ARCHES

• ARCH • An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight(e.g. a doorway in wall, windows, ventilators, opening). Arches appeared as early as the 2000 BC in Mesopotamia brick architecture and their systematic use started with the Ancient Romans who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. • The arch supports a vertical load primarily by axial compression of its wedgeshaped voussoirs

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:

• PIER:

• Pier is a solid block of masonry supporting an arch. They are often made of stone, but those serving as primary support for large arches are usually made of concrete

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue…)

• FOUNDATION:

• The foundation is a large stone that is set into the ground. The piers are then built on top of it. It transfers the weight of the arch to the soil in the ground.

1.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue…) • IMPOST: • An impost is the topmost part of an architectural column. Also called an abacus. it is usually a flat piece of stone. It can be carved or decorated .

HAUNCH: The flanks of an arch. or to any point on its extrados (the longer radius. CROWN: This is the portion of the arch which forms the top of the curve (c). or the upper surface of the arch stones(d).1. r). the sides of the curve (e). . which is the last stone to be put in place. R). KEYSTONE: The central wedge-shaped arch stone at the crown of an arch (g). RADIUS: The straight line (h) from the centre of an arch to any point on its intrados (the shorter radius.TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue…) CENTRE: This is the midpoint of the circle which describes the curve of the arch (b). EXTRADOS: The outer curved line of an arch. INTRADOS: The under surface or soffit of an arch (f).

RISE: The height of an arch measured perpendicularly from the springing line to the highest point of the intrados (k). . ARCHSTONES: These are any of the stones or blocks which form the arch itself. the length of the springing line. SPRINGER: The first stone laid in an arch on either side (1).1. CAMBER: This is the space between the springing line and the intrados (o).TECHNICAL TERMS:(continue…) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SPRINGING LINE: The line across the arch which would connect the springing points (j). It is so called because the surface slopes towards the opening. SKEWBACK: That portion of the abutment which directly supports the springers (m). SPAN: The horizontal distance between the springing points (n).

2. Classification of arches according to numbers of centers. B. . TYPES OF ARCHES The various arches types are classified as: A. Classification of arches according to shape.

. D. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) C. Classification of arches according to workmanship. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.2.

Usually the skewback forms an angle of 60 degree. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. .2. Classification of arches according to shape. Flat Arch: an arch with mutually supporting voussoirs that has a straight horizontal extrados and intrados.

2. Segmental Arch: The centre of arch is situated below the springing line. In this arch type the curve is a less than semicircular segment of a circle . Classification of arches according to shape. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A.

Classification of arches according to shape. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A.2. It is drawn from a single center . Semi Circular Arch: The centre of the arch lies on the springing line and the shape of curve of an arch is a semicircular.

2. Classification of arches according to shape. . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. Semi Elliptical Arch: This arch has more than one centre and its shape is that of a semi ellipse.

2. below the line of the springing. Classification of arches according to shape. This arch is constructed to increase the bearing power of the soil. Inverted Arch: An arch with the crown downward. Also known as inflected arch. commonly used in tunnels and foundations. . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A.

This triangle formed may be equilateral or isosceles. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. Classification of arches according to shape.2. Pointed Arch: This type of arch consists of two curves which meet at the apex of the triangle. The centers of the arch may be above or below the springing line and they may be in between or outside the springing line .

Relieving Arch: An arch. usually segmental and often a blind arch. built above the lintel of a door or window to discharge the weight of the wall above the lintel to each side.2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. Classification of arches according to shape. .

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. Classification of arches according to shape.2. also called the Moorish arch and the Keyhole arch. Horse-shoe Arch: The horseshoe arch. Formed in the shape of a horseshoe. is the arch of Islamic architecture. .

Springing line of the arch passes through the top of vertical imposts. . Stilled Arch: It consists of a semi-circular arch attached at the top of two vertical imposts.2. Classification of arches according to shape. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A.

2. The venetian arch has four centers. the depth at crown is more than that at the springing line. Venetian Arch: In this type of arch. . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. Classification of arches according to shape.

. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) A. there are three centers for this type. Classification of arches according to shape.2. Florentine Arch: This type of arch is similar to the venetian arch except that the intrados has the shape of a semi-circular curve.

IN NEXT CLASS .

• One centered Arch • Two centered Arch • Three centered Arch • Four centered or Tudor Arch • Five centered Arch .2. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) B.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. Sometimes circular windows are used to have an architectural effect. Flat. For this purpose a bull’s eye arch is adopted.2. horse-shoe and stilled arches are one centered . segmental. semicircular. One centered Arch This type of arch has one center only . .

2. A pointed arch is a good example of this type. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) B. . Two centered Arch This type of arch has two center.

Three centered Arch This type of arch has three centers. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. The other example of this type is Florentine arch. . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) B.2. It is in the form of semiellipse.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) B. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers. It consists of two different curves and has the appearance of an ellipse at the haunches. Four centered or Tudor Arch This type of arch has four centers. .2. The venetian arch is the good example of this type.

2. . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) B. Five centered Arch This type of arch has got five centers and its look like a semielliptical arch. Classification of arches according to the numbers of centers.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) C.2. • Rough Arch • Axed or Rough cut Arch • Gauged Arch .Classification of arches according to workmanship.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) C. .Classification of arches according to workmanship. mortar joints become wider at the extrados than at the intrados. As the bricks are rectangular in shape.2. Rough Arch This type of arch is constructed from ordinary uncut bricks. A rough arch is used where appearance is of secondary importance.

The bricks are roughaxed or fine axed.Classification of arches according to workmanship.2. . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) C. Axed or Rough cut Arch This type of arch is constructed from bricks which are cut to a wedgeshape by means of an axe.

This arch is used where a fine finish of the surface is required. The mortar joints are thin as 1.50 mm to 0. .75 mm. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) C.Classification of arches according to workmanship. Gauged Arch This type of arch is constructed from bricks which are finely cut by means of wire saw. The surfaces of bricks are finished with a file.2.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.2. • Timber Arch • Stone Arch • Brick Arch • Metal Arch • Concrete Arch .

•THE END .

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction. Brick Arch .2.

Stone Arch . Classification of arches according to materials of construction.2. TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) D.

Concrete Arch . TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) D. Classification of arches according to materials of construction.2.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) D.2. Timber Arch . Classification of arches according to materials of construction.

TYPES OF ARCHES (continue……) D.2. Classification of arches according to materials of construction. Metal Arch .

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