Name : Roll No: Supersonic Flow over A Diamond Shaped Airfoil Aim

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M.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group

To estimate the lift and drag coefficients for a Diamond shaped (double wedge) airfoil in supersonic flow (M = 2) for two different angles of attack (α = 0O & -10O). Description: This experiment is an analysis on flow over a diamond airfoil (shown in figure -1) section at supersonic condition at nominal Mach number (M = 2, Inlet Gauge pressure of supersonic wind tunnel PO = 24 PSI). The supersonic flow is simulated in the supersonic wind tunnel for angles of attack (AoA or α) of 0°, -10°. Pressure measurements taken on each of the four faces of the airfoil (8 – Ports, shown in figure -1) as well as a static pressure measurement from the free stream (Port No.9), are used to calculate the lift and drag coefficients. The results of this analysis are compared to those determined from standard oblique shock and Prandtl – Mayer expansion wave theories.

Figure -1 Diamond Shaped Airfoil with regions numbered (8 - Static pressure locations are shown) Measuring Instruments: The scanivalve disc type pressure transducer is used for the static pressure measurement over the surfaces of diamond shaped airfoil (2 ports per surface, totally 8 ports). 1 more static pressure port is used to measure the free stream static pressure (P1). The scanivalve pressure transducer has 50 ports and it can measure 4 ports/sec. 9 ports only used for the experiment. Static pressure values are displayed using digital data acquisition system. Test Procedure: The diamond shaped airfoil is fixed 0O with respect to the supersonic flow direction in the supersonic wind tunnel test section. The high pressure stagnant air (PO = 24 PSI) stored in the settling chamber is allowed to flow through the supersonic wind tunnel (which has C-D nozzle to accelerate the flow to M = 2, at the end of the divergent section the test section is located). The static pressure values are recorded. The valve between the settling chamber and the C-D nozzle is closed. 1

31 6.98. The absolute pressure = Gauge Pressure + Error + Atmospheric pressure.71O M2 = 1. P02/P01 = 0.25 5.49/5.067 PSI -0. & AOAs (α = 0 & -10O) is shown below.52 5.322 -11. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1.144 -8.37 The theoretical calculations for estimating lift and drag of diamond shaped airfoil for M = 2.42 α = -10O Gauge Error = -0.97 -9.07 α = -10O 14.54 6. Analysis and results: M.12 Table -1Static Pressure readings α = 0O 6.07 = 7.73.1 M1 = 1.25O.69 5.907 -10.70 3.02 11.35 PSI P2 = P2/P1 X P1 = 7.17 3.6.98 Region – 2 M1 = 1.946 -8.032 -11. O Theoretical Calculation AOA α = 0O Region – 1 From measurements P01/P1 = 38. The reference atmospheric pressure is 14.08 -10. P2/P1 = 1.5) 2 .47 -3.79 -10. from Oblique shock relations Shock Angle β2 = 36.34 6.6) from Ref -1 Table A.60 3.125O.31 -9.177 -8.39 -9.58 3.17 𝑃 𝑃1 M2 = 1.43 PSI Co – efficient of Pressure CP2 = Region – 3 2 2 𝛾𝑀1 � 2 − 1� = 0. Flow Turning Angle θ3 = -14.46 2.5826PSI.41 3.067 PSI -7. Table A.99 P02 = P02/P01 X P01 = 38.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group The measured static gauge pressures at the 8 locations shown in figure -1 and one free stream location for the two angles of attack (0O & -10O) is given in table -1.24 -9.73.18 5. Flow Turning Angle θ2 = 7. Measured Gauge Pressure (PSI) Port Nos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (P1) 9 Absolute Pressure α = 0O Gauge Error = -0. for (P01/P1 = 7.Name : Roll No: The diamond shaped airfoil is set at -10O to the flow and the above procedure is repeated.10 4.47.891 -10.796 -9.81 -9.68 5.

𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 𝟏 𝑳 𝑫 = 0.32 PSI CP3 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 M. because AoA α = 0O P5 = P3 = 3.13 𝑃 𝑃1 The flow is symmetric about the diamond airfoil horizontal axis.125O = 0.0 Drag (D)= (P2 + P4 – P3 – P5) X 1.04 =0 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.15 3 .43 PSI CP2 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 Region – 3 � 2 − 1� = 0.25.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group 2 Region – 4 � 3 − 1� = -0.62 lbf/inch CD = 𝜸 CL = 𝜸 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.Name : Roll No: ν1 = -18.99 P3 = P3/P03 X P03/P02 X P02/P2 X P2= 3. Table A.587 X SIN 7.587 X COS 7.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 𝟏 Experiment AOA α = 0O Region – 2 P2 = (Pressure value @ Port 2 + Pressure value @ Port 4) / 2 = 6. Table A.32 PSI.125O = 1.17 Region – 5 The flow is symmetric about the diamond airfoil horizontal axis. CP5 = CP3 = -0.02 PSI CP3 = -0.68O. ν2 = ν1 + θ2 = -32. P02/P01 = 0.5 M3 = 2.56.35 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M3 = 2.13 Lift (L) = (P4 + P5 – P2 – P3) X 1.93O for (ν2 = -32.1 𝑃 𝑃1 P3 = (Pressure value @ Port 5 + Pressure value @ Port 7) / 2 = 3. P03 = P02 = 38.43 PSI CP4 = CP2 = 0.93O ) from Ref -1.25) from Ref -1.1 (Isentropic Relations) P03/P3 = 11. because AoA α = 0O P4 = P2 = 7.

03 CL = 0.0 PSI Co – efficient of Pressure CP2 = Region – 3 2 2 𝛾𝑀1 � 2 − 1� = 0. Table A.02 M.88 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M3 = 1.72 lbf/inch Drag (D)= (P2 + P4 – P3 – P5) X 1. P2/P1 = 2.125O.587 X SIN 7.17.37 = 7.125O = 1.42O for (ν2 = -20.5) ν1 = -6.99 4 .42O ) from Ref -1.1 (Isentropic Relations) P03/P3 = 5.79.88 PSI P2 = P2/P1 X P1 = 13.79) from Ref -1. ν2 = ν1 + θ2 = -20.1O M2 = 1.125O = 0.94 Region – 2 M1 = 1.3.5 M3 = 1.6) from Ref -1 Table A.42. for (P01/P1 = 7.933 P02 = P02/P01 X P01 = 36.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group Theoretical Calculation AOA α = -10O Region – 1 From measurements P01/P1 = 38.94.25 PSI CP4 = 0.1 M1 = 1. from Oblique shock relations Shock Angle β2 = 50. P03 = P02 = 36.587 X COS 7. Table A. Flow Turning Angle θ2 = 17.64 PSI CP5 = -0.Name : Roll No: Region – 4 P4 = (Pressure value @ Port 1 + Pressure value @ Port 3) / 2 = 6.09 Region – 5 P5 = (Pressure value @ Port 6 + Pressure value @ Port 8) / 2 = 3.1 Lift (L) = (P4 + P5 – P2 – P3) X 1.18 lbf/inch CD = 0. Flow Turning Angle θ3 = -14.656.49/5. P02/P01 = 0.25O.54 𝑃 𝑃1 M2 = 1.3. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1. P02/P01 = 0. Table A.17O.

P05/P04 = 1 P5 = P5/P05 X P05/P04 X P04/P4 X P4= 1. P04 = P01 = 38.875O – P4 SIN 2.875O + P5 SIN 17.875O + P4 SIN 2.59O ) from Ref -1. Flow Turning Angle θ3 = -14.52 PSI CP3 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 M.875O – P5 SIN 17.125O .P2 COS 17. P05 = P04 = 38.25 𝑃 𝑃1 = 0.12 = -0.P3 SIN 2. Table A.3.39 lbf/inch CD = 𝜸 CL = 𝜸 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.55 PSI CP4 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 Region – 5 � 4 − 1� = -0.45 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.5 M4 = 2. Table A.125O + P3 SIN 2.12 lbf/inch Drag (D)= (P2 SIN 17.63) from Ref -1.49 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M5 = 2.08 𝑃 𝑃1 M1 = 1.458. Table A. ν2 = ν1 + θ2 = -42O for (ν2 = -42O ) from Ref -1.75O.04.5) ν1 = -24. P04/P01 = 1 P4 = P4/P04 X P04/P01 X P01/P1 X P1= 4.04) from Ref -1. Table A.04. Table A.71O.88O. Flow Turning Angle θ4 = -2.1 (Isentropic Relations) P05/P5 = 21.5.587 = 5.63.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 𝟏 5 .Name : Roll No: P3 = P3/P03 X P03/P02 X P02/P2 X P2= 6. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1.587 = -20.5) ν1 = -27.125O) X 1.79 PSI CP5 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 Lift (L) = (. ν2 = ν1 + θ4 = -27. Table A.1 (Isentropic Relations) P04/P4 = 8.125O) X 1.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 𝟏 𝑳 𝑫 � 3 − 1� = -0. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1.59O for (ν2 = -27.49 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M4 = 2.5 M5 = 2.06 𝑃 𝑃1 M4 = 2.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group 2 Region – 4 � 3 − 1� = 0.25O.

P3 SIN 2.875O – P5 SIN 17.aoe.P2 COS 17.875O + P5 SIN 17.587 = -14.html.587 = 4.875O + P4 SIN 2. Ref-2:“Compressible Aerodynamic Calculator” http://www. Ref-1: Modern Compressible flow with historical perspective – John D Anderson.04 Region – 5 P5 = (Pressure value @ Port 6 + Pressure value @ Port 8) / 2 = 3.21 lbf/inch CD = 0.6 PSI CP2 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 M. 6 .125O) X 1.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group 2 Region – 3 � 2 − 1� = 0.125O) X 1.875O – P4 SIN 2.51 𝑃 𝑃1 P3 = (Pressure value @ Port 5 + Pressure value @ Port 7) / 2 = 5. figures 4 & 5. Conclusion: From the table -2. it is observed that the variation between the theortical and experimental values are not much as well as the lift curve (fig -4) and drag curve (fig -5) shows the slope of the theory and experiment are very close.34 lbf/inch Drag (D)= (P2 SIN 17. Table -2 gives the comparison between the theory and experimental values.vt.edu/~devenpor/aoe3114/calc.69 PSI CP5 = -0.32 Figures 2 &3 shows the pictorial representation of the theoretical & experimental values for 0O & -10O α respectively.125O + P3 SIN 2.09 CL = -0.33 PSI CP3 = 0 Region – 4 P4 = (Pressure value @ Port 1 + Pressure value @ Port 3) / 2 = 4.Name : Roll No: Experiment AOA α = -10O Region – 2 P2 = (Pressure value @ Port 2 + Pressure value @ Port 4) / 2 = 12.81 PSI CP4 = -0.12 Lift (L) = (.125O .

Name : Roll No: M.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group Figure -2 Pictorial Representation of Theoretical & Experiment Values for 0O α 7 .

Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group Figure -3 Pictorial Representation of Theoretical & Experiment Values for -10O α 8 .Name : Roll No: M.

CL 9 .Name : Roll No: AE12M009 M.CD Figure -5 α – Vs .Karthick 2nd Group Table -2 Comparison of Calculated & Experimental Values Figure -4 α – Vs .

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