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FOUR STROKE CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES:The four stroke cycle diesel engine is similar to the four stroke petrol engine except that only fresh air is taken in to the engine cylinder during suction stroke instead of air fuel mixture. The fuel injector is fitted instead of spark plug.
1. SUCTION STROKE: During this stroke, the inlet value is open and the exhaust value is closed. The crank rotated by the energy of the flywheel when the engine is running or by a starter motor for initial starting. The piston moves from TDC to BDC. The movement reduce pressure inside the cylinder below atmosphere. Due to this pressure difference fresh air is admitted in to the engine cylinder through air cleaner & inlet value 2. COMPRESSION STROKE:During this stroke both inlet & exhaust values remain closed. The piston moves from BDC to TDC. The air in the cylinder is compressed. The compression ratio for diesel engine is 12 to 18. The temperature at the end of compression stroke of the air is 600° - 700°C. 3. POWER STROKE:During this stroke both inlet & exhaust value are closed. At the end of compression stroke, the fuel is injected into the engine cylinder in the from of fine spray & ignition of fuel take place. The combustion of fresh fuel injected into the cylinder is due to the high temperature already developed in the cylinder during compression stroke. The combustion products forces the piston to move down in the cylinder. This movement of the piston is converted into rotary motion of the crank shaft. This is the working stroke of the cycle.
4. EXHAUST STROKE:-
This compression is known as crank case compression. The charge entering the cylinder is deflected upwards and thus the escape of fresh charge along with exhaust gases is reduced.During this stroke inlet value is closed and the exhaust valve opens. SP-SPARK PLUG EP-EXHAUST PORT IP-INLET PORT TP. the piston moves up. piston moves down again & the cycle is repeated. The piston after reaching BDC. the transfer port is also uncovered and the partially uncovered and partially compressed air fuel mixture from the crankcase enters the cylinder through transfer port. the ignition of the charge takes place. Thus useful work is obtained. The top of the piston is made of a deflected shape. The exhaust valve closed shortly before the TDC & the cylinder is ready to receive fresh air to start a new cycle. At the same time the inlet port is uncovered by the moving piston and the fresh charge (air fuel mixture) enters the crank case. After compression. TWO STROKE CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES:- 2 . gases expand. The piston moves form BDC to TDC. EXPANSION & COMPRESSION:-(B) The combustion products expands in the cylinder and forces the piston down. When the piston is nearing TDC the inlet port is uncovered. TWO STROKE CYCLE PETROL ENGINE :There is one working stroke in one revolution of the crank shaft. Most of the burnt gases escape to the atmosphere through exhaust valve. The compression of the charge in the cylinder takes place. Fresh charge enters in to the crank case due to fall of pressure in the crankcase. The remainder of burnt gases occupies the clearance volume. Fig. Immediately. when the piston moves down the air fuel mixture is partially compressed in the crankcase. exhaust port is uncovered and the combustion products escape to the atmosphere. EXHAUST AND TRANSFERENCE :_(C) Nearly at the end of power stroke. As it moves it first closes the transfer port and then the exhaust port. Ignition of compressed air fuel mixture takes place in the cylinder by means of an electric spark produced by the spark plug.TRANSFER PORT CR-CONNECTING IGNITION & INDUCTION:-(A) The piston almost reaches the TDC. shows the working principle of a two stroke cycle petrol engine.
To increase power of an existing engine when greater power is needed. Application: To maintain the power output of an engine working at high altitudes or installed in mountains. There is a possibility of the fresh charge escaping out with burnt exhaust gases. Al. Cast iron. This reduction in power is mainly due to lack of oxygen since the pressure of the atmosphere is low. forging Alloy steel Forging CI. This process is known as “SCAVENGING”. SUPER CHARGING OF IC ENGINES:The power of an air craft engine is reduced when it flies in the air at high altitudes. the mass of the air consumption should be increased.Cr. This forces the exhaust gases to the atmosphere through exhaust port. ENGINE PARTS WITH MATERIAL:Cylinder block Cylinder head Crank case Piston Piston rings Connecting rod Crank shaft Valves SCAVENGING:Scavenging is the process of forcing out the burnt exhaust gases from the cylinder by admitting fresh charge into the cylinder.. which is above atmosphere. Alloy Casting. forcing of air fuel mixture or air alone to the cylinder during suction stroke under a high pressure greater than that of atmospheric pressure is known as supercharging. F alloy Alloy steel F Nickel. Alloy steel Casting Cast iron. However this is overcome by designing the piston to have a deflected shape. Due to the deflected shape of the piston.. Al. The above deficiencies are corrected by super charging.All the operations of a two stroke cycle diesel engine are exactly similar to that of two stroke petrol engine except that. the fresh charge is deflected upward in the engine cylinder. This action takes place in two-stroke cycle engine. Thus deflected charge also helps to forging the exhaust gases to atmosphere. Al. To overcome this defect. The air is compressed and the fuel is injected in to the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. This charge from the crankcase enters the cylinder at a pressure. CI C Plain carbon St. Hence injector is used instead of spark plugs. alloy C. When the heavy load. Si-Cr F Difference between TWO STROKE & FOUR STROKE engines: 3 . F Silicon. in this case only fresh air is drawn in to the cylinder during suction stroke instead of air fuel mixture .
Hence initial cost is less 6. Diesel engines engines. scooter. Uniform torque is obtained since One power stroke in one revolution of the crankshaft. 4.TWO STROKE 1. and lorries. Used in heavy vehicle. Poor scavenging leads to mixing of fresh changes with exhaust gases. Hence heavier flywheel is needed for balancing It has more spare parts. Exhaust port is open only for a short time. Design of ports is much simpler. FOUR STROKE One power stroke in two revolution of the crank shaft Power developed for the same engine speed is theoretically that half that of a two stroke cycle engine. 7. 5. 9. Hence initial cost is more. 8. For the same power this is heavier in construction. It has fewer parts. A light flywheel can be used. Employed in light vehicle. There is one power stroke in two revolution of the crankshaft. No valves are there. 2. Otto cycle is more efficient at a given Compression ratio than diesel cycle. Starting is easy since low cranking effort is needed. For the same power this is simple in design & lighter in construction 4.Power developed for the same engine speed is theoretically twice of a four stroke cycle engine 3. They are less efficient than Otto cycle. This results in poor preference. Weight of petrol engine per unit Weight of diesel engines per unit power is less power is more. buses. are low speed 3. There is a separate exhaust stroke. One power stroke in one revolution of the crank shaft 2. Hence scavenging (removal of exhaust gases) is poor. DIESEL ENGINE Diesel engine works on diesel & Dual combustion cycle. 4 . motor cycles etc. Difference between PETROL ENGINE & DIESEL ENGINE: PETROL ENGINE 1. Design of valve mechanism is not simple. Hence a twostroke engine can be easily reversed. slow running & poor efficiency. Hence scavenging is better Better preference & efficiency also better. Starting is difficult since cranking effort needed is more. Otto cycle is employed in petrol engine. cars. Petrol engines are high-speed engines. This can not be easily reversed due to the presence of valves.
Compression ratio range from 6 to Compression ratio range from 12 to 8.IGNITION EVO. The timings of these sequence of events such an inlet valve opening. buses. Petrol is costly. They operate some degree before or after the dead centers. VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE Widely used in heavy vehicles like trucks. Less initial cost & maintenance More initial cost due to heavy weight cost due to simple & lighter and sturdy construction construction 6. The ignition is timed to occur a little before top dead center. thermal efficiency is 18. Used in automobiles & aeroplanes due to low initial cost. But. Hence the engine is called compression (C I) ignition 11. This enables high thermal less.EXHAUST VALVE OPEN EVC. in actual practice. injection pump and fuel injectors 12. Diesel is cheaper than petrol. The fuel is ignited due to high compression temperature. 10.5. These diagrams are known as valve timing diagram. low weight. inlet valve closing.BOTTOM DEAD CENTER TDC. tractor etc. It is less volatile & fire hazard is less.INLET VALVE CLOSE IG . It gives less noise It gives more noise. 7.EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE BDC. ignition exhaust valve closing can be shown graphically in terms of crank angles from dead center positions. Petrol engines are fitted with Diesel engines are fitted with carburetor & spark plug. Specific fuel consumption is more 9.TOP DEAD CENTER CARBURETTORS 5 . IVO . The fuel is ignited by an electric spark.INLET VALVE OPEN IVC . VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM: We consider that. It is more volatile & fire Hazard is more. Hence. the valves open & close at the dead center position of the piston. 8. efficiency. they do not open and close instantaneously at dead centers. Hence the engine is called spark ignition (S I) engines Specific fuel consumption is less.
Difference between the cylinder and outside the carburetor. When the desired level is reached the float closes the needle valve and the supply of fuel is stopped. Atmospheric air rushes into the carburetor through air cleaner / filter. which vaporizes the fuel & mixes it with air. During cold starting. This causes a greater pre. An accelerator operates the throttle valve. Thus a rich mixture is obtained. diesel & gas are used to Steam is used to develop power develop power 3. Due to this the fuel is split up into fine particles & mixes with air to form air fuel mixture. If the fuel level goes down in the float chamber the float also goes down. This air fuel mixture is admitted to the engine through throttle valve. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN I C ENGINE: CYLINDER: 6 . In a petrol engine the correct air fuel ratio is 15 : 1. Principle: A constant level of petrol is maintained in the float chamber by the float and a needle valve. Difference & consequently more fuel are drawn from the nozzle.A carburetor is a device. Float chamber is vented to atmosphere. compact. During the suction stroke in an engine vacuum is created in the cylinder. The carburetor supplies air fuel mixture to the engine. This is causes the pre. This opens the needle valve and the fuel enters the float chamber. IC ENGINES US STEAM ENGINES IC ENGINES 1. Internal combustion engine STEAM ENGINES External combustion 2. Used in Automobile & air craft Used in locomotion industries 4. Sizes of the engines are very Very large size of engine is required. The process of vaporizing the fuel & mixing it with air in carburetor is known as carburetor. the choke valve is closed completely. This air passes through the venturi & sweeps over the mouth of fuel nozzle. Petrol.
rectangular. It gives gastight fitting between the piston and the cylinder and prevents the leakage of high pre. A copper and asbestos gasket is provided between the cylinder and cylinder head to obtain a gas . It has a passage for the transfer of lubricating oil from the big end bearing to small end bearing (gudgeon pin).tight joint. The function of the piston is to compress the charge during compression stroke and to transmit the gas force to the connecting rod and then to the crank during power stroke. The piston of IC engines is usually made of cast Iron. Cylinder head is usually casts as one piece and bolted to the top of the cylinder. (About 70 kg/cm) and temperature (about 2800 C) because there is direct combustion inside the cylinder. T.The cylinder of an IC engines is considered as the main body of the engine in which the piston reciprocates to develop power. PISTON RINGS: The piston rings are housed in the circumferential grooves provided on the outlet surface of the piston. The material used for the cylinder head is also cast Iron. Generally ordinary cast iron is used. CONNECTING ROD: It is usually steel forging of circular. gases . It has to with stand very high pre. These are made up of special cast Iron. or H section and is highly polished for increased endurance strength. I. should be good conductor of heat and should resist to rapid wear & tear due to reciprocating parts. There fore its material should be such that it can retain strength at high temperature. It houses the inlet & exhaust valves through which the charge is taken inside the cylinder and burnt gases are exhausted to the atmosphere from the cylinder. but in case of heavy-duty engines alloy steel is used. cast steel & aluminium alloy. CYLINDER HEAD: The cylinder head closes one end of the cylinder. PISTON: It is the heart of the engine. Its small end forms a hinge and pin joint work the piston and its big end is connected to the crank-by-crank pin. CRANK & CRANKSHAFT: 7 .
which carries the exhaust gases from the exhaust valve to the atmosphere. PISTON PIN OR WRIST PIN : The piston pin provides the bearing for the oscillating small end of the connecting rod.Both crank and crankshaft are steel forging machined to a smooth finish. The crankshaft is the backbone of the engine. The power required for any useful purpose is taken off from crankshaft only. Crankshaft is supported in main bearings and has a heavy wheel. These links together are also known as valve gear. The camshaft is driven positively from the crankshaft at half the speed of the crankshaft. push rods and rocker arms. INLET MANIFOLD: It is the passage. called flywheel. EXHAUST VALVE: This valve controls the removal of exhaust gases after doing work on the piston. The two are held together by means of key. CAMSHAFT: The function of the camshaft is to operate the inlet & exhaust valves through the cams. to even out the fluctuations of torque. which carries the charge from carburettor to the petrol engine. EXHAUST MANIFOLD: It is the passage. VALVE SPRING: The valves are kept closed by the valve springs. INLET VALVE: This valve controls the admission of the charge into the petrol engine or air into diesel engine during suction stroke of the engine. PUSH ROD & ROCKER ARM: The motion of the cam is transmitted to the valve through the push rod and rocker arm. cam followers. CAM & CAM FOLLOWER: It is made of a required profile to give desired motion of the valve through the follower. 8 .
SWEPT VOLUME: 9 . STROKE: The max. GOVERNOR: It is run by a drive from the crankshaft. BDC: The extreme position of the piston at the bottom of the cylinder is called. BORE: The inside diameter of the cylinder is known as bore. is called the clearance volume and is denoted by Vc. CARBURETTOR: The function of the carburetor is to supply the uniform air fuel mixture to the cylinder of a petrol engine through the inlet manifold.CRANK CASE: It is the base which hold the cylinder and crankshaft. TDC: The extreme position of the piston at the top of the cylinder is called top dead center position. The mass of the mixture entering the cylinder is controlled by throttle valve. FUEL PUMP: It forces the fuel oil at high pressure through fuel nozzle into the cylinder at the end of compression stroke in diesel engine. SPARK PLUG: The function of the spark plug is to initiate the combustion after completing the compression in the petrol engine. CLEARANCE VOLUME: The volume contained in the cylinder alone the top of the piston when the piston is at TDC. It is generally mounted in the cylinder head. distance traveled by the piston in the cylinder in one direction is known as stroke and it is equal to twice the radius of the crank. which stores excess energy during the power stroke and returns that energy during the other strokes and maintains a fairly constant output torque on the crankshaft. FLY WHEEL: It is a wheel mounted on the crankshaft. This distance between these two extreme positions is known as “ STROKE LENGTH “. The function of the governor is to regulate the charge in case of petrol engine and amount of fuel in case of diesel engine to maintain the speed of the engine constant. bottom dead center position. It also serves as a pump for the lubricating oil. when the load requirement varies.
The volume swept through by the piston is defined as the piston displacement or swept volume and it is denoted by Vs. The extra rich mixture ensures enough fuel availability in vaporized form for combustion. The choke valve is nearly closed during cold starting or warming and it controls the flow of air and creates high vacuum near the fuel jet. 10 . Vs + Vc Rc = Vc THROTTLE VALVE : The basic control element is the throttle valve. This is done by introducing the choke valve. There fore cylinder volume = Vs + Vc COMPRESSION RATIO (Rc) : The ratio of the volume when the piston is at BDC to the volume when the piston is at TDC is called the compression ratio and it is denoted by RC. CHOKE VALVE : It is necessary to provide an extra rich mixture to the engine during starting or warm-up in cold weather. This control the air velocity in the intake mani fold and there fore the head under which the fuel flows.
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