back the are aerodynamic of the wing The The thrust moments center alone. or (Cm)cg. atrim. the horizontal the balancing condition. interrelated the two are sometimes to as lateral Longitudinal stability. (See eq.Longitudinal motion. above.- of lateral and directional an airplane med" to fly at some angle of attack. longitudinal it is discussed stability first. _trim" This statement in equilibrium and there are no moments tending to pitch the of gravity. Because long moment tail. center acts as a small of the and the pilot arm can from lift by elevator to the aerodynamic Thus. The total equilibrium moment about elevator center of "trimmed" to a particular airplane angle is statically of attack. usually it lies or below in this the drag will 131(a) are the shows weight thrust close of and how pitch through along equilibrium the the center thrust is achieved of gravity. therefore. center the forces that of gravity. airplane - not be in equilibrium. the wing. pitching motion. line to the aerodynamic above the center center of gravity. line. Of course. 153 . only center forces of the horizontal tail supplies relatively moment as is needed. tail. The says that the airplane is airplane about its center for an airplane. (27). components for example. Lateral and direcand direcsimply control relates to an airplane's to an airplane's and. fuselage. It is seen whereas the case and thrust both contribute If these that contributes a nose-up moment. about moments each of gravity between them and the center nose-down of gravity. 13 l(b).) stable case of the moments plotted is no moment angles of attack at the trim above atrim' angle of attack. nose down moments rotate and positive up for angles atrim" of all the moment curves caused tail. stable moments in a longitudinal are generated to express sense. Since stability. The source needed achieve the small shown gravity the horizontal lift or negative of gravity are horizontal control. Figure forces dynamic airplane example above ter acting center. rotate the nose the of gravity. tional tional referred lateral stability stability and are stability stability control closely and and relates control is concerned with yawing an airplane's rolling motion. It is evident tail do not cancel another moment wing other is out. and by Now the curve the different of figure of the 132 is a composite airplane.

there becomes of the aerodynamic If the is a point. curve the airplane the the tail of gravity neutral this point toward where 134). to raise of attack to achieve range coefficient. drag moments lift. unstable. back center the center of the (points airplane (point neutrally the A or B). of the center the entire is sufficiently is statically sufficiently. moment of gravity slope. center position and hence. of gravity on the static in fig= As shown 134. for tail force --I Tail moment = Resultant and of thrust. horizontal. center=of=gravity is relatively 154 . facts effect are important. the pilot is moved forward too far (forward the will not be able the maximum to generate lift large enough force With There on the tail power are. 135(a)). curve Some of gravity airplane fundamental has static a great stability. of point angle if the center A). is 134) If the has center positive of gravity is moved airplane further (point moment and the is longitudinally toward the nose Likewise. stable. airplane D in fig.k Thrust LLift I ] Thrust momj E oment Drag moment Weight (a) Net moment pitches airplane down.Pitch condition. off the usable however. if the forward stable. (fig. (b) Equilibrium Figure 131. horizontal of the wing. equilibrium. stability ure the Figure 133 shows this qualitatively. First. then is moved C in fig. thrust.

+oo \ \ _ _.+°+ . \ v _\_ h_ . \ 155 . ot i ..4 atrim _9 Negative moments..Longitudinal staticstabilitymoments as a functionof angle of attack. _< _trim i ¢9 Zero [ _ moments.Longitudinal static stability components.o.. _ I" _trim Angle of attack. a > atrim i 0 E & C9 Figure 132.__ae_ t_O 0 I __" Angle of attack c9 i _9 O I h_ trim--' _\_ \_ Complete _tatically airplane stable) \ \ \ Figure 133._9 Positive b_ moments.

center designed include and other of gravity and the fell outof ground in figure the usable the actual is carefully crashing center unstable. it is made Finally. gear. range.Destabilizing monmnts /---> + O v i. factor of the the the complete stable tail center more it airlies of controllable tail moment will give case. and power for most is of effects. loaded of usable are cargo cases shifted The of transport in flight then airplane factor airplanes so that became the because The of gravity limits. as possible from the wing with respect the downwash 156 . I _. These flaps. the static with the The center tail of gravity efficiency airplane. additional engine-on considerations) of the loaded. center-of-gravity (including To insure an airplane landing that range.e. tail A larger (assuming. horizontal as is the a smaller center normal Of course. static By design stability.- Stable.J / 0 _ /_ Neutral ¢/ Center of gravity at D _9 % 5 _ Angle Stable of attack. wake depends on the to the airplane as close and slipstream efficiency engine. " at B _9 (equilibrium) condition _ . airplane side the the center The airplane plane than factors thrust which effects as shown falls reduce and the usable effects 135(b). further of the away from distance is important. neutral. and unstable static stability. contributor a more that the to the statically horizontal from it is. airplane For was range within there or the example. to 100 percent to the tail. location of gravity horizontal moment is an important tail is the main in a stable airplane._ _b_Bl_) _/// _ Destabilizing nloments Center of gravity at A Neu!ral A B C D Positions ol center of gravity Figure 134. o. aft of the gravity enhances tail location of gravity The stability respect of the airplane). its curve.

air it will to which flows This 135. ]ect Again. 7.Unstable. that directly effectiveness. a wing. as shown longitudinal this stability broad are is concerned subject two primary attempting with the and no attempt forms to return motion of a statically to treat stable this subof airplane. angle tail If the also airplane changes. mal_ . _off < _-Center xx nmst these (a) lie of gravity between limits Ground Unstable power on .Figure Usable 136(a) of air center-of-gravity shows how the in the air range. is a very there is made in detail. is often stability of the the horizontal downwash vertical figure location 136(b). degree the importance. regard of longitudinal to an equilibrium oscillations trimmed interest to an airplane 157 . with Basically.iq_ Center must these (b) of gravity lie between limits Figure considerable it leaves deflected turbed. Hence. when This deflection results wing rearward its angle and hits the horizontal-tail and the the reason. Dynamic such it is exposed to as little as possible.. it will located is disThe reduce in a in change of attack affects this For it changes airplane. is deflected reaction force downward or lift. downwash tail plane.

with himself oscillation Usually. effects on tail. This main and thus. the more highly variation damps the damped pilot generally the greater of attack with no if a oscillation second 137(b).101A li _ . forces. in figure out very oscillation of the pilot's quickly may However.Lift _ _ _ _ Downwash angle at tail (a) Downwash of wing. The of oscilla(See tion which fig. is vertical the free out of hand if a coupling here. A second the instability oscillation eventually if the elevators elevator to destructive are left free. Horizoa_ F. is most airplane increases the static stable an extent and be extremely in a steep 158 . goes the rearward supersonic that the movement evident. slow The first form is the phugoid flight mode path.- horizontal tail. may of the This "tuck as the airplane stability to such dive. Downwash flight condition after being period. of the as shown pilot pilot time effort. although it is. disturbed. The of short term mode. is a long Often. of occurs is called effect "porpoising" accelerations elevator and is influenced the plane airplane occur. are between and air- Proper design is essential effects as compressibility center of the wing concerned. this The oscillation damped and of the airplane's it is poorly can be an annoyance. to damp he may that may get its natural worsen attempts where it out by use "out of phase" lead of a control with because slow induce type reaction dynamical the oscillation. angle is a short-period this oscillation short period._ Downwash (b) High Figure 136.) control drag is. Insofar aerodynamic condition under" that by the may get balance. can the 137(a).

If the the If the airplane tendency airplane holds position. at supersonic at low speeds The speeds. under. lift and Figure rearward moments the shift center (flaps) to trail nose-down also generate the from canard drag. in the free stream minimum North 138 shows XB-70. equilibrium.Two types longitudinal of dynamic oscillation. tailplane aerodynamic to develop range. forward. angle. of gravity include by a transfer wing as the airplane uration moment added solutions double-delta an additional arrangement or canards due to lift advantage The use placed in the at the transonic of the airplane airplane lift. Here. This nose-up has an and supersonic of contributing of a canard trim When the for trim and a rear of the for control is beneficial.Slow Axis remains to flight of airplane tamgent path ris(" and _111(1 fall elmnging of :lJl'p|alle Minimum speed spevds _I _lx i tl/tl nl speed (a) Phugoid longitudinal oscillation. the variation a positively of yawing-moment coefficient as a directionally 159 ." center It has a pair of canards the wing for tips staare bility turned at supersonic downward Directional speeds to keep stability. if the a positive sideslip an airplane is disturbed angle so that the yaw angle a positive yaw as shown To have airplane moment be generated negative negative vious it has tion. sloping line by convention. shows observes angle or alternatively generated in figure stability. its disturbed the disturbed 139(b). One of fuel config- to this is to move supersonic. for a negative sideslip angle /3 and a The pre- yawing condition neutral moment is shown directional excursion.is zero to prevent the aerodynamic Many stability. longitudinal oscillations. apply to directional yawing equilibrium 139(a). by proat canard and the viding zero would strong uplift. Short period anglt. This answer condition problem goes has been discussed the Other nose to the previously center with regard rearward the to the SST. "tuck Additionally. posiFigure one 140 is to increase is directionally with sideslip case. of the basic In the usual in figure should ideas involving longitudinal condition. static stability flies stato a directional also bility. American high lift devices can be allowed not used.-of-attaek variation (b) Short-period Figure 137. stable further away from unstable.

- XB-70 airplane.Canards Folded down wing tips Figure 138.Staticdirectional stability. (a) Equilibrium condition of zero yaw. Figure 139. 160 ..

Concluded.disturbance...- Directional stability curve._. (÷) Sideslip ] Positive a_ T (÷) & remS°t °mreing • (-) 0 Sideslip angle J / s /_Negatlve / _ restoring (-) Sideslip o angle (÷) . Figure 140. 161 .\ (+) Sideslip angle Positive moment decrease disturbance yawing tends to sideslip \ (b) Sideslip Figure 139.

the wings shown. A sweptback wing from This is a The wing's will the the yawing moments. in general disturbance. fuselage is. more instability vertical tail sideslip divergence tail of a dorsal sideslip fin extension angles. it is unstable. quately usually results by use at large of a dorsal directional it generates of airplane tends at an angle when multiplied of vertical to a zero factors of attack by the tail) sideslip that The due to the moment a con- a side (center The of gravity moment size that to aerodynamic the airplane tail is dependent are stalling. wing add to the directional total directional reason stability for a sweptforward a destabilizing over will detract it is by itself sweptback is said it to some angle wings influence. produces or yaw stabilizing to move of the vertical here. Now. the an airplane alone will The is in a disturbed generate vertical a moment tail t. Figure or ventral 142 shows yawing after moment addition a B-17 and fin extension. angle the 8. induced would Grumman by the by the sidewash Contrarotating degree of sweep stability since propellers influences whereas. of a typical imparts a sidewash This F8F pilot effect Bearcat. Some ratio cannot vertical be adetail covered has and observations to prevent however. a solution to this problem. provides bomber a low aspect a catastrophic If a stall should Adding a stable before occur. which is a component in this of the weight The causes and to move direction.ion at a sideslip tends to increase of static disturbance. and the vertical As figure tail are the two most when influential components in condithat main 141 shows. wings. stability contributing Lateral undergoing moments condition. the static with a certain during in aircraft require on the direc- A tractor tional stability. turbance lift vector the airplane that choosing sweptforward lateral the static stability. stability. tail. airplane to sideslip 162 . Figure are 144(a) up at and level that a disThe a headon dihedral the lift causes rotates of an airplane to the horizontal. may area center back on many useful. that stability.The directional fuselage stability. result. Dihedral shows some flight. to counteract airplane a rotational angle at the can be very a carrier the yaw are is a destabilizing velocity tail that to the influence slipstream. of rudder powered 143 it produces reduces pronounced plane. propeller and it also of the The offset take-offs. it generates equilibrium forces flight to reduce is often view angle produced one and used as a means that to improve has Under just dihedral the lateral where condition the weight.a disturbance tend An airplane that rolls the bank to possess bank angle and restore if after and _. As shown stability large degree high- in figure effectiveness engines. When force placed which is the component sideslip arm dition. turned in straight assume by both wings wing to drop there sideways equals relative to the other as shown acting in figure inward is said 144(b).

163 .V_ Sideslip angle Airplane to some is disturbed sideslip angle Fuselage produces side force destabilizing moment arm Moment arm Fin and rudder force produces stabilizing moment Figure 141.- Directional stability moments.

Grurrlman F8F-1 Bearcat Figure 143.Small fin and rudder-_ _-_ Large Dorsal fin fin and rudder Figure 142. 164 .- Slipstream effect at tail.- Improving directional stability.

wing the the wing.Dihedral the relative free-stream If the From sideslip a greater a net force direction airplane geometric (that is. as of the shown wing also has 145. The airplane considerations. to the experience results 144(c). in of attack moment greater as shown tending to reduce bank position design. angle and is is laterally now in a direction stable.Di:e ralT-(a) ---_ Dihedral angle Velocity component due to sideslip (b) Weight !_ _ Component of weight acting to cause sideslip L1 ____/// L1 > L 2 ////// Figure Total relative freestream (main component along longitudinal axis) (c) effect on lateral stability.. an impact on the lateral lateral stability. 144. hence and hence angle the tend airplane to the reduce wing lower is the sideslipping. moments when free-stream than the raised wings toward arise have which that dihedral. stability. toward the velocity). lift. bank closer will There figure angle. A high-wing whereas a in figure contributes to the 165 .

there side force will be a side If the the the side center bank force by the the center in figure If the up that is a roll moment generated of gravity. fuselage fuselage In a sideslip. will away effect may be a destabilizing more dihedral by including sweep airplane normal the will help to improve stability toward edge the the stability. this lateral 146 shows.- Effect of wing effect placement in roll. too much (wings It may be the combination some to lessen effects lateral by the as shown angle. on lateral However. When a a sideslip. set airplanes the of dihedral will use and sweep amount a small of anhedral turned lateral stability. of the Added for a propeller-driven or sweep again may and the these to detrimental 166 . and vertical there tail. ish placement has 145. is below increase tend tail may contribute force acts to or detract caused above that there from area of the of the stability. flaps.Low-wing placement laterally is destabilizing High-wing placement is stabilizing laterally Figure low wing counteracted Wing swept-wing higher More tends noted bility slightly) The airplane presented gravity. to the wing's on the bank wing angle and experience from the arises lateral velocity to diminish that and than the wing and a roll produce lift is generated sideslip airplane may moment to equilibrium. that stadown promote lateral the wing leading toward return as figure the sideslip is sideslipping. and vertical 147. the overall stability. angle. the bank tends to dimin- the bank moment is a destabi- lizing will further that also Destabilizing a sideslip plane decrease arise use moments because of partial to increase slipstream dihedral angle of an airplane airbe used in of the direction span effects.

/_normal ¢ Figure 146. Cross stability roll are effects and dynamic Briefly motion the effects. wind. causes a yaw of an airplane a roll motion motion causes motion. between three directional roll. airplane This are When the or rolls into that generated. may moments until the arise to increase to the relative condition 148(a). static crossand coupling gives spiral rise exists to the divergence. airplane. and Dutch divergence Directional airplane the yawing continue yaws of a direetionally so that side forces the unstable on the sideslip. 167 . lateral are and directional such Thus. stability that a interrelated.- Wing sweep aids lateral stability. is a result a sideslip continue static stability and lateral important dynamic motions observed: directional divergence.stated. and a yaw As mentioned the motions earlier.) airplane is broadside (See fig.

) of both directional whereas yaws its divergence stability the to side. airplane relative will The roll bank airplane the faster._tLmaa! Side _ml_eZa!in_g force I I o ravity / Side force Point of side-force v-_ [ _. is present into this roll. wing travels into the airplane outer more and the negate sideslip a higher increases (See bank angle. to augment are also the vertical beneficial to reduce fin which in decreasing may be in the latroll.er of g rav i t Y _Js -I . primarily airplane 149(a) Ventral illustrates fins. and by an airplane a large finned that is very stable directionally In laterally. No lateral airplane side with force generates stability no dihedral. If a sideslip rolls away The lateral disturbance the directional in one tail from direction.L Laterally destabilizing application I ! moments ( Figure 147. exhibiting 148(b). Spiral but not very this the case plane divergence stable the is characterized for example. and the fig. continues to turn in an ever-tightening Dutch roll is a motion spiral. to the when is in a bank wind. the wake eral of the at high angles the stability and increasing directional stability the effects of Dutch 168 . this effect. as the The and spiral divergence. side is weak. airplane Figure occurs.Effects of fuselage and tail on lateral stability. to still angle The sideslipping. tends to turn lift. wing although used of attack. airplane wags in a countermotion. characteristics stability is strong.

They by the familiar in figure include lateral other the elevator control to proand longitudinal (in pitch). oor atera \ _ I Airplane disturbed (b) Spiral _ divergence --. as operated and rudder the elevator by a pilot. pedals._ in sideslip 1 . is the ability use of a pilot of devices to that the airplane's conditions. devices are the rudder discussed Figure to the pilot's to provide later.Initial flight path _ Insufficient stability directional (a) Di_ divergence _ (airplane may yaw broadside \ to \ \stabilily. they are 15. It is brought about attached.- Directional and spiral divergence. turns From upward His the link control point if he pulls control 169 . control a simple is by use basic of the the control control stick system stick back. 150 shows surfaces of view. the ailerons control to provide Some (in roll). change alter the lift The vide whether force an airplane flight on the controls control surface are is stable to which shown or unstable. directional (in yaw). Control Control._ and _:_flight condition Original (Bank angle increases and causes greater greater sideslip) Figure 148.

surface about of the shown camber ing axis 151(a)). and produces upwards. up wing lift to and while than roll airplane stick of gravity in the This airplane of one camber produces the pitches aileron of one more control in figure of the movement the then causes the control pedals left pedal down 151(b). (fig. to the entire horizontal-tail a nose-up A side the other it increases the other its and moment motion as the a roll- a downward center results produced. and the This movement lift is gives a negative This. reduces One wing moment in the results. about longitudinal pushed.Tail-wagging "Dutch roll" (a) k Disturbed condition Undisturbed condition _------Ventralfins to improve (b) directional stability (as well as augment the vertical fin) Figure 149. other wing. direction pressure pedal This toward condition which airplane stick was deflect back). the rudder. the rudder If the deflects pilot to the Applying pushes the right to the forward rudder (the will comes 170 .- Dutch roll. the camber in turn.

effectiveness high-aspect-ratio surfaces. Elevator control "-- __roncontrol control I Figure right.this Basic movement control system. is fitted. faces is a measure control control surface of how well is with respect Also. results. control possess control low-aspect-ratio fig.. the vertical yaws the nose tail camber increases arises that and a tail and hence.) 171 . than a control to the surface entire does surface its job. 150. 152. A moment to the right the airplane effectiveness the the turns Control general.. As shown force in figure to the left 151(c). In it the larger the greater greater to which sur(See effectiveness. right.

1 (c) Rudder Figure 151. surface operations.(b) Aileron control. 172 . Beagle 206 Z.Control control.

of the that not tire. of aerodynamic shown. needed The is deflected. are has balance of the effect small. that force.distribution position. a sense to its destruction. into power-operated forces the pilot Mass the pilot-felt the controls so control feel is incorporated in the in front may controls. of the hinge line of a control surface to preIt is a is employed surface which vent flutter dynamic occur that due to accelerations deflects about on the airplane. whether In fact. to its a pressure original may the controls. distribution. the force surface turn tending of the hinge creates This surface reduced. should the necessary depending the surface to hold a particular upon the control deflection only must not be small to deflect pilot does surface Not be small be able the at will. two forms when Balance is used deflection The In figure is set even 153(a) so that further. but the forces to reduce balance the are air enough forces hinge the helps face to insure required. or may pilot The Whenever 152. However._V larger with respect to _V" entire surface Smaller control effectiveness Greater control effectiveness Figure Balanced flow. a control to force surface the into the fluid back a pilot deflects tends will be set force up that control control surface surface design. control the pilotso that sur- to reduce the control By careful care must them) systems is used supplied controls overcontrol are that effort are is considerably not "too light" be exercised lest the pilot the (little effort to move control balance unwittingly airplanes the airplane and._ntrol surface nOW // . strikes that surface forward the surface the surface a pressure counteracts deflection. lead and a control surface on its own may to dynamic 173 .- Control effectiveness. hence aft of the design. of feel aerodynamic artificial of today's or not.

_1_.Area forward Area Me109 F forward of hinge. wishes. and the proporpilot for elevator in up to move are used If the deflect create are opposite to assist pilot tional moving example. to move downward to move tabs tabs the balance distribution down. chosen will not tire balance Trim possess used moment pilot important may powerful are to reduce are very for particular that the pilot is on the a deflected flight conditions. edges of the control serve balance surfaces at the trailing (1) to balance primary control As shown surfaces. balances. J n rfa ce (a) Horn _Movi g-su | weight (b) Mass-balanced Figure 153. edge. instability ity near ward of the or forward airplane.Tabs or as shown auxiliary Tabs 154(a). since be set in holding or manually Trim and set tabs airplane shows ground control operated by the pilot. Figure 154(b) 174 . in figure two purposes: tabs are set and (2) to trim. tab will set in reducing down. is to move This may the control surface center lead of gravfor- of the hinge line are be accomplished by using placed small by adding mass of the hinge Tabs. The solution line._ balance. and mass balance. (a) Inset hinge balance. in figure 153(b). to the primary the control control surface the elevator and the surface and movement. hence the control Because and are forces they when placed at the trailing in action.Aerodynamic weight. deflects moment. arms stick upward as the pressure surface long up will they very to zero insure the a force. steady They flight. stick They forces. Mass-balance weight ! " Balanced" moving-surface weight _ _ .

tail. flow.________.- tab Balance operation... control used devices in unusual all-moving do not fall flight into the conventional or for controls. hinge line to zero._-. and about no pilot trim the effort tabs._ "_.__. for the deflection be readjusted Other categories control the new setting devices. surface deflection._ _. spoilers. are They used are to reduce useful to are 175 on or "dump" the the gliders reduce to vary for altitude airplane from control and on airliners into the air. on landing But.Balance Fixed surface __ "m':'_ _ surface otal Main surface "-_ ___ _ _ ' ' Fixed surface surface force f--_ / _.- (if adjustable)._ Tab geared proportional deflection to deflect to the control but in the _ _ __osite direction Tab force helps move control surface (a) Balance tab operation._2_ot--_. Included circumstances reaction advantages. butterfly Spoilers. to hold the trim The the tab must air- to reduce condition a new moments and control continue to fly in this When is required is needed._ _----/-----_position /_ _ Trim tab-placed by pilot in a fixed or when O_'.Tab t. _-/ " _. they lift quickly bouncing ._. surfaces. previously lift on a wing the lift-drag to prevent discussed by altering ratio the with respect pressure to subsonic distribution.._"_. r--/g Fixed surface_* . added and control outlined Some They are are above. without Mom_ced by M(_ment produced by trim tab to counteract control surface to control surface return to undeflected morn ent position (b) Trim Figure surface plane control with will the trim tab set 154.._"__]__ airplane it holds particular is on the grounda control in a fixed position pilot effort.

however. These are small rockets placed at the extremities of the aircraft to produce the required momentsnecessary to turn the airplane about eachof its axes. Control effectiveness may be increased by increasing the chord length of the control surface relative to the entire surface to which it is fitted. the all-moving control surface controls lift by angle-ofattack variations. At transonic speedscompressibility effects may limit their effectiveness. Under these conditions. The limiting case is the all-moving control surface.- Lateral control with spoilers. At high speeds. the spoiler will cause a net rolling momentto roll the airplane aboutits longitudinal axis.ailerons are the primary lateral control devices. At low dynamic pressures aerodynamic control surfaces becomelargely ineffective becauseonly small forces and momentsare present. *Large lift lift z . . The conventional control surfaces are considerably less effective at high speedswhere compressibility effects are dominant. Spoilers may be used to avoid these disadvantages.also useful in lateral (roll) control. they may causebending momentson the wing that distort the wing structure.the Hawker Harrier VTOL airplane uses reaction rockets placed in the nose.. reaction control devices may be used. At zero or low speeds. The all-moving horizontal tails may be movedindependently as well to provide lateral control. andtail as shownin figure 157. wing tips. the all-moving surfaces can remain out of a stalled condition.. At low speeds. Whereas the conventional control surface changed lift by a changein camber. By being able to changeits angle of attack. 156). Examples are to be seenon the horizontal-tail surfaces of the F-4 Phantomand the F-14A airplanes (fig. _- f_ Ailerons Spoiler on one up winglateral to dump used control lift at as high device speed low used speeds Figure 176 155.. As shownin figure 155by reducing the lift on one wing.

tail rocket the plane used reaction surfaces controls were controls when useless (fig. for the Shuttle yaw. and drag. aerodynamic will roll use 158(a)). increased directional up or down The procon- (fig. it flew (fig. control surfaces moved 177 . 158(b)) at altitudes In same low air manner. The North of such the same American density the its X-15 that Space pitch. variation of the conventional tall.- Examples of all-moving surfaces. motions and horizontal there and are advantages lems weight yaw.. and both roll in cross-coupling stability. and reaction reason to change The butterfly since claimed attitudes. To pitch reduced are dynamic up or down. 159(a)) the is an interesting functions trol system it combines are reduced of the vertical However. control _ J[ _. of the pitch._ A Roll control thruster _ Roll control thruster / /------_ Engine V Pitch thrust control thruster Figure 157.G All moving "stabilator" / _ _ \ F-4 Phantom control all-moving surfaces Tomcat _" \ All-moving surfaces Figure 156.- Hawker Harrier reaction control system.

(b) Space Figure Shuttle 158.together moved (fig. conflicting become It must parameters.- reaction Reaction controls. more be stressed As one frequent. the final towards design are is at best the a compromise to often multimissioned compromises of design. competition arbiters ___c h thrusters _ lr Yaw thrusters Roll thrusters on wings (a) X-15 reaction controls. controls. final design of an airplane. To yaw right through or left equal the "ruddervators" as shown has shown that moves and Cost as they are called 159(c). 1'/8 . 159(b)). that are in opposite This brief the the directions introduction deflections in figure many factors to stability and control influence airplanes.

airplane yaws Left rudder. 179 . up (c) I Right rudder. airplane yaws right left Figure 159.- Butterfly tail operation. down Both elevators airplane pitches up.Butterfly or "V" tail Bonanza (a) (b) Both elevators airplane pitches down.

180 .

of gaseous fluids aeronautics the and operating Aircraft Figure airships 160 presents sketches nonrigid envelope. heavier than air a mechanically air. specifically. specifically. of the aircraft (blimp): or skin (dirigibles) a lighter-than-air that is not supported Its gas shape framework by the by stiffening. which fixed-wing is supported its wings and other when to such gasethe fluids its by the dynamic aerodynamics the science ous fluids. are bodies aerostat that class that and reaction deals of the of the against of air respect air with the forces motion being motion acting with on bodies in relative of aircraft chiefly from lighter than derived and deriving aerostatic support forces airship a subset buoyancy from of aerostats. pressure with which 181 . or reinforced internal Types types defined herein. and with an aerostat a means provided with the a propelling system direction of motion aerostatics the of controlling science that deals with the equilibrium and of bodies immersed in them science aircraft and art of designing. of the is maintained it is filled. constructing. aircraft. craft having by any a gas bag.APPENDIX A AERONAUTICAL NOMENC LATURE General aircraft any machine Definitions device (whether lighter air. or or weight-carrying than air) designed heavier either aerodyne that lift airplane (aeroplane) class to be supported action than air by the by bouyancy of aircraft chiefly or by dynamic being from heavier and deriving its in flight aerodynamic forces driven a subset of aerodynes.

amp_bi_ by an interior rigid framework an airplane designed or land to rise from and alight on either water autogyro a rotary-wing aerodyne whose rotor is turned throughout its flight by air forces through balloon the air resulting from the motion of the craft a bag. parachute a cloth device. which basically produces force to retard the descent of a falling body 182 . the wings monoplane ornithopter an airplane having but one wing or supporting surface and propulsion a type of aircraft achieving from its chief support the bird-like flapping of its wings consisting of a canopy a drag and suspension lines. usually spherical.APPENDIX A - Continued semirigid envelope (sometimes reinforced blimp): a dirigible having its main by a keel but not having a completely rigid framework. covered with paper or cloth kite a light frame. flying the other in which the fuselage (hull) is especially a type of airplane designed to provide flotation on water into air glider an engineless currents airplane flown by being manipulated that keep it aloft aerodyne whose liftand forward thrust helicopter a type of rotary-wing are derived approximately from airfoils mechanically rotated about an vertical axis usually of wood. gas which is lighter- filled with some It is an aerostat having two wings without a propelling system. nonporous than-air. tough. and designed to be flown in the wind derives most at the end of a string lifting body an aerodyne the shape nonexistent which or all of its liftin flight from being essentially of its fuselage. or supporting surfaces. material made of silk or other light. one biplane an airplane located above boat. rigid: a dirigible having supported several gas bags or cells enclosed in an envelope structure.

._..APPENDIX paraglider a flexible-winged.- Examples of aircraft types. °"" _-_ _---- Autogyro _Balloon Biplane Bristol F2B Figure 160. recovery pusher airplane an airplane supporting rotary-wing aircraft a type part tical tailless airplane system A - Continued vehicle designed for use in a kite-like for launch vehicles or propellers aft of the main with the surfaces propeller of aerodyne by wings axis which or blades is supported rotating in the about air wholly or in ver- a substantially an airplane control in which are the devices used to obtain stability and incorporated the propeller surfaces in the wing or propellers forward of the tractor airplane an airplane main with supporting take-off take-off which STOL VTOL V/STOL short vertical and landing and landing has both airplane airplane STOL and VTOL capabilities an airplane Amphibian Grumman SA-16A Albatross srihgii'pd Rigid airship . 183 .

- Continued..APPENDIX A .Continued Flying boat.. 184 .- Flapping wing ornithopter Figure 160.-----------_* Shin Meiwa PX-S Glider Schweizer 1-23 Helicopter Sikorksky CH-3C Kite HL-IO _ Lifting body 7.

APPENDIX A - Continued Paraglider Parachutes Modified ring-sail Disk-Gap-Band aircraft . 185 .- Continued.q____Rotary-wing XB-42 Bell Jet Ranger Tailless airplane airplane Tailles_ Tractor airplane Boeing 377 Stratocruiser Figure 160.

186 .- Concluded.APPENDIX A - Concluded and landing airplane (STOL) Short take-off DHC-6 win Otter Vertical and airplane take-off landing (VTOL) Figure 160.

Basic There are ture. Derived Dimensions The tities derived times namics dimensions of all other quantities may be found to be combinations These encountered are of quanknown in aerodyas expressible or secondary a length and or in terms L 2. may quantities dimensions. or slugs system of units than Thus. the of length. the numerical not change from one system 187 . of the basic For of the are included or primary example. T. Additionequals is dimensionless express The fact the that angle both a special that by noting an angle measure measure of an angle and degree does dimensionof less means that units to another. area II. common in table dimensions. may be abbreviated respectively. of 1 radian are Thus. to aerodynamicists. called They are the four basic dimensions Dimensions interest are length. but is assigned in degrees radian value of two lengths. to be measured to measure to be employed. measure of the of the circle central angle Measurement of a circle that is defined is. mass.3 °. mass length selected. a ratio name as the ratio of the sub- divided by the radius. dimension example. arbitrary of matter of the scheme in the used lump to denote of metal in meters the may magnitude be expres- A unit of a physical sed represents property. kilometers meters or miles. which remains A dimension independent of size of of an inherent used to denote has of the particular matter the edge present of a book measure. These tempera- of general and basic or primary dimensions by using. and and 8. M. and the the quantity physical of metal the dimension the particular.APPENDIX B DIMENSIONS AND UNITS There represents is a fundamental the definition scheme in a lump has difference between physical its the dimensions property For of mass and units. time. L. A list be represented as a length more their dimensions Angular The tended this ally about arc measure one may 57. of radians. in kilograms on the choice rather and the of units book expressed the quantity or feet or feet influthe length depending ences the of the book Usually that is.

The length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitudeof the vector and the direction of the arrow corresponds to the direction of the vector. units for both the basic dimer_.Continued Systemsof Units There are two basic engineering systems of units in use in aerodynamics. They are the International Systemof Units (SI) andthe British Engineering Systemof Units (B.S. when one states that a car is moving north at 100kilometers per hour. The resultant can be resolved back into the lift anddrag components. Examples of physical quantities that are vectors are force. Two aerodynamic forces are knownto act on the section: lift and drag. Figure 161showsthe side view of a wing called the airfoil cross section (or simply airfoil section). To represent a vector on a diagram. oneis specifying the vector quantity velocity with a magnitude(100kilometers per hour) and a direction (north). distance. In the first step a scale is chosenandthe force magnitudesare scaled. Scalars are quantities that have a magnitudeonly. The secondstep is to place the vectors at the center-of-pressure point in the directions specified from the physical definition that lift always acts perpendicularly to the incoming velocity of the air V_ and drag always acts parallel to andawayfrom the incoming velocity of the air.APPENDIX B . Thus._ions nd some of the more commonaerodynamic quantities. In figure 161 the lift and drag havebeen composedinto the resultant shown. speed.and density. whenone states only the fact that a car is moving at 100kilometers per hour onehas specified a scalar. velocity. 188 . Table II lists the SI and B.E.since only a magnitude(100kilometers per hour) is given (that is. The National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration has adopteda similar policy and this is the system of units used in this report. Thus.E. speed. and acceleration. with respect to a coordinate system attachedto the Earth. In 1964the United StatesNational Bureau of Standardsofficially adoptedthe International Systemof Units to be used in all of its publications. : Vectors may be addedtogether (composition) to form onevector (the resultant) or one vector may be broken down (resolution) into several components. a Vectors and Scalars Vectors are quantities that haveboth a magnitudeand a direction.S. an arrow is drawn. no direction is specified). Examples of physical quantities that are scalars are mass. They are vectors andmay be drawn to act through a special point called the center of pressure discussedin the text.).

1 MLTML2T-2 ML2T-3 joule watt radian or degree T-1 T-2 ML 2 radians/second radians/second kilogram-meter radians/second radians/second slug-fl 189 .Continued TABLE II. feet 2 feet 3 feet/second feet/second pound pounds/foot slugs/foot3 feet2/second pound-second foot-pound foot-pound/second radian 2 2 or degree 2 2 2 2 Volume Velocity Acceleration Force Pressure Density Kinematic Momentum Energy Power Angle Angular Angular Moment velocity acceleration of inertia viscosity ML-IT-2 ML-3 L2T .E.-SYSTEMS OF UNITS Units Quantity Basic dimensions SI Length Mass Time Temperature L M T 0 oc meter kilogram second (relative) B.S.S.1 LT-2 MLT-2 meters meters meters/second meters/second newton newtons/meter kilogram/meter meters2/second newtonsecond 1 2 3 2 2 3 B.E. foot slug second OF (relative) OR (absolute) K (absolute) Units Quantity Area Derived dimensions SI L2 L3 LT.APPENDIX B .

162(a). (See fig.) The two observers read the same magnitude of velocity (thatis. Consider the flightof an aircraft through the air.o from the opposite direction.) 190 . Motion is the movement or change in position of a body.APPENDIX B Assume: Continued Lift Drag = 400 = 100 newtons newtons v_ Incoming velocity free-stream vector Airfoil section I 100 I 200 I 300 Magnitude I 400 scale i 500 I 600 1 700 N I I i Step 1 Set magnitude of vectors Lift = 400 newtons _J -I I Drag I 100 newtons I I I J --i Re sultant Step 2 Set directions of vectors O °/ II v. 162(b).- Vector Motion representation. in the use of a wind tunnel. the second point of view is adopted where the aircraft or airfoilis fixed in the tunnel and air is forced to flow past it. speed) but indicate opposite directions. 162(c). Motion is always with respect to a particular observer. (See fig. In many cases. (See fig. for example. One may adopt two points of view. First an observer fixed in the air sees the aircraft approach at velocity Voo. Center of pre Figure 161.) On the other hand an observer fixed on the aircraft sees the air (or observer fixed in air) approach him at velocity V.

191 . r Observer fixed on aircraft (b) Observer fixed on aircraft. air placed in motion wing 162.APPENDIX B - Concluded Observer in fixed air (a) Observer fixed in air.- with velocity Relative motion.:::Top of tunnel' Observer' stationary with respect to wing/ / (e) Wind-tunnel operation over Figure - wing fixed in place and V_. Wing in tunnel ".

192 .

fingers Figure 163. yCOIE components Y. ure 164. components.APPENDIX C COORDINATE SYSTEMS A point in space point stitute point is considered what is then is known located the may be located origin by referencing of three mutually it to a known perpendicular system. as of the three Additionally. and the wind-axis )onent _ Origin ° X r Point P Z Z (a) Location rectangular Right-hand Z axes of a point coordinate system point along - in a right-hand system. Cartesian the number coordinate of units along unknown axes a into coordiused. (b) Location rectangular system.) are measured vector its nate They three from oriented system whose is shown tail Z in figure at the (See at random along is set axes. of a vector Cartesian Resolution in a right-hand coordinate into and second respectively. This in space the X. north and Y in figThe is considered of the the Earth. of right Y. X. center lie in the geometric The Z-axis points pointing Earth pointing east. lines The The which known con- to be the as a rectangular by specifying origin. may 163(b). origin fig. toward of the as shown 193 .- Rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. the rectangular body-axis Cartesian system. be resolved Three generally system. point. each 163(a). and systems. Earth-Axis In the Earth-axis X and Y axes system the Earth plane down System to be fiat X and nonrotating. thumb. axes. are the employing Earth-axis right-handed system. first hand.

is defined drops. pitch.- Earth-axis system. Roll: origin point system to define is taken to be the it is useful the important angular and yaw. A positive that is.ng Figure 164.Nonrotati. the yaw is defined nose moves as the X-axis towards viewed the Y-axis. pitch is defined as the nose of the airplane Yaw: the airplane turning rotates about the Z-axis. the airplane positive the right roll wing rotates about its longitudinal axis (that is. Z-axis.Continued X_t Lie in geometric y_) Earth's surface E } plane of p. toward the X-axis). A that is. Body-Axis In the that the body-axis points system the rectangular nose of the System Cartesian aircraft axis system is oriented with wing such X-axis axis out of the The and is coincident out of the X and Y right axes center the longiof the air- tudinal craft of the aircraft. roll. Z-axis The At this Y-axis is directed to both the and the is perpendicular of the entire and is directed of gravity displacement of the terms downward. to the right (clockwise when 194 . aircraft. that A positive is. airplane Z-axis about toward the the Y-axis. X-axis.APPENDIX C . from above). rotates turning as the Y-axis turning Pitch: the the rises.

the in the in the The The X-axis X and the origin The System of the X-axis lies is Z rectangular points in the into the Cartesian direction of symmetry downward. pitch.- Body-axis system. aircraft. again is system in the and of symmetry. to the to both motion also right the is lies wing. and yaw are illustrated in YB XB Roll Yaw ZB Figure 165. Wind-Axis In the is at the general wind-axis of the velocity perpendicular system. perpendicular airplane the out X-axis of the is termed of interest so that points system 166(b)). in fig- then simplified is illustrated 195 .APPENDIX C - Continued The figure 165. directed axes plane (fig. In many (no means yawing that the probsystem of the of center of gravity oncoming the The lems motion) Y-axis The ure airplane Y-axis free-stream and is is Z-axis and plane generally 166(a)). vector. geometric plane Z-axis wind-axis of symmetry This plane of symmetry. body-axis system and the concepts of roll.

in plane of symmetry.- X and Z axes system. Figure Wind-axis 196 . Z-axis in plane of symmetry. (a) General wind-axis Yw f (b) Simplified wind-axis system. 166.Concluded Yw Zw Relative the plane wind of not in )'7 jc/Xw symrnetry//_ (i" system.APPENDIX C .

: Airplane AerodyH..: Evolution of the SupersonicShape. Robert D.BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott. l. e. Tre Tryckare Cagner & Co. 6. Sherby. Alelyunas. Dover Publ. 42-43.vol. Space/Aeronaut.. vol. Aviat. Basic Corp. 1970. Serv. Md. and Astronaut. Science c. Environ. 1971.. Sci.. pp. John Wiley & Sons. NASA. S.. Inst. Eggers. 8. Space/Aeronaut. Charles McCutchan Collis. Archer... Pitman and 1951.J. 8.1959. B.1970. Ready Cohen.Omer. Etkin. vol. 47. & Co. Aerospace Vehicle Design. 1955. Flight. no. 6.' NASAEP-85. & Aeronaut. or Not.vol.: Supercritical Aerodynamics: Worthwhile Over a Rangeof Speeds. no.S... no. Astronaut.: Doubleday Hypersonic vol. & Aeronaut. Applegati. Dwiggins. July 1967. Daniel O. Univ. Benn. 30-41. StandardAtmosphere Supplements.: U. Gerald: c.: Pub. 10.: Aeronautics: Spacein the Seventies. N.: The Lore of Flight.1966. 1964.. 48. Aerodynamic Drag. namics.: June Corning.: Aircraft Drag Prediction for Project Appraisal andPerformance Estimation. Ira H. 2. Anon. Edward: Library. 1973.. Inc. 1967. 197 . Treating pp. Jr. Duke. Paul: L > D Spacecraft. 52-65.. Admin. 8. and Connolly. 1966. H. S.. Caswell. 32-36. Don: It Comes A. Sydney Corp. Dommasch.1971.. Butler. Astronaut. and Applications. Published by author (College Park. R. c.pp. & Aeronaut. Barrier" The Story of High-Speed Lanchberry. Anderton. 124.S. andVon Doenhoff. et al. for the Aviation Maintenance Technician. June pp. Here Philosophical The SST: Petersen. Thomas F.. of Illinois. L.). no.andU.1959. Neville. 1972. F. Theodore G. nology R. Aug..: Theory of Wing Sections. Burnell. Anon. Inc. Tech1970.. AGARDCP No. Feb.Albert E. Pub. the Sonic Boom. David A.H. (Gothenburg). Ayers. J. no.c.pp. Aircraft Inc. 89-I04. "Sound Inc. c.. T..1970. Bernard: Dynamics of Flight..: Fundamentalsof Aviation and Space Technology. Air Force. 1968.

1959.. Malkin. L. McGraw-Hill Courtland Control. 30-51. Ralph Book.: Military Aircraft: vol. 1973. and Schetzer. 19q4.1949. c. John Wiley & Sons. 1968. Yon Mises. 6. 9. vol.. Generation. no. Pope.. & Aeronaut. vol.: An Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering.. 07432). Midland Park. andGratzer. Co.. Theory Introduction of Flight. 62-78.635-275/40 . 68-78. Pub. 1966. no. James ed. pp. Vol. Doubleday & Our SST and Its Economics. 198 *U. Inc. 30-45. 1950.: Wiley & Sons. 1952. Sixth ed. Ltd. Wiley & Sons. Pub. Second ed. & Aeronaut.: c.: E. vol. of Fluid of the Dynamics. 1. and Hage. Nov.: Shape and Flow. Astronaut. Why the 7. 12. to Fluid McGraw-Hill Mechanics. M. Ascher Inc. N. Hafner American Anatomy Elsevier Shapiro. Swing-Wing? Space/Aeronaut.: Co. 1945. A.. July 1967. Swihart. Sept. Sighard F.. no. M. vol. Hoerner.. Stuart M...: Fluid-Dynamic Drag. Louis B. GOVHRt_MENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1975 . Whitaker. John Apr. Testing.. E... Third Perkins.. pp. and Bent.. Foundations of Aerodynamics. Published by the author (148Busteed Drive.1968. The Space Shuttle/The New Baseline. c. pp. 74-88. 12.. Levin. Inc. C. John & Aeronaut.. pp. Kermode. (London). William Astronaut. Jan. Co.. Richard: Stephen: Prentice-Hall.. 48. J. Airplane Performance Stability and for Aerospace Vehicles.Lloyd T. 50. I . The Fluid Dynamics of Drag. Co. Inc. Kuethe. Robert Inc. Inc.. Inc..1963. Lamar. Flight.: Recent Advancesin Aerodynamics for Transport Aircraft. vol. Prandtl. 1965.1954. Book Co.. Technology for 1969.: 1961. Sir Isaac Pittman & Sons.: The SST How Good? Space/Aeronaut. Levin. H.. 8. John Wind D. 4. Basic Inc. Alan: Tunnel Essentials The Second Ludwig: Darroh c. no.. & Aeronaut." 1. Inc. Stinton. no. ed.. M.S. Astronaut.. 69-q5.D.Mechanics of A.Goodmanson. Aeroplane.. Science c.. pp. 19q0. no. Stuart M.J. the Next pp. D. c. Dec. 11. Astronaut. S. McKinley.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful