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Review ASME Section IX
The main key is: “Keep separate variables for Procedure and Performance”
Section IX Relates To : Qualification Of: Welders Welding Operators Brazers Welding/Brazing Procedures Who Are Employed In Welding & Brazing In Accordance With ASME BOILER & Pressure Vessel Code / API Code and Standards.
The Section Is Divided Into Two Parts: Welding Identified As QW Brazing Identified As QB (no in the BOK) What Does The Q Signify ? The Two Parts Are Further Divided Into Four Articles General Requirements Procedure Qualification Performance Qualification Data
Weld Deposit Material Properties Are Controlled Through – Procedure Qualification. Welder Skill Is Controlled Through – Performance Qualification. An Understanding of Essential, Non-Essential And Supplementary Essential Variables Is Required.
INTENTIONALLY Essentials, nonEssentials and Essentials Supplementary variables are not discussed now, but we will need talk about it forward…
INTRODUCTION … WELDING PROCESS … INTRODUCTION … SMAW – SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING 4 .
INTRODUCTION … GMAW – GAS METAL ARC WELDING INTRODUCTION … GTAW – GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING 5 .
INTRODUCTION … SAW – SUBMERGED ARC WELDING INTRODUCTION … 6 .
as a minimum. WPS's. The Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) documents what occurred during welding of the test coupon and the results of testing of the coupon: As a minimum the PQR shall document the essential variables and other specific information identified in Article II. 7 .1 A welding procedure is a written document that provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production welds. the specific variables. Qualification of new WPS's or WPQ's and requalification of existing WPS's and WPQ's shall be in accordance with the current Edition and Addenda of Section IX. it must address. WPS's. PQR's and WPQ's made in accordance with Editions prior to 1962 may be used if all the requirements of the 1962 Edition or later Editions are met. WPS's and WPQ's meeting the above requirements do not need to be amended to include any variables required by later 'Editions or Addenda. as provided in Article II. both essential and nonessential. When prepared by the manufacturer or contractor. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS … PART QW WELDING ARTICLE I . PQR's and WPQ's made in accordance with the 1962 Edition or any later edition may be used in any construction built to the ASME B&PV Code or the ASME 831 Code for Pressure Piping. When notch toughness is required the applicable supplementary essential variables must be addressed in the WPS. When notch toughness is required the applicable supplementary essential variables shall be recorded.WELDING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS QW-100.ARTICLE I.
RESPONSIBILITY … Important Points QW-103 Manufacturer/Contractor Is Responsible For Welding He MUST Conduct Tests To Qualify Welding Procedure And Welders/Welding Operators. Test Results MUST be kept by Manufacturer/Contractor MUST Be Certified By Manufacturer/Contractor What Constitutes Certification ? “READ 04 EDT & ADD-05 . WELDING POSITIONS … QW-120 To QW-132 WITH GRAPHICS IN QW-461 REFER.06” ARTICLE I.ARTICLE I. 8 .
IF YOU QUALIFY ON GROOVES DO YOU STILL HAVE TO QUALIFY ON FILLETS ? DOES THE REVERSE APPLY ?. QW-140 TYPES & PURPOSE OF TEST … Mechanical Tests (Destructive) Tension Tests: Guided Bend Tests: Fillet Weld Tests: Notch Toughness Tests: Stud Weld Tests: 9 .4) THEN IS BAD IDEA QUALIFY USING FILLETS ARTICLE I. (see table QW-451.
TENSILE TESTS … Specimen Ruptured Under Tensile Load ARTICLE I. “DOG BONE SAMPLES” (HUESO DE PERRO) … Maximum Load Tensile Strength = Minimum Cross Sectional Area Width x Thickness = Cross Sectional Area i.500” Wide x 0.1 (a) 10 .e.265” Thick Locate Dimensions Of A Sample – QW 462. 0.ARTICLE I.
ARTICLE I.1 (d) ARTICLE I. Tensile Strength Is Laid Out In Code.1 Minimum Of Weakest Base Metal Can Be 5% Under If Breaks In Base Metal. TENSION TEST ACCEPTANCE … QW153. TURNED SAMPLES … Cross Sectional Area Is πr2 Where r = Radius Of Specimen Be Cautious Code Sets Tolerance On Machined Specimens – QW-462. Where Find Now: QW 422 11 .
SOLVE … T1= 0. P. Composition. Additionally Group Numbers Are Assigned Where Notch Toughness Is Required.ARTICLE I. ARTICLE I. Mechanical Properties. Weldability. This Saves A Large Number Of PQR Tests.A Has It Passed? If the Failure Is In The Base Metal Has It Passed? 12 . NUMBERS … Contained In Tables Under QW/QB-422 Base Metals Are Grouped Based On Characteristics.285 x 0.748 What Is CSA? If It Fails At 17821 Lbs What is Tensile Strength? If It Fails In Weld Metal And Material Is A-139 Gr.
GUIDED BEND TEST … Dimensions As Code QW-160 refer to QW-466. Multiple Samples For Thick Sections. SOLVE … T1= 0.F55 Has It Passed? If the Failure Is In The Base Metal Has It Passed? ARTICLE I. Bent through 180 Degrees On Jig As Per Code 13 .X: Caution – Type Of Tests Based On Thickness Of Sample.ARTICLE I.495” Diameter What Is CSA? If It Fails At 20921 Lbs What is Tensile Strength? If It Fails In Weld Metal And Material Is SA-182 Gr.
GUIDED BEND TEST … Acceptance Criteria (QW-163): The Weld & Heat Affected Zone Must Be Within The Bent Area. Open Defects At Edge Shall Be Discarded Unless There Is Clear Evidence Of Welding Defect.ARTICLE I. No Open Defects In Weld Or HAZ Exceeding 1/8” In Any Direction. NOTCH TOUGHNESS TESTS Charpy V Notch Test In Accordance With SA-370 Acceptance Standards Are Complex And Will Be Covered Under ASME Section VIII / API-653. ETC. ARTICLE I. QW-170. Drop Weight Tests May be Required By Other Sections 10 mm 50 mm 14 . For Corrosion Resistant Cladding No Defect Exceeding 1/8” On Bond Line Or 1/16” Elsewhere.
2. Section V to be used. Radiographic Acceptance Criteria Acceptance criteria for welders and welding operators performance tests of welds in test assemblies. The acceptance standard for welders who qualify on production welds shall be per QW-191. 15 .2. OTHER MECHANICAL TESTS … Be Aware That There Are Requirements For: Fillet Weld Bends & Fracture Tests Macro Etch Examinations ARTICLE I. QW-190 … QW-190 OTHER TESTS AND EXAMINATIONS Radiographic Examination Requirements of Article 2.ARTICLE I.2.3 READ THE CODE BOOK NOW Production Welds The acceptance standard for welding operators who qualify on production welds shall be that specified in the referencing Code Section. QW-194 Visual Examination – Performance Performance coupons shall show complete joint penetration with complete fusion of weld metal and base metal. QW-191 QW-191. Written procedure not required nor is personnel qualification required.
THREE CRITICAL DOCUMENTS … PQR – Procedure Qualification Record WPS – Welding Procedure Specification WPQ – Welder Performance Qualification Record 16 .1/4 OF LENGTH OR 15% ANGLE AND STRAIGHTENED FIVE TORQUE TESTED OR TENSILE TESTED TORQUE AS PER QW-192. ARTICLE I. QW-192 STUD WELD TEST… QW-192 TEN TESTS PER PROCEDURE FIVE HAMMERED FLAT .ARTICLE I.3 TENSILE MUST MEET 35000 .30000 PSI FOR PERFORMANCE FIVE STUDS HAMMERED FLAT MUST SHOW NOR CRACKING OR LACK OF FUSION.
WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION… QW-200-1 WPS WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION Written Directions For The Welder/Welding Operator Making Production Welds Describing All Variables Involved.ARTICLE II. Non Essential And When Required Supplementary Variables Listed In QW-250 Thru. Describes All Essential. QW-280 17 . WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATIONS… ARTICLE II. QW-201 WPS.
WPS Must Be Available For Reference And Review By The AI.Change Affecting Mechanical Properties -Requires Specification Re-qualification Supplementary Essential Variable .Re-qualification Not Required. Non Essential Variable Can Be Changed Without Requalification But Must Be Recorded On A New Or Amended WPS Form. QW-201 WPS. WPS form May Be In Any Format As Long As All Information is Covered.Does Not Affect Mechanical or Notch Toughness.Work The Tables.ARTICLE II. VARIABLES… Essential Variable For One Process May Be Non Essential For Another . 18 .Change Affecting Notch Toughness Properties .Requires Specification Re-qualification Non Essential Variable . QW-201 WPS. ARTICLE II. VARIABLES… Essential Variable .
PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD… Any Variables Recorded MUST Be The Actual Variable.ARTICLE II. ARTICLE II. Base Metal Used In The Test Can Be In Any Form Qualification Is Transferable Between Plate & Pipe. QW-202 PQR. 19 . All Essential And Supplementary Essential Variables Must Be Recorded. All Variables In the WPS MUST Be Followed. If More Than One Process Or Filler Metal Is Employed RECORD The Approximate Deposit Thickness. Variables Not Recorded MUST NOT Be Recorded. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD… A Record Of What Actually Occurred During Welding And The Subsequent Mechanical Tests. CHANGES Are Not Allowed Except For Editorial Mistakes And Then Must Be Certified. PQR MUST Be Certified Accurate By Manufacturer/Contractor. Intent Is To Determine That the Required Mechanical Properties Can Be Achieved. QW-202 PQR. Any Non Essential Variables Can be Recorded At A Later Date.
The welders or welding operators used to produce weldments to be tested for qualification of procedures shall be under the full supervision and control of the manufacturer or contractor during the production of these test weldments. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD… Format May Be Any As Long As Required Information Is Present. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD… QW-201 Manufacturer's or Contractor's Responsibility Each manufacturer or contractor shall qualify the WPS by the welding of test coupons and the testing of specimens and. The weldments to be tested for qualification of procedures shall be welded either by direct employees or by individuals engaged by contract for their services as welders or welding operators under the full supervision and control of the manufacturer or contractor. QW-202 PQR. More Than One WPS Can Be Prepared From The Same PQR. QW-202 PQR. PQR Must Be Available To The AI But Does Not Have To Be Available To The Welders.ARTICLE II.2 (b) PQR MUST Be Certified Accurate By Manufacturer/Contractor. the recording of the welding data and test results in a document known as a PQR. FROM QW-202. More Than One PQR Can Be Used to Prepare The Same WPS. See example for WPS’s from one PQR 20 . One WPS May Cover Multiple Essential Variable Changes Providing The PQR Exists For All Essential & Supplementary Variables. WHAT HAPPEN WITH AWS-CWI? ARTICLE II.
Qualification in plate also qualifies for pipe welding and vice versa. Know How To Find And Use These Tables :- 21 . Non Essential & Supplementary Essential. BASE METALS… QW-211 Base Metal The base metals may consist of either plate. VARIABLES PER EACH PROCESS… Source Of Guidance On Which Variable Apply To Which Process. Read now from codebook… ARTICLE II. Which Are Essential. or other product forms.ARTICLE II. pipe. QW-250. QW-211.
QW-251. QW-250. WELDING PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS… 22 . as described in the specific variables. may be made in the WPS without requalification.3 QW-250.2 WELDING VARIABLES Essential Variables Essential variables are those in which a change.ARTICLE II. WELDING VARIABLES PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS) QW-253 QW-254 QW-255 QW-256 Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Submerged-Arc Welding (SAW) Gas Metal-Arc Welding (GMAW and FCAW) Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding (GTAW) ARTICLE III. VARIABLES PER EACH PROCESS… QW-250 QW-250. is considered to affect the mechanical properties of the weldment. and shall require requalification of the WPS.3 Nonessential Variables Nonessential variables are those in which a change as described in specific variables.
Welding Performance Qualifications… Qualification Of The Man. or by bend tests taken from a test coupon except as stated in QW-304 and QW-305. Qw-301.2 The welders or welding operators used to produce such weldments shall be tested under the full supervision and control of the manufacturer. assembler. Limited By Essential Variable For Each Process – Different From Procedure Qualification – QW-352 Onwards Visual Examination Always Required. Identification of Welders and Welding Operators 23 .ARTICLE III. or installer during the production of these test weldments. contractor.1 Intent of Tests The performance qualification tests are intended to determine the ability of welders and welding operators to make sound welds.2 Qualification Tests The performance qualification shall be welded in accordance with qualified WPS's.1 A welder or welding operator may be qualified by radiography of a test coupon.300 GENERAL QW-301. QW-301 Tests QW-301. Qualification By: Guided Bend Tests Of Test Coupon Radiography Of – Test Coupon or First Production Weld ARTICLE III. Welding Performance Qualifications… ARTICLE III WELDER PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS QW. QW-300. radiography of his initial production welding.
ARTICLE III.2… Reading Carefully Manufacturer/Contractor MUST Conduct Tests To Qualify Welders More than one manufacturer/contractor conducting only one tests for qualification procedure ARTICLE III.. Caution It May Limit His Range Of Qualification 24 . QW-301. QW-300.2… Performance Tests Must Be Done To A Qualified WPS. Welder Who Prepares The WPS Qualification Test Coupon is Qualified Within Those Limitations (If It Passes).
Identification Of Welders… Each Welder Must Be Assigned Unique Identification. Record Of Tests… QW-301. Identify All Work With This. Does Not Have To Hard Stamp!!! ARTICLE III. QW-301. WPQ Must Record: Essential Variables Type Of Test Test Results Range Qualified 25 . QW-301.ARTICLE III.4.3. the type of test and test results.4 Record of Tests The record of Welder/Welding Operator Performance Qualification (WPQ) tests shall include the essential variables (QW-350 or QW-360). and the ranges qualified in accordance with QW-452 for each welder and welding operator.
QW-304. QW-304. Qualification Using Radiography Allowed Using: SMAW.2 Mechanical (Bend ) Tests Or Radiography. PAW GMAW Except in Short Circuiting Mode Except P-21 Through P-25. If Qualified On Production Weld: Radiography Of First 6” Of Weld (for welder) 26 . GTAW. or by radiography. Alternatively a 6 in.2.1 Examination Welds made in test coupons may be examined by visual and mechanical examinations.ARTICLE III. length of the first production weld made by a welder may be qualified by radiography. ARTICLE III. P62 Materials. Acceptance criteria? Test Coupons: QW-191. Welders … Shall Pass Mechanical And Visual Requirements. P-51 Through P-53 Using GTAW Are Allowed. P-21Through P-25. P-51 Through P-53 & P-61. SAW.1 Welders Examination… QW-304.
QW-305 Welding Operators… Welding Operators:What is Difference? Much The Same Rules Apply However: If Qualifying By Radiography On Production Weld The First Three Feet Of Weld Must be Examined. 27 . ARTICLE III. QW-304.1 Welders Examination… If Radiography On A Production Weld Is Unacceptable Then The Welder Has Failed.ARTICLE III. Entire Production Weld Must Then Be Radiographed And Repaired By A Qualified Welder.
Small Diameter Pipe Need Not Exceed Eight Pipes. If Fails Visual – Shall Make Two Consecutive Test Coupons And Then Pass Visual & Mechanicals. If Fails Mechanicals – Shall Make Two Consecutive Test Coupons And Then Pass Mechanicals.ARTICLE III. Welding Operator . This is The Two For One Rule.Radiograph 6’ Of Weld. 28 . QW-320 Retest and Renewal of Qualification… A Welder Or Operator Who Fails May Be Retested. If Not He Has Failed. ARTICLE III. If Passes He Is Qualified And Can Repair the Earlier Failed Part. If Fails Radiography – Coupons Make Two 6” Inch Plates Or Two pipes Totalling 12” Of Weld. QW-320 Retest and Renewal of Qualification… If Production Weld Fails Radiography: Radiograph 12” Of Same Production Weld.
In any given production weldment. welders may not deposit a thickness greater than permitted by QW-452 for each welding process in which they are qualified. QW-350 Welding Variables for Welders… QW-350 QW-351 WELDING VARIABLES FOR WELDERS General A welder shall be requalified whenever a change is made in one or more of the essential variables listed for each process in QW-352 thru QW-357. Expires If Does Not Weld for Six Months or Ability is Questioned. Renewal May Be Done On Production Work.1 or QW-361. Check out tables from QW-350 / QW-360 from codebook… 29 . Expired Qualifications May Be Renewed By Welding One Test Coupon And Successfully Testing. QW-322 Expiration & Renewal of Qualifications… Renewal & Expiration of Qualifications. QW-360 QW-361 WELDING VARIABLES FOR WELDING OPERATORS General A welding operator shall be requalified whenever a change is made in one of the essential variables listed for each process in QW-361.ARTICLE III.2. ARTICLE III. Revoked Qualifications Must Be Tested On A Test Coupon.
QW-423 Alternate Base Metals for Welder Qualification Base material used for welder qualification (Column 1) may be substituted for the P-Number material specified in the WPS (Column 2) . QW-422 FERROUS P-NUMBERS AND S-NUMBERS Grouping of Base Metals for Qualification This is a listing of all the SA and SB base metal specification numbers in ascending order which are used to determine the minimum specified tensile strength and P-No's of the. WELDING DATA… ARTICLE IV.ARTICLE IV. When answering any questions regarding the WPS/PQR combination it is very important to read each of the required variables before answering any questions. Welding Data QW-400 VARIABLES These are the complete wording of the variables that are listed under "Brief of Variables" in the checklists QW-252 thru QW-264. base metals shown on the PQR. 30 .
QW-450 QW-451 QW-451.ARTICLE IV. This Table is referenced from Welding Data Variable QW-404.15. to other lower P-No's. the number of tension tests required and the type and number of bend tests required. The Table also shows for the thickness T of the test coupon welded.5 for ferrous weld metal deposits. he/she are not permitted to weld without backing for the lower FNumbers. Welding Data QW-442 A-NUMBERS Classification of Ferrous Weld Metal Analysis for Procedure Qualification This Table is used to identify the weld metal chemical composition designated on the PQR and WPS per QW-404. Note that qualification using one P-No. to the same P-No. QW-432 F-NUMBERS Grouping of Electrodes and Welding Rods by Qualification For the API Examination we are only interested in F-No's 1 thru 6 Steel and Steel Alloys with their corresponding ASME Specifications and A WS Classifications. Note that although a welder who qualifies on a higher F-Number without backing is also qualified to weld lower F-Numbers. may permit the welding of that P-No. ARTICLE IV. Welding Data QW-424 Base Metals Used for Procedure Qualification Base metals used for the Procedure Qualification (Column 1) qualify the base metals listed in (Column 2). It is also important to read the applicable notes as there may be permitted variations in the thickness limits and types of test specimens. SPECIMENS Procedure Qualification Thickness Limits and Test Specimens GROOVE WELD TENSION TESTS AND TRANSVERSE-BEND TESTS This Table is used each time the thickness range T of base metals qualified and maximum thickness t of deposited weld metal on the WPS is being verified based on the thickness T of the test coupon welded during PQR qualification. QW-433 Alternate F-Numbers for Welder Performance Qualification This Table identifies the filler metal or electrode F-Number used during qualification testing as "Qualified With" and the electrode or filler metal that the welder is qualified to use in production as "Qualified For".1 31 . NOTE: For GMAW a weld metal deposit analysis from the PQR may be required if the shielding gas used to weld the procedure qualification test coupon was not the same used by the SFA Specification.
This Table in conjunction with QW-461.on Thickness Limits and Test Specimens TRANSVERSE-BEND TESTS This table is used to determine the maximum thickness of deposited weld metal qualified for a welder or welding operator.ARTICLE IV.3 GROOVE WELD DIAMETER LIMITS In order for a welder/welding operator to weld small diameter pipe/tube this table is used to determine the outside diameter of the test coupon. to give the welder/welding operator the maximum to be welded qualification. Welding Data ARTICLE IV. Note that the 2000 addenda reduced the deposited weld metal thickness from 3/4 in. QW-461.9 is used to determine performance position and diameter limitations. Also a minimum of three layers must be deposited.1 Performance Qualiificati. to 1/2 in. QW-452. Welding Data QW-452 QW-452.POSITION AND DIAMETER LIMITATIONS Extremely important that this Table be thoroughly understood and unfortunately to be memorized since recent API Examinations have had questions taken from it in the closed book portion of the examination.9 PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION . 32 .
750 in. diameter specimen from less than 3/4 in.REDUCED SECTION – PLATE Width of specimen regardless of thickness is 3/4 in. maximum.REDUCED SECTION – PIPE Width of specimen regardless of thickness is 3/4 in. as an example. QW-461. ARTICLE IV.1(b) TENSION .REDUCED SECTION .ARTICLE IV. QW-462. It is therefore not possible to obtain. Welding Data QW-463 Test Specimens Unless a minimum. or less may use this alternate reduced section specimen which has a width of 1/2 in.TURNED SPECIMENS These are round specimens that come in four different diameters.1(c ) TENSION .ALTERNATE FOR PIPE Per QW-151. or tolerance is given in the figures. the dimensions are to be considered approximate. NOTE: The C dimension or grip end for each of the four specimens is larger than the diameter D.2 pipe having an outside diameter of 3 in. Welding Data. a 0.1(a) TENSION . TENSION . QW-462.505 in.9 33 . thick plate because the grip end is 0.REDUCED SECTION . QW-462.
1(b) PLATES -3/4 in. 34 . ASSEMBLY PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION QW-463.2(e) PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION PIPE 3/4 in.ARTICLE IV. BUT LESS THAN 3/4 in. THICKNESS QW-463.1(d) PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION PIPE UP TO 3/4 in.3(a) FACE AND ROOT BENDS – TRANSVERSE Dimensions of face and root bend specimens. Welding Data QW-463.2 SIDE BEND Dimensions for side bend specimens QW-462.2(g) 6 in.2(a) PLATES . QW-463. THICKNESS PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION QW-463. OR 8 in.1(e) PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION PIPE 3/4 in. AND OVER THICKNESS AND ALTERNATE FROM 3/8 in.1(a) PLATES .2(b) PLATES –3/4 in. ASSEMBLY PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION QW-490 DEFINITIONS These are definitions related to welding/brazing and may be helpful in answering some questions. These are the only ones covered by the API Examination. QW-463 Order of Removal The following are the order of removal sketches that must be followed by those organizations that prepare the test specimens for procedure and performance qualification.2((f) PIPE-10 in. AND OVER THICKNESS QW-463.LESS THAN 3/4 in. THICKNESS PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION ARTICLE IV.2(d) PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION PIPE UP TO 3/4 in. THICKNESS PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION QW-463. AND OVER THICKNESS QW-463. AND OVER THICKNESS AND ALTERNATE FROM 3/8 in. THICKNESS QW-463. Welding Data QW-462. BUT LESS THAN 3/4 in. THICKNESS PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION QW-463.LESS THAN 3/4 in.
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