Boiler Facts - Question & Answers

K. KANNAN, B.E., B.O.E., M.B.A., (D.W.E&T),
M.I.E., Assistant Executive Engineer/Mechanical Boiler Maintenance/Mettur TPS, Mettur dam – 636 406

1. What is high pressure Boiler? Boilers, which operate at, pressure higher than 15 psi is called high-pressure boiler. 2. Why steam is chooses for power generation? The simplest explanation is that it is a convenient way of transporting heat from the fuel being burned in the boiler to where in the process it is required. 3. TNEB boilers are sub critical or super critical? Sub-critical 4. What is a super critical boiler? Boiler producing steam above pressure i.e., 218 ata critical

At varying operating load conditions in which the unit is shut down and start up too frequently, non-uniform temperature appear in the wall cross section of steam drum due to thicker wall, producing high thermal stresses that brings about cracks of corrosion fatigue in the boiler drum. 9. What fuels are used for packaged boilers? Liquid and gases fuel 10. What are the design parameters of the boiler (MTPS)? 700 T/hr Super heated steam at 137 kg/cm2 pressure and 540ºC 11. Why the steam temperature is limited to 540ºC? For utility boilers, which are meant for power generation, the super heater outlet temperature is limited to 540 + 5°C due to metallurgical considerations. 12. What do you mean by the heating surface area of a boiler? It is the surface area of boiler tubes exposed to the hot gases of combustion in the furnace. 13. What is the heating surface area of the boiler at MTPS? 19,394 m2. 14. How many type of heating surface area may boiler have? Radiant, convective and radiantconvective type. 15. What is circulation ratio? The ratio of actual mass flow of water through circuit to the steam generated is called circulation ratio. 16. What are the types of circulation followed in boilers? Natural, forced and once through circulation 17. How the natural circulation boiler is working? Natural circulation boilers employ the effect of density differences between water and steam to produce circulation. This density differences together with the
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5. How the steam is produced in sub critical pressure and super critical pressure boilers? In sub-critical pressure boilers, the furnace enclosure is cooled by constant temperature boiling water and the flow circuit is designed to accommodate the two-phase steamwater flow. The super heated steam is produced after separating the dry steam at boiler drum. But, in super critical pressure, the water acts as a single-phase fluid with a continuous increase in temperature to super heated steam as it passes through the boiler. 6. What are the advantages of supercritical boilers? Super critical boilers operate above 225 kg/cm2 pressure (critical pressure of steam) at which the water becomes steam instantaneously without latent heat. Normal power plant operates with cycle efficiency of 36% where as power plant with super critical boilers operates with cycle efficiency of 42 %. This will reduce fuel cost and reduce emission of green house gases. 7. What do you mean by utility boiler? Boilers that burn coal, oil or gas to provide steam to generate electricity are called utility boilers. 8. Why once-through technology is adopted in 500 MW and above capacity units?
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height of the boiler constitutes a head, which overcomes the losses occurring in the circuit, and makes circulation possible. 18. How the forced circulation boiler is working? In forced circulation boilers a mechanical pump is added to the simple flow loop and the pressure difference created by the pump controls the water flow rate. 19. What will happen if the circulation ratio is less than that required minimum? Flow of water through a circuit should be more the steam generated in order to prevent the tube from over heating. If it is not so, tube deformation or leakages or tube to fin welding failures can take place. 20. What is the circulation ratio and pressure of natural circulation boilers? C.R is 4 to 30 and pressure up to 175 kg/cm2 21. What is the circulation ratio of the once through boilers? Unity (1) 22. What is the circulation ratio of the utility boilers? Between 6 to 9 23. What is the Circulation ratio of highpressure natural circulation boilers? 6-10 24. Factor that affects the circulation ratio are? Number of down comers, diameter and layout of the down comer pipes decides the effective circulation. 25. Why natural circulation is limited to subcritical boilers? Because, it works on the basis of density difference between steam and water. 26. What is the critical pressure and temperature at which the density difference of the steam and water is zero? 218 ata, 374ºC 27. How the steam is generated in the 210 MW boilers? The water from drum flows down through down comer pipes. There are six down comers connecting steam drum with furnace water wall inlet (ring) headers. The water travels around the furnace water wall circuit to generate steam. The water rises through the furnace wall to outlet headers (7 Nos.),
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absorbing heat to become a steam- water mixture based on the natural circulation principle. The saturated steam produced in water wall zone is further super heated to a specified temperature in steam super heaters. 28. How the boiler operating pressure is determined? The boiler operating pressure is determined by adding Turbine throttle pressure and the pressure drop through the steam piping, valves, super heater and drum internals at maximum unit steam flow. 29. What is nucleate boiling? Nucleate boiling is formation and release the steam bubbles at the tube surfaces, with water still wetting the surface immediately. Since the tube surface temperature is closer to saturation temperature tube is always safe against the failure. 30. What is film boiling? Film boiling is the formation of steam film at the tube surfaces, in which the metal temperature rises sharply. This leads to a instantaneous or long term over heating of tubes or failure. Film boiling begins due to high heat flux or low velocity or inclined tubes. 31. How inadequate water / steam flow circulation affect a boiler? It will reduce the heat removal rate, causing higher metal temperature of boiler tubes 32. What is the function of super heater in a boiler? The function of super heater is to increase the temperature of the steam above its saturation temperature. 33. What is Raiser tube? Riser is a tube through which water & steam mixture pass from an upper water headers to drum 34. What are the types of super heaters? Pendent type, Horizontal type and radiant type 35. What is pendent type SH? Pendent type SH is hanging & supported from header. It is simpler in design, can be fastened more reliably but non-drainable. This may cause some internal corrosion & involve certain difficulties in boiler firing. 36. What is a horizontal SH? It is arranged across the boiler and has a more intricate design as regards their
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load. steam temperature decreases as load increases. feed water temperature. excess air. In a convection super heater. steam temperature increases with load. From where the water is supplied for Desuper heating? Feed water after the HP heater is taken for desuper heating of Main steam and reheater steam through SH/RH spray station. Though the steam temperature is key for the heat rate and cycle efficiency. such as slag or ash accumulation. 47. which is operating under lower temperature. Hence. 46. 48. How does the excess air affect the steam temperature? For a change in the amount of excess air entering the burner zone. 41. 37. What is the important difference between the working characteristics of a radiant type and a radiant-convective type Super heater? The former superheat the steam to higherthan design temperature at low loads and the later maintains a relatively steady super heat temp over the entire load range. Horizontal SH are supported by strips with other steam / water path tubes. Normally a proportioned combination of radiant and convection super heater surface is installed in series in a steam generating unit to maintain substantially constant steam temperature over the control range of the unit. use of steam foe soot blowing. 39. fuel quality etc. What is Desuperheater? The steam outlet pressure and temperature are maintained constant by firing rate. Why Platen SH coils outer most circuit is provided with stainless steel material? Front tubes are heated much more strongly than the other tubes in a platen. In a radiant super heater. the quantity and temperature of the combustion gases increases. For PRDS system water is taken from both BFP and CEP. the rate of increase being less the closer the super heater surface is to the furnace. cold re-heater headers before entering into boiler and PRDS system. control is necessary to regulate the steam temperature within the required limits in order to correct fluctuations caused by operating variables and to avert increase in boiler tube metal temperature. How the boiler load affects the steam temperature? As load increases. As a result external tube operate under critical temperature. burner operation. Spacing between the coils is 6001000 mm. a feature called ‘Desuperheater’ is introduced in between LTSH and vertical platen super heater at penthouse.fastening but self-drainable. are causing temperature fluctuation in SH/RH system. excess air. feed water temperature. Also it will absorb both radiant and convective heat. Why two steam lines are provided from boiler to turbine end instead of one line? The effect of pressure losses anywhere in the steam path causes a loss in the cycle efficiency by reducing the energy available for conversion into work. blow down are affecting the steam temperature. 43. 45.k aee/bm/mtps 42. there is a corresponding change in the quantity of gas flowing over the convection super heater. 44. Kannan. What is radiant SH? It will absorb heat by direct radiation from the furnace and located at the top of the furnace. The operating variables. To maintain the outlet steam temperature within the limit. What are the operating variables affects the super heat and re-heat temperature? Operating variables such as load. 38. To avoid this the outer most tube may be with higher-grade material/making outer most tube with shorter length/shadowing the tubes by another heating surface area. So as a result of more intensive heat transfer in 3 . re-heater and to prevent thermal expansion from dangerously reducing turbine clearances. Simply reducing the pipe losses by increasing the pipe size or by adding number of pipes may increase the cycle efficiency. 40. changes in the fuel quality & ash deposits on the heating surfaces and specific burner combination in service. What is the basic design factor governs the super heat and re-heat temperature? Total heating surface area available and ratio of convection & radiant heat absorbing surfaces. Name the locations where the Desuperheaters are used in the boiler? Main steam lines between LTSH and Platen Super heater. why it is adjusted or controlled within the limit? It is important to adjusted or control the steam temperature to prevent the failure due to excessive metal temperature in the super heater.

57. steam mass fluxes are generally somewhat lower in the re-heater. Water is removed from drainable super heaters by simply opening the header drains and vents. 58. 56. What is the effect of expansion or contraction? Kannan. for running of the auxiliaries. 60. the entire quantity of steam separated from the drum is charged to the super heater and part of the steam is de-superheated according to the requirements. What precautions should be taken for non-drainable super heaters during steam raising/ The metal temperature of the SH tubes should not be allowed more than the limit and the firing rate should be controlled to avoid accumulation of condensate in the super heater coils. Why constant pressure is maintained in Re-heater? Or why pressure drop in reheater is so important? The pressure drop in re-heater is critical because the gain in heat rate with the reheat cycle can be nullified by too much pressure loss through the re-heat system. higher the flue gas temperature and bring about higher superheated steam temperature that may lead to super heater coil failure by overheating. the super heater may not receive as much steam as is required for the cooling of coils. What is the maximum amount of steam that can be by-passed through re-heat system? 30% 59. How does the feed water temperature affect the steam temperature? The decrease of feed water temperature results in a higher super heater steam temperature. because the water must be boiled away. When it is more economic to adopt a reheat cycle? To generate high-pressure super heated steam for its expansion in the turbine for the generation of Electricity. Ash deposit is the most frequent cause of steam temperature fluctuations. When heating and cooling is not uniform and may give rise to hot spot within the boiler. To avoid this problem. 53. 55. There will be no steam flow through a tube partially filled with water and those portions of tube not in contact with water will be subjected to excessive temperatures unless the gas temperature is limited. Mostly saturated steam is used for our auxiliaries. When heated the boiler expand and contract while cooling. 51. How are load changes controlled in boiler? By varying number of burners in operation and varying the rate of fuel burning the load changes can be controlled. What will happen to the super heater coils in case of starvation? Coils will get overheated and causing warping or tube failure. Non-drainable super heaters are not so simple. What are the prerequisites for steam flow through every tube? • Removal of all water from the each tube • The total steam flow equal to or greater than approximately 10% of rated steam flow. This condition can usually be corrected by changes in the sequence or frequency of the soot blower operation. The magnitude of expansion depends on the heating effect. Because. Therefore. 54.this zone the temperature of the super heater steam increases. 50. then why steam is not directly taken from the drum instead super heated steam is used after desuperheating? If the steam is directly taken from the drum.What are the consequences of over loading of boiler? It will affect the design circulation velocity. How does the boiler cleanliness affect the steam temperature? Slag or ash deposits on the heat absorbing surfaces of furnace zone tubes increases the temperature of the flue gas entering the super heater section and subsequently. 49. the steam temperature increase. This may lead to starvation of SH coils.k aee/bm/mtps 4 . In a radiant 52. the heating surface of the super heater is fixed and as the feed water temperature decreases the steam generating capacity of water wall decreases with the effect that for the constant fuel consumption the quantity of heat absorbed by the super heater from the flue gases increases per unit flow rate of steam.

67. Why the water tubes arranged in small parallel tubes instead of larger pipe? It is arranged to reduce the pressure drop due to the friction and to get better control over the quality of the steam. with banks of a height up to 1 m. What are the drum internals? 5 . Why economizer inter-mediate headers are provided in high-pressure boilers? In high capacity boilers where the number of economizer coils is large. Why economizer is used in a boiler plant? To pre heat the feed water before it enters the boiler. 75. Why hot drain is recommended in the boiler? Draining all circuit while in hot may temporarily dry the surfaces to avoid atmospheric corrosion (Corrosion may taken place inside the tube material in the presence of atmospheric oxygen if moisture present inside the tube). Inter headers and out let header are connected with minimum number of eco hanger tubes. 70. 74. 64. 71. leads to more heat transfer and needs more spray to maintain the design SH/RH temperature. hot draining of boiler are carried out at suitable opportunity to flush out settlement and deposits. 63. particularly while starting of unit there will not be any feed flow to the boiler. Why the feed water should not enter the economiser below a certain temperature? This may cause a sharp drop in the temperature of the flue gas. Why economizer coils and LTSH coils are sectionalized as lower bank and upper bank? To facilitate the operation and repairs.k aee/bm/mtps 68. tubes are connected with inter-headers to reduce the number of connection in the outlet header. If the flue gas temperature drops to its dew point. Where the actual steam generation takes place in Drum type boiler? Steam generation takes place in furnace water walls 69. Also called a manifold. 62. What will be effect of admitting the feed water below certain temperature to economiser? This may cause a sharp drop in the temperature of the flue gas. Kannan. How the boiler is supported? Mostly it is top supported and allowed to expand downwards (Approximately to 250 mm). Also. the combustion gas temperature entering the super heater section must be controlled to limit the super heater metal temperature to 450ºC for carbon steel tubes and 538ºC to 580ºC for various alloy steels. Why re-circulation is provided in economizer? Re-circulation arrangement is provided to prevent the eco coils from overheating i.61. It is located in the boiler second pass after the low temperature super-heater and before air-heater. economizers/LTSH are usually sectionalized in the gas path. which supplies to or collects the steam or water from a series of smaller pipes or tubes. many tubes be passed through the roof for connection to an external header. Due to this cold end corrosion may takes place due to the condensation of sulphuric acid from flue gas. This will increase the gas leakage. 72. Hence. If the water flows through one continuous larger diameter pipe the pressure loss will be more. 65. During startup.e. 66. What should be the temperature difference between the gas side and steam side of the super heaters? 140ºC for the effective heat transfer which primarily depends on mass velocity and temperature difference. it will cause severe corrosion of the metal and even lead to tube failure. 73. before there is steam flow through every tube. What precautions should be taken to protect the super heater and re-heater coils during the startup of boiler? During normal operation every super heater tube must have sufficient steam flow to prevent over heating. What is header? It is a larger pipe. What will be the effect of using low CV coal instead of designed coal? Low CV coal increases the flue gas flow. Purpose of providing steam drum? For steam separation and steam purification 76.

What is foaming? Foaming is due to the chemical composition of the water. Where the Tri Sodium Phosphate is dosed in the system of steam generation? At boiler drum Kannan. . results from factors associated with boiler operation. How the TDS is removed from the drum? During steam generation at a high pressure. 86. What is Intermittent Blow Down? Intermittent Blow Down (IBD) is a manual instantaneous system which is operated once in a shift or whenever found necessary to reduce the boiler TDS to reduce the boiler TDS well below the specified maximum limit and allow it over the period to build up to the maximum again. It fails to prevent the formation of iron oxides and copper depositions. which are removed from the system by blow down.All apparatus within the drum is called internals viz.. 87. screen dryers etc 77. Pure water does not foam. which can then foam into the steam takeoff. 81. The gravity separation takes place in the space between secondary separator and screen driers. separators. It is consists of a primary axial flow turbo separator. The drier boxes are wire mesh boxes with more wetting surface. the surface tension is altered and the steam bubbles remains small. . What is priming? Priming is the ejection of boiler water into the steam take-off and in general. T he resultant corrosion product is transported more easily in a soluble form into the boiler and the liberated “ free copper ” gets deposited on the heat transfer surfaces at elevated temperature. What is the function of Drum internals? . 80.k aee/bm/mtps 82. to impinge on the separator wall and to discharge downward below the water surface through an outer concentric cylinder. 89. turbo separators are used for steam-water separation. What are the common causes for foaming? -High suspended or dissolved solids in the boiler water -High alkalinity in the boiler water -Contamination of the boiler water with detergent or saponable oil 88.Separation of steam from steam water mixture. The secondary separator is plate type corrugated sheet arranged so as to have a horizontal flow in a zigzag path. Can the phosphate dosing prevent the deposition of pre-boiler corrosion products? No. CBD & EBD pipe lines. Moreover. What may happen due to low water in the boiler? It may be any thing from leakage to explosion. How the steam is separated in the boiler drum? In high-pressure boilers.Facilitating blow down. the concentration of these salts rise to a value at which they can form scale / sludge. 79. Phosphate dosing line. which remains in the boiler water in a suspended state and can mostly be removed by Continuous Blowing Down. What are the probable causes for priming? 6 . The spinner blades within the separators impart a spinning motion to the mixture. 83. the phosphate dosing is done to prevent the formation of calcium scales rather than scales in general. 84. which causes the heavier water droplets to move radially through the lighter steam. What is pre-boiler corrosion? Dissolved oxygen attacks copper in the presence of ammonia more severely in the feed water system (pre-boiler section) before entering into boiler. rising quickly to the surface and burst. and in effect the water into a foaming mass. 85.Removal of water bubbles from water volume of boiler from entering down comer. a plate type corrugated sheet secondary separator at the outlet of the turbo separator and screen drier boxes prior to the entry to steam outlet nozzles. 78. .Mixing and distributing feed water.Adding chemicals . In the presence of certain dissolved or suspended substances. Therefore they do not rise quickly. and in a boiler the steam bubbles are large. Why the Phosphate is dosed in the boiler drum? To create the conditions that favour the formation of sludge instead of scale. Calcium and magnesium can form nonsticking sludge.

105. steam header or pipe line exceeds the working pressure.k aee/bm/mtps 98. What procedures will you adopt in case a leakage has been detected? Boiler is to be shutdown and cooled. 101. 94. How does a safety valve works? When the steam pressure exceeds the working pressure. operating below the design pressure. 92. 99. Kannan. noise produced from the leak 96. How will you detect the tube failure in a boiler? Loss of fluid from the system. How the Spring Loaded safety valve works? Spring-loaded Safety Valves are the valves which operates automatically whenever on upstream of valves exceeds the preset pressure of valves. This is an essential reason for cleaning the boiler and blowing out the super heater and steam line before testing safety valves. 91.There are several possible causes like operating the boiler with too-high water level. which alters the spring force. demanding more steam than the design value. What should be the total capacity of the safety valves? It should be equal to the design steam flow of the boiler. for the same height of the water level. is the three-element feed water control. What type of control is used to maintain the drum level? For higher capacity boilers and those operating at higher pressures. 103. a pneumatic or electrically operated feed water control system is used. The most widely used feed water control system. 93. 97. Moreover. 104. Boiler is to be drained. In case of high water level in the drum what will happen? It may lead to carryover of feed water and cause priming. What will be the relieving capacity of the super heater safety valves? Safety valves on the super heater will have approximately 25% of boiler MCR as relieving capacity. especially at utility boilers. How does the water level in the drum influence the contamination of the steam? Higher the level of the water greater is the steam wetness. What type of safety valve is used in the high-pressure boiler? Spring loaded safety valve. During steam raising what precautions should be taken for non-drainable super heaters? Firing rate should be controlled to avoid accumulation of condensate in the super heater coils as well as the tube metal temperature should be kept below the maximum designed temperature. Why is the safety valve of super heater set at a lower pressure than the SV of the boiler drum? To protect the super heater coils from starvation by ensuing adequate steam flow to the super heater. The set pressure can be adjusted by the screw. The valve is 7 . 90. It should not have any isolation valve in between the pressure vessel and safety valve. it automatically vents some steam from the system with the effect that the system pressure returns to the normal working limit. Why steam blowing is necessary before testing the safety valve? Safety valve seats are susceptible to damage from wet steam. Why the upper water level and lower water levels are prescribed in the boiler drum? The upper water level is taken so as to ensure high quality steam generation while the lower water level is prescribed for reliable circulation of water through the circulation system. What is the set pressure of the safety valve? It is the pressure at which the valve lifts off its seat for a pre-determined pressure. What are all the three elements in threeelement control system? Drum level. feed water flow and steam flow 95. steam wetness increases with the increase of steam pressure. What is a safety valve? It is a device that lets out the excess steam when the steam pressure in the boiler. 100. This type of valve lifts at one pre-set pressure and re-set at a lower pressure 106. 102. inspection of leak and leaks are to be repaired.

108.also designed to give a positive lift when the set pressure is reached and so the valve does not simmer. 110. Bearings in upper and lower beam assemblies’ support and guide the rotor at the central shaft. During start up and low load condition steam coil air pre-heater is utilised to raise the temperature of air entering the air heater to avoid cold end corrosion. air pre-heater hopper and ESP hoppers. one notch at a time to remove the simmer. This is actuated automatically when pressure increases set pressure (or) also can be opened by pushing a button from UCB whenever necessary. What is SCAPH? Steam Coil Air Pre-Heater 116. How the ash is removed from the boiler? Ash and residue from the combustion of solid fuels are discharged at four different points in the boiler flue gas stream via Bottom as hopper. ID is to handle flue gas with higher specific volume than the air handled by the FD fan. If simmer is present or valve fails to lift. Blow down is nothing but the difference between the set pressure and reset pressure of the valve. 107. economizer hopper. 109. Simmer means that the valve is just about opening or has indefinite contact. How many Air heaters are there in 210 MW boilers? Two Tri-sector Regenerative APH 114. The overall efficiency of the plant may be increased by 10% by pre heating the air in the boiler. 118. A rotor speed of one to three rpm is provided by a motor driven pinion engaging a rotor encircling pin rack. the lower ring should be moved upward slowly. Each hopper consists of a set of scraper feeder and clinker Grinder at the furnace bottom. 112. Particle size. Where the Air heaters are placed in two pass boilers? At boiler second pass below the economiser Kannan. Why air heaters are used in a boiler plant? It increases the temperature of the air supplied to the furnace by utilizing the heat of the flue gas. density. Each hopper consists of upper 8 . 119. What is the function of Upper Adjustment Ring? The upper ring is used to obtain the required blow down. 115. What is Electromatic Relief Valve? ERV is normally provided on one of the super heater outlet header in 210 MW units. It is based on the blow down of the valve that is varying from 3 to 5%. It consists of a cylindrical shell plus a rotor. which is packed with bundles of heating elements and is rotated through counter flowing air and gas streams. This valve is provided to prevent frequent opening of spring loaded safety valve. To reduce the blow down moves the upper ring upward anti clockwise. What is the Re-set pressure of the safety valve? It is the pressure at which the valve closes or reseats. 111. How the Bottom Ash is disposed from boiler? Each unit has two bottom ash hoppers. velocity and physical arrangement in the flue gas path dictate at which point in the flue gas path the ash particles are no longer carried along in the flue gas. To increase the blow down move ring down-turn clockwise. Why the size of the ID fan is always larger than FD fan? Because. Why SCAPH is provided? The forced draft fans supply cooled ambient air. Metallic seals minimize the air to gas leakage and flow bypass around the rotor. How the air is heated in the Regenerative Air heaters? Regenerative air heaters are mostly used in utility steam generators.k aee/bm/mtps 113. This air enters the air preheater through the steam coil air preheater. 117. The valve assembly consists of a main valve that is actuated by an adjoining pilot valve and the pilot valve in turn is actuated electrically. Air flows through one half of the rotor and gas flows through the other half. A stationary housing that has ducts at both ends encloses the rotor. What is the function of Lower Adjustment Ring? The lower ring is used to obtain a popping action and to cushion the closing action of the valve.

Super heated steam is used from nozzle to dislodge the deposited soot as the soot blower traverses or rotated to clear the deposit from a section of the boiler.10 and line pressure is reduced to 22 kg/cm2. What is the effect of expansion or contraction stress on boiler tubes? Leakage develops 129. a temperaturecontrolled valve is provided to drain the condensate automatically. 126. 127. 55 to 75 kV DC with a negative polarity. These charged particles accelerate towards collection electrodes. 121. Nowadays. slag bath and scraper feeder trolley. pneumatic equipment and controls. The high intensity electric field created causes the particulates in the gas stream to acquire negative charges transferred from ionized gas molecules of the same polarity. The steam for soot blowing is supplied from which stage of super heating? The steam required for blowing is taken after super heater header No. The nozzles provided in the mixing box continuously mix the fly ash with water and discharged to the common trench for fly ash disposal. 122. 124. seal trough is provided to effectively seal the furnace draft. the ash collected at ESP hoppers is disposed in dry mode by Highpressure air system as fly ash utilization. How the ash is removed at ESP? An ESP electrically charges the ash particles in the flue gas to collect and remove them. If moisture is present in the steam. If it is lower than required. The system consists of individual transmitter (Which is connected to ash hopper on the ESP) equipped with the necessary valves. The collecting electrodes come in the shape of plates that are usually positively charged or grounded. When the transmitter is filled to a certain level.k aee/bm/mtps get neutralized. whereupon they fall into a collection hopper. What is the frequency of the wall blower? The blowers can be operate and keep water wall tubes clean if super heater steam temperatures are more than desired. Air heater and ESP hoppers drops continuously through a vertical pipe connection to the mixing box provided below each hopper. 120. 123. What is Soot blower? It is a device used to blow accumulated soot off tubes and heating surfaces in a boiler. a conveying cycle is initiated by a signal from the level indicator or by a timer if wanted. Around the top periphery of the upper hopper. In order to maintain the super heated steam in the line. erosion rate will be more and leads to water wall tubes failure. 125. blowing frequency can be reduced. Quenching nozzles are provided in the upper halves to quench ash collected in the ash hopper and to help move large slag. where their charges Kannan. The dust concentrated flue gas enters the ESP through an inlet channel and passes through a gas distributor that distribute the flue gas evenly over the parallel array of discharge electrodes spaced alternately with collecting electrodes. which is connected to a high voltage power source. The transmitters of hoppers are connected by a piping system to the silo. Ash in the transmitter is transported by pressurised air to silo where it is loaded to trucks. How the Fly Ash is disposed from boiler? The fly ash collected in the Economiser. What will be the impact of the flue gas velocity in boiler pressure parts? Material wastage will be more over the convective pass tubes. What is the expansion of the boiler? Maximum 250 mm 130. The ash collected at bottom transfer to clinker grinder where it is crushed to size and then falls into trench below the scraper feeder. Because. What is the effect of soot deposition in the flue gas passage of a boiler? Impairs heat transfer 131. Design flue gas velocity of the boiler? 15 m/s 128. What is draft? 9 . Why the thermal drain is provided in the soot blowing steam supply line and what is the significant of it? Steam supplied for soot blowing should be in super heated form. the erosion rate will be proposal to an exponential function of flue gas velocity. The discharge electrodes are in the form of wire.hopper.

complete the task of combustion and delivering heat to the intended purpose. ash fusibility temperatures and sulfur content of the coal.Damper control or speed control? Speed control. is provided from FD Fans. for better mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. The quantity of secondary air (fuel air + auxiliary air) is dictated by boiler load and controlled by FD Fan inlet guide vane regulation. 136. Particularly the moisture content. 135. What is balanced draft system? Coal fired boilers are designed with balanced draft firing system. End air nozzles are arranged one at the bottom and one at the top of burner arrangement. What should be the viscosity of the HFO for better atomization? For satisfactory atomisation the viscosity shall be 15 to 20 centistokes. The rest of the secondary air.k aee/bm/mtps levels or elevations of the wind boxes (AB. While passing through the spray nozzles of the oil gun. The coal and oil burners are sandwiched between air nozzles or air compartments. Define Wind box? It is the box surrounding the burner damper on a boiler. sustain the ignition and provide a stable flame during the operation. 137. Mostly Grade ‘F’ coal 142. 141. 140. Which type of coal is contributing more for power generation in India? Sub-Bituminous coal. 139. 138. How the air required for combustion can be controlled to meet the variable load demand? It can be controlled either through damper control or speed control 134. but a considerable quantity of fuel oil is also used as an auxiliary fuel for boiler warm up.It is the pressure difference between the combustion product in side the boiler and the cold air outside the boiler 132. 145. Because the power requirement in the case of speed control is less than that required for damper control to bring about the desired change in airflow quantity. facilitate ignition energy to the coal air stream. How the burners are arranged at burners corners? In 210 MW boilers. In a tangentially fired boiler. referred to as Secondary Air. called 'Auxiliary Air’. The secondary air heated in the Air heater is directed to wind box and the damper regulate and directs in to the burners. which breaks up the oil stream into fine particles. This system is provided with Primary air fan. the wind box assembly is divided into 13 compartments (6 coal burners. Forced and Induced draft fans. How the coals are graded? Based on the moisture. Why oil re-circulation is necessary? Before putting in the first burner into service. ignition of coal and coal flame stabilization at low loads 143. it is necessary to warm up the long oil supply lines to the burners. two wind boxes (combustion air boxes) are arranged one at right & one at left side of the furnace. Which is more economical. ash. 144. How the air required for combustion is distributed? The Combustion air. particle size. What is the function of coal burners in boiler? Burners undertake the task of delivering coal and air in a proper proportion. The oil burners are located at different Kannan. CD & EF). is admitted through the auxiliary air nozzles and end air nozzles. it is kept at a slightly negative pressure to ensure that any leakage would be inward. 3 oil burners and 4 air compartments) from top to bottom. What do you mean by “atomisation” of liquid fuel and why is it necessary? Atomisation is the process of spraying the fuel oil into fine mist. Why oil is used as an auxiliary fuel in coal-fired boilers? Coal is the main fuel in utility steam generators as well as many industrial boilers. the pressure energy of the steam converts into velocity energy. A portion of secondary air called `Fuel Air’ is admitted immediately around the burners (annular space around the oil/gas burners) into the furnace. 133. Actually. so that 10 . What factor determines the quantity of primary air to be used for drying and transportation of pulverized coal? Fuel quantity. meaning that the pressure in it is approximately atmospheric.

The carbon particles also cause faster atomiser wear out and sparkling in the flame. Closing down the fuel air dampers or opening up the auxiliary air dampers decreases the airflow around the fuel nozzle. is used for oil firing. This shifts the flame zone across the furnace height and enables control over steam temperature. Why oil temperature is important for firing? The result of inadequate heating of oil is "higher oil viscosity" which impairs atomisation at the oil gun. 149. What is the minimum clearance allowed when the secondary air dampers are in closed condition? 6 mm clearance 157. leading to poor flames. What is the effect of burner tilt in Tangential firing system? The burners are tiltable Plus 30 to minus 30 degree about horizontal. 147.the oil does not get cooled in the colder piping and that the oil at correct atomising temperature becomes available at the burners. in unison at all elevations and corners. 146. Which factor decides the opening of fuel air damper? All fuel air dampers are normally closed. How wind box compartment dampers positioning affects the airflow distribution to the furnace? Opening up the fuel air dampers or closing down the auxiliary air dampers increases the airflow around the fuel nozzle. which is an externally mixing type oil gun. What is the function of primary air system? First to dry the coal in the pulveriser and second to transport pulverised coal to the coal nozzles in the wind boxes at the four corners of the furnace. during atomization. What will happen if. They open at a definite time interval after the associated feeders are started. Ultimately there will be a minimum oil pressure at which the droplet will grow too large to burn completely. 152. sooting. What is the clearance between the nozzle tip to frame or compartment? 10 – 15 mm 158. 11 . the oil pressure is decreased? As the oil pressure is gradually decreased. What type of oil gun is used for oil firing and how it works? Normally ‘J’ type. Over heating or high temperature of the oil is not desirable from the point of thermal cracking of oil.k aee/bm/mtps 151. 150. and plug up the strainer. The formed solid carbon particles build up over the heater tubes. These dampers are to be modulated with reference to the amount of fuel fed to that elevation of fuel nozzle. What is tangential firing system? The fuel and combustion air streams from these burners or compartments are directed tangentially to an imaginary circle at the center of the furnace. increased carbon loss and finally flame failures. What is the Range of burner tilt? Plus 30 to minus 30 degree 153. intricate passages of control and shut off valves and atomisers. What should be the effect of low and high temperature of fuel oil? Low heating of oil is "higher oil viscosity" which impairs atomisation at the oil gun. 154. 155. How the firing rate is controlled during the oil firing? The firing rate is varied by controlling the oil pressure with a constant atomizing steam pressure. To achieve this the heated oil is circulated up to the burners and back to the oil tank through oil return lines till adequate oil temperature is reached near the burners. increased carbon loss and finally flame failures. 156. Kannan. the droplets of atomized fuel oil will grow in size. The firing rate is varied by controlling the oil pressure with a constant atomizing steam pressure. combustion and the flame pattern within the furnace. Tangential firing arrangement creates a single flame envelope with a rotating fireball in the center of the furnace. 148. Correct proportioning of secondary air distribution between fuel air compartment and auxiliary air compartment influences the degree mixing. soot forming. leading to poor flames. Atomising steam is supplied through holes in the spray plate and oil at specified viscosity is also fed through the same hole and gets mixed just before getting discharged together in a spray plate.

lower pressure and larger particle size contribute to less complete combustion and increased unburnt carbon in the ash. increased heat loss in the stack. 12 . is dependent on soot blower and air heater operation. What is the drawback of operating a boiler at part load? The running equipments consume almost the same amount of energy as in full load condition.95ºC. combustion is improved. How the flue gas and steam temperature between left & right can be minimized? It can be minimized to the extend possible by adjusting the burner loading and loading of left & right side of draft fans. 165. higher flue gas temperature and higher SH temperature that lead to SH coil failure. What is the cause of incomplete combustion? Lack of air in one part of the stream causes incomplete combustion even though high overall excess air is maintained at the furnace outlet. If the fuel is hotter. 171. What is the disadvantage of excess air? Increased fan power consumption.159. Maximum CO2 and Nil unburnt in Flue Gas 160. What are the consequences of overloading a boiler? Affect the circulation velocity of the water. pressure and if solid. 164. This. reduced carbon loss and CO formation and reduced slagging conditions. 174. 163. What will temperature? 70 . 169. What should be the condition of the fuel to be used for combustion? Liquid fuel conditions are temperature. The quantity of gas is dependent on the fuel being burnt. 166. be the mill outlet 176. but is also influenced by the amount of excess air supplied to the burners. The temperature of the flue gas is affected by the cleanliness of the heating surface area. what harm it will cause? • Excessive use of coal • Operational problems • Poor functioning of ESP 162. finer and at higher pressure. How many kinds of boiler start-up are there? Hot start. 172. mean particle size and distribution. as the precise relationship between damper position and the amount of draft is not known. What are the factors affecting the stack loss? The quantity and the temperature of the flue gas can control the total heat that exits the stack. in turn. What is the advantage of excess air? It will increase the combustion intensity. 173. What is the purpose of measuring CO2 and O2? Kannan. If a thermal power plant burns inferior quality of coal different from the designed coal. How to determine the correct draft for introducing minimum excess air required for operation? This is obtained by a trial and error method. increased tube erosion and possibly increased NOx formation. the air used more than the required for the complete combustion will take away more heat. 175. 170. worm-start and cold start. What is the disadvantage of using excess air to reduce the combustibles in flue gas to Zero? Lower the furnace temperature and excess fan power 161.k aee/bm/mtps The carbon monoxide measurement is taken along with oxygen reading for checking that the combustion airflow is at optimum level. What are MCR and NCR? Maximum Continuous Rating and Normal Continuous rating. The NCR of the boiler is 75-80% of its MCR. If the bowl mill temperature is raised above the above said temperature limit what will happen? Volatile matter of coal will quickly evaporate and explosion can occur. Hence. What is the lowest load for the stable operation of a boiler? It is usually 30-40% of the rated load. What is the fundamental indicator of good combustion? Minimum O2. 167. 168. Unfortunately Nox emission and slagging can also increase with these conditions. Low temperatures.

What determines the temperature of the coal inside the bowl mill? Volatile matter of the coal decides the temperature. 178. What is the ill effect of more fineness of coal? It will lead to fly ash loss and ESP loading. How the Mill outlet temperature is maintained? Two primary air fans discharges air into a common duct that required for combustion. by passes the air pre-heater and joins the hot 13 .000 openings per square inch. which monitor the coal weight on the belt. softer the coal higher the index. 190. What is Gravimetric feeder system? In gravimetric feeder system. the rest of the primary air. 188. standard sieve. What is the function of coal bunker? It provides intermediate or short-term storage ahead of feeder or coal mill.0029 inch or 0. Flow is restricted most in the case of the shortest pipe. What is the function of classifier in the mill? Classifier is provided in the mill outlet to regulate the size of the coal particle by returning back the higher size coal particle to the mill. 191. What are 200 mesh screen? It is the U.074 mm. 189. Why the primary and secondary airs are given into the furnace at different speeds? To ensure good intermixing of the ignited fuel with the secondary air to complete the combustion and consequently active burning takes place in the furnace space. The lower side is to take care of the velocity and the upper side is to limit the erosion of the coal pipe. The opening size for the 200-mesh will be around 0. 183. 182. 180.177. By placing orifices in each pipe feeding pulverized coal to the burner. 185. A 200-mesh screen has 200 openings to the inch. Coal fed through the hopper gets pulverized by attrition as it passes between the sides of the rollers and bowl. How the coal flow through all pipes is made nearly constant? One bowl mill feeds four burners placed at different elevations in the boiler. Gravimetric feeders are generally used in modern power station. finer the screen. Coarse particles drop back into the bowl through the center cone of the classifier while the fine coal dust air mixture is lead away to the burner. The diameter of the wire determines the opening size. the mill output reduces for the same fineness to be maintained. 187. coal size and other factors. Kannan. which compensate for variations in bulk density due to moisture. What is Grindability Index? Grindability Index of coal indicates the ease with which coal can be pulverised. in which the number of openings per linear inch designates the mesh. Hot primary air introduced into the pulverized through the bottom of the bowl carries off coal-dust into the centrally located classifier fitted at the top. 179. If the grindability is less than design value. coal is carried on a belt over a load cell. Pulveriser capacity is expressed with reference to a particular grindability index. 181.k aee/bm/mtps 186. Higher the mesh size. What is the desired fineness of the coal in pulverized coal firing? The fineness shall be 70% (of the pulverized coal) pass through 200-mesh screen. the flow through all pipes is made nearly constant. Adjusting the vane position of the classifier increases the fineness by recirculating the coal flow through the mill and hence the mill loading is increased.S. What will be the coal size in 200mesh screen? 74 microns 184. or 40. What is the velocity of the pulverized coal –primary airflow at the burner outlet? The coal air mixer velocity within the pipe is between 20and 28 m/s. Why a minimum down spout height is maintained between coalbunker and feeder? A minimum height should be maintained to minimize the air loss from the pressurised pulveriser. Part of the air passes through a separate section of the air preheater where it picks up heat and pass on to the Mill. How the coal is pulverized in the bowl mill? Bowl mill consists of stationary rollers mounted on an electrically driven rotating bowl.

So the quantity of air admitted in excess of the theoretical requirement is called “Excess air”. NCV assumes the water leaves with the combustion products without fully being condensed. 193. To improve the low load capability a divider plate is introduced in the coal nozzle to divide the coal nozzle into two halves. oxidation due to high temperature and creep strength. By measuring CO2 or O2 in the flue gas. How to control “Excess air”. the carbon steel is enough for this condition. What is “Excess air”? Why is it required for combustion in a boiler? For all fuels it is possible to calculate the exact amount of air that is needed for combustion. 198. the material should capable of withstanding erosion. 200. The boosted seal air is then delivered through a filter. 195. What is the function of the coal burner? Its primary function is to produce two individual flows: one is fuel-air mixture and the other of secondary air for ignition and active burning in the furnace. A control damper is installed in both hot and cold primary air ducts to each pulveriser to control the temperature & the quantity of air supplied to the pulveriser. control dampers and hot air shut-off gates in the individual hot air ducts. Chemical analysis of the gases ia an objective method that helps in achieving finer air control. How can the flow quantity of air be adjusted by speed control? 14 . What is the difference between GCV and NCV? The difference between GCV and NCV is the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour generated by the combustion process. How can the supply of air be controlled to meet the variable load demand? Damper control and speed control 203. But. 192.k aee/bm/mtps supply the required quantity of air for sealing. What is the design efficiency of MTPS boiler? 86. Hence. 201. as the shape of the coal nozzle is little complicated for fabrication. to create an independent fuel rich and fuel lean stream. 194. Explain the design features of coal nozzle for effective burning of pulverized coal? Coal nozzle inlet is of same size as the coal pipe and has continuously decreasing cross-sectional area.14% 202. GCV assumes all vapour produced during the combustion process is fully condensed. These fans boost the pressure to a slightly higher value and discharge the air into a separate duct arrangement. hard facing of the base material is necessary. What is boiler efficiency? It is the ratio of the heat utilized by feed water in converting it to steam. As per the nozzle tip is concerned it is subjected wear due to coal air mixer and as well exposed to furnace temperature. What material is used for the construction of coal nozzle & tip and why? Since the nozzle is exposed to the maximum temperature of secondary air from wind box. which is greatest at the choke area. To improve upon the erosion resistance. 199. For optimum combustion of fuel oil. What is the function of seal air fan? Two seal air fans in parallel are draw the cold from the cold primary air duct and Kannan. to the heat supplied by the fuel over the same time.air duct ahead of the pulveriser for proper temperature control of the coal-air mixture leaving the pulveriser. But it is made up of casting. Chromium is the alloying element for oxidation and corrosion resistance. 196. the CO2 or O2 in flue gases should be maintained at 14-15% of CO2 and 2-3% in case of O2. Normally Cr-Ni alloy stainless steel is used for nozzle tip. 197. In practice some extra amount of air is required to make sure that complete combustion takes place and this air varies dependent on the type of fuel being burned. Due to this the velocity of coal stream increase from entry to exit that avoids the coal particle accumulation at throat area of nozzle. these alloying elements are not good for erosion resistance. the excess air level as well as stack losses can be estimated. Why hard facing is done in the nozzle tip? Normally Cr-Ni alloy stainless steel is used for nozzle tip. to those points in pulveriser components.

The FSSS takes care of interlocks required for starting. When the temperature exceeds permissible level alarm is given. What is the sulphur content of the coal? It varies depending upon the nature of the coal. The primary functions are: A safe way of starting and shutting down the burner.. The energy released by the igniters used in 210 MW boilers? 1. What will be the metal temperature at water wall tube? Metal temperature on the surface will be 375 . The interlock & protection system takes care of sequence of starting protection and interlock of boiler auxiliaries like FD fans. At any time if the signal is less than the lower threshold. it will standby during down time. dampers. it sends a signal to close the fuel supply valve to prevent a possible Kannan. ID fans. supervising the operating and safe shut down of the equipments connecting with firing system. These thermocouples are located outside the flue gas path in the penthouse zone.8 MW approx 207. How does the volatile matter content determine the rank of the coal? Higher the VM content of the coal. What is a flame scanner? It is a device used to observe the flame in a boiler. 206. The thermocouples signals are taken to control room for continuous monitoring. The flame safeguard system will also continually monitor burner operation when the boiler is on-line. interlocks & protection system and sequence controls & analog controls. The signal from the probe is precision rectified and compared with lower and upper threshold values. What is boiler control system? The control systems for boiler are divided into two major classifications i.By changing the fan rpm to bring about the desired change in the fan characteristic. then the output displays water. waiting for the signal to start the burner once again. the output displays steam. It consists of a pressure vessel attached to one end of the drum. 212. The probe outputs are significantly different for steam and water. Conductivity signal from the electrode is amplified and detected as water or steam. There are 32 scanners employed in 210 MW units out of which 12 Nos. An array of probes mounted on the pressure vessel is used to measure the resistance of water and steam. valves etc. How the boiler drum level is measured? Electronic water level indicator is used for drum water level indication in control room as well as boiler floor. For example it will purge the combustion chamber of gas.5 to 3%. 209.k aee/bm/mtps explosion. of discriminating scanners are located at oil elevations and others 20 scanners called fireball scanners are used for coal burner flames. 205. The system will protect the boiler from excessive pressure or temperature conditions It will also regulate the firing rate according to the demand for heat or steam Finally. What is Furnace safeguard system? Safeguard system is a set of controls used on a boiler to ensure safe burner operation. 214. light the pilot and then open the main gas valve. What will be the steam/water mixer temperature at water wall tube outlet? It varies from 300 – 350ºC at the boiler pressure 100 – 165 kg/cm2. 211. When the signal is greater than the upper threshold. Where the tube metal temperatures are measured? Metal temperature thermocouples are provided for monitoring super heaters. A flame safeguard system also starts the burner in the proper sequence.e. 204. It works on the basic principle of differing conductivities of water and steam.400ºC 210. This can be accomplished either automatically or manually. 208. Drum level transmitters are also provided for remote indication in addition to hydra step. the lower is the rank of the coal and vice versa. re heater tube metal temperatures. 213. If the flame is extinguished for any reason. What is boiler inspection? The inspection of boiler serves two purposes one is familiarization of operator with the equipment and another one it 15 . Usually it ranges from 0. air heaters.

The boiler expands as the temperature and pressure are increased and also in steam lines. Certain areas may be experiencing degradation of specific nature. Hence boiler preservation is required to protect the internal surfaces from corrosion. is internal inspection of a boiler normally carried out? Once in a year.k aee/bm/mtps • • • • • • Soot blowing for water wall tubes & APH Furnace oil filter cleaning Scanner air filter cleaning Maintenance of soot blower equipments. Periodical maintenance and Breakdown maintenance 218. monthly. is preservation by Dry method recommended? Boilers. 227. What is the objective of forced outage inspection in boiler pressure parts? The main objective is to discover if any secondary damage is experienced at the adjacent areas and to determine any other tubes are close to failure due to same mechanism. What type of maintenance system is followed in boiler? Maintenance of boiler can be divided into: Annual maintenance. 217. ducts. What type of works is carried out in Periodical maintenance? To ensure the continuous operation of the boiler. it can often locate damaged tubes immediate concern and can provide information for planning a subsequent outage. is preservation by wet method recommended? Boilers. or periodic maintenance programs. Sufficient notice is generally given to permit removal of the boiler from service and preparation for inspection. 221. locate deterioration of material. 16 . are preserved by the wet method. or repairs that cannot easily be done at other times. the following maintenance are being carried out. This also serves as a good basis for establishing a schedule for annual. 215. For which type of boilers. temporary supports provided for various purposes must be removed. Also. so that these can be rectified to avoid serious damage. 222. 220. For which type of boilers. soot blower piping and drain piping. which are kept ready for stand-by service and may be required at short notice. At what intervals. are preserved by the chemical water. Why is inspection of boilers and their auxiliaries to be carried out on a regular basis? To detect the defects. What is boiler preservation? Boilers. 226. 219. This major inspection can often be used to accomplish maintenance. which are kept ready for stand-by service and may be required for sudden demands of operation.. Why boiler is preserved? The internal surfaces of boilers prone to corrosion by leftover water after operation by atmospheric oxygen when they are out of service. How annual maintenance is carried out? Statutory regulations require a periodic inspection of the pressure vessel by an Authorized Inspector. valves & actuators Lubrication for fans & APH gear box Oil gun cleaning etc. What is the validity of the boiler certificate? Twelve months 223. which are scheduled to be kept out of service for a long period and which are not expected to be put into operation at short notice. abnormal wear etc. What is the objective of planed / scheduled outage inspection in boiler pressure parts? The goal of the scheduled outage inspection is to eliminate boiler tube failure between the scheduled outage. Kannan. 225. 216. Chemicals used for preservation are ammonia and hydrazine 224. replacements. which would require detailed inspections.verifies the condition of equipments. How many methods are for Boiler preservation? Wet method and dry method. Before pressure is raised in the boiler. One important item often overlooked during the inspection is the provision or lack of provision for expansion. New phenomena can also be discovered. A boiler inspection scope is developed in accordance with prior knowledge and experience.

k aee/bm/mtps conditioning. EBD. The steps may be listed as follows: Inspections. of Economiser air vent are provided 17 . steam blow out. over heating and thermal stress • Prevention of furnace explosion and • Production of steam at the desired temperature. safety valve testing and initial operations for adjustment and testing. The steam side drains from various drainable super heaters are connected at a common header at boiler 16 m level then connected to IBD expander. The system may be drained either through atmosphere or IBD expander according to the condition of the boiler. 234. purposes. recalibration of instruments. • The burner tips are not own out or the coal burner edges are not eroded • Burner diffuser might have wearer or dislodged from its position. 233. down comer drain. Waterside system comprising water wall drains and economizer drain connected at a common header at ‘O’ meter level called Low point drain. Name the drains provided at waterside of the Boiler? CBD. Both the drains are used for boiler back filling purpose for lighting up or to conduct the hydro test in boiler. of drum air vents and 1 No. 236. auxiliary equipment preparation. hydrostatic testing. 235. Any air trapped in the system will lead to corrosion. What is the quantity of the water drained through CBD system? It will be around 1% of the rated steam flow.their designs. • The operator must have a complete knowledge of all components. In waterside 2 Nos. Improper mixing of fuel with combustion air results with unburnt and this unburnt fuel subsequently get ignited above the furnace regime and cause sudden pressurisation. • Required excess air is maintained (judged by oxygen level in FG) • Burner tips are clean and no clinker / carbonisation is taking place and clogging. Best practices to be followed are: • Proper wind box furnace differential is maintained. Explain the venting system of the boiler? Proper air venting is a must for steam generating equipments. not only corrosion will take place but also it restricts flow in the system making it less effective in carrying heat around. however certain steps are required for all boilers. 230. The provision of properly sized and installed air vents ensure that trapped air is quickly vented out. Explain the system provided for boiler draining? There are two-drain systems: one is at waterside and another is at steam side. pressure and purity 231.What is the objective of the operating procedure? • Protection of pressure parts from corrosion. 229. chemical cleaning. Why hydro test is conducted? After the pressure parts are assembled (incase of new boiler) or repaired but before the refractory and casting are installed. air vents should be kept open to displace all air inside the boiler with water. How a boiler can be prepared for the startup? A systematic approach is required in the preparation for service of a new boiler or any boiler that has undergone major repairs. If the boiler is in good condition certificate has to be issued after conducting the hydro test for 1. a hydrostatic test at 1. The procedure varies with design. What are the causes of momentary boiler pressurisation? How to get rid of this problem? what are the best practices to be followed in a boiler operation and maintenance? Improper combustion regime only can cause such momentary furnace pressurisation and puffing. If the air is not removed.5 times the boiler design pressure is applied to all new boilers and maintained for a sufficient time to detect any leak. What is an operator requirement? • Every operator must be trained to understand and fulfill the responsibility assumed for the successful performance of the equipment and the safety of all the personnel involved. limitations and relationships to other components.25 times of working pressure. During the boiler filling. 232. Bottom ring header drain and economiser drain.228. refractory Kannan. cleaning.

the vents should be open until water appears at vent points. What is the function of Pressure reducing valve? It will reduce the pressure of the fluid passing through the valve. Clear or filtered water can be used for components that will be drained immediately after the hydro test. This may be Globe or Gate or butterfly valves. During the filling air vents should be kept open to reduce the oxygen corrosion and assure that all boiler tubes are filled with water. Establish the correct water level before firing begins. according to requirement and it may be operated in any position from fully open to fully shut. 239. to worm up the line before opening the main valve and secondly. Temperature of the water should be match with temperature of the metal to prevent the thermal stress. What precaution should be taken to fill the boiler before startup? • • • • High quality water should be used to minimise waterside corrosion and deposits. As the unit is being filled. • The metal temperature and therefore the water temperature must be at or above the code (ASME section I PG99) restriction of 21ºC • The water temperature should be kept low so hat the pressure parts can be touched and close inspection can be made. What is the function of NRV? This type of valve permits the flow of fluid in one direction only. the pH of water should be as specified by the manufacturer. 240. 244. The Super heater & re-heater vents are provided at boiler right side 54 m level. 237. 242. What is the function of Regulation valve? A regulating valve has to control the rate of flow.k aee/bm/mtps . Is it advisable to charge the preboiler circuit with balance water available after backfilling of boiler for hydro test or preservation? No. 238. • D. This is to give a seal against negative pressure maintenance in the furnace and also for the expansion of the furnace walls downwards on furnace heat up. Why by-pass arrangement is provided in the high-pressure valves? By-pass arrangements serves two purposes: First. What precautions should be taken to conduct the hydro test? • High quality water should be used to prevent the internal fouling and corrosion. • The water temperature must be above the dew point temperature of the surrounding air to prevent the formation of condensate on the parts being tested. 243. 245. What is the function of Isolation valve? Isolation valve is normally fully open or fully close condition. in steam services. the balance water should be drained and chemical for normal filling of light up should be added & then the pre-boiler section should be filled. 18 Kannan.at boiler left side 55 m level and there is no separate vent for water headers. High temperature differential can cause thermal stress in the pressure parts and also it distorts the pressure parts attachments. This will prevent corrosion of water wall tubes due to high concentration of ammonia present in the water. 241. Hence. This hopper is always filled with water. • No air should be trapped in the unit during the hydro test. to balance the pressure on both sides of the main valve wedge or disc to bring down the opening torque. • Water temperature should not be more than 56ºC above the metal temperature to avoid excessive metal stress transients.M water or condensate treated with 10-ppm ammonia for pH control and 500 ppm of hydrazine for control of oxygen should be used for non-drainable super heaters and re-heaters. The valve should do this automatically and it should give constant output irrespective of any fluctuations in the inlet pressure. Where the seal trough is provided? At the bottom of every boiler a hopper has been provided with a sealing arrangement with water between boiler furnace and this hopper.

losses due to blowdowns and leakages have to be made up for maintaining designed boiler water quantity by means of the level gauges provided on the boiler drum. During heating in a boiler.Temp. ordinary boiling B. Diesel Cycle 249.By insulating the pipelines in a boiler the heat loss can be A. Why make up water is continuously added to the system? Since steam is taken out continuously and returned to the boiler. equal B.Turbulence C.overflowing continuously at the top seal to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Since this make up requires pure water this quality water is obtained by a Demineralised (DM) water treatment plant. no heat stored in it 255.During heating in a boiler the temperature of tube ad the temperature of water that is flowing inside the tube are A. 98ºC B. no change 260.Temp. Steam Power Plants are working based on A. Fusion welded C. pressure is not connected to stress 261. Time. In a boiler the temperature of drum at the outside surface and its inside surface are A. Its boiling temperature increases C. equal to the temperature inside 258. Gas Weld 257. scanners and igniters? Oil gun tips. Thermometer. However some storage is essential as DM plant may be down for maintenance. Why cooling air is continuously supplied to oil guns.e. Particularly cooling of oil gun tip ensures that there is no oil carbonization i. temperature A. Ranking Cycle. should not exceed the allowable stress of boiler material C. When pressure on water is increased A. different 259. water boils at A. different D. carbon cracking is eliminated at elevated temperature. 246. same C. False 19 . less heat stored in it B. For this.. 248. OTTO Cycle. remains same at all point. more steam & more moisture 253. 100ºC 250. scanners and igniter tips are directly exposed to furnace flame and get heated. none of these 256. continuous make up water is added to the boiler water system. C. B. reduced B. more than the temperature of the water inside C. True B.Thermometer 263. Its boiling temperature decreases B. At sea level. Saturated steams have-------Kannan. same C. For this purpose a storage tank is installed from which continuously DM water is drawn for boiler make up. less steam & more moisture B. none of these 252. Its boiling temperature has no effect. Though the tips are made up of special steels it is continuously cooled by respective cooling air system. 247. Super heated steams have ------------A. C. 251. Time.Water Wall tubes is --------A. nucleate boiling C. Fin Welded B. more heat stored in it C. Varies from point to point B. film boiling 262. 3T`s in Boiler Combustion Represents A. more steam & less moisture C.In boiling of water in a boiler there is A. Steam is better Thermal Conductor than water A. During heating in a boiler.Temp. the temperature of tube is A.Turbulence B. can exceed the allowable stress of boiler material B. Secondary air is used fore oil gun cooling and scanner air is used for scanners & igniters. 99ºC C. stopped C.In a boiler the pressure inside A. less than the temperature of the water inside B.k aee/bm/mtps A. temperature not connected to heat B.

2 x 50 C. Ultra sonic thickness meter Gauge C.Most of the Power Plant in India. Pressure Reducing De-Super Heater B. Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System C. 13 Elevations Kannan.10 B. Air Cooled Parallel Pipe.FSSS Stands for A.Total NO of PA Fans in Service at Full Load in Mettur TPS A. Dry Bottom Furnace Type C. Air Cooled Parallel Pipe.When any one of the ID Fan Trips. Fixed Type C. J-Type B.k aee/bm/mtps 278. Furnace Safeguard Savings System 281. Axial Type B. 6 C. 5 279. High capacity Boiler is also called as A. 30 to 45 CST C. 2 C.Boiler Wind Box Consist of ---------. Radial Type C. Steam Producer B. 4 B. In Thermal Power Plant “ESP” Stands for A. 60-70 C. Tilting Tangential Type B. Pressure Recorder De-super Heater 272. 2 276. Pressure Reducer Degree Super Heater C. 286. 14 Elevations B. 271. 15 to 30 CST B.What type of Burner Mechanism is employed at Mettur TPS? A. 2 B.Profile Type 268. 90-100269. FD Fans Used in Mettur TPS is A. Micro Meter is used B. No. Steam Generator C. J & JX-Type 288. 3 267. 5 C. 7 B.264. The corresponding FD Fan will also Trip A. 6 C.Total No of Coal compartments per Boiler in Mettur TPS A. Atomiser Spray Angle C. Atomiser Diameter B. None of the above 269. Steam Condenser 273. 15 Elevations C. Axial. 4 266. B.Total NO of FD Fans in Service at Full Load is in Mettur TPS A. None of the Above 283. Dry Bottom Furnace C. 3 C. Rotary Regenerative APH C. 34 C. Electro Static Power 284.at each corner A. Furnace Safeguard System B. 1 B.PA Fans Used in Mettur TPS is A. Mixed Bottom Furnace Type 282. 5 B. For Conducting Tube Thickness Survey A.Type C. Boiler Furnace of A. PRDS Stands for A. Wet Bottom Furnace B.HFO Viscosity at Oil Gun will be around A. No. Wet Bottom Furnace Type B. Recuperative APH 285.No of Coal Mills Available Per Unit in Mettur TPS A. JX. NO 270. 2 x 29 B. Oil Cooled Parallel Pipe.Total NO of ID Fans in Service at 210 MW Boiler at Full Load in Mettur TPS A. In 90 J 16 Oil Guns Spray Plate type 90 stands for A. Such Type of Furnace is called A. 45 to 60 CST 277. Of Down Comer Pipes in Mettur TPS boilers A. Atomiser Length 20 . 70-80. Electro Static Precipitator C. Extra Sensory Perception B. Radial Tilting Type 280. Axial Type B. 44 287. of Drum Safety Valves available at Mettur TPS A. Type of APH used in Mettur TPS A. Type of Main Oil Gun Used in Mettur TPS A. 24 B. B.When the Ash Fusion Temperature is above the Furnace Temperature. 2 265. Tubular APH B. 8 274. Total No of Turbo Separators in Boiler at Mettur TPS A. Yes. 3 C. Radial Type C. 2 x 30 275. PA Fan Bearing Temperature working Range from A.

TDS Stands for A. Low Alloy Steel C. Certificate for boiler is issued after conducting hydraulic test for A. C. A Good Refractory material should be A. Water Cooled Metallic walls 291. High Degree of Heat Resistance 21 299. Furnace Explosion 302. SA 213 T22 293. Time Delay Systems B. Choose the Carbon Steel grade from the Following A. Coal Powder Erosion B. Solid Refractory Wall B. Chairman/Slum Board C.289. Normal Curing time for Castable Refractory should be A. Indian Boiler Regulation B.25 Times of Design Pressure B. There is no norm 308.25 times of working pressure B. Feed Water Heater C. 24 hrs B. Indian Boiler Act formed in the Year A. 1920 B. Platen SH Coils are made up of A. 1923 C. Ultra Violet from Fuel Burning B. 1. Hollow Refractory Wall with Air Cooling C. Indian Business regulation C. The Competent Authority to Issue the B. SA 210 Gr. Carbon Steel B. k cal/Kg 297. 1. CBD B. High Alloy Steel 294. 2 Times of Design Pressure 306. In Water Chemistry. EBD C.5 Times of Design Pressure C. Direct Fuel Firing B. 48 hrs C. A. LRSB Stands for A. Drum Level Swelling can be controlled by Opening A. --. SA 213 T11 C. Furnace heat Transfer C. Low Alloy Steel C. Indian Bank Regulation 305. Clay Materials 312.5 times of working pressure C. Continues Blow Down B. Emergency Blow Down C. 1. Re-heater B. --Rays from the Fuel Burning C. W/MK C. Chairman/TNEB B. Furnace Dilution B. 58 B. 60 300. Glass Wool Mattress C. Carbon Steel B. Indirect Fuel Firing C. Chairman/TNBD 309. Total Dissolved Solids C. Thermal Diffusivity 298.k aee/bm/mtps . FSSS is Provide to Avoid Kannan. Burner efficiency B. High Alloy Steel 295. Intermittent Blow Down 301.Rays from the Fuel Burning 292. Flame Scanner is working based on Detecting A. Long Retractable Soot Blower Long Returnable Soot Blower Long Radial Soot Blower B. Type of Boiler Furnace Used in Mettur TPS A. Certificate in Tamil Nadu is A. Furnace Expansion C. IBR Stands for A. Economiser is a A. Sub critical boilers Water Wall Tubes are generally made up of A. Micro mho per cm B. Boiler Steam Lines can be insulated by A.Total Dissolved System 296. 56 C. IBD 303.O.C B. 1965 307. Coal Nozzle Tips used in the boiler are made up of A. Forged Steel B. The Unit of the Conductivity is A. Hydraulic Test Pressure for newly Erected Boiler will be A. Air Ingression 311. Fly Ash Erosion C. Cast Steel C. Stainless Steel 310. Silica in Steam Can be controlled by A. 36 hrs 313. Super heater 304. Partly Direct Fuel Firing & Partly In-Direct Fuel Firing 290. 1. Kind of Fuel Firing System Available in Mettur TPS A. Total No of Wall Degassers Available per Boiler in Mettur TPS A.E. Hard Facing of Coal Nozzles and Tips are done to reduce A. Boiler Cleaning is necessary to increase the A. Insulation Tape B.

Both (A) & (B) B. 325. No of main Oil Guns used per Boiler in Mettur TPS A. 500ºC C. Tube Mill 327. SADC Stands for A. For Oil Firing in Boiler A.Method is used A. Certificate for the Use of a Boiler can be Issued By A. To Absorb the Thermal Expansion C. Both (A) & (B) 334. Supply the Combustion air to Boiler B. C. A Component Authority from Boiler Inspectorate B. Service Air Damper Control Secondary Air Damper Control C. Atmosphere 336. Silicon Carbide (Sic) C. Furnace Explosion can be avoided by maintaining A. Primary Air for Combustion Secondary Air for Combustion Both (A) & (B) Kannan. Natural Circulation Type B. PA Fan Out-Let Inter-Connecting Duct B.1 00ºC B. Bowl Mill C. Scanner Air Fans have tap off from A. M. Supply the Service Air to Boiler 332. The Purpose of Providing Expansion Bellows in Ducting Systems is A. Primary Air Required Secondary Air Required None of the Above B. Bowl Mill C. Owner of the boiler 318. All 314. 316. 10 B. PA fan discharge header B. The most commonly used refractory cement consists of A. None of the Above 323. 11 to 14 321.S. 540ºC 22 B. SADC System 320. SCAPH Stands for A.k aee/bm/mtps 331. 4 x 4 B. 2 x 4 328. The Recommended pH value of Feed Water for HP Boilers ranging from A. 8. Evacuate the Flue Gas from Furnace to Chimney C. 14 322. Type of Coal Mill used in Mettur TPS A. A Component Authority from the Secretariat C. To Absorb the Moisture in Ducting System 317.V. 11 C. FD & GR Fans 333. 3 x 4 C. 6 to 7 B. To Absorb Flue Gases B. Low Thermal Material the Above C. Both (A) & (B) 330. Main Steam Safety Valve B. FD Fan Out-Let Inter-Connection Duct C. PRDS System B. Total No of SH Headers available in Mettur TPS A. Emergency Air Damper D. CBD B. The Super Heated Steam Temperature used for Power Generation in 210 MW units is A. Ball & Roller Mill B. PA Fan is required B. Alumna (Al2O3) B. Stands for A.5 C. C. Once through circulation 324. Both (A) & (B) 315. Main Steam Stop Valve C. Gas Re circulation Fans Required C. 326. Balance Draft can be maintained by A. ID Fans are used to A. .B. EBD C. Seal air fan C. FD Fans Supply the A.3 to 9. Types of Coal Mill used in ETPS A. None of the Above 335. PA & ID Fans B. FSSS C. Both (A) & (B) 329. Generally 500 MW Boilers are A. Carbon Steel Stainless Steel C. Mild Steel B. B. Forced circulation C. For 100% Oil Firing in 210 MW Boiler A. In case of FD fan failure the air for scanner air fan is drawn from A. IBD 319. Ball Mil B.S. For Controlling the Soluble Solids the Boiler Water --------. FD & ID Fans C. Steam Coil Air Pre Heater Steam Cooled APH C. Boiler Duct Materials are A.

Excess B. All the above 356. To Blow out the Foreign Particles from the Ring Header B. 24 C. Normally the High Pressure Boiler tube Root welding can be done by using A. Convection alone C. Economiser Re Circulation is necessary during light up to avoid A. For Atomising Heavy Furnace Oil A. Flue Gas temperature 352. Heat absorbed by the water & steam to the heat liberated by the fuel 350. 4` Boiler Left side C. Removal of Ash particles takes place in A. Removal of Oxygen from Feed Water takes place in A. Natural draught C. The main Purpose of providing Scanner in Boiler Furnace is to indicate the A. Heavy Furnace Oil & Light Diesel Oil C. Flues gas Analysis C. 2` Boiler Left side 360.337. Foundry Shop 349. Chimney draught is also called as A. B. Starvation in SH tubes D. Conduction. Steam sample Analysis B. Steam Jetty draught 342. Stores C. All the above 338. Package Boiler is necessary during 23 . All the above 341. Very high furnace draft C. Excess Air is required C. TIG Welding C. Bin card terminology is used in A. Excess Oil end Corrosion in APH is due to Air present in the Furnace Oil Sulphur present in the Furnace Calcium present in the Furnace 354. DM water Analysis 343. 1. Work Shop B. Air is used B. Welder B. Wet Steam B. Water Wall tube Puncture may lead to A. To Blow out the Steam C. 36 346. Turbine C. Deaerator B. Super Heated Steam 351. Electro Static Precipitator 345. Increase the Conductivity of Boiler C. 12 B. Conduction alone B. MIG Welding 359. Cold A. Decrease the PH value of Boiler Water B.500 mg/Kg 347. Convection & Radiation 355. Non-IBR Welder 358. 150 mg/Nm3. Boiler Mountings are A. Water level B. Modes of Heat transfer take place in Boiler Power plant are A. In Sea Shore Plant Condenser Tube Leakage leads to A. C. 2` Boiler Right side B. Boiler Efficiency may be defined as. To Blow out the Water 353. Heat Absorbed by Water to Steam. ESP 348. Steaming in Economiser C. Flame condition C. Attemperation is used to reduce the Temperature and heat Content of A. How many Fields are there in 210 MW ESP A. Diesel is used 340. Orsat Apparatus is used for A. Arc Welding B. Drum Level very Low Condition B. Pressure Gauges and Safety Valves C.Drum slope in NCTPS Boilers are A. All of the above 339. B. IBR Certified Welder C. Water level Indicators B. Fuels used in Mettur TPS Boiler are A. The Allowable limit of dust particles let out through Chimney is A. None of the above 344. Steam is used C. Coal B. High Pressure Boiler Tube should be welded by A. The Purpose of Providing Down Comer Blow off in the Boiler is A. For Complete Combustion of Fuel A. 150 gm/Kg. Deaerator B. Dry Steam C. All the above 357.k aee/bm/mtps C. Excess Oil C. Eco Coils Water Starvation B. Boiler C. is the Ratio of A. Theoretical Minimum Air only Required B. Heat Liberated in the Furnace Kannan. Artificial Draught B.

Ions 367. 147ºC B. 10th SH Header C. LOP Stop Alarm 374. How many SCAPH are used in 210MW Boiler A. Wall Soot Blower blowing Pressure A. Soot Blowing System 372. Irrespective of Flow 381. O2 368. Al Steel B. UAR 385. 17 Ksc B. Al Steel 370. Chloride B. NonReturn Valve 382. New Boiler 361. One Direction Flow B. 135ºC 375. 11Ksc C. Name the Cleaning Device used to clean the Basket while APH is in service A. Reverse Osmosis B. Anion Exchanger used in Water Treatment to Removes A. R. N2 C. C. Flap Valve Suitable for A.k aee/bm/mtps 373. 2 C. Reheater steam temperature C. Carton Steel B. Nature of Boiler Tube Puncture is A. The Impartment Protection device for an APH A. 700 Series B. Compression screw B. 1. How many LRSB are there in 210 MW Boiler of Mettur TPS A. H2 B. How many drives in each APH in Mettur TPS A. Rotor Stop Alarm B. Improper Gear Measuring C.6 380. Carbonates 366. 5th SH Header B. Both (B) & (C) 379. OH. Oil Temperature High Alarm C. Carbon Steel C. SH Steam Temperature B. 4 B. 800 Series C. 14th SH Header 362.O stands for A. 80ºC Kannan. 155ºC C. 1. What Type of Safety Valve used in Boiler drum and SH A. 1 371. at Both the ends 376. Hot End only C. Air Jet B. Material used in Cold End Basket Element of APH A. What is mean by Check Valve? A. Spring C. Gate Valve B. Globe Valve C. What is the allowable Temperature of an APH Bearings? A. None of the above B. Cation Exchanger used in Water Treatment to Removes A. SH Spray can be used to control the A. Burst opening (or) Fish mouth opening B. 60ºC B. Remove Osmosis 365. Cold end only B. 70ºC C. 1. Sodium C. 1 B. Both Directional Flow C. 4 C . 2 B. Wrong inner Setting D. 2. 18 B . H+ ions C. PRDS steam temperature 364. Water Jet C. 600 Series 384. Soot Blowing Steam is being taken from A. 27 377. All the above 363. If liquid fuel is highly viscose. Pin Hole Puncture C. Dust Accumulation on the Guide rods B. Carton Steel 369. Hydrazine dosing in Boiler Feed Water System to Remove A. Carbon Steel C. Restricted Osmosis C. Where the Soot blowers are positioned in APH at Mettur TPS A.A. How many ERV is provided in 210 MW Boiler A. 3 383. Magnesium B. Setting Pressure of a Safety Valve can be adjusted using A. Material used in Hot End Basket Element of APH A. Boiler Operation Commissioning C.10Ksc 378. Allowable Flue Gas Out-Let Temperature of an APH A. the action required for proper burning in boiler is -----------24 . Soot Blowers over run due to A.10 C.

a) 18 kg b) 14 kg c) 21 kg 401. 4 ksc C. Stelliting 389. X-Rays B. Ultra Sonic Testing C. a) LSHS b) LDO c) HSD d) furnace oil 388. Over Heating C. To Check the Tube Leakage in other area C. Purpose of Sky Climber in Boiler A. Steam erosion C. Pin hole Open C. Identify the fuel. Over Heating 390. Used as Lift for Boiler Furnace Maintenance B. Fly ash Erosion B. Main cause of the Tube Puncture on Boiler A.a) Cooling b) heating d) vapourising c) mixing a. Alloy steel Welding of Boiler Tubes required Pre Heating and Post Heating A. Viscosity of the liquid fuel is very much dependent on a) Pipe size b) colour c) temperature d) pressure 400. a) Poor combustion b) low excess air c) high thermal efficiency 404. Resistance welding b. which has the highest specific gravity. Long term Over Heating of Tubes leads to A. a & b 386. Burst Opening with thick lip B. Used as a Checking Device 396. “Turndown ratio” for burners is the ratio of a) Max air input over min air input b) Max fuel input over min fuel input c) Max fuel input over actual fuel input 403. Hydraulic Test is conducted in Boiler after Tube Puncture A. For complete combustion of every kg of fuel oil firing. Name the Valve Seat material used in high Pressure Steam Line A. Die Penetrate Test D.k aee/bm/mtps 25 . 10 ksc 399. Oxygen percentage measurement by volume basis can be done by using: a) Copper tubes b) potassium oxide probe c) zirconium oxide probe 402. High % of CO in the flue gas of boiler is an indicator of a) High excess air b) complete combustion c) low excess air 405. approximate theoretical quantity of air required is. Fly Gas Erosion B. 2 ksc B. At what pressure drum and super heater air vents has to be closed? A. All the Above 391. Al Steel B. True B. Fish mouth open 392. Presence of sulphur in the boiler fuel oil leads to a) Erosion b) corrosion c) low heat transfer 398. False 393. Shrouding used on Boiler to avert A. Welding Failure D. Used as a Welding Machine c. Non-Destructive testing method of Welding Joints A. Which one of the following has a high specific gravity? a) Kerosene b) furnace oil c) water Kannan. ARC d. Large and irregular lumps of coal when fired in a boiler lead to……. Both (A) & (B) 395. All 394. To Check the Welding Joints in Puncture are B. TIG welding welding c. Which one of the following methods of welding is used at site for boiler tube welding? 397. Stainless Steel C.

Kannan.k aee/bm/mtps 26 .

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