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Abreviations, Notes and References

NACCCE report

221

Abbreviations

AOT

Adults other than teachers

BECTA

British Educational Communications and Technology Agency

CPD

Continuing professional development

DCMS

Department of Culture, Media and Sport

DfEE

Department for Education and Employment

GDP

Gross domestic product

HEI

Higher education institutions

HMI

Her MajestyÕs Inspectorate

ICT

Information and Communication Technology

INSET

In-service training

IT

Information Technology

ITT

Initial teacher training

LEA

Local education authority

LMS

Local management of schools

NESTA

National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts
NPQHTNational professional qualification for head teachers
NQT

Newly-qualified teacher
OFSTEDOffice for Standards in Education
PE

Physical education

PSHCE

Personal, social, health and cultural education (as defined by Stoke Newington
School)

QCA

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority

RSA

Royal Society of the Arts

TTA

Teacher Training Agency

Notes

1. The Challenge for Education

1.

Digital media, the industry responsible for designing and creating content for the internet
and other digital formats, such as CD-ROMs, could create up to 80,000 jobs over the next
eight years. Some 20,750 people in the UK are employed in digital media, a sector that
barely existed a decade ago, according to a study commissioned by the Digital Media
Alliance, a consortium of companies involved with the industry. There are 2,750 digital
media companies in the UK with combined annual revenue of £687.5m. Roughly 2,000
freelances, mustering combined annual income of £50m, work in the digital media sector.
The study estimates that 500 specialist digital subsidiaries of traditional media groups
produce annual turnover of about £187.5m. The work of these companies and individuals
has given the UK an international reputation as having Òrecognised indigenous talent for
creative ideas and cultural innovationÓ. The UKÕs digital media industry has the potential
to grow by at least 20 per cent per year over the next decade, more than double the rate of
traditional creative sectors, such as film and advertising. It could then employ 100,000
people and generate annual revenues of £5bn by 2007. The education system needs to be

B.

Abreviations, Notes and References

NACCCE report

222

restructured to train the type of skilled employees that the industry needs and eradicate
its present skill shortages.

2. Creative Development

1.

Ford & Harris III 1992; Taylor 1988: 118-119. Calvin Taylor and associates have traced
Òsome 50 or 60 definitionsÓ of creativity.

2.

A survey of teachers and lectures found that there was Òa pervasive view that creativity
is only relevant to the artsÓ. Fryer (1996:79).

3.

These categories develop a distinction between psychological originality and historical
originality made by Boden 1990:32).

4.

The description of these stages has a long history but is primarily associated with Wallas
(1926:80).

5.

Guilford (1975:33-46); Perkins (1994:138). Also Welsh (1975:117).

6.

Perkins cited in Kirby & Kuykendall (1991:16).

5. Teaching and Learning

1.

What a person does in terms of creativity Òwill grow out of his or her conception of
personal actualities and potentialitiesÓ (Perkins 1981:272). For the role of self-image in
adult expectations which facilitate creative acts, see MacKinnon (1962), MacKinnon
(1970), Bergum (1973), Bergum (1975) and Kirton (1989) all cited in Ford (1995:24).
Also Minkin (1997:117-118).

2.

On the beneficial effect of the directive to Òbe creativeÓ see Datta (1963), Cummings,
Hinton & Bobdel (1975) and Fontenot (1993) cited in Ford & Gioia (1995:35).
Disposition has been judged to be very important in creative behaviour (Craft et al
1997:79 citing Perkins, Jay & Tishman 1993).

3.

Craft (1997:28); Fryer (1996:124); Hubbard (1996:47-64); Torrance (1984); Paul,
Torrance & Dorothy (1997).

4.

Armbruster (1989: 177-182); Pesut (1990:105-110). For evidence to suggest that
metacognitive behaviour is modifiable and metacognitive skills teachable, see Nickerson,
Perkins & Smith (1985:294-302).

7. Raising Standards

1.

For a full description of Project 1000 see Fryer, Creative Teaching and Learning,
Chapman, London, 1996; p111-118. We are grateful to Marilyn Fryer for helpful advice
on the assessment of creativity.

B.

Abreviations, Notes and References

NACCCE report

223

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