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‫ىذا الملف ما ىً إال اجتياد منٍ بتجمُع عدة مداطرات من اك حر من مًقع وترتُبيا بيذا الشكل.

‬ ‫بالنسبة للترتُب فيً اعتماد علٌ تصًَر الخد الزمالء, بارك هللا فُو, اجناء متابعتو لشرح الدك تًر‬ ‫قصٍ بالمداطرة.‬ ‫بعض الشرائح عبارة عن صًر لعدم استطاعتٍ تدمُل المًاد من المًاقع بسبب خقًق الملكُة.‬ ‫من اراد اإلطالع وتدمُل الملفات التٍ اعتمدت علُيا فٍ تجمُع ىذا الملف الدخًل علٌ ىذه‬ ‫الروابط:‬
‫?‪http://www.4shared.com/file/Et2dmfM_/2_online.html‬‬
‫?‪http://www.4shared.com/office/B4Xz4PRk/Tooth_eruption.html‬‬

‫باإلطافة إلٌ ملف مداطرة ‪ Anatomy and morphology‬بالمستًى الحالث‬
‫اخًكم فيد (ابً َزن)‬

Types of Dentition
1. Deciduous (baby) teeth a. Twenty ( 20) primary teeth. b. Arches - maxillary and mandibular. c. Quadrants - each arch divided in half. (1) Maxillary right and left. (2) Mandibular right and left.
Enamel is thinner, pulp is thicker

Deciduous Teeth
d. Teeth in each quadrant. (1) Central incisor (2) Lateral incisor (3) Cuspid (4) 1st molar (5) 2nd molar

Types of Dentition
2. Permanent teeth. a. Thirty-two (32) permanent teeth. b. Arches - maxillary & mandibular.

R

L

Permanent Teeth c. (1) Maxillary right and left. Quadrants. (2) Mandibular right and left. R L .

(2) Lateral incisor. (3) Cuspid (canine). .Permanent Teeth d. (1) Central incisor. Teeth in each quadrant.

Permanent Teeth (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1st bicuspid 2nd bicuspid 1st molar 2nd molar 3rd molar (wisdom tooth) .

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Palmer Notation System 2.International FDI System (two digit system) .Numbering or Coding Systems Tooth Identification Systems 1.Universal System 3.

1-Palmer Notation System for Permanent Teeth 1 1 2 3 3 2 Right 8-1 7 8 4 5 4 Left 1-8 5 6 7 8 6 8 7 8-1 1 2 3 6 5 4 1-8 .

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Upper right 1 2 3 4 5 Upper left 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Lower right 1 2 3 4 5 Lower left 6 7 8 .It represents the four quadrants of the dentition as if you are facing the patient. In upper right In lower right In upper left In lower left Horizontal and vertical lines = symbol for the quadrant The permanent teeth are numbered from 1-8 on each side from the midline.

Palmer Notation System for Primary Teeth E-A A B C D E A-E E-A A-E .

The deciduous teeth are lettered from A-E on each side from the midline Upper right E E D D C C B B A A A A B B Upper left C C D D E E Lower right Lower left .

Palmer Notation System .

.2-The International Numbering System “FDI” Federation Dentaire International (the two digit system) The teeth are designated by using two-digits: a. L. 5 8 6 7 U.L L.L.R. L. U.L. The first digit of the code is located at the left side of the number and indicates the quadrant: In permanent dentition In deciduous dentition U.R.R. L.R. 1 L. 4 2 3 U.

2-International For permanent Teeth System 12 11 21 22 13 23 (Two Digit System) 14 24 15 25 “FDI” 16 Federation Dentaire International First Digit = quadrant 17 18 48 26 27 28 1 2 4 3 47 36 46 35 45 44 34 43 42 41 31 3233 38 37 .

Permanent teeth 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 . The two digits should be pronounced separately.The second digit is located at the right side of the number and indicates the number of the tooth in the quadrant.Second Digit = Tooth number in the quadrant b.

2-International System (Two Digit System) “FDI” Federation Dentaire First Digit = quadrant International For Primary Teeth 52 53 54 55 51 61 62 63 64 5 8 6 65 First Digit = quadrant 5 8 6 7 85 84 83 7 75 74 82 81 71 72 73 .

For Primary Teeth First Digit = quadrant 5 8 6 7 Second Digit = Tooth number in the quadrant Primary Teeth 55 54 53 52 51 85 84 83 82 81 61 62 63 64 65 71 72 73 74 75 .

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Universal system for Permanent Teeth .

Universal System for Primary Teeth .

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Mixed Dentition: Presence of both dentitions Figure from Ten Cate’s Oral Histology.. 6th edition . Ed. Antonio Nanci.

Remember that during all these 3 stages is the progression that happens from primary to permanent dentition which involves the shedding (exfoliation) of primary teeth Dentition: Diphodont: two sets of dentition in humans Primary vs Secondary dentition Deciduous vs Permanent dentition Mixed dentition: presence of two dentition Teeth in primary dentition are smaller and fewer in number than permanent dentition to conform to the smaller jaw size Primary dentition: ~ 2 to 6 years of age Mixed dentition: ~ 6 to 12 years Permanent dentition: > 12 years .

columbia.Source: http://www.pdf .edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4.

The rate of tooth eruption depends on the phase of movement Intraosseous phase: 1 to 10 µm/day Extraosseous phase: 75 μm/day Environmental factors affecting the final position of the tooth: Muscular forces Thumb-sucking .

Clinical crown: During eruption. the exposed crown extending from the cusp tip to the area of the gingival attachment Anatomic crown: Entire crown. extending from cusp tip to the cementoenamel (CE) junction .

Sequence and chronology of tooth eruption Source: http://www.edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4.columbia.pdf .

By 5 months in utero. all crowns started calcification By 1 year old. 2.5 years.edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4. 3. all primary teeth erupted By 4 years old. 5. + upper laterals & lower laterals) 18 months: 12 teeth (2.columbia. + lower 2nd molars & upper 2nd molars) Summary 1. all primary teeth completed root formation Source: http://www. 2. 6 months: 4 teeth (lower centrals & upper centrals) 12 months: 8 teeth (1. 4.The six/four rule for primary tooth emergence Four teeth emerge for each 6 months of age 1.pdf . + upper 1st molars & loer 1st molars) 24 months: 16 teeth (3. 3. 4. + upper canines & lower canines) 30 months: 20 teeth (4. all crowns completed formation By 2.

Chronology of Human Permanent Dentition Source: http://www.columbia.pdf .edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4.

four 1st molars have initiated calcification At 4 years of age. all crowns have initiated calcification At 8 years.columbia. all roots are complete Source: http://www.edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4. all crowns emerge At 16 years.The rules of “Fours” for permanent tooth development (3rd molars not included) At birth.pdf . all crowns are completed At 12 years.

columbia.pdf .Rules of “sixes” in dental development 6 weeks old in utero: beginning of dental development 6 months old: emergence of the first primary tooth 6 years old: emergence of first permanent tooth Source: http://www.edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4.

Problems of Primary Tooth Eruption Natal and Neonatal Teeth .

Submerged primary teeth Hyper or supra eruption .

2nd edition . Damm and White. Neville.Ankylosis Source: Color atlas of clinical oral pathology.

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Congenitally Missing Teeth .

Cleidocranial Dysplasia .

Osteopetrosis – Defect in Osteoclasts .