KARL MERZ. ons NEW YORK . A COMPLETE COURSE OF INSTRUCTION FOR TEE *& DR. COPYRIGHT MDCCCLXXXV. fh - CHICAGO AVC. BRAINARD'S SONS.20 E. S.If KARL MERZ 1 PIANO METHOD. BY . I7.

The very favorable reception extended to our instruction . and encouraged thereby. we have prepared this volume. Similar requests having reached us from teachers located in different we felt that such a book was desired." hae induced our publishers to request us to prepare for them also an Instruction book for the Piano." "The Musical Hints" and "The Elements of Harmony. which is hereby offered to the public. and hope we may have succeeded in our efforts in that direction. _J . parts of the country. "We have tried to make the duties of teachers and pupils pleasant as well as profitable. NT PREFACE.THM VOLUME IS DEDICATED TO MY MOTHER HENRY. book for the "Parlor Organ. WHO HAS ALWAYS TAKEN A LIVELY INTEREST IN MY PROFESSIONAL LABOR*.

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Place the child in his care and trust in his ability and fidelity. The teacher can no more hasten mental developement. if he does not reach your ideal of a teacher. and as such it is deserving of our esteem and most diligent cultivation. important that the first lessons of a pupil should be directed by a skillful. namely. these reasons yon should not only pay your teacher well. not only as to the length of time * pupil should practice. Not every instruction book is fit for your child's use do not object then to the expense of providing the necessary means for instruction. and both should combine to make it as profitable and pleasant as possible. discharge him quietly. in the discharge of his duties. for it is . fall. that of hastening the teacher. without injuring his reputation. for in most cases of this kind the pupil is to blame and not the teacher. See to it that your child is obedient. The most Parents can readily rectify the difficulty if they faithful teacher at times gains the ill will of lazy and disobedient children. It is a means of education and culture. but also to its proper division. Bear in mind that not all pupils are alike gifted. See to it then. thereby making the teacher's success simply impossible. applying the teacher's instructions. He may use every efficient means conducive to mental growth. if properly used. nor are all equally diligent. keep your instrument in order and sae to it that the child is ready for the lesson at the proper time . for he helps along the great work of making this world better and more beautiful. It is better to practice one hour carefully. attach no blame to the teacher. also in their short-sightedness thej often side with their children. but also its mind. respectful and diligent. To become a good teacher of music requires years of study and practice. ought to consult with teachers of music as regards their children's progress and conduct. more especially mothers. This will be an aid both to teacher and pupil. child cannot get along with the teacher. without carefully examining into the case. than he can hasten the growth of a plant. that the highest possible benefits are only derived by those who study music as an art. Consult with the teacher. for without this the teacher must fail. If a pupil's mental growth is slow. but here his task ends. parents should be patient. therefore. aa you. therefore. Aside from this it is an arduous and sometimes very difficult task to impart musical instruction. than to play a half day listlessly. your child an opportunity to study it. Parents. Anally. The first lessons are designed to lay a good foundation for technic. Select. Both teacher and parent should frequently explain to pupils the necessity of careful practice. but also cheerfully. He who teaches the art of music. It is to your credit that you give It is best. wilf but support the teacher If your yes. after this is accomplished come also the pleasures to be derived from a musical education. For this he should be honored. for a conscientious teacher takes as much interest and pride in your child's progress. They should endeavor as much as possible to understand the daily lesson so as to be able to watch with some degree of intelligence over their practicing. Remember. nor be impatient for it to take its first piece. they themselves often indulge in unjust criticism. Music. If. they should not find fault with the teacher. the the cheapest in the end. however. Remember that not only should a child's fingers and hands develope. TO PARENTS. Avoid the error into which so many parent* It is safest to go slowly in the work of musical education. Neither dictate as to what music a child is to use. masterly teacher. exercises a beneficial influence upon the human mind and heart. your child's progress is slower than that of ycur neighbor.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. follows a high calling. that your children derive all those benefits from their musical studies which art-culture provides.

then play the whole smoothly from beginning to end. that of playing it with expression. for the lesson hour is your own. play them alone. until you have hours for practice and let nothing interfere with them. piece once mastered is of value. do not . art? If it a requires years of application to master trade.KARL MERZ" riANO METHOD. asking is a sure indication of an active mind. Look not at the end of the road you are to travel. By constant reviewing the pupil gains more and more the mastery over all technical difficulties and thu<s he is enabled also to play with A m' "e freedom and expression. however. take notes. Take nothing for and note carefully. Most pupils are satisfied with having learned to play the notes of a piece correctly. for the teacher would rather repeat it ten you understand a topic. Do not clandestinely play pieces. simply because they lay the old ones aside. It is not necessary that the fourth and if individual should be used continuously or uninterruptedly. lesson that is not plain to you. but rather to which honest work from lesson to lesson. No when Never practice pupils. like so much property gained. and ask Be not afraid to ask questions. then begins the real study. and faithfully apply them when practicing. Every person loses through the day many minutes which are spent in idle waiting. so to speak. Read good musical books. is sure to be productive of evil results. After a pupil has learned to play the notes of a piece correctly. a diligent pupil may to the contrary it if almott sure to is to be derived from it in bodv or mind. and mastered them. our advice to pupils by enjoining them to be faithful. with When over of pieces and exercises not practice. Finally we would sum to their teachers. We cannot enjoin enough upon pupils the necessity of reviewing. devoting say a half hour to technical studies may divide it should the time to be given to each branch of the lesson be reduced. to six hours to the dailj study of their lesson. Pay special attention to the difficult places. a celebrated teacher. as soon as a new one has been learned. a list of your daily work well. punctual." Use every means at your disposal to obtain a correct appreciation ot you will find in the Musical Hints that keeps alive within you a love for work and a the art you are studying. and times to-day. In short watch and consider everything in connection granted. Young persons that attend school ought to Set aside regular two hours daily according to their state of health. the benefits to be derived therefrom are really great. it ought to be reviewed. write it down If you find anything in the for this the teacher for the desired information. on many things. not attending school should spend not practice from one to while those who aspire for artistic perfection should devote at least five less than from two to three hours in is your your daily practice. your progress is sure to be interrupted by passing Make it a cardinal principle to practice slowly and intelligently.S a rule one fourth of this time should be devoted to technical studies. Do much hard work. Do one year. the single step you are taking. Pupils when part of the time to be devoted to the study of exercises. Never hasten. or this ambitious playing of pieces that are too difficult for the pupil. before you play. But in no case into two portions of fifteen minutes each. do not expect merely pleasure and entertainment. Never say questions. than to be forced to return to it at a later time. This will be a means of inspiration. and one half to the study 01 the new lesson. so. u' . for this would be a waste of time. polite and cheerful After d'jng all this they can afford to let the results take care of themselves. This nibbling. a power desire for knowledge. Be sure your teacher over a lesson without fully comprehending it. but read every sign whole mind to your work. do to the Million. Amateurs. if for none other. never be careless. for that alone deserves to be called practice. . prove detrimental to the pupil's health. and indulgent teachers but too often allow them to stop there. thereby gaining daily an extra quarter or half hour of practice. A. not expect to become a perfect pianist in to perfect yourself in an longer time is necessary the strictest attention to your teacher's Pay remember all that has been told you. and you will succeed. Other divisions of time may be more profitable to the teacher no doubt will make the needed suggestions. but rather be prepared for starting out as a piano-student. TO When PUPILS. 'Tis a dishonest practice that is sure to injure you. The mere playing Put lesson. and for this reason. Every intelligent teacher likes to have his pupils ask questions. how much If you cannot instructions. be careful that you wander not from the lesson in hand. Many pupils never have more than one piece they can play. weary good . when you will discover all your deficiencies. both in exercises and pieces. diligent. one fourth to reviewing. says utilize on the piano. These. It has cost so much time and labor. ask for a repetition of the explanation.

The first lessons should be given by the best teachers. To cause a pupil to understand a truth. to see the result of your labors. By the side of a good technic do all you can to develop correct sentiment. he who is eager for his lesson. with a poor one. others dislike the work and denounce it as too dry and uninteresting. we would advise you to enliven your lessons bj telling the children some musical stories. sacrificing a principle in principle is sure to commend itself. pupil with but little sentiment but posessed of a good technic may play some things well. and there is none so learned that he is above teaching the rudiments of an art like music. Always do good work. but also to counteract habits that have been acquired. Avoid conversing on subjects which are not connected with music. the 'teacher himself must be interested. Use plain language in your lessons Do not theorize. An incentive and original turn of mind enables the teacher who loves his work to infuse life into any subject he may take in hana In fact the genuine teacher will never be at a loss -for want of interesting illustrations and effective explanations. but in order to make it so. and discourage all mere mechanical routine work. so the inferior teacher fails with the best book. give up your pupil. hasten. He who is not interested in it lacks the very first qualifications of a teacher. Perfection Have a definite course in view with each pupil. Mere telling is not teaching. The intelligent teacher will readily see what he needs and what his more gifted pupils may leave unused. and use every possible means to awaken thought. It is better that inyour pupil play one piece perfect. and to make them shorter. and strive faithfully to be true to it. but make your explanations brief and concise. No instruction book can be written that shall exactly suit all pupils. The teacher may not be capable of giving such instructions. The teaching of beginners can and ought to be made interesting. because they were neither cheerful nor forbearing toward those whom they instructed. for steadfastness but rather than do this. he understands and knows. After such diversions return to your lessons and you will find that your child's mind is refreshed. Music teachers no doubt have observed that young pupils become weary with lengthy music lessons. TO THE TEACHER. Strive to be a friend to your pupil.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. In order to develop thought. or he who tries to escape from it f he who loves his profitable. Some deem themselves above it. while a skilled artisan succeeds even poor with poor tools. spires. From the very first lesson train your pupila to think. the first teacher lays the foundation for all future musical education. etc. It is hotter at first to give daily lessons. but he is by no means above it. You can therefore not be too careful and too conscientious. The rudiments themselves. but at the same time allow the pupil's individuality to develop. have known not a few pupils that have taken a dislike to music because teacher. The A We ! A . in many cases he finds that his pupils have not only failed to remember his instructions. let if be bestowed in the shape of well directed questions. because they were not capable of entering into the spirit of children. and by inducing your pupila to do the same. contains sufficient material to satisfy the wants of all. Explain everything in connection with the niece your pupil is studying. but have actually acquired bad habits bad during practice hours. have been. who has no technic. quietness of mind is absolutely necessary. ious questioning. you yourself must be the soul that breathes ILe into it. or he may be too lazy to do so. to remember it and to practically apply it. Aim at a good technic. than to simply state it for his benefit. to watch the operations of their minds. Show the lesson in hand from all possible sides. Yield to the wishes of parents and pupils whenever you can do so without You will be the gainer in the end. No matter how carefully the teacher may. Many teachers have lost pupils. This you may largely do by asking quesIt is better that the student arrive at a truth through a course of judictions. This is the most interesting work any man can be engaged in. Impatience by word or action confuses and intimidates. no matter how poetic and appreciative he may be. at least in the first quarter could have some one with them while they practice. Whatever you do. do well. The first lessons are of most importance. however. great patience on your part is necessary. than to give two lessons a week each three quarters of an hour long. if the teacher has the necessary ability. to study their disposition. Only that which a pupil can say or write down in his own language. If this cannot be done. rather lead than drive. while a good instructor manages to get along. of the high mission of art. however. good instruction book. It is at any time interesting to teach children. to observe how their mind and character develop. is teaching. This is all wrong. Establish friendly relations between yourself and your pupils. even the slowest. he. will never accomplish much as a player. This would save much time and prevent many annoyances both to the pupils as well as to teachers. for thereby you make your lessons pleasant and more Which pupil learns most. patient even when the pupil commits errors. Much of that kind of information may be matle profitable as well as interesting. see to it that your pupils play something by heart. keep alive within vou a full appreciatio. however. for the simple reason that they are not alike gifted. neither command nor demand. nor alike diligent. and it were better if young pupils. or he who does not care for him? their first teachers were not what they ought to have been. Aaa mechanic fails to do good work though he have at his command the best tools. do not it makes pupils ambitious arid gives them self-confidence. Hastening and driving accomplishes no good. make your daily duty a pleasure. than that he have a dozen each one of which is marred by imperfection. though apparently dry and uninteresting may be made entertaining. review constantly. instruction book is simply to be your aid and guide. Study the operation of your pupil's mind. Much time is thus wasted. never become a mere taskmaster. Be true to your convictions as a teacher. Be therefore patieut in waiting for an answer. Thus the teacher is not only compelled often to go over the same lesson. convince yourself that it is thoroughly understood. and before proceeding to another. Such assistance ought of course to be present in the lesson so as to hear all instructions given. In order to think clearly. There are teachers who dislike to teach the rudiments of their art. if necessary. If aid is needed.

There to- In order to avoid them. are distinguished by nnmbrB. The notes on the gether. those which are white and those which are black ^. - space below the staff. calling this combination a brace. staff are usually played by the right hand. The word loco which usually is placed at the end of the curved line. follows : legrer line above Ma* We & i 2d leger line below tae staff.id Too many : leger lines would make it difficult to read notes. counted from below upward. have two kinds of notes in use. 4 tli Hue -3th line nine -ist line- JCllIlK i lines are called spaces . In order to write the notes which cannot be re- The name of the notes on the lines are : Though presented on the staff. signifies that the notes should again be played in their natural position. many more. however. the following sign is placed over notes 8tfo~~. These note* are written upon five parallel lines These lines are enumerated as called the staff. being counted either up or down from the staff. space ist space The being. Masioal Bounds are represented by signs called notes. we put the two staffs the sign means that the notes should be played an octave lower. 1 If theee lines it The names of the notes on the FACE -r- leger lines are : were lengthened out would be difficult for like those of the staff the eye to quickly place a note." In order to avoid the introduction of too many names in our musical system. we notice they sound alike.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. for reason they are made short. staff therefore affords room for nine notes. we call the eighth The eighth tone is note by the same letter as the first. THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. those of the upper lower staff by the left hand. the brace gives us much additional room it does not suffice. 3* space above the staff. '. this E C . The Names of The first Notes. The intervals between the like the lines are and these. which means that the notes over which is the curved line which follows Sva. About Notes. should be played an octave If the 8va-~~ however. Thioe are short lines ~~S G B D : P The names of the notes on the spaces are which apply to single notes. higher. The spaces between the leger lines are counted in a like manner . called octave. When striking the eighth note with the first. is placed below the notes. we use Keger or Added LJnes. like the lines of the staff. The leger lines. seven letters of the alphabet are usea to name the notes.

let us now consider their various forms and time values. therefore the following series of notes The Value of ISotes. is The following The whole note table represents the respective value of these various kinds of notes. is of learning them ferent classes made easier. Whenever it is used. Let the teacher There are many illustrations which drill them in the lesson. and sections. and has a stem a stem the eighth note the quarter note is black. 32dNote. which are equal to . series of tonei. In a later lesson you will be made acquainted with another clef. The names of the lines are : note* on the spaces between the leger G We have B D DBG : 1 Observe the sign placed at the beginning of the above This is the treble or the G clef. Older pupils should not waste their lesson hour with committing notes to memory. 64th Note. the thirty-second note three. their consecutive order as given here. the notes have the names as given them above. let him follow this plan. the sixteenth note has two dashes. but has a dash . equal to two halves. because in our opinion the task Whole Note.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . and with notes with different names. they being divided into difYoung pupils should not be taxed with learning the notes by themselves. They can do this as well by themselves. Hall Note. and has no stem . 16ttNote. with which the pupil must make himself thoroughly familiar. The whole note is . and has is like the quarter note. Having given the names of the notes. Each note represents a different time value. is white. It is so called because the note placed upon the 2d line of the staff. which is encircled by the clef. is called G. The following signs :-" G A BC We F Q ABC D E FG AB ODE to represent D E more pleasant use If the teacher finds it the notes in all the various kinds of notes commonly in use. Dm Note. the half note the teacher may introduce. which are equal to four fourths. have divided the notes. Quarter Note. that will make the task of learn- ing the notes pleasant and easy for the child. which are equal to eight eighths . white. and the sixty-fourth note four.

About Whole note. With quarter dollars. half and quarter notes. Measure. The relative value of notes can easily be explained and to children with the aid of money the whole. Measure. leaving the others until or amusements. nor by the fact that in Aie notes are witt*n singiy with dashes or put together groups. while the de- . equal to is equal to ' r r \ ^ The same rule applies to rests. Eighth note. If V The A dot placed after a note a dotted a dotted half note Dot. the simplest common time consists of two beats to a mena ure. making in years. Usually it is expressed by fractions. the same as that of the notes by playing a whole note the fingx the key until four beats have been counted. notes. practice should be empkyed.. There are as kinds of rests as there are kinds of notes. half the quarter dollar the unit. Measure. only consider To THE TSACHBR. pupils more advanced With children we would There are two kinds of time. 3*d note Observe the difference between whole and half note T reits. dividthe music into measures of an equal length. common and triple time . thus : whole note & a dotted quarter note a dotted eighth note a dotted sivteenth note . many Rests are signs which denote silence. which means that there must be four quarters or their equivalent in each measure. nominator indicates what kind of notes they are. rit & equal to is equal to is equal to is . however. while the simplest triple time has three. that there must be two quarters or their equivalent in every measure. time The relative value of the rests is placed above them. its increases value one jalf. The measure containing four beats is also called simple common time. without Every piece oi music must be written The time it no music can exist in regular time. and so forth. the enumerator indicating how many notes of a certain kind are to be in a measure.IO The value of the note is KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Half note. Grown they are introduced into exercises should study the form and value of all the pupils. the whole. i This time is indicated by a C. Two heavy ing lines or bars indicate that an entire piece or a part thereof has come to a close. l6th note. Rests. . By combining two ^ measures we produce the ^ measure which is a compound time. Thus ^ means. The Bar and The the Measure. not effected by the manner in which the stem is placed. Quarter note. in which a piece -itten is indicated at the beginning. up or down. the fiu presses same length of ger must be removed from the key for the if a whole note rest occurs. Bar. Time. Two dots before the heavy lines indicate that the last part is or the who!* piece to be repeated. bar rs a perdendicular line drawn over the staff'.

thus : 1 one I 1 two three foi The following played. thus : laid upon the first. I three I I 01 i I I I I 1 two four. I I I I In six-eighth time the accent fourth beats. exercises may Observe the accents. thus I one I : zz is is put upon the first and | In nine-eighth time the emphasis fourth and seventh beats. n A A A . In four-fourth time the accent third beat.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

In a like F. oc- If the player is to return to strintjendo. which. the left side The white keys. In a like manner when striking F. then take the next black key to the right (#) (b) flat is A A by the terms ritardando. loud. After that we again come to a key between the second and third black key. Thse terms being in themselves very indefinite. Expressed by Allegro. be it black or a half step or half tone. an instru- ment has been invented. The black keys There are three different movements recognized 1. also indicated Soft. MODERATELY FAST. as Qz. is when F is flatted. E. like the one eight tones below. Presto. and then Cjf (C sharp). you must. you must take the next black key below. The Key-board. Next strike A. Next place your finger on the key C. F and G. is to be sharped. Very loud. all the Ds and so forth. nor so fast that passages become indistinct. This key is called A. Find now Di?. Medium S^SFORZANDO. G# and A#. Efe and GK. we must take the white key B. The next white key is called B. that every black key has two names. nat(Jj) ural sign restores a tone to its that which it original pitch. If the time in a piece of music is to be retarded. Gradually getting louder. is - manner when E is FORTE. Now put your on B.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the distance is called a whole step or whole tone. the original time after changes in its tempo have been it ie terms and you have indicated by the terms a tempo or tempo primo. if it Put your finger on D. Expressed by the terms Largo. is CRESCBXDO. all the Fs. DECRESCENDO. Expressed by Moderate. indicated by the made. is called The key The pupil should keep an even ercises and pieces. When the proper time for the use of the Metronome comes. Place your finger on the middle black key in a group of three. are move D#. F and G. <1 by this sign ^-rea. this fact should be borne in mind. Find in a like manner F#. sharp is a sign which raises a tone a half step. no doubt. Sharp. however. right side of the key-board is accent. Vioace. we now will speak of or the rapidity of movement in which apiece of music tempo. Prestiss- Andantino. it is indicated tempo throughout his exof swaying to and fro with skipped. therefore. rallentando it is A or smorzando. indicates that the foot should be now name F# also represents Gfe. Loud. etc. to the next black key to the right. should be avoided altogether by younger pupils. had before it was raised or lowered. The practice the time. Very soft. C. a sign which lowers a tone a half step. there being no black key to the right. Adagio. the next C. the entire white. Half Step and Whole Step. sharped. Gradually expressed by this sign I^= So-called loud PEDAL fled. Formerly the tempo as expressed by the above terms was taken somewhat Blower than now. will explain it. is called and thus the names are A repeated throughout the entire key -board. Strike the key C. Andante. with great Indicating that a note to be played force. The names of the black keys are derived from E. The pupil will observe Thus. Familiarize yourself thoroughly with the names of all the keys. D. with all removed from their it. 2. and so forth. Grave. etc. 3. B. imo. etc. are placed in groups of twos and threes. : Larghetto. Flat and Natural Signs. To THE PUPIL. the one to the right side. or that to the left. If this tone is flatted. Having explained time and called high. When playing works by the older masters. Ak A# names. these. have been accepted for the purpose of known and indicating tempo. the key of Now place your finger on B. The tempo should never become so slow that melodic connection is destroyed. Allegretto. star also exalso getting softer. D. In order. pp 'I PIANISSIMO. . The tempo of a piece of music is best is to be performed. Name all the white keys of the entire keyboard After this find all the Cs. we must take the key E. then move it to the next white key. The low. If this tone is flatted. key -board is divided into half If one is steps or half tones. distance from any one key to the next. and then you have The following some of the expression marks vaich : cur most frequently in music finger B ff f FORTISSIMO. Tempo and Expression Marks. BLOW. indicated by its own character. are named A. FAST. the teacher. there being no black key immediately below it. The pupil should the keys of the instrument. If the movement is to be accellerated. known as Maelzel's Metronome. take the next white key which is C. GJf also represents also repersents B(>. which indicates tempo with mathematical accuracy. you must take the key fftf MEZZOFORTE. by this sign p PIANO. accelerando. and the next black key below is called Ab. to make the composer's ideas quicker certain Italian words better understood. called tempo rubato. like the notes.

the 2 for what in AmerThe following ican fingering is the 1st finger. parta of the same piece have %= Bs 2d. 4 and 5. use of a correct fingering is of the utmost importance The to the student . which is this wise 1. affect all notes with the same names on which these signs have been placed. straight line from the elbow to the middle finger- A sharp. Make as many combinations as possible. The piano-stool should be so adjusted. flat or natural sign. In a like manner flats operate. American fingering x. If a double Bt? must be used. is it means that the tone to be lowered a whole step and that. arm form a joints. sharped. to a piece. A About the Piano. and so forth. If a double sharp is placed before E. or of a part thereof. 3. The elbows should be kept near the body. the key D must be struck. however. throughout the measure Two sharps or a double sharp is represented thus ss. THE FOLLOWING TABLE QIVBS ALL THE NAMES OF THE KEYS ON THE INSTRUMENT. all F s and all C s are to be sharped. Catechise your pupils thoroughly as to flats and natural signs. have this signature : The pupil should be seated opposite the middle of the keyboard. 4. 2. Thus : A the effects of sharps. it is. so that the pupil may thoroughly To THE TEACHER. therefore. 3. The figure 1 stands for the thumb. understand this subject. also to enable the right to reach it mean* that hereafter the only are to be flatted and not the upper and the left hand the lower keys. which is is flat or natural which occurs in a measure and not placed at the beginning of a piece or a part Such signs are only effective called an accidental. 2. 3. sharps. Suppose one of the If two the fingering are used in music. 4. the kej key C should be used. are placed at the beginning of a piece. to wit American fingering. while a double flat lowers it a Two A whole step. fingering 1. : this signature : The German fingering. 2. 1.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. If a double sharp is placed before C. no matter which ilaces of the staff they may occupy. Fingering. therefore. t sharp. the c placed bef >re /. 1. must be provided for children. 3 and 4. for instance. strictly enjoined to watch this German bad fingering adds difficulties part of his lessons closely. them fully explains : it means that hereafter only the Fs are to be and no longer the Cs. If any of the parta. Thus the following signature'indicates that all B s and E s are to be flatted. in which they occur. without moving the body. that the theEs. 2. 5. the key F$ is to be struck. if placed at the beginning of a piece. thereof. 3d and 4th fingers. If so. Foot-retf |L . a good fingering lessens them. : Two kinds cross of The mark stands for the thumb. then follow the 1st. double sharp flats or a double flat is written thus (22. raises a tone a whole step. far enough from it to allow the upper and lower arm to form an obtuse angle. which is as follows: x. is If a double flat is placed before flat D.

he should not look at them for the purpose of hunting the keys. it reach in between the black cut illustrates the position of the sevkeys. on the key-board by the side of ought to be given a place the other fingers. This is Hand. FIRST LESSON. the back should shorter but more frequent lessons. j j j . . that the student does not strike the keys by raising the arms the normal from the knuckle-joints or wrists. without contracting or extending the finmoving force to produce gers . : A Left Hand. H. this lesson is tween lessons. thus allowing only one tone to sound at a time.O_ tt-tf. The keys should be struck by raising be knuckle-joint. and move it from the knuckle-joint. develop the flexa most important practice for the pupil. 3 H press the keyt represented by the whole notes quietlj down. When must reach forstriking a black key. Move the finger from the key as soon as the "When about to : next finger strikes. L. yet its position should not materially vary. 7 H K lit Hand. s>ga ^O. therefore often forced to undo what has been done badly bedents. that the second finger position stands somewhat further in upon the key-board than the cises. H. The following eral fingers upon the key -board others. also that some grown neither bend inward uor outward. : r~r~r J.. Avoid all unnecessary motion of head or hands as well as all contortions of face. then strike rapidly and with sufficient a good tone. The teacher should the fingers from the careful to see to it. raise the finger without the hand. The hand should assume an easy position. the arm should remain perfectly still. yet in no case should strike a key. The Touch. H. so that each of the finplace From the natural the key it is to strike. and is absolutely necessary before attempting the lessons that follow. He should as much as possible endeavor to find them by the feel of his fingers. t"Le following exercises are designed to ibility of the fingers. losing time and causing b uself as wtil as his pupil. and for this reatouch of the piano. . hence the hand is compelled to move somewhat. : much annoyance to For this reason we recommend While the pupil may during the playing of the following exercises look at his hands in order to notice whether they are in the right position. then play the quarter notes.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. M. person watch over the pupil touched with the fleshy part of the fingers The thumb must iiot be allowed to hang down. the fingers of course ward. The wrist alone should move. Place the hand in the proper position. first slow. Owing to the carelessness of young stu- often overlooked. gers rests over of the hand it will bo seen. To strike of all others. IO H. I. There should be no interval of rest between the two tones. the basis son its operation as well as its importance should be made should be used by the pupil plain to the pupil. Lett Hand. unless there be a rest in the music. . The following cut represents the position of the hand when striking the keys with the wrist-action. The Wrist Action. and thus they acquire a The teacher is false touch while practicing by themselves. When about ready to play the first exerthe hand over the keys. but nails. allow no other finger to move except the one used. then faster. -* i 0-*- n. None other in the first lessons. The keys should be and not with the while practicing. Keep the hand and arm perfectly still.

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18 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 6 5 Q 3 ft . Different notes in both hands.p.

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SECOIVDO. FIRST DUETT.20 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. f m f m f m f .

. .KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.

Having become somewhat in the Treble or The names of the Bass notes upon the leger lines are : spaces between the G clef. : m fact. is called F. that The names of dots. we familiar with the notes written will now turn our attention to clef. m m A 8 8 8 A G E G leger lines are .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and the teacher should not proceed with the following lessons until the Bass notes are thoroughly learned. the notes written in the F is or Bass It is called F clef because the note whieh which lies between the two written on the fourth line. The teacher may facilitate the lessons by drawing the pupil's attention to the that Bass notes are read two tones higher than the Treble notes. but attention should be drawn to the fact. The names of the Bass notes on the Having employed the Bass clef.j B C |p|l j |D|E. The student will observe that the last Bass and the first E G E O Treble notes represent one and the same key upon the piano. The following table shows the notes for every key upon the instrument. r |o| AIB c|n|i |D|E F|G|A|B c [p|i . B D F F the Bass notes upon the five lines are D B B D F A 1 : The names of the Bass notes on the four spaces are These notes the pupil must commit to memory. we are now able to represent upon the staff all the notes used in music. BASS NOTES. This C is called the middle C. -el-el-el sj O < M 8 8 8 O 8 8 <! O W o ~ P W 8 8 O 8 S o o ** Tft T o o 8 8 8 o o o - o 8 8 feO f Tff 11 \. that they are played two octaves lower.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Slow. ' (Quarter notes and rests.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. iyr_f v * i .

r

KARL MERZ'

"PIANO

METHOD.

26

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

*7

28

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
Five-Finger Exercises.

to develop flexibility oi absolutely necessary for the pupil. They are designed the fingers. Without practicing them no pertne hand and fingers, strength and eveness of touch, independent action of and care. The mere playing son can become a good pianist. The student should, therefore, practice them with perseverance for hours without deriving any benefit from them. They will only prove of them does no good. pupil may play them with a motionless hand, the fingers striking from the knuckle-joints. Watch your hands, therefore, profitable when played Never strikes. while plaving them. Always raise the fiuger which lies on the keys, at the same instant that the other Strike all the keys with equal force. Inasmuch as the fourth and fifth fingers are allow two tones to sound together. each about twenty times, first with single hand weak, greater efforts are required when using them. Play these exercises Never let a practice hour pass without first playing ami very slow afterwards with both hands and increased velocity. that these exercises. Rather neglect the other part of your lesson, than omit playing these exercises. It is not necessary will enable the teacher few selections the pupil should play all these exercises for the teacher when reciting his lesson. to see what progress the pupil has made, ai d in what condition his hands are.

A daily practice of these Exercises is

A

A

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KARL MERZ- PIANO METHOD.

*9

30

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. &* .

For this reason the pupil's imaginative powers should be awaken. Sentiment should be stimulated. In the A nannies its original position. even those who are young in years or have but recently begun thuir musical studies.KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. it the first leger line above the staff. lth measure the hand changes position. and the pupil should be induced to give expression to it Play the N\'hat are the through the medium of ton*. no expression is possible. This gives the student an opportunity new note is introduced for the left hand namely 0. - In the following exercise the treble is written an octave lower than heretofore. EVENTIDE. on ot reading the same notes upon different degrees of the staff. EEt 3 . however. but in the 13th measure. It is a truism which every teacher ought to accept. and give the melody that prominence which in a previous lesson we said it should h'ave. for only then will they derive true pleasure and real bcneiit from their studies. proper proportions of lomlness between the air and accompaniment? All pupils. strengthened and properly guided. Surely youth is the best time in life to receive impressions. air below very slow. that without impressions. namely. should be taught to play with expression.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

? 3 * P33 ** *=+ P=P=fEO: B-C* FT ^ 6 6 5 5 P*f ^^n=^ 5 -3 ^ I I - zS^EEFF^F FH -FH h I 6 t -^-- 4 o 4 3 9 3 *- -p-f^F-^ a +- ^ 3S5S^ a -4_^Z3I -9 a~* F=S-^ g i .^^ J i ! tPd^ i FIT" i i F^T^P= vfjrfrfrt^ I I -a . 2 z$rr+^ .*=*1 1 *= 53^ l_a_ ^=P^ HV 8- jEf-Ff-F".34 KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. r.

is called a chord. 5 4 . Hold the hand veip 35 Play it sull while playing the first eight measures of the accompaniment. In the 9th measure three tones are struck together.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. These are simply accidental sharps. which has no signature. simultaneously struck. MAY DANCE. so that the succession of tones is called a melody. and as such have no effect beyond the measure. softly. -nelody may he well heard. All the exercises and amusements A thus far up"1 have been written in the key of C. Play this little piece in moderately lively time. In the 13th and 15th measures a sharp is introduced. a combination of tones.

are designed tor four fingers. Hold your hand right. the following careful to give all fingers an equal touch. 5 ss. and knuckle-joint only. 3234 r P i-fi- =P=p: 4= 3 3 2 2 3 -9 3234 f * -S 4 3- I 1234321 *-+ 32123 a 3 4 s 4 a 2 5 4 3 2 3 4 fi ^P^ 43 234 -P- tt . = 4==f= X * ix* 8 S - P P- 5^ ^ 5^ ^ P=2 Five-Finder Exercises. The preeeeding five-Finger Exercise s were for three fingers only. Keep it still. -* ^:2_. strike with Be your fingers from the 323 3234 43 343 2 1 3 2 ^.36 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. 37 .

HOME. change in the fingering from the 9th to the 10th measures.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. emphasize the melody well. play the We W C base smoothly and softly. which has one sharp. All F'B. Play the piece slowly. familiar air. that of major. will be sharped without any special eign applied to the note. and therefore it aftecta all the F's in the entire piece. Slorr. namely. a key which has neither sharps nor flats as a siglu the following will now step live tones upward from C to the key of G. nature. Observe the unless otherwif-e indicated by s natural sign. SWEET HOME. 1 2 4 2 . namely on F. F-sharp is placed at the beginning of each line. have thns far played in but one key.

RONDO.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 39 GENTLE HEART. 3 4 5 3 1 2 .

40 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
PRIMO.

HAPPY DREAMS.
Pui*il.
Moderate*

Rondo.

Third Duett.

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4

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23

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KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
Five-Finger Exercises.

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KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

44

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

In the following amusement triplets are introduced both in the treble and in the bass. When many triplets follow each other, it is not considered necessary to put the figure 3 over each group of three notes. Observe all expression marks. Play the melody loader than the bass.
.

LITTLE SPRING FLOWER.
234

Andante.

KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.
(

45

46

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

2

1

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i 47 4 i a 3 a .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. a 3 a 3 4 ! 4 .

should receive attention. we simply employed the legato touch. while the fingers are quickly Another style of staccato is executed by the wrist-action of which we shall speak in another place. . The detached or staccato style is the opposite of the This is accomplished by lifting the fingers from the for it separates the notes as if there were rests between them. for without them success is not possible. There are several ways of producing this effect.. as will be Men from the illustration below. All the exercises pre constantly simply designed to develop the technic of the player. staccato. In all the Five Finger Exercises thus far used. legato. the first is called simply staccato. STACCATO TOUCH. they are to be played in the legato style. One of them is by keys motion of the fingers towards the palm of the hand. "We will now dwell more fully on this subject. and in the future we shall have to introduce still other exercises of the same character. staccato is or by dashes tit placed over or under the notes. . In one of the previoui exercises we have spoken of the staccato touch. before the full value of the note has expired. The connected When The withdrawn from the keys. being of most importance in music. or legato style of playing we have thus far used. They ought to be the daily study of every faithful pupil. and should incessantly be practiced.48 KARLV'MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ID the following Etude there is a combination of the legato and staccato touch. indicated by dots thus playing staccato the hand remains still just ae in the legato style of playing. The last is called the full "When no dots are placed over the notes. for the legato touch. ETUDE..

play the lesson for the pupil. RONDO. . that is. * M ' m. ^p IN the first THE MEADOW. but play the second very short. when it is written in the form of a piece. 49 When an exercha assumes it is tain technical difficulties. art. and is designed to overcome cer- Etude for Staccato Playing.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Moderate. called an Etude. Let the teacher first two notes.form.

. eighth note must be added to the last measure. The SWISS AIR.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. whereby it becomes complete. I 3 2 first The following amusement begins with an incomplete measure. Observe the staccato notes. The last measure of the piece is also incomplete. Allegretto.

5 4 32 3 fl Hi! The following exercises must be played in the legato style. 1331 2342 34^3 3342 5436 4324 323 4324 L_3 3J-2348 345 32342 1 23 1 2342 34S3 2343 5435 4324 33 3 4334 B * 4 fl 4 8 5 3 4 2 453 4341 o 3 '* f 2 a 9 9 ^~ 4 3 4 ^~f~^ .3 fe et Five-Finger Exercises.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. i .

tie* that the pupil accents the first note in each measure. r^ c . SECOKDO. FonrthD ett.52 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. A LITTLE AUTUMN \\'-\ LEAF.

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54 .

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

hand.j.KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. especially the fingers a nx -s vf f 9 u 9 m m 8 t 3 8 f- * m I m- 3 83 * 3 1 8 -^. Keep the the key-board without rising or einking... ( Exercises 'With the When Hand Moving. playing these exercises the hand must move qnickly over which are not employed in the proper position.j>v* * ** 2 343243 2*3 232 132 2^2312 1 .

Andante. means to play the piece over again. 57 Play the following piece slowly and with proper expression. Da Capo al Fine. . Emphasize the melody. PEACEFUL DREAMS. and to close where the word Fine stands.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Observe that the treble clef appears in the lower staff of the second part.

Hold the hand -t them first witk the lower fingering and then employ the upper.KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. 443-a 54 -3 a a fr-JBgihrta . Exercises for the Play Hand Moving. still.

. and the THE MERRY SLEIGHRIDE. Notice the natural sign in the second part. RONDO.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Vivace. life and with great smoothness throughout. Play this Hondo with harp again in the third.

60 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. l=s: *. -yf-T * Sa ^^fc ' S 3 1 1 ** ^ ^5 23461 ec 8 21 r * * Observe the changing of fingering on the same key. -i*-1 mf ^-p p ^ -l-i. .

1 j t t .KARL MERZ' P:A.NO METHOD.

namely on F. In the following little Polka we five tones downward from C we reach the Key of F. is to be held at least double it* time value.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. with one flat. which is placed on B. is a pause or hold. When stepping neither sharps nor flats. The Key of G. sign /y\ which occurs in this piece. the pupil should also look at the close of the Polka. B flat instead of B natural. its FAIRY POLKA. Gracioso. In order to be perfectly Inasmuch as every piece of music ends upon the principal sure. which indicates that the note or chord over or stands. The following under which it lowest tone also indicates the key. has one sharp. we chord of the key. had will now introduce one in the Key of F. . The Key of C. unless otherwise indicated by a natural sign. which lies five tones higher than C. therefore. This it does however only outwardly so. Having played amusements in the Key of C and G. From the foregoing it will be play. seen that the signature indicates the key of the piece.

-5 ^ 63 >--I 5 6 3 1 1 * ? i P M -0i * i * In the following recreation appear notes with donble stems. LOVE'S DREAM. Play the piece slowly and with much expression. Legato. 352515 2515 4 S 3 5 2 5 3 5 8 6 I. the other the accompaniment. The piece is written in two voices. The notes with the double stems should therefore be played heavier than those with single stems. 5 1 *-j-* -*-* 5 f S mf I H Bi &SF f * 53 161515 1615 i 1516 m rr i ill i rit. The melody is thus written in order that the pupil may see it plainer and also emphasize it better.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Those notes which have double stems constitute the melody. 352515 2515 iiiDt: ti^ mf r 453525 SC15 HI ES=5Ei3t mf F HI H p-t ^ JE 4=* SE ^ ^ mf i -- . ^ _i me 3 352515 10 i I i =* I ^ ritanlando.

151-515 :t f ^ i 1515 2 ^ ^ i ^ _5 1 6 8 1. _6 1. 6 1616 1 1616 6 '53515 mf r Titardando.64 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ** t 5 11615 6 m 5 1. _. ^ mf EE r 4-*- 1t .

Five-Finger KxerciSCS. 1-^-232 5432 6 4341234 5 1434 1234 1 3316 4 1 23454 . Hold the half notes and dotted quarter notes while playing the exercises. Jfor the expansion of the hand.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

will Exercise. In a like manner chords may be Syncopated : H more difficult. and unless pupil. It and the first half of the fourth note. ^ The teacher must be and copation occurs frequently. Syncopation becomes . SYNCOPATION. Wlien a musical sound. To illustrate this lesson we will write it out quarter. Commencing upon In the following example this is illustrated: light time is held over into heavy time. constitute the-third quarter. 1 234 . often occurs in music. consequently before we count two the second note must be struck. m as "With notes of smaller value. for synbe a continuous source of trouble both to teacher careful that the pupil has a correct mathematical thoroughly understood. eighth of the third note constitutes the second quarter of the measure.66 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The note on the first beat is but an eighth note. This half. the last eighth of the measure first obtain the fourth Let the pupil play it as below and then as above. it and adding to in tied notes. it is * * comprehension of this division of time. if BO it may be called. To the second half of the second note we count two. together with the first three. may be seen from this- i** r we i * i ^^ * To the second half of the third note. we count To the second half of this note we count four. There are four quarters in this measure. Tbii rhythmical irregularity. it is called Syncopation.

KARL .

68 -0 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 54 9- 3^ ^f- I 5 4 3 a z .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. a i 69 33 3 4 1 143 2 a 52 83 a 4 S i 4 a a ia 3 4 5 -f * -0-r-f- .

70 .

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.*. Fir! g tf r . PRIMO.. 11 POLONAISE t 5 Sixth Duett.:.}. t-^ ^ f^M^ 5 ^^^ . Vrf i yi IS Ssffel > S ^ ^ rjt ^fitf eres.43 ^rrn r f r F ffl=J=? 10 f^^ }.. 4346 .

*p P * ^ < . Seventh Duett. ROMANCE.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. SECONDO. ores.

73 .JrVARL MERZ riANO METHOD.

Play from the knuckle-joints. persevere nntil you can play 3454 34 54 5 * ^F=S=f ^ ^ f *=:= * e? E= ** + V' ft 4 * .74 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. When exercises be careful that both fingers strike the keys at the same time and with *jqual practicing the following These exercises should be played first with raise your fingers as high as possible. Listen very carefully to your playing and each hand alone. and them first slow and then fast. force. then both hands together. Exercises in Thirds. Play each number smoothly and rapidly.

5-5 * . Play in the leyato style.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 75 3*3434343 323232 34 3 5 6 LITTLE STUDY. and count carefully. Lift your hands from the keys during the rests.

i * * * i 323 4 5 i4 *^=* i m f-ffr ^sh ^^ 1=2: * ? r-r^ ^T 1 ^=^ *-*- i CE ^ : ^= ap 5 GOOD NIGHT. E iff * . i ror the purpose of practicing runs in thirds. Play slow and smoothly. This Etude Slow..<.76 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Andante. S 343 434 212 12 P 1 -1 1 JT*~S t--t s=i=i=*=*=* m 343 323 12 5 4 5 1 t t=t 323 232 . ETUDE. . DARLING.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 77 .

This style of playing must be executed very smoothly. REPEATING NOTES. then play together. Changing the fingers upon one key is called tremolo.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. hand should not be raised. The 43214321 43214321 . Play first with each hand alone.

79 MOUNTAIN ECHOES. ^ . o'fow?.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

-4 8 -9 1 9 4 a a i a f 9- w= i a i i 2 3 .So KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. EXUDE. 2 3 -9- Allegretto.

The hand should assume hand in all its parts should act as a whole. that in moving the hand the single fingers remain firm and do not move. Exercises in Wrist-action* '^ ' * T . and most diligently exercises with the the student may play the same also with the wrist-action. The fingers should remain firm and stationary. and the hand should move simply from the wrist. In the legato style of playing the hand remained stationary the position as given in the following illustration : . H" 1 1 r " " i -L=f *t i f -^_ _ _ 2 - . Especial care must be taken.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. WRIST-ACTION. let the student not neglect practicing daily After playing the five-finger exercises legato. while the others recede somewhat. When striking let the finger which is to touch the key -board move a little forward. Neither should the knuckles protrude. 8x in the wrist-action it is moved. The forearm remains in a horizontal position and does not move with the hand. this wrist-action. This touch is the second mode of staccato playing. striking the key-board. the When While studying legato touch.

82 .

KARL MERZ' .

(Wrirt-touch.84 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 5 555 A STRANGE STORY.) .) 6655 ? \ \ ETUDE. Moderate. Moderate. (Wrist-action.

but unless they are faithfully and thoroughly practiced. We will now hold three keys down and employ the other two. and then play the exercises. Hold your hands correctly. the pupil will not succeed in mastering the piano. . was required to hold down two keys while one finger Btruck a third. Five-Finger Exercises.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. These exercises may prove to be distasteful to young players. simply press them silentlj down. Do not strikt 3ie keys to In the very first lessons the pupil be held down.

in one waj or in another. quicker and quicker every daj . The student should daily practice scales and five-finder exercises. for without them success as a pianist The art of piano playing depends is not possible. Bays in his " Rules and Maxims for Young Musicians industriously practice scales and other finger exercises. etc. Flexibly. The following exercises have this lesson in view. until a ripe age they daily practice mechanical exercises for many hoars. or the fingers pass over the thumb. Schumann. A GALOP. smoothness of passages and scales depends upon the manner in which the thumb passes under the other fingers. As in thumbs. the exercises are ing. however. and thetbirdand second . who think they may :" " You must attain to every- thing by doing this.86 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. There are people. Let neither be neglected. for there is scarcely a piece of music that does nc c introduce the scales the thumbs are passed under the other fingers. with suitable amusements. The study of suitable pieces and exerinterspersed cises must be carried on Bide by side. we largely upon scales. Make a better use ot your time. are passed over the will first The practice this motion. the celebrated composer and author. He must foregoing develop a good technic and cultivate correct taste in playFor this reason. t f SCALES. from the wrist. B. THE FOUNTAIN." The student will see from the that his musical education is a two-fold one. so that the thumb-joints may be made flexible. C. That is as reasonable as trying to pronounce A.

Preparatory Exercises for Scales. 2 fingers or the fingers over the thumb the 2 3 3 2 1 12313.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Move the hand as little as possible. while the thumb and fingers should move.2 1433 rT^rn _a a . When putting the thumb under the hand should not turn.

Also bring out the melody given to the right hand to bo played. SWEET CHIMES. *5 " gg= r r F=* Thia little piece looks more difficult than it is. The main lesson is the crossing of the hands. Observe the ritardandos at the close of each part. Soft and Slow. when crossing the right. -A A A ^ a tempo. Read it over carefully and you will find it easy. emphasize the notes placed by the left hand. Play slowly and softly.88 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 000 p A A A A A A V V V V I -s * A A r r * frr r m BSE A- 30 3^ rit. r^f A A A A i ^ A A 7 rr m ? A A A .

the mere running of the fingers over the keys is not intelligent practice. should be especially well drilled. as has already been stated. lies in the passing of the thumb under the:longer fingers and in passing these over the thumb. BO that the student may watch the fingering and the eveness of his touch. If a mistake occurs it is best for the pupil to begin over again. the arm may be moved somewhat from the body. scale thus played is always pleasing to the ear. like a succession of balls of There should be no intermission between any of the tones. After the scale has been practiced to a good degree of velocity and eveneas of touch it should be played soft. so that there may be no delay or interruption. A The main difficulty of scale practice. as if they were wings in motion. then loud. in that of the others strength must be increased. There must be no turning of the hands. Thus only will you produce a good clear tone. 9 About Scale Each scale should Practice. let them . but both arm and hand must be steady. Scales must at first be played slowly. In the use of the one restraint is necessary. there must be no motion of the arms. while the third and fourth are the weakest. Remember the thumb is stronger than either of the other fingers. raise the fingers as high as possible. "WTien doing this. nor should one be stronger than the other. fingers than to pass these over the thumb. the same be played until the entire tone-chain appears even like a string of beads. and descend perpendicularly upon the middle of the keys.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. hands and arms. As it is considered more difficult to pass the thumb under the longer lows that the ascending scale in the right hand and Listen carefully while you practice scales. the descending it' fol- Always strike the keys from the knuckle-joints when playing scales. scale in the left. Hear each single tone and listen to the whole series of tones as to their smoothness and eveness of strength. Always move the thumb under the other fingers just when it is ready to strike. Watch both as if they were moving on a pivot. size. then also crescendo or decrescendo. In order to produce this effect constant and attentive practice is required. the hand may be slightly bent inward or outward.

9o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Raise In this Etnde scales are practiced with the right hand and in one octave only. . Play first Blow. fast. ETUDE. gers high. Play strong and clow. then yom 1 fin- va irfff.

so and EJ2 minor. BJZ F G also DJt D. it is the be- ginning and the ending. Seventh.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. practically we Afz use. to wit major : There are in all twenty-four major and twenty-four minor scales The names of the scales used are Major. and D is so called because it is the second a third. When starting a scale and the tone to which we return. Fifth. 3d and 4th. sharps and flats must be introduced. diatonic scale has two modes. ETUDE. G D A E B FjorGiz A E B F$ C$ G D or C Diz EJZ Eft fill F. The Third. the diatonic. which is also often called the Mediant. the eighth or octave. have thus far only used the major scale. we called perfect Fourth. Minor. namely. only twelve of either mode. always called the Dominant. Octave. from C to D is a second. and between the 6th and 7th. two half-steps in the C major scale. . Bear in mind the fact. Third. namely. this For the same reason from C is called a to E generally called the sw6-(or lower) dominant. About Scales and Three kinds of practically used. the 2d and 3d. The following represents Minor 5 The major Fourth. however. the 4th and 5th. Fourth. From C to is the sixth. Intervals. Fifth and Sixth. it we is call C the key-note. and the 7th and 8th. Fourth. From C to F is the fourth. & . Fifth. In other words in C. Prime. Sixth. each having a half-step while There are. while whole steps are found between the 1st and 2d. We The scales are recognized in music. All intervals represented above intervals au Major. :t>sd i feEH and Sixth are often When examining the scale of C. in the lessons on harmony attached to this book. the chromatic. Second. Scales in one octave played with the left hand. is A From : to C i. Of course in the above enumeration Fu and GJZ major are regarded as the same . to C there is no distance. They are exactly alike. From C to G is the fifth. the 5th and 6th. prime . between the all other intervals consist of whole steps. and enharmonic. From tone from C. From C to B is the seventh. The pupil must now study the subject of scales. therefore. find that it consists of two equal halves. and in order to make them conform to this model. that all major scales are built like the C major scale. hence they are only counted as one. B is called the leading tone. because it the principal tone . The distance from one tone to another is the tone from which we start out is called an Interval. Only the first two are and minor. Octave are the most important intervals. Fifth and By making them a half-step smaller they become Minor.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 3=1: .

that of B excepted. in keys. E. is The second i fingers are always used in both left hands at the same time. that the first five scales all have the same we will adopt a different order. may be used thus. is first introduced. consequently the thumbs 3d. fourth and fifth fingers never cross As a rule do not use the same finger for two succeeding keys. The thumb is placed on the 4th and 7th with both hands. flat Doubtless this order has its good sides. the scales of E-flat and A-flat would begin with the second finger. each other. The fourth finger is always used on the 7th of the sc^'e. and third finger begins. According to this rule. the less trouble he will have with lingering and the playing of thoroughly these lessons. while the groups of twos should be played with the ist and 2d fingers. F. hence they have the same fingering. D-flat. begin with the first finger in the right hand. in which it is used twice in the first octave. however. While the grouping in fingering is somewhat difficult when giving the scales in this order. D. the groups of threes should be played with the ist. fingering nevertheless. B-flat. E-flat. never by the fifth. the thumb on the fifth and octave. especially in so far. while the thumb falls on the third and seventh. G. and the lowest note in the left hand. These rules have been introduced as a guide for your pupil. in the left hand of the scale of B The rule has been laid down that. Fand G-flat. G. These scales may. The C scale in Contrary motion being the easiest. scales of B-flat. 4th. the third finger begins. 5th. The thumb is very rarely crossed by the first finger. All flat keys. this: C. all 2d. Do not use the thumb on a black key in In broken or solid chords it scales or runs. F-sharp. D. and then only for the highest note in the right. In G-flat or F-sharp the finger. In the scale of B. The fourth is only used in the white keyed scales excepting in the right hand of the scale of F. with The scales are divided into five classes. A. and on 3 and J in the General Rule of Fingering. we will supply the following rules. F. we neverthesharp less think it most rational to advance with sharps and flats simultaneously. the thumbs fall on the white scales of F-sharp ones. E-flat. i and on in and 5 in the hand. DNote to the Teacher. The The scale of B. E-flat. that of The following general rules apply to the right hand only. and an aid to yourself. and G-flat. The thumb left. namely. The third. as follows : Scales of C.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The The scale of P. G. The fourth finger is used but once in an octave of all scales. A-flat. the third finger invariably comes on the second. This scale has the five black and G-flat are the same on the piano. F excepted. falls on C and F in both hands. Usually the scales are introduced in the following order: C. in order to give pupils a correct understanding of the principles of fingering. E. The following general rules apply to the left hand only. B. D. A-flat. while the scale of B-flat would begin with the third. The more rules are grounded in the pupil's mind. In all scales beginning with a white key. As all the black keys are used in these scales. In these scales the thumb is placed on C and F in the right hand. RULES OF FINGERING. ist. A-flat and D-flat. which the thumb must be placed on come on the two white keys. and 4 both hands. B-flat. F and G-flat excepted. In all flat scales the third finger of the right hand plays B-flat while the thumb plays C and F. but in all other octaves B is played by the thumb. which have the same fingering. begin with the second The third always falls on the fourth. . The thumb placed on I and 4 in the right. A and E major. 2d and 3d fingers. A. which they should make themselves thoroughly acquainted. B.

and E with the left hand. beginning on E with the right and left -+ - hands. 23 ^ ?-*-. 83 Scale of C. . beginning on C with the right.94 The C scale in parallel KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. beginning on G with the right and left hands ' 914 Scale of C. motion Scale of C. contrary motion.

beginning on E with the right. 3 2 1 4 Scale of C. and on 2 C with 3 the left hand. beginning on G with the right. beginning on G with the right.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and on G with the left hand. Scale of C. and on E with the left hand. 1 4 . Seal* of C. and OB C with the left hand. beginning 95 on E with the right. 14 Scale of C.

96

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

SONATINA.
Having faithfully studied and thoroughly mastered the scales as given above, the pupil will now be permitted to study the following pretty piece by one of the famous Italian masters. Muzio Clementi was born in Home '.n 1752, and died in the Vale of Evesham, England, on the 9th of March, 1832. He was a remarkable composer and a very fine player. His sonatas and sonatinas are great favorites, and deservos to be studied. A sonata is a musical compositiDn consisting of three, four or even five parts. Although these several parts differ in character they form one whole, and for this reason must be the whole must be characterized by a spirit of unity. sonatina is a small sonata, spiritually related to one another of two, sometimes of three parts. Clementi has written many sonatas as well a sonatinas. usually consisting

A

Alkgro.

3

3434

KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.
;

NOTE TO THE TEACHER. It is of the utmost importance that the pupil learn to play the scales in all their various forms and combinations. The following scales are all written in thirds, beginning at different tones in the scale. Though each begins at a different tone, yet the same fingering used in the C-major scale is applied throughout. The teacher should in every way convince the pupil of the necessity of a thorough study of the scales, and should be firm in his demands that this work be done. l a 3 l_ 4 Scale of C, beginning with C and E.

1

2

Scale of C, beginning with

D

and

F

4

3

Scale of C, beginning with

E and G.

Scale of C, beginning with

F

and

A

4

3

Scale of C, beginning with

G
i

and B.

98
Scale of C, beginning with

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
A and
C.

1

3

1

Scale of C, beginning with
i

B

and

D

About the Use of the Pedal.
far enough to made a moderate use of the pedals. Beginners and even young players There are usually two pedals attached to a piano. That to the right is generally called the "loud pedal," but this is an improper name, for the pedal is not designed to strengthen the tones, but simply to prolong them. Let the teacher open the lid of the piano and explain to the student the operation of the hammers and dampers. As the hammer strikes the key, the damper is removed from the strings and remains in that condition as long as the finger presses down the key. When the finger is removed from the key, the damper falls and all the vibrations cease. According to this principle only keys that lie within the reach of the hand can be kept sounding together. By the aid of the pedal, however, all dampers ara removed from the strings and remain in that condition as long as the foot presses down the pedal. By this means the most distant tones can be made to sound together. Many students imagine that this pedal is to be used for the purpose of strengthening tones. Such is not the fact. Let the teacher strike a chord continuously and that with equal force, using the pedal, and then again discontinuing its use. This will demonstrate the lesson that, while through sympathetic vibrations of all strings there may be greater volume of sound, yet in reality there is no decided increase in strength. Now let the teacher strike the same chord alternately loud and soft without using the pedal. This teaches the lesson, that strength of tone can only be secured through greater force of touch. Next use some gentle passage, or if preferable the same chord, playing it softly with the loud pedal, showing that the "loud pedal" and soft playing are not incompatible. In fact some of the finest effects produced by players, is through playing piano with the use of the loud pedal. This teaches the lesson that when a forte mark occurs in a piece of music, it does not signify the use of the loud pedal, but rather a greater display of hand or wrist power. So also the piano mark does not exclude the use of the pedal. The piano mark often stands by the side of the word Pedal or Fed., which

The pupil has now advanced
it.

should not use

indicates its use.

The following

sign jtj indicates

its

discontinuance or release.

Only certain tones produce a concord when sounding together, others produce discords. For instance the chord C, and G, sound pleasing to the ear, no matter if the several tones are doubled or trebled, no matter which stands below and which above. As long as this chord continues the pedal use of the pedal even with one be used, a too
chord

E

may be

faulty.

The pedal may
etc.

also be used

may though lengthy with broken chords, as for instance when they are written in this wise

:

Such a succession of tones may reach over many octaves. As long as they comprise C, and G, they produce a concord and the pedal may be used with *hem.

E

When the chord C, E and is, however, followed by another, as for instance Gt, and D, th pedal must first b* released before striking the last named chord, for the chords of C and when heard together make a discord. What been said concerning the broken C chord also holds for the broken chord,

G

B

G

good

G

etc.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
ID order to obtain a correct understanding of the use of the pedal, the study of harmony in necessary. The student will, therefore, take in hand the subject of common chord and dominant chord, as given in the harmony lessons attached
to this book.

required to us the pedal properly, especially when its use is not indicated but is left to the player. Many players are in the habit of putting the foot upon the loud pedal, as soon as they begin to play, and generally they hold it down until they cease playing. It would be far preferable not to use the pedal at all, than thus to abuse it. This abuse of

Fine taste

is

the pedal is caused by a lack of proper understanding of its object and effect. Often, however, of covering up mistakes. When playing exercises the pedal should not be used.

it is

used for the purpose

Th pedal to the left side is commonly called the soft pedal. When rising it on square pianos, little felt slips are moved between the hammers and the strings, and as the hammers do not strike the strings directly, a muffled sort of a tone is produced. In grand pianos the left pedal moves the key -board to one side, by which operation the hammers strike only one or two strings instead of three. The soft pedal is indicated by the term una corda, meaning one string, and its release is indicated by the letters T. C., or the words Tre Corda, three strings.

A proper use ot the pedal improves a piece of music,
it.

Many
it

find

an improper use injures it. Be therefore very cautious in using pieces do not admit of the use of the pedals, others again should not be played without them. Should the pupil difficult to use the pedal, the teacher may somewhat facilitate matters by drawing a line between the two staffs or
staff,

below the bass

on which he may

indicate in notes

how

long the pedal

is

to be used.

MARCH.
Moderate maestoso.

5

1

^
fed.

'r

ft

'

I

i.*

.

I
t t

marcato e

sotto

wee.

3=

100 .

while the minor has a small third or a half step from 2 3. Thus it will be seen that we have three minor scales. While they differ in the last three notes. they all agree in having a half-step from 2 We may. It from the above melodic in so far that it has a half-step from 5 6 and a step and a half from 6 7. This scale differs A scales descend : Instances. : v & : 8" * n When examining this scale it is found to be exactly like the major scale. Though they differ The following is the style in which all mino? in the ascending scale they usually agree in their mode of descending. they are all alike good and a writer may use whichever he choses. say that the characteristic difference between the major and minor scale is this. are known where writers ascended with the melodic scale and descended with the harmouicv Relative Major and Minor Scales. When playing order to TOT In make it more pleasing some authors have written the minor scale as written on the previous page it sounds it thus = somewhat harsh and unpleasant to the ear. however. The remajor and minor scales have the same number of sharps or flats. instead of between 3 and 4. has a large third a whole step from 2 3. with this difference. another minor scale and it is written in this wise is necessary for us in order to build chords. as will be seen from the following schedule: Major c Minor . because it is melodious and pleasant. Though these scales differ in their construction. There is. lative Each major has a relative minor scale which is found three half steps below the key-note of the major scale. and for this reason it is called the harmonic minor scale. that the major 3. therefore. that the half step lies between 2 and 3. This scale is called the melodic minor scale.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. however.

4 6. + . A-minor scale beginning with E in the right and C 1 - in the left hand.*- . . -f- ^ -P- . 4 1 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.4 A-minor scale beginning with C in the right and A in the left hand. 14 A-minor scale beginning with A in the right and C in the left hand. beginning with C in the treble and C -t in the bass. 4 ** T A-minor scale .102 A-minor scale in contrar/ motion.

A-minor scale beginning with A in the treble and A in the bass. Observe the peculiar character of the first part as com- GIPSY RONDO. 'f. . The following little Rondo is written in the kej of A-minor. A-minor scale 103 beginning with E in the treble 1 and -f- A in the bass.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. pared with the second which is written in C-major. Lively.-f- -- 14 A-minor scale beginning with E in the treble and E in the bats.-^ 1 2 a tempo. 3 1 2 2 3 5 1 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 5 . 5 4 3 32 a tempo.

a piece. never hasten. Schumann. if "We will now add a few lines on the ame 1. 11. Never simply gue^s at it. but try to understand the time divisions. no success. bad fingering makes it more difBad habits in fingering are difficult to correct . If the. The mere playing over of a lesson does not deserve to be called practicing. which are complicated. . a great musician. said "Always play as if a master were listening to you. Hastening produces a play slovenly 4. Study the fingering well. HOW TO PRACTICE. especially those Never play in a slip-shod way." 3. subject. piece. play them. take paper and pencil to hand and cipher the tune out by adding the fractions represented by the notes. and you have enough to do. 2. that others have overcome technical difficulties. What you have acquired by hard labor you should not carelessly neglect. Practice these difficult parts thoroughly. Do not waste your time in practicing every pretty piece you hear. read the notes carefully. and then play your piece through. Be always patient. Devote especial attention to the first. Be sure you keep correct time. even you cannot spend the time to practice : your piece. 8. Diligently review 5 our old lessons. it. Beginning with B and D.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD." present themselves. so can you overcome them. way of playing avoid . Aim to bring the melody out. or when meeting with persons that play better than you. never play faster than the composer desired his piece should be played. time is too complicated for you to understand at a glance. 7. ficult. always diligent. unless you can play Then play slowly with botk hande. Study the meaning of the Having overcome all technical difficulties. pieces 9. in this direction have already been given on the very first pages ot this hook. There ia no economy in plbying a whole piece through each time you practice. Make your motto : "Without discouraged when difficulties Minor Scales in Thirds. stimulate your imagination and try to give as correct an interpretation as you can. especially in difficult passages. Play one hand at a time. 5. Do not use the pedal until all technical difficulties have been overcome. Strive for perfection. eubdue the accompaniment. 10. do not forget your old lessons.no matter whether it lies in the right or in the left hand. and everything in it alike well. Review faithfully. therefore. 12. avoid them therefore. Be not Bear in mind labor. Persevere until yon have overcome all difficulties. Attend to your lesson. la perseverance alone is success to be found* 6. No matter how well you can continue this until you are thoroughly familiar with the piece. You cannot spend your time in playing over and study your lessons at the same time. Play your five-finger exercises and scales every day. There are generally difficult as well as easy parts in each piece. Do your duty from lesson to lesson and leave the results to your teacher. Count aloud for yourself. Beginning with A anrl 0. Bear in mind that good fingering makes a piece easier. endeavor to play with correct expression. then you may play faster.

4 1 Beginning with Gjf and B . i a a a i s a i l 3 Beginning with E and Gj.io6 Beginning with KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. C and E. 4 1 1 3 Beginning with F and A. Beginning with D and F.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. This played is fast name of an Italian dance. The dance is called after the Tarantella spider. and must be and with much fire. the sting of which is poisonous. 1 4 TARANTELLA. at any was rapid dancing. Beginning with 107 A and C. Allegro vivace. especially well-known in Naples. generally engaged in by young Neapolitan girls. It is always written in ^ time. There is no foundation for this statesimply an amusement. It was the rat* the Tarantella dance of to-day is believed in former years that the best antidote for this poison ment. .

loS KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. *: I +- t: -F- + f- .

MASON.WM. .

.

3 4352343454 35134264 163125423 6 . 1 5 zfi: K 43 43242432 5 1 2 3_ 2. Repeat each measure not lesi 109 than twenty times. Five-Finger Kxercises.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

* 3 - - i I I ^^ 346 3.o.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Allegro anima. ft 3 46 2 4 5 ^Z3t 5234 5 4 3 o 4181 4254 ETUDE. .

KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. .

vVhen playing the series of tones fiom G to G we find that from the 6th 7th is a half step. He was born at Czaslan. (Not very fast.) 3123 o 3 4 22-0-3 4 5 j-r-t- 5141 5131 5141 -9 5121 \-m i- -0 \-0 i f j 'r* j 0- .h C scale. and from 7th 8th is a whole step. In order to make the G scale like that of C. where he met with great success and where he remained until 1800. 1812. part of a Sonatina by Johann Ludwig Dussek. we must sharp F. and died at Germain-en-Laye on the 20th of March. SONATINA. He lived long in England. He was a celebrated pianist and a composer of great merit. The pupil should write out the scale exercises as given in the lessons on Harmony. This gives us a whole step from the 6th 7th and a half step fivm the 7th 8th. 9th. G-Major Scale. Play this scale in all the various forms introduced in connection with . Feb. Allegro non tanto. 1761. This is the first St.XI2 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. * h 40 -t 1 **> rta -^B Ks ^n ^T^ Broken Play entirely by the movement of th fingerg. 5 Slide easily forward with the hand. . s Sixths.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

5 4 Wrg J? J7F Jl ETUDE.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. AUtgro Moderate. .

f t=i .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

once very a Tyrolese melody or an imitation of it. A WALTZ. TYROLIENNE.118 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 45 44 much in vogue. The Tyrolienne is a slow dance in Waltz time. It is so called because the melody ia either 544 H * * h fe ^*= .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 2 ZZ] F .

MO KARL MERZ' .

1334 4414 C 4 3 2 '233 .jffrrr. I 121 -4-5 4 9 *-0-4391 t t ' =f*. *~-t-0 0-t-f-rf- =^srf 14*6 "I'M 4*1* 1 4 * 4*19 I I H ( g^^g^Eg^^^ .**.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Five-Finger Exercises in Sevenths.

X22 1 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. * > 4 a i a w^=^ ^ is 52312454 ^=^=^ T~ m~ T- '^^^ 1>S6 4S43 6431 9824 .

FUNERAL MARCH. solemnly. (Slow. Grave.) Ju-7 - *- 3 34 F=F * T^- 3* i i &5 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

on the 24th of Nov. . Germany. we find that it we must make a half scale in all the various Observe the peculiar fingering. He is active as a piano Bpindler.as a composer of instructive as . fifth. > ^ -**4 fiEt **-^ *v *=* When comparing the tone In order to a flat B. series ** The from i from the C scale in being a large step from 3 to 4. born at Wurtzbach. It closes with thefourthfinger in the right hand and not with the forms in which the scale of C was introduced. well and favorably known throughout Europe and this country . and well as salon pieces. This amusement is by Fritz is teacher in Dresden. 1817."4 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Play this ON THE MEAD. F make the F teal* like that of C. from 3 to 4. and this necessitates the introduction of step differs Seal* in F-Minor. to F.

before the chord. that This is indicated by the broken or curved line (<) standing is. the tones are played one after another in quick succession.Observe the chord in the sixth measure of the second The tones exceed the range of an octave. reason are beyond the reach of the average hand.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . Exercises in Broken Chords. In order to enable the pupil to play this chord. and for this part.3434 fi FP -it si _l -i 8~ =t * 4*V *E ^ r=sp: -t t . it must be broken . .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.' rf\ f 0_T_ t 4 1 1 4 * * I i ^E -t 0- ss ! fi . J 6 ^? 4 J .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. was a vocal and inUelzen. ! I . some of which are elegant. While he wrote many greater compositions which displayed merit. he is This sweet littl* H bwt known on account of teachers and pupils. Frederic Daniel Rudolph Kahlan was born in on the 13th of March. and died at LyngbyjTon the 18th of March. his Sonatas and Sonatinas. Germany. 1832. ANDANTE. 1780. and will long remain favorites with ___!. composition is from one of the Sonatinas by Kuhlau. strumental composer of considerable celebrity.

The audience will always be more idy to give you credit for a perfect artistic performance of an easy piece.128 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. your 10. and yourself only when failing in playing anything in public which you have not thoroughly mas- Bear in mind that any piece of music becomes more difficult when playing it before others. so if you find it difficult to commit a piece to memory. Do not expose yourself unnecessarily to criticism. do your best and there let your performance rest. m . Never play anything m company that is not worth playing. Pay no attention to criticism. Do not stop to correct errors. Never play anything with which you are not thoroughly aa a rale. playing The plainest piece well played pleases more than a difficult one poorly played. 6. ear in mind that there is a difference of touch in pianos. . thing when asked 1. not advisable for young pupils to play much in company. be not discouraged. Blame yourself. always be honest and faithful to the composer. Don't stoSp to fish for compliments. that only the new will r. and learn one part at a time. he should afeo endeavor to learn to play from memory. and when the instrument is in a proper condition to be used. Still all should be prepared to play someto do BO. This is a source of pleasure to the player as well as to the hearer. by reading over again the composition which you have committed. It is. but play right through the piece as if no mistake had been made. simply because we are apt to become nervous therefore select from your easier pieces. Continue with your attempts aud you will eventually succeed. Now that the pupil has made some progress. than it is to refuse to do so. Refresh your memory from time to time. Keep calm when playing tered. Play slow.base or be to credit. rather too slow than too fast. It is a mistaken idea. Be prepared for this when company. Begin with little and easier pieces. nor undervalue praise honestly bestowed upon you. Endeavor to commit only that which you have thoroughly mastered. Frequent use of our faculties brightens them. When asked to prepare something for an entertainment select from among your older pieces. The in company. public leaves the choice of piece to you. 7. It is more > ask a person to play in company on an untuned piano. Observe the following rales: familiar. Playing from Memory. Play only when your fingers are warm. than for an imperfect rendition of a difficult one. eo choose wisely. Playing in Company. Do not allow jourself any liberties by way of changing a composition.

not indulge in severe criticism towards those the ears of others. t t f I f f f Vivo. they designate them as "ugly. 11. The following Etude must be played with Moderate. all unnecessary motions Duett Playing. ETUDE." Let pupils pay especial attention to these difficult and so-called "ugly" parts. The teacher should select from time to time duetts for the pupil's use. of body. cause pain and produce ill feelings. Owing to the fact that pupils usually play such difficult Were they to overcome all the technical difficulties such part* parts in a deficient manner. 12. t other times obliging him to play the bass.} t i f t f t f f . Every piece has some part that is more difficult than others. present. reach Watch your personal appearance when playing in public. and for this reason it is of especial importance to those who stammer while playing or who find it difficult to keep correct time. everything that is unnatural or ostentatious. (Lively. By this practice the pupil will gain in the art of smooth and even playing. in short. Avoid all distortions of face. they would not find them ugly.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Ugly Parts. sometimes allowing him to play the treble. I wrist-action throughout. 129 Be sure your words will Do who play before or after you. Play staccato and with an even degree of force.

X30 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. whereby we will have a half step from the 5th 6th. In order to make the D-minor scale like the A-minor scale we must place a flat before the sixth B. r ~^^^ 9M %t 4 TtT-TTT 1 1 T I i -^=4 -0 0I T0 t 0t I 1 i 1 1 1 ? H -1h --?-- -a *- 4 + -------*p I f 1 12 *4[ it=V: -p ^^ ^p" D-Minor The D-minor from scale differs step. Scale. A B or from Play this scale in all the various forms and combinations ased in connection with the A-minor cale. from that of A-minor in-so-far that while the step from the 5th 6th in the latter is a half the 7th 6th is a whole tone. . The D-minor scale is the relative minor scale of F-major. and like it has but one flat.

Additional Exercises in Double Notes. 2 1 2 1 o r .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

AN ETUDE. INQUIETUDE.13* KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. m .

* _^_V \ h D-Major Scale. 18 . The following scale must be played in the various combinations as given in the C-Major scale. why another sharp has to be added key of D. ao ^S. *ss S it * mf J < ri i \ r 3 ^=rrt iS? & = 4 * ?E JpNTTn i Sfes ^ T-f P <l i *^rt -+-F- *= i i rJ: ? 5 - r - fe -6 4- *0C. v&- 4 \_4_A. in the The teacher should show in the same manner as was shown in the previous lessons.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. a* J^ne.

on May 15th. 5EI H h fed. SWEET REMEMBRANCE.134 KARL MERZ PIAITO METHOD. 1814.the living ic Paris. where he cCflfipoBer i highly esteemed as a teacher. was born in Pesth. Bomeeay 1815. Heis still He is a distinguished pianist and a fine composer for the piano. of the following piece. . Stephen Heller.

distinctly. means sustained. which must be well emphasized.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. \f 4- ii i 3. Play the last chords eo that the highest tones are heard a little stronger than the others. The word sostemtto which appears at the close of the Etude. The following five-finger exercises must be played slowly and quiet. Raise the fingers from the knuckle-joints. The whole should be played with much feeling and delicacy. and keep both hands and wrist perfectly 643 ^tttt 3 ffi' 3 1 421 E 3134 9 0-\ 2 0f-^0 ! 3 6 - 3 -1 -0-*- 3 - 0i =f=r-rrt ^0*0*000- fm . Five-Finger Exercises. 1 1 5 /5 3 i 3 3 The notes which have two stems one up and one down form the melody.

J J J J J *-+- s 4 6 ' i .KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. ( 6 2 3 i*i*i*i \ -^5 . 6*- i* ^ ' * 6 1 ft * B I I & * ^ +-*-r?: 3131 ^ a l i 5 fr-yr-^ S 5 fr * 2 M 4 + I I I ^4- ^== H P-H :^ 6 * .

*.7 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

.i3 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Observe the sforzandos.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the ritardandos. and use the pedal as indicated. Notice the Marcato near the close of the piece. and like it has two sharps. 3 The teacher should thoroughly ex- The pupil should practice thia scale in all its possible modifications. A ROMANCE. especially those in the bass. Mark the signs of expression. Plaintive. PARTED FOREVER. 1 1 is the relative scale to the D-major scale. which means that the melody should be well brought Break up the last chord and close very softly. Endeavor to give expression to the sadness of the piece. This acale plain thia ecale. also the emphasizes upon certain notes both in the treble and the bass. 2 I -r- m 1 T* ?f r -p I pp 1 1 *- * ^ 3 -fH h ^B . out.

This chord may appear in three positions. also called the tonic. Marcato. and G. The three-fold chord consists of the first. 4 1- mf rit. the third and fifth as for instance C. the octftTe.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. next we will also represent the four-fold chord in ita various broken forms. "We shall first introduce exercises with three-fold chords. or G. On the fifth. principal chords foe other four tones. <Ve recognize two the three-fold and the four-fold so called because the one contains bnt three. and then the third maj be the highest tone. etc. mf Ted. next. and D. -* Exercises in : Broken Chord*. ** t a tempo. The following illustrates this E B : .

*4* .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

4 S L4 6 r^ 2 1 -V 3 2 *- 2 *=^ ^^ l*3=i -'*-: -05 ^f:t:^ ^ S ?r i i i V if:< ^=P= ^^ 1= fe^ 1 r.14* KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.r 1 .

The following are major and minor chord : AB -r g. Z ^ kg- The following A-minor. 6 6 E -minor. so the major chord differs from th minor chord. by having a small or minor third. f^T the major scale differs from the minor scale by having a minor or small third. Play in the three positions. : 6 6 z f: a Dfc" 8 . ^L . 5 5 -0-fI 4-0-2 *"*^ dH I 3 -f-O-\ tal **-* ii fci ! --3 - 2 5 -1 + 4 - 2 ! 5 -I Repeat in the 3 position!. arc exercises in broken minor chords.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . ETUDE. 6 5 3-_ 5 Th teacher must oblige the pupil to play the same kind of exercises after every new scale that is introduced.144 D-minor.

and ie taken from one of his Symphonies. simple. Haydn is the father of the Symphony and w:ia one . He was of a very pious turn of mind. 2 1 421 l*J?-f v J . pure and childlike in his character. Adagio ma non 3 troppo. is a Sonata for orchestra. 1809. A Symphony This Adagio is the slow movement or the second part out of one of this master's Symphonies. This beaatifal oompositiov has been written by the great Haydn.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Joseph Haydn was born in liohi >u. and died at Vienna. therefore. 1732. on May 31st. here simply arranged for the piano. 145 ADAGIO. and is./' 'he greatest instrumental composers the world ever produced. but was also eminent as a composer of vocal music. on *he 31st of March.

146 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

Hold your hand still while playiug and move it easily along on the keys. The whole exercise must be played very smoothly. Keep good time. Etude in Broken Chords. hence the hand has to be qnickly moved from the key. first slow then fast. The right hand begins on the same key on which the left closed. 4 5 _^ ^ 5 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

* 124542 1 1 2 3 B 3 2 1 \ 1 IJJ'JJ IJJ'*3 *^ 3tI srf H t i "* *-J^~ * 4 |T7 .. Adagio.X4& KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 5 THE MILLSTONE. 2 1 1 2 4542 1 . Ktude in Broken Chords.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 421 r > S 2 :*= = ^ 1 2 4 I S 4 2 1 H H h H <t-9 1 H H h J J ->)-9 1- I- 5 4= -*-*- . 149 124.

i-o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

* - ITT ffi^ '4* tt =3=i f- ^~7f^ JN ^=f> f t t) <]"^g^ nai ^ j.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. <N ^ ^t S 1 ^ ' -6 r t ^=^ -j] r . f: = =S ^F3 ^ ^ ^=^=^ 5 R-T ft -3-1 1 1 -^- -tf S * . . rE 1 r-rfr 1 5 r ^^ d ! 5fe^ i 5^ ^.

The arpeggio is by two signs. ^ -^ &- ^ -m ^ fe un E t4tt i-t-i-i -4-t-i ^ ff '* IT-&- E3" f-H-rt- u. 1 is bad.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . &> The chorda of an arpeggio should never be played simultaneously. The following illustrates this : When the tones belonging to Lento. 57 4-*te rrtes -F* fP 9 all lil ->-4-e ->I playing the above begin with the lowest note and sustain each as it is struck BO that the chord sound together. after the upper note is struck. TS produce the proper effect in the following it arpeggio should be played as written below. ARPEGGIOS. Of the following. that indicated is the notes must be truck successively and not simultaneously. 2 is good. No. to wit : Modo of writing : Lento. No.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 153 .

=E * * Vi i-JH-^.--^ t: Vj Tr*-V ^== J i i- ^ . 34-. 43 33 K fkd.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Exercises in 5 Broken Chords. *- 4 3 -+- +- -0I --i 2 -0- Imitate this exercise in all the scale the pupil has thus far practiced. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Continue this exercise through another octave using the Bame fingering.applying the fingering of the scale or that here given.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.) 4 3 24 4 . Moderato. Con deganza (with elegance. ^ ETUDE.

ms in the previous lessons.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 157 3 a ** Scale in C^-Minor. . explain the difference between I) and G minor scales. Let the teacher.

is* KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

Grand Arpeggios. 159 6 4 . EXERCISES.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

x6o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

The object of writing a piece with ending Imo. Be not afraid of them. with two ending* is to ave epace. They seem more difficult than iney Especial care should be bestowed upon the dotted notes."F" a> r -iTFtf. 1 ?.9 -f- m . and proceed at once to ending 2mo. i j . Imo. 2mo. 61 ETUDE. they are indicated in the following manner then repeat omit the ending Imo.^=T *- ^ e m t-t . 2 i 454 fc= mf IgzB % 8- t Imo. 1 an(i the rule is to play the part the first time endings.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. When a piece or a part of one has two different really are. . In thi composition arpeggios occur in both hands.

/ *r ^ rit. I: IEE5EE? *^ .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 I 4 4 2 Ei ^ 3 i ^i --.

advanced from the key of C. 1 163 C -0 -^- _ . The teacher will ask the pupil to write out the . the scale that has one sharp next to with two sharps. -F- -P- -f^ ---& f^- " C i Scale of A-Mafor. . by stepping five tones upward to G. 1 ETUDE. and explain why three sharps must be used.r~ KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. with three sharps. and now we will proceed to A. We have D A scale.

.164 KARL MERZ* PTANO METHOD.

.

.

the thumb comes on the angle white one. however. may. These chords all other chords having two black keys. B-MINOR. a I 2 I I 412 1 2 2 i N 1 2 i^zp: fj-wa i 6 3 1 a 6 i 3 1 a 6 i 4 4 4 3 1 41 1 41 l 2 ni^l N 1 2 3 2 2 L K 2 1 N 412 2i 5E i= 64 ^ z i ^" 64 j i 64 2 1 4 ^ 64 J . R-FLAT. I. Broken Chords in in E-flat and in Different Keys. be played with the thumb on the black key. m The following 3 1 i J^ raia t 1 -* -z-9- -^^f^ exercises are designed to accustom the finger to ft greater degree of extension.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

A Vivate.i6 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Allegro. JL i * .-4 ^ *- m ?=F mf i * i i i J i . fr 4. VALSE MELODIQUE.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 167 -i 4 (r- FP I 5 ? fr-rr ^ ^ *t ^ I i 5 f i ^ r I =t ? i .

x68 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1 f I ft i P r - m* 2 ^ * S-^- & 4-^t -* - 5* JL | =t=t= ? E F^* r> - * .E= t ^ H^- ^ j ^^ *=l=t- ^^ ^p: ^S - i ft fi *M S^^ 9 $ 4= . n=f .

is. F-Sharp Minor Scale.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The t ' ^^^^^^ l 3 THE WITCHES' DANCE. It follows B-minor and teacher will again explain the cause for the additional sharp. B sharp minor ie the relative minor key to A-minor. five tones higher. f *3 9 ^ *[ . Moderate. 169 therefore.

2 5 FEE a ^t i -* *h .170 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.-^ -^P ^B ^ T* V ** P 0- m -p -0 fc^ s f - 15: P^ t ^=^ I -. rjr 3r Jt-^f ^ -I -I I -m 1- ^ f E^EEfe ^ y=. trewi. ^-T^ t 1 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Abbreviations are a means of writing musical passages and notes in a curtailed form. each is to be repeated four times. Notes of smaller value. are written thus : The and are played in this wise : F F Notes written like these J Octaves and chords written in this when manner : ." "g8~ & I is played in ~~1 this manner: stroke across the stem of the half note and the chord. inasmuch as 4-8 make a 1-2. if abbreviated. The following . a There is a great variety of ab- few of which we will explain. breviations. means that both are to be played as eighth notes.

This beautiful selection Allegretto. is from on of Mozart's Symphonies. Play slow nd emphaeize the melody well. a 4-1 484 =JC i i a 3 i 3 ns a- i * - S E i -*- f~p~f - f- fp mfp it I: P 6-- p - 9^=?^ ^Wr r -4 * I ^ 5351424 . 173 MINUET.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

J f T a i t 5 S= 3 ! * *=* :i ^ t 3 -t t f H TWo. :^=ft _L 4 i 4 a=p: -F- =1=1= s r -w * i i- =*= i I i=* * i * Li $Ef 1 1 t ? l< :r . 3 i.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ' J * '.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. D.C. X_U r L .alFine.

S T> . was born in Berlin. His playing was brilliant and his Amgretto. Frederic "W. and died in Paris in 1849. following dementi's though without great depth of sentemont.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. He style. rrf-. 4.f F . this favorite piece. compositions are graceful. one of the greatest pianists of his time. 1788. Kalkbrenner. RONDO The author of was esteemed as IN E-FLAT.

..KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.. . 8va 177 8vm.

4 4 ^ -i-i -! t- =t i^ 3^Er * JLJL-l.I78 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. . ^ Jg L * r f r_ * *T-^=*=^-= ^^ #a rr^ *-r fr-K 2 T^ f T GRAND ARPKQOIOS. y \\>.

place the first finger upon it in the right hand ascending. It can be built on every tone. As a rule. A . if the arpeggio begins with a black key. learning to play other scales.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and aa you advance. Chords of the Dimished Seventh. play your five-finger exercises as well as the arpeggios in those keys. ^ ^ f- 179 4 TB * I ^ Sva In a like manner play broken chords and arpeggios in those keys you are familiar with. Either add a minor third to the dominant chord and omit the tonic or first tone. a \ . Use the thumb upon the first white key that occurs and you have the correct fingering of the entire passage. The following examples illustrates this lesson : Dominant Chord. Dominant Chord. Diminished Chord. There is still another chord which frequently occurs in music. and may be obtained in two ways. and in the left hand descending. Diminished Chord. namely the Diminished Chord of the Seventh. or raise the tonic of any dominant chord a half step.

) Ben Marcato U Basso.x8o KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ETUDE. The teacher . (Fast. (Mark well the bass. explaining the need of an additional flat.) .aoald proceed with this scale as with the others. Allegro. C-Minor Scale.

x8x 3 i 3 A 1 - m 1 I 4 E-Major Scale. Write out the E-major scale and compare it with that of C-major. . The E-major vance by fifths The pupil will observe that as we adscale lies five tones higher than the preceding one on A-major.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. each scale haa one additional sharp.

i--I .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. i-m-I 3 - i <> 1 --. Etude for Left Hand.

) 1 1 S 4 2 3 61. Exercises in Broken Chords. (Diminished Chords of the Seventh.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. * 2 F1W : !'*-+- 1414254 54 fprffc-jpf^ LiLHj-^jz .2-*4 2 *.2 H - f0"\ -4 4 I -0"\ 1 +[>* K T" I 4 Pl 411 -01- *t~ I 523 516 *-3 --2424 I 1 1 526259 6 4 3 4 6 ^-t -4 ( 4 1 4 951 261 4 6 3 3 1-01 f .

242 it s a 4 s a >- i t t 43 t* 0- 000 ( 1 .- r r r r r H ' ' H .184 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ETUDE. Andantino.

* M-W* fcE3 ^ -r?v -* - C-Sliarp Minor Scale. Apply the same lessons. fcM *!fi **^ ^ s scale. before studying this which were taught in connection with the preceding scabs.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. i 3 .

( In Broken Form.) *4= + . Other Major and Minor Chord*.i86 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

fe zrifr o ii 3 i - all *-h - ETUDE. 25335 .87 +7.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 113 4 .

namely. but if placed in a perpendicular position. These little notes taki' one-half of the value of the note to which they are attached. it takes its time value See the following illustrations play thus : The Mordent.. . and then the one below note. the accent falling -vit upon it . little time from the principal The Turn. : 1 mid then the turn is : Q 7 The group . is played wise : i ft A line across the mordent ^ means that note. hence they are played in this wise ' : r If the long appoggiatura is r at- I !j I it must be played in : tached to a dotted note. often occurs in the middle of a measure after the principal note : . as in the following : it must be played thus : The short appoggiatura x these examples : differs from the long in so far that it has a dash through its upper part. therefore. Among the Thus: the long and the short. which F is placed over the note to be embell^ "^^ which ished. above the prin- played in this manner is __^ I ipal note. . /%^. it should be played very fast. is called a long appoggiatura. thus consists of the note is. The Mordent Thus: in this is a short ornamentation and is -. if so. If the turn is to begin on the upper note the sign is placed horizontal. of which there are two. The Tarn is a group of tones which is a E indicated by this sign i j^ or this 9. ORNAMENTATION. represented by this sign . that the one over which the sign is it placed. The mordent takes a must.i88 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. i These signs are placed over the notes. musical ornaments commonly used we will first mention the Appoggiatura. small note placed before another from which it borrows its value. The turn is often played in the following style-: to beginning as well as ending on the principal note. A Observe there I is no dash through the upper part of the little note. as will be seen from ft J This appoggiatura is executed in this wise : Two small notes placed before a which is third are called a double appoggiatura played thus : The double appoggiatura from it. it is begin onthe lower it. as a rule.as for instance: *-!I the folio wing manner If the appoggiatura stands before a combination of tones. be played rapidly.

** - stxba L ' *?* IP- ^_3 K a Ha 3 fc -4r*-^z: 3ZgIT3EZZI^5Z iw n<^ py- r . C. -. A sharp. Short Appoggiatura. Hat or natural sign * may b be placed above or below the sign indicating the turn. the reading of which would make music difficult. as for instance 189 * I The turn often appears in this wise: These several turns are played in the following manner I : I play| T^L 'fl p.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. r~" ff$m~~9 which is Q Lf 1% 9 I If ~k~ 3 e<liu this way: 3 H= P I The double turn is and must be executed in the following These various signs are intro- marked thus : manner : duced as abbreviation marks. 0w. They are designed to avoid writing or printing many little notes. ^ ^ ft nVKl \~- pz^^-j^f-C -flJF ^7 felU i * ^^-d-i mf ' i ^-d-Vd-Vi-Vd: T 1 . Z). ETUDE.. i jFYne.

. Long Appoggiatura. ETUDE.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Johann Nepomuk Hummel was born in Presburg on the 14th of November. This ex&rciae is a-^^rffrj& . and died at Weimar on the 17th of October. for the purpose of practicing the turn as well as the appoggiatura. ALLEGRO MODERATO. 1778. the celebrated composer and pianist. The Mordent. ETUDE. He has produced much excellent music and is esteemed aa a composer of rare merit. 1837.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. The composition is by Hummel.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. fr -i 0- ^ E 3 ^ .

The difference between 3-8 time and 9-8 time will become perfectlv plain when placing accented measures of both times under each other. befrw een the A-flat Explain to the pupil the difference between the A-flat and C-major scale. ^"OTE TO ^93 THE TEACHER. In 3-4 or 3-8 time we have one heavy beat in a measure. and connt is as snch. on one. namely on one.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. one ' ' ' one 2 1 1 3 four 5 6 seven 8 9 II III Andantino tranquillo . also the difference and E-flat scales. four and seven. AN ALBUM LEAF. Practice all scales in the various combinations introduced in connection with the C*3 i major scale. This pretty Salon piece is written in 9-8 time. In 9-8 time there are three heavy beats. This is wrong. Some pupils regard this as equivalent to 8-4 time. Scale of A-Flat. to wit.

f E . v 4 -^*^*^ i <^^3 1 !j 2 -. . * -- * f: _t =1= :^= 555 tr=tft^= ^ -K"^^-*- 2 "f"^"^ |i ' t F * 4-p4W$AE 1 1 4 *- -- 4 1 -.ie>4 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

then at rapidity. 195 THE TRILL. without the motion of the hand. Play the following Right hand. 4 3 ETUDE. Attegro Animate. and in order to produce this. 4 54.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 323 5 3 . It must be executed by the fingers only. and is one of the most important ornaments in piano playing. ~ : 2 i THE BROOK. careful study is required. Only a perfect trill is pretty. Thi embellishment is indicated by the littert //* placed over or under a note. The trill ia a rapid succession of two tones a second apart. Aim first t evenesn of touch.

196 KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD. 3 2 1 w-rt - " 1 .

*97 35 .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

See tho following : 3 J J which would be played thus: | I I o I lr a 0?0f00?0P00f0f +-*-?L-L-i 11 La ir^n Ir-^^^LJrU^a 4 i ' -ei~~^**^*-****-+-^+m**m^^^m THE TRILL ETUDE. often has other note to play at the same time. Thus required. Andcuiic. tr cy i /r J .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. tr -** tr tr tr 4*+ tr fr -t- *+ jQ 75T ** tr +* V^- tr 84 tf! trtrtrtrtrtrtrtr^r 38 *94-3 9-t Double When double trilli are tr Trill. as is illustrated in the following example : :_. The trill always begins with the principal note uiilesd otherwise indicated. Trills with Changing: Fingers. the letters <r have to be fixed to each note. ^3=J f=f^ ^=t . The hand which trills instances the trill begins with the grace note.

The arm has nothing to do with this motion. This may be produced by giving the keys a sort of clinging pressure.it must be. When playing octaves? therefore. pay strict attention to the motion of your hands and wrists. therefore. Octave playing lends great force and brilliancy to piano playing. but the student should practice octaves first with the wrist motion. playing octaves. it should. the hand should be slightly raised by the wrist. and this may be properly done. heavy.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. take some other studies in hand. octaves is fatiguing. ers who execute octaves with stifi wrists. There are playspeak. Play all octave exercises first staccato and soft. therefore. When tired. so to thrown upon the keys and quickly removed again. for their proper use is the first lesson to be learned in these studies. To play ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 *~ i- M-----"5 . When The stroke with the whole arm is apt to be clumsy. and in reality is a waste of power. next they should be played slower in the legato style. be thoroughly studied. 199 Octave Studies. and with a very easy movement. then staccato and loud.

v f m +-] -*- 13 .40O KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' .

r rrr.2O2 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.H J3 b 7 ' * *'=** |g ^ .

of " Les Charms des Paris. M." The following i M. J. Rondo known under 104. 1870. and died at Leipzieron the was known and esteemed as pianist. also many show He As pieces. the author-of this composition. He -wrote much good music. J . 10th of March. the title he was called by his former pupil.whither merely a portion of the Allegro. while as teacher he was for many years ao- tive in connection with the Leipzig Conservatory .MendeJ&sohn. Moscheles. 17&4. teacher and composer.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. RONDO BRILLIANT. Prague on the 30th of May. though in was born pianist he was even a successful rival of Hummel.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Sva. & 52T=h r r fr ff rf *^-^ Pfca^= ni ff ***tr? dim. r r f ^ 3032:22= L pp LTV ^f 2 == .

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

The same applies to the 4th. Adagio. wa9 born iu the was famous city of Vienna on the 31st of January. 1828. On this a weight is so Thus 50. Allegro Moderate. Franz Schubert. being too indefinite. 75. his originality and What would ho not have produced. Explain its construction and how the MOMENTS MUSICALE. tempo Notice also the triplets in the 24th. that the pendulum tha figure be moved to 75 and that two be counted to one motion of the pendulum. 25th. The terms: Allegro. This alludes to a musical time measure* Observe the tempo mark at the beginning of thia piece. Allegro M. Tho following is one of Schubert's shorter characteristic pieces. and died in tho same city on tho 19th of November. Learn to play each hand independently and rapidly.206 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. that weight 104 means. is longer? especially famous on account ot hia beautiful songs. known a* Maelzel's Metronome. means that the attached. had ho lived unceasing activity. should be put to the figure 50 en the pendulum. the Metronome has been invented. 6th and 7th measures from the close.. and one beat should be counted to each stroke of which composers can fix the ante. moans. many symphonies and operas. 5th. to suit the figures indicated on the music. 104. It consists of a regular clock-work with an upright pendulum. Andweight should be put to 104. 26th and 27th measures which are played to notes of even divisions in the lex* hand. it has four flats. for his precocity. This scale in the relative minor scale to A-flat major and like need of four flats. M.and then you will have no trouble in putting both parts together. ' - : ^ ' ' Scale In F-Minor. 2 . that it may be moved up and down. was another one of Germany's. his rare talents. but he has also given us many fine piano pieces. the author ot this charming piece. and four should be counted to one stroke. 1797. by the means with great precision. much He Ho He chamber music. great masters. . of the pendulum. etc.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 5 aoj 4 *&=& ^--^ -%^ m & i=t rq n t- P ^ == ^ ^ ^ r fc=P ppp ^ X^ m f- +- ^= Sx i .

^ A player with a sufficiently large hand may use the third finger in tho following exercises.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. V EEE3 ! 5 ^ ? ? *5 * i w- -r* s ~^" j i^ fI "- "~~ * v ^ *- i SdE: ^ j -F3- ^ 15* Exercises in Octaves. t m dim. .

wm^f^tf^ F i U W . .64 209 5454 1 1146 64545454646464646 1111111111 111111 ' 6 46 1 45 4641 64 5 164 1154 1154 4 -*- * 451 4 5 4511 4 6 fingers.?4 II 45 1 i H-.-Gr- ^ Ui) . . 1 5 iJ 1 U 4 5 4541 461 41 645 54111451113 51 2 '-11 ^^J -- 5\ 3 /3 l^^^i =twa Efe^E^tp *^jl "^ ' -*"^-H ^^ 1 .^ .'r-* i T ' 114 44 146 145 T454 615^^ 14511 1541126 1 ^rfffft^ nHiTi L~a ^ntii g Hr>rTgS^= H^YnsU'i><uJ r?*5 : L F--l-H *P F"i *rta-*-F-FH *~t-^-*..KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD.-* *^i "* i * t !- l 4 3 145 6 1 1 5 _ ^1 1 164 ' I ! -_ i ' 6 4 (i (3) U) 4 * 4 41 4 5 j T-*-^r 1 i * * *-^. 4\ ft U 6 II 4 4 5 1 4 uii U 4 4511154 If 6 s\ 6 4 3 54 115415 - 1 4 1 ~rr"ri j ^t h F H^ -^ =i:i?%gt + . using the "When playing octaves the performer should connect them as much as possible by a skillful gliding of the thumb and 3d and 4th fingers on the black key as well as by passing the 3d and 4th fingers over the 5th. 5 45 . lingering to be used when playing them slowly. Connected Octaves.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. KXUDE.

T. 8va 211 STW *v /v .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Proceed with thin seal* like with 11 the preceding one*. Moderato. I ETUDE. Notice the peculiar time in the following exercises. It-Major Scale.212 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

3 3 EXUBE. 4. 7 and 10. also.KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD. This exercise. G-Sharp Minor Scale. con moto. not before 'introduced. ia written in a peculiar time. . The accents fall on 1.

.--rf. STEPHEN HELLER.--* . *- -9- 1 M 1 SLUMBER SONG. -*- 4 '^^ -. D-Flat Scale. By tranquillo.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. PP J. -!9- I * 4 6 fled. S 1 5 5 S 6 A. fed. . JL ^ r I i i 4>ed. .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. .

Explain this scale to the pupil. This scale is the relative minor of D-flat major. B-Flat Minor Scale. and like it has five flats. BOLERO. sV s9 fsO Pap r-F bIS s j . Moderate.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

*< mm : JUJ^L * 9-4- r T .2X8 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Play all the chords in this broken manner. Play the ending very smoothly and brilliantly. printing We f Allegro Moderate. music. is Play this pretty air well and emphasize the melody. MOO LEE WAH. The melody also introduce one example of this mode printed in larger notes so that the student may all the easier discern it. The pupil should write +his scale and compare it 219 carefully with the C-major scale as well as with the ecale of B-major. . F-Sharp Major Scale.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. A Chinese Melody for Black Keys Only. so as to make the student acquainted with itB meaning.

22O KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.fT>frrrfrffefr. * * 3 zra .fiFrl . P. - irt* a fyrf> 143254J3 ~Frir?~fm fygripfr JTC: tt li 1 2 * <-* Tp* J i .

u itiLfr .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

i> : r> ^ 5^ - t^ T 4= =1: ^^ ^& 3^&5 P ^ s s ^ * : .> ^ F E :t=^ i- =t 4 I)-Sliiirp Minor Scale. . K-Flat Minor Scale. fcS3.222 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

We . occur a piece written in seven sharps or seven flats. because the keys with seven sharps or flats can be easily produced and easier played as keys of five sharps or flats. 233 The pupil has now practised all scales commonly used in music except the Chromatic Scale. and flats. here and use only the keys up to six sharps there. but uch pieces are rare. while the latter has only five flts. Thus. The former has seven sharps.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. the key of C-sharp is the same as D-flat. There may. hence it is better under all ordinary circumstances to write and play a piece in D-flat in preference to writing it in C-sharp.

224 .

Such forms often occur a- in music. . Chromatic Passages.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. -t * -t- * * * t- ^^^$j&t3$F*^ 8 41 EXUDE. Modern to.

.a*6 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. "f >fr .

i Among his lit piano pieces his ii ?. however. and also an excellent. and died at London (England). i -<iii . loace. June 6th. 227 ^-/.^rfr-^ *-ar -^- S HSB- =sfc ytv > i t * RONDO. admired.r '^rg-. His style is "Invitation to the Dance" and his Concert-stueck are best Vivace. 1786. He is deservedly called a great composer.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 1826. still others with whose works he must gradually become familiar. One of these is Carl Maria von Weber. J^\ ^if a>^ ~'^^^ M* .k. pianist. Germany's beloved composer.t ^ ^^-*ng^i'i^' ' J ^^0 > IABi . i known and most elegant and melodious.>:*. The pupil has made the acquaintance of quite a number of the great masters. There are. He was born at Eutin on the 8th of December.

* .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 4 5 229 tn b R>-* F^ H* ' ^ "5 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Chromatic Scales in Simple Minor Thirds. Chromatic Scale in Simple Major Thirds. 1231 12 3 1 31 32 .

The title Andantino. later in Moscow. 4. He was a superior pianist and a fine composer. Petersbnrgh. i 1 . He visited Russia with his teacher dementi. and every student ought to be acquainted with them. His Nocturnes are still much admired. where he Ireland.--tf-- 2313 3131 2131 12 3 NOCTURNO. 1837.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. born in Dublin. L 3 1 Ji3 t*3-0. and finally settled in St. of this piece meani Night Music or Serenade. . 331 3131 2313 Hi-*- 313 1 2131 12 3 313 2 1313 V 2131 3132 2131 3131 3 213 231 3 1312 Chromatic Scale in Simple Minor Sixths. Chromatic Scale in Simple Major Sixths. cantabile. died on the llth of January. It was composed by the celebrated John Field.

3 .

% fed.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. $ fed. % fed.^.'^fed. . % fed. % fed. * .^ f&t. fed.fed.

# Tea. . -g"S S" -g. 63 34 41 a ? . In ascending the scale in thirds.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. after the use of f the connection with \ and | must be mad* by the thumb and fhe fingers turning over it. 5 i 3 4 j t 432123 2 ^ 1 1 31 5 : 3 323 Practice both fingering in the following scales C-Major. 4 632 3 m * L . Sixths When and Octaves.*P F r *. In the same manner in descending scales of thirds. is to be made by the 3d and 4th.? Scales in Thirds. The rules given for the scales of sixths are equally applicable to those of fourths in chords of the sixths and to fifths in chords of the diminished seventh. LLffi. The management of the thumb requires careful study in order to attain even motion. when descending hold it somewhat indard. hold the right hand somewhat owtward. In scales of sixths the perfect connection of f with f (and the contrary). must b passed undr the first and the second over the third. both the connection between | and f must be made by turning the 3d over using | the 5th.-*>-. playing it is not allowable to raise them both.* I 1235343 ^214 - ' 3 2 3 ^=ii*^ ?^-r ft 4 ^ *-*-+K 9 F i K . the thumb When ascending in thirds after scales in sixths connections between | and 4 is to be made in th same manner.^ r r 2>ed. or the 4th and 3d. When using the first and third fingers.

A-Major. 43 34 4321 4512 235 a 4 B-Flat. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 343 6 Iff.

the composer of this little -'Song Without Words. many produced. mny songs and a large quantity of piano music.PIANO METHOD. . Play the melody out well and subordinate the accompainment. "St. 1809. Paul" and "Elijah. and died at Leipzig on the 4th of November. on the 3d of great musicians Germany has February. indicates that the player should sing upon his instrument. Felix Mendelssohn Rartholdy. Perhapa best known and doubtless most widely used among his works." worthy of every pupil's attention. SONG WITHOUT WORDS. They are in themselves a mine of beautiful melodies.KARL MERZ." He also produced much orchestral music. The tewte. his famous "Songs Without Words." was born at Hamburg. 1847. He waa one of the He wrote two very fine Oratorios. are Ther are forty-nine of them. title To do this well requires great skill and correct Moderate.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

.-i a^-j -S- f P i^^L-LZ ^TJ. -:_*_. Scales in Thirds. 3 5 4 i * A-flatMajor.2134 1- 9 ^*^^=.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. omit. rr-f S 9^ a ~^ * * * % r V *-f25r* li-'T~* -/^**tHj-J> ---fr-p-P_^^ A> -^ >*-*?i* ----*. PrH 4 a fl ii -H 1 3 l^glttQ-J i^^rTrf1 3E: ft. ' * . U-^=U * a =g=g=F~:-<-4 g * j -* i~~ *""* ft "* /\* /-v.m -*"f-H".*--------H"F--t F-t U-^ E-r*2 3 -i | iF 2 - 1 3=p=t:^S^ K 3 9 5 3 4 435 234.U-g. it. j^ "*" ^ - HM J - ^ 1- iV J 6 -ffl -S 0^ ___ . . ' Q^-tf" 3 '-^2 J :t The 4 is scale of G-flat Major being played with the same fingering.-t.^* *^^ fm I +*^-**~* \l * 32 2154 43 . etc.*fia HB^ 1 2 I 4 3- -J i V ji * S % J r- ^ 4 I 4- T^*M"i^ / *7^d ftfcVF i 32132 i ^ * "I.H F F I 4 2 3 1 a B-Major.g 4 341 \ \ Z m -0f m 2 I -.-i 2 2 :! 8 i - *. *..3-0-. 34321 4512. i 3 4 vfajor.

He was. who was born at Bonn on the 17th of December. Opus. nine Symphonies. . which was a sore affliction to him. and died at Vienna. ( Op. his Sonatas are the object of admiration of all musicians of taste and learning.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Andante. 26. His thirty-two ies. distinguishes them by numbers. many trios and quartets. 1827. The following is a selection from his Sonata. meaning work. He is one of those rare intellects. For a long time before his death he was so unfortunate as to lose his hearing. indeed. His matchless and beautiful Symphongreat works. having written thirty-two Sonatas. Op. his Chamber-music.) Many masters distinguish their productions by them. a progressive spirit. Nevertheless he continued to produce and there is scarcely a field in musical art which he has not enriched. Thus Beethoven. ANDANTE. March 26th. This piece was written by the great and immortal Ludwig van Beethoven. stands for Sonatas are the best piano literature we possess. 1770. one of those mighty geniuses whose works alike astonish and delight mankind.

53 343 341 3 535 431343 a 331 4532 __ ^FP0*1 ^ ^1> ^ m -r .A-Minor. . .24 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Minor Scales in Thirds.

F-sharp Minor. 4 5321 3 343 2143 2161 C-harp Minor. 3 3 '4 5 1 4 2 f rtT "_*_ 1 4 t ! 5 f >5^ 3 444 G-sharp Minor. .KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

Frederic Francis Chopin. from whose pen thi charming number came. on the 3d He wai an exile from his native country since 1831. Assai lento.24* B-flat Minor.A . Still more h should fied to enter into this composer's spirit. P-r-tjii^ ^u^= ?*= pr-Ff-^t: -SS3"ff^-nRqi=^a=^ 4 3 . be careful in this particular. 5 KARL MERZ> PIANO METHOD. Jt . When else they will suffer. He has preferred smaller forms. 1 133 1 2 -p"*"S"fr A F--~"4 H _ PRELUDE. but in these he has excelled. therefore." He was one of the most famous and also one of the most peculiar composers of the iccond quarter of this century. and died in Paris on the 17th of October. Poland. ceased to attract lovers of good music in all countries. and his works have never guard against allowing the pupil confining himself to long to this composer's work. Not every one is qualiplaying Chopin's works special attention must be paid to the dynamic signs. 1849. the teacher should. t>f February. 1810. was born in Zelazowawalo. Schumann says of this composer: "He is the most daring and the proudest poetic spirit of his time. __ ^ ^ * T 2 -S". 3412 5 3 ^j_| .

. C-Major. Scales in Major Sixths.KARL MERZ* PIANO METHOD.

642 6 4 61 m ^ 1 ^ ^ ~~ .244 F-Major. 121 2454 121 fi 12 4 S 6 * D-Major. B-flat Major. A-Major.PIANO METHOD. 4 6 KARL MERZ.

o * : -^r^r -si- 3 4 -f A-flat Major.- 1S45243 5 5-f6 ^ a ? t a t K=*= ^^=N^ -B ?=r-*--i^.-F- -. 11 ft f^i^z^4^=^^==f=fc^_F^i* r-ji=p^L-^ g^z-^rE^r-i^ =BZ^ ^ 7r^ rf-r ^=3=1^^= -U>^ n ^*^J SF === : 3 4 I 54 542: 61 ^ 2^^^i 1 5 4 4 ^ --F- 2 _ | -I -F-p-FW-4 I ^ - I 4 -P. 1 .grT-*r=a =1= :*^ ^c: =B^T.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. B-Mjor.=P=N=^= =1=-'f3^ 3^p 5^w^.-^^ -^L^B^^-^^ 4 jr^T : =- j. E-flat Major. 342 511 t 4 1 4 1 4 1 S ^rHrr= S3 =r~"*~F~ =j. A. - 5 5 42 4 53 4 1 | 5 3 f 4 2 o E-Mjor.

Slow and tender. The next master whose works we introduce is Robert Schumann.=ii=^ :^^*-Tir: p^ I^FTT: =wJ -+=t===1=^-* =*--^-i=j= **^^^z 2 .r i 5421 m -0- -F--I . 4 4 5312451 6 6 1 * -- WHY.Q 543 2^'l 1 6 5 3 6 F-sharp Major. -+*-+rt i r r~ -0- m 2 4 2^ a * ^^^"^fc ^ 6 3 1215 S 4 = . 3 4 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. and died atEnderich on the 29th of July. Schumann was an minent composer and a critical writer of great ability. . but he who once has become familiar with the Schumann spirit will always be charmed with this master's works. :? fl= frf^r W j 3>= -^^T^ iS^=: ^=*.-^ 2 5 ^-< 1 ~-^-^*-i r5- 1 - -*" r t 1 4 _- . -*-Fil~I" pHBn^B A 4512 it ^4 "*" . 1856. He is difficult to understand and often difficult to play. He was so unfortunate as to lose hi mind towards the latter part of his life. He produced many fine orchestral and choral works. born at Zwickau. also many fine songs and piano pieces.346 D-flat Major. Germany.

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. 247 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

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KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.
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Adolph Henselt, the composer of this selection, was born at Schwabach, Germany, on the 12th,of May, 1814. He is one of the most accomplished pianists, and as a composer of rare merit. He has produced many excellent Ktudes, Variations, etc., also greater works such as Chamber-music and Concertos. Since 1839, he has lived in Russia. hserve the peculiar style of writing employed in this piece, it being written on three lines. The upper two are for the
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KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. CHROMATIC SCALES.
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who was born in Mannheim. 5 4 6 4 12124 641 6 4 6 fc-^ fc=N*: SB ** i |J TF 2' II W*H j - 4- J- 5 ** 4545 Study in Thirds. Germany. and his expressive Adagio touch. and who died in London. $#<>. . especially on account of the even His 84 studies are of classical value they combine musical cultivation of his hands. on the 10th of April.*54 * KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. ThU study The thirds should be played together. B. . Thie study is by the celebrated J. fiffi\ l"i=P=-T^ I H. Cramer. on the 24th of February. is difficult. 1858.T"N~ =5= =pcft . 1771. Allegro con brio. He was distinguished as a player. ideas with the most instructive mechanical passages. and not broken.

.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.

rk them. and has been applied to this style of composition because." The term fugae is derived from the latin word Fuga. In order to obtain a correct view of the several parts. He left an enormous quantity of vocal and instrumental music. A Practice these pieces slowly.the several parts eeem to flee from each other. Among his numerous works there is none of greater interest to the student than his "Well Tempered Clavichord. which is skillfully worked out according to the strictest rules. to chase or to flee. in art language known as Dux. Mathew. above all those by John Sebastian Bach. and his Mass in B-minor. Every fugae has a well defined theme or subject. and died at 28th of July. ." Doubtless all great masters. in the course of time yon will be charmed with this style of composition. and by the aide of Handel the greatest composer of the 18th century. Fughetta is a small fugue. Fugues usually are written for two. the greatest contrapuntal composer ot all times and all He was born at Eisenach. Bach is without an exception the noblest and purest composer of fugues. on countries. according to St. 1635. Towards the latter part of his life he was so unfortunate as to lose his-eyesight.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. or what would be a still more effectual plan. His greatest works are his Pas&ion music. being at the time of his death director of the Leipzig on the Thomas school and cantor of the two principal churches of that city. study the different parts carefully. we are all boys. giving each voice or part a separate line. he should write an entire fugue out on a score. the student should mr. Schumann said in his famous Rules and Mexims." containing forty-eight Preludes and Fugues. Fast playing leads to indistinctness and confusion. Yes. and cause them to com* in with precision and clearness. So great was their appreciation of Bach that Mozart said. "By the side of him." In another place he said. for in that manner only will the composition become clear to the player and listener. "Practice industriously the fugues of good masters. The last selections are from the works of John Sebastian Bach. three. have studied his works diligently. You will then certainly become an able musician. the 21st of March. All fugues should be played with a moderate degree of speed. 1750. "The 'Well Tempered Clavichord' should be your daily bread. four and live voices. Germany. pianists as well as composers. Play these and similar works continuously and their beauty will become plain to you.

1 f~m-\ 6 - *H 4 -- 13 fc SS5 5 3 1 5 = .F--+ P-4 4 f -LM 3 i i i . Andantino.1 * -0-f0. INVENTION AND FUGHETTA FOR introductory study to S. Bach's inventions. TWO PARTS. 6 -.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.3 5 .

KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Moderate. . The subject must always be brought out response. Subject. FUGHETTA.

J 39 thi-r^t^-t Sva .KARL MERZ PIANO METHOD.

the window-shutter. Accompany singers often. Try to play easy pieces well . should not aid in the circulation of bad compositions. Question older artists counterpoint. but its proper harmonies also. read it Remember also. bell. theory. That is as practice reasonable as trying to pronounce a. Take care that your instrument not be led astray by the applause bestowed on great The applause of a master should be dearer to you than that of the masses. do not lose a moment.: that you should play it. all Never strum half through. is reached by chorus and orchestra. about the choice of pieces for study. Love your instrument. . Spiritual. good time. The playing of some virtuosos resembles Play in time the walk of a drunken man. and feel do not force yourself to further labor. but do not vainly suppose it the in fineness. quicker and quicker every day. If all were determined to play the first violin.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Look upon the alteiation or omission of modern ornaments. serves high aims. Sharpen your powers of fancy. they will appear friendly enough to you when yon are familiar with them. As you grow tuosos. Remember that there are others Yet always play as tiioarSi c. dc osfc CsoufcU yourself aa to who if listening. But if you possess a powerful voice. no one should : attempt more. tired. Playing in society is more injurious than useful. 8. "Dumb not try to attain mere technical facility. Try to sing at sight. those of J. duos. b. provided Executive passages alter with the times flexibility is only must be simple and . Bach. avoid playing what is merely fashis If we would learn to know only precious. When you ionable. etc.. Learn the fundamental laws of harmony at an early age. hold to it. so that you may be able to remember correctly. . trios. in order to see that they lead to nothing. older. This is perhaps the greatest injury that can be offered to art. who think they may attain to everything in valuable You but on power. Try to produce the same impression with a composition. It is better to rest than to practice without pleasure or freshness. Do not make such your models. ! Play carefully always and never try a piece You will thus save much time. in the works of good composers as a contemptible impertinence. No children can be brought up to healthy manhood on *weetmeat9 and pastry. This will make your playing broader and more flowing. All that is fashionable again becomes unfashionable and virtuosos.that there are singers. the highest expression possible to music. the so-called bravura. key are the sounds these produce. you have finished your daily musical work. etc. no one can respect. Study your audience but never play anything of which you feel ashamed in your own heart. "When you play. and that equally fine. You must gradually learn to know able the most remark- works by all the most remarkable masters. the contrary. in their suppression. not only the melody of a composition. them when not key-boards" have been invented practice on them a while. anything beyond it is mere caricature. and with all your it when doing this . until a ripe age they ^aily mechanical exercises for many hours. as that Do for which the composer aimed at. bread. You must industriously practice scales and other finger exercisea.aeter listened to you. Therefore respect every musician in his proper place. your ear will thereby gain is . Seek among your comrades for those who know more than you do. however. It is not enough to know your pieces with your fingers you should be able to remember them to yourself without a piano-forte. like bodily nourishment You will then certainly become an able musician. Do if you cultivate fashion until you are old. whom . i v. Dragging and hurrying are equally great faults. thorough bass. with others. Exercise often in the open air! A great deal is to be learned from singers and songatreeees. we should never have a complete orchestra. Do not be afraid of the words. highest and only one. You to should never play bad compositions and never listen absolutely forced to do so. We cannot learn to speak from dumb people. There are people. the good are older.. for this. the cuckoo try to find out in what in : The culWmtion of the The masters have sufficiently strong. even if j ou have but little voice . without the help of an instrument. But do not believe everything they tell you. The " Well -tempered Piano-forte" should be your daily . in <&. . it is better than to play ficult dif- always in perfect tune. RULES AND MAXIMS FOR YOUNG MUSICIANS. ear is of the greatest importance. You should be ab8c to tlD68SCtand a piece of music merely on reading it. ones in a mediocre style. c. Make a better use of your time. to distinguish tones and keys the Endeavor. Rest from your musical studies by industriously reading the poets. Lose no opportunity of playing music. things that exist we ought to live a hundred hu- Time man lives. you will become an imbecile. but cultivate & immediately and look on it as the beat gift Heaven hac r XQwed on you. converse more with scores than vir- over If first.. Practice industriously the fugues of good masters above all. If anyone places a coloration with which you are unacquainted before you.

It is a pleasant sign if you can pick out pretty melodies on wonder at this great musical self. Do not judge a composition on a first hearing of it. many thousand watch-springs. should early understand the compass of the human voice in its four principal kinds listen to these in the cho. . If Heaven has gifted you with lively imagination you will often in lonely hours sit as though spell-bound at the piano. they will smile out at you in a thousand differabout music. Beethoven. but through a cal activity.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. This M the most complete musicianship that can be supposed pos- when you are old. and the more unclear the domain of harmony is yet more mysteriously you will feel yourself attracted magic circle. to be intelligently musical ? Yon are not o when of others. . Honor the old. How may we become musical in that sense? Dea. Else many precious relics of the past will remain unknown to you. different nations. you almost forsee heart in short. in and listen. Listen attentively to old folks songs these are a treasure of lovely melodies. Do not try the piece at the instrument until it is finished. when you have taken music not old one by only in your fingers but into your head and heart. especially voices. These are the happiest hours of But beware of giving yourself up too often to a talyouth. you are not so when you stop and find play it impossible to proceed because some one has turned over two pages at once. Some one has said that a perfect musician si juld be able to imagine a complicated orchestral work. or merely serve as the jutertainment of amateurs. Masters must be studied. This will is it make you a good reader. Many things will only become clear to you Only genius wholly understands genius. Observe the tone and character of the different instru- Art is ments try to impress their peculiar tone-colors on your Never omit hearing a good opera. The laws of morality are also laws of art.People live ! 261 on tbe other side of the mountain. Faithfully use the pound Heaven has entrusted to you. that which pleases moat at first is not always the best. for it proves that the inward sense of Lose no opportunity of practicing on the organ. which he listens to for the first time. tinually greater artist . the principal requisites. and the hearing of maswhat amateurs fancy the word means: Anything easy arid ter-works of different epochs will most speedily cure you of rhythmically pleasing. rejoice. not the reverse. Fingers must do what the head instrument that so quickly revenges iteelf on anything un! In judging compositions.adoration. but bring a warm heart to what is new. ferent stamp. Be You never thought of. Stud} is unending. or invented anything that modest others had not already thought of or invented before you. and especially through many-sided musifamiliarity with chorua clear construction through the firm outlines of the Write more than you improvise therefore. too. a fine ear and a swift power of comBut this foundp'rehension come like all things from above. you should consider it a gift " Melody" is the amateur's war cry. without melody is no music. Stand up for the first But it la not worth while to grow angry about the others. You cannot do this by shutting yourself up all day like a hermit. wills . you are studying. may be made. But there are melodies of a very difvanity and self. and in which they best express softness and tenderness. when you play an piece. begin to compose do it all with your brain. Thibaut's work "On the Purity of Tone-art" is a fine book Mozart. and intelligent M a musician.. to you. while the organ is being played. and every time you open Bach. pen. Your mind will only become clear when form has clear to you. Read it frequently when you are older. but if such come to you unsought and not at power. From a pound of iron. Therefore you must understand The study of the history of music. minds . the as if into a mechanical exercises. elean or impure in composition or playing as the organ. the rest will happen of itself. vital. and will teach you the characteristic of . sible. Without enthusiasm you will never accomplish anything in art. the piano-forte. Practice reading in the old clefs at an early age. in the written score before him. If your piece proceeds from your heart it will touch the hearts When you *What wit!. and certainly music from above which y ou ought to share with others. seeking to express the harmony that dwells within your eyes painfully fastened on the notes. . ear. ?hild. And even if you had done BO. there is no tone pulsates within you. try to discover in which intervals their principal strength lies. and practicing . not a means of amassing wealth. go ent wajs. the middle Sing in choruses industriously. rus. ent that will lead you to waste strength and time on shadow You will only obtain mastery of form and the pictures. aiion must be improved and increased. when alone practice conducting occasionally. But you are so when in playing a new what is coming. power of will help you in becoming clear regarding the compositions and orchestra. that costs only a few pence. etc. You should early learn to conduct observe good conducThis tors. if you know these. try your little fingers and the key-board. you will soon weary. You Closely observe life as well as the other arts and sciences. of the If you pass a church If you long to ait on the organ-bench your. . Become a con- become Do not b prejudiced against unknown names.faded monotony of modern Italian opera melodies. you laboriously a piece through. the value of which runs into hundreds of thousands. make a distinction between then' as to whether they belong to art. You are certain to rise through industry and perseverance.

it ia purposes of art. 1685-1750. and claimed. the influence of the later was turno. is famous mainly as a composer. while the damper-pedal was usually worked with the knee. dementi. : Mozart. The student must bear in mind the fact. Czerny. more freely than did the players of the Vienna school. that the instrnments then in use were very limited in their capacity. Mozart. namely his "Gradus ad Parnassum. Philip Emanuel's style was serious. The first has left us an excellent series ot and Philip Emanuel. admitting of an easy. they also aflected each other in their onward course. His fine compositions of that style are no doubt the greater. Steibelt. Herz and others the Vienna school degenerated into mere fingerstill term. Haydn and Mozart speak highly of him. was the greatest player of his country. however. While upon the whole his works are simple. He developed. was also m superior player upon the harpsichord. tions as well as in his playing. his fingers formed almost a straight line and their motion was scarcely perceptible. though mainly famous as organist. but faithpeared in the arena of art. and built so lightly that a man could carry one of them from one side of the room to the other. towards the development of which he did a great deal. With men like Kalkbrenner. 1770-1827. 1752-1832. Bach was the greatest clavichord player of his time. present here and there difficulties. Haydn. it differed largely from that of germ out of which grew the matchless Nocturnes by Chopin. astonish or to dazzle with his skill on the piano. The sons of the latter. are also highly esteemed as composers. The not imagine these masters as having played upon such instru- ments as are now in use. in so far that he yielded to modernizing influences They also used the of his times by developing the lyric element in his composi. which Scarlatti occupied by th side of Bach and Handel. After this master we see the art of piano-playing again While Muzio Clementi was still living and active as comrepresented by a German and an Italian. Oui oe was also a superior pianist. Moscheles and Hummel. where he interested himself in the manufacture of pianos." a series of studies in which he laid the foundation for piano-technique. He occupies much the same position towards Mozart and Haydn. gentle gliding style of playing. His style was brilliant. 1683-1757. The lower keys were black and the upper white. one that deserves our special attention in connection with this sketch. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ART OF PIANO-PLAYING. These players cared more to develop the singing quality ot his father. Kalkbrenner and others. His touch was clear and exact. insisted the use and equal training of all the fingers. The dementi school was carried on by Cramer. 1710-1784. fluent and distinct even to the smallest notes. 1714-1787. "that he who plays one Fantasia fully served the highest . Marx said. ed by Woelfl. These two masters formed distinctive schools of piano. Herz. while studies. The student must. to wit Wolfgang Amadeus poser and pianist. smooth.the instrument. the art of piano making. ing. H dementi had a remarkable technique and he is said to have even surpassed Mozart as a player. especially Friedemaim. Dussek. especially the latter. While the first named was Field must be regarded as the originator of the modern Nocendowed with higher gifts. Mozart and dementi The earliest players of distinction were John Sebastian To Bach. that aa a pianist he was exIn the art of improcelled by some of his contemporaries. like Philip Emanuel Bach before them developed the ly ric element in music. was clear and fluent. Hummel. Ludwig von Beethoven. who wrote and played in the contrapuntal style. in contradistinction to Bach and Scarlatti. developing th piano-technique. who. and the art of musical composition developed separately. and no pianist would consider his education complete without having thoroughly studied them. The Mozart or Vienna school was further develop- Though his Sonatas are not very extensively known. of course. Steibelt. Field and others. While the German pianos had a light touch. that of the English piano was somewhat heavier and its tone more sonorous. continued in the work of Dussek also produced many good works. than mere velocity.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. Moscheles. 1685-1759. truly great. yes. As an impro- visator he was unsurpassed. nevertheless. "While the piano-technique. he revolutionized the art of piano-play ing through his matchless piano works. The early pianos were very small. clavichord and harpsichord were now gradually superseded by the modern piano. The following sketch is designed simply to give the student an outline of the history of piano-playing. dementi lived long in England. they. however. 1756-1792. His style was graceful and fluent. Clementi was also a great composer and his Sonatas are used to this da} Among his many works there is. are still played. Czerny ia well-known aa the writer of many exercises which are extensively used. it was also characterized by fire and much power. suffice it to say that they were simply the precursors of the present square and grand piano. While his style. like that of Mozart. which give even experienced players plenty of work to Scarlatti playing. His technique is said to have been defective. While neither of these two men dethey serve to be called virtuosi in the modern acceptation of the do. Lack of space forbids us giving a discription of them. these might properly be added the name of George Frederic Handel. He was upon m most remarkable improvisator and hia powers of working out themes in the contrapuntal style. however. apand Muzio it is applicable more to Scarlatti than to Bach. and Domiuico Scarlatti. pedal With Carl Mayer the Clementi school declined. were simply astonishHis many compositions are still object* of admiration. show and finaly ceased to exist as such. He never aimed to vising he was.

He very seldom played anything else than his own works. The playing of these two masters. but. by singing them. he having appeared not only in all the large cities of Europe. aflected the entire musical world. he approached him very closely. 1797-1828. though he was not a great pianist. a brilliant player. During Beethoven's life time. but especially that of Dance. on the 17th of July. "Beethoven must be studied over again with every Sonata. Especially is this true of Chopin. which to grasp is not given to every one. but gradually known. at Geneva. while hifl powers of execution are. mainfily Some of them were indeed remarkable for all. " He will cause me to be forgotten as a pianist. One player among them we must mention. He exerted an influence through his piano compositions. and recognized the superior qualities of the latter. who was an excellent pianist. Like Weber. on the 27th of January. Many enjoyed his instruction. Suddenly there appeared two great luminaries cert players. Franz Schubert. by Thalberg.he is classed among the Romanticists. also influenced the art of pianoplaying. became famous as composer and pianist. then the greatest manufacturer of grand pianos in Germany." continues he. masters were setting tho music-loving with their extraordinary performances men like world wild Mendelssohn. in a measure. Later he took lessons of Liszt. and while many of his piano lay any claims to being artwork. and so rapid was his progress.dents to confine themselves too long to them. strangely formed passages. a high de. glittering show pieces." Beethoven used both the Vienna and English piano. on the 27th of April. 1871. and peculiar rhythms. Of Beethoven it may well be said that he anticipated the pianos of to-day. Their number Liszt. The instruments of those days in gree of intelligence. knowa them all he who plays one Sonata by Mozart. affected the piano-technique of to-day more than Lizt even. and probably will forever remain unsur." While Carl Tausig could ot over shadow Liszt. and Chopin. while all the preceding players and composers belonged to the classic school. 1810-1849. Of Franz Liszt the student will find a biographical greatest player. Liszt on the other art legacy it is not surprisingthat but a short fourteen years after his death. therefore. namely. far too weak for the powerful touch of this master. " that he is and remains the and proudest poetic epirit of his time. Chopin. Yes. He was pupil as concert player waa brilliant. these. Italy. Carl Maria von Weber.none ever reached. 1810-1856." Young men and young women doubled and trebled their energies in order that they might become Liszts or Thalbergs. called the " Home." A peculiar spirit pervades his works. He introduced many chord combination!. and for He was bert's songs to the world. This led him to persuade Streicher. he did a great deal towards art development by transcribing orchestral and vocal compositions. to adopt English models. while no pianist of note failed to study his pieces. so large that it notice them all. the best in the world. He revolutionized the art of piano-playing. of Hummel and Sechter. He threw everything into shade that had been done before him in the line of piano-playing. all very but exerted by far the gave many concerts." were played everywhere. Schumann very correctly said. that he introduced Schuking 1786-1826. however. Most of his pianocompositions was mere. nor should they allow stuboldest hand is a man of a more fiery temperament. and the only number not his own we remember seeing on his American programs was Mendelssohn's song without words. 1809-1847. If the players of the Viennese school made a mnsical box out of the piano these two masters now turned it into an ketch later orchestra. works cannot Indeed. smooth and exceedingly brilliant. Mendelssohn developed the lyric element through his matchless songs without words. it may be said. which re- But while among those of living pianists. feels them all. especially his "Invitation to the "Concert-stueck. namely. "Spring Bong. graceful. so to speak. Liszt is and will in all probability remain the He among pianists. in a brief sketch lite this. and received his first from his father. be careful how they use this master's works with pupils. Liszt. His pianogreatest influence through his compositions. exercised a far greater influence than did those by Mendelssohn. however. he should almost entirely Of him. He served self first . and by popularizing them through his concerts. a piece which a great many boarding-school misses now adaya play. that his teacher is reported to have said. full of fire and power. he . much less surpassed Franz players. Though not a concert player. He gave an impetus to pianomaking. There seemed to be nothing impossible with them Thalberg's playing was elegant. 1871. While he who wishes to play the works of this master must have a good technique. He died when quite young. and having left ns no he lost sight of.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. quired most careful study and special fingering.which became. is is impossible. both a players and as composers. and thus it came that Schumann. and stronger ones were the result. labored more for pure art. as well as the art of piano-making. is gifted with more vivid imagination. Both artists exercised a decided influence upon the development of piano-technique. which led to the production of the American piano. and all agree that next to Liszt he waa the Carl Tausig. he needs still more than this. 63 when he appeared concert-rooms he took everything by storm. Teachers should. on the piano." On the other hand he played his Sweet Home" quite frequently. upon the piano. butitwas also cold. He died near Naples. While Liszt in his younger days in- were dulged in much show-work. but also in those of our The former was born He was born in 1841. By the side of Mendelssohn and Chopin. instructions country. His career 1812. These. to among con- Sigismund Thalberg and Franz Liszt. The same is true of Chopin's remarkable works. stands Robert passed.

is a native of Copenhagen. His father was ft popular composer and naturalized Englishman.on th 18th of December. the student will find in the following biographical sketches. played at times with great power. Hans VOn Bulow was born 1830 at Zurich. afterwards determining. Liszt and Rubinstein as an interpreter of the great works of position at Meiningen. others. he will always remain faithful to this master. He is regarded as a brilliant pianist of the modern school. studied with Liszt. cannot fail to be elevated. howcomposer. Sides with the new school. and should he appear again in the concert halls of his counhe could hardly dare to play his old programs over again. Gade. whom first musician that gave national hope for musical growth and development. Is . a pianist he combines brilliant execution with refined feeling. and meets everywhere with a hearty reception. Made various successful concert- tours. and always appeared at his ease at the instrument. and some time employed as concert player. in the history of art. In 1869. In them occur chords and passages as well as divisions of melodies. He now occupies a similar tellectual pianists of the present was for ing in Returned to this country in 1878. at from 1860-62. Conducted the "Euterpe" at Leipzig. . (1869). made many prolonged concert-tours on the continent and in his own native country. As Otto Bendix Berlin. 1869. and it only remains tor us to speak of the living pianists. 1839. In 1864. wherein 1867. men and women of we as Americans may well be proud. Louis Moreau Qottschalk. born in Koenigsberg. often original. he made various concert-tours. Went to Wagner in 1851 completed his studies under Liszt at After various triumphant concert-tours he went to Berlin. Is now livEngland. He IB highly esteemed aa pianist. where he studied under Liszt. and as such stands high Hans von Bronsart. and remained for some time in Paris and London. where he met with brilliant success aa a pianist. length and breadth of the States. Lives now in Germany. and having once taken in that peculiar spirit. He had great delicacy of touch. His widow. Next he went to Weimar. though without As a pianist. went to Paris in 1841. it must be said of him. Indeed. Clara Schumann. where he was appointed Court Pianist. to catch the were slow to make their way into public favor. born in Hamburg. enjoying a high degree of popularity. mainly known Vienna. however. entered the National Training School of Music in 1876. The following are brief biographical sketches of the leading living pianists : Eugene Francis Charles d' Albert was of operas and piano music. He died in Brazil. has done all she could to make the public acquainted with her husband's beautiful works. where he was at once employed as a teacher and conductor. Johannes Brahms. he was called in the same capacity to Munich. "Went to Europe in 1861.164 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. This brings our historical sketch up to the present. Stainer much attention in England. to devote himself exclusively to music. they iar spirit that pervades his works. This in- formation.Germany. and is since 1869 manager of the Theatre Hanover. on the 4th of Decemlser. at Glasgow. South America. try. Sullivan. went in 1848 to Leipzig to study law. He. studied. He played mainly his own composition*. Returned to Copenhagen. in 1833. For these reasons. that special art value. while at Berlin. was born in New Orleans. Appeared in the Musical Fund Hall Concerts of that city when a mere boy. Germany. First studied under his father. which are not Moreover it is difficult peculeasily rendered. filling a large sphere of'labor with zeal and activity. Denmark. antry in 1853. where he was instructed by Pauer. 1828. we cannot close this article without saying a few words about the oldest native He American pianist of note. Bonawitz was born at Duerkheim. While he is entirely over-shadowed by American pianists of to-day. also in South America giving concerts. Received instruction from N. and gained several scholarships and passed his examination with high honors in 1881. of whom we speak elsewhere. His compositions are pleasing. He is. ha will always be held in fond remembrance as the first pianist. He Excited great attention when a boy. who settled in Philadelphia. he became Court Conductor and director of a new school of and Weimar. he was capable of better things than he did. in 1827. where he haa frequently appeared in recitals. c : affected the art of piano-playing through his very original works. and in '77 he became Court Conductor at Hanover. and she has been highly successful in this respect. later from Kullak in Gave numerous concerts in Berlin. the of American While we have mentioned quite a number pianists in the following sketches. after which he settled in as a ever. THE GREAT PIANISTS OF THE WORLD. by his gifts aa a pianist and composer. Came early to this Henry country with his parents. music. His recitals and concerts attract born in 1864. it may be said that Schumann's composi- where he and returned to his jative He travelled throughout th tions require a technique of their own. Came to Boston in 1880. who faithfully studies Schumann. Bonawitz is also well known as a composer one of the most finished and inBulow ranks with day.

Paris where she success. rrom Moscheles and other excellent teachers. Appeared for the first time as pianist in 1849. He studposer. His playing is leading position among marked by eminent technical qualities. considerable local reputation. and in Charles Halle was born m Hagen. She travelled much and gave cont819. etc. lecturer and teacher. New York a high degree of success. Has travpresent day. Studied at Leipzig from 1859-63. and when sixteen years of age went to Europe. and was everywhere regarded aa a remarkable artiat. Hiller at Cologne. and has resided there ever since. Studied the piano-forte and theory first at Munich. his name has become known by various drawing-room pieces for the piano-forte. and resides now in Paris. Is known and esteemed as pianist. . Resides now in London. When but sixteen years of age he came to this country. where she studied for six years under T&asig. Her "Piano Conversations" are highly instructive. la 1881. Adolph Henselt and same time a warm advocate of the modern masof Richard "Wagner. May Raphael Josefly was born 1852. at Andernach. she returned to London where she now lives. he came to this country. and sine* her return home has appeared in all cities of this country. on th Julia RiveHer mother was a music teacher of 31st of October. 1881. such far off countries as Australia. and quite a number of works of hers have apelled much King Mary . Annette EssipoflT was born. became under Tausig's guidance one of the first pianists of tha After several successful concerttours he settled 1881 at New York. to whom he gave instruction. Studied with Rink in Damatadt. displaying as As a composer. conductor. 1864.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. was born Lived in Petersburg. ied with Ferd. he ettled in Boston. Liszt and Wagner. Y. Henschel. Went to Paris in oarts in many German oitioe. Edward Dannreuther was born at Strassburg. played in Dresden. such and as conductor admirable powers 1886.. afterwards under Hummel at Weimar. Hitter. especially an excellent pianist and a giffced comin 1826. 1850. Lives in New York. Petersburg. Germany. In 1852. In 1874.. highly was born in Cincinnati. settling in Boston. and is now settled in New York. education in New England. her power of imagination. at the was born 1814. born in Germany on the 18th of February. next at Weimar under Liszt She appeared with great success in European cities. now at Poughkeepsie. Leipzig. Her technical powers are immense. in 1863. 14th. Married in 1859. Kretw* was born at Dresden. but received her known all over this country. and warmth of tone. Arabella Goddard tions was born in 1840. East India. 1834. he appeared in a concert in Berlin as pianist. travelled extensively in 1836 finally settled at St.in 1851. He is a man of rare abilities and everything he does. she went to She is especially works of Chopin. during which period he appeared quite frequently in concerts. where he labored successfully for the cause Leipzig. Enjoyed the instruction of many good teachers. where he was appointed Virtuoso to the EmHenselt occupies a press. obtaining brilliant success in Germany. She appeared in concerts when but nine years of age. Kullak. and Sechter aft Vienna.stantly appeared as pianist in the Monday Popular Concerts. he Wilhelmine Szarvady-Clatiss Prague. is music. German. her feminine grace aud unusual energy. She gave concerts in Berlin. Came to Engfollows in the footsteps of land in 1843. visiting peared in print. modern pianists. Germany. shows forth the mau of superior qualifications. She is the authoress of the little volume entitled "Music Study in Germany. tonishing-technical powers. never failing to win admiration by her charming manner and She has travelled much giving recitals and artistic playing. . Received her In 1875. editor of the Times and Musical World. songs and orchestral works. studying first at Leipzig. and is to- day the most famous pianist in England. Since her return to this country she settled in Chieago. and took every scholarship. of memory. and occupies a brilliant position as pianist. She is also active concerts. of musical culture. Came early to this country. is busy as teacher and concertist. Is a conscient ions interprets! of the classical composers. where he studied under F. She took lessons of several American teachers. She is a thorough artist. Paris. His fine compositions have also met with from 1848-51. composer and conductor. and is everywhere esteemed as an artist of rare merit. England and France by her poetic style of playing. etc. nobility of style. Deppe and Liszt. Henschel went to England in 1879. ters. and has done much good to raise was bom at public taste by solid and refined performances of classical elwssica. Her greatest tour as an aritst she undertook in 1873. 1850. gave recitals of his own. Besides his asVienna. the musical critic. where he established chamber concerts. with the pen. is Richard Hoffiman in having been born Manchester. and with Mendelssohn at Otto Dresel. George married to Dr. Has conworks comprise pieces for the plan >. England. Germany. and it is there where he has been mainly active as concert pianist and teacher. Germany. If.atPree8burg. Szarvady. She visited this country and played with great success in all principal cities East and West. in the year 1844. earliest instruction at St." so well Amy F*ay was bora in Louisiana. L.. singWhen but twelve years of age er. at lives since Went to Germany in 1860. Schuhappy mann and Schubert. His forte. in her interpretation of the met with great an Englishman by birth. Davidson. at Schwabaeb. if ext the went to J&ngland Received instruc- in this country as pianist.

to be surrounded by young pianists. much esteemed and wll beloved by all who know him. was born Germany. He is well spoken of as a pianist. He cause. Boston as pianist and teacher. at Stuttgart. Mills frequently apSet. Liebling has appeared in many concerts. and at times discusses musical questions. of April. the little city life. which are much admired by some and just as bitterly denounced by others. for a number of years in a ladies seminary in 1867. will never be forgotten by those who lived to witness the 1850. He also spent eome time in Vienna studying the works of Bach with Fuchs. revered Lowell Mason. where he made rapid progress. and his concerts in Paris in which he rivalled Thai. Hungary. Mass. Is one of the best pianists of the present day. and after about three years and a half of life at Weimar . was born in Germany on the 12th Received his first lessons from the blind teacher. Kmil Lieblinjf "Win. and several of which attracted a great deal of attention. Mehlig was born in 1846. highly favorably impression. In 1880 he came to this country and eoon afterwards settled in Boston.266 KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD.pears in concert rooms and always with great success. and his style is admired by all that have heard him..under Plaidy. Next he went to Liszt at Weimar. Received his first instruction from his father. however.he returned to this country an accomplished artist and excellent pianist. When nineteen years of age went to Europe. J. Concert playing was not to his taste and though he appeared with great success in public. in Lang was born at Salem. showing special She is highly partiality for the works of Chopin and Liszt. Germany. year later he became a pupil of Liszt.which up to . In the spring of 1876 he went to Weimar where he studied for a brief season under Liszt. and by the side of his fabulous execution he displays artistic enthusiasm. born in Boston. on the 29th of July. where he still lives. was deemed unattainable. In 1870 she visited this country Italy with Thomas. Became Professor at the Leipzig Conservatory in 1874. Sebastian Mills was born in England in "When quite young he showed renutr-kable skill on the piano. From Leipzig he went to Prague where he est son of the Mason. where he enjoys European countries. but returned to Europe in 1871. Bazin and others. He returned to his native country and settled in Quebec.in company and South France. after that epent six months with Raff. most of whidh viduality. composed industriously. Came to this country in and was brought before the public through Carl Bergberg. 1829. who deem with it whom he an honor to play in Wiesbaden. 1850. Liszt has long since ceased to play in concerts.studying with Kullak in Berlin. Anna 1869-71 she travelled in America. He B. His skill as pianist is acknowledged. Pesth and Rome. Next he was placed under Ehrlich. after which he visited Europe. he moved to Boston. tor him. and enjoys a good reputation as a pianist. took lessons of Moscheles and Hauptmann. He delights. was the youngmuch studied under Dreyschock. where he placed himself under Liszt. and when but twelve years of age appeared at the Theatre Royal. 1840. Mr. He is a fine pianist. meeting always with great success. He gave concerts in all cities and mann. sensation they produced. Canada. orders. She entered early the Conservatory of her native city and later became a pupil of Liszt. Settled permanently in New York. everywhere making a Lriszt. but ia still active with the pen. Louis Maas 21et. since which time he Weimar. His playing produced tremenduous excitement in peared early as pianist. and his piano works enjoy Franz Bach to a high degree of proficiency. and gave large sums for the relief of sufferers. where he trained the court orchestra is also well known as composer. later visited Germany where he studied Europe. 1848. When twelve years of age he appeared in conHe came of this country in certs in the Prussian capitol. all also written news-paper articles. Adam Kang. He continued his studies in Paris under Marmontel. His father was organist of Gloucester Cathedral. From in New York as teacher. etc. He and now lives wrote many orchestral and some choral works. but finding his field of usefulness uncongenial. He lives in Chicago. was designed also to display his tr. in Berlin. great pnt ting upon everything he playa the stamp of hia own indiHe has written much piano music. he settled A where he is still active. of musical to a leading position as a center of In 18G1 he settled in Rome where he took holy lives alternately in Weimar Sophie Mentei* was born at Munich. tled finally in Weimar. In the following year. was ever ready to aid in every good much favor and support as teacher. She is highly esteemed as a pianist. was born at Rirding. Meyer. for her mental and technical proficiency and great bodily vigor. Germany. As a virtuoso he reached a position. in order to continue his studies. where he now lives. Mr. where she was honored by an invitation from the Queen to with Patti play at Windsor. June Received early musical instruction and waa favored with a good literary education. and raised much popularity. Czerny. Entered Leipzig Conservatory in 1867. who mar well be called the king among pianists. and an excellent composer. settled in Chicago as teacher. In 1S67 she visited. has been before the He has books. He enjoyed the instruction of many teachers in this country. interested himself in behalf of Wagner and Berlioz. 1851. public ever since he was eleven years of age. and later in Paris. ApStudied with Czerny and Salieri at Vienna. in 1811. Calixu Lavallee was born in Vercheves.ar T 'ellous technical eki'J. She has given concerts since her fifteenth year. his time. He also attracted attention as composer. taught Kentucky. Not satisfied with his attainments he went again to Germany in the winter of 1874-5. In 1872 she returned to Germany. He played in many concerts abroad and in this country.

Beethoven. various oratorios. Received instruction from her father. Appeared for the first Began his studies at the Leipzig burg. 1845. 1851. teacher. Y. Went to England in 1852." the heroigue. he became conductor is said that since the days of CUmenti. Went to Leipzig in 1865. Went to Europe early engaged orchestral effects. He won Constantin Stevnberg was born in St. which Perabo was born in Wiesbaden. completing his course later under Liszt at Weimar. Made concert-tours in Germany. France. He has published quite a number of works. while with him. Has since returned to Europe. years of age he studied with Brassin in Brussels. and appeared again in this country in 1878. Germany. in 1826. He was in this country and was much and admired by those who could appreciate his great skill and later true artistic worth. playing there with great success. Max Pinner. Berlin. chamber music for the piano-forte and violin.note. Fr. where he is now active and highly respected as a pianist and teacher. as with Liszt.tion is the fact that great pianists are rare in Italy. where he studied under Kullak ami Wuerst. Was engaged in giving concerts and soirees and did much to advance the cause of music in Boston. where he lived for many years. In Schwerin. a mass. of classical music. etc. When young he was a good player of Bach. Chopin and Schumann 'of music with success. many in 1872. Wi sck. As a composer he has cultivated nearly all branches del. Doubtless is one of the most prominent concertiets among the of Germany. in 1853." "Phae" Danse Macabre" and the " Marche ton. Holland and Germany. Among them may be specially mentioned symphonies and symphonic poems suchas"Lerouet d'Ourphale. Went to Leipzig in 1862. spending. her playing developed into a high state of proficiency. ebe was the first to introduce the works of Chopin into Germany. His compositions are always original in 1876.accompanied by her father. 1844. Germany.. William H. and afterwards Paris. when she visited Cassel. Ernst Pauer. where he studied with Liszt. His works mark an epoch in the Rubinstein. At eleven years ot age she made her first concert-tour. visiting all the Camille Saint-Saens was born in 1835 in Paris. and she is at present universally admired and esteemed as one of the great interpreters of musical art. as well as on the Sternberg has also published a number of works for thf p*no. are much admired. Peters. born at Vienna. however much of his time in congarded as a prodigy for memory in music. and without ignoring the aims of the new school. His father was a minister. in fact it den.KARL MERZ' PIANO METHOD. He was born in Rome near Jassy received his first instruction on the piano from in 1843. certs. ter. Appeared in many cities of Germany as concert pianist. must be reckoned one of the first musicians of the day. Clara Si-liuman Giovanni Sgambati He also the only Italian pip nist of Anton . His father was an excellent teacher. was born in 1819. placed himself under his inptruction. organ compositions. follow the form of the classics. Returned as an accomplished player in 1865. Carlyle Peterselea was born in Bosto& on the 18tb of July. Petersthe grand prize of the Conservatory. ranging from the works of the oldest Since 1871. Studied music with Dirzka and the younger Mozart." He has also written a prize cantata. HanWhen Liszt came burg. all of which he interVM born in Lyon. famous as composer and belongs to the modern school of writers. and is a pianist of rare attainments. Met with a warm reception upon his return home. After Liszt. Weimar and Frankfoc t-on-the-Main. in the year 1854. and the founder of a musical academy. lecturer. Pepper. and after giving some concerts settled in Boston. sent back to Europe for hia musical education. Schumann has taken up her permanent abode at Frankforton-the-Main. where he studied under Kullak and Weitzmann in technical mastery is but a means towards the ideal rendering Berlin. through the aid of friends. N.pianists. and as such. Sherwood ' Franz Runimel . This is especially the case with regard to her husband's works. two operas. England. on the 14th of November. born 1829 at Wechwolynetz history of Italian piano-forte music. . When fourteen certizing. in Madame the rendering of which she stands unrivalled. where he founded a music school. time in 1871.of the piano. the highest in 1871. she 967 M His compositions exceed fifty in number. returning to New York in 1868. at Leipzig. Xavier Scharwenka was born in 1850. etc. On her later concert-tonr. Robert Schumann. He usually resides at Berlin. while as a pianist he commands an to Rome. masters to those of the present day. Came to this country in 1852. and with great success. he is teacher in the conservatory of Rome. In his boyhood days he was re. and was afterwards. a great lovhe undoubtedly occupies the first place in the ranks of conSherer of music. Since 1872 she is married to younger players the violoncellist. He settled in n his fourth year he showed great musical proclivities. He is also a composer and author of reputation. After various successful concert-tours in Swe. In the fall of 1876 he settled in Boston as a teacTKei born in London. er. where he has since played in many con. but undertakes extensive co ncert-tours throughout Europe. What causes Sgambati to attract additional attenhis mother. Recently he went again to Europe. Gave many concerts and recitals abroad. where he studied under TauWent again to Gersig.Italy has had no great of the opera and director of the conservatory at St. the piano-forte teachIn her fifth year she appeared in concerts. He has been concertizing since 1875. eliciting from the instrument wood was in giving concerts. temporary piano-forte players. at Samis highly distinguished as composer and la 1865 he wemt to Berlin. that his name is well klLi/ is of German parentage. Teaches in New York. and pianist. Sgmabati immense repertoire. tals in so many places. Emst Germany. and has since played so much in public*! and marked by great beauty. where he remained for three years. where he is well known and highly esteemed as pianist. next to Berlin. principal cities in Europe and in this country. After her marriage with the composer. Later he took lessons of Kullack in Wid and in this country. piano. in the year 1850. prets with equal mental and mechanical skill. eatoemed a pianist and often appears in public. but was where. EngConservatory in 1864. 1858 he became an organist. is born in New York on the 14th of April.

...... ROMANTIQUI SUITE.... Fred Boscovit*.. 60 Four hands 1(0 Ti Bitte .... 32 ... Eyening Chimes.. Moizkowski 86 25 2.. Ad... Foote's peculiar and scholarly which u dedicated Madam This Concert Gavotte is graceful and melodious in The main theme it! themes and richly harmonized........ Op. Bachmann Village Fete... . Kinderspiel ......... 33-2 Polonaise de Concert.......... ...... 2-2 ........... N..... Ad. AlbumLeaf... Wehll. Polka OraeituM and elegant in appearance........... 28-3 ........... Polonaite Militaire ........ The Bolero li Tcry bright and animating............. Heller 85 40 50 Hour .... Tramcriplion resembles the Spanish Cachoucha............. Heller X 10 li Kd ward 8.... j> PotUqu*... Ad...... B... Op..... Ing. but without the Castanet rhythm.......... TON-BILDIB... The Cavaliers. Each piece is a gem considerably above the average of such compositions regard! to harmony and musicianly style of treatment.. Ing. ..................... Braune Augen ............. K 86 40 80 80 80 <0 40 60 60 60 80 40 40 40 40 60 36 75 A collection of choice piano compositions by mod75 60 50 60 66 60 50 60 tu ern French composers............ thirds...Select List of W.................... 88 ...................... Edw.......... Seeboeek....... R.... ElfenTanc................. F... Bungert Oscar Raif Allegretto Pastorale.............. K........ edition. Hmith. Sweden and Norway........... VonWilm Mazurka.... Oipsy Stories ..... Moscheles Scherzo ....... 14-3 ........VooWlllB Danish Canzonetta... W... Op... Polonaise iO 20 ** 76 Dllu G.. Impromptu ................. the praise of all progressive teachers............. Op... Mozart's Minuet ...................... and a good practice in delicacy of touch. that will grow in favor........... Rippling Waters SaUerello Tarantelle. Hensalt Minuet de Mozart ....... Ferd................... 10-3 .... N... In six numbers 1. Op.. Gavotte ..... Wild Flower.... Idylle....... Barcarolle 10 By Lake Geneva....... Album Leaf ... H...... 40 80 16 86 Si 40 40 35 25 8i $ style.......... 1 00 number! in one volume..... * "'> Bravoura Galop .............................. o 80 40 86 50 76 60 1 00 60 Serenade ............. Barcarolle .......... An original composition An t Impromptu ...-* M... Von Wilm Serenade..... Op. Rirulet ... 1353-1412.. will equally iaterest the rrtlft and piano teacher............. Opiu and Piano de Concert...... B.......................... Forest Ramble ....... uguMt Hyllested... Romantic Study ....... of a medi- um grade of diflttculty............... 4 00 Complete (six 40 60 40 40 40 60 40 40 50 50 40 50 50 50 Robert Cioldbeek. Unter den Flchten .... revised and fingered for the use of teachers Karl Men....... and will well repay study............ BonComarade Op. Henselt Tarantelle ......... 8......... 88-1 Op..... Bachmann Harlequin et Colombine .. Thome_ Album 5.. 11 PEICI... 86-1 ......... Valse Melodique Wall* 40 40 u and students.. Ad.. Jensen Melodie .......... Op......... Novellozza .... Jensen Slavonic Dance.. 24-7 .. 60c............... Brown Eyes........... 6-1 At the Lute.............. The Sigh The Brooklet...... G. Polka Kuttiqu* Minuet Alia Mazurka.......... Woiiz Etude .............................................. \ Op......... The second is not like the old sarabandet........... Reverie.................. AmMeere ......... 34-2 Silvery Streamlet Swim Song.............. Cotpellm Gurlltt Kirmess . Hcnn... Ing.. is in excellent contrast to the second or intermediate part in E major.......... tinder the Pine*. 8......................... Gutmann Nocturne(A) . Ad... Die Schwalben . Longing........... Cavalcade Triumphale Oalop Embarrassment I Love You so Truly 71 60 This set ha! won W ISO MyNormandy Russia Drirer's Song Scherzo Sounds from the Ohio................ CradleSong........... correctly printed Be Thou Faithful Thine Eye* Nocturne Lift . 37-2 Scherzo Tarantelle.. Reverie Poetique . Barcarolle Belle Amerlcalne... N.... 40 40 40 ECHOES FROM FRANCE.. Tocatto. G...... The Vision . Op.... Maiurka Brllliaute 40 40 Remembrance R..... In F....... Lyaes..... 1 00 *0 Heather Bells .... Nocturne Faust.... < /rthur Foote...... W.. Moscnelles Gavotte Antique ......... Lange In the Gipsy Camp ............... Seymour Smith Dorotiy In Rank and File .... Jensen Robert Idylle L.... 1-1 Leaf. Auld Lang Syne Belles of Chicago ValM Caprice de Concert 00 40 1 00 00 1 SO 1 00 1 The above suite.................................... 75 1 00 Secoude Romance Opui21 Cradle Song.. 84-1 Second Gavotte......................... De Vilbac Polish Mazurka.. AtSunriie..... E... ... H........ * Op.......... Op. Summer Breezes....................... Impromptu Minuet Mazurka Ola Sigh Smile..................................... but more 8 Merrymaker's Dance.... Tschaikowsky CradleSong................ Op............. Humming Bird Fantaiile .............. The Swallows........ 60 I* Andante Masurka Qone................................. Volte BrUUamU .. Arabesque ............ Guitare Imitation W Elfriede Valse Caprice ....................... Op... Pratt........... NachdemBalle ... Srarlatti-Tiiuig Roving Butterfly .... N..... Edw.. Saraband* Serenade JJJ Grand Torchlight March . Scharwenka Rustic Dance............ Edouard Grieg Camp of Gypsies .................... Volte Qracieuie .... Joseffy Hungarian Dance . M.......................... Gust.... Salop Polka...... Scheherezade.. . Dramatique. SI .... Character. Bdouard Grieg Contain! numerous ezamplea of double appoggiaturas...... Never More...7 ving melody first presented In plain fen* being afterward! giren to the he right present! a brilliant and ..... Op. On the Lake ................... Hoffman Barcarolle...... Op. Berceute High=Grade Piano Music by Eminent Composers.. (InSpring) .. 18................ W... F...... 7 .. 9 Aug...... Aata StreleBki. Volte from Naila .... 16-2 ...... a fine sample of Mr....... 84 . Dancing Wavelet!... Henselt Polonnaise Brllllante ...... D... Nimmermehr .......... Queen of Denmark. Saint Amaranthe............. Far from Home.................... Op............. Op... Merkel Spring Song ... Gade Charmes de Paris .. Mazourka Romantique ....... ... C.. N.. Psacs..... Von Wilm .......... PMC*....... 83-1 60 40 50 86 40 76 7* 50 76 86 Centre Dance...................... Ad................... 66-2 ...... Tuo Noctunui Bitt-r Team.. 4.. Concert Paraphrate Spanish Dancef...................... Gade Valse Francaise............. The Serenade contains some rery pretty mandolin effects.......... Minuet Moderne ... 60 60 WlUon ...... while within reach of more advanced pupils...... Op............... Hoffman Babbling Brook... Serenade.... : These compositions have been chosen with special reference to the demand for and need of entertaining and instructive pieces for the piano. Original Theme i<* variation* ........ Reinhold G.....Scholtz Op................... Selected from the piano works of modern composer*................ is J.... No....... CradleSong . Dminor ........ Dupont Volte Caprice .......... Op.... 40 76 Mazurka Poetique............ performed in concert! by is to and Julia Hire-King.......... Knickerbocker Danie ............ Zweifel ....... Fantatit ........ Jensen Dance Caprice.. 60 Stephen A................................... Gade SpringSong ..... It contains a melodious theme... Beaumont .................... Albert EMmenreich ............. Da! Baschlein ... Witchery.... 23......... Op............... Ad. exquisite gem from the popular Danish pianist............... Bachmann ....... Lover'i Quarrel . At the Sea Shore... Mattooa....... and a brilliant cadensa............. Gade Spring Flowers ................................. J.. Forest Winds... Op........... 36 16 16 li 36 26 16 26 36 16 16 16 Love Song ... in E flat......... The Jester .......... 7-2 . Wellensplel ......... Caprice d< Concert ElKohinoor...... 2 50 Bacchanale.... Fairy Harp. R.............. VMin <W Good stndlei in rhythm and criipneas of style....... Qade ....... Moscheles Romance ................ Emma Waltzes.. Lullaby .. P.. In the Sunny South ........ Merkel Leisure 30 66 U In the Forest ...... On the Mountains ................ W........................ FJJln Dance .. ..... Mazurka Elegante Op........ Rosenham Spring Idyl.................. Bewitching Eyes...... Opm J 40 Gigue Bretonne ImiUtion of the Ouitr Lafayette Waltz Old Folks at Home.... excellently which U more sustained and legato in treated.... v Fr 'wnhr Canzonetta .......... 80 ftomo Solo.......... Killer Dance Antique.. Walhalla. . 1 Premiere Romance de Concert.. onslanlinc HK-rii tiersMme..... K........ HuntingScene .. Albert Ellmenreich Spinning Song ........ 87-1 .. Doubt.. No........... BmmaWalUei...... Child's Play..... Parker...... Otto Hefner... Dream Visions........... Especially selected forteachen' and itudents' use....... G....... fifths and lixths......... Grieg Menuetto Gracieuse ...... Bendel Nocturne . P. Franz........ Coquette.. After the Ball............ 37-1 ......... Album Leaf ............ 86-2 . J.. Grieg Gavotte Moderne........ Coquette. Dance Bretonne Dance Rustique V I..... Op............. Leo Delibes Pastorale ......... C... Op.......... In the Rose Garden ....... X..... Moszkowski Mazurka Caprice.............. J..... ug accompaniment in arpeggios..... Andante ................................ Bachmann Les Sylphes.......... 37-6 .. Op.... Trantcription .... 1... 37-2 .. and is original and melodious.......... Henry Litolff The Mill ................ Fianz Neumann Menuetto................... John Field 40 36 60 40 60 85 75 36 30 35 40 50 60 40 Petite Valse .......... issued In a special analytical and esthetical 40 80 MODERN CLASSICS... Op.. Hoffman......... Godard Pas des Fleurs................ N................ Scene Pastorale LITTLE CLASSICS. Thome Second Mazurka .... W.......... H.. fourths..... Bourree Antique Cradle Song.. The Troubadours .. -^ng.......... 75 Music of the Sa ....................................... Concert Gavotte. N...................................... Load............... rtiis Op................... Waltx BriUiante . Prom Op...... i" Ka i8XEoft Berceuse..... Bolero 00 Trembling Leaves ...... P.... Polka Brilliant* ......... with its light staccato treatment...... 42 75 1 75 beautiful Serenade.......................... 40 76 60 Flashes from the West Marchede Fault Rigoletto W BO 3* 60 40 86 50 80 ENCORE SERIES.......... Please............... GodaM Valse Fantasie .. The Mokes ............... Brahms Impromptu .. C........ JfarcAo/ the Immortall ................................. G..... M 40 50 50 60 Oscar Mayo.............. * * Jam.... VesperBell........ or Sketches from the time of Margaret.. Before the Tournament .. Emery..... Op............ Ti Wiegenlled . Beaumont Premier Nocturne .....

abstractly speaking. BY Editor of BRAINARD'S by 32 vibrations. as has been said. he can. definite height or The 12345678 i I I I I i I I I I I I I The human ear cannot perceive all possible vibrations.octaves. 2x1024 = 2048. practical use None pleasure from the art. The tone that is pro- I I _J . 5th. as well as to the tone of 2x128 = 256. 2x2048 = 4096. All these tones have the same name. is about the highest uoe perceptible to our ear. their resolution. but as often used. while in Germany the tone represented by the letter . if there is only one kind of vibrations moving the object. In order to make the lesson plain. of sombining sounds agreably to the ear. Having made all the necessary divisions in the chain of 109 tones. the rule may here be laid down. but it was the most natural to might to tones. that the mi. have smaller have larger ones. while others t who 2. as many terms adopted in musical theory are. In some European countries the names used.. When speaking however of the strength and the will represent the twelve divisions in the following manner its quantity. la. 7.' 2x512 = 1024. has no pitch.. ing schedule I : I dible to our ear ic This is letters from the alphabet to name the several tones.with to close the scale. The Germans call tone of each of the nine octaves.ations succeed each othIf these vibrations are even. is called h. 2x4096=8192. twelve equal parts. namely the Is1>. for by denf to read music with more the rules that un. and if these v . but a tone. when we therefore con. except it be the or- derlie the chords.c oody is is. If we represent the interval* of sound. but there is a limit to the human ear hearing them. It might have been divided in a larger or smaller number of tone. their names. lie all the tones we uac in space. 8. I.f4 m t is produced by 8s82 vibrations. w? musical sound. it would be difficult to remember them. is it is rather ambagious. Harmony The Why this name is applied we will presently see. it being divided into nine equal sections or octhe combinations of tones into chords. that when the two sounds together.THE ELEMENTS HARMONY. Every musician no doubt has noticed the fact. but the greater extent of the vibrations does not cause the tone which have separate names in the above manner. as it were. musical art deals tone. From the foregoing it will be seen. taves and further more knowing as we now do the division of each of these student who masters these rules. which is produced by 16. practice it are called tone-masters. Lt us see how are music. Two of these half-steps or half-tones constitute a whole step or a In short. perceptable or bearable vibrations. The oaivM separate names. re.ed a tone.name. guess at knowing them and their progressions. int CHAPTER II. tone color. 6. The tone use the letters. Were we to give each tone a separate and it ton-farbe. The distance from one of these Music is the art of expressing sentiment in tones. They have been given any other names. it follows that we of the construction of music. Despite the fart that U>e < highest tone is an entirely independent oue from the lower. Between the two limits indicated above. 3.. we speak of depth of a tone is called its pitch. \ CHAPTER The study of ABOUT HARMONY. The 13th is merely a repetition of 3d. si. Separate names might have been given to each of these twelve tones. they being subdivided into twelve equal parts. Music is the art twelve 'ones to the next upward or downward is called a half-step or half1. the sound is The is a by separate keys. while the fewer the vibrations.of our instruments produce this entire range of tones. but The more vibrations an object makes in a given time. we will proceed to name them. in order to facilitate matters for students. Octave comes from the latin word octo mailing eight. 8th. is the lowest possible toae. who have not studied these rules must read notes carefully. we have in all 109 tones in. facility. and aro said to be an octave apart. that from any one key on the piano to the next folThis last term called lowing upwards or downwards is a half-step. or half-tone. The distance from one to the other of these tones has been agtun divided into twelve equal parts. we will have the follow to be heard further. In order to facilitate and duced by different instruments sounds differently. prefer however to ust the term of We by some cr. The greater the extent of the vibrations. was adopted. 2x8192 = 163*4 which is the highest tone. As each of these twelve tone are represented on the piant ABOUT SOUNDS AND TONES. tar. only it is louder. The sanu> principle applies to the tone produced by double the vibrations of sixtyfour (2x64) or 128.to simplify the study of music. no limit C D have used We EF I I I I G A BC I I daasd by 32 vibrations. the highwt tone 64 vibrations seems to disappear in the lower. 10th and 12th tones. fa. the higher is the it was thought sufficient to supply only seven with tkem. the greater will be the intensity tke 1st and as such receives the same name. of any elast. In an upward therefore the lowest tone possible for us to use direction there is. while those whole tone. so. We will is A by others a half-step not every sound whole-step. attains a more perfect understand. and adding to this the highest tone where ing Moreover the study of harmony enables the stu. 2x256 = 512. call it a tone. An object must make at least 3? vibrations in a second. and will for this reason derive greater have in all 9x12 or 108 tones. tone which it produces. The explanation of the cause of this would occupy too much fcinaiu of tones is circumscribed. It has been said that the distance of an octave has been divided while others. etc. that the same tone pro. tone therefore is a sound. Lot us now represent in the same manner the tones that nave not ntuic. MUSICAL WORLD. we give it here. with tones. For this reason Germans call music the tone art. gan. Knowing as we now do the division of implies the study of the rules appertaining to the entire tone series. Some divisions. simply because it is so much like it. is has boe* given the same name. is so much like the one I I I produced they systematiied.384 vibrations per second. What then is a sound what tone? a sound. and it only produce them through the aid of different stops. the lower the tone. : duration of a tone. the same name has been given to the first sider the character of a tone we speak of its quality. and we must therefore pass on with our lessons. but the division of twelve tones was deemed best. before the tone becomes au4. henec it nations as for instance the Arabians. The mere 10 ii 12 9 13 sound lacking the qualifications of a tone. 6th. that er at regular intervals. are : ut.

it will be found that the It would have been a reasonable plan Ihe staff cale beginning with C is the only one in the entire series that gives us sctaves in their regular order. model.minor or smaller scale of which we shall presently hear. hrougnout the entire The several octaves are also sometimes called by feet. but are rec. we will obtain the following schedule : Tbe C following 2li : is called the large C. reason the names of the lower keys are called principle names. the next the second. being produced by a thirty-two foot pipe. while other scales some tones enters more than once. then with D.. from the latin word scala. a major or larger scale in contradistinction to the called the twice marked Con. It is called names. the white keys of F and C. it so happened that the lowest tone in the regular order hapIn the same manner by placing flats beognised as E sharp and B sharp. beginning 1. There to build other scales after this . distinguish the nine different On the staff the difference readily THE DIATONIC MAJOR SCALE. why not A in : ows The tone which was formerly regarded as the lowest one was call<t Thus. the two white keys of E and B are no longer called such. and the large octave. The lowest scale. This scale being perfectly satisfactory. This note occupies the following place in the staff: _ It is called seven white keys of the piano. downward especially. and is represented by a capital C with Normal scale. the small c a four foot tone. 'ounter C. from 2-3. The entire ootovr upwards is called the twice marked octave. The next octave is called the thrice marked octave. c. portions. A. When playing scales without the use of sharps and flats. In order to be able to construct others. is The question is often asked. Placing th tw of the Key-board. The C following ZJ: I is called is ^Y I represented by *+ t mall letter c.ohettnie* above each other. and which names represent the ! : r below it. because in it each tone enters only once. the aid of een. and is represented by a is called *pital C'. by placing sharps below E A. and is repreoeutec The distances of the several tones are not alike. smaller di&. For this. and The reason is as foL risions of the tone chain or tone series. 11. scale the tone-ladder. let us see by what means we may is CHAPTER octaves. is called the the email octave. It represent the black keys. in this wise =3^ m By above is called the Contra octave. feUewmg C i called the twic C. and i* . and so rertti this tone series of tones. may however so happen that the white keys harmony with the alphabetical order ? tb* /0 ^est tone called C. F. B. 10. and is written as follows C.seated rom 4 He upper lines 5 T by m small letter c with two marks orer it. let us first examine each other in their proper pt> one line above or below. Having now became aquainted with the names of the III. is called the twice marked Contra or scale The succession of the seven tones. The names have never been changed and so i bre C and F. placing the seven tones above The C that follows and which is written on the staff. and it is also termed the diatonic scale. The entire octave from this tone up ward U called the once marked octave. by adding and B. the large C an eight foot tone. D. but as the tone system was extended. are called the C major scale. while those of the CD EF upper keys it G A BC marked Contra C. Let us now proceed are in this scale. omes.beginning with >erfect satisfaction. Uie tone produced by 32 vibrations. is taught us by nature. The step from 3-4 and from 7-8 is only half as large as ia that from 1-2.v small c with one line above it. as it should be called <>ut are recognized as C flat and F flat. The twici lower the white keys. we have an eraet repreeanta. say the lowest the first. The entire octave from this c upward to B. The entire octave from this tone to the next B it. namely C. the small C. This does however by no means imply that the C etc. It is called the C scale. Every tone ~1*~ in the scale from this tone upward. etc. been adopted. that our lowest tone is called C' and not A. the ladder. for instance. the names from the will be observed that the upper keys have derived their lower by adding sharps or flats. which were given independent 2. G. a capital C with two lines above names. then with E and so forth. but on G which iijive tones above C. two half-steps and five whole-steps. are no longer called such. will not construct one on Djtw model We tones next to C. but this plan has not In fact all scales are the creatures of art. C. The next C is called the once marked C. are called derived or intermediate names. etc. it has been accepted as the 3. and that each of the upper has two names. hence the Germans call the scale. it called For this same reason the Contra C' is called a Bixhirty-two foot tone. In using sharps and flats alo have derived names. he once marked c a two foot tone. the twice marked o a one foot he thrice marked c a half foot tone.new tones. though under deriTed with C. een foot tone. >ened to be called C. but can we not distinguish the several octaves without to have called the several with C. E. because it begins and ends fh entire octave from this tone up to B is tra octave. o*e. hence it is called the M called the Contra or Counter C. after which all other major scales are built.

which is C. which is but a half of one. one on B and the other on E. it will be plain. The B flat scale LEMON 4. 7. Let us write it with the sharps as used in the Cfy scale. 6. Cfl the F|? scale like the normal. DJ7. 07 scale and it i it will be found that this scale does not agree with the between the 3d and 4th is again a whole step.. D. * m The oaly difference we notice scale of F is nearly like the scale of C. while in the normal scale the reverse is the case. Let us now step five tones c5owi> urard from C. and proceed by Observe that C has no sharps. scale we find that every tone is sharped. thereby introducing the first sharp. wbile ir the normal scale just the raven* jle C 12 456789 . therefore. therefore. namelj F$. and. By continuing in the same course appear as follows : the next scale will be built on G$. (x) before F. and conUpon examination it will be found that the step from the 6th to the 7th is sequently between the 4th and 5th is but a half of one. The two flats. duced over those that have flats. In the contrary condition of things exists in the normal scale. that LBSSON 2.__A--E-B F^JH3M5&-A-E#-B0. A#. which U largo. while just the but a half-step while that from the 7th to the 8th is a whole one.'Ffl and C# major. and every following key or F# Cfl Bfl. we must lower the 4th a half step. The major scale. Write the scale on Efc. a circle in fifths. given key. has every tone flatted. therefore. The last named scale. flat ft. By retaining all the tones of the scale which has built after the C or Normal scale. of D. we must add a second one. we must introduce an additional sharp on the 7th tone this tone has one flat already. fifths or five tones at each step. as follows : 10 11 12 flats. The following started from C and stepped upward five tones each time. EXERCISE Write the scale on B^. has eight flats. We mast therefore lower the fourth tone or and that from 7-8 which must consequently be large. Write the scales of Djf. has two sharps. has one sharp. B. and stepping downward we have again described a circle. scale therefore has one flat. finally 1. The scale sharp. thus putting a of the scale. started with C. A As Dfo G Observe that C has no flats. and place it again before the seventh tone. G$ has therefore 8 sharps. : 1 Here we meet with the same difficulty as in the preceding scale. starting from In writing the scales in keys in which sharps are introduced. which hag be than G. E. raise the F 6 iX --^-^-4 F by five tones aud zai *^=^^EE reach Bt>. We reached C$. E^. which is played by the same key as C. we must lower therefore ha* the 4th tone and introduce a second flat. Write the scales of A. In order therefore to find the number of sharps of any fifths downwards. therefore. therea half-tone. and 1 the same tone (on the piano) as C'. that of Cb. the sharps until you arrive at the key designated. until wo roach th or scale designated. and as correspond with it. 5 9 11 In order. HM 9 while in the Normal fore. we must start out from one additional. we will select the one that lies five tones or a fifth higher The B flat scale is in all but one particular like that of F. 1* i The scale of V99 4. for double flat scale. namely Bt>. orihed. Instead of starting with the tone next to G. We must. In order to make In order to make the G$ scale scale ho waver it is just the reverse. we have the following series of the 3th to the 4th which is a whole one. The F flat Upon examination normal scale. to make the D scale like that of G we must introduce a second EXERCISE 3. therefore. scale just ths opposite is the case. the Btep from the 3th to tke 4th. to find the number of flats 3 4 6 7 8 10 1 2 12. which was placed upon the 7th tone of the scale. m In order therefore to make the B flat I scale like that of F. consequently that from the 7th-8th is a whole one. counting an additional fiat each time. G(> and O. Let us descend from we 1 G We will now proceed to build another scale. namely. begiu to count from C and step upwards by five tones counting key Let us now place the names of the aoalea in which sharp* are intro8. Ai>. we Each additional scale gave us also an additional By stepping five tones lower from Of we reach FK Write this scale with will In the C$ major the same number of flats which have been used in the sharp. E# and B#. until we arrived is the course we : pursued We have. therefore.fhls Male corresponds with the -7 wbictt is small. In order. The difference is again in the step fro been built after the normal scale of C. and stepping five tones higher each time. so to speak. counting the double sharp as two. and build scales in C G D A E B 0123456789 G# D# A# E# C *b tame manner . and in that from the 4th to th In the F scale however it is the reverse. while G has one and each following key has belonging to any given scale. disat B. while F has one. 876543210 1 2 3 10 11 11 G D 11 1* 11 11 11 fi 12 11 11 11 ll" 12~ 11 II H that the or kayn winch are placed abort aaoh other are w . aad consequently that from the 4th to UM SUi ie small. we 5. scale has one additional. tones 5th. until we reached by Dj^. C scale in all the steps except in that from is the case. as it already has a sharp we shall place a double sharp before B. is =!s=kf. step from the 6th-7th is but a half-step.

when Scales 11. Not all the scales we have constructed are praeticaly nsed in mu. By using the tones as we find them in the It is easier to read and play (be key of D\? which has but five flats. they should all be the same descendone tone. Suptherefore. we obtain the following series : y * * music in a key with but five accidentals than in one with seven. from the 2-3. When we formec we had but one model or normal scale Minor scales are built in the same manner as were the major scales. B^ playing scales on the seven white keys. Hiese febrca forma scales. 3y counting the number of the sharps and above or below each other. and may all be deduced from the works may be termed the most consistent minor cale. we have the following proportions : 81 IA v f CHAPTER IV. It is. The key of Cft for instance with seven sharps sounds exactly like hich suits our purposes best. without the use of sharps This scale has three half steps. example No. like the deondlng minor A . because with it. the Thi G is natural. we make This key. from o-4 and a step affords us any degree of satisfaction. This key has but one sharp. has but one flat. consequently the scale of AW must have eleven flats. Such a change is called the enharmomt y above or beby stewing from any key to the one immediately ehaugelow it u given above. f the masters. THE DIATONIC MINOR SCALE. In order however. The Gft is to be regarded as an accidental and n i -" a B V 1 smaller scale. and for ttis reason our model or normal minor scale. that causes it to differ from he major scale. has neither sharps r flats. 2. for there is but one tone in it. from by five steps upwards. which bring* u* to Let us now proceed! A E W will first i : nreaent tbta Mali without any sharps. easy to find the number of sharps or has E#? This being a key be asked.e 5-6 anl or flats. In changis. from t!. The second scale is perhaps the smoothest and has been called melodic scale. a regular signatute of the scale for in going down. writing the ascending minor scale. hence the For the same reason we write to Cft. these and by one and the same key.wrwu ing from written. In that case we say. we already know. flats of remote keys. and so forth. and so forth. line are all that are we shall adopt it a* The keys mentioned in the upper usually Some theorists claim that inasmuch as there are three different ways of and keys are said to be related in the first degree. flats of the scales placed $. consequently Eft tone as F. no one is expected to know its signature. 10. we make an enharmonic Change. must have exactly that number of sharps which is required to make up Hence Eft has eleven sharps. which is perceptible to nd not to the ear. a difference. and for this reason the descending minor scale ought to be regarded The following will represent the as the normal minor scale. different degrees of relationship of all the keys used in music Gfc Dfc Afr Bfe used in-music. soft. we shall adopt that scale MC. This scale is called the minor scale the lesser or Germans call the major scale hard. 1. By playing the following chords. ty F I. 2. The first scale 1.tones sound exactly alike. The third form is the one which is to us of most imporance. i we find that there are not leas than ach of which we M follows advocated by theorist* as correct is. we find that next to the C scale. Next it contains two whole steps from 1-2. is the only one which from 7-8. When we however form minor three distinot forms. and a half from 6-7.in as much as it like the normal major scale. 'hese several scales are all correct. it will be found that the first ombinaliou sounds defective. Though Fft Gfrlookj *\. AJ?j? is the same as G. while those that differ in two tones are related they differ in but ng. Or suppose we wish to know the twelve. qnickly to find out the number of sharps without countis the enharmonic change and say. while the second is agreeable to the ear. in the second degree. C GDA : E B FJJ When placing the different degrees of the harmonic minor scale abort each Other in the form of a ladder.that Eft is the same ing by fifths. et- pose which question never used in music.As we are now studying the rules of harmony. and the minor. the number will invariably be twelve. they are fashioned after the normal minor scale. how many sharps the Uie eye or ! G# to G there therefore. number of flats used in AH?. that on A. we ca> mild the chords in minor keys. namely. key of D^ is generaly prefered music in the following keys : C-G D A E B And not in these : Fft-G|> This scale has been called the harmonic scale. scales after the C major scale.

CHAPTER flats VI. the minor key is always three half steps below its re- lative major. or minor keys. This scale is written upward with sharps and down ward with flats. the The first four are the authentic scales. Major G DA B Fjf E B F fib E|? Ab Db Gb'he first four of these keys or modes were chosen by St. to be regarded merely as an accidental. we consider tones by one key. so its own. lie THE CHROMATIC SCALES. and it may. while the is the permanent signature of this scale. The major and minor scales each lave 7 tones. which belong to the several keys or scales. therefore. for it produces each D and This scale is only possible when we take into considerais a difference between and DJ>. Al EL B F O# G '#D V Major CL FL Bj.uthentic and plagal. C. Bj? and Gt> minor keys EXERCISE 3. 2.I rder to make this scale like the normal scale. placed at the beginning of a piece of music or a line. The minor the major keys. but on th? D minor key. hence the name. eight different modes. The minor and major keys steps apart. but as in the descending scale the sharp disappears.L' from the 1st to the 2d large. the minor scale has a flat and a piano and the organ we have split that difference and represented both sharp. and tha As this scale has no other than half steps. G$ and Dft. F$ and Gt>. and they are always three hall is. 6. CHAPTER" 1 Y. the chromatic scale has 12 and the enharmonic 17. and still are used in church music. AJ7. CGDA I Phrygian. written in different colors. In order to make this scale like the normal minor scale. Gi Cjf difference still is recognized in music. while the Ctt is tone in Write minor scales on G. therefore. and as these key? ere. indicate it i. E b A b Df. C|.t its key. be used alike in connection with the majoi that from the 6th to the 7th may be a step and a half. Dorian. The sharps and flats must be placed ing manner : at the beginning of a piece of music. it has no peculiar character of from the 6th to the 7th a whole one. and in the followFtt Ionian. This scale is of no practical value. sharp. 1 Major Minor CL GL DL AL EL BL FV. which as we have learned. means only a ihange to the eye and not to the ear. F All the steps of this scale are alikt. Let us now place the minor scales under those major scales 'hal nave the same number of sharps or flats. they are called the church keys. while D| occurs only in the ascending form or natural sign which however occurs only in a measure. which comes from chromo. it will b found that Fjf occurs in both. The dent can solve this generally by looking at the last note in the ha indicates the name of the key. while we have tout AinorE A sharp C# is G# D# D G C F Bb F>. EXERCISE 5. the major and minor modes In the Ionian and Aeolian ">odes UM . (374) nd the next four were added by St. therefore. we must flat the B. . 19 The D$ is. Gregory (591). that that have the same number of sharps or are called relatative major or minor keys. when placed at the beginning of a piece of music. Moreover we must sharp the C. while th. 4. 2. 2 3 4 THE CHURCH KEYS. In order to make the dis ance from the 6th to the 7th a step and a half. It will be observed that in ascending. The question whether stu- major or minor is however by no means thereby decided. has effect throughout the entire piece unless changed. EfrBpF keys are related to each other in the same manner as The following formula will explain it. has no influenm beyond the next bar-line. They are eight in number and are divided into two classes. Any of the above signatures. its enharmonic changes. so that from the 2d to the 3d may be smal We must. EBF#C#G# L i Lydian. Hopophrygian.G b Minor A D G C F B E^. It is called chromatic because in former times this scale is said to have been called the chromatic scale. O- Aeolian. 2 3 5 . F$. By going five tones downward from A we reach D. ast four are the plagal. Write the minor scales of B. so that the step from the 5th to the 6th may be a half step. n the past they had. chromatic. we must sharp the D When comparing the ascending and descending E minor scale. F. flat or flat which A vo. The enharmonic etc. Dorian. Ambrose. -9 Mixolydian. tion the fact that there the Bt> as the only regular signature of the regarded but as an accidental. we must make the ste . The succession of all the twelve tones that within one ot^ve. The major and minor scales are modern when compared with the churcll :eys. 5. place a sharp before F. therefore. the color.

Augmented Prime. the interval In eonstmcting the scales. E=3=JEa*EEEE Perfect Sixth. and that which is a reached B$ in one direction. E. starting from C. which latter tone B$ is F#. in order to simplify out tached to the scales because it do not notice and that tl>e several provinces of that country had each instruments. Second. Ejf" F. it is simply modified by is. A 2. but would perpetually run in opposite direction* To overcome these difficulties. we womld never return to that tone. it left are all by the fraction of 74-73 higher than those to Augmented Sixth. though to oemg those of the major some we apply the term perfect scale. Diminished Seventh. on the srme as C. is by a fraction piano the same as C. The Arabs for instance. GP. Augmented Octave. The major and minor scales are not the only ones that are used. making three vibrations additional names. G the VIII. that necessarily modified. longs to history we will add nothing further. Either we count the de. Diminished Octar*. or we count the half steps or semior tones. Diminished Third. Augmented Third. with and if we vals. both of which are that is a half step half step smaller than minor is called diminished. In the half steps are omitted. There tance may be measured iu a two fold manner. and it is supposed to be very old. This same fractional difference exists between tune from C downward by fifths. of accoufltios. This it is called the Pentatonic Scale. teps By pursuing the first course we obtain the Chinese and other Eastern nations use a scale that consists of but five intervals following tODM. which last tone is on the Et>. In tuning 3. Prime. Augmented Second. Counting CHAPTER C as the first D is the second. B. and cur ear has accustomed itself to it. DX G>. . the sixth. By tuning in this manner. advance to G. the tone lying bctwaea each of Were we Major Seventh. The distance between two tones is called an interval. divide their octave into 17 _re many others. Ct>. Ninth. G#. to tune pianos and organs according to the principles would become necessary for us to have all these several tonee represented by separate keys. Ai?. Fifth.the defects of this mode of tuning because we have heard it to state that this earliest youth. is called the temperate mode of tuning. D. the Hindoos have a scale with twenty divisions. and the two tones are now represented. D$. the lower tone makes but relation. Perfect Fourth. Seventh. CHAPTER IX. Augmented Fourth. fc these this. I Perfect Fifth. that A|. from CHAPTER VII. A. By sharping or flatting any one of the tones of an interval it is we proceed in the same manner. & * These names are derived from the number of staff degrees that lie between the two tones. Diminisncd Fifth. F the fourth. Again if we begin C. advancing by fifths. G D A E 6 " Ebb. invented them. ffl :sz preee&d W may therefore say of a pi* "&*t i tuned in this manner. 1 Major Second. A is on the 6th degree from C. we started from C and advancing by fifths we interval that smaller than major is called minor. is The following is a list of intervals : Perfect Prime. D^ Minor Second. student Till recognize our major and minor. are all major inter- : two. As this subject be. Octave. This dis 1. If the fifth bj does not change its staff which we tune. is of the proper accoustic proporitons. grees that lie between the two tones. Third. By doing the proportions of each fifth had to be somewhat lessened or de- Perfect Octave. Any is a half step larger than the major is augmented. Minor Seventh. etc These intervals in place of major. it will be found that the tone of 74-78 lower than C. as for instance. The jjrrecian names were at. Diminished Fourth. C$. '. Fourth. : ABOUT SCALES IN GENERAL. F?. Cand Ill Major Third. it does not change its original name. namely 3 2. has been claimed that the ancient Grecians which each tone yields a fraction of its purity. E$ and B$. This mode of tuning. advancing to F and proceeding to B!?. A>t and DH>. INTERVALS. fifth. by that of C. B. TEMPERAMENT. Minor Third. We one of these scales appropriated to its special use. and Tty? in the opposite. produced by the same key on the piano. except theory has been denied. while the tones that lie between them.that it is mathematicaly speaking. if the G. Augmented Fifth. As long as the interval while C. Diminished Sixth. The tones to the the right. which would make these instruments exceedingly complicated. namely.out of tune. it will be found the fraction of 74-73 of a tone higher than C.. two was adopted. Ebb.. E the third. C*. Sixth.

I illustrated. The second. 7th. and the interval. llth. boks of too* or three-fold chord. these chords is called the 1st voice or Soprano / th higuest tone of called the 2d voice or Alto. 4th. m a contrary motion. . on It is furthermore called the Tonic-chord. will have common chords written for doubling the tonic or fifth we as mnch By fow c/5 voices. the 1 -^ est. with the preceding ing harmony. The on consists of three tones V Triad * ^ . Th* ie nine tones. 8th. It is also called rows and Richter and others.which a succession of tones. diminished or augmented. been adopted for the four tone* 3d. Thus from C to G$ of C. these voices is called progression. By placing the lower tone of an interval above the upper without Harmony is usually written in four tones or voices. In order to find out whether an interval is major or minor. F -* 2d. Minor Ninth.5 1 1 X as possible. 4th. to the ear. making eight in all. Intervals are not counted beyond the 9th. we invert an interval. The simultaneous sounding of tones may be agreeable to the ear. or Tenor. we say. starting from G. Write out a similar table of intervals. three tones. while the doubling of the third is to be avoided inversion. F. etc. : .which is the same as deducting 1 from 9. namely: principal 5. the student must obdisagreeable of each voice. This idea can readily be represented by figures 12345678 8764321 : The CHAPTER is X. which is the same as deducting 2 from must double one. Thus the chord C. The easiest method of showing tion has been accepted as the purest and most agreeable to the ear. which will be found to be one the scale. all others are derived from =3g the other of four or It is called the 3 ^-9- these. . be*auae it is always the first tone of the scale. - 3E= E5__ These three tones constitute the common chord ver in what position they may be placed. the same or chords. E. ii 1 * emitone. E. This combinamoving the latter. 4. 4th. the third the next above and the are regarded as mere repetitions of the 3d. * direction. B>. 7th. we shall now consider the rules that underlie the combination of tones. harmony There are but two fundamental chords. D. Dt?. This common chord consists of the LESSON 7. tt * # EXERCISE 8. In orders to obtain a tone for each of the four voices. because consists of but three tones. no the fundamental tone.1st sound. therefore. is only eight semitones. Tenor corresponds to the division of the human voice the degree or interval from 9. etc. The term tonic chord should. 4. . Alto and Tenor. the funds 5. A. Soprano and Bass. D. In writchord is doubly connected. E and greater than the number of semitones or half steps. one voice rising and the other falling Many of the illustrians as well as exercises We kall irst consider the chord of three tones. E. we must count the half steps that lie between the two tones. 2d. For instance. . G. B[>. the sounding together of C. They are fifth called Compound Intervals. $*3d. Thus the Prime is represented by the figure 1. from C to C| is the first half step. C|.- tal tone is the lowest tone. 8th. : . In progression. two outer voices. we call it The motion of each of G We A 2. etc. for reasons which will hereafter be explained. are called secondary voices. C will always be of C. the distance. The common chord however consists of but we obtain an octave. It subtract the number of what an interval will become by inversion is this Soprano. are usually called thft while the two inner voices. as it is her* G . Th< voice or THE COMMON CHORD. chord C. F.as well as the scale. 1. that constitute harmony. 6th.and you have the interval it will become by and Bass. A.. FJf. D. Compound Intervals. which is the difference in pitch between two tones.. as it is linked with the same voice of the is serve the motion E and F is offensive to the ear. 6th. 3d. the next lower is called the 3d next lower is while the lowest tone is called the 4th voice or Bass. each and the following chord. namely. 3d. w* when inverted becomes a seventh. E>. from Cfl to D is the second.c V % . Write the common chord on C. Gfl. only be used when that akord is meant which is built on the first tone of the scale. 4th. and shall only consider such combinations which are pleasant preceding agreeable. therefore. both moving when we speak of the simultaneous sounding of tones. E> and At>. voices. Gb and Ct>. i" voice may progress with another io parallel motion. In reckoning by semitones or half steps. it we hare adopted from !*. E and the following chord. the third and G the fifth. therefore. 5th. by inverting it. 5th. Having considered the nature of the tone. can however appear in more than one key. L the common chord. to double the tonic or fifth. The quickest mode of finding the number of half steps is "f* its third and fifth. 9th. Any tone of the triad may be doubled. therefore. B. 5th. Alto. 6. 5th. Th* '"ost natural position for the common chord is this in which 3. Simple Intervals. therefore. E and G. because it is so simple and ooaan *> frequently in a&i i "** sic. B and D is the only tonic chord of the key of G. At>. and G.^tbe 10th. while the combination of C. etc. & . 5th. which names have. . 4th. The following are common chords : It has been said that the tonic chord is always built on the first tone 01 is the only tonic chord of the key simply to count the intermediate tones. etc.Major Ninth. 12th. but it is safest The following table shows the inverted intervals 9.

it only remains for us to state that an imperfect fifth may follow a perfect one and vice versa. thereby making parallel octaves In order to do this. U* howl 9f G. In example b. The third always desires to rise a half step or a semi Tne two Bs. F and C move into G and Dj and and the parallel octaves appear in the Alto and Bass. the parallel Bass. so to Thetie we must also avoid. F and C go into move in fifths. as for instance. therefore. The following example presents the same chords with parallel fifths *od octaves. we must break up. with which they make parallels. one voice remaining stationary. 7. make mistakes. as for instance. a step against which we were warned in % previous lesson. a*d wwta it iu the follow ng manner speak.the other M. in the Soprano and Tenor. F and F move in octaves into G G fifths occur in the Bass and Tenor. : . ownward. parallel and D. the pupil is not apt to low the perfect. ascend in a like tone. a b tUso avoid such faulty progressions in the downward course ntrodncina other chords. Parallel octaves are made between the Tenor and they and G. it is deemed best to let the imperfect fifth fol- By nsing regarded : faulty. that these parallel motions are a- voided. we must write the above harmonies in such a G manner. "Doves upward or downward. By tBis first manner. w< tave actually doubled the third. each advances a semitone to C. Observe how the Alto and Tenor G descend: motkM we have broken np the parallel progressions between th two chords. fifths exist between the Soprano and Tenor. i xm Tenor In order to avoid these faulty progressions. By writiug the chords in this manner we avoid all parallel fifths / Having at length set forth the rules concerning parallel fifths and oeteve. though the contrary and oblique motions. (G and D) to move in a contrary motion to the Bass. Parallels in fifths The following examples are parallel as and octaves are d. in 3t 1: ^E b two succeeding chords.to an oblique motion. Not so in the use of parallel motion. It being considered wrong to make such progressions.F and F move into G.~f T i r while . because they sound unpleasA parallel motion or progression can only exist between the same antly. in the following progression : These progressions are denounced as wrong. but in the second chord (on G) we have now two Bs. we must cause the Alto and in the chord. in the following example : Ye may V" In ths above examples we have parallel fifths and octaves. fifths and octaves In the same manner we avoid faulty progressions wh<r< 8. In a.

diminished. d ^ la doing this we obtain the following chords - F^- ~ major. or in the and treatment of chords. however. it has been called the sub-dominant. major. if possible in a contrary direction to the bass. major triads. it is called a diminished 11. 3d and 6th. namely. In order to If possible let the third ascend a semitone. minor. ' T" Among 4th and these 5th. As we have major and minor scales. : f. same roice.1taid Position a. There are. the tonic chord must always the same by name as the fifth tone below fourth tone of the scale. diminished. There being triad. . therefore. let us build common chords or triads on every tone may go in either direction. major.ones of the scale. else doubled thirds being an octave apart. minor triads. If a melody is given with the bass. d.g: same h. In a like manner let us now build chords on that A minor scale. while on the 7th we find a chord which has a minor third and an imtwo intervals smaller than major in this chord. it is deemed best to begin with a chord scale in these three positions. your chords afterwards. The former has a major third. minor. other besides major and minor triads. diminished. e. augmented. called an augmented triad. but writ! Bass or fundamental tone remained the same in each of the three chords. will now proceed to write the tonic harmony with its attendants : 14. it will be seen that we have major chords on and 5th tones of the scale. being *J"> tonic. succeeding 1 tturr. Observe that while the Soprano has changed. 12. 2~ we ^ find only three major chords.g=f=^fzzr|==l K^^ & v -^. so we hare also major anc of the three positions. avoiding parallel motions. it should aa a rule be re ' Ifth is in the to be in the second position. perfect fifth. each voice stepping into that tone of the next chord. Such a tone is called If there be no tie-tone. Write major. meaning the lower dominant. minor chords on the 1st and 4th. progression of each voice should be considered in : major. minor. diminished EXERCISE 12. the latter has a . :=. augmented and diminished chords on all the tones in the scale. JSr* w ^ 9 "^. meaning a ruler. Write your bass first. its connection /. or in the position of the third. If any tone belongs to chords. Write the common chord on every tone of the Chromatic c. 4th Having given the rules to be observed in writing harmony. the chord as closely to it as the progression of the voices permits. the octave position. and the other two are called the fifth is called the Dominant chord. 35 --^fl mi Avoid parallel fifths and octaves. let the chord move lies tie-tone. The . the chord stands in the third position. the b. For this reason the third should not ba in the C major scale doubled. direction will produce parallel octaves. those on the 1st The th first of these chords is attendant harmonies. illustrate this lesson. fifth is *8. triads and augmented triads. EXERCISE 10. follow the dominant chord. of the fifth. which we have adopted as the best for harmonic purposes. The student may however take the first chord in _. The that is. which EXKHCISTE 11.m=-^r Upon examination a- fe- 'g g minor. major. Jtat efor* doing BO we will bare give a few rules concerning the writing . and moving in the Write minor chords in three position* on toe twelve nearest to it. fore. From the above illustration the 1st. a ruling chord. minor. major. diminished chords on the 2nd and 7th. We will once mere examine the chords built upon the major scale of C. tained in the minor. with the preceding as well as the succeeding chord. The chord on the Tonic chord. If no melody is given. If the Soprano. The fifth This name comes from Dominans. We have. On the 3d we find a chord that has a major third and an augmented This chord is. it will be found that we have major-chords on the 5th and 6th. minor chords on the 2nd. minor. tone in the scale is called the ruling tone and the chord of the because it rules the tonic chord. ' We will now write out the Tonic harmony with its attendants. & . recognized as the ruling chord.uinor common coords.therefifth.aj iO. do not write above it. The octave and fifth g.

Authentic. it is called plagal. Jlp^z^ .chord.

If the upper three voices lie so close together that not a tone bel nging to the chord can be placed between them. - at ^ . 1 and wide petition or harmeny.^ 19. the chord is said to be written Chorda can be written in the close ia the close position or harmony.

- - ESE?E I -I t-^ ^ J RXESCISK 84 I i . * fi ^ g 4 g_ J 6) 5 * 35 -a ^- EXERCISK ttfc*-? FT" . & .

the octave being the upper note is called the poi if iLi-ic nr. the octave of the resolutions. progression of the dominant chord Into the triad In the resolution observe the following rules : It is its The The seventh has a definite progression. well to prepare them.. therefore. The consequence is that the following chord has but two tones. 7 7 7 7 he several positions are also called after the intervals which lie on top. tone which does not belong to While the dissonance of the domincalled a is not unpleasant to the ear. a i_ . is the leading tone of the scale. it appear in the preceding chord and in tha MU move a fifth downward or a fourth voice. Thus. fundamental tone was omitted. tone of the scale and Write the resolutions of the dominant chord in every mark the motion of the voices. *= KSXBCISK II. EXBSOMK.no. The seventh moves upward a semitone.) third of the dominant chord which moves down a semitone or a whole tone. B. This is always the case when the octave of the fundamental tone is omitted in the dominant chord. that is to let the discord- ant note. 7. 3. fourth and fifth examples. 30. 3d. i. In order to make this plainer we will state the triad is that the dominant chord of the seventh. In the third. EMRCISB 29. the third of the chord and is also the seventh. The sevenths move The octave is retained as a tie-tone in the first two thirds up. down. It is. the second is called the position of the third. in its sev- 2. if possible. 4th. either The fifth can go up or. where the same rules are observed. n Study the following resolutions of the chord of the seventh wal forms of writing. unpleasant. Write the resolu. or the F. the first position. the third x called the position of the fifth and the fourth is called the position of called :ie seventh. The fundamental tone should upward. in the key of C is G. D and ant seventh B is. there are sevenths which are uais a dissonance.iirfhJ'oqt sition of the octave. leading tone of the scale of C. 8. /I and keep * as a tie-tone. the Observe that every voice has its independent motion. therefore. The resolution. (See 1 and 6. 4- S- 6 - j ~ET down. We will now write the resolutions of the dominant chord of the seventh in it* different positions. lions of the chords in their four different positions. Any dissonaut tone.

it. The full signature or figuring of 6 _ thk chord is 5. can only produce three inversions.) we did not change the bass tone. and from B to D ll. o deemed sufficient to mark this chord. will now proceed to put other tones than the fundamental tote into the bass. g * . Changes took place only in the treble. thereby producing inversions in the same manner as we did with the common chord. X. Il i--* t*es progresses From is the bass a third. In placing the dominant chord in the several positions (see Chapter . but one degree upward. By placing the third of the dominant chord in the bate. wale. Write cadences like the above on all the tones of the ExmcHB 84. The name derived from the position of the interval. from third being in the ba tha third should not be doubled B G The EXBRCISE 83. it is Why to is a sixtk. it is beat not to arable the fundamental tone. (to b*M no VM m a contrary direction to MM trcbte. 3. i . we obtain the *"** of the sixth and fifth. there being but three tone* in the treble whioh we may alternately put in We We the bate. B to F is a fifth. 0. 1. bat as S lias reter<Moe ia U g ^~ 8 is <} the triad. THE INVERSIONS OP THE DOMINANT CHORD OP THE SEVENTH. CHAPTER XIII. has already been explained. generaly omitted in the treble.II.

e t . ~P" JL EXF. 5155= t c si . } ~ ^fe^EE^-E^ ! p -~ t_ m t?5 ESEESr =S=f=at: 51 e. a fl. $4 6 ifc t?4 i I i -e J - m EXERCISE 45. EXERCISE 47.:-b * 2--- 2 :* s -*- EXBRCISE 46. 50.KARL MERZL_ELEMENTS OF HARMONY. -. BKEBCTOE 44. 6 8 6 4 6 t_t_ JEXERCISE. EXERCISS 49. - T~f:~" 9* 7 8^ 87 JLLJ_6_| e 8 Q.UCISE 48.

In a moderate. Corda. P manner. 01 Con moto. A. NOCTURNE. briik"!ess \ Night song. BEN. With fire. In a graceful.. or ritanl. MANUAL. Medium TRANQUILLO. or An extemporaneous A produc- manner or style of. PASTORALE. ) A funeral march. DUET. STACCATO. in which the rnlesof form LIBITUM. /. ACCIDENTALS. quicker. CAVATINA. RELIGIOSO. Ben Marcato. unaffected style. Hand. FURIOSO. The second or lower part in a four-hand duet. More. \ i as. orin two VALSE. M.. \A keyboard for the PEDAL KEYBOARD. AMOROSO. A dance. STRINGENDO. The. Con Espressione. LARGO. usually in common time. A little. M. VIVACE. alteration. combining vivacity with dignity. SFORZANDO or sf~. QUARTET. or diminish the volume of tone. With spirit. Sharps. MOSSO. always. TENUTO. C. Gradually retard or slacken LFiNTO. > MODERATO. With heavy accent PIANO or/. Held. ) j as. composition for five voices. Time. POCO. TWO-STEP. movement in 3-4 meas- or original time. at. IMPROMPTU. by Majestic and as. vigorously. . PESANTE. PERDENDO. H. Extremely slow. SUSPENSION. Dying away. ALLEGRO. 1 T Veiy !oud. Furiously. ANIMATO. With agitation and earn- estness. TUTTI. Very soft. as possible. PR ESTO. CON. / ME/. POMPOSO. tended composition. Dying away. 1 A march. A fanciful and irregular com- LEGATO. G. A first or principal part. Very quick. Delicately. In exact time. Repeat from beginning to the word I-'ine. dignified. SENZA.mng.YD Quite slon. LE. SPIRITO or Con spirito. In a tranquil planner. occurring between the verses of a hymn or psalm. DIMINUENDO or dim. . SEMPRE. =o . or/2 or >. PRELUDE. COPULA. Very. repeat t-ine. m[>. LEGGIERO. With sudden emphasis or^T. AI. A composition for two voices. or ./O or in. Sweetly.-//. In the same time as written. Pathetically. With the voice. ANDANTINO. extremely. S. M. FORZANDO or force. One string. position. FUOCO. Three or more tones struck simultaneously. all the one earn ing the melody. DAL SEGNO or D. Lightly. sadly. Well. Sustaining or prolonging a note of one chord into a follov. A soft Not too much. DECISO. Right hand. Very. / ^vmgly. Without. nected. / Wlth ex P resslon . To the sign. ually diminish the MENUET. Left hand. o.. Smooth and conneAed. FINE. an6 anima[tion. BARCAROLLE. SEMPLICE. Dignified.. THEME. use Ujft DOLOROSO.. By degrees. LOCO. 6-8 measure. ARIA. tenderly. elegantly. Somewhat slower than Andante. CAPO or D. DELICATO. meanjsig. soft pedal. UNA CORDA. Slow and solemn. A Venetian boat measure. Animated. ANDANTE. By for. G. full value. even and graceful GIUSTO. in four parts. M. - ESPRESSIVO. A With extreme livelv. MARCATO. but not as quick as Allegro. 1'IU. solemn. MORENDO. which two rows of keys are conor cresc. Marked and emphatic. Gradually retard the time. grand. . DOLORE. L. MOLTO. A lively (lance or march. the beginning to the sign 'P (Con). vague and dreamy composition Right hand. Mournfully. A TEMPO. Quick. meanfrom the sign tC to the word rs MARCHE FUNEBRE. Left hand. AG ITATO. Soft. A Same as APPOGGIATURAS. COLLA VOCE. somewhat. little by little. mechanical stop in an organ. A or rail. in. in TRIO. H. preparatiou. ACCOMPANIMENT. With. Hats or naturals inTh<. Piu inosso. D. brilliancy and spirit. The. All the voices or instruments together. FANTAISIE. LARGHETTO. as. 1RIOSO OANTABILE. softer. TEMPO. At the taste or discretion of the performer. An air or song. usually DOLCE. 1 NON TROPPO. Gradually retard the time and diminish the volume of tone. The difference in pitch between two tones. and rural movement ir> troduced in the course of a piece. E. EXTEMPORE. Right hand. nected. Short and detached. Left hand. MAIN. / charafter. LES. In a solemn six RALLENTANDO REVERIE. A Formed of semi-tones. The notes of a chord when played ASSAI. | MoornfoUy[parts. SCHERZO.. DOLCISSIMO. "1 An I irregular. } . compositions in the romantic style. LENTANDO. In the first MENO TEMPO PRIMO. QUINTET. ELEGANTE. IL. passage added to a composition to bring it to a complete close.harmony. A -vattz. but RITARDANDO less so Gradually than Largo. or melody.1 an agitated manner. I. Affectionately. Three strings. MA. D. INTERVAL. Sustained. as. major or minor scales without chromatic Naturally. In a simple. ACCELERANDO. NOTTURNO. SLENTANDO. FANTASIA. In a graceful. are to a certain extent disregarded. A movement or SECONDO. VIVO. 1. DIATONIC. Pin piano. in the composition for four voices. applied to a light graceful composition in 6-8 short strain. CON ESPRESSIONE. M. A or = tone. usually of 4 or 8 measures. BRTO (Con). QUASI. decidedly. in 6-8 time.. PEDALS. Neither slow nor quick./ lib. TRES CORDE. } feet". without previous \CIO. MARCHE. emphasis". A keyboard for the hands. sustained. Gradually increase the volume of tone. And. DECK ESC ENDO or dccresc. Less. SEGNO. Showy and brilliantly. the part performed by the right hand player in a four-hand duet. ing. A composition for three voices or parts. PERDENDOSI. rather loud. ARPEGGIO. or . As fast as possible. PRIMO. PIANISSIMO or pp. Briskly. meaning. A MAESTOSO. INTERLUDE. or Increase the volume of tone and then diminish it. GAVOTTE. Libitum. [time. BRILLANTE. given A subject. A name frequently given written in small characters. smooth and con- sion. remove the foot from the soft pedal. graceful ure. slower. CAPRICCIO. the In slow time. or moderate. kind of composition. . As sweetly 1 -. COUPLER. CRESCENDO DA or =:. an adverb of augmentation.DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS. Grad- volume of MIM'KT. tin- Offhand. extremely. WELL Gradually quicken the time. PRESTISSIMO. Firm. ing chord. parts except Gracefully. \ A short. Quicken the movement. Play the notes where mark occurs after an 8va This LUGUBRE. A R. to graceful GRAZIOSO.. But. FINALE. using the tones of the MISTERIOSO. with expres. [successively. Notes of embellishment Ad IDYLLE. POCO A POCO. A short introductory performance. song. usually in rapid 3-4 time. L'ISTESSO TEMPO. In the regular time. tion. PATETICO. An air of one movement or part. melody of lende* composition of a light and playful character. SOSTENUTO. simple ROMANZA. repeat from AMORE time. See Mezzo. ROMANCE.. The last movement or part of an ex- AFFETTUOSO. before. Boldly. M4MIA. From the sign. mep. CHROMATIC.. Gradually moderate time. Very slow and solemn. VIGOROSO. MOTO Rapid. The end. CODA. iee Una Mysteriously. FORTE or/ FORTISSIMO Loud. or in five parts. rather soft. CHORD. As if. GRAVE. In the same style throughout. softly. With sudden emphasis. well marked. Anxiously. elegant style. . singing style. 1 T a s In mte<i AN'IMOSO } A PIACERE. ALLEGRETTO. tenderly. mf.. / pensive and sentimental melody.

and fifth progresses in the following iiiauner therefore.- F in No.If the seventh is placed in tne oass it is omitted in tlie t.rcble. descends into C. (see example below. be- cause the seventh. and that the octave of 'be chord should be followed by the seventh. descends a half step into E. In a. the progression ol the seventh is a semitone downward.is held as a tie-tone. while the seventh ia the bass descends a semitone or a whole tone. it is called a passing note.sio-. E. with this G I (I . The third B. This signifies that first the common chord should be taken. Both passing and changing notes may occur in any voice. iuto the third. while the bass either descends into C.is. or should be followed G G by F. The third.. Notes like notes or passing _ffl F be followed by the seventh. is to The signature is 8-7. we have two common chords. Write chords of the secon 1 on att /ones in the scales. (See the above example). D de. it having a definite progression. J t . In /. The fifth. the progression of the chord of the S^COE \ is iuto the chord of the sixth.1 . we produce EXERCISE 37. the in\er. V?EEfeE 7 EXERCISE. B. $7 fast B ( -9 6> v- t* (2 fSr EXERCISE 41. In the above exercise the figure 7 follows the figure 8. The fundamental tone is held as a tie-tone. If the discordant note appears after the entrance of scends into C.' passes through them tones. also applies to its various forms of In a. (See 1 and The chord of the sixth 2). * beiug the leading tone. The seventh of No.) one of the tuues uiay pass through the seventh. As ascend. iLX \o. it can move in either direction. or ascends into EXERCISE 19. it is called a changing note. which lies in the bass must move to E. thirds. 1 _6 8 7 8 7 ^ 5 a ff When two chords follow each other. If the discordant note appears with the B.in the bass. the leading tone. Q 66328 6. while F is the fifth. The chord of * progresses as follows . harmony. r 6 - ~ J eff_s363 ** fc fi T 4 ft S |^ 1.b D E. 1. Dof 84ft No. octaves. while in b the same takes place.the common chord. the third will ascend a half cipher 6 13 followed by a 5 step and the seventh will is the eixth from B. while the third the chord and leads into another. the octave passes through the seventh F. it will be found that descend a half or a whole step. the fundamental tone G. Passing notes are discordant notes. o The seventh. li. being 1. the first chord is that of a sixth. or in this'example are called/<w///. the fundamental tone G is held as a tie-tone. . ascends a half step into C. mean- ag that the octave of the bass tone (j is to be followed by F. namely.11 i difference. Counting from the bass tone. that the passing note lies in the inner voices. The signature 6-5 means. All the rules which have so far been given in reference to the progressions of the chord of the dominant.ds into C. they are foreign to the harmony' of descends a semitone into E. By letting which leads to parallel octaves. 38. because one of the voices into another tone. ascends a half step into C.ascci. that the sixth of the bass tone should be followed by the fifth. 3 - G 2 * 8 47 . I''. Because ~oy parallel doubling the oeveuth. U we produce double EXERCISE 40. S tt -I i. _2 _6 64^ 8 It should not ascend into E. It being the fifth. The chord of the second progresses in this manner: Z ij_ e S ___ _!___ 1f =lEEffeJ3^^l=~^ The the fifth.

would droduce parallel octaves. fe . -4 chord of the sixth. 12. 1st. treated as if it were deCompare example 1 and 2. although octaves. A diminished ing example we of the sixth on D. 4. really treated as if the signature were^. because we cannot derive chords from diminished or imperfect triads. be treated as if the root or fundamental tone were found live A 10. i-om the dominant chord of E. The seventh should ascend. which as has been repeatchord of the sixth (see example 2) is therefore. passes into the chord of the sixth. edly shown would lead into parallel octaves. therefore. o Of course the student will ob- When fifth. theicfore. The seventh may. which is de. 01 whole tone if it is resolved into a minor chord. --UL-JL ^ I is 7. a diminished chord. however be doublec should not be doubleu.In such a case the Imver seventh must ascend so as ttarpcd. and the bass tone D is the fifth The chord. therefore. however. if it is resolved into s\ ni:ijr chord. f> has also been given as a rule that the third should ascend a When two chords of the dominant follow each other.-c-l. rived from the dominant chord of G. When 4!j is the fourth of the bass tone m however raised a semitone. treated as if (. may c 'iscend. is The root of the above chord is example second. 8. and the third eventually ascends. therefore. $4 or 4 is the signature jjl. uttss tone with a Sert sharped teuinthis wi. they were marked with " & . which would indicate that this chord of the sixth derived from the diminished chord. and. implying an im- w is n -&--jprrz. G and BK The . The rule has been laid down that the seventh of the dominant chord should descend a semitone. When the chord of 3 . therefore. * dimiuished chord like the above. G r and B|? is C. the serve that the fundamental tone or root is omitted in the treble. should not be regarded as a chord of the sixth. which is apparently derived froi*.aid down that the seventh . chord cannot be a fundamental dmrd. The fourth of which might also have been writtone is G.) is It has been said that the full figuring of the chord of the second is In either of thesb cases the natural progression of the dominant chord only interrupted or delayed. 9. Tne same rule holds good when the third lies in the bass. It semitone.. The Mp following will 1 in this: la a forme* lesson the rule has been '. in the chord of rather than take the octave of the fundamental tone root. the chord must be regarded as the chord of with the fundamental lone omitted. which is to bo We nave. this bass avoid .rfc ~ -3 ft. because by descending. the third which The chords are. The signature of or {jo is. and the fundamental chord E.^ause it has a definite progression. but that the cipher 2 is is sufficient. G. therefore. third E being in the ' Hass. is therefore. The chord must. a 4$ or sufficient. tones below. really C. and in second a chord 2nd. The bass tone cannot be regarded as the fundamental toue or found a thiid below the bass. In the followhave in first. (Seecxample 2.5. perfect a bass tone has the signature of as in the following examples t>5 or t]5. root. 11. an equivalent of The is root of the first chord E. really the chord of 2 on D.

music from A. punctuation.. The Dominant Chord of the Seventh. 2. Intervals. The History of Music. between the accomplished amateur and the professional artist. TurkishlMarch. Construction of the various forms of compositions. etc. Modes. . etc. 65. Chapter 111. Intogether with the complete -. 12. Chords of the Ninth. Beethoven and Schubert. PART II. The following index to the chapters con- tained in the work will give some idea of value : its PART The Elements J. Chapter VI. Standards of pitch. Caprice. musical matters from before the "Christian Era List of chapters contained in Part V : Chapter I. Tonal relationship. Traces. is original. Trios. etc. 22. Mordeutes. Chopin George Frederick Handel Edward Greij* 23. organ pipes. Si. Chords of the Seventh. The stave. (Berceuse. Accidentals and their origin. 15. 11. from the great overabundance of possible tones. 4. Op. A complete History of the most interesting to the present time. and the use of the pedal are carefully indicated.. 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Transpositions. like Schumann's " Bird as Prophet.

W. Francis Thome Seeboeck G. is .Beaumont . La Fntnine. E. Wilson G. GEMS . . Merkel Spring Song F.CLASSIC PIANO . Second Garotte in F. In boards. . Leschetizkj O. Song Without Words. collection. . Polish Dance. (irmly bound. Bohm . Ballet Music. Thema. In cloth Mailed.00. 1 Thoma Scharwenka Babbling Brook. Mentiet a Miiim-t. . \V. . Pud ere wok R. J. Tschaikowskj W. W. .. 60 cents. Following Is the LIST OF Amitie pour Amitie..'f IAXISTS mil welcome collection P' Gems. At the Spring H. Hofmann . .s i Collections of Piano cents each GOLDEN CHORD. E. . . Merkel Fruhlingttlied (Spring Song). Jensen Happy Wanderer (The). Moszkownkj Th. .. CONTENTS. . is elf giuitly printed from engraved pi ites. . . P. Lynns Swing Song .00. Trice in in leel sure this rapidly iin-rea^in. Smith Price.. . finest velvet finished paper. . K. Xaver . Canzonet to. . In heavy paper. 10. . and Is in every respect on tht a first class book. Meyer-Helmund Tarantella. P. (2. Ad. . Seeboeck fiigue Bretonnc.- como from tenehers. Tschaikowsky \V. which umio iili' i. . Seeboecll Chant Sans Parolee.. Barcarole (By . Cradle Song. Victor Hollaender Wilson G. . -. Thi' Nelirtidiis have IIIT. on receipt of price. $1. Seeboeck . 50 by mail. Tanzweise. E. No. Sarabande. by the leading composers ol at we! Europe ancl America. CunUiim 1 -lied '. . . Mason . Wra.25. Meyer-Helmnnd Lake Geneva'. Scholtz An Matin. . la Mazurka. Jensen . . postpaid. O. Smith . No. Benjamin dodard Au Lac de Geneve (Barcarole). 2. Eduard Schutl Wilson G.fuel that the demand for tli . . 3.. Op. C. Slumber Song Hoi lei Slumber Sweetly (Berceuse). mists . An ton Strelezki H. . . The Birds are Coming The Happy Wanderer. .. The Two Skylarks. Seeboeck Berceuse. p. Ad. Smit J. C. . . UazurVa Poetique.-. Ferber . . . In view of tin. E. O.. 0. and gilt. :-tuilents and amateurs Classic Piano (Jems contains 144 pages.ians Paroles. E. $1. ruble of material ut the comof our publishers. Polish Muznrka. . Anton Strelezki .iss Of piano iiniint music tver i'itl>li*h:-<l. Richard Ferber Bourree Antique. (Waltz).. Popular Instrumental Folios. . The ni'iM i Music this of Classic Piano of the made with great published.D eare bymiisK-. will re. Birds are Coming (The). . Holzel G. Valse Lenta.

" material used through economical consideration.a. Henninges Movement i F. Sheldon Theo. . Chords. M. The Trill Dance. first volume starts with the simplest grade Contents of Volume Adagio Alternate I. Gillette Prelude (The) Muhle. Idyle Intervals and Chords Edmund Legato Movement Light and Gay Listening Little Liglitheart. I^xice SI..SO Every Study is esicla. Inversions and Modulations are simple and comprehensive. 23 R. Sheldon Rhythm Running a Race Scher/. unsur- Special Discount to Teachers and Dealers. C/erny Heller Earle F. Meeting At the Cradle Au Matin Berceuse Devotion A Merry Canto Sostenuto Contrary Motion Dictionary of Musical Terms Expression Four Notes Against Three Gathering Flowers. Boettger Etude Right Barcarole Triplets. L. Langley R. Inverted Chords M. for the Left Hand Mill. M. Sheldon M.M. Dorothy Dasch F. Sheldon II. G. Sheldon Theo. E. 4 Kdouard Potjes T. M. Sheldon Langley Dominent Chord Etude of the Seventh and its Inversions S. F. Spinning Song Florence McPherran F. were selected with great care from JENSEN and KULLAK. E.ino The Seventh The Tonic and its Relative Harmonies Richard Ferber Technique Whirl-wind Without a Cloud Theo. and kind in this country or Europe. M. Sheldon Adolph Jensen T. (Die). Mysterie Pastime Position of the The Romanza Romanze Rondino Scales Richard Ferber Langley Richard Richard Richard Richard Ferber Ferber Ferber Ferber Hands Richard Ferber 24.. Jenks is Printed on the finest quality of paper from passed in style and workmanship by anything of its engraved plates and substantially bound. F. G. Peckham T. No. The chapters on Rhythm. Sheldon Richard Ferber F. Boettger Langley Op. Alternate Left and Triplets for the Left Hand F. Kullak Sustained Melody Sustained Melody M. '.Sheldon F. Prelude Recordau/. EXPRESSION AND TECHNIQUE. Joseffy M. Expression. M. M. M. interspersed. Sheldon M. Caprice Cochran Mazurka Impromptu Mill on the Brook Modulation Pastorale Martha M. The few studies There has been no " ready-made which are not fresh copyrights..Newest. Sheldon Touch Cheerfulness Chromatic Thirds Canon Cantabile Contents of Volume II. Sheldon F. M. Rhythmical and Valuable. Melodious.Sheldon M. and on Intervals. Op. Boettger C. F. etc. Handsomest ar\d Best the Market! BRAINARD'S GRADED STUDIES IN RHYTHM. Kullak . The and the two volumes range to fourth grade. Kullak F. Independence of the Hands Interpretation Adolph Jensen Adolph Jensen Benjamin Godard Edouard Potjes C. F.Wrist M'lody Mill. G.

Grade . March VOLUME II. Little 11. bound in paper. Scherzino A " The Good Old Time. The Birthday Party. 6. My First Lore. 13. . 50c. Reverie C Major. 12. Sunshine in Spain. Rondino Sleep Baby. Spanish Song. Canon A Minor. Sleep. Cradle Song 4. Garotte C " The Cricket. Minuet F Major. 5. 3. " D Major.G " " 2. The Morning Prayer. Tone-Piece The Mill on the Brook F C F A " Minor.E6 " Jennie June. I. . 10. 2. Adonis Waltz Hymn Full of Sorrow. 8. Complete.FBRBBR'S 5O INSTRUCTIVE VOLUME Md 1. 7.. Marie Antoinette. Christmas Bells. 9. MELODIES FOR THE PIHNO FORTE.

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Music .BINDING SECT. MAY3 1972 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY MT 222 Merz Karl Piano method .