You are on page 1of 585

m

i

"

Ij^H
A Guide to Popular Reading Interests
SIX III EDITION

Genreflecting
A Guide to Popular Reading Interests
Diana Tixier Herald
SIXTH I D I I ION

Edited by Wayne A. Wiegand

With hundreds of thousands of hooks being published each year, it is difficult to keep abreast of current genre fiction and popular reading tastes. This classic guide helps. B\ defining genres, describing their features and characteristics, and grouping titles h\ genre, suhgenre. and theme, the hook helps those who work with readers understand distinct patterns in reading habits and hook selection; and allows users to identiK "rcad-alikcs" and other titles their patrons will enjoy. In addition, more than 5,000 titles—approximately one-third new to this edition—are classified, focusing on titles published since the last edition along with perennial classics and henchmark titles. The popular feature "I) s Picks" identifies new and noteworthy titles in the genre, while features new to this edition include: • Lists of selected "classic" authors and titles in each of the genres • Chapters on Christian fiction and emerging genres (women's fiction and "chick lit") • Sections on "genrehlends" in those areas where they occur (e.g., horror/humor, mystery/romance) • Three new essa\s h\ genre experts and the foremost proponents ol readers' ad\ isor\ that shed

ALSO AVAILABLE
African American Literature \ Guide to Heading Interests Wood. Bedlam, Bullets, and llnd^ruys \ Reader's Guide to Adventure/Suspense I iction Christian Fiction A Guide to the Genre FlueM in l a n l a s \ \ Guide to Reading Interests Hooked on Horror A Guide to Reading Interests in Horror fiction Second Edition Jewish Vmeriean Literature \ Guide to Heading Interests Junior Genreflectiog \ Guide to ( lood He,ids and Series fiction for CTiilclien Make Mine a M \ s l e n A Readers Guide to Mystery and Detective fiction Now Kead litis II \ Guide to Mainstream Fiction, 1990-2001 Now Head This \ Guide to Mainstream fiction. 1978-199$ K> k < In Romance << < l \ Guide t > leen Romance fiction » Romance Fiction \ Guide to the Genre S i r i r i h Science Fiction \ Guide to Reading Interests Teen Genreflecting \ ( luide to Reading Interests Second Edition

ISBN: 1Ô9158-286-5 Libraries Unlimited 88 Post Road West Wcstport. C I 06881
www.lti.com

ISBN 1 SllSÛ-eôb 5

Cover [mage: © Geofrrej Clements

9"78 159 1 "58286 1

Genreflecting

Recent Titles in Genreflecting Advisory Series
Diana Tixier Herald, Series Editor Now Read This II: A Guide to Mainstream Fiction, 1990-2001 Nancy Pearl Strictly Science Fiction: A Guide to Reading Interests Diana Tixier Herald and Bonnie Kunzel Christian Fiction: A Guide to the Genre John Mort Hooked on Horror: A Guide to Reading Interests in Horror Fiction, 2d Edition Anthony J. Fonseca and June Michèle Pulliam Make Mine a Mystery: A Reader's Guide to Mystery and Detective Fiction Gary Warren Niebuhr Teen Genreflecting: A Guide to Reading Interests, Second Edition Diana Tixier Herald Blood, Bedlam, Bullets, and Badguys: A Reader's Guide to Adventure/ Suspense Fiction Michael B. Gannon Rocked by Romance: A Guide to Teen Romance Fiction Carolyn Carpan Jewish American Literature: A Guide to Reading Interests Rosalind Reisner African American Literature: A Guide to Reading Interests Edited by Alma Daw son and Connie Van Fleet Historical Fiction: A Guide to the Genre Sarah L. Johnson Canadian Fiction: A Guide to Reading Interests Sharron Smith and Maureen O'Connor

Genreflecting
A Guide to Popular Reading Interests

Sixth Edition

Diana Tixier Herald
Edited by Wayne A. Wiegand

Genreflecting Advisory Series Diana Tixier Herald, Series Editor

U N L I M I T E D
A Member of the Greenwood Publishing Group

Westport, Connecticut • London

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Herald, Diana Tixier. Genreflecting: a guide to popular reading interests. - 6th ed. / by Diana Tixier Herald ; edited by Wayne A. Wiegand. p. cm. - (Genreflecting advisory series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-59158-224-5 (alk. paper) - ISBN 1-59158-286-5 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. American fiction - Stories, plots, etc. 2 . Popular literature - Stories, plots, etc. 3. English fiction - Stories, plots, etc. 4. Fiction genres - Bibliography. 5. Fiction - Bibliography. 6. Reading interests. I. Wiegand, Wayne A., 1946-. II. Title. III. Series. PS374.P63R67 2006

016.813009~dc22

2005030804

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 2006 by Libraries Unlimited All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2005030804 ISBN: 1-59158-224-5 1-59158-286-5 (pbk.) First published in 2006 Libraries Unlimited, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 A Member of the Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.lu.com Printed in the United States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984).

10

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

This book is dedicated to the memory of Betty Rosenberg, passionate reader, dedicated teacher, and originator of this guide—aninspiration for all of us.

Betty Rosenberg

Contents
Acknowledgments xix

Part I: Introduction to Popular Reading Interests Chapter 1 : Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" Wayne A. Wiegand Reading Together, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, July 1957 Modern Examples of the Social Nature of Reading Scholarship on the Social Nature of Reading Reading and Libraries—Then and Now Genre Fiction, Libraries, and the Social Nature of Reading The Library as Place in a Real and Virtual World When We Don't Know About the Social Nature of Reading and Library as Place Library in the Life of the User Notes Bibliography Chapter 2: A Brief History of Readers' Advisory Melanie A. Kimball Introduction The Early Years Readers' Advisory, Phase One: Reading with a Purpose Useful Information An Emerging Focus on Fiction The Renaissance of Readers' Advisory: 1980-Present Research in Reading and Readers' Advisory Readers Advisory and LIS Education Conclusion Notes Appendix: A Chronology of Readers' advisory Chapter 3: The Readers' Advisory Interview Catherine Sheldrick Ross Notes Bibliography 3 3 4 6 8 9 9 11 11 13 13 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 23 25 28 29

vn

viii Contents

Chapter 4: Serving Today's Reader Diana Tixier Herald The Nature of Genre Fiction Who Is the Common Reader? Libraries and Genre Fiction Readers' Advisory Service Publishing Genre Fiction Gender and Genre Fiction Purpose and Scope of This Guide Organization Scope Entries and Annotations Suggestions for Use Notes Bibliography Part I I : The Genres Chapter 5: Historical Fiction Essay R. Gordon Kelly The Allure of the Past Characteristics of Historical Fiction Truth and Historical Fiction History of Historical Fiction Conclusion Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Prehistoric Ancient Civilizations Middle Ages The "Royals" Exploration, Renaissance Europe The British Isles The "Royals" Exotic Locales The Americas Colonial/Early Settlement/Revolution Civil War/Reconstruction/New Nation The Twentieth Century Saga Series Epics

31 32 33 33 34 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40

43 43 44 45 46 48 50 50 51 53 53 56 59 61 63 63 63 64 65 66 68 68 69 72 72 76

Contents ix Topics Bibliographies and Encyclopedias Writers' Manuals Conferences Awards Online Resources D's Historical Picks Chapter 6: Westerns Essay Connie Van Fleet Definition History and Evolution The Western Reader Characteristics and Types Advising the Reader Conclusion Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Native Americans Indian Captives Mountain Men Wagons West and Early Settlement Merchants and Teamsters Mines and Mining Law and Lawmen Bad Men and Good Army in the West Texas and Mexico Hired Man on Horseback Cattle Drives Cattle Kingdoms Range Wars Sheepmen Railroads Buffalo Runners Unromanticized Picaresque Comedy and Parody Coming of Age Celebrity Characters African Americans in the West Mormons Singular Women Romance 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 81 81 82 82 85 86 87 89 89 91 91 94 97 98 100 101 101 102 104 105 106 107 108 109 109 109 110 110 111 112 112 113 114 116 117 118 120

) Young Adult Westerns The West Lives On Eccentric Variations Sagas Series Topics Short Stories Novella Anthology Series Bibliographies and Encyclopedias History and Criticism Organizations Awards Publishers Online Resources D's Western Picks Chapter 7: Crime Essay Erin A. Smith The "Cozy" or Classical Mystery The "Golden Age" of Detective Fiction Hard-Boiled Crime Stories Police Procédurals Increasing Diversity in Crime Fiction Crime/Caper Stories Legal Thrillers Postmodern Crime Novels True Crime The Cultural Work of Modern Detective Novels Character Settings Other Appeals Plot Structures Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics The Detective Story The Professionals Police Detectives Private Investigators Ex-Cops Unofficial Detectives Hard-Boiled Amateur Detective. Cozy and Soft-Boiled 121 122 125 125 128 131 131 132 132 133 133 133 134 134 134 137 137 137 138 138 139 139 141 141 141 141 142 143 143 144 144 144 145 147 147 148 149 149 163 167 168 168 168 .x Contents Chapter 6: Westerns (Cont.

Contents xi Diversity in Detection Gay and Lesbian Black Sleuths Hispanic Sleuths Native American Sleuths Asian Sleuths Subjects and Themes Sports Cookery Bibliomysteries Art World Genreblends Historical Mysteries Futuristic Mysteries Bizarre Blends Suspense Serial Killers and Psychopaths Romance/Suspense Writers Crime/Caper Legal Thriller Topics Anthology Series Bibliographies and Genre Guides Encyclopedias Writers' Manuals Associations and Conventions Associations Conventions Awards Online Resources D's Crime Picks Chapter 8: Adventure Essay Diana Tixier Herald Definition Characteristics and Appeals History Recent Trends Advising the Reader Closing 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 177 177 178 178 178 188 188 189 192 193 195 197 202 202 202 203 203 203 204 204 204 205 205 207 207 208 208 210 211 211 212 Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Spy/Espionage Spy Novels 212 213 215 215 218 219 .

xii Contents Chapter 8: Adventure (Cont.) Women Spies Political Intrigue and Terrorism Thrillers Cipher Thrillers Nazis Technothrillers Financial Intrigue/Espionage Biothrillers Survival The Lone Survivor Disaster Male Romance Wild Frontiers and Exotic Lands Soldier of Fortune Male-Action/Adventure Series Military and Naval Adventure Twentieth Century Historical Naval and Military Adventure Topics Bibliographies Special Collections Organizations Awards D's Adventure Picks Chapter 9: Romance Essay Denice Adkins What Is Romance? Why Romance? How Do Women Become Romance Readers? Development of the Romance Genre Judging a Book by Its Cover Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Contemporary Romance Sensuous Contemporaries Sweet Contemporaries Romantic Suspense Contemporary Romantic Suspense Historical Romantic Suspense Paranormal Romantic Gothic Romance 223 225 226 227 228 229 235 236 239 239 240 242 242 243 244 245 245 246 251 251 251 251 251 251 253 253 253 254 255 256 258 259 259 261 262 264 267 268 268 269 272 273 274 .

Contents xiii Historical Romance General Historical Romance Frontier and Western Romance Native American Medieval Scotland Regency Romance Saga Hot Historical Sweet-and-Savage Spicy Historical Paranormal Romance Fantasy Romance Time-Travel Romance Paranormal Beings Futuristic/Science Fiction Ethnic Romance African American Latina Native American Topics Bibliographies and Biographies History and Criticism Review Journals Authors' Associations Awards Publishers D's Romance Picks Chapter 10: Science Fiction Essay JoAnn Palmed What Is Science Fiction? A Misunderstood Genre The History of Science Fiction and SF Subgenres The Science Fiction Reader Types. Themes. and Characteristics Selecting SF: Which Work to Recommend? Serving the Science Fiction Reader Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Science Fiction Adventure Space Opera Militaristic Time Travel 275 275 280 282 283 285 286 293 296 296 297 298 299 300 302 304 306 306 306 307 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 311 313 313 313 314 314 316 316 318 319 320 322 323 323 325 329 332 335 .

) Shared Worlds Foundation Marion Zimmer Bradley/Darkover Anne McCaffrey/Brainships George Lucas/Star Wars Gene Roddenberry/Star Trek Techno SF High Tech Robots. Cyborgs.xiv Contents Chapter 10: Science Fiction (Cont. Androids Nanotechnology Virtual Reality The Future Is Bleak Dystopias and Utopias Social Structures Biological Religious Alternate and Parallel Worlds Parallel Worlds Alternate History Earth's Children Bioengineering Psionic Powers Aliens Genreblending Romantic Science Fiction Science Fiction Mysteries Humor in Science Fiction Science Fantasy Topics Anthologies Anthology Series Encyclopedias Review Journals Associations Conventions Awards D's Science Fiction Picks 336 337 337 337 338 338 339 339 340 341 342 342 344 345 345 346 348 348 348 349 349 352 354 358 358 359 362 363 365 365 366 366 367 367 367 368 368 Chapter 11: Fantasy Essay John H. Timmerman Definition Appeal and Characteristics Story Character Another World 371 371 372 372 373 373 374 .

Contents xv Essential Conflict: Good and Evil The Quest Resolution Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Epic/Sword and Sorcery Saga. Myth. and Legend Arthurian Legend Celtic Nordic Asian Fairy Tales Humorous A Bestiary Dragons Uncommon Common Animals World of Faerie Urban Fantasy Alternate and Parallel Worlds Alternate History Parallel Worlds Alternate Worlds Religion-Based Alternate Worlds Shared Worlds Dark Fantasy Romantic Fantasy Topics Anthologies Anthology Series Bibliographies and Biographies Encyclopedias History and Criticism Organizations and Conventions Awards Online Resources D's Fantasy Picks Chapter 12: Horror Essay Dale Bailey Definition The Horror Reader Origins of the Genre Subgenres Conclusion 374 375 375 376 377 377 378 387 387 389 390 391 391 393 394 394 396 398 399 400 400 402 404 407 408 410 411 412 412 413 414 414 414 415 415 416 417 419 419 420 420 422 425 429 .

) Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Monsters Vampires Vampire Romance Vampire Mystery/Suspense Werewolves The Occult and Supernatural Witches and Warlocks Cosmic Paranoia Ghosts Haunted Houses Demonic Possession and Exorcism Satanism. and Black Magic Apocalypse Medical Horror and Evil Science Psychological Horror Dark Fantasy Topics Grand Masters Stephen King Short Stories Anthologies Annual Anthologies Bibliographies Encyclopedias History and Criticism Review Journals Conventions Organizations Online Resources D's Horror Picks Chapter 13: Christian Fiction Essay Erin A.xvi Contents Chapter 12: Horror (Cont. Demonology. Smith Christian Ambivalence about Fiction The Nineteenth-Century Rapprochement between Faith and Fiction Biblical Fiction Social Gospel Novels The Postwar Explosion of Evangelical Publishing Christian Romances Diversifying the Field and Bringing in the Men 429 430 431 431 432 434 439 440 442 443 446 447 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 457 459 459 459 459 460 460 460 461 461 462 462 462 463 463 465 465 465 466 467 467 467 468 469 .

Contents xvii Apocalyptic Fiction Evangelical Readers The Uses of Evangelical Fiction Mainstream Neglect of Christian Fiction Notes Bibliography Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Selected Classics Contemporary Christian Fiction Christian Romance Contemporary Christian Chick Lit Historical Romance Gentle Reads Mysteries/Thrillers Speculative Fantasy Science Fiction Apocalyptic Fiction Left Behind Historical Biblical Westerns Topics Reference and Resources Review Journals Organizations Awards D's Picks Chapter 14: Emerging Genres Diana Tixier Herald Women's Fiction Resources D's Women's Fiction Picks Chick Lit Resources D's Chick Lit Picks Author/Title Index Subject Index About the Contributors About the Author and Editor 469 469 470 471 472 472 475 475 477 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 484 485 486 487 488 489 491 491 491 491 491 492 493 494 498 498 499 502 502 503 547 561 563 .

.

but throughout have manifested an admirable understanding of the high value millions of public library patrons place on the kinds of reading covered in this book. and Sharon DeJohn. who not only have done an excellent job of putting this edition of Genrflecting together. readers' advisors across the nation and the world are in their debt. Production Manager Emma Bailey. We would like to thank Libraries Unlimited Acquisitions Editor Barbara Ittner. xix . and because of their commitment. they are serious about fun reading.Acknowledgments This book would not have been possible without the constant support of Rick Herald. Like popular fiction readers.

.

Parti Introduction to Popular Reading Interests .

.

unforgiving of most Republicans and representatives of the corporate world. there to prepare the noontime meal. As Grandpa screened the obituaries. my older sister to the Ann Landers column. and firmly grounded in the social habits of the culture that gave our white German American. Every Sunday in the summer of 1957. July 1957 It was a family ritual. except to agree with my grandfather's observations on representatives of the corporate world." Third. Being an avid Milwaukee Braves fan. the Milwaukee Journal. was a McCarthyite Republican. there to divide up the Sunday edition of the Badger State's major newspaper." Reading Together. To keep the family peace. and evaluate their contribution to society. it seeks to outline in a general way the scholarship on the social nature of reading. Second. Once we entered the house. Manitowoc. blue-collar. the Wiegand clan would return to our Manitowoc. on the other hand. . Protestant family its sense of place and understanding of the world. Wiegand This introductory chapter has three goals. he generally didn't say much about politics at these Sunday rituals. Dad the guest chair. we divided into two groups. and to a service in these libraries we now label "readers' advisory. and my younger sister to the funnies. after an early church service. Dad. it tries to link "reading" and "place" to the world of libraries we've come to know in the first part of the twenty-first century. First. Grandpa was an FDR Democrat. Grandpa. Wisconsin. my two sisters. he would comment to all in earshot (we didn't always listen) about people he had known in Wisconsin history.Chapter 1 Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" Wayne A. my younger sister and I sprawled out on the floor. I took the Sports section first. Wisconsin. at least as he understood it. Grandpa took the best chair. and I went to the living room. it attempts to connect this scholarship to another growing body of knowledge that focuses on the existence of a "public sphere." and especially on the concept of "place. house with Mom's parents to partake of a noon lunch. Mom and Grandma quickly went to the kitchen. Then began the ritual. my father to the Home section. my older sister sat on the couch. Grandpa went straight to the obituary section. The routine was well practiced. Dad.

If not. who with his bat and glove was leading the Milwaukee Braves into the 1957 World Series (which they eventually won). Henry Aaron. Immediately Grandma and Mom personalized the problem to particular people in their world. and especially their value to the team's effort. debate. While the males in the living room sometimes listened. they would quickly inform my older sister why Ann Landers was wrong. functioned as the connection between the reading community in the living room and the adult female food preparation community in the kitchen. a strip I had recently abandoned because I thought it too childish. then wait for the kitchen matriarchy to formulate a response. generally on subjects addressing some social transgression we had committed in the recent past. For example.4 Chapter 1—Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" As I lay on the floor with the pages of the Sports section open in front of me I was reading about my hero. at some time in the past you may have been a participant in one of the following scenarios: . we were as open—and as guarded—about what we had learned as we had been in the living room. I suspect Mom had encouraged my sister to read Ann Landers. All of us learned at an early age that Ann Landers was an authority on social morality and behavior. And usually he would indulge her by laughing too. If the solution matched the judgment emanating from the kitchen. In good call-and-response fashion my older sister would read from the living room each of the three letters contained in Sunday Ann Landers columns. fourteen in 1957. just like everybody else in the room. there (quite often) to continue conversations sparked by reading that had taken place the previous half-hour. My younger sister was just beginning to read that summer. Spheres of influence in our culture were rigidly divided by gender. My older sister. In fact. but we had different ideas on managerial moves. And while eating. maintain. and they happen to everyone. Because at that time our culture worried about the morals of a teenage girl more than those of a teenage boy. and rearrange community in multiple ways. Often I would raise issues and make points about the Braves with Grandpa and Dad. but as she combed through the funnies she would attempt to mime the behaviors of others and share from her own reading. She then returned to the floor. But these kinds of experiences are really timeless. they commented only on rare occasions. matriarchs assumed that the lesson had been learned. construct. Once the meal was ready. members of the living room reading community were called to the table. we all wanted them to win. a hot property in the economy of the eleven-year-old male culture that surrounded me that summer. even though none of the physical forms of that reading had accompanied us into the kitchen. I had three Aarons in my baseball card collection. was especially attractive to her and occasioned many chuckles. When Grandpa or Dad would ask "What's so funny?" she would take the comics to the inquirer and show him. we often came home from school to find column clippings taped to our bedroom door. All of us would drop our self-selected sections of the Journal and join the matriarchs in the kitchen. satisfied that she had shared her reading with the family. this summer 1957 Sunday ritual demonstrates how the family members of one particular culture in a particular place and at a particular time capitalized on the dynamics of the social nature of reading to inform. Modern Examples of the Social Nature of Reading For me. players' behavior. Little Lulu. after which they pronounced judgment and waited for my sister to summarize Ann's solution.

you were read to by a parent. listen to this!" after which you proceeded to read something aloud. the stories that orally based cultures had accumulated into their folklore found their way into print. grandparent. you nodded your head in her direction and showed her your copy. or colleague. Each also demonstrates that the concept of "solitary reader" is more myth than reality. • As you worked your way through our culture's formal institutions of education. Some reading bound groups by class—dime novels read by factory workers in the late nineteenth-century Midwest. and to your family members when you got home. you read to a child. they nonetheless bound people into particular kinds of communities—another manifestation of the social nature of reading. Each of these scenarios is yet another manifestation of the social nature of reading. partner.Modem Examples of the Social Nature of Reading 5 • As a child. they were still read to—an example of the social nature of reading. Ultimately. perhaps even the library. Despite the fact that they were often read in solitude. • As you came across something interesting on the Web. you all listened to your clergyperson read from a sacred text. Some reading bound groups by race—the Chicago Defender read and shared by African Americans in the early twentieth century segregated South. teacher. After the invention of moveable type in the mid-fifteenth century. you either sought out someone who knew the terrain. • As you stood in line to get your copy of a best-selling book autographed by a famous author. you said to your spouse. it found a special place on your bookshelves. reading as a social activity has a much longer history. workplace. • As you read directional signs in an attempt to find your way around large buildings or cities. dorm room. "Hey. public libraries. from which you removed it on occasion to show dinner guests. You then showed the autograph to friends and colleagues when you returned to your office. • You participated in one of the hundreds of thousands of book clubs—real and virtual—that now meet in living rooms. you discussed the book's contents with the people in front of and behind you. all of whom then discussed the book over dinner. an essential human behavior that does more to draw people into groups than to separate them from one another. or that person approached you because of the confused look on your face. • As you partook of religious rituals with people of the same faith. where over the centuries they were replicated and modified to meet new social circumstances. Even when most people were illiterate a thousand years ago. you subsequently quoted from those works to others in your home. • As you came across something interesting in your home or workplace reading. you took classes in which your teachers and professors read to you from the canonical works of civilization. Alberto Manguel points out in A History of Reading that although the myth has persisted for centuries. grandparent. or librarian. you forwarded it to several friends or listserv colleagues. • As a parent. and on the Internet. Then you complimented the author on the quality of her work as she scratched out her name in thick blank ink on the title page of your copy. • As you saw a stranger on the street with a copy of the same book tucked under her arm that you were reading for your hometown public library "one book/one city" program. or librarian. who obtained copies in the middle of the night when black porters secretly threw .

however. he points out. Cultural texts of all kinds function as agents to help construct these imagined communities by providing common sets of experiences. however. race. and cultural studies.6 Chapter 1—Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" them from the moving train on its way to New Orleans. sold tens of thousands of copies. print culture.. is the fastest growing industry in the United States. In the book he argues that people organize themselves into large and small "imagined communities" in order to orient and affiliate with each other. The feeling of community that individuals sense when filing past an original copy of the Bill of Rights at the National Archives in Washington. In The Age of Access: How the Shift from Ownership to Access Is Transforming Modern Life. including literacy studies. One of the pioneering works in this field is Janice Radway's Reading the Romance: Women. the social history of print. on public property. he argues that we are moving from an "age of information" to an "age of access" at the beginning of the twenty-first century. including the reading of shared printed texts. and specifically access to a set of shared "cultural experiences" (Rifkin calls them "webs of meaning") that focus on play more than work. Some reading bound groups by gender—romances read by women in the late twentieth century. and American studies courses across the country. ethnographies of reading. I recommend a number of titles from this body of scholarship. and in cultural spaces. where in the past twenty-five years a growing body of scholarship has emerged that analyzes the subject of reading stories from a variety of perspectives. history. an ethnographic case study that describes the multiple ways in which romances functioned as agents in the everyday lives of a group of women who patronized a particular suburban mall bookstore in the late 1970s. During the past twenty years Reading the Romance has gone through two editions. by focusing on the complex ways readers from gendered. and as the nation moves from industrial to cultural capitalism. To deepen that understanding we have to look outside our own literature. Benedict Anderson's Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism has been equally influential in the scholarship on reading. More recently. class. a work ethos is slowly giving way to a play ethos. Entertainment. Radway demonstrates how these women used their reading to claim their own mental space and to escape—if only temporarily—the practical demands of being wife and mother. Patriarchy and Popular Literature. demonstrate its essential social nature. All of these kinds of reading.C. we recognize the demand for popular fiction. smiling at drivers in the next lane whose vehicles sport the same political bumper stickers is another. reader-response theory. with a group of American strangers is one example of this phenomenon. and creed-based information cultures use what they read and how they apply that reading in their daily lives. and been assigned as required reading in hundreds of English. Scholarship on the Social Nature of Reading As librarians. To develop a deeper understanding of how reading functions as a cultural agency and practice in the everyday lives of ordinary people. "Play is what people do when . and why. Reading scholars analyze who reads what stories. novellas read by Hispanic American migrant workers on the West Coast in the mid-twentieth century. He notes that sometimes this reading takes place in groups. D. Jeremy Rifkin explores another perspective on information and learning that directly relates to the social nature of reading. we still have a limited understanding of why that demand exists in the first place. Anderson adds another dimension to the social nature of reading. and although we struggle mightily to meet it.

I think it also helps us understand the increasing number of book festivals in recent years across North America." Rifkin says." however." Long argues that these processes do not occur in a vacuum. "Imagined communities. If authorities at whatever level lack the power to check their reading for an interpretation made legitimate by the dominant cultures. The social nature of reading that enables literacy and encourages the habit of reading. she says. one book" and "one campus." "self-fashion. all combining in multiple ways so that reading is never "disembodied."1 Genre fiction fits his definition of cultural play. exclusions. but rather within the boundaries of a social infrastructure where group members mediate their interpretations with each other. empowering. and socially bonding. and the popularity of "one community. sometimes conscious." Barbara Sicherman has called it "self-authorization. which notes that in the free will act of social reading readers "move into and out of the text. If I had to recommend one recently published book that best explores "the social nature of reading. . she argues." she notes. emanates from a social infrastructure that includes shared interpretive frameworks." But Long goes even further. she notes. She defines reading as a cultural practice and argues that the modern construction of the solitary reader—much of which is made manifest in the way people are represented as readers in post-Enlightenment art—ignores the thoroughly social base for some kinds of reading. the act of reading becomes pleasurable." "webs of meaning. are issues of power. because readers can control it." And threaded throughout the act of reading. one book" reading programs monitored by hundreds of public and academic libraries across the country. it would be Elizabeth Long's Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life. "Familial reading. And it is here that social and cultural acts of defiance—sometimes overt." "self-authorize": These words and phrases now function as part of a new vocabulary to explain how reading constructs community. and social distinction. participation in a set of institutions. and social relations.Scholarship on the Social Nature of Reading 7 they create culture. and everyone reading this chapter knows very well that public libraries lend a lot of people a lot of genre fiction. Elsewhere Stephen Greenblatt has called this process "self-fashioning. And the scholarship on the social nature of reading augments our understanding of why millions of people belong to hundreds of thousands of reading groups and book clubs. appropriately titled "The Social Nature of Reading. "It is the letting free of the human imagination to create shared meanings. ordinary readers can and do construct their own meanings."2 Even reading itself is socially framed." never "unsituated." "poach. She marries her findings to cultural studies research." and thus "appropriate" (others have even used the word "poach") meaning relevant to their own lives. their cultures. Play is a fundamental category of human behavior without which civilization could not exist. Long sees reading primarily as an associational behavior." "appropriate." is a knockout. Thus. many now meeting on the Internet. Here she analyzes reading's capacity to stimulate imagination and construct community through shared meaning. and their society. Her first chapter. Where some see reading primarily as a solitary behavior. "is both a form of cultural capital and one of the most important determinants of adherence to reading in later life. privilege. intellectually stimulating. Groups of authorities (like literary critics and teachers at all levels of education) and cultural institutions (like schools and universities) "shape reading practices by authoritatively defining what is worth reading and how to read it. sometimes subconscious—take place. even if the act of reading is done in solitude. sometimes covert.

Scan any ALA Graphics catalog and one will find more than fifty posters with media darlings like Oprah Winfrey.000 Americans went to a public library to check out a book. constitutes a major source and site for the act of reading. 82.000 school libraries (public and private). and a substantial fraction withdrew scores of books during the year. school. In no particular order of importance.5 billion per year. the Office for Research & Statistics (ORS) of the American Library Association (ALA) estimates that in 2003. For public libraries. and school) a ubiquitous institution. (2) provided tens of thousands of places where patrons have been able to meet formally as clubs or groups.4 . summer reading. I would argue. and in 2003 it increased another 4 percent. and government libraries.000 that ALA conducted in 1998. I'll bet scores of these posters line the walls of your own library.000 reference questions—more than three times the attendance at college football games. or informally as citizens or students utilizing a civic institution and cultural agency. Circulation statistics. armed forces.658 academic libraries (hundreds of which have extensive systems with multiple libraries). For academic libraries. and 11. These statistics prove conclusively that the American library. And statistics from Great Britain I ran across recently reveal that library users who borrow books there are more socially mixed than those who regularly buy them in bookstores—evidence of cultural democracy in action. perhaps you've put up a few yourself to promote readers' advisory services. and book discussion groups. Evidence for this conclusion is not hard to find. Every year for the past five academic librarians have answered over 100. and (3) furnished billions of reading materials to billions of people. There's also a lot of evidence to demonstrate how libraries foster the social nature of reading. whether public. they have (1) made information accessible to millions of people on a variety of subjects. Yo Yo Ma. and Susan Sarandon. Marion Jones.180 public library buildings (including branches) in the United States (that's more than McDonald's restaurants).7 in 2001.500 special.150. And in recent years—despite predictions of the demise of libraries and reduction in the number of books they circulate—statistics for each of these categories have held steady or increased.6 in 1991 to 6. More than 16. certainly one manifestation of "reading" in libraries. nearly 100. or academic.000 items per year. 99. it is now. the total jumps to 3.000. For example.3 And public librarians know that large numbers (probably most) of these are genre fiction titles.000.6 percent reported that they hosted other reading-related programs like storytelling.000.000. a very active civic agency. an essential human behavior librarians of all types have been facilitating and advocating for centuries.000 patrons visit academic libraries weekly. more than twice the attendance at movie theaters in this country. and creative writing workshops. Statistics like these clearly demonstrate that not only is the American library (academic. In a survey of 1. and when we annualize that number and add in visits to school and public libraries. there are 16.6 percent said they hosted author presentations and readings. each holding a book with the word "READ" displayed in huge letters at the top. public. are equally impressive. circulation has increased steadily in the past decade to nearly 200. musical and dramatic performances. 3.8 Chapter 1—Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" Reading and Libraries—Then and Now History shows that American libraries have done three things exceptionally well in the past century. In fact.500 public libraries serving populations over 5. per capita circulation increased from 5. and for the last decade has been.

even political parties. some to age." The survey also asked what activities people do at public libraries. and especially users who read. Habermas argues." and facilitate acts of appropriation. and readers' advisors in particular. 76 percent (the highest percentage of any category) said "familiarity with a range of books and authors. Libraries. Librarians in general.000 adults about what skills librarians most needed. and self-authorization."6 Let me shift gears here a bit by complicating the word "place. Within this public sphere members of the middle classes developed their own brand of reason. Elizabeth Long is particularly critical of Robert Putnam. and clubs like the PTA. are well advised to recognize these shifts. poaching. and over time they created their own network of insti- . these story forms evoke a variety of responses. They maintain and challenge social realities. however. the Elks. Long suggests "Putnam's focus on formal groups may make it difficult for him to see or understand new forms of civic engagement. they're made necessary by a set of social dynamics forcing shifts in story forms. In answer to a question ALA piggybacked onto an omnibus 2001 telephone survey of 1. neighbors. some to members of a particular generation. When looked at through the eyes of their readers. Since about 1970. and the Social Nature of Reading We all know that a substantial fraction of the books circulating out of public libraries by the millions can be categorized as genre fiction. In Book Clubs." These days one cannot begin to think broadly about "place" without considering the ideas Jurgen Habermas develops in The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. 92 percent (also the highest percentage of any category) responded: "Borrow books. they represent the keys to understanding the complex and multiple connections between the various categories of genre fiction and their readers.The Library as Place in a Real and Virtual World 9 We also know what library readers expect from librarians. self-fashioning. Some of these shifts connect to issues of gender. some to race. some to class. who in Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community hypothesizes that over the last quarter of the twentieth century Americans became increasingly disconnected from family. thus depriving themselves of opportunities to share the "social capital" so necessary to civic and personal health." Based on her research. the growing middle classes sought to influence government actions by assuming control of an emerging "public sphere" of deliberation that eventually found an influential niche between forces exercised by governments and marketplaces. and so essential for building strong community bonds. The Library as Place in a Real and Virtual World Closely connected to understanding the social nature of reading that libraries facilitate is understanding how libraries function as places in the lives of their users. During the eighteenth century. help to construct "imagined communities" through "webs of meaning. popular literature with story forms that are grouped by shared characteristics and appeal to larger readerships. Putnam says. That's one of the reasons Libraries Unlimited has to publish new editions of Genreflecting."5 Genre Fiction. But a longer view of history also shows subtle shifts in the details that genre fiction authors build into their story forms. Americans have largely been "bowling alone. friends. new ways that our social situations generate social capital.

and the same kind of personally empowering self-fashioning and self-authorization mirrored for generations in real reading groups. Nor have we adequately explored the role of the library as place in newer cybercommunities of readers. online reading groups are organized around special interests in particular story forms.com solicits reader comments. In library and information studies. and horror readers (among others) are now less likely to find friends willing to share their interests in their own neighborhoods than they are to find them online. and (within budgetary constraints) willing to supply the reading "sites" on which these self-constructed virtual communities ground themselves. a number that has increased in the past decade. e. which in turn encourages the formation of interpretive communities. .7 but little solid evidence based on research to validate these ideas and beliefs. And just like the real community that emerges with real book clubs.g. Quietly but efficiently connected to all this cyberactivity surrounding books is the public library—always ready." Over the generations millions of patrons have demonstrated their support of the library as a place by visiting it again and again. and. the exchange of social capital. Earlier I cited very impressive statistics about the number of times people visit libraries of all types. And it is out of analyses of these institutions and sites that a refined concept of the role of "place" as cultural space has emerged. able. which we can all read. academic societies. She also cites an observer of these online groups who argues that science fiction. Long notes that more than face-to-face clubs.g.. ALA's " 1 2 Ways Libraries Are Good for the Country"). libraries of all types). political parties. other scholars began to analyze the institutions and sites where this rationalized discourse has been practiced by multiple communities and groups that have not been primarily concerned either with political ideology or marketplace activities. The myriad ways people in libraries "exchange social capital"—a phrase that is so much a part of "public sphere" thinking and yet another dimension to the social nature of reading—have yet to receive adequate attention in our professional literature. we have some ideas and beliefs (see. Once Habermas's theory established a foundation for understanding how a series of social and cultural preconditions shaped the public sphere. newspapers and periodicals. Why is this phenomenon happening? Perhaps one way to answer this question is to deepen our understanding of the multiple ways people use "library as place. the virtual community that emerges from virtual book clubs often leads to the kind of intimacy that the social nature of reading makes possible. crime. fantasy. yet we don't know very much about why they do it. In and through these institutions they refined a middle-class-based rationalized discourse into an expression of the "public interest" that governments and markets dared not ignore..10 Chapter 1—Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" tutions and a series of sites (e. Although largely for commercial reasons. Amazon. Other user-friendly Web sites (like Oprah's book club) are designed to encourage readers to feel part of a larger community. Conversations about books take place on the Internet in multiple settings. I would argue. And linking patrons to those "sites" are a series of electronic services that function as a kind of social technology facilitating the social nature of reading.

one looks at librarianship from the outside in. There they reviewed a Benton Foundation report on a focus group that identified as its top two public library services (1) "providing reading hours and other programs for children. . In an October 1. (2) provided tens of thousands of places where patrons have been able to meet formally as clubs or groups. too intensive on bricks and mortar. American history demonstrates that for the last century libraries have (1) made information accessible to millions of people on many subjects. "because it is inside those brick-and-mortar boxes where community lives. But what conclusions did Kellogg grant recipients make of these data? They mostly worried that members of the public perceived libraries as warehouses for old books (sort of like that Tacoma councilman). . "Let's think inside the box for a moment." she complained). story in the Tacoma [WA] News Tribune. they "are somewhat of a dinosaur ." One member of that same Benton focus group also criticized public libraries for not stocking enough genre fiction titles ("If you want to get the book that everybody is reading right now. where parents give their children the gift of reading. where people without Internet access at home go online." and (2) "purchasing new books and other printed materials. Tacoma's 10 libraries are the living rooms of ten neighborhoods. In 1996 recipients of a Kellogg grant met in Washington to discuss the future of libraries." Fellow council members complimented him for thinking "outside the box." however. . Only then will it become obvious what roles libraries play in the construction of community through the social nature of reading. however. 2002. the other from the inside out. in which I see things like "exchange of social capital" and the "social nature of reading" much in evidence. Kellogg grant recipients seemed unable to tease out the broader significance of the Benton findings.Library in the Life of the User 11 When We Don't Know About the Social Nature of Reading and Library as Place There is a price to be paid for not having a deeper understanding of the social nature of reading and the role library as place plays in enabling it." The councilman seemed unaware that the library did anything more of value to the local community than provide access to information. Two examples will demonstrate. But to see this most clearly and in greater detail.8 Library in the Life of the User Here let me come back to a series of points I made earlier. the social nature of reading is especially facilitated by what libraries have done in the last two categories." Callaghan. we have to think primarily from a "library in the life of the user" perspective. and (3) furnished billions of reading materials to millions of patrons. not our traditional "user in the life of the library" perspective." he argued. They instead "planned to use the study's findings to take up the challenge of altering public perception" of libraries. Without knowledge of research on "reading" and "place. I also see markers of how the library functions as place in the life of a particular group of users. Callaghan seemed unaware that the kind of reading and community activities he described taking place at the library had been going on for generations. correspondent Peter Callaghan reports that a local councilman wanted to eliminate local public libraries because "as we see them today" in an Internet age of electronic information. As I see it. or informally as citizens and students utilizing a civic institution and a cultural agency. They are places where latchkey kids can feel safe in the afternoons. disagreed. it is just not in.

At the same time. all of us seek to deepen understanding of this genre fiction reading phenomenon by asking why people engage in it. intellectually stimulating. RAs probably participate in the lives of their readers much more deeply and in many more ways than we now know. librarians can be highly complimented.12 Chapter 1—Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" Viewed through the eyes of our readers. and socially bonding. for they've been invited into an exclusive and carefully guarded group. The scholarship on the social nature of reading and the concept of public space as a site for the construction of community suggest that the personal touch readers advisors exercise intuitively makes them integral parts of these social dynamics. exclusions. and convergent discourses. however. and how they use these reading materials and reading experiences in their everyday lives. I urge you to ask yourself a series of questions: • To what extent are your genre fiction readers harnessing particular social infrastructures to unite and divide into communities that reflect similar interests. And as long as "advisory" is defined to mean "enabling choice" and not "prescribing better" or "elevating taste. as you hand genre fiction titles across the circulation desk to library readers. All of us agree with the late Betty Rosenberg that the reading patrons do for fun is a legitimate area for library professionals to study. and social distinctions evident in these groupings? • To what extent are they open with their comments about their reading. We also need to remember that access to these communities is by invitation only. to what extent are they guarded? Why? . rationalities. as you work with library-sponsored book clubs interested in genreflecting. As you use this guide to help determine your genre fiction selections. and in the process hopefully elevate the importance this professional service has when measured against other professional services that traditionally get much more attention in library education. If Jeremy Rifkin is right about the role of cultural play. In short. research. by using a "library in the life of the user" perspective. one can argue persuasively that some of the most important contributions American libraries make to their communities can be found in the access they provide to the materials and the space they make available for play." readers' advisors are likely to remain members (and be admitted to more) of these communities. When it happens. we want to place more focus on why the vast majority of library patrons are so serious about the "fun" reading libraries provide. and associational activities. all of which fosters certain types of learning. By taking a "library in the life of the user" perspective. We also believe that titles like Genreflecting can substantially improve how librarians carry out their professional practice. what they get from it. Readers of this chapter will find that much of what I say here is echoed in the comments of authors in chapter introductions that follow. And because readers' advisors don't want to control what patrons get from their reading of library books (that may be a primary reason they like librarians so much). of which the reading recommended in this book may be only one manifestation? • To what extent are there issues of power. the "genreflecting" that libraries make possible is an activity that is not only fun but also empowering. the social roles that the authors and titles listed in this book play as agents in the everyday lives of genre fiction readers become much more transparent and more obviously important—I would argue at least as important as supplying access to information.

: Princeton University Press. 1992. " Library Journal 121 (September 1. and 2001-2002. 2000). Libraries as Agencies of Culture.org/ord/plstat_trends. 7. 1996): 112. 1983.orgyourlibrary. Elizabeth Long. S. http://www. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. eds. Benedict.cf (accessed April 10.ala. New York: Verso. Jeremy Rifkin. 3.ala. It will also help us discover more of the multiple and often invisible ways millions of genre fiction readers across the country continue to enlist libraries as agencies in these everyday social practices and behaviors. 2000). 2000-2001. 6. Making the Modern Reader: Cultural Mediation in Early Modern Literary Anthologies. 1999-2000. "Quotable Facts about American Libraries" (wallet-sized trifold pamphlets) for 1998-1999. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 4. Science Fiction Culture. Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ibid. and ALA Office for Research and Statistics. 2005). Bacon-Smith. Available at http://cs. The Age of Access: How the Shift from Ownership to Access Is Transforming Modern Life (New York: Penguin.cfm. 1996. Bibliography Anderson. 2003). 2001). and Wayne A. perhaps even engaging in guerrilla tactics (visible and invisible) to dispute the texts they are hearing or reading? • From the dynamics of social interaction taking place. For Enquiring Minds: A Cultural Study of Supermarket Tabloids.org@yourlibrary/launchsurvey. 19-20. .J. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Augst. 8. "Benton Study: Libraries Need to Work on Message to Public. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster.html (both accessed October 20. www. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. 2002). Bird. are there one or more "imagined communities" in evidence where "readers" can be observed "self-fashioning" and "self-authorizing.Bibliography 13 • To what extent do they "appropriate" or "poach" from the written and oral texts being presented to them. Benedict." or exploring similar "webs of meaning?" All of these questions were relevant in that Manitowoc living room in 1957. Princeton. 260. Unless otherwise indicated. Long. Addressing just some of them today will help us understand much more deeply why genre fiction loyalists take their "fun" reading so seriously. Wiegand.factsandfigures.org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/12wayslibraries. Camille. 7. Book Clubs. Notes 1. 9. Thomas. Robert Putnam. Barbara M. 2001. 2. 1999. 5.htm (accessed September 22. these and other statistics cited in this essay an be found at https^/cs. Elizabeth.ala.ala. N.

1980. The Age of Access: How the Shift from Ownership to Access Is Transforming Modern Life. . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. Comic Book Culture: Fan Boys and True Believers. The Six-Gun Mystique Sequel. The Practice of Everyday Life. New York: Appleton-Century. Reason and Rationalization of Society. Jauss.Y. 1999. I. Interpretive Conventions: The Reader in the Study of American Fiction. Cawelti. Bradford W. Wright. The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. 1938. N. Pierre. Book Clubs: Women and the Uses of Reading in Everyday Life. West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns. Hard-Boiled: Working-Class Readers and Pulp Magazines. 1996. Pustz. Erin A. 1978. Dove. 2001. Hans Robert. 1994. A History of Reading. Wolfgang. Radway. Patriarchy and Popular Literature. John G. Elizabeth. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Bowling Green. London: Routledge. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi. 1999. Vol. Steven.14 Chapter 1—Introduction: "On the Social Nature of Reading" Bourdieu. 1991. Matthew. 2000. Janice. 2000. Munt. Literature as Exploration. New York: Simon & Schuster. Rosenblatt. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. The Theory of Communication Action. Michel. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Berkeley: University of California Press. New York: Penguin. Murder by the Book? Feminism and the Crime Novel. Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press. Experiences and Literary Hermeneutics. Mailloux. Berkeley: University of California Press. Jenkins. Stanley. Manguel. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. 2000. New York: Oxford University Press. The Reader and the Detective Story. Jeremy. ed. Textual Poachers: Routledge.: Cornell University Press. Putnam. 1986. Boyarin. 1992. Tompkins. 1982. Alberto. Iser. London: Routledge. 1984. Henry. 1997. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Boston: Beacon. Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Reading the Romance: Women. Bowling Green. Fish. 1992. de Certeau. Robert. Louis. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Ethnography of Reading. Habermas. Rifkin. Television Fans & Participatory Culture. Ithaca. 1984. 1982. George N. Jane. New York: Viking. Sally R. Smith. Jurgen. 1992. Jonathan. 2003. New York: Long. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

have undergone many changes. but that reading sensational fiction could be downright dangerous to the character and morals of the reader. Librarians subscribed to the belief that it was possible to lead readers from a "lower level" of reading (fiction) to a higher class of literature (nonfiction). librarians saw it as their professional duty to be the arbiters of what constituted "good" reading. public libraries. Public libraries. including the addition of a wide variety of nonprint materials." Librarians believed that education.4 Even more important. but providing fiction did not.5 15 . not leisure. It naturally follows that providing guidance to readers also remains central to the work of librarians in U."3 Overwhelmingly. and when the practice is indulged in only in moderation. was the primary mission of the public library.Chapter 2 A Brief History of Readers' Advisory Melanie A. The Early Years One of the most contentious debates in the early years of public libraries in the United States centered on the "fiction problem. Despite this. as much as two-thirds in some places.1 Providing the public with high-quality reading material to further self-education had a prominent place in that mission. Kimball Introduction The establishment of public libraries in the United States in the latter half of the nineteenth century provided ordinary citizens with free reading material.S. This "ladder approach" decreed that novel reading was "desirable when the selection of books read is judicious. over the century and a half since then. fiction made up a substantial portion of library circulation statistics in the late nineteenth century. mainly books. librarians believed that "good" books possessed the power to provide readers with wholesome enlightenment. but books and reading are still at the heart of library services.2 Thus the debate over "give them what they want" versus "give them what they need" began early in the history of the public library.

9 The adult education movement provided an opportunity for librarians to use the skills they had developed during the war." and that librarians try to attract readers to "good books through personal intervention. The formal establishment of a readers' advisory program. Chicago. established separate departments devoted to "informal adult education through reading. Today's view that the primary work of the librarian is to assist patrons to find useful information through reference assistance rather than providing assistance with leisure reading is very similar. The public library was ideally suited to aid adult learners because of its large store of reading material. These two distinctive approaches characterize the two main phases in the history of readers' advisory. But the fact remains that we still feel. . systematic program of reading for improvement. Many librarians took part in an American Library Association-sponsored program during World War I that guided servicemen in their reading. librarians provided the expertise to guide patrons into a directed. We have ceased to worry about the moral implications of fiction-reading. and the establishment of an adult educational movement. . Further suggestions to improve reading habits included that libraries limit themselves to the purchase of very few novels. This first phase of readers' advisory was prescriptive in nature. Indianapolis. Phase One: Reading with a Purpose The period immediately following World War I saw improvement in the U. Detroit. the advisor prepared a course of reading for the patron based on his or her education level and interests. . began in the early 1980s. .7 Better education resulted in more adults interested in reading during their leisure hours. and the first use of the term "readers' advisory. and Portland. The first phase began in the 1920s and focused on helping readers improve themselves through systematic reading programs provided by librarians. when seven urban public libraries. . The second phase. Milwaukee. Methods to achieve that aim included careful selection of books for the libraries' collections and distribution to patrons of annotated lists of "the right" books."10 A specialist readers' advisor met with individual patrons in a location separate from the reference and circulation desks. instead of the librarian giving suggestions on reading that concentrates on improving the reader. another example of the "ladder" approach to reading. economy." occurred between 1922 and 1925. discussed in more depth below. but it was still looked upon less favorably than was nonfiction. Cleveland. Readers' Advisory.16 Chapter 2—A Brief History of Readers' Advisory Many articles in library journals discussed how to increase "correct" reading and decrease the number of novels read by patrons. Cincinnati. that is."6 The debate between providing patrons with a high level of reading material and giving them what they wanted (even if what they wanted was lowbrow fiction) has never entirely disappeared. Following an extensive interview. . the patron's own reading likes and dislikes are the central concern. Generally the list went from lighter reading to more meaty fare.S. in this phase. that libraries spend less on newer popular fiction in order to purchase duplicate copies of "good books. Oregon.8 Fiction was more tolerated in the early 1920s than it had been in the previous two decades. an increase in the educational level of the general population. an increase in leisure time for adults. Librarians were eager to take what they had learned in their work with soldiers and apply it to their everyday jobs. a certain uneasiness over a fifty-five and sixty-five per cent fiction circulation.

"16 In order to ease the burden on readers' advisors. The Commission. and centered on subject specialists. The job of readers' advisor became overwhelming as "it became almost impossible for reader's advisors to handle not only the large number of patrons who enlisted in this service. but diffused throughout the entire library staff. the Inquiry concluded that the most effective work of public libraries was to provide serious reading and useful information.18 As the number of patrons who wanted the services of readers' advisors declined.20 Although it would be incorrect to say that there was no readers' advisory during the period from the late 1940s through the 1970s. the Carnegie Foundation funded a study of the public library by a group of social scientists led by Robert D.22 One of the few articles on the topic was Regan's survey of the field in 1973. it was not as prominent a feature as it had been earlier. Flexner wrote many articles on readers' advisory as well as a book that detailed the work of readers' advisors at the NYPL.17 Useful Information During World War II. rather than in organized groups or classes." It published a periodical. The Public Library Inquiry. such as reference work.15 Between 1936 and 1940 readers' advisory changed. available for a charge. which found that out of 126 responses from U. only 23 still had some form of readers' advisory. such as Jennie M. founded specifically "to study and investigate the role of the public library in adult education" accomplished several things between 1924 and 1926. in a series called Reading with a Purpose. Flexner of the New York Public Library (NYPL). a lack of leisure time contributed to a falling off of interest in systematic programs of reading.19 In addition. covered a wide variety of topics. other functions in the library. Leigh from the political science department of the University of Chicago. the overwhelming burden of background reading which was required.Useful Information 17 Based in part on the success of the programs at the seven institutions listed above. written by subject specialists. the American Library Association established the Commission on Library and Adult Education in 1924. Then. particularly in larger urban libraries. regardless of how unpublicized its results. so did the number of formal programs. rather than supplying fiction to readers. Regan concluded that "there is still a sizeable amount of readers' advisory work being done."21 The number of articles in professional library literature about readers' advisory dropped off significantly.S. increased in importance as libraries became centered on providing information and "useful knowledge. Instead."14 The number of libraries with formal readers' advisory services rose from twenty-five in 1928 to sixty-three advisors in forty-four libraries by 1935. Libraries and Adult Education.13 The Commission also wrote a report of its study of the role of the public library in adult education. Between 1925 and 1931 the American Library Association sold 850. but more especially. in the late 1940s. The resulting report."23 . the duties were spread throughout the staff. One important finding was that libraries should provide "readers' advisory service to those who wished to pursue their studies alone.000 pamphlets in the series. The brochures.12 The Commission also produced brochures. suggested that readers' advisory service was no longer the province of a particular group of librarians. public libraries. with articles on readers' advisory by librarians who specialized in adult education. Adult Education and the Library.

and creating pathfinders and reading lists of similar books. often a member of the Round Table. as was the second edition. and characterization similar to those that the patron already liked. . In 1985 AART expanded to hold an all-day workshop featuring Betty Rosenberg. which was founded due to "the lack of continuing education available on both the national and local level relevant to .24 Haines's work "bridged the gap" between the old idea of readers' advisory that gave readers a course of reading to improve their minds and the gradually emerging definition of readers' advisory as "a patron-oriented library service for adult fiction readers. readers still wanted to read fiction. A second edition of Genreflecting appeared in 1986. Other workshops featuring nationally known speakers such as Sharon Baker. was first published in 1935 and widely used as a textbook in library schools. An early indication of this new vision was the publication in 1982 of Genreflecting by Betty Rosenberg. An important figure in the development of services to readers of popular fiction was Helen Haines. The new readers' advisor was someone who could recommend fiction reading. and published genre fiction lists for adults and young adults." AART meetings usually lasted for two hours and included a speaker. including Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library (1989) by Joyce Saricks and Nancy Brown and Book Discussions for Adults: A Leader's Guide (1992) by Ted Balcom. Practical methods to help patrons find what they wanted included shelving books by genre rather than by author's last name.18 Chapter 2—A Brief History of Readers' Advisory An Emerging Focus on Fiction Though the formal readers' advisory programs of the 1920s and 1930s focused mainly on didactic programs of reading. Mary K. Articles in the library literature encouraged librarians to learn about different genres and to familiarize themselves with different authors and types of popular fiction. bookmarks. Her text. Living with Books: The Art of Book Selection."25 The Renaissance of Readers' Advisory: 1980-Present In the early 1980s. and gives the findings of annual studies of particular genres. she became one of the preeminent voices to discuss collection development that included strong endorsement of the incorporation of popular contemporary fiction for adults. In 1984 a group of Chicago-area librarians established the Adult Reading Round Table (ARRT). In particular. and Duncan Smith followed. but it provided a new kind of tool for librarians to assist readers to find popular fiction. and other books and articles followed. plot. Chelton. Haines not only championed the inclusion of fiction in the library. . national associations formed the Readers Advisory Committee of the Reference and User Services Association's (RUSA) Collection Development and Evaluation Section (CODES) and the Public Library Association's (PLA) Reader's Advisory Committee. readers' advisory service for adults. especially genre fiction. what has been called the "renaissance" of readers' advisory began.26 Now in its twentieth year. AART compiles and makes available annotated genre lists. purchasing multiple copies of popular titles (even multiple copies of paperback books so there would be adequate numbers of books for readers). .27 In response to this grassroots movement. librarians were advised to be able to answer a patron's question about finding styles of writing. although it was more of a complete overhaul than a renaissance. published in 1950. Rosenberg's book not only gave readers permission to read whatever they liked (her first law of reading is "never apologize for your reading tastes").

It is standard in LIS education to provide courses in literature for youth that discuss reading promotion. Sites such as Amazon. those students who want to be school media specialists or youth services librarians are usually required to take such classes.com created a space where users could not only buy a book but read professional reviews as well as comments from other readers. Studies of existing readers' advisory services in public libraries found that many librarians did not provide a high quality of service in this area. Smith's Reference and Information Services: An Introduction (1995) and Katz's Introduction to Reference Work. LIS students may . scholars began to research and write more about readers of popular fiction. Not only did the book survive. Genreflecting spun off a readers' series including Teen Genreflecting and Junior Genreflecting. further evidence of the increasing importance of this topic.28 The 1990s ushered in an era of increasing awareness of and interest in readers' advisory. commonly used textbooks for reference courses. Whereas the text itself had been the central focus of literary studies. it thrived. In fact. The prevailing attitude seems to be that services to adults can be covered in courses on reference sources and services and online retrieval. Bopp's and Linda C. Readers' advisory is considered separate from the reference function. Chelton. In part this was due to an acceptance by academics that popular culture was worthy of study. and others provides the field of library and information studies with an important research base to accompany the applied work done by librarians. 5th ed. mystery. In fact. However. Chelton. The third edition of Bopp and Smith (2001) includes a two-paragraph discussion of readers' advisory in the opening chapter. This gave rise to genre studies such as Janice Radway's Reading the Romance as well as important research within the LIS scholarly community.Readers' Advisory and LIS Education 19 Research in Reading and Readers' Advisory As practitioners developed tools and continuing education programs for the new readers' advisors. the fiction genres. an awareness of the reader and the reader's interaction with text became of primary importance.30 Moreover. Readers' Advisory and LIS Education Although the demand for librarians skilled in providing readers' advisory services is very high. and readers' advisory for youth. but it is by no means a thorough introduction to the subject. the curricula for library schools do not reflect this trend. but also because of a shift in the way that scholars viewed the study of literature. as evidenced by the increasing popularity of book "superstores" and the success of online booksellers. In 2000 Reference and User Services Quarterly began publishing a regular column on readers' advisory edited by Mary K. The Internet also provided a new platform for readers' advisory tools that served readers and librarians alike. E-mail lists such as Fiction_L provided places for librarians to discuss reading and issues in readers' advisory. Other books focused on particular genres such as horror. The rise of the Internet was supposed to bring about the death of the book. The work of Catherine Ross. Databases such as NoveList and What Do I Read Next? gave librarians and patrons access to new reference guides to popular fiction. (1987) make no mention of readers' advisory at all. and fantasy. it is far less common to see comparable courses for adult readers' advisory. Mary K.29 Print publications on popular fiction and articles about readers' advisory also increased in the 1990s and 2000s. such as the second edition of Richard E. and they often are électives.

Today fiction reading is fully acknowledged as an important part of what public libraries provide to their patrons. 1833-1964 (Chicago: American Library Association. "Fiction in Public Libraries and Educational Catalogues. there are a growing number of LIS educators who both do research in and teach reading studies. . "most of the programs accredited by the American Library Association do not even expose students to the idea that they can develop a practice devoted to building adult popular collections and encouraging rewarding reading among the general public.33 Although consistently met with resistance from some educators. References to readers' advisory are scattered throughout the book. "Sensational Fiction in Public Libraries. Our patrons expect no less. Samuel Swett Green. Although public libraries always included fiction in their collections. but should be central to the work of the public library. Shearer and Robert Burgin. librarians have connected readers with books since the beginning of the modern public library movement. 1966). librarians had an ambiguous relationship with fiction and struggled to define whether their mission was to provide readers with the "right" reading or to give readers what they wanted to read. this lack will be redressed soon.31 Another study. 2." which focuses on the period when the term "readers' advisory" first surfaced as a structured program of individualized reading advisement. What hasn't changed is that public librarians see it as part of their mission to bring readers and books together. even if librarians deemed it to be of lesser quality. but particularly pertinent is chapter IV. In the past. by Kenneth D. Robert Ellis Lee. 4. Charles Francis Adams. concluded that although many ALA-accredited schools offered specific courses in readers' advisory. Notes 1. It is to be hoped that with consistent pressure from practitioners and educators working from within. The philosophy. and methods used to advise readers have changed since the early days of the public library. its presence has proven to be one of the hotly debated issues for librarians since the late nineteenth century." Library Journal 4 (1879): 330. tools. 3.. "Serving the Individual. Continuing Education for Adults Through the American Public Library. Ibid."32 Wayne Wiegand has written articles and presented talks at meetings with library educators in an effort to increase attention on reading studies and their place in library education. A study by the RUSA CODES Readers' Advisory Committee found that only fourteen library schools offered courses in readers' advisory.20 Chapter 2—A Brief History of Readers' Advisory not be exposed to courses that will help them gain the necessary skills." Library Journal 4 (1879): 346. Conclusion In one form or another. Providing guidance to readers who want the latest in genre fiction is no longer something that librarians shy away from. 331. Lee's book gives a through overview of the "ages" of the public library as an educational agency.

Ibid. 1941). A. 20. "Status of Reader's Advisory Service. Ibid. "Encouraging the Use of Adult Non-fiction." in Readers ' Advisor's Companion. 5. 22.."What May a Librarian Do to Influence the Reading of a Community?" Library Journal 2 2 (1897): 77-80. Ibid. 57-58 Lee." 230. Continuing Education for Adults. 46. "On Aimless Reading and Its Correction. 1997). E. Ibid. "The Place of Fiction in the Free Public Library. Wayne Wiegand points out that librarianship's most important professional responsibility became to provide useful information to its constituency. Robert D." Library Journal 28(1903):C37. "Haines. and Frances L. Beatrice Winser. (Chicago: American Library Association. Foster." Library Journal 32 (1907): 406-8. 59 13. Flexner and Byron C. 7. but also the course of library education. John Cotton Dana. 14." Library Journal 28 (1903): 237-38. Rathbone. 18. "Status of Reader's Advisory Service.. Continuing Education for Adults. 10. of which five were in foreign publications. Libraries and Adult Education (Chicago: The Association. 21. Rush and Amy Winslow. 1978). Lee Regan. "A Successful Experiment in Directing the Reading of Fiction. Peck . Continuing Education for Adults. 11. Regan. Lee. Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. 50. Saricks and Nancy Brown.: Libraries Unlimited. edited by Kenneth D. Joyce G." Library Journal 53 (1928): 291. 19. 23. Colo. "The Encouragement of Serious Reading by Public Libraries. That librarians viewed themselves as experts in directing the public's reading may be seen in such articles as W. Shearer and Robert Burgin. 16. Lee. 12. . Regan. and in 1976-1977 the number of articles had dropped to only four references in English. Continuing Education for Adults. 1926): 221-46. 2 2 5 . 46. 8. L. 2001). Harlan. "Status of Reader's Advisory Service. Lee. 24. 50-51.: Libraries Unlimited. with a few book reviews and a number of articles in foreign publications.. A brief survey of the Index to Library Literature showed that for the index of 1936-1939 there were more than twenty articles and multiple references to book reviews under the heading "readers' advisory" (the term changed to "reader guidance" in 1958). 17. Helen Elizabeth. 6. 70." 230. Hopkins (New York: American Association for Adult Education. 11 (Englewood. Colo. See his "Missing the Real Story: Where Library and Information Science Fails the Library Profession." RQ 12 (1973): 229. a course of action that influenced not only the practice of the profession on a daily basis.Notes 21 5. American Library Association. 15. Charles E. see Readers ' Advisers at Work by Jennie M. The index for 1955-1957 had only twelve references." in The Dictionary of American Library Biography (Englewood. For a detailed description of the readers' advisory program at the New York Public Library. 2d ed. 9." Library Journal 4 ( 1879): 78-80.

15 (2000): 4 0 ^ 3 . 1-20 (New York: Neal-Schuman. 28. 1984). 24 (Englewood. Dana Watson and RUSA CODES Readers' Advisory Committee. Saricks and Brown. 2002): 32-33. Mary K. and Popular Literature (University of North Carolina Press. 1996).aartreads." Acquisitions Librarian 25 (2001): 5-21 .: Libraries Unlimited. 71-88 (New York: Neal-Schuman." Library Journal 125. Kenneth D. Catherine Ross and Mary K. "Missing the Real Story: Where Library and Information Science Fails the Library Profession. Ted Balcom. Kenneth Shearer. 1996). 2001). For more information on the Adult Reading Round Table." Reference & User Services Quarterly 41:2 (2001): 139-43. ed. Elizabeth Olesh. and Readers Advisory Services." in The Readers' Advisor's Companion. "What We Know and Don't Know About Reading. ed. Mary K." RQ 30 (1991): 503-18. "Readers' Advisory in Public Libraries: An Overview of Current Practices. So What? Series Readers Talk Back. ed. 32. Not Much in Mind: Master's Level Education for Adult Readers' Advisory Services. "MisReading Library Education. Catherine Sheldrick Ross. Shearer and Robert Burgin.22 Chapter 2—A Brief History of Readers' Advisory 25. ed." in Guiding the Reader to the Next Book. "Readers' Advisory Services: Taking It All Online. 27. 29. "Out of Sight and Out of Mind: Why Don't We Have Any Schools of Library and Reading Studies?" Journal of Library and Information Science Education 38 (1997): 316-26. Patriarchy." Reference & User Services Quarterly 40 (2000): 143-46. Ricki Nordmeyer. and Catherine Patricia Lackner. "Time to Turn the Page: Library Education for Readers' Advisory Services. "A Look at Reader's Advisory Services. Readers. Cathleen A. "Readers' Advisory Service: New Directions. Chelton. "Librarians Ignore the Value of Stories. its activities. Reading the Romance: Women. Wayne A." American Libraries 28 (1997): 31." in The Readers' Advisor's Companion. visit http://www. 26. Neal Waytt. "Best Practices: An Analysis of the Best (and Worst) in Fifty-Two Public Library Reference Transactions." in Guiding the Reader to the Next Book." Public Libraries 33 (September/October 1994): 261-66. Shearer and Robert Burgin. "Partly Out of Sight. Colo. 33. 2000): B20. "Readers' Advisory 101. Towey." Reference & User Services Quarterly 41 (2002): 2 3 8 ^ 3 . Janice Radway. Chelton." Library Journal (November 1. "Making Choices: What Readers Say About Choosing Books to Read for Pleasure. Catherine Sheldrick Ross and Patricia Dewdney." Library Journal (September 1. "If They Read Nancy Drew. Catherine Sheldrick Ross. Anne K." Library Journal 122 (1997): 36-38." Public Libraries (January/February 1999): 42-47. 31. Anne Weinlich Miltenberg." Public Libraries (November/December 2001): 3 4 4 ^ 5 . "We Need to Recommit to Readers' Advisory Services. Catherine Sheldrick Ross. Wiegand. Kenneth Shearer. 2001). Kenneth D. Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. "Webwatch. no. Kenneth D. Paula Wilson. 1. 30." Chronicle of Higher Education 47 (October 27. Kenneth Shearer. Colo. and its publications. "Reader's Advisory: Matching Mood and Material.org. Shearer and Robert Burgin. May.: Libraries Unlimited." Library Journal 126 (2001): 52-53. . 2003): 38-39. Chelton. "Readers' Advisory Web Sites. "The Nature of the Readers' Advisory Transaction in Adult Reading. Robert Burgin. "The Adult Reading Round Tale: Chicken Soup for Readers' Advisors. 7-14 (Englewood." Library and Information Science Research 17 (1995): 210-35.

Saricks and Nancy Brown published (2nd ed. in 1950) Genreflecting by Betty Rosenberg published (multiple editions since) Adult Reading Round Table (ARRT) formed Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library by Joyce G. Chelton becomes a regular feature of Reference & User Services Quarterly .Appendix: A Chronology of Readers' Advisory 23 Appendix: A Chronology of Readers' Advisory 1876 1922 1923 1924 1925 Founding of the American Library Association (ALA) Formal readers' advisory service established at the Detroit Public Library and Cleveland Public Library Formal readers' advisory service established at the Chicago Public Library and Milwaukee Public Library Formal readers' advisory service established at the Indianapolis Public Library ALA Commission on the Library and Adult Education formed Formal readers' advisory service established at public libraries in Cincinnati and Portland. Oregon Reading with a Purpose pamphlet series begins publication 1935 1982 1984 1986 2000 Living with Books by Helen E. Haines published (2d ed. in 1997) Readers' advisory column edited by Mary K.

.

That's why it doesn't work for a readers' advisor to have the same list of canonical "Good Books" such as War and Peace or Pride and Prejudice for all readers. lifts my spirits. or a book that suits my level of reading ability. easy reads."1 To make the right match. "I've just read Yann Martel's Life of Pi and it was great.Chapter 3 The Readers' Advisory Interview Catherine Sheldrick Ross Effective readers' advisory work is a matchmaking service. Nor does it work for a readers' advisor to recommend his or her own personal favorites to everyone (e. and for a third reader perhaps it means the felicitous use of language. Effective readers' advisors take a nonjudgmental approach that accepts readers' tastes and preferences and doesn't try to change or "improve" them. rereading. where every paragraph invites reflection."). and old favorites are picked when the reader is busy or under stress. or opens my eyes to new possibilities). For one. teaches me something. it scares me.. comforts me. Relevant factors may include the reader's mood and the context of the intended reading as well as a number of idiosyncratic preferences. This matchmaking job is tricky because. The readers' advisor needs a way of finding out what these terms mean to the particular reader. Avid pleasure-readers in one study reported overwhelmingly that they choose books according to their mood and what else is happening in their lives: "Short books.. and savoring. librarians need to conduct a readers' advisory interview. They may request "some good books to read" or ask for a specific genre such as mysteries or history books. When the reader asks for a category romance. Readers may mean a book to match my mood right now. or a book that speaks to my particular interests (whether it's horseracing or high fashion or archaeology). or a book written in a style that maximizes the effects I enjoy (e. for a second reader it may mean good character development. "Why don't you read a really good book like Jane Eyre or Pride and Prejudice?" It is now generally recognized that the term "a good book" is relative to the particular reader. makes me cry.g. A successful match is made when the reader asks for "a good book to read" and ends up getting reading suggestions for materials likely to be enjoyable.g. makes me laugh. for any given reader. you'll love it. 25 . unsettles my preconceived ideas. because readers rarely provide sufficient detail in their initial request. a "well-written" book may mean intricate plotting and fast-paced suspense. he or she doesn't want to hear. the concept of the "good book" involves a number of dimensions that go well beyond what may initially be asked for.

which involves an understanding of the genres of fiction and nonfiction and their appeal to readers. "Are you interested in something historical?". Others rejected war stories."5 To encourage a discussion of the reader's engagement with books. stored. in successful readers' advisory (RA) transactions.26 Chapter 3—The Readers' Advisory Interview Readers' advisors need to be adept in at least two areas of expertise: first. "Tell me about a book you really enjoyed." 6 Similarly Ross. or "Do you want escapist fiction?" often go wrong because the reader doesn't share the librarian's understanding of the terms used. rather than asking about the kind of experience the reader wants. All interviews are special kinds of conversations. But users often make mistakes when they are asked to translate their information needs into the unfamiliar vocabulary of the library system. including favorite books. authors. Nilsen. One UK investigation of book reading and borrowing4 reports that readers in the study qualified their "read anything" claim by specifying various categories they would not read. can you tell me about a book/author that you've read and really enjoyed? • What did you enjoy about that book (author/type of book)? • What do you not like and wouldn't want to read? . and Dewdney recommend that readers' advisors intentionally select from questions such as the following7: To get a picture of previous reading patterns: • So that I can get a picture of your reading interests. book knowledge. which differs less from the reference interview than is sometimes supposed. and especially women. and genres." or "books which emphasize blood and gore. In a study of avid readers and how they choose books to read for pleasure. staff members typically initiate a conversation about books that is designed to get readers talking about their own preferred experiences with books. which help readers' advisors find out from readers the kinds of reading experiences they are seeking. In contrast. Men said they wouldn't read romantic fiction. Often reference interviews fail because the library staff member asks questions relating to the library system such as "Did you check the catalog?". This second area of expertise is of course the domain of the readers' advisory interview. Readers' advisory interviews can similarly fail when the staff member asks questions that relate to classification schemes and literary terms. "Do you know the indexing elements?". communication skills. Joyce Saricks and Nancy Brown recommend starting off the RA interview with something like. Such questions as "Do you enjoy thrillers/police procedurals/crime capers?". The second was making selections by genre. For readers' advisors. it is also important to discover what readers don't like. or "Have you checked the 282s?" 2 Librarians feel comfortable in this domain. Although they may sometimes say they will "read anything. and second. and retrieved). anything "too violent. "Do you like cyberpunk/dystopias/Chick Lit?". directed intentionally toward some purpose. They know all the specialized terms and understand the difference between a biography and a bibliography or between a directory and a dictionary. many. "Do you want a directory?"." they probably won't. said they wouldn't read nonfiction. Both reference interviews and readers' advisory interviews involve collaborative conversations between the library user (who is the expert in the kind of information or reading experience that is wanted) and the information professional (who is the expert in how knowledge is organized.31 discovered that the single most important strategy for selection was choosing a book by a known and trusted author. because they are in control.

8 Open questions such as "What did you enjoy about book X or author Y?" encourage readers to describe the desired reading experience in their own terms. however. that's interesting. what would it be like? (What would it be about? What would you like best about it? What elements would it include?) An effective RA interviewer uses the same communication skills required in the reference interview: • open questions ("What did you especially like about that particular book?") • encouragers ("Um-hm. closed questions such as "Do you enjoy splatterpunk?" can lead to a response like "What's splatterpunk?". Is there a particular book that you've especially enjoyed?" In Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. "I like big. characterization. The features that the reader chooses to talk about provide important clues to reading tastes and preferences. In contrast. Did I get it right?") • follow-up ("If none of these suggestions pan out. or add new information such as. "So it sounds like you're in the mood for X. or the particular atmosphere or tone that the author constructs. But even here it's a good idea for the readers' advisor to check out his or her understanding of what the reader means by asking something like.") When the readers' advisor confirms his or her understanding with a summary such as. is that this conversation is directed by an overall purpose—discovering the nature of the reader's engagement with books. this interaction may seem like an ordinary. make sure you come back and we can try some other authors. especially if they write in a series. fat books. and frame." or "Did I mention that I really prefer British authors?" To the reader. story line. they are better able to identify which genres would likely suit those readers.9 . What makes it an interview.The Readers' Advisory Interview 27 • What elements do you usually look for in a novel (nonfiction book/biography/travel book) To determine current reading preferences: • What are you in the mood for today? • What have you looked at so far? [to a person who has been looking unsuccessfully for reading material] • What did you not like about these books that you looked at? • If we could find the perfect book for you today. "You've mentioned that you enjoy historical books/fantasy/war stories." this gives the reader a chance to confirm. Readers who are well-informed about literary terms will often use genre labels themselves to describe their preferences. followed by an attempt at a definition and a conclusion like. enjoyable conversation about books. Saricks and Brown refer to features of enjoyable books as "appeal factors. Anything else?") • reflection of content ("You prefer female detectives but you don't want anything too grisly or violent. correct. then I wouldn't be interested." which they identify as pacing." When readers' advisors listen closely to the words readers use to describe enjoyable books. "Well.") • summarization ("So it sounds as if you're in the mood for some new mystery authors. if that's what splatterpunk is." or "I don't read mystery stories by boy authors.

whom Melanie Kimball describes in chapter 2 of this volume as intent on pushing the reader up the reading ladder from light fiction to "serious" works. The ability to listen and distill the essence of what users say about their preferred reading experience is a critical skill that requires practice. 145." or "I want a love story that emphasizes Christian values." The readers' advisor can then do the translation work and map the reader's preferences onto the particular genre most likely to provide the appeal factors the reader wants. "Making Choices. nothing depressing. say. 2002). 4. Kirsti Nilsen. the readers' advisor needs to know about the various popular genres and subgenres of fiction. Although the reader may not know terms for. not the librarian. Ross. Ibid. Seldom is there a single right answer in readers' advisory work—many books could suit the reader. Catherine Sheldrick Ross. and was offered a book on serial killers. and takes the view that the reader.28 Chapter 3—The Readers' Advisory Interview They urge readers' advisors to pay close attention to clues that reveal which of these appeal factors a particular reader is looking for. 2000). (Chicago: American Library Association. and if so. Mary K. and Patricia Dewdney. Notes 1. Unlike those earlier readers' advisors. Chelton points to "the all-time mistake in this regard. he or she may provide clues to his or her genre preferences by saying. 6. "I want something that's a little spicy but I don't like bedhopping. Matching on a single feature rather than on the overall "feel" of the book can be problematic. 2d ed. Saricks and Nancy Brown. Catherine Sheldrick Ross. does the reader talk about fast-paced action or leisurely description? Does the reader emphasize a single strong character or the complex interweaving of many characters. nothing set on other planets. 5. knows best what kind of reading experience is desired. values all kinds of reading." or "I can't remember the name of that book I really liked but it had a high heel on the cover. The readers' advisor's job is to help narrow choices to a manageable number of suggestions that match the reader's stated interests and tastes. ten subcategories of romance. the differences among them. Reading the Situation: Book Reading. . 70. 3." 14. Joyce G. and the various satisfactions that each genre offers to readers. Conducting the Reference Interview (New York: Neal-Schuman. or as challenging and quirky? Are there types of books the reader dislikes and won't read? As already noted. "Making Choices: What Readers Say About Choosing Books to Read for Pleasure." or "I really enjoy Georgette Heyer but I've read all her books."10 A user asked for a read-alike for Alice Sebold's The Lovely Bones. not too much description. But there are many wrong answers —books that would not be appropriate for a particular reader. today's effective readers' advisor is nonjudgmental. 1997). Buying and Borrowing Habits in Britain (London: Library and Information Commission." The Acquisitions Librarian 25 (2001): 13. Book Marketing Limited. what settings in time and place does she mention? Does the reader refer to a recently enjoyed book as soothing and comforting. no romances. 2. Readers ' Advisory Service in the Public Library. perhaps through several generations? Does the reader talk about the setting of the book as important. For example. In order to pick up on these clues and interpret them correctly. 72-73. readers frequently rule out whole categories of books—no horror or anything too scary.

Catherine Sheldrick. no." Library Journal 128. Saricks. "Readers' Advisory 101. 2002. "Reader's Advisory: Matching Mood and Material. no.Bibliography 29 7. Duncan. no. London: Library and Information Commission. and Mary Kay Chelton. 2 (winter 2000): 135^-2. no. 2d ed.. "Readers' Advisory 101. and Dewdney." Reference & User Services Quarterly 40. "Talking with Readers: A Competency Based Approach to Readers Advisory Service. 8. Smith. "Talking with Readers: A Competency Based Approach to Readers Advisory Service. Saricks and Brown. Duncan Smith. Chelton. Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. Ross. Joyce G. Catherine Sheldrick. Chelton. Ross. and Patricia Dewdney. Buying and Borrowing Habits in Britain. 10. and Nancy Brown." Reference & User Services Quarterly 40. 9. 35-55. Nilsen. 2 (winter 2000): 135-42. Mary K. Chicago: American Library Association. 2 (February 1." Library Journal 128. Conducting the Reference Interview. 2000. "Making Choices: What Readers Say About Choosing Books to Read for Pleasure." Library Journal 126. Conducting the Reference Interview. New York: Neal-Schuman. Reading the Situation: Book Reading. 1997. no. 2001): 52-55. Ross. Bibliography Book Marketing Limited." The Acquisitions Librarian 25 (2001): 5-21. 18 (2003): 38-39. Readers' Advisory. Catherine Sheldrick. . Ross. Kirsti Nilsen. 18 (2003): 38-39. Mary K.

.

science fiction. fantasy. but nonetheless. However. Stories that share these settings can be classified respectively as Westerns. and fantasy."2 The term genre fiction is commonly used to discuss works of fiction that fall into the areas of mystery. Books usually described as genre fiction are books that share multiple characteristics and features.Chapter 4 Serving Today's Reader Diana Tixier Herald The American Heritage® Dictionary defines genre as "a category of artistic composition. or general fiction—all terms used to define what is considered unclassifiable or "nongenre" fiction—can also be considered a genre. It can be said that genre fiction. Those features may include a common setting. defines genre fiction as "a term for writings by multiple authors that are very similar in theme and style. romance. allowing them to be categorized as belonging to a specific genre. women's fiction generally features a female protagonist."1 Wikipedia. Literary. Western. For example. which tends to be the most popular form of fiction. as in music or literature. These books "get no respect. Romance fiction generally follows this premise. for example. a distant planet in the future. a resource that represents popular consensus. marked by a distinctive style. mainstream. a historical period on our planet. We call this story a mystery or detective story. mainstream fiction is outside the scope of this guide. for example. Other genres may not be as formalized as these traditional genres. Now Read This (Libraries Unlimited. boy meets girl. boy loses girl. 1999) and Now Read This II (Libraries Unlimited. the titles within those genres share characteristics that are important to readers. A person dies under suspicious circumstances. adventure. suspense. and a detective follows clues until the mystery is solved. thriller. Crime fiction uses a different type of premise. or content. 2002) are excellent guides to that genre. or a place where magic happens. Nancy Pearl's guides. science fiction. and horror. grappling with career or relationship problems within a supportive group of female friends. form. In other cases it is the type of plot premise that stories have in common." The definition of genre fiction in Wikipedia cited previously continues: 31 . especially where these similarities are deliberately pursued by authors. boy and girl come back together and live happily ever after. the Old West. is the Rodney Dangerfield of literature. historical fiction.

interesting dialogue. Tor. added an imprint called Tor Romance that features . Alexandre Dumas.. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Wells. suggesting not just similar writings but derivative and generally bad writing. voted the best science fiction/fantasy publisher in the prestigious Locus Poll for seventeen years running. where long-standing series feature favorite detectives solving crime after crime. readers continue to read what they like. scholars. Edgar Allan Poe. This is particularly true in the crime genre. Today genre fiction. Although the literary quality may vary. stretches boundaries while trying to maintain its original appeal. the thrill of a strong plot. Characters are so important that often books are referred to by their names rather than by the name of the author or the book's title. It sometimes connotes a sort of literary 'ghetto' to be contrasted with literature proper? One need only check the classics lists in each chapter in part II of this guide to see the fallacy in this thinking.32 Chapter 4—Serving Today's Reader Often as applied to written work the term 'genre' is used pejoratively. Mass marketing of cheap publications in the form of dime novels and periodicals provided fertile ground for many of today's genres to develop. genre fiction is also very much tied into contemporary popular culture. with trends and developments in fiction both reflecting and directing current events. Some characters are so popular that biographies have been written about them. often criticized for being formulaic and predictable. and the list goes on. The Nature of Genre Fiction Genre fiction is constantly evolving. However. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Romance tales include mysteries and murders that take place in futuristic societies. but in genre fiction a character is or characters are faced with an obstacle that is overcome through some strength of character. when storytellers and bards held audiences enraptured by their tales and ballads of wondrous adventure. publishers and readers began defining genres through works of such authors as Jules Verne. while tales of horror and the occult go for the laughs by incorporating humorous elements. The scale of the heroism can be as large as a galaxy or as small and intimate as a pair of struggling lovers. and a satisfactory conclusion lead many individuals to read for pleasure. the term also suggests writing aimed at a particular audience of readers who are construed as having limited taste. Genreblending has become of such major importance that publishers have created imprints devoted to blends. or physical attribute. and magical beasts. Stephen Crane. Some of the greatest and most esteemed authors wrote what can be considered "genre fiction"—Jane Austen. In the meantime. Charles Dickens. while critics. and often they feature characters who play a continuing role in their works. G. The roots of genre fiction are in the distant past. Faerie folk pop up in Westerns. larger-than-life heroes and heroines. Genre fiction is plot-driven but can also have masterful characterization and graceful prose.. intelligence. Good genre fiction can be and often is characterized as "good storytelling. H. specifically the mystery /detection subgenre. and Edgar Allan Poe. and even some librarians may strive to "elevate" the tastes of the reading public." Authors of genre fiction tend to be prolific. but its essence remains the same—a tale of heroism in which the characters surmount obstacles to triumph.

professions. and what exactly do they want? Simply put. Romance giant Harlequin added the Luna imprint to feature romantic stories by major fantasy authors. and they work in all types of jobs. They may search for titles via the library's Web site. and careers. These people know the difference between reality and fantasy but choose to enjoy the age-old tradition of storytelling. or they may order books through Amazon. However they access books. With genreblending blurring the lines. it is essential that librarians. books and common readers are at the heart of the library. Who Is the Common Reader? As Wayne Wiegand makes clear in chapter 1. and language of subgenres. Second only to a search by author. familiarize themselves with popular reading interests and genre fiction. They fall into all economic levels of society. while the American Library Association has recognized the value of a library's role as "popular reading center. the flames as accusations of censorship and wrong thinking were exchanged! In truth. common readers are people who read. common readers read because they enjoy reading. assigning genres is subjective—it is an art. or buy. Categorizing fiction by types will never be a science. Yet publishers continue to publish genre fiction. nuances. any sex. and readers continue to read and seek out genre fiction.Libraries and Genre Fiction 33 blends of science fiction and fantasy with romance. The forum may have moved from library periodicals onto the Internet. or trade books.com. entering another world with more excitement than the mundane. Kimball offers an overview of the history of readers' advisory in the public library. the controversy continues. Although genreblending can be confounding to the readers' advisor. everyday world. Libraries and Genre Fiction Earlier editions of Genreflecting discussed the controversy over maintaining collections of genre fiction in libraries. This is why bookstores arrange much of their stock according to genres. Whether or not readers are aware of the intricacies. Common readers borrow from the library. that imperative becomes even stronger. more than twenty years after publication of the first edition of Genreflecting. in which Betty Rosenberg introduced her first law of reading—"never apologize for your reading tastes"—to the public. and particularly readers' advisors. let alone an exact one. It is also why publishers use genre labels on books and in catalogs. The overwhelming number of books published each year becomes more manageable through genre classification. To best serve their patrons. Common readers are our public and our customers. They may read e-books or listen to books in various audio formats. genre categories continue to be extremely useful in helping readers find the books they will enjoy. and any intellectual level. To a large extent. or they may browse the stacks. but a lively exchange still ensued when a librarian asked a newsgroup for opinions regarding the purchase of a "not so good book" because a library user had made requests that it be purchased." some librarians continue to sniff disdainfully at genre fiction. Common readers can be of any age. Oh. (In chapter 2 Melanie A. these generally represent titles grouped according to reading tastes. Fortunately for the millions of . But who are the common readers. Betty Rosenberg cited many articles criticizing popular reading as well as many promoting the library as a community resource for popular fiction. readers search for titles by genre.) Even now.

To further help patrons find genre fiction. and science fiction have their own sections or shelves in libraries. however. Wallace. Knowing the tools—whether online databases such as NoveList and What Do I Read Next? or print tools such as the one in hand—is also essential to effective readers' advisory service. Several library schools have added readers' advisory classes. easily identifiable genre fiction can be shelved separately in libraries. but even when the library owns the paperbacks. Should a science fiction romance be shelved with science fiction or with romance? Challenges in classification and organization. they can't always be easily found. have yet to deter any self-respecting readers' advisory librarian from trying to organize the fiction collection in a manner that helps readers find the books they want. especially when an author's first several titles are paperback originals followed by hardcover releases. the readers' advisory listserv hosted by Morton Grove Library. In many collections. In large collections. knowing the reader. Many libraries throughout the United States have staff training and in-service days devoted to learning more about genre fiction and how to help library patrons with their popular reading needs. Unfortunately. Baker and Karen L. The GASFD classifications give users points of access for fiction other than merely title and author. suggest that physically separating genre books from the general collection helps users of large collections select books without becoming overwhelmed. Another improvement is access to genre fiction through the catalog. Librarians extend and share their learning on fiction_L. Readers' Advisory Service Putting people together with the books they want to read is the purpose of a readers' advisory service. it allows them to select from particular genres of interest. The reader wants early books in the series. Knowing the literature. Shelving books by genre does create problems. libraries in the 1990s made efforts to improve access to popular fiction. and that effort continues today. and there is no way of placing a hold or reserve on them through the public access catalog. mysteries. Sharon L. many libraries fail to catalog paperback fiction. more librarians see their community's need for popular reading materials.4 In addition to giving browsers a smaller and less intimidating set of books to choose from. Westerns. who wrote about information overload and fiction classification. especially in this era of genreblending. but most readers (who know what they like and appreciate easy access) like the chance to browse a manageable segment of the collection and find a number of books from their favorite genre all in one place. This presents problems. Although popular fiction collections are not funded in a ratio equivalent to their usage. if they share qualities with more than one genre.34 Chapter 4—Serving Today's Reader library users. Some consider this unfair segregation. Catherine Ross's chapter in this guide (chapter 3) provides valuable instruction and advice on the transaction. . And there's no reason that particular titles might not move from one genre section to another. separate shelving provides access to genre titles and also helps readers navigate the collection. which leaves huge segments of the collection read by common readers inaccessible except by serendipity. and facilitating the meeting of the two are key to being an effective readers' advisor. Spine labeling by genre is another widely used method to help readers in their quest for books they want to read.

contains a number of enlightening essays written by some of the stars of readers' advisory. For an advisor who does not read romance. followed by a novel by Zane Grey. others use a database. A short annotation and an indication of genre and type make the list extremely useful for readers' advisory service and also sharpen the librarian's writing skills. The Readers' Advisor's Companion (Libraries Unlimited. John Naisbitt. Max Brand. Saricks tackles genre fiction and popular reading interests. then go back through the genres again. and some keep a chronological list in their day planners. It is a must read for anyone striving to perform readers' advisory service with any degree of excellence. 2002). to read a novel by Dorothy Sayers. actively participating on listservs. Reading plans. Titles in the Genreflecting Advisory Series cover in depth specific genres and reading interests that range from adventure and mystery to romance. explores how readers' advisory techniques can and should be applied to nonfiction. readers' advisory is one of the best ways for librarians to maintain a personal relationship with patrons. and reading reviews online and in print all build the readers' advisor's knowledge base. edited by Robert Burgin (Libraries Unlimited. novice readers' advisors were assigned a variety of novels to read to become conversant in the different genres. 2001). Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. Many libraries maintain Web sites or even notebooks in which staff reviews or annotations are on file. wrote about the importance of becoming "high touch" in a "high tech" world. Some librarians prefer to keep the list on index cards in a file. An example of such a reading plan might be to read one book from each genre. and Danielle Steel. which gives greater access to the information. Several years ago in libraries with a dedication to readers' advisory services (and the staff to support it). 3d ed. Christian fiction. in his best-selling book Megatrends. A second pass in such a specific plan might call for novels by Raymond Chandler. Even if one does not have the time to write annotations. 2005) details ways to determine the appeal of a book. Saricks has written two excellent guides for readers' advisors. 2004). In The Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction (ALA Editions. it is very helpful to maintain at least an author/title listing of books read. Some reading plans were very specific. and African American literature. visit www. Robert Silverberg. so that similar books can be found. The more recent Nonfiction Readers' Advisory. including bibliographies and booklists in the form of bookmarks or pamphlets that many libraries provide. scorned by some. then one by Isaac Asimov. For a full list of these titles. however. Readers' advisory may well be the library service that keeps libraries vital in this century as current library users become more sophisticated at using the electronic resources that are moving out of libraries and into homes via personal computers. This ensured that the readers' advisors became familiar with a diversity of authors within each genre.Readers' Advisory Service 35 More than twenty years ago. Shearer and Robert Burgin. Keeping a reading journal can be extremely helpful. (ALA Editions. are simply ways of mapping out in advance a plan to sample various genres.com. this time reading a book by a different author in each genre. edited by Kenneth D.5 As libraries become more and more high-tech. A well-armed readers' advisor keeps an arsenal of resources at hand. Bookmarking Web sites. Joyce G. . for example.genreflecting. and finally one by Grace Livingston Hill. it can be quite eye-opening to read a Bertrice Small novel and an Avalon romance to see the diversity within the genre.

three romance novels. is necessary for the voracious appetites of readers. 2005). forming even larger houses. paperback. two adventure novels.mo.lib. and one each in romance. lists. As the giants battle it out for supremacy on the best-seller lists by giving staggeringly huge contracts to the top-grossing writers. One of the most comprehensive and long-established sites is Overbooked (http://www.mcpl. the most important skills for readers' advisors are communication skills—and in particular. Many are published by libraries and include book reviews. The Publishers Weekly number one best seller in both 2003 and 2004 was The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown. there were only two titles in the top fifteen best sellers that were mainstream fiction. and labeling spines.org/. and one each in science fiction. horror. two mainstream novels. Passive readers' advisory includes shelving genre fiction separately. The fourteen fiction titles on the Publishers Weekly paperback best-seller list break down as six crime novels. regardless of its quality. a cipher thriller. accessed June 8. and links to helpful fiction-related sites. they seem to be publishing less and less midlist fiction. Looking at the Publishers Weekly hardcover list in June 2005. Kristin Ramsdell shares some effective guidelines for advising readers. accessed June 8. She notes that not all readers in need of assistance will ask for it. providing booklists and displays. and women's fiction. of course.us/readers/. The publishing industry has seen radical changes in the last couple of years. and other digital formats. over the phone. Most of the titles on the weekly best-seller lists (hardcover and paperback) are genre titles. 2005) is an example of a nicely done library-managed site that provides several helpful lists for its patrons. Whether talking face to face. 1999). compact disc. Prolific and popular authors appear regularly—anything they publish. a nonprofit volunteer project by Ann Chambers Theis. help readers to find books in the genres they like.36 Chapter 4—Serving Today's Reader In her brief chapter "Advising the Reader" in Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre (Libraries Unlimited.overbooked. Inc. Giant publishing houses have merged. Ultimately. and libraries should institute passive readers' advisory. It is virtually impossible to list all the readers' advisory pages now available on the World Wide Web. which. simply asking patrons about a book they enjoyed in the past reveals more about what they might enjoy in the future than all the reference books and reading lists put together. The Mid-Continent Public Library Readers' Advisory page (http://www. They break down as seven crime novels (six featuring series characters). and horror. collection management administrator of the Chesterfield County (Virginia) Public Library's Collection Management department. two adventure novels (one cipher thriller and one biothriller). a minor change from five years ago when his legal thrillers had garnered the number one spot for four years running. listening skills. John Grisham held the number three spot in 2004. will sell. though not a substitute for an interview with a good readers' advisor. Penguin and Putnam have become Penguin Putnam. historical. Bantam Doubleday Dell is now part of Random. . Genre fiction is published in all formats: hardcover. All these things. audiotape. Publishing Genre Fiction Genre fiction is popular fiction that publishers continue to publish because it sells. or via e-mail. science fiction.

It is now possible for small publishing houses to make a go of it. such as the titles Detecting Women and By a Woman's Hand. By the end of the decade. Warshawski or Kinsey Millhone? The 1990s saw an explosion of secondary materials dealing with women in crime fiction. remains the same: As readers' advisors it is important to read and enjoy. thrillers featuring women as private investigators or amateur investigators were appearing weekly. often of a series.com. Online sellers. Reprint editions and e-books are of particular importance in genre fiction because so many titles go out of print so quickly. but the 1980s saw a tremendous surge in the popularity of the woman's role. who writes the Jacqueline "Jack" Daniels mysteries as J. A. In this milieu. By offering a structured and detailed overview of genres. Purpose and Scope of This Guide The primary purpose of this guide is to put books and readers together by helping readers' advisors in libraries. Cherryh were all women. These developments are covered in chapter 14. and find that reprint editions are the only source for finding earlier titles. or Pamela. writes sentimental tales of love. Joe Konrath. Women's fiction has gained prominence as a genre. and therefore it can also be used as a textbook for courses in genre literature and readers' advisory to discuss popular genres of fiction. J. says on his Web site: "I'd like to be judged on the merits of the story. It became more acceptable in those genres for authors to have first names like Margaret. and "Chick Lit" has become a force in the publishing.Purpose and Scope of This Guide 37 At the same time. Julian May. Andre Norton. offer readers more opportunities to purchase used and out-of-print titles. and to share information. but also builds excitement in the reading public.. Sherri. Gender and Genre Fiction Women have always written and been featured in genre fiction. many are titles that are being published in the United States for the first time. however. Even self-published titles are garnering critical approval. Severn House publishes hardcover reprints of several genres. Konrath. genre fiction continues to grow and evolve. who is often on the best-seller lists. and academic institutions find the books their readers will enjoy reading. I. which makes it more difficult to define. Nicholas Sparks. and C. rather than on my Y chromosome. These small presses are becoming a good resource for finding new authors."6 In the new millennium. the role of the readers' advisor has expanded and become more complex. The core of our role. new technology gives small publishers and self-published authors opportunities never before seen. The large-print publishers have long been a great source for genre fiction reprints in both hardcover and trade paperback. Who by now has not heard of V. Books about women sleuths written by women writers have become so popular that some male writers have taken to using initials. such as Amazon. Women also gained recognition in science fiction and fantasy and no longer had to resort to male pseudonyms or only their initials. Readers often discover a "new" author. . men are now writing romance fiction. it will hopefully help users understand genres and subgenres. Five Star publishes both reprints and originals in several genres. bookstores. Many readers discovered for the first time that James Tiptree Jr. In the meantime.

has unique characteristics. When both individual books and series are listed below an author's name. like each genre. And finally. Even though many series and linked novels are published in order. "The Readers' Advisory Interview. crime. horror. followed by the series entries. and those are listed in an order consistent with the chronology of the books. new to this edition." a sampling of the genre and personal recommendations by the author. critical works. and organizations pertaining to the genre are included. but each chapter. the individual books are listed first. their origins and evolution. Western. . Generally. Author names are listed alphabetically. long after her death. A chapter contributed by editor Wayne A. A brief history of readers' advisory written by Melanie A. An amazing recent trend has been for authors to continue publishing for years after death. essays written by notable subject specialists offer overviews of the genres—their characteristics and appeal." Introducing each chapter. Scope Most of the authors represented in this guide are prolific. Some authors are actually house names used by publishers or book packagers to put all titles in a series or sequence under one author. titles are listed in alphabetical order unless the books follow a series order. A topics section at the end of each chapter provides information on resources for more in-depth information on specific facets of the genre. Catherine Ross's chapter. and current trends. It is not uncommon for genre authors to write dozens or even hundreds of books. Kimball is featured in chapter 2 . Multiple books by the same author are listed alphabetically below the author's name. Wiegand addresses the social nature of reading. Christian fiction. romance. Other chapters cover specific genres—historical. These are followed by descriptions of subgenres and themes and a list of genre classics. and. In series main entries. Andrews. while in other instances the author has actually written all those books. which is vital to our libraries today. fantasy. A few authors create related series. of course. C. publishing two books in 2004. Bibliographies of popular and current titles and authors are organized by subgenre and theme. A final chapter on "emerging genres" covers women's fiction and "chick lit. Some authors are included who have written only a few novels that have made a tremendous impact on their specific genre or who are relatively new and popular or show marked promise. another author is writing the books published under her name. Generally bibliographies. the sequel spawns another sequel). in alphabetical order. some are not. Sometimes an author has a recommended order of reading the series that follows neither the interior chronology nor the dates of publication. science fiction. according to common reading interests. Lawrence Sanders's McNally series is also posthumous. The information varies by chapter depending on the specific character of the genre. who is still wildly prolific. adventure. each chapter concludes with a section called "D's Picks." offers sage advice for practitioners and students on the RA transaction. Of course.38 Chapter 4—Serving Today's Reader Organization This edition of Genreflecting contains some exciting new features. prequels are listed first and sequels are listed last (unless. so publication dates do not always indicate the best order in which the individual titles should be read. An example is V.

'** The book is widely known and respected by readers of the genre. il A movie has been made based on the book. Most entries list the author and titles that fit into the subgenre under which they are listed. 2 3 Written for young adults but with appeal for adult readers Suggestions for Use There are many different ways to access and use the information in Genreflecting. Librarians have also used previous editions of Genreflecting to select titles for displays or for separating genre collections from large general fiction collections. instead. Readers' advisors and reference librarians are advised to read through the text and familiarize themselves with the genres and subgenres. refer to that index. Collection development specialists might wish to use the lists as a guide for filling in gaps in the collection or to determine which books might be worth replacing. Thus.Purpose and Scope of This Guide 39 Title listings are not intended to be all-inclusive but rather exemplary of a writer's work currently in print or widely available in public library collections. where many of the entries list the author and the detective) list only the author when that author writes primarily within a specific subgenre. To find specific authors and titles. M 3 A television series has been made based on the book/series. This type is frequently used for discussion groups. CQ The book is of interest to those who find language and structure of writing primary appeal factors. Most of the titles were published or reprinted in the last decade. selected titles are annotated. The table of contents . Entries and Annotations Ideally every title in this guide would be annotated. In order to provide as much coverage as possible but still be concise. as well as with authors and titles within each genre. titles included are not limited to a specific time range. but that would make the book too large and cumbersome for readers and their advisors to take to the shelves or stacks in search of the next good read. some entries (particularly in crime. rather than to provide comprehensive lists of genre fiction published within a certain time frame. Some readers may even enjoy using this book on their own. check the other listings in the specific subgenre section identified by using the author/title index to find where the known author is listed. STOil A television miniseries has been made based on the book/series. This edition of Genreflecting features thousands of new authors and titles published since the last edition was released. listed in the entry. Because the intent of Genreflecting is to identify titles enjoyed by today's readers. the focus is on works that are widely available in libraries. to illustrate the subgenre or type. They can also use the book to fill patron requests for fiction read-alikes. Symbols are used to indicate the following: The book/series has received one or more awards. When looking for books similar to a known author or title.

http://www.org/wiki/Genre_fiction Ibid. Overbooked. Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. Third Edition (Houghton Mifflin. Megatrends (Warner Books. Houghton Mifflin. Libraries Unlimited. Available at http://en.wikipedia. Accessed June 8.us/readers/. 5. Ramsdell. eds.mcpl. Genre_fiction. . (accessed June 1. Detecting Women: A Reader's Guide and Checklist for Mystery Series Written by Women.. 1994. Robert. 2005). Joyce G. 3d ed. Dictionary of the English Language. Available at http://www. Kristin. 2nd ed. Third Edition.com/history. Kenneth D.html (accessed June 8. 2005. 3. Shearer. Mid-Continent Public Library Readers' Advisory page.lib.org/wiki/ Accessed June 1. 2005. 1994. and Robert Burgin. Swanson. Scholarly materials and reference sources can be found at the end of each essay and by consulting the topics section of each chapter. Heising. The Responsive Public Library Collection. 2002). (Libraries Unlimited. 2005). mo. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Baker. Konrath. 2004. Available at http://www. 2. 2002.jakonrath.overbooked." In Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre. 6. The Responsive Public Library Collection.jakonrath. Available at http://www. Libraries Unlimited. and Dean James. Jean.org/. Notes 1. 1996. Nonfiction Readers ' Advisory. 2001. Wallace. By a Woman's Hand: A Guide to Mystery Fiction by Women. "Advising the Reader. Accessed June 8. Saricks. Purple Moon Press. and Karen L. The Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction. 1982). ed.html. ALA Editions. http://en. 1996). 2005. Bibliography The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. Accessed June 8. Sharon L. Willetta L. Libraries Unlimited. Burgin. A. . 2005. Berkley Books.wikipedia.40 Chapter 4—Serving Today's Reader and the subject index can be used to find information on the genres and subgenres. Libraries Unlimited.com/history.. J. ALA Editions. 2002.. 4. 2005. 1999. 2d ed. The Readers' Advisor's Companion.

Part II The Genres .

.

to actual readers. the historical novel is grounded in research. sociology. historical fiction has achieved both critical and commercial success. whether in history. The Historical Novel Society uses a similar measure today.Chapter 5 Historical Fiction Essay R. or be set in a time before the author's birth. and wishing to escape. not personal memory of the events depicted. 43 . beginning in the 1960s. suggested two generations in his subtitle to Waverley: 'Tis Sixty Years Past (1814). But what. postmodern age. some would say. A novel must be written at least fifty years after the events described. In light of this resurgent interest. for example. is "historical fiction?" "Fiction set in the past" is the generic definition—but how far in the past? Sir Walter Scott. widely regarded as the father of the historical novel. Few such studies exist. literary studies. conclude that people read for pleasure and to become better informed. Renewed interest in historical fiction on the part of novelists and historians alike has created a substantial body of commentary on the aims and possibilities of historical fiction in our multicultural and. Gordon Kelly In recent decades. reading to reinforce or celebrate beliefs or values already held. Surveys of adult book reading. or popular culture. exactly. however. or readers' reactions to historical novels found in reviews or on Internet discussion lists. we may well ask: Why do people read historical novels? What do they get from their reading? These are questions about behavior and are best answered by reaching out. To these generalizations about why people read books. we can add inferences drawn from sources that speak directly to the writing and reading of historical fiction: discussions of their craft by historical novelists. in short. More specific motives include searching for personal meaning. satisfying a desire to keep up with the reading of friends and colleagues. through well-designed studies.

according to the literary historian James Woodress.44 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction The Allure of the Past Many readers come to historical fiction out of a self-conscious desire to immerse themselves in another world. a sympathetic depiction of Santa Ana at the Alamo (Stephen Harrington's The Gates of the Alamo. to describe it accurately. Attempting to explain the renewed interest in the reading and writing of historical fiction in Canada in the last twenty years. to explore one's roots via historical fiction surely combines pleasure with knowledge. about immersing oneself in past worlds. Readers may also be motivated to read historical fiction to reinforce their values and beliefs." but suggests that novelists. to provide a deeper knowledge about the past. or to escape present circumstances. however temporarily. for example. and presumably their readers. Readers also come to books. to travel vicariously in time." in Atwood's phrase. critically acclaimed for his novel Henry and Clara (1994). This rejection of the inevitability of events also finds expression in recent historical writing such as Joseph Ellis's Founding Brothers (2000)—a reminder that historians and historical novelists share a desire to understand the past. 2002). The surging popularity and commercial success of Christian fiction generally and Christian historical fiction in particular in the last ten years is a case in point. finally. became increasingly alienated from the culture of the 1920s. according to Carol Kammen and others. he speaks for at least some of his readers. It puts the "story" back in "history" and gives it the narrative often absent in professional social history. Historical fiction can flesh out the bare bones of history and potentially change readers' settled or conventional views. on the role of chance in human affairs. to the search for one's roots. are drawn out of curiosity to the hidden. she recognizes the tie to multiculturalism. describes writing historical fiction as a way to find relief from the (prison) house of self. . to an interest in individuals and groups forgotten or marginalized by both history and fiction.1 Willa Cather. even taboo aspects of Canada's past. offering.2 Thomas Mallon. too. invokes the notion of "time travel.3 In all likelihood. then. the appeal of historical fiction includes its insistence on the contingency of events. according to Philip Ennis. Readers come to the historical novel out of a general curiosity about the past as well as out of a more specific interest in the past of their own place. retreated into the historical novel as she. Historical novels.5 Looking backward. with their potential to teach. 1999) or of a woman's decision to remain with her Indian captors (Deborah Larsen's White. to experience themselves within a larger context of time and human drama. and presumably many of her readers. novelists and readers alike. But reading for pleasure and reading for knowledge—the constitutive appeals of the historical novel—are distinguishable analytically only up to a point. to imagine themselves in a radically different setting. and the ways in which lives and events could have turned out differently. heretofore unspoken. offer an avenue to local understanding.4 Historical fiction. Readers may share with the novelist Stephanie Cowell the feeling of having been born into the wrong century. in search of personal meaning. Pleasure and knowledge are combined and ultimately indistinguishable. A second compelling motive to read historical novels has to do.6 For some. Margaret Atwood. we—novelists and readers alike—are able to "place ourselves. is more accessible than the writing of professional historians generally. out of a desire to understand how the present came to be. Like other commentators on the renewed popularity of historical fiction. how the group with which they identify has fared. Kammen suggests. The same can be said. and to explain change.

" a reader told the authors of Voices of Readers: How We Come to Love Books. Margaret Atwood. Both motives and expectations are shaped by prior reading experience—in the formal settings of school and library." fail to "depict the past as a very soothing place". "Getting things to look right is the historical novelist's paramount task. In her seminal study of romance readers. given what has already been said—historical fiction provides readers with the pleasures of imaginative immersion in past worlds. immediacy. for example.' " one wrote. James Michener recalled readers who found them too short: " 'I did not want to quit that vibrant universe. One reviewer of Patrick O'Brian's work marvels at O'Brian's ability to summon up "the shape and texture of a whole era. For children and young people. James . "you can virtually feel the characters' pain and smell the smells that surround them."7 Alan Furst. for example. Janice Radway reports "nearly every reader informed me that the novels teach them about far away places and times and instruct them in the customs of other cultures."9 And they profess reluctance at having to leave such worlds. consequences of reading and discussing young adult historical novels.14 In a similar vein.12 There is nothing controversial in the claim that historical fiction stimulates emotional.10 Sometimes criticized for his long works. a more "subtly textured time than even good 'social history' does."8 At its most intense. historical novelists. dismisses the suggestion that nostalgia explains the renewed popularity of the form in Canada. The Popular Book." Critics and historians who are skeptical of historical fiction as a form typically characterize the reading of it as escapist. if variable. responses in readers or that these responses are sometimes deeply felt. whose archival research for Henry and Clara corrected the historical record and unearthed a wealth of neglected material about the couple who shared Lincoln's box on the evening he was shot. the preeminent practitioner of the historical espionage novel. "In Search of Alias Grace. "I wanted it [Gone with the Wind] to go on forever. for example. Expectations and motives are among the likely. But can a lie (fiction) be true? Can historical fiction really provide knowledge about the past in addition to delivering pleasure? Many readers and historical novelists make that far more controversial claim. is repeatedly praised for the "atmosphere" of his novels. they offer neither "escape" nor nostalgia. however. In his magisterial account. and uncertainty—the 1890s. conflict. The experience is variously characterized as one of authenticity. even those who write the routinely disparaged historical romance—"bodice rippers" in the vernacular—regard extensive research as essential preparation for writing. Historical fiction can create. James Hart concluded that the popularity of the historical novel in the United States coincides with periods of doubt. and what they get from their reading is closely related to their motives and to their expectations. in Thomas Mallon's words. or plausibility. "Why are you reading an historical novel?" is simple: it was assigned. as in this response to Howard Bahr's Civil War novel The Black Flower.Characteristics of Historical Fiction 45 Characteristics of Historical Fiction What readers get from their reading of historical fiction is as much an empirical question as what motivates them to read. Broadly—and unsurprisingly. the answer to the question. The novels she discusses in her Bronfman Lecture." according to Thomas Mallon. readers describe the effects of reading as approximating experience itself."13 At least since the 1930s. even sensory. after all.

behavior. For their part. on paper in the archive. Creek Mary ys Blood (1980). that readers can obtain real knowledge of past ways from historical novels. Kennedy but attributes it to him a year earlier. .. available to her at the time. Josephine Tey's justly acclaimed historical detective novel. and Mary Renault. Marguerite Yourcenar. motives. in a conventional bibliographical essay. and so forth. are hostage to the same sources—the fragments of the past that exist. argues that Richard III. Brian Hall. however. Thomas Mallon. conveys accurate information about the . The needs of the novelist trumped the scrupulousness of the historian."20 A final example. Dee Brown. the origins of quilt pattern names."17 Novelists and historians. and Patrick O'Brian. Richard was the victim of Tudor historians with an axe to grind.16 The result can be absolute fidelity to quotidian detail. . historical novelists. to contemporary writers such as Thomas Mallon. / Should Be Extremely Happy in Your Company. Brian Hall. that did not fit her case. then. Margaret Atwood found it necessary to recover "now obscure details of daily life" . whose critically acclaimed novels describe the rise of Jack Aubrey through the ranks of the British navy in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Nevertheless. [or] the high school pop history teachers who already have begun to assign this book as required reading. at least since Kenneth Roberts in the 1930s. notes that in Aurora 7 he uses a remark by President John F. "how to clean a chamber pot. the marketing of which trades on Brown's credentials as an historian. acknowledges his sources. let alone an historical novelist. there is clearly room for caution and skepticism about this claim. the acknowledged contemporary master of quotidian detail is Patrick O'Brian.15 More recently. Brown has been accused of seriously distorting the historical record. in a brief afterward to his novel about the Lewis and Clark expedition. and the weight of historical evidence now points to Richard's complicity in the boys' death. through James Michener. have accepted the obligation entailed by their readers' expectation of factual accuracy and tried to deliver by undertaking the often painstaking. detailed research needed to render. In her research for Alias Grace. But Tey ignored documents. was several years thereafter the author of an historical novel. for example. whose claim to the throne of England was better than his own. The Daughter of Time. Yet Tey's novel remains widely read and persuasive for its apparent reliance on actual historical documents. . who won acclaim as an historian for Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West (1971).19 Mallon's reader can know what Kennedy said but not when he said it.46 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Michener urged "ardent research as to facts" and long speculation as to their meaning in preparing to write. the reader sees—and presumably is brought to understand—"the very beginnings of the world we inhabit. Shakespeare's powerful play notwithstanding. we might conclude. and the favorable reviews of the book strike one historian as pernicious: "[W]ho can appropriately assess the novel? Certainly not a general reading public . and how to store parsnips. For many readers of historical fiction. for the most part. was not responsible for the murder of his nephews. Historical fiction. In addition to a "tremendous" story. in principle. one critic writes.. an authoritative account of past practices."18 No small achievement for an historian. Truth and Historical Fiction Readers of historical novels expect that authors will get the facts right and trust them to do so. historiographical and archival. . We can say with some confidence. in the final analysis.

Wyoming. for instance—can readers get from historical fiction? Some readers will be drawn to history "itself as a consequence of reading historical fiction. Frederick Wakeman Jr. In his history of the Chinese secret service. an outcome encouraged by William Rainbolt. Medieval mystery novels. and Colorado wrote to Michener. in the possession of certain beliefs."26 More broadly. "is that a writer with current information and attitudes looks back upon events of moment so that he or she can organize such experience and give it meaning.22 Many. for example. can encourage in some readers a sense of the contingency of history or a feeling of having been born too late." James Michener has written. including Jane Porter's The Scottish Chiefs and Doyle's The White Company." Readers of Centennial in Nebraska. as noted earlier. these novels add the hallmark of effective historical fiction—the conviction that one is present in a past world in all of its particularity and quotidian detail. of being "possessed by other worlds" must strike some of her readers as a point of shared contact. Similarly. dismissed by their critics as "bodice rippers. saying he had "put into words what they had always felt about their homeland. until the artist "externalizes its history and transmutes it into a narrative that sings.23 C. Lewis. the Christian apologist and distinguished English literary historian.Truth and Historical Fiction 47 past—but only so long as novelistic or ideological imperatives do not subvert the novelist's commitment to hew to the historical record. Khachig Tololyan points to the role played by traditional historical narratives in motivating Armenian terrorism. "The essence of the historical novel.24 Stephanie Cowell's powerful sense of belonging elsewhere.27 In addition to their close attention to the mundane features of everyday life. who is both a working historian and the author of Moses Rose (1996). finally.and eighteenth-century England. involves a search for meaning. perhaps most young adult historical novels. notes that many recruits came to the service imbued with traditional heroic lore and historical allegories derived from famous historical novels. Legions of romance novels. S." A land does not attain full meaning. that historical fiction overlaps with other genres of popular fiction. romance. presumably.25 It is worth noting. In their Books That Made a Difference. famously has suggested that we read to know that we are not alone—not alone. constitute a sizable subgenre. are written (and assigned in schools) with that outcome in mind. A man "innocently" agreeing to hold a horse. according to Thomas Mallon. they are engaged in the larger cultural processes of creating and sustaining meaning on various levels and scales. for example. if that horse is John Wilkes . Gordon and Patricia Sabine report the early reading that Barbara Tuchman acknowledges as the source of her fascination with history. historical fiction can yield an inclusive interpretive framework. Patrick O'Brian's sea novels and Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe series about an English rifleman in the Napoleonic wars are adventure stories as well as historically authentic fiction. To the appeals of mystery. besides quotidian detail—"the very shape and texture of a whole era" available in the work of a Patrick O' Brian. an historical novel about a possible survivor of the Alamo. One of the motives for reading generally." conventionally have their settings in seventeenth. Historical fiction. historical novels necessarily offer interpretations of historical events and outcomes—that is to say. for example.21 What else. and adventure. he thought.

" The reader who takes that inference away from reading Henry and Clara gets something more than factually accurate details concerning Lincoln's assassination." During the 1820s. 1834. History of Historical Fiction There is general agreement that the story of the modern historical novel begins with the Waverly novels of Sir Walter Scott. may encourage readers to see themselves as "historical accidents. destiny. The Yemassee and The Partisan. and in subsequent works his settings included New England during King Philip's War and the Michigan frontier. Southern writers turned to their region's history. Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage (1895) is a canonical work of American literature. Westward expansion. set in Indiana. tapping powerful and persistent regional loyalties as well as questions about national purpose. Popular interest in historical fiction after 1820 drew on other sources than patriotism and regional loyalty. is an early example. is a later example of popular historical fiction with foreign settings. for example). who turned their attention to the nation's New England roots in the aftermath of the War of 1812. set in eighteenth-century Venice. As late as the 1960s. native authors—notably James Fenimore Cooper—became best-selling historical novelists in their own right. the novels established the form of the historical novel and demonstrated its potential for commercial success. a novel about the American Revolution. Another impetus for historical fiction has been regionalism. George Bancroft and William Hickling Prescott. 1834. and Mary Hartwell Catherwood's The Romance of Dollard (1888). Historical novels were one important manifestation of literary nationalism throughout the antebellum period.). Cooper was joined by numerous other writers. The Civil War.48 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Booth's. Cooper's The Spy (1821). Set in Scotland in the aftermath of the failed Rising of 1745. gave historical novelists a subject of inexhaustible interest. beginning in the 1830s with works by William A. both 1835. like the Revolution and the frontier. but he is still best remembered for his five Leatherstocking novels. set in New York's Mohawk Valley during the French and Indian War. and the novelist is Thomas Mallon. etc. however. Scott remained a best-selling author in the United States throughout the nineteenth century. Ivanhoe was still a required text in American high schools. Cooper's The Bravo (1831). it is also an historical novel. now largely forgotten. which took as their subject the frontier. or Harold Frederic's In the Valley (1890). In the wake of Scott's American vogue. The emergence of regionalism as a self-conscious literary movement in the 1880s and 1890s encouraged historical fiction about other regions as well: Edward Eggleston's The Circuit Rider (1874). as the author can attest from personal experience. With the first historical novelists came the first distinguished American historians. Like the travel literature for which there was a large readership in the nineteenth century. set in France's New World colonies. the popularity of historical fiction has ebbed and flowed to the present day—impelled to varying degrees by the questions about national origins and identity that stimulated Cooper and his contemporaries. launched his career. or the prolific William Gilmore Simrns (Guy Rivers. historical novels were a "cheap ticket" to exotic lands and times. and identity. and the clash of "civilization and savagery. and . Caruthers (The Cavaliers of Virginia. From its beginnings in the 1820s.

historical fiction could be defended as conveying genuine knowledge about the past—in addition to telling a good story. William Styron's controversial The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967). achieved enormous popularity with The Kent Family Chronicles. Charles Frazier's acclaimed Cold Mountain (1998). to be called "a compelling work of ." which has focused attention on the marginalized. Rabble in Arms [1933]. In the later nineteenth century. and the historically voiceless. by readers seeking escape from the uncertainty and economic distress of the 1880s and 1890s. and made Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind (1936) the greatest best seller in American publishing history to that time. The Roots phenomenon and the embrace of narrative as a form of knowledge are international in scope. affecting the writing of historical fiction throughout the Anglo-American world and beyond. The centennial of the Civil War and the bicentennial of the nation's birth in the Revolutionary War stimulated the production of historical fiction in the 1960s and throughout the 1970s. At no time in the history of historical fiction has its cognitive potential been greater than at present. literary criticism. for example.History of Historical Fiction 49 distinguished works about the Civil War continue to be written. for example. and by a newfound interest among philosophers. Marie Corelli's Barrabbus and Florence Kinglsey's Titus: A Comrade of the Cross (both 1894). increasingly challenged traditional religious teachings and the authority of the Bible. John Jakes. an eight-volume family saga that sold tens of millions of copies and was adapted to television. especially Darwinian evolutionism. and historians themselves in the techniques of narration—the novelist's stock in trade—on the other. some have argued. Enthusiasm for the biblical novel declined after the turn of the century. for example. on the one hand. Historical fiction could provide temporary respite in difficult times. driven. In addition. but it remained a staple of Christian publishing. the neglected. In the Depression years of the 1930s. Increasingly. based on the life of Anne Hutchinson. Thus it is possible for a novel. sociologists. for which she won the National Book Award. In addition to economic uncertainty. Margaret Atwood's Alias Grace (1996). Northwest Passage [1937]). newly professionalized and increasingly housed in the modern university. called on writers to address contemporary problems and attacked writers like Willa Cather who had turned increasingly to historical fiction. Jane Gilmore Rushing's Covenant of Grace (1982). During the last twenty years. the late nineteenth century witnessed a crisis of faith as biblical criticism and science. the legitimacy of historical fiction has been enhanced by the powerful attack mounted from within the historical profession itself on the possibility of objective historical knowledge.g. Distinguished works of historical fiction also found a wide audience at this time. historical fiction has received enormous impetus from "multiculturalism. historical fiction enjoyed one of its periods of conspicuous popularity. however. including Gore Vidal's Lincoln (1984). The work of Roberts and others reveals an increasing emphasis on historical research and a scrupulous regard for historical detail. Historical novels set in biblical times drew large readerships in the wake of the extraordinary success of Ben-Hur (1880). and Mary Lee Settle's Blood Tie (197'8). flocked to the historical novels of writers like the prolific Kenneth Roberts (e. Readers.

6.angelfire. 48. .com/picador/rgg/henryclaragg.albany. Voices of Readers: How We Come to Love Books (Urbana: NCTE. 2004). Howard Bahr. 2005)." available at http://www. An Author I'd Walk the Plank For. 1965). available at http://www.50 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction history" and for an historian of the stature of John Demos to undertake a novel. Bernard Cornwell. available at http://www. 5.com/bookstore/Bookstore G. The novel. or even to fiction generally. / Should Be Extremely Happy in Your Company (2003). http://www. 8. as we have seen—a claim that ultimately rests on the conviction. The Master Butcher's Singing Club (2002). whether at the hands of the novelist or the historian. Blue at the Mizzen (1999). no.picadorusa.militaryhistoryonline. "How do we know we know what we think we know?" Margaret Atwood asks. and a sense of meaning." Arizona Quarterly 34. Historically distinguished novels published more recently include Brian Hall. and. http://www. 9. and Lalita Tademy. "In Search of Alias Grace: On Writing Canadian Historical Fiction. Historical fiction today makes a different and arguably more consequential claim. The Stone Woman (2001). 5 (December 1998): 1510. Amy Tan. Historical fiction can stimulate the imagination. that historical knowledge is attainable at all. 3 (1978): 239-54.28 That there is no easy answer to this question has not kept readers from the twin pleasures of historical fiction or writers from the challenge of telling engaging tales about past realities.nytimes.. Richard Snow. reassurance. Tariq Ali. dependably." 1511. The Year ofJubilo (2000).html Margaret Atwood. None of these outcomes is unique to historical fiction. Atwood. Notes 1. 1988).edu/history/hist_fict/home. Sharpe 's Havoc (2003). Cane River (2002). at its best." American Historical Review 103. 7. "In Search of Alias Grace. February 1999. Ibid. no. The Unredeemed Captive (1994). no.htm (accessed August 9. Patrick O'Brian.4 . 2.com/il/ oaparchives/pbtpO 12899.html (accessed September 4. They are the outcomes of some nonfiction.html "Writing History/Writing Fiction: A Virtual Conference Session. Conclusion From reading historical novels. The Bonesetter's Daughter (2001). of Art more broadly. com/books/98/10/18/specials/obrian-plank. 80. Louise Erdrich. readers can and do get sensory and emotional pleasure. "Willa Cather and History. is sometimes said to provide us with understanding of the human condition or the human heart. 4. Robert Carlson and Anne Sherrill. Possessed by the Past." History News 58. "On Doing Local History. 12. Adult Book Reading in the United States: A Preliminary Report (Chicago: National Opinion Research Center. or faith. 10. 3 (2003): 3 . 11. 3.

"Afterward. 26. Kelly. 18. Calif. " Gordon Sabine and Patricia Sabine. 21. "The Historical Novel and Creek Mary's Blood" Journal of Ethnic Studies 12. HistFiction. 24." American Scholar 61 (autumn 1992):608. Atwood. 2000). Snow.." 610. Janice Radway. "Writing History/Writing Fiction." American Historical Review 103. Stephanie Cowell. Ray B. Reading the Romance: Women. "Possessed by the Past. 2 (February 1999). "Josephine Tey and Others: The Case of Richard III. 107.: Sage. R. 1989)." 1505. ed. Gordon Kelly. 1 3 3 ^ 6 .histfiction. ed." In Mystery Fiction and Modern Life (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. 25. Ward Churchill. "Historical Fiction. ed. no." in / Should Be Extremely Happy in Your Company (New York: Viking. "In Search of Alias Grace. Books That Made a Difference (Hamden. R." 605. Mallon." in The Detective as Historian: History and Art in Historical Crime Fiction. Thomas Mallon.net—Authors & Books in Historical Fiction (formerly Soon's Historical Fiction Site)." American Heritage 33. "Some Readers Reading. 175-96. 15. Gergen (Palo Alto. (Accessed March 4. M. 5 (December 1998): 1503-16. OH: Bowling Green State University Press. Gordon. Patriarchy. Conn. 133^46 (Bowling Green. "Historical Fiction. "Writing Historical Fiction. 1983). 14." in Texts of Identity. Brian Hall. An Author I'd Walk the Plank For.Bibliography 51 13. Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press. Browne and Laurence A Kreiser Jr. "Historical Fiction. "Writing Historical Fiction. "In Search of Alias Grace" 1514. Atwood. 20. 28. 27. 3 (fall 1984): 119-28." In The Detective as Historian: History and Art in Historical Crime Fiction. Michener. no. 2000). (Bowling Green. and Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. "In Search of Alias Grace: On Writing Canadian Historical Fiction. John Shotter and Kenneth J. 1984). Thomas Inge (Westport. Browne and Laurence AKreiser Jr. Bibliography Atwood. 2003). . ed. http://www." 46." In Handbook of American Popular Literature. "Writing Historical Fiction." Of Ages Past: The Online Magazine of Historical Fiction 1.: Greenwood Press. Conn. James Michener. 16. 1988). 1998). Margaret. 17. Mallon. 19. Ray B. 23. 22. no. 413-19. no. "Narrative Culture and the Motivation of the Terrorist.: Library Professional Publications. 3 (April/ May 1982): 47. 2005). "Josephine Tey and Others: The Case of Richard III.net/.

2004. Peabody.5 5 . Reading the Romance: Women. Reading." American Quarterly 38 (fall 1986): 591-612.wsu. Accessed August 9. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press." Genre 12 (fall 1979): 3 3 3 .edu/fac/peabody/ histfict.edu/history/hist_fict/home.htm. Mallon. "The Kinds of Historical Fiction: An Essay in Definition and Methodology. no. Turner. and Cultural Authority: Some Implications of the Audience Perspective in Cultural Studies. "Women. Patriarchy. . 2004. Thomas.52 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Long. and Popular Literature. "Historical Fiction. 3 (April/May 1982): 44-48. Janice.vancouver. albany. electronically republished at http://www. Radway. "Reading and Writing Historical Fiction. "Writing History/Writing Fiction: A Virtual Conference Session. Elizabeth. Sue." American Heritage 33. Joseph W. James. Available at http://www." Iowa Journal of Literary Studies (1989): 29-39." American Scholar 61 (autumn 1992): 604-10. Michener. Accessed August 9. 1984.html. "Writing Historical Fiction.

the titles here are organized in chronological and geographical categories. These are what are referred to as "traditional historical novels. My Antonia. Reissued 1994. There are historical mysteries. Books with U. a reader who enjoys Margaret Mitchell's romantic Gone With the Wind. Cather. Johnson (Libraries Unlimited. 2005). Reissued 2004. and many have received awards. 1955. set during American Civil War times. to time-travel science fiction. Bess Streeter. Gwen. and the titles listed are only the tip of the iceberg. O. it's important to keep in mind that other genre elements come into play as well. Willa. New Mexico. For more in-depth coverage consult Historical Fiction: A Guide to the Genre by Sarah L. 1918. The Handsome Road. Nebraska. Aldrich. Reissued 1999. Death Comes for the Archbishop. most commonly the geographic area or chronological period. The titles in this chapter may have elements of those other genres. 1927. 53 . (Western historicals). which combines the geographical and chronological categories with a genre approach that allows readers to find historical fiction in the genres they like such as thrillers. The subgenres are noted in parentheses after the author name or series/book title for those titles listed or annotated elsewhere in the chapter. Additional information. to medieval fantasy. Additional and more recent classics are listed in the sections that follow. to historical mysteries. For example. Civil War. but in these books. Reissued 2005. historical romances. settings are well-represented because they seem to be the most commonly published in the United States. However. is given at the end of the listing. Pioneers! 1913. the focus is on the historical context. Nebraska. 1938. a detailed account of the Battle of Gettysburg. This is a rich and extensive category. Selected Classics The following authors and titles may be considered classics of historical fiction. and historical adventures. Most can be considered literary.Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Historical settings are found in all genres of fiction. followed by books with British settings. A Lantern in Her Hand." Because many readers of historical fiction become enamored of a particular time period or geographic location and search for titles within these parameters. Bristow. when advising readers. from romances. won't necessarily enjoy Michael Shaara's The Killer Angels. Christian. mystery. and adventure.S. literary. Nebraska.

(adventure). i i Fletcher. Three Musketeers. Reissued 1993. C. Reissued 2000. (Roman empire). 1827. 1859. The Immigrants. Claudius. Reissued 2005. Hornblower series. MacKinlay. 1977. Heyer. A Tale of Two Cities. Reissued 2005. Dickens. (saga) Forester. romance. Reissued 2005. The Pioneers. 1840. Reissued 2005. Kantor. The Prisoner of Zenda.] Kipling. Action and adventure. Charles. The Prairie. Reissued 1992. Anthony. The Battle of Waterloo is central to the story. S. Swashbuckling adventure. listed in the adventure chapter. 1844-1845. (sea adventure). Rudyard. The Pathfinder. An Infamous Army. 1826. The Deerslayer. (colonial America). /. 1934. Reissued 2001. . The Count of Monte Cristo. Reissued 2005. Ancient Rome. Roman empire.54 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Cooper. Inglis. 1825. Graves. 1934. Reissued 1998. Alexandre. The Spanish Bride. 1951. Reissued in the UK in 2004. the God and His Wife Messalina. (family saga). 1955. Reissued 2004. Reissued 1991. Fast. 1845. Carolina Chronicles. Hawthorne. 1940. Reissued 2000. Reissued 2004. San Francisco—early twentieth century. (Regency romance/adventure. The Scarlet Letter. Nathaniel. (American Civil War). Captains Courageous. Georgette. Reissued 1987. 1850. The Leatherstocking Tales. Howard. Dumas. 1937. Robert. Historical sea adventures. The Last of the Mohicans. James Fenimore. 1841. 1896. A young man in the Civil War. 1895. Claudius. Andersonville. and even a spy. Stephen. Reissued 2005. (adventure). Hope. 1894. Reissued 1998. (Regency romance). Crane. war). French Revolution. The Red Badge of Courage. Spartacus. (colonial America). Reissued 1999.

of John of Gaunt. 1962. 1966. Gone With the Wind. Centennial. Colleen. (adventure and romance). Irving. (adventure. The King Must Die. The story of a baron and his family in late twelfth-century France. 1950. Reissued 2005.Selected Classics 55 McCullough. Katherine. Ancient Greece. 1948. Reissued 1998. 1967. William. The Town. Margaret. Oldenbourg. (adventure. (romance). Richter. The battle between the Normans and the Saxons in twelfth-century England. Scaramouche: A Romance of the French Revolution. 1817. 1958. à Classic romantic tale of Scarlett O'Hara. Rafael. Reissued 2002. Considered by many to be the first historical novel written. Waverley. Greek mythology comes to life in Theseus's Cretan adventure. The Confessions of Nat Turner. 1940. Conrad. then wife. Sir Walter. the Civil War. Michener. Reissued 2005. The Thorn Birds. (adventure). . 1820. (adventure. Mistress. French Revolution. Reissued 2005. Reissued 1988. Sabatini. 1956. The Last of the Wine. Australia. Renault. Omnibus edition title for the following books: The Trees. Ivanhoe. 1951. (family saga). and its aftermath. Mitchell. (romance). Reissued 1998. 1905. The World Is Not Enough. Orczy. romance). (romance). Reissued 1999. 1830s slave rebellion in Virginia. 1946. Zoe. Reissued 2005. (epic). The Scarlet Pimpernel. 1977. 1921. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Awakening Land. military). military). 1814. 1974. Baroness. Stone. The President's Lady. Reissued 2002. (adventure. Rachel and Andrew Jackson. Reissued 2001. military). Reissued 1995. Styron. Mary. Scott. Anya. Seton. Scottish highlands. 1939. James. Rob Roy. The Fields. Reissued 1996.

the heroine or hero may exhibit traits and follow social mores belonging more in the late twentieth century than in prehistoric times. and the book has been published in one volume and in three separate volumes. (family saga). Reissued 2004. Washington. how one might survive in a "primitive" setting. The harrowing tale of Mary Ingles's escape from the Shawnee and epic journey home. Russian revolution. 1990. Reissued 2000. 1984. B. Burr. 1983. who wrote dozens of titles for children and young adults. Many adult readers of historical fiction were hooked at an early age by the prolific Sutcliff. Prehistoric The prehistoric epic has become very popular since the 1980 publication of Jean Auel's Clan of the Cave Bear. The Silver Branch. and The Lantern Bearers—remains popular. and other philosophical musings. Sigrid. Lincoln. James Alexander. and The Cross). Leo. . However. provide a distant and romantic arena for the action. 1987. Carefully researched fictional memoir of Aaron Burr. as well as many pages or even books. Thane. 2000. Readers want to know what life was like before our civilization and before there was a written record of how society lived. Undset. Different editions have different translators. a massive epic in three volumes {The Bridal Wreath. 1920-1922. and tools may be scientifically correct. Williamsburg series. Empire. It won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928. The Wife. 1973. The Golden Age. costumes.56 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Sutcliff. the first in her Earth's Children series. Reissued 2000.C. Her series of books about Roman Britain—The Eagle of the Ninth. Follow the River. and it gives room for speculations about what it means to be human. Reissued 2005. Elswyth. Hollywood. spanning generations. the stories sweep through history. 1876. The dawn of humanity offers many venues for action-packed adventure and romantic encounters. 1976. From the American Revolution to World War II. Thorn. Vidal. in the case of series. even though the settings. Rosemary. often drawn from archaeological and anthropological research. Tolstoy. 1967. 1889. Gore. 4ft Kristin Lavransdatter. American Chronicle series. The settings. Often. Reissued 2000. Reissued 2000. War and Peace. Fourteenth-century Scandinavia.

People of the Lightning. Michael. 1992. Reissued 2000.D. 1980.C. 2002. Stonehenge. Upstate New York. Ayla. Dann. People of the Raven. and Kathleen O'Neal Gear. Eurasia. Northern Plains. People of the Mist. "Song Sequence. The Valley of Horses. 1995. 1982." Song of the Earth. Prequel to Song of the Axe. Jean. B e r n a r d . 100. 2001. People of the Fire. The Way of the Priests. 2005. The Dark Way. Prehistoric Louisiana. Reissued 2002. approximately 5000 B.C. Chesapeake Bay area. The first few books in the series are set in pre-contact America. 1998. Auel's tremendously successful Clan of the Cave Bear and the subsequent series spawned a number of other stories about life in prehistoric times. Pacific Northwest. A pregnant Ayla travels with Jondalar and her animal companions to meet Jondalar's people. Real People series. Robert J . 1991. approximately A.C. The Shelters of Stone. eleventh century. The First North Americans series. W. The Mammoth Hunters. 2004. Other titles in the series are listed in the "Native American" section in the Western chapter. 30.000 B. 2003. Cornwell. Gear. 2000. domesticates horses and discovers romance. People of the Masks. Song of the Axe. Conley. The Plains of Passage.C. the people of the Ninth Cave of Zelandonii. and is known for writing about Native Americans with insight and authenticity. People of the Earth. 1994. Approximately fourteenth century. Written by a couple of archaeologists. .Prehistoric 57 Auel. 1992. approximately thirteenth century. People of the Owl. Conley is a three-time winner of the Spur Award. Reissued 2000. Central Rockies and Great Plains. 1997. 1985. approximately 5000 B. 1993. J o h n R. Reissued 2002. Earth's Children series. a Cro-Magnon woman of contemporary sensibilities who was born in the Upper Paleolithic and raised by Neanderthals. Great Lakes area. each title is a stand-alone set at a cusp that decides the future of a culture. People of the Lakes. Florida. Clan of the Cave Bear. 2000 B. 1991.

. approximately 13. 1990. Both of Chagak's sons vie for the love of Kiin. 1991. 2001.C.000 B. Aleutian trilogy. Joan Dahr. Brother Wind. 1996. 1988. Chagak. Holland. approximately ninth to thirteenth centuries.58 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction People of the River. Walkers of the Wind. Time Beyond Beginning. 2000. Sacred Stones. Reissued 2000. Lambert. Thunder in the Sky. A tale of the people who built Stonehenge. 1998. 1994. Series about prehistoric humans crossing a land bridge ( called the Bering Strait in modern times) to the Americas. a young woman who has made an epic journey. approximately 9. Cry of the Wind. approximately 13. 2005. Sarabande. Beyond the Sea of Ice. 1992. Face of the Rising Sun.000 years ago. storytellers own stories in times of tribal conflict. The stories of three strong women named Zena in three different prehistoric eras.000-10. 1989. 1987.000 B. California. Shadow of the Watching Star. 1993. 1997. Spirit Moon. Kiin and another widow struggle for survival. 1995.000-10. Corridor of Storms. 1996. Cecelia. Set in the Aleutians in the seventh century B. 1990. Forbidden Land. Mother Earth. People of the Moon. 1985. Eleventh-century Southwest. The First Americans. 1993. People of the Sea. My Sister the Moon.C. William (pseudonym of Joan Lesley Hamilton Cline).. Sue. People of the Wolf. Call Down the Stars. comes of age at the end of the last Ice Age. Twelfth-century Southwest. Storyteller Trilogy. Alaska and Northwest Canada. Song of the River. People of the Silence.C. Circles of Stone. 1992. 1990. Harrison. Father Sky. Pillar of the Sky. 1992. 1998. Mississippi Valley. Edge of the World. 1997.

Reissued 1993. The Bearkeeper's Daughter. 2002. and their baby Skyfeather to the City of the Great Sun. Render unto Caesar. Dinah. Imperial Purple. The Sand-Reckoner. A Sarmatian in Roman Britain. Falconer. travels with her mate. Ancient Civilizations Tales set in ancient civilizations provide a sense of lost wonders and settings that seem more exotic than those in eras with well-documented history. Linda Lay. and the second Punic War. Alchemy of Fire. 1987. Margaret. A Greek Alexandrian in Rome. Voice of the Eagle. Time Circle quartet. Bradshaw. sold into slavery upon her father's death. 1977. Queen Hatshepsut—ancient Egypt. She Who Remembers. 2002. Pauline. Anita. When We Were Gods: A Novel of Cleopatra. 2000. 2002. Let the Drum Speak. 2003. Ancient Afghanistan. The Red Tent. Colin. the Aztec girl who. Child of the Morning. 2005. Chomoc.Ancient Civilizations 59 Shuler. 1988. 2000. Feathered Serpent: A Novel of the Mexican Conquest. Called Magdalene. George. Told from the viewpoint of Jacob's youngest daughter. Byzantine Empire. Antelope. A journey tale with gritty. Biblical. Resiiued 1994. Cleopatra's Heir. Ancient Egypt. Archimedes. Pride of Carthage: A Novel of Hannibal. 1997. Horses of Heaven. military detail. one of the Anaszasi's Chosen Ones who can communicate with spirits of her ancestors. 1997. The Memoirs of Cleopatra: A Novel. Gillian. believing him to be Quetzalcoatl. becomes Cortés's interpreter. 1988. The Beacon at Alexandria. 2004. Seventh-century Constantinople. 1991. David Anthony. 1996. Thirteenth-century Southwest North America. Gedge. . 1998. Hannibal's march on Rome. Durham. 1992. Island of Ghosts. Byzantine Empire. Cortés's conquest of Mexico focusing on Malinali (La Malinche). 1986. Diamant. Fourth century. Mary.

Holland. only to find that Mount Vesuvius is on the verge of eruption. The Empire of Darkness: A Novel of Ancient Egypt. A young engineer. 2004. Valley of the Kings. Aztec. McCullough. Also published as The Temple of a Million Years. Caesar's Women. The Stone of Light Series.C. The Battle of Kadesh. who ruled Egypt for more than sixty years around 1300 B. 1997. 1996. Robert. The Eternal Temple. Jennings. 2001. The Wise Woman. 1999. Under the Western Acacia. 2003. 1993. The Son of Light. Ramses series. Jennings's stories are set in the ancient Aztec civilization of Mexico. The Place of Truth. An epic series about Ramses II. In the 1920s British archaeologist Howard Carter discovers King Tutankhamen's tomb.500 years in time to the life of the boy king. 1998. Christian. Marcus Attilius Primus. 1997. Gary. travels to Pompeii in A. and then the story moves back 3. 1997. 1997. Aztec Blood. 2000. Caesar. 1980. The Lady of Abu Simbel. Aztec series. The First Man in Rome. Queen Ahotep's story. Set in a secret village at the end of Ramses's reign. Cecelia. Queen of Freedom Trilogy. 1998. 2001. 1995. Jacq. 2004. The Grass Crown. 1990. Nefer the Silent. 2000. Fortune's Favorite. 2003. 79. The Flaming Sword. Colleen. Masters of Rome series. 2001. 1998. War of the Crowns.60 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Harris. Paneb the Ardent. Pompeii. .D. Aztec Autumn.

while in the twenty-first century a doctor accidentally unleashes the bacillus responsible for the plague on an antibioticresistant population. and Legend" section of the fantasy chapter. In fourteenth-century England. A Spanish physician in fourteenth-century France seeks a cure for the plague in this sequel to The Plague Tales. Fifteenth-century France. 480 B. the years from A. 2002.D. 2004. In fifteenth-century France. Translated by John Nieuwenhuizen. Chevalier. 1997. The Lady and the Unicorn. Burning Road. Ann. 2005. Steven. 1998. and Robin Hood may also be interested in titles included in the "Saga. Smith. a woman realizes that the disappearances of several boys are connected to Bluebeard. Finn MacCool. The River God. Bernard. Pressfield.Middle Ages 61 The October Horse. 500 to 1500 may be called the Middle Ages. In the Shadow of the Ark. Egyptian Duology. Benson. 2004. Readers who enjoy tales of Arthur.C. Parallel Histories series. 2002. a Spanish physician tries to keep the members of the court alive in the face of the plague. 2004. Ancient Egypt. 1999. A Viking warrior. The Plague Tales. The Last Kingdom. Provoost. Myth. 1993. Tracy. Cornwell. Thief of Souls. Anne. while in twenty-first-century Los Angeles a detective realizes that the disappearances of several boys are the work of a serial killer. The Seventh Scroll. battles the kingdoms of England. A story of art and love based on the Lady and the Unicorn tapestries that hang today in the Cluny Museum in Paris. . 1995. Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae. The Virtues of War: A Novel of Alexander the Great. Middle Ages Very roughly. |^|it*} I—i . The massive undertaking of the building of Noah's ark. Ninth-century Vikings. Benson weaves suspenseful tales that feature a historical story paralleling a contemporary one. . Wilbur. Ragnar the Fearless.

Eco. 1986. The adventures of a fifteenth-century merchant prince. England and Persia. Fifteenth-century Florence. Tenth-century England. The Birth of Venus. Patterson. James. 2000. Holland. The Crusaders in the twelfth-century Holy Land. The Unicorn Hunt. Cecelia. Each book is a stand-alone title. Follett. 2003. Zenobia. 2000. Caprice and Rondo. Twelfth-century England.62 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Grail Quest. 1994. an archer who battled in the Hundred Years War. Third-century Palmyra. 2001. Reissued 1994. Warrior Queens series. Dorothy. 1983. Sarah. • Mystery and intrigue set in fourteenth-century Italy. 1986. House of Niccolo series. The Archer's Tale. The Last Jew. 1997. Race of Scorpions. Swords Across the Thames. Spanish Inquisition. and Andrew Gross. Scales of Gold. Vagabond. The Forgotten Queen. Fourteenth-century England. * Garwood. Ashes of Britannia. Thomas Hookton. Twelfth-century England. Ken. 2000. The Name of the Rose. Jerusalem. 1998. Gordon. 2003. Tenth-century Ireland. 1994. 1998. The Spring of the Ram. Pillars of the Earth. The Soul Thief. 2003. 2002. Gemini. 1989. Twelfth-century France. Heretic. Dunant. Dunnett. A precursor to the popular cipher thriller. . The Jester. Noah. First-century Britain. seeks the Holy Grail in an action-packed historical adventure. 2005. Niccolo Rising. 1989. 1988. 2002. The Physician. 1999. Eleventh-century. Haley Elizabeth. Umberto.

When Christ and His Saints Slept. Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt carried on a long-term love affair. Thirteenth-century Wales. but instead was kidnapped and forced to marry Henry II of England. The Sunne in Splendour. Sharon Kay. The Book of Eleanor. Vantrease. 1999. Renaissance 63 Penman. After having that marriage annulled. Katherine. Seventeenth-century Netherlands. their lives are filled with conflict. 1991. 2002. 1995.Exploration. Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine trilogy. Sharon Kay. The Reckoning. Penman. Twelfth-century Britain. Here Be Dragons. 1985. 2005. * In England of the fourteenth century. Eleanor of Aquitaine. Sixteen-year-old Griet comes to work as a domestic at the home of Dutch painter Johannes Ver Meer. While still in her teens. As Henry and Eleanor produce eight children. Anya. King Richard III of England. King John of England. When Henry I died. Twelfth-century England. she married Louis VII of France. she hoped to wed her beloved Baron Rançon. 1982. Peters. a great change took place in Western civilization as a new focus was put on learning and exploration. Tracy. eventually becoming his assistant and a minor influence on his work. n v • Europe Chevalier. Simon de Montfort. his daughter (the mother of Henry II) and his nephew battled for the throne. 1954. The Illuminator. So far only two titles in the trilogy have been published. varying from place to place. 2002. Pamela. Brenda Rickman. Fourteenth-century England. Here is the story of a powerful and spirited woman living in twelfth-century Europe. Ellis. Falls the Shadow. . Brother Cadfael mystery series. . 1988. Seton. Renaissance Starting in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The "Royals" Kaufman. Reissued 2005. Time and Chance. Exploration. Girl With a Pearl Earring.

To Dream of Snow. C S O Laker. Seventeenth-century Spain. who will become one of Germany's greatest Romantic poets. The Passion of Artemisia. Fictionalized biography of Michelangelo. shocks his family when he expresses his wishes to marry a simple twelveyear-old girl. Riley. Baltasar and Blimunda. The Serpent Garden. Arturo. Sophie von Kuhn. 1996. Pérez-Reverte. Irving. In eighteenth-century Munich. De Kretser. New Orleans. Portugal. 1989. Reissued 2000. French Revolution. Fitzgerald. Kathryn. and Aloysia—and becomes forever entangled in their lives. A touch of the occult in Renaissance France as a widowed painter finds romance while pursued by a diabolical secret society. The Richard Sharpe series. Set during the Peninsular War against Napoleon. Eighteenth-century Russia. José. Gû The talented Fritz von Hardenberg. 2004. 2000. Constanze.64 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Cowell. . Stephanie. Penelope. Cornwell. 2001. Josefa. Rosalind. Judith Merkle. Stephanie. 1995. Tracy. Susan. Falling Angels. 1711. Saramago. the young Wolfgang Mozart meets four beautiful and talented sisters—Sophie. Sixteenth-century Italy. 1998. Marrying Mozart. New Love. The Rose Grower. Blue Flower. Michelle. French Revolution. New World. The Agony and the Ecstasy. 1995. 2004. * Vreeland. Bernard. 1997'. Stone. Poison. Harrison. The Players: A Novel of the Young Shakespeare. 1961. Titles are listed in the adventure chapter. The Fencing Master. 2002. 1860s Spain. 2002. Eighteenth-century Germany. Cowell. The British Isles Chevalier. Edwardian England.

Seventeenth-century murder mystery set in England. tells the story behind the clash between Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. The French Lieutenant's Woman. Iain. The Ringed Castle. Gloriana's Torch. Renaissance 65 Delderfield. 1969. £Q i i Pears. 2004. have been portraits partly based in fact. 1973. Finney. Hannah. 1966. Reissued 1999. . John. Elizabethan-era spy. Theirs Was the Kingdom. Philippa. * Set in Victorian England over a half-century. F.Exploration. Sixteenth-century Scotsman. 1969. Arguably the most popular writer of historical fiction in the 1990s. Fowles. An Instance of the Fingerpost. viewing history from the perspective of various rulers. Reissued 1998. * The Game of Kings. R. The "Royals" Biography of royal personages has long been a popular type of publication. 1964. 1970. The Other Boleyn Girl. who had an affair with Henry. Readers find glamour and romance in the lives of royalty—and in these stories they can vicariously experience the life of the privileged and aristocratic elite. God Is an Englishman. 2003. A young Jewish girl. 1971. Queen's Play. Tudor series. Dorothy. Patricia. The Disorderly Knights. Reissued 1998. Many historical novels. Love and intrigue in the court of Henry VIII featuring Anne's elder sister. Francis Crawford Lyman series. and become successful in business. Swann Family saga. Victorian. Dunnett. 1998. Checkmate. Adam Swann returns from service in the Crimea and India to marry. beget a large family. Reissued 2001. Romantic and political intrigues are common. Gregory. 1971. The Queen's Fool. 2001. 1961. 1975. Give Us This Day. Dunnett writes books filled with adventure. Pawn in Frankincense.

Maxwell. about Henrietta Maria. 2004. The Queen's Bastard. Shogun. Crown is currently reissuing some of Plaidy's titles under the Three Rivers imprint. conspiracy. Exotic Locales Exploration resulted in awareness of and experiences in many new lands. Katharine Parr. 1969. Virgin: Prelude to the Throne. Plaidy. * i i . 1975. James. Started with The Princess of Celle (1967) and ended with Victoria in the Wings (1972). Clavell. who married King Charles I (1983). Reissued 2005. which is the point of view generally taken by the authors. and the ultimately tragic story of Queen Mary. 1999.66 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction The Virgin's Lover. 1999. Reissued 2005. Although set in the same time period as titles in the "Exploration. the locales in this section are exotic from a Western perspective. Plaidy wrote several historical series that are still popular in libraries. the wife of Henry VIII (published in 1993 and reissued in 2003). 1968. Began with The Captive of Kensington Palace (1976) and ended with The Widow of Windsor (1978). Queen Elizabeth I meets pirate Grace O'Malley. 1997. The Queens of England Series. Eleven titles. Nineteenth-century Japan. Reay. Jean. Many of her long out-of-print titles are scheduled to be reissued in the near future. 1993. Queen Elizabeth I of England Series. Queen of Scots. Eleven titles. 2003. Tudor Novels. Victorian Saga. Started with Myself the Enemy. Katharine. 2001. Political intrigue. Tannahill. Renaissance" section. and ended with The Rose Without a Thorn. The Wild Irish. about Catherine Howard. Georgian Saga. Gai-Jin. Jean Plaidy is the pseudonym of romance writer Eleanor Hibbert. the Sixth Wife. Fatal Majesty: A Novel of Mary. The passionate and tumultuous early years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Katharine of Aragon. Robin. Seventeenth-century Japan. The Secret Diary of Anne Boleyn.

A family saga. 1991. Rose. Aaron. Daniel. Sir Hal. Mason. and politics in the palace of sixteenth-century Ottoman sultan Suleyman. The Piano Tuner. 1996. 1994. Adventure on the high seas. Monsoon. The Middle Heart. Indu. Malouf s novels are set in nineteenth-century Australia. 1997. A novel about the woman for whom the Taj Mahal was built. Frontier Australia. 1993. Piracy and war in the late seventeenth century off the coast of Africa leave Hal Courtney fatherless and in search of treasure and revenge. beginning in late nineteenth-century Australia. Birds of Prey. Malouf. Mild-mannered Edgar Drake travels from England to exotic and dangerous Burma to tune a valuable grand piano. 1997. 2003. 1880s Burma. Colin. Morgan's Run. The Twentieth Wife. Hal Courtney. 1999. Wallaby Track. 2002. David. faces more danger and adventure with the East India Company. Remembering Babylon. a former Scottish boilermaker who settles in New South Wales and subsequently sends to Scotland for a wife. Walkabout.Exotic Locales 67 Falconer. 2002. Each is a stand-alone title. 1992. 2003. Lord. Betty Bao. Smith. The story of Alex Kinross. Sundaresan. Fletcher. Outback Station. Outback Legacy. 1996. 2004. McCullough. Outback. China during the Communist Revolution. The Conversations at Curlow Creek. intrigues. 2000. Wilbur. Nineteenth-century New Zealand gold rush. Tremain. The passions. f| . Colleen. Eighteenth-century Australia. now a privateer and the father of four sons. The Sultan's Harem. The Touch. The Colour. 1996.

Carter. John. 1998. or other locales. The focus of this novel is the family of John Williams. a twelve-year old orphan. Begiebing. beautiful. Sara. hewing out a home and livelihood from the wilderness while battling great odds to survive. untutored painting style as indicative of insanity. The lure of a place far from corrupt cities. and Nathaniel himself then becomes a prisoner while attempting to free him. provide fertile ground for the clash between "civilization" and the wilderness. set in eighteenth-century upstate New York. is typical. Bonner Family Saga. Frontiers. Dawn on a Distant Shore. crowds. whether in Australia. joined by the American colonial militias. Robert J. Into the Wilderness. 1997'. were locked in battle over the great territories of the Ohio valley" (book jacket). danger. who stayed with the Indians for the rest of her life. Often conflict arises from the forces of "civilization" trying to take over the wilderness and end the independence of early settlers. and schools offers freedom. Like many sagas. many of these novels feature families or individuals moving to a new land to seek their fortunes and establish themselves. led by General Edward Braddock. but it is too short lived when word arrives that Nathaniel's father. and excitement. 1994. 4ft Rebecca Wentworth's Distraction. 2000. Winner of the Langum Prize. is brilliant. is being held in a Canadian prison. 2003. Massachusetts. A novel dealing with the French and Indian raid on Deerfield. The Hornet's Nest: A Novel of the Revolutionary War. Jimmy. . 2003. Demos. will appeal to readers who enjoy this type of story. A romantic tale related to James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. jobs. Elizabeth and Nathaniel Bonner's married life may be bliss. Colonial/Early Settlement/Revolution Self-reliance and the strength to survive are common traits found in the characters of this type of book. the American West. Savage Wilderness. French and Indian Wars. as well as many of the books in the "Westerns" chapter. and the French aided by their Indian allies. especially his daughter Eunice. The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story From Early America. Coyle. Harold. A man (or woman) against nature. Elizabeth Middleton defies her father's plan to marry her off for his personal gain and falls in love with frontiersman Nathaniel and his wilderness home. Rebecca. in which more than a hundred settlers were marched north to Canada. Thus sagas.Chapter 5—Historical Fiction The Americas New frontiers and unexplored lands offer a broad canvas for fiction. "British forces. Hawkeye. Donati. and talented but viewed askance by her uncle and others in Boston who perceive her wild. The revolutionary war in the South.

Atwood. Mississippi. become members of George Washington's Culper spy ring. 2000. Westward Expansion. Members of a Quaker community. Clair. Norman. Rise to Rebellion. patriot. The critical and commercial success of Charles Frazier's Cold Mountain in the late 1990s reawakened interest in this time period on the part of readers and publishers. . Mary's Land. 2005. A Catch of Consequence. Lucia St. the Gold Rush—the nineteenth century was filled with dramatic and tumultuous events in the Americas. 2000. 1973. The anniversary of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 2003 and accompanying media attention also resulted in some new historical fiction on this theme. 2002. Mary Jemison was sixteen years old in 1758 when she was kidnapped from southern Pennsylvania by the Shawnee and adopted by a pair of Seneca sisters. Bahr. Shaara.The Americas 69 Lake in the Clouds. Grace Marks was convicted of murdering her employer and another person in Canada in 1843. A romantic tale of Makepeace Burke. in the summer of 1865 to a changed world. Diana. fishing one early morning in Boston Harbor. Burr. 1996. events leading up to it. Shadow Patriots. A Confederate veteran returns home to Cumberland. Two women. Alias Grace. Seventeenth-century Maryland. Fire Along the Sky. Jeff. Margaret. Taking Liberties. searching for missing loved ones. Reconstruction. 2002. The Yearofjubilo. Howard. Reissued 2003. 1995. 1997. 2004. 2004. 2002. The Glorious Cause: A Novel of the American Revolution. The Black Flower: A Novel of the Civil War. Gore. including a brother and sister. • Civil War/Reconstruction/New Nation The Civil War. when she fishes a British soldier from the sea. The White. Deborah. Based on a true story. Vidal. Robson. 2001. meet and join forces in Plymouth in the early days of the Revolutionary War. Larsen.

1998. the absent father of Louisa Alcott's Little Women. The Diary ofMattie Spenser. John. CQ à The journey of Confederate soldier Inman. Burke is an acclaimed mystery writer. Jakes. A best seller and winner of the National Book Award. A Memoir of Startling and Amusing Episodes from Itinerant Life. 1996. Battle Flag. North Carolina. Frazier. Rebel. 1995. 2002. The Adventures ofAllegra Fullerton. The Morning River. The story of Mr. 1993. White Doves at Morning. Burke. Robert J. or. Sandra. Savannah. 1997. 2003. The Bloody Ground. 1999. 1999. March. A Gift for Mr. Gear. Lewis and Clark expedition. W. March. Brian. • Cold Mountain. Civil War Louisiana. / Should Be Extremely Happy in Your Company. Charles. 1825 Missouri. deserts his post to travel home to his true love. Harrington. Brooks. The Gates of the Alamo. Ada. James Lee. Colorado. Andrea. Cornwell. Stephen. Dallas. Bernard. who. • The Chili Queen. ffl A nineteenth-century Arctic voyage. Michael. . Starbuck is a Northerner in the Confederate Army. after being wounded. Copperhead: A Novel of the Civil War. or. Lincoln. Starbuck Chronicles. Winner of the Spur Award. Géraldine. 2002.70 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Barrett. Hall. during the Civil War. 2004. 1997. 1997. 1994. from the Southern perspective. 2005. The Voyage of the Narwhal. Civil War. Begiebing. 1860s New Mexico.

Son of Michael Shaara. Henry and Clara. 'X " ' . j& : | | | K> . Nevin. Shaara. Mrazek. 1997. 2002. Eclipse. Gone for Soldiers: A Novel of the Mexican War. 2005. Toni. Lincoln. 4fc Killer Angels. Sign-Talker: The Adventure of George Drouillard on the Lewis and Clark Expedij \ ] *<• . Wheeler. David. Mark. Richard S. Aaron Burr. Sequel to Killer Angels (listed below). In Vidal's American Chronicles series. Thomas. y . r m ! 1812. Lee to foil an assassination plot. 2003. The Last Full Measure. 2001. Powell. The Curse of Cain. A master of Southern romance.The Americas 71 Mallon. Prequel to Killer Angels (listed below). Lewis and Clark. the author of Killer Angels. Eugenia. The Waiting Time. ^ tion. Beloved. A tale of the couple who shared a box with the Lincoln's at Ford's Theater. Morrison. An honorable young Confederate officer is sent to Washington by Robert E. Michael. 1987. (adventure and espionage). Eagle's Cry: A Novel of the Louisiana Purchase. Gore. D. Unholy Fire: A Novel of the Civil War. 1996. J. Treason. Vidal. 1974. 2000. 2004. 1998. Civil War. 1994. 0 3 * Thom. m The spirit of her murdered child haunts a mother and former slave in post-Civil War Ohio. The American Story. Pulitzer Proze winner. James Alexander. Meagher. 2000. 2000. Jeff. Shaara. God and Soldiers. Reissued 2000. 1984. and L. The early days of the new United States. Price. Meriwether: A Novel ofMeriwether Lewis and the Lewis & Clark Expedition. 1996. Robert J. Antebellum Georgia from the viewpoint of a feminist and abolitionist who inherits a plantation and a hundred slaves.

The Stone Woman. 1990. Bridges over Time. Amy. Garlock. and women's suffrage. . Sagas and epics are generally lengthier than other historicals.72 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction The Twentieth Century The first half of the twentieth century was filled with notable points in history: the two world wars. Anand. started marketing several series that became immensely popular. The Master Butcher's Singing Club. Ruth translates two packets of writing that tell her family's story in the early part of the century in China. Most involve a great deal of romance. 1993. Women ofAshdon. have been around for a long time. from Germany at the end of World War I to North Dakota. The Cherished Wives. 1996. The Faithful Lovers. the late Lyle Engel of Book Creations. The Bonesetter's Daughter. Louise. 2001. Catherine. Dorothy. spanning decades or centuries. Cookson has written several books and series that follow the pattern of sagas. 2002. Valerie. Tariq. The Ruthless Yeomen. and they offer the reader an opportunity to know the families involved and to become immersed in their lives and times. 1993. as well as adventure. Eleventh century. 2003. AH. The Proud Villeins. Members of a well-born family in the Ottoman Empire at the turn of the century share their stories. While her mother is suffering from Alzheimer's. Cookson. Saga Series The saga series. 1994. A realistic look at medieval English life. but they really took off when a book packager. Route 66 through Oklahoma was the escape route for many hoping to flee the Great Depression. the Great Depression. Eighteenth century. Many of the titles in the "West Still Lives" section of the "Westerns" chapter (chapter 6) will be of interest to readers who like this era. Mother Road. The journey of people who become a family. 2001. Seventeenth century. Prohibition. Fans of historical sagas should also consult the saga sections in the romance (chapter 9) and Western (chapter 6) chapters. Tan. Erdrich.

* Originally called the American Bicentennial series. still circulate in some libraries and are frequently the subject of readers' advisory stumpers. which started with The Founding (1980). Lusty Wind for Carolina. a wife. their family estate in Canada. Set in nineteenth-century Northumberland. The series is composed of Tilly (1980). Tilly Wed (1982). 1950. Mazo. Jakes. 1975. Cynthia. going all the way to America and back in the course of her life. 1948. 1942. and continued with The Malien Girl (1974) and The Malien Lot (1974). Charleston. Toil of the Brave. starting with Jalna. Tilly Trotter Wed. . Men ofAlbemarle. * The early settlement of Coastal Carolina. A young woman. The twenty-seventh volume. Tilly Alone (1982). 1940. 2002. Tilly Trotter trilogy. Morland Dynasty series. De la Roche. 1944. Harrod-Eagles. set in 1443 during the War of the Roses. Published from 1927. Reissued in 2004. Jalna was reissued in 2005. and Tilly Trotter Alone. and ending in 1960 with Morning at Jalna. John. outcast in her Tyneside village in the Victorian era because she is perceived as a witch. 1952. Fletcher. The Seekers. 1974. The Rebels. Three more volumes are planned that will take the Morlands up to World War II. Roanoke Hundred. Bennett's Welcome. the tales of the Whiteoak family and Jalna. The Bell family from the Revolution to the Civil War. 1975. was published in the United Kingdom in 2004 but is not yet for sale in the United States. Reissued in 2000 under the British titles Tilly Trotter. As of 2005 there were twenty-seven titles in the series. 1946. and a widow. The Kent Family Chronicles. All titles were reissued in 2000. The Bastard. three generations of a family are seemingly cursed because of past hidden sins. Raleigh's Eden. Carolina Chronicles. The Queen's Gift. The Whiteoak Saga. The Restless Sea. becomes a mistress.Saga Series 73 Malien trilogy. Five hundred years of English history are told through the lives of the Yorkshire Morlands. Inglis. The series began with The Malien Streak (1973).

Stranger in Savannah. Reissued 1997. The Town House: The Building of the House. • The adventures of the Reed family of Suffolk. C3 Dead Man's Walk. 1993. Wagons West series. Lofts. Recurring characters include Whip Holt. 1989. Price. was published in 1978 and follows a band of settlers who leave Long Island in 1843 headed for the Oregon Territory. 1980. 1995. Where Shadows Go. 1983. Antebellum Georgia. 1961. * [JJ^ A best seller. 1997. Larry. and his son Toby. the first title in the series. Eugenia.74 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction The Furies. was published in 1989. all set in the South. The House Trilogy. 1978. Price wrote several romantic historical sagas. Comanche Moon. The Streets of Laredo. Reissued 2000. Reissued 1997. a wagonmaster. Georgia trilogy. Ross. 1993. . The Americans. 1977. starting with Oregon Legacy in 1989. Lonesome Dove saga. # Lonesome Dove. 1976. Reissued 2000. To See Your Face Again. The House at Sunset. and winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Savannah quartet. the twenty-fourth and final title. 1987. The Titans. Dana Fuller. England. The saga of the Holt family continued. 1985. Antebellum Georgia. McMurtry. 1991. 1995. 1976. 1959. Beauty from Ashes. are followed from 1496 to the twentieth century. Reissued 2000. The Holts: An American Dynasty series. Savannah. Norah. 1985. Bright Captivity. The Warriors. Celebration!. The Lawless. The House at Old Vine. Before the Darkness Falls. Independence!. 1962.

1983. Men of Men. 1985. 1943. 1944. Ballantyne family saga. 1951. 1999. 1989. 1977. . This Was Tomorrow. Reissued 1996. 1966. This is often a readers' advisory stumper. 1948. 1989. Power of the Sword. 1990. When the Lion Feeds. Dawn's Early Light. A family saga featuring four generations of African American women surviving slavery. 1984. The Golden Fox. Wilbur. 1987. and an end to slave trading. when Sir Francis Courtney and his son Henry "Hal" Courtney are fighting the Dutch off the coast of Africa. Kissing Cousin. Rage. Williamsburg series. 1983. Reissued 2003. Lalita. Courtney Family series. Tademy. up to the 1970s. The Burning Shore. A Falcon Flies. Reissued 1997. 1980. The Blue Horizon. Ever After. The Light Heart. and goes through the gold rush of the 1870s. Monsoon. 2003. This adventure-filled series features the colonial drive for wealth and the conflict between the races while providing a look at Rhodesia's history. Reissued 1994. 2002. Reissued 1994. The Sound of Thunder. This series starts in 1667. 1957. Homing. The Leopard Hunts in Darkness. 1947. Birds of Prey. Thane. 1945. Robyn Ballantyne returns to Africa with three objectives: to bring Christianity.Saga Series 75 Smith. Yankee Stranger. 1997. A Sparrow Falls. Cane River. A Time to Die. Elswyth Beebe. * A family saga that starts with the American Revolution and goes to World War II. following the adventures of the family and the history of Africa. medicine. In 1860 Dr. The Angels Weep. 1986. Reissued 1997. Also published as Flight of the Falcon.

The 2. . Quicksilver. Ten thousand years of history.76 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction Epics The epic historical novel covers centuries or even millennia and is focused on a specific geographical location. Delaney. 1983. Poland.000 years of the city's history. The Source. 1974. Rutherfurd. Michener. England's monetary system is at stake among political intrigues in this finale of the Baroque Cycle. James. * Even though Michener has been gone since 1997. Four families and 1. 1991. The Forest. Sarum. 1965.800 years shape the history of Russia. Centennial. Chesapeake. 1959. 1978. The Holy Land. and alchemy. Texas. readers who love the epic scope of his historical novels keep his books available in libraries and book stores. Colorado. Russka. Mexico. Caribbean. Stephenson. The development of calculus. Frank. 1987. 1980. 2003. 1997. London. 2004. These large-scale tapestries woven from written words are best typified by James Michener's works. 2005. told from the viewpoints of several families. Sea adventures. Baroque Cycle. 2004. 1992. Ireland: A Novel. The Covenant. The Confusion. Hawaii. South Africa. Neal. 2000. 1989. Edward. Alaska. £Q Complex tale of science and scientists in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 1985. international intrigue. The Princes of Ireland: The Dublin Saga. 2004. The System of the World. 1988. centered on five families from the Salisbury Plain of England.

Talman.200 novels organized by 1. Indexed by author. 1998. 77 . Writing Historical Fiction. Dickinson's American Historical Fiction. subject. and Jill H. Daniel S. Sarah L. 2005. Lists 4. 5th ed. as well as setting and time period. Gerhardstein. Murder in Retrospect: A Selective Guide to Historical Mystery Fiction. Historical Figures in Fiction. Organizes historical fiction by genre and subgenre. VanMeter. and Gregg Sapp. Woolley. Vandelia L. Persia. Oryx Press. Libraries Unlimited. World Historical Fiction: An Annotated Guide to Novels for Adults and Young Adults. 1986. Extensive indexes. Oryx Press.500 significant historical characters. and geographic setting. Oliver. Johnson. title. Donald K. Lynda G. focusing on titles that are appropriate for high school students. What Historical Novel Do I Read Next? Gale Research. Lists 3. Succinct annotations for each title. Historical Fiction: A Guide to the Genre. Burgess.000 titles organized by geographic setting and time period. eds. 1994. Vassilakos. Over 3.168 annotated entries. Writing Historical Fiction: How to Create Authentic Historical Fiction and Get It Published. 1997. James Press. Hartman. Includes 1. and Lesley Henderson. Marina. Rhona. . genre. Libraries Unlimited. America in Historical Fiction: A Bibliographic Guide.000 historical novels covering European colonization to 1984 are annotated and classified. Twentieth-Century Romance & Historical Writers. Lists over 6. Writers' Manuals Martin. 1994.Topics Bibliographies and Encyclopedias Adamson. 1998. Scarecrow Press. 1997. How to Write and Sell Historical Fiction. 1995. St. American Historical Fiction: An Annotated Guide to Novels for Adults and Young Adults. Writer's Digest Books. 1997.. 2005. Michael. Libraries Unlimited. Award winners and titles suitable for young adults are listed. Burt. Virginia Brokaw.000 titles. Trans-Atlantic. Oryx Press. 1999. Vasudevan. Aruna.

78 Chapter 5—Historical Fiction

Conferences
The Historical Novel Society held its first annual conference in London in 2001. Its first North American conference was held in April 2005 in Salt Lake City (http://www. historicalnovelsociety.org).

Awards
Historical novels are frequently considered for and awarded literary prizes. There is one award, however, that is specifically awarded to a work of historical fiction set in the Americas for young adults or children, the Scott O'Dell award. A listing of winners can be found at the Writerswrite.com Web site: http://www.scottodell.com/ (accessed March 4,

2005).
The Historical Short Fiction Prize is a cash award for the best short historical fiction submitted for an annual anthology. It was started in 2005. The Langum Prize is awarded annually (since 2003) for "Historical fiction set in the American colonial and national periods, that is both excellent fiction and excellent history, and that, to some extent makes a delineation between fiction and history" (http://www.langumtrust.org/ histlit.htm, accessed March 2 1 , 2005). The Bruce Alexander Historical Mystery Award was first awarded in 2004 at the Left Coast Crime conference. Women Writing the West gives the Willa Award in several categories, one of which is historical fiction for women's stories set in the West before contemporary times. The Romance Writers of America give Rita Awards for three categories of romance fiction with historical settings: Best Regency, Best Long Historical, and Best Short Historical.

Online Resources
HistFiction.net—Authors & Books in Historical Fiction (formerly Soon's Historical Fiction Site), http://www.histfiction.net/ (accessed March 4 , 2005), lists many authors, some with titles, some with links to Web sites, specific newsgroups, or other locations that have additional information. The Historical Novel Society, http://www.historicalnovelsociety.org/ (accessed March 4, 2005). Maiden's Crown, http://www.randomhouse.com/crown/maidenscrown/ (accessed March 4, 2005), provides information on Crown Books (Random House) historical novels.

D's Historical Picks
Donati, Sara. Dawn on a Distant Shore. 2000. (Americas—colonial). In the second book of the Bonner Family saga. Elizabeth and Nathaniel Bonner's married life may be bliss, but it is too short lived, when word arrives that Nathaniel's father, Hawkeye, is being held in a Canadian prison, and Nathaniel himself then becomes a prisoner when attempting to free him.

D's Historical Picks 79 Sundaresan, Indu. The Twentieth Wife 2002. (exotic locales). The life of Mehrunnisa, from her birth in a ragged tent near Qandahar in 1577 while her Persian parents were fleeing the Shah's court, to her wedding to the great Mughal Emperor Jahangir. Along the way, a stroke of good fortune places her father in the royal court in India. Politics and the hidden power of the women of the royal Zenana are illuminated as Mehrunnisa catches the eye of the Empress and informally becomes her companion. Uprisings and conspiracies abound, with danger lurking at every turn. Vantrease, B r e n d a R i c k m a n . The Illuminator. 2005. (middle ages). In fourteenth-century England, a widow takes in an illuminator and his daughter as she tries to keep her autonomy and home safe from king and church. Vreeland, Susan. The Passion of Artemisia. 2002. (exploration/renaissance) In sixteenth-century Italy, Artemisia Gentileschi, a woman artist, experiences a horrific rape trial during which she is tortured, but with extreme inner strength she continues her career. -j%J

*—

l

Chapter 6
Westerns
Essay
Connie Van Fleet

Some librarians may think the Western, like its archetypical and outdated hero, is pushing up daisies on Boot Hill. For years it seemed that publishers agreed, saddling new Westerns with the "historical" fiction label, hoping to disassociate new releases from the stereotypes and misperceptions that plagued the genre. Readers often identified the Western stories with pulp fiction, B-grade films of the 1930s and 1940s, and television series of the 1950s and 1960s. They recalled all of the old stereotypes: a swaggering John Wayne, a stagecoach surrounded by masked villains, a gunfight on Main Street, a row of Indian warriors on a cliff overlooking a circle of wagon trains. Yet these very images are embedded in our national character and language. We know what it means when an author describes the 1960s Cuban missile crisis as the "high noon of the Cold War," or when it's time to "circle the wagons." The Western has never been completely forgotten and is now enjoying a periodic resurgence through an expanded "Western literature." This popularity extends to all types of Westerns. Although many baby boomers who drew their heroes from the Saturday matinees and television Westerns of their childhoods still want to see those honest and honorable characters again, in the past two decades the genre has become as open and diverse as the land and people it describes. Today, the Western genre includes titles from Louis L'Amour to Larry McMurtry, from young adult novels by Gary Paulsen to adult series by Tabor Evans.

81

82 Chapter 6—Westerns

Definition
Simply put, a Western is a story that takes place in Western North America, often during the latter half of the nineteenth century. The defining element of the Western is its palpable sense of time and place. The American West, with its unending plains, wide deserts, and rugged mountains, provides a physical setting that invites solitude and freedom. It is at once beautiful and unspoiled, redemptive and challenging. Its features reflect both space and timelessness. The vast Western landscape requires physical and mental strength to survive its rigors, but repays that strength with a sense of communion with nature and freedom from artifice. The traditional Western takes place in the frontier era, a time of cowboys and trail towns, Westward expansion and settlement. This physical and temporal environment serves as a "symbolic landscape," a time and place where chaos and order meet, where nature and civilization clash. A "Western" may be set in the modern time, but to be acknowledged as a part of the Western literature oeuvre, it must retain the same nostalgic mood of more traditional work, its feel and plot sometimes rising from the clash between civilized, often oppressive society and the out-of-time and place individual who prefers immediate action to political or social niceties. Much of the appeal of the traditional Western derives from the adventure and romance of the West and good old-fashioned storytelling. The adventures involve cycles of adrenalin-producing fear, exhilarating success, and quieting rest; the contrast is intense. The reader is engaged, focused, intent upon the outcome, because the outcome is never trivial. Plots spring from the larger-than-life mythical landscape, from the physical environment of the unsettled American West and the sociological context of the frontier psyche. The Western frontier, with its clashes between individuality and society, wilderness and civilization, freedom and capitalism, was rich with thematic opportunities. Justice, survival, and redemption are recurring themes. In most Westerns, the plot involves an unambiguous conflict with a clear resolution. A protagonist—and there is no doubt about who this is—must overcome an obstacle, whether surviving harsh natural surroundings, redressing evil through personal vengeance or retribution, or defending the weak. Good always survives, even if the good guy doesn't. Although heroes have become more flawed and their inner conflicts more apparent, there is still no doubt as to whom the reader wants to succeed. The protagonist of the Western is self-sufficient and capable. The cowboy, the sheriff, and the pioneer woman all meet obstacles with physical strength, courage, and mental fortitude. Once roused, the protagonist is relentless in pursuit of retribution or justice. With an effort of will, he or she overcomes injury, natural adversity, and weariness. Regardless of inner turmoil or superficial appearance, the Westerner adheres to an internal code of conduct that requires protecting the weak, defending one's honor, and keeping one's word. These elements have been expanded into a modern "Western literature." They have been bent, tweaked, and re-envisioned, but they remain at the heart of what we define as Western writing.

History and Evolution
Most scholars identify The Last of the Mohicans (1826) or The Prairie (1827) by James Fenimore Cooper as the first Western novel. Cooper's novels portrayed a very complex confrontation between two equally valid societies. The Indians were noble savages,

History and Evolution 83 with complex personalities and established cultural values. The novels explored the symbolic conflict between society and individual freedom, peaceful civilization and uncontrolled violence. In 1860, Erastus Beadle and Robert Adams created "dime novels." These popular books—five million sold at a dime each by the end of the Civil War in 1864—featured graphic covers and sensationalized stories of life out West. The dime novels didn't report the West as it existed, but shaped the way it developed, as young cowboys and outlaws used the books to model their behavior. Even at its origins, however, the Western entered popular culture through both print and performance media. In the late nineteenth century, E. Z. C. Judson produced over 400 stories and dime novels under the pseudonym Ned Buntline. Judson created the Buffalo Bill legend with a series of newspaper articles and a play based on his Buffalo Bill stories. Bill Cody's Buffalo Bill's Wild West show—seen by millions of people throughout the United States and the European continent— included women (who displayed riding and shooting skills) and Indians (who, contrary to contemporary belief, saw an opportunity to reenact an honorable past and to preserve their culture). Owen Wister established the pattern for the Western in The Virginian (1902). His novel marked a return to thematic seriousness and complexity, envisioning the West as a place of moral regeneration and utilizing the individual code of honor as the core of characterization and the impetus for plot development. Zane Grey, who produced over eighty novels and continued writing into the 1930s, moved Wister's pattern forward. He continued the basic structural elements, building stories around patterns of gradually increasing violence and tension toward the climactic confrontation between the hero and villain. He introduced a hero who was more mysterious and alienated (the heroic gunfighter or outlaw), generally older and a loner, but with a deep yearning to become part of society. Most notably, he brought the landscapes of the West to life, moving them to center stage, using the West as a testing ground of individual strength and cultural ideas. Other influential writers included Ernest Haycox, whose style and characterization set the standard for Western writers and whose work is still in print, W. M. Raine, and B . M. Bower, the first woman Western writer. The public's enchantment with Westerns followed the genre from print to film in the early 1900s. Beginning with S. Porter's The Great Train Robbery (1903), the first silent film to introduce narrative, Westerns became enormously popular, as they blended action, romance, and larger-than-life heroes. Grey's Riders of the Purple Sage (1912) appeared on the screen in 1918, the first of over 110 films based on his work. Frederick Faust (Max Brand) published The Untamed, the first of his Western novels in 1918, and continues to be known for the storytelling power of his traditional Westerns. He is perhaps best known for Destry Rides Again (1930). While the heroes of the pre-1920 film era were a bit exaggerated, these early films were fairly realistic in story line, dress, action, and scenery. The B-grade motion picture Westerns made by the hundreds between 1920 and 1940 moved away from realism toward a romanticized notion of the Western hero. In 1935, Tumbling Tumbleweeds, starring Gene Autry, set the pattern for success: action, comedy in the form of a sidekick, clean living, fancy dress, the cowboy code—and, of course, the cowboy with the guitar. Tex Ritter and Roy Rogers followed. Radio audiences

84 Chapter 6—Westerns listened to county and western music programs; radio serials, most famously The Lone Ranger, hypnotized eager listeners. In print, however, A. B. Guthrie continued the serious and multilayered exploration of the Western myth with The Big Sky (1947) and The Way West, which received the 1950 Pulitzer Prize. After mid-century, Louis L'Amour joined Zane Grey as one of America's most popular authors, and ultimately surpassed him in terms of books sold. L'Amour focused on that unsung hero, the common man, and extolled the virtue of honest physical work. He introduced new levels of complexity in his characters and demonstrated himself to be a master storyteller. Well over 85 million copies of L'Amour's novels have been printed; more than sixteen titles were made into films. In the early 1950s, kids and television Westerns seemed a natural combination. The Lone Ranger appeared from 1949 to 1957. For adults, Gunsmoke (1956-1975) departed from tradition by placing greater emphasis on relationships and personal conflicts; the tone was often reflective. Other shows featured nontraditional heroes—a gambler {Maverick), a hired gun {Have Gun Will Travel), and a bounty hunter {Wanted: Dead or Alive). Television Westerns reached their peak in 1959, with almost fifty programs appearing in prime time. Westerns were popular into the 1970s, but they did not reach the most desirable demographic: urban, affluent, and middle-aged. In 1975, Playboy Press gave new meaning to the term "adult" Western with Jake Logan, a tough hero whose adventures were characterized by improbable sexual exploits and a comic twist. In contrast, Don Coldsmith garnered interest in 1980 with the first title in his Spanish Bit Saga, a series of twenty-seven novels that accurately retell the cultural history of the Plains Indians. But it was Larry McMurtry's epic Western Lonesome Dove (1985) that won the hearts of readers, and a Pulitzer Prize. Television producers took notice of its popularity, producing four miniseries based on the saga between 1988 and 1996. The 1990s witnessed a resurgence in the popularity of the Western that continues into the new millennium. All things Southwestern—from art to home décor to fashion—attracted consumer dollars, and New Mexico and Nevada became destinations of choice for both retirees and the young and upwardly mobile. The Western landscape became popular with authors in many genres during this decade. Mystery writers, including J. A. Jance (the JoAnna Brady series), Tony Hillerman (Jim Chee and Joe Leaphorn series), and Robert O. Greer (C. J. Floyd), placed their characters in the modern West. Mainstream authors such as Sherman Alexie, Louise Erdrich, Ivan Doig, Barbara Kingsolver, and Larry McMurtry adopted Western settings. Authors typically associated with other genres also published Westerns: Bill Pronzini (mystery and science fiction), Jane Archer (romance), Trevanian (adventure), and Robert B. Parker (mystery) all produced bona fide Western titles. Larry McMurtry continued to produce Western novels, some giving a new spin on Old West celebrities, some with the flavor of the traditional Western, and some based in the modern West. Elmer Kelton, Loren Estleman, Richard S. Wheeler, and other frankly and unapologetically Western writers contributed new works to what some had thought was the province of dead white guys. Together, these authors expanded the genre into a "Western literature." More than twenty major Western films were made during the decade, two of which—Dances with Wolves (1990), Kevin Costner's sympathetic portrayal of the Sioux, and Unforgiven (1992), Clint Eastwood's soul-searching look at Western violence—won Academy Awards for Best Picture. Two new nontraditional Western television series, Dr.

The Western Reader 85

Quinn, Medicine Woman and Walker, Texas Ranger, premiered on television in 1993. Crossfire Trail (2001), based on a book by Louis L'Amour, became the most watched original movie in the history of basic cable. The premiere of Monte Walsh (2003), also starring Tom Selleck, was the most watched Friday night program on basic cable, drawing an audience of 18 million over its four showings. From its inception, the Western as a literary genre has been inextricably bound up with the representation of the West in performance media. Print and performance media reflect and shape each other. Throughout the evolution of both forms, however, the Western has been characterized by variety in quality and approach. To view the Western genre as monolithic in any era is a narrow approach that does a disservice to both Western fans and general readers alike.

The Western Reader
Owen Wister touched a chord with Americans who thought the culture of the East was decaying under the influence of rapidly growing immigrant populations, materialism, and radicalism. In a new preface in the 1911 edition, Wister asserted that The Virginian was "an expression of the American faith" under attack by "enemies both in Wall Street and in the Labor Unions." The cowboy was "the last of the freedom-loving Americans." In contrast to the dirty, crowded, claustrophobic city, the physical setting of the Western is rugged and beautiful, spare and clean. Nature may be brutal or destructive, but it is never deceptive or artificial. The West is a place of moral regeneration, and the themes of Western literature speak to the need for selftransformation—to leave the artificial existence of modern society and somehow, through adversity, freedom, and the forces of nature, to become something purer, more intense, stripped to the essence, uncluttered by superficialities. The land and the work necessary to come to terms with nature serve as a crucible, shaping and forging the protagonist's character; annealing the metal of his being through fire; burning out the impurities created by a modern society removed from its bedrock. In Westerns, hard work is not a punishment; it is a necessity for survival and an opportunity for redemption. Westerns are not an escape from hard work; they are an escape from the ennui that comes from work that seems meaningless or unchallenging. Much of Louis L'Amour's work revolves around the central theme of work, which invites the reader to identify with the characters and undoubtedly plays a part in his enduring popularity. Diary novels such as The Diary of Mattie Spenser (Sandra Dallas) and One Thousand White Women: The Journals of Mary Dodd (Jim Fergus) describe the hardships of life on the frontier and give insight into the strength and courage of women pioneers. Through this work, people define themselves. In the West, actions count more than words. Courage, generosity of spirit, honesty, and the ability to work hard count for more than wealth, lineage, or history. When freed from the constraints of corrupt institutions, devious businessmen, hypocritical politicians, and conditions that force collective dependence instead of self-reliance, individuals can find their best selves. One may argue that they also find acceptance, but it is perhaps freedom from defining oneself in another's terms that is most liberating. While this freedom

!\

86 Chapter 6—Westerns

theme appeals to many readers, it resonates particularly with African Americans. Westerns by African American authors such as Charles Goodman and Hiram King enjoy a growing readership. The mythical West, with its relative freedom from bureaucracy and society, may be the last bastion of individual empowerment. In the West, a single individual—cowboy, lawman, pioneer woman, or outlaw—may make a difference. Poised between civilization and lawlessness, the Western protagonist must act swiftly and often singly to ensure that good triumphs. No warrants, no lawsuits, no 9/11—just the individual armed with a rigorous moral code, determination, courage, and the skills to back them up. Finally, the moral theme appeals to readers in an age of complexity and moral ambiguity. In all of the primary Western plot patterns, from the dedicated lawman of the "marshal" story to the bad man turned good (or vice versa) of the "outlaw" story, from the deliverer of retribution in the "revenge story" to the settler in the "ranch story," the story only works insofar as the reader is in sympathy with the protagonist's perspective and understands—and ultimately feels—that any action is justified. For instance, Edward L. Wheeler developed the retribution and revenge pattern through the Deadwood Dick stories as a means of rationalizing his protagonist's violent actions, which were often unilateral and unlawful. This plot device has not only been used to create empathy for fictional characters, but has served to soften and popularize real outlaws such as Frank and Jesse James. While the strong themes of moral clarity and individual empowerment suggest that the character of the protagonist is an important factor in a book's appeal to readers, in the end it is the consummate storytelling of its writers that accounts for the enduring—and increasing—popularity of Western literature. The best of the Western writers give us a powerful mix of landscape, adventure, character, romance, history, and message.

Characteristics and Types
Within the broader parameters of the genre, readers find great diversity in reading experiences. There are many ways to characterize Western literature. One reader's Western novel may be another's novel of the West or someone else's Western. Some readers regard McMurtry ' s Lonesome Dove as literary fiction, some think of it as one of the best traditional Westerns ever written. Even more ambiguous is classification of McMurtry's Horseman Pass By, set in modern (1950s) Texas. The most commonly used classification places novels into three categories: formula Westerns, Western novels, and novels of the West. Formula Westerns follow a set pattern; they are often series entries that are written to specifications. The author's intent is to reach the widest possible audience with easily accessible entertainment. Typically, formula Westerns are long on dialogue and white space and short on description, characterization, and historical detail. These series are easy to recognize as Westerns because the publishers identify them as such; they're usually produced in paperback, short in length, identified by the leading character's name, and numbered. Many people have come to identify "Western" with this formula. Readers like the predictable endings, the recognizable characters, the consistent style, and the undemanding entertainment in formula Westerns. More recent representatives of this group include adult Western series such as the Slocum series (Jake Logan) and the Christian Battles of Destiny series (Al Lacy).

Advising the Reader 87

Western novels fall between formula Westerns and novels of the West. Authors of this subgenre want to entertain with well-written stories about the West. They have no pretensions about writing the great American novel, but they do want to produce work that is well-crafted and original. They want their work to have mass-market appeal, but they don't want to approach it with an assembly line mentality. Western novels will vary in description, depth of characterization, or historical detail, but they typically emphasize good storytelling and have a degree of originality. Resolutions, however, are closed, and although the protagonists may have some failings and self-doubt, it is easy to tell the good guys from the bad. The Western Writers of America (WWA) was founded in 1953 to bring together authors who wanted to find the middle ground between formula Westerns and mainstream literature. Representative authors, many of whom have received Spur Awards (presented by WWA for "distinguished writing about the West"), include familiar names with mass-market success like Zane Grey, Judy Alter, Frederick Glidden (Luke Short), Louis L'Amour, Elmer Kelton, Ernest Haycox, Loren Estleman, Terry Johnston, and Richard S. Wheeler. Western novel authors who provide a balanced treatment of Native Americans include Don Coldsmith (the Spanish Bit series), Cynthia Haseloff, and Will Henry. David Anthony Durham, Charles Goodman, and Hiram King are among African American authors in this category. Western novels appeal to readers who want to become engaged in a story and appreciate originality and good writing, but nevertheless want to enjoy the recognizable elements of the traditional Western, including identifiable heroes and satisfying endings. Novels of the West can also be considered mainstream or literary fiction. Although the Western Writers of America defines novels of the West in terms of length (greater than 90,000 words), most are often characterized by sophisticated writing and thematic complexity. Authors in this category take advantage of opportunities presented by the mythic qualities of the Western frontier to create literature that is artistic, multilayered, complex, and often filled with symbolism. They also demonstrate a high degree of originality and historical accuracy. They make their characters fallible and occasionally not very likeable people and force them to confront moral dilemmas and sometimes make poor choices. Resolutions are sometimes ambiguous or unhappy. Authors in this category include Edna Ferber, Wallace Stegner, Cormac McCarthy, Ivan Doig, Willa Cather, Louise Erdrich, Barbara Kingsolver, A. B. Guthrie, and Larry McMurtry. Novels of the West appeal to readers who value writing style and originality and who appreciate complexity. They also appreciate a demanding read and are prepared to put thought and effort into the experience. They are not put off by ambiguity and dislike pat answers and unrealistically happy endings.

Advising the Reader
While these categories provide a broad set of parameters, subject classification is another way to approach Western literature. Arrangement by topic like the one used in this guide has proven effective. Readers' advisors need to consider all facets of the genre.

Chapter 6—Westerns Readers who want a quick, undemanding read may choose formula Westerns, while those who want to ponder and reflect at length, who enjoy ambiguity and a challenge to received truths, may well prefer mainstream fiction. The majority of Western stories, written by literary artists for popular consumption, will appeal to people who want a well-written genre book, with heroes and heroines who reflect the best of humankind, a landscape that challenges abilities and courage, and a goal worth working and dying for. More specifically, however, readers' advisors should first be aware that many Western authors are popular years after their deaths. Readers who want "classic" Westerns or who are new to the genre may enjoy authors with well-established reputations. Western readers are also drawn to the genre because they enjoy the mix of adventure, characterization, and great storytelling. Elmer Kelton, Louis L'Amour, Larry McMurtry, and Richard S. Wheeler fit this mold. Readers for whom the lure of the Western is the adventure story will enjoy action-based novels by Max Brand and L'Amour and series Westerns. They may well be pleased with suggestions for other types of adventure novels, particularly those that are historical or character based. If descriptions of the land are of primary importance for Western readers, Zane Grey is an outstanding choice. If mood is central to a reader's choice, older Westerns tend to be more optimistic; newer Westerns have a bleaker (some would say more realistic) tone. Readers who prefer gentle reads would probably prefer older Westerns, as well as recent Christian series and some young adult novels. Descriptions of violence and death are usually more detailed in newer works. For readers who like character development, books by Larry McMurtry, Loren Estleman, Cynthia Haseloff, and Richard S. Wheeler are sound choices. Point of view is important to some readers as well; many traditional Westerns have an undeniable Anglo perspective. Newer works sensitive to Native American, Hispanic, and African American perspectives are increasingly available. Western readers for whom historical detail is important will enjoy Don Coldsmith, Sandra Dallas, Willa Cather, or Will Henry. Sagas are perfect for readers who want to become immersed in books that have multiple characters and span generations and eras. Coldsmith's Spanish Bit sagas, L' Amour's Sackett series, McMurtry's series (including the Lonesome Dove saga, the Berrybender series, and the modern Texas series) also fill the bill. These readers may also enjoy some of the historical epics by James Michener, the Kent Family Chronicles by John Jakes, the Australians series by William Stewart Long, or the Australian Destiny series, a Christian saga by Sandy Dengler. In contrast, readers who prefer shorter novels and classic action stories should be guided to Max Brand or Elmer Kelton. They may also enjoy short story collections. (Pronzini has edited a number of these.) Readers who prefer mainstream fiction may well enjoy classic novels of the West by Willa Cather, Edna Ferber, and A. B. Guthrie, or work fitting the category published more recently by Sherman Alexie, Sandra Dallas, Louise Erdrich, Barbara Kingsolver, and Larry McMurtry. Although subject categories (such as those listed in this book) can be helpful, they constitute a vocabulary that may confuse rather than clarify. It may be much easier for readers' advisors to ask readers what they want a book to be about than to articulate other types of appeal or selection factors. But readers' advisors need to think flexibly before they respond and be prepared to accommodate a number of different reader approaches. Subjects often will appear across genres. For instance, readers who enjoy reading Westerns featuring Na-

and self-reliance that derive from the frontier landscape resonate with contemporary readers. Mystery. Bibliography Barnard. edited by Richard W. Story of the Great American West. But anyone who thinks the Western is dead either isn't paying attention or is imposing personal tastes on other readers. The effort may result in happy readers. Happy trails.Y. as they have with readers for nearly two centuries. increased circulation. "Riding Point: The Western and Its Interpreters. Richard W. Older works are read and re-read. Cawelti. "Introduction: The New Westward Expansion. Pleasantville." In The Popular Western: Essays Toward a Definition. Western literature has enduring appeal for a growing audience of readers. Professionals who work with readers may want to broaden appeal and increase use by substituting the term "Western literature" when describing today's more complex collections. Nevertheless.: Reader's Digest Association. ed. and more efficient use of reader's advisors' time. 1999. The themes of moral regeneration. one relegated to a bygone era. N. Conclusion The Western is sometimes viewed as a dying genre. Western shelves are no longer filled with the work of authors long deceased. Estleman. New York: Forge. 1997. and action-filled narratives combine to engage readers who are drawn to stories that reflect the American experience. Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. The Six-Gun Mystique Sequel. Bowling Green. crime. and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture.Bibliography 89 tive Americans may also want to read historical fiction. Etulain. For people who want heroes and stories of individual strength and character. the traditional Western retains an enduring popularity with a loyal group of devotees. and they are continually available in new editions. well-drawn characters who overcome obstacles both natural and human. Etulain and Michael T.. freedom. or romance novels that focus on this group. Adventure. Loren D. . Western literature fills the needs of many readers. Evocative descriptions of the land. Edward S." In American West: Twenty New Stories from the Western Writers of America. Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press. some who want the undemanding pleasure of a straightforward adventure story. and locate them all on separate shelving. 2001. Bowling Green. John G. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Marsden. . 1976. others who are searching for a more complex reading experience. The genre is also drawing in new audiences as it expands and evolves. Westerns provide them in abundance. A Tom Doherty Associates Book. It is true that other forms of genre literature—particularly mystery and romance—enjoy a much greater share of new book sales and fiction circulation. New authors are affiliating with the genre. 1974.

The Reel Cowboy: Essays on the Myth in Movies and Literature. L. Mort. 1996. University of New Mexico Press. 1883-1933. 2002. or. N. West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns. With a New Afterword by Max Evans. New York: Plume (Penguin). Pleasantville. Jane. Albuquerque: Nye. Englewood. Colo. Littleton. N. The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains. Jefferson. Available at www. 13 (March 1.T. Saricks. ed. no. Now Read This: A Guide to Mainstream Fiction. Owen. Inc. J.: Reader's Digest Association. The Unembarrassed Muse: The Popular Arts in America. Genreflecting. 1970. 1999. 2004. Maltin. New York: Signet Classic (Penguin Putnam).: McFarland. Libraries Unlimited. 1992. Holly. Moses. New York: Dial Press. Edson Interview.com. Wister. Leonard Maltin 's 2005 Movie Guide. 1978-1998. Whatever Happened to Randolph Scott?" Booklist 95.americanWesternmagazine. Legends in Western Literature: British Western Novelist. Tompkins. Betty. Chicago: ALA. Nancy. New York: Oxford University Press. The Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction. Henry-Mead. Russel.Y. Wild West Shows and the Images of American Indians.90 Chapter 6—Westerns George-Warren. Jean. . 2001.C. Joyce G. Colo. 2004. Buck.: Rainey.. Cowboy: How Hollywood Invented the Wild West. 1982. C. Accessed July 2 2 . "Writers and Readers Buying Westerns. Leonard. 1996.: Libraries Unlimited. 1999): 1152-53. Pearl. John. 2002. Rosenberg.

who survive off the land and adapt to its ways. they circulate steadily. escape from the lives they had been leading. Some librarians assert that they rarely weed Westerns due to lack of circulation. large print. it is essential that readers' advisors remember that there are exceptions—the originator of this guide. The focus in traditional Westerns is mainly on character types. knowing that sometimes the tried and true is the best. and who began reading for pleasure upon retirement. often in physical occupations. since fans of traditional Westerns often turn to the classics of the genre. or make a fresh start in a new land. sharply drawn heroes and villains. or audio formats. and although there are not huge waiting lists for Westerns. Others are finding new life in paperback. Survival of ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances is the overarching theme in "Wagons West and Early Settlements." Family and community play central roles as the protagonists battle the natural elements. Many have been reissued. Selected Classics Because so many Western titles can be considered classics. and involve shoot-outs or some other use of force to bring about order. (However. so libraries are wise to hang onto titles in this genre for a long time. Stories of the "new West" (twentieth century) are covered in the section "The West Lives On. with mostly traditional Westerns covered in the first seventeen categories. Betty Rosenberg. 91 .) Although many of the titles in this chapter were published many years ago. Thus. the main reason they are removed from library collections is because of deterioration caused by years of repeated use. and other hardships. often by university presses. the stories about law and lawmen will have a strong moral thread. Some even lived the history on which traditional Westerns are based. and themes of justice. Rather. Their classic titles as well as others are noted throughout the chapter. was a big fan of the genre. Indian attacks. These readers are not easily swayed by glittery covers and novelty. a petite librarian and graduate school teacher. this section focuses on early classic authors who have had a lasting impact on the genre." Character types generally determine the type of story in the traditional Western. they remain available in public libraries. Relatively few new Westerns titles are released each year.Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald The themes that follow are presented in a roughly chronological order. Mountain men stories often depict rugged individualists. both of individuals and of groups that journeyed west in the late nineteenth century to garner riches. Many older titles are included here. Many readers of this genre are retired men who have led active lives.

Also published as Clay Fisher. B. Garfield. Brand used thirteen (or more) pseudonyms and wrote 215 Westerns. Henry. and good-hearted fancy ladies of the West of the 1860s in "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat. ( 1 9 1 6 ) . Immortalized the miners. (1857-1923). Bret.). Harvey. Brian. Capps. A. Benjamin. (1992-1944). (1895-1968). (1890-1971). Hough. Fightin ' Fool. Gulick. Better known for his Tarzan series and science fiction adventures. Haycox is important as a touchstone in the criticism of the Western. A great many of his titles are currently in paperback. (1939. Bill. Several of his books remain in print. His Big Sky is one of the top-selling Westerns of all time. His The Covered Wagon (1922) set a pattern for the Oregon Trail Western. gamblers. (1901-1991). (1875-1950). Fergusson." Haycox. his writings. Over forty of his novels became motion pictures. Grey. Burroughs. publishing the first in 1919. set standards that have influenced others writing in the genre. (1899-1950). Max. Two of his Westerns were reprinted in the Gregg Press Western Fiction series: The War Chief and Apache Devil (both serialized in 1927 and 1928 before publication in book form). His The Log of a Cowboy (1903) is the classic and authentic story of a trail drive from the Mexican border to Montana. (1859-1935). (1836-1902).). The native New Mexican was considered a true chronicler of the Spanish Southwest. Guthrie. Fisher is the subject of Tiger on the Road: The Life of Vardis Fisher. . Harte. Also known for his adventure novels. (1922. Some consider his sense of humor to be his most important contribution to Western fiction. His three top sellers (over two million copies) are Destry Rides Again. (1912-). Pseudonym of Frederick Faust. Vardis. Ernest. Emerson. (1872-1939). a biography by Tim Woodward. Brand.92 Chapter 6—Westerns Adams. Will. Andy. in style and characterization. including nonfiction. and Singing Guns. Zane. with all of the pseudonyms now appearing as Max Brand. Between 1903 and his death in 1939 he wrote eighty-nine books. Edgar Rice. Fisher. Twenty-seven of his novels were made into motion pictures.

William MacLeod. Jack." His typical humor is evoked by the compiler W." Knibbs. Twain brought welcome humor to the Western scene in "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" (1867) and Roughing It (1872). When he died. Mulford.Selected Classics 93 Johnson. Forty-five of his novels were made into movies or television shows. (1874-1934). almost all Westerns. "The Homer of the oaters. (1869-1934). Theodore V. sales of his 101 books. but his racist depictions of Indians are now passé. LeMay. as his first book affirmed. and they are still being reprinted in large print. In some fifty-seven novels. Short. frequently at odds with the law. (1926. including A Man Called Horse and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. Dorothy M. Good Men and True (1910). he covered most of the themes in the genre. and on television. were nearing the 200 million mark. \> . His The Ridin' Kid from Powder River (1919) is a classic boy-into-man Western. (1932-1993) His Arrow in the Sun (1969) was made into the movie Soldier Blue. Louis. his first published in 1908."—Time. His The Day the Cowboys Quit (1971) and The Time It Never Rained (1973. Hutchinson in The Rhodes Reader: Stories of Virgins. (1899-1964). Kelton. Rhodes.). appearing in novels. Several of her stories were turned into films. (1905-1984). H. Eugene Manlove. Alan. L'Amour. reissued 1999) were named by the Western Writers of America as two of the "best Western novels of all time. In 1998 he had more than twice as many titles on lists of top fifty best-selling Westerns as any other author. His Hopalong Cassidy (1910) became immortal in a long-running series on the Bar-20 Ranch. Villains and Varmints (University of Oklahoma Press. (1883-1956). Schaefer. "The Hired Man on Horseback" whose romantic Western heroes. (1871-1954). Luke. (1908-1988). Twain. Most remember him for Paso por Aqui (1926). with its tag line "We are all decent people. Elmer. were. Mark. Olsen. LeMay was popular in his time. (1908-1975). H. H. (1907-1991). Clarence E. 1957). He wrote about eighty-five Westerns. in motion pictures. His Shane (1949) is one of the top-selling Westerns and became a classic motion picture. (1835-1910). Raine.

Also included here are titles that deal with Indian captives. Arnold. Boggs. Blood Brother. Told from the Comanche point of view and set against the historical backdrop of French and Spanish foreign invasion." sections of the historical fiction chapter (chapter 5) of interest. . 2002. Elliott. a shoot-out at sundown.94 Chapter 6—Westerns White. set the pattern for the popular cowboy Western. 1998. Owen. on the best-seller list in 1902 and 1903 and never out of print. Carter. particularly after white settlers arrived in North America. Many deal with the depredations of the invading culture and the conflict between the two groups. and other incidents. Wister. Johnny. 1978. 4ft Moon of Bitter Cold. The indigenous characters in books and film have historically been portrayed in stereotypical terms. Also called Watch for Me on the Mountain. Comanche Dawn. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Stewart Edward. # Spark on the Prairie: The Trial of the Kiowa Chiefs. Readers who enjoy stories about indigenous people may also find many of the titles listed in the "Prehistoric. this well-researched book tells the story of how a courageous warrior named Horseback led the Comanche nation to separate from the Shoshone people. smile!" Native Americans The history of indigenous peoples is filled with trials and tribulations. Cry Geronimo." The best tales about Native peoples are those told with respect and understanding for their cultures. Mike. Winner of the Western Heritage ^ Award. A prolific writer on the Western scene. Stone Song: A Novel of the Life of Crazy Horse. 2003. It gave the genre its classic line: "When you call me that. stories of the range. Frederick J. with a hero. a heroine (the schoolmarm)." and "Ancient Civilizations. Blakely. Blevins. and a trilogy (1913-1915) gathered as The Story of California. White is chiefly remembered for Arizona Nights (1904). 1995. whether in the disparaging Tonto model or as the "noble savage. (1860-1938). Some of the older titles unfortunately evidence the stereotypes found in the early days of the genre. rustlers. (1873-1946). Chiaventone. Win. 1947* Source of the Western motion picture Broken Arrow. His The Virginian. Forrest.

Medicine War. 1987. 1988. 1992. Will L. 1941. Spanish Jack. American Woman. Comfort. 1992. 1993. 1997. Sequoyah. The War Trail North. This Widowed Land. 1993. Fast. Max. Back to Malachi. Crazy Snake. 2000. The Spanish Bit Saga. 1987. # Nickajack. Don.Native Americans 95 Coldsmith. Kathleen O'Neal. Lords of the Plain. Winner of the Spur Award. Robert J. 1994. Mountain Windsong: A Novel of the Trail of Tears. Winner of the Spur Award. 1993. Crawford. Howard. 1931. The Peace Chief. * Conley. 1997. Apache. 1994. Follows the history of the Cherokee. 1992. 1998. The Actor. War Woman. 1994. 2001. Diane. Reissued 2002. Reissued 1986. Reissued 1997. . 1996. 1998. Winner of the Spur Award. 2002. 1985. R. Border Line. Conley writes respectfully and sensitively. 1998. Gear. # The Dark Island. Cherokee Dragon. Real People series. The White Path. Reissued 1997. 2001. Glancy. Incident at Buffalo Crossing. Strange Comapany. 1991. The Long Way Home. 1993. The Way South. Pushing the Bear: A Novel of the Trail of Tears. The Last Frontier. The Dark Way. 1995. • Garcia y Robertson. Killing Time. See the "Sagas" section of this chapter. The Way of the Priests.

• The Contract Surgeon. The story of Crazy Horse. Man Without Medicine. Stratham. Laughing Boy. Reissued 2000. Winner of the Spur Award. 1959. * L'Amour. Reissued 2005. Anna Lee. Patten. • From Where the Sun Now Stands. Written by an author who was Blackfoot and Gros Ventre. Reissued 2003. Josanie's War. 1989. Smith. Oliver. 1953. 1984. C. A young Blackfoot comes of age in a realistic portrayal of the Blackfeet in the nineteenth century and their ill-fated contact with the white culture. 1984. * Jones. The 1978 edition has an introduction written by Betty Rosenberg. Reissued 2004. 1996. Waldo. Mohawk Woman. 1986. # Gone the Dreams and Dancing. James Alexander. Lewis B. James. the originator of Genreflecting. 1997. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Welch. Karl H. . Helen Hunt. Trail of Tears. 1998. 1967. Will. Schlesier. Douglas C. 1999. # The Kiowa Verdict. 1884. Winner of the Spur Award. Panther in the Sky. Fictionalized account of Chief Tecumseh. Reissued 2000. Buffalo Nickel. Henry. told from the viewpoint of an Army surgeon. Winner of the Spur Award. Thorn. 1993. Reissued 2004. Ramona. Bones of the Buffalo. Dan. Sacajawea. 1989. Frances Patton. Riefe. Louis. O'Brien. 1929.96 Chapter 6—Westerns Haseloff. Jackson. La Farge. Hondo. 1996. Barbara. Fools Crow. Cynthia. W.

1960. The idea of living inside another culture shows readers a view from an angle that cannot be seen by those completely outside a specific culture or by those on the outside. Reissued as The Missing in 2003. 2001. looking in but able only to experience the culture as an outsider. An Uncommon Enemy. 1957. Kate. Reissued 2000. * Overholser. Michelle. A captive's view often provides a way of seeing the daily routines of a culture. Stephen. Elmer. Reissued 1999. Benjamin. ^ "' '. Crazy Woman. 2003. • Way of the Coyote. A Woman of the People. LeMay. 2001. 1995. Boggs. . 2001. 1992. Alan. Reissued 2004. Win. Shadow Valley Rising. The Texas Rifles. Blake. Satanta's Woman. 1988.Indian Captives 97 Indian Captives Popular since colonial times. Changing Trains. Season of Yellow Leaf. Johnny D. The Last Ride. 2002. Michael. Kelton. Badger Boy. 1998. m Blevins. Tom. 1998. • !x \ i . Theodore V. these tales about individuals captured by Indians who are often adopted into the tribes and about those who search for them have a great appeal. 2004. Horsley. 2001. à Haseloff. Black. Winner of the Spur Award. Capps. m * Olsen. 1969. Arrow in the Sun. The Unforgiven. Beauty for Ashes. Dances with Wolves. Douglas C. 1983.jf)| < --. Jones. The Chains ofSarai Stone. * Eidson. The Big Fifty. Cynthia. 1966.

1982. Reissued 2002. Desperate Crossing. Mountain Men The earliest non-native people to travel the West were the mountain men and trappers. 1985. Beauty for Ashes. Conrad. 1994. The other two titles in the series. Six volumes are planned that tell the story of Sam Morgan's adventures in the fur trapping trade. The Light in the Forest. Dancing with the Golden Bear. The Woman Who F ell from the Sky. Blood of the Conquerors (1921) and In Those Days (1929). B. Rendezvous series. Charbonneau: Man of Two Dreams. 1975. 2005. Numerous reissues. who often took on Indian ways. 1927. * CO [ E Riefe. 2004. Robson. Reissued 2004. # Mountain Man. Clair. Melanie. . W i n . starting in the early 1820s when he leaves his home in rural Pennsylvania to head to the Rocky Mountains. 2003. Barbara. Winner of the Spur Award. 1997. Reissued 1995.98 Chapter 6—Westerns Richter. • So Wild a Dream. 2003. Blue Horse Dreaming. * The Misadventures of Silk and Shakespeare. Lucia St. * 1m Jeremiah Johnson Based on the true story of "Liver Eating" Johnson. • m\ Although Fergusson did not write the three books that turned into the Followers of the Sun Trilogy as a trilogy. 1956. Guthrie. Vardis. 1947. Harvey. 1949. Winner of the Spur Award. The Way West. Wallace. do not deal with mountain men. Reissued 1981.A. Fergusson. Jft Ride the Wind: The Story of Cynthia Ann Parker and the Last Days of the Comanches. 1953. most recently 1993. Wolf Song. they work well together. 1965. • The Big Sky. Reissued 2000. Blevins. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. Fisher. These Thousand Hills.

1994. Johnstone. Via/or o/tôe Mountain Man. 1999. 1994. . 1990. Pursuit of the Mountain Man. 1995. Border Lords. 1988. Titus Bass Mountain Man: Prequel series. Carry the Wind.Mountain Men 99 Johnston. 1999. 1997. 1996. 1997. 1996. 1988. Heart of the Mountain Man. Rage of the Mountain Man. 2001. War of the Mountain Man. One-Eyed Dream. William W. 1993. 1998. Return of the Mountain Man. 1998. Wind Walker. Death Rattle. Ride the Moon Down. Fury of the Mountain Man. Blood of the Mountain Man. Courage of the Mountain Man. Titus Bass: Sequel trilogy. Spirit of the Mountain Man. #a#/é? o/7/ié? Mountain Man. Justice of the Mountain Man. 1998. 1991. Terry C. Code of the Mountain Man. Cunning of the Mountain Man. 1999. 1996. 1982. 1997'. Dance on the Wind. Ordeal of the Mountain Man. 1985. Revenge of the Mountain Man. Titus Bass: Original trilogy. 2000. Pride of the Mountain Man. 2002. 1987. Mountain Man series. 1986. 1984. Warpath of the Mountain Man. Law of the Mountain Man. Vengeance of the Mountain Man. 1996. Crack in the Sky. Triumph of the Mountain Man. 2000. Power of the Mountain Man. 2001. Trail of the Mountain Man. The Last Mountain Man. Journey of the Mountain Man. GI/HS o/tôe Mountain Man. 1988. 1991. Creed of the Mountain Man. 1995. 1996. Buffalo Palace. Honor of the Mountain Man. 1998. 1989.

The long and arduous journey from the East was often undertaken by family groups. 1922. * Jones. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Preacher's Peace. 1991. The First Mountain Man. and disaffection. 1991. Emerson. who faced disease. 1992. Blood on the Divide.100 Chapter 6—Westerns Quest of the Mountain Man. 1952. 2003. 2003. Rilla. First Mountain Man. Trek of the Mountain Man. 1958. Lee. The Covered Wagon. Against All Odds: The Lucy Scott Mitchum Story. Reissued 2004. Jory. 1954. 4ft 77ie Medicine Horn. 1993. Taylor. disaster. Ernest. Preacher's Journey. 2004. The Overland Trail. Preacher's Justice. 4ft The Mercy Seat. Winner of the Spur Award. Sherman. 4ft The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters. Ambush of the Mountain Man. Preacher and the Mountain Caesar. 2005. Cheyenne Challenge. 1995. Originally published as Roman. Wendi. Reissued 1993. 1995. 2004. Riefe. Douglas C. Barbara. Winner of the Spur Award. 1993. 1986. * The Adventurers. 2003. Blackfoot Messiah. 1997. 1996. The Earthbreakers. 4ft Roman Hasford. 1996. Robert Lewis. Reissued 1993. * . 1997. fraught with perils and hazards. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Wrath of the Mountain Man. Wagons West and Early Settlement The westward journey of the nineteenth century. 2002. Absaroka Ambush. Forty Guns West. Askew. Hough. placed ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances that tested their grit and endurance. Preacher. C O Haycox. 2002.

Richard S. Haycox. and their broad experience with various individuals in the West offers readers a unique perspective on the times. Flint's Gift. goods and supplies had to be brought in. Reissued 1992. Elmer. A newspaperman in an Arizona frontier town. 1945. The Lone Rider. 1930. * After con-man Billy Newlands weds an heiress fraudulently.Mines and Mining 101 Wheeler. The legends of lost mines and mother lodes drew many individuals to seek their fortunes. Brand. Reissued 2004. Wayfaring Strangers. As the Gold Rush draws to a close. Kelton. 1996. Merchants and Teamsters For the West to be opened up. Nevada. By Flare of Northern Lights. * Wheeler. 2000. 1962. God's Pocket. 2004. Cushman. . Canyon Passage. he ends up working in a mine. Dan. Will. Mines and Mining The lure of gold and silver brought many unlikely individuals together and brought out the best and the worst in them. 1996. Fool's Gold. MacKenna's Gold. 2001. Milo Goodman buys a saloon in Jarbridge. 1997. Bitter Trail. 1963. Champlin. Tim. Reissued 2005. Reissued 2002. m Hodgson. * m Mule-train freight line in the Pacific Northwest. Sierra: A Novel of the California Gold Rush. The enterprising individuals who journeyed West to make a profit were generally a colorful lot. Max. 2003. Richard S. Ken. Ernest. In Alaska with Shipwreck Kelly. Henry.

1968. 1989. Bill. 2003. Bean. Brandvold. Once a Lawman. and Bodie Thoene. A quest for Arizona's fabled Lost Dutchman mine. 2004. Dwight. Louis. Incident at Twenty Mile. he jumps in to help his new neighbors on the Hi Line of the Montana Territory in this Western mystery series. Return to No Man's Land. M.38. take on a great significance. * The White Chip. Reissued 2004. Ghost Riders. Leaving Cheyenne. Reissued 2002. and J . 1963. so tales of those who oppose them.102 Chapter 6—Westerns L'Amour. Once Late with a . 1969. Once More with a . Once a Marshall. . Riders of the Silver Rim. 2000. Reissued 2003. Law and Lawmen The frontier was a haven for the lawless. Nye. 2000. 2002. Once a Renegade. 1981. 2000. 2001. Reissued in 1999. Winner of the Spur Award. 4ft Fool's Coach. * A Lost Mine Named Salvation. * The Empty Land. 2002. 1996. Ben Stillman series. Bennett. Legend in the Dust. A trilogy featuring gentleman gunner and portraitist Leo LeMat. Richard S. 1999. (Christian). Brock. Milo Talon.44. Nelson. 2000. Brooks. trying to impose order on the chaos. Tombstone. 1998. Once Upon a Dead Man. 1998. 2001. 1989. Even though Ben Stillman is no longer a lawman. 1990. Hell on the Border. Death Valley Slim. Wheeler. Peter. Once Hell Freezes Over. Thompson. Thoene. Trevanian. Fred.

Law and Lawmen 103 Champlin. • à A classic tale about mob violence on the American frontier. City of Widows. Hackenberry. 1993. Blood Rock. 2003. Estleman. 1999. Bar jack series. Ralph. 1984. Conley. 2004. 2001. Marshall in 1880s Montana territory. 2000. 2000. 1998. Douglas C.*j ^ p j :. A Spider for Loco Shoat. 1995. 1999. Clark. * Jones. Port Hazard. Estleman also writes in the crime genre. A Friends. Vengeance Is a Bullet. Deputy U. The Stranglers. Page Murdoch series. Big Iron series.S. Hall. Cotton. The Actor. 2000. Featuring Arizona ranger Sam Burrack. 1999. 1998. 1940. ^0. Murdock's Law. The Gunfighter. Broke Loose. Justice. The High Rocks. Warlock. 1980. 2003. White Desert. Winner of the Spur Award. Misery Express. Montana Red. Stamping Ground. Barjack. Reissued 1996. The Tombstone Conspiracy.iil|r=": m . 1999. The Ox-Bow Incident. 2001. 2000. 1958. Oakley. Charles. L o r e n D. Robert J . Sabre's Edge. Walter Van Tilburg. Border Dogs. Badlands. 1982. Tim. 1979. 1997.

Tim. Bad men may have a hidden core of goodness. White Lights Roar. "^ |£i Carter. When a shipment of rifles disappears. Conley. i i The Outlaw Josey Wales Josey Wales: Two Westerns. Whiskey River. 1970. 1930. Reissued 2003. Nesbitt. * à Bad Men and Good The color of the Stetson does not tell it all. Forrest. Portis. 1954. Max. 1999. Colorado. Brand. When all kinds of crimes start happening around Rock City. Red Wind Crossing. Destry Rides Again. True Grit. Champlin. Originally published as The Rebel Outlaw: Josey Wales. James Whitlaw is blamed. 1975. sheriff Charley Bent suspects three strangers who had recently ridden into town. Appaloosa. Clevis always knew that women were trouble. especially with the deceit and murder in her past. Omnibus edition of Gone to Texas and The Vengeance Trail of Josey Wales. Vengeance is a common theme. Ralph. 1969. Compton. . 2003. who has his own reasons for wanting the rifles. 1999. Parker. John D. Leonard also writes in the crime genre. Robert B. so to find them he teams up with Tommy Gasheen. Gone to Texas. m Mexican town constable. 1989. Robert J. while those on the side of the law may be evil through and through. so when Helen caught his eye he knew he was in for it. The Law at Randado. Paine. Lauran. a volunteer in the Irish Republican Brotherhood. 2000. 1973. Fugitive's Trail. * Valdez Is Coming. 2003. Cache Canon. Not like the motion picture that took the title. 2005. Charles.104 Chapter 6—Westerns Leonard. Elmore.

Zane. * Haycox. * Schaefer. Ernest. Bloody Season. Hirt. Can be found in A Century of Great Western Stories. 1987. Winner of the Spur Award. Richard. Welcome to Hard Times. # Journal of the Gun Years. E. Matheson. 1914. 1975. * Svee." 1937. Arizona. Jack. 1991. Agnes' Stand. £Q A shabby Western town in the Dakota territory is summarily destroyed by the bad man from Bodie. edited by John Jakes (2000). Reissued 2003. Glendon. Swarthout. 1998. source for the original motion picture Stagecoach. Tom. Marching to Valhalla. • The classic short-story Western. A Good Town. Eugene Manlove. * Trevanian. . Tombstone.Army in the West 105 Doctorow. Blake. 1949. 1990. Winner of the Spur Award. 4ft The Shootist. Gary D. Winner of the Spur Award. Lone Star Ranger. 1994. 1996. Reissued 2001. • ii Army in the West The Indian wars and the presence of ex-soldiers in the aftermath of the Civil War brought an often lawless military presence to the West. Grey. L. "Stage to Lordsburg. 2001. Rhodes. and the OK Corral. Gun Man. An imagined journal of George Armstrong Custer's last seven weeks. Loren D. Douglas. # Sanctuary. 1960. Paso por Aqui. Michael. Shane. Estleman. Incident at Twenty Mile. 1985. Reissued 2001. 1926. Eidson. Reissued 2004. St.

Army attorney Captain Merritt Barber. Soldier in Buckskin. 1999. the first African American to complete officer training at West Point. Ray. ft Blood of Texas. Stephen.106 Chapter 6—Westerns Boggs. 1967. Brown. will stand against all odds for what is right. is court-martialed for embezzlement in Texas in 1881. Young Josh Buckalew lost everything in the Texas war for independence. Short. Dan. 1949. Ernest. * Hogan. Border Trumpet. Luke. 2004. 1939. When Lieutenant Flipper. After the Bugles. Reissued 2004. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. he attempts to make peace with the Comanche raiders. 1996. . Henry. As more and more settlers arrive in Texas. Elmer. * Texas and Mexico The border country and the American settlement of Mexican lands provide an arena for heroics. Harrigan. looking for a new start. Crook. Reissued 2003. The Long Season. 1995. Winner of the Spur Award. Johnny D. ft The Gates of the Alamo. The story of a friendship between Crazy Horse and surgeon Dr. Bugles in the Afternoon. besieged by bandits and criminals. Will. Camp. Sam. Haycox. Lonely Trumpet. 1987. Now he and friend Ramon Hernandez travel the land. Promised Lands: A Novel of the Texas Rebellion. 1997'. 2002. Isaac Webb joined the Texas Rangers when he was sixteen and the Alamo had just been lost. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. Valentine McGillicuddy. Elizabeth. 2000. Kelton. who perceives a conspiracy. Blood Kin. 1944. O'Brien. ft The Contract Surgeon. Ambush. Chappell.

Andy. * The Brave Bulls. Long. . 1996. Borland. itinerant musician and cowboy. but if they had spent their real lives like the cowboys in fiction do. 1949. Star of Empire. Adams. Elmer. Mike. ranching could never have survived. with plenty of adventure as well. exacts vengeance and heads south across the border. Sam. Reissued 2002. Martin Brady. 1971. * Kelton. Blakely. Empire of Bones. roams the West in the late 1800s. D. Shortgrass Song. seeing his father gunned down in a border town. Tom. * The Canadian River cowboy strike of 1883. Caleb Holcomb. 1993. Leonard. 1992. Grey. • The classic fictional account of sixteen-year-old Andy Adams. The Wonderful Country. A sequel to Shortgrass Song. 1959. 1952. Hal. Rich in authentic historical detail. • The Day the Cowboys Quit. who travels from Texas to Montana. * Brown. The Log of a Cowboy. Not Between Brothers: An Epic Novel of Texas. Reissued 2000.Hired Man on Horseback 107 Lea. Devil's Rim. 1994. The Drift Fence. 1933. Zane. A cowboy troubadour from Texas experiences the range wars and land grabs of the West. 1992. Marion. where he lives for fourteen years until he re-enters Texas in the 1880s. 1998. 1903. Jeff. The Big Lonely. 1996. Too Long at the Dance. living the cowboy life. Wilkinson. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. Sanders. The Seventh Winter. Hired Man on Horseback Cowboys are the quintessential understated Western heroes. Reissued 2002.

Wilderness Trek. outlaws. McMurtry. but times are changing. outlaws. . 1985. 1967. floods) and humans (rustlers. 1964. Winner of the Spur Award. Clarence E. Reissued 1998. Kelton. "^ Grey. Jack. Prequel to the other titles in the series. * Trail Driver. 1902. Six Bits a Day. it The Smiling Country. Flynn. 2005. Benjamin. Robert. but the encroachments of people. Still a Western best seller in 2005. Nebraska. # Lonesome Dove. Owen. the second two titles are set in the first decade of the twentieth century. set out on a cattle drive from Texas to Montana. Reissued 2002. Hopalong Cas sidy. Capps. and rustlers in the ten years they rode the range before hiring on at the Slash Y. Hewey wants life to continue the way it always has been. 1963.108 Chapter 6—Westerns Hewey Calloway series. 1944. * Ml BBS Cattle Drives Driving cattle to a railhead provides the opportunity for adventures involving problems caused by both nature (stampedes. Augustus McCrae and W. lightning.000 head of cattle from southern Texas to Ogallala. fences. F. The first title is set in the late nineteenth century. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the Spur Award. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. # The Far Canyon. ^ Schaefer. 1994. Elmer. Larry. and cars are crimping Hewey's cowboy style. • Bill Scott gets a second chance at being a trail boss on a drive that pushes 3. 1936. # The Trail to Ogallala. An Australian cattle drive. 1910. North to Yesterday. Call. Jft The Good Old Boys. Wister. The Virginian. Indians). Winner of the Spur Award. Zane. Mulford. 1985. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. CQ ^ ^ J ] Two former Texas Rangers turned horse rustlers. Monte Walsh. 1998. à Monte and Chet faced blizzards.

This is the first title in Doig's well respected series of Montana books. 1998. The Sea of Grass. Richard. 1986. 1990. Grey. . William W. Grass Kingdom. 1922. Other titles are listed in the "Sagas" section of this chapter. changing the world that former mountain man Jean Ballard found on the grant after he married into the Coronel family and became "el Patron. First in the Barrons of Texas series. In 1890 Angus McCaskill. Range Wars The battle for free range and to keep the West unfenced provides a scenario rife with possibilities. Grant of Kingdom. * The history of a huge Spanish land grant in northern New Mexico as settlers come in. where he homesteads a claim in the Two Medicine River area. The Homesteaders. * Johnstone. Jory. West of Cheyenne." Richter. Lauran Paine. leaves Scotland for Montana. Harvey.Sheepmen 109 Cattle Kingdoms Although railroad barons dominated the country in the West. Free Grass. Clarke. individuals tried to build their own fiefdoms based on huge ranges full of cattle. Conrad. 1969. leading to bitter conflicts between those who raised sheep and those who raised cattle. 1994. Saddle a Whirlwind. Eugene. Sheepmen Cattlemen were not the only ones who moved West looking for wide-open land. 1950. Lee. 1936. Haycox. Doig. Reissued 2000. Ivan. Also published under the author's real name. Reissued 1992. Zane. 1987. Dancing at the Rascal Fair. To the Last Man. Battle of the Mountain Man. Vories. * Sherman. Ernest. Hoffman. Fergusson. 1928.

2000.. and C. . Reissued in 2002. exposing the fact that rabies is running rampant in the ranching lands outside Carson City. P. The Holy Road. In this sequel to Dances with Wolves the white man's "holy road. U. Railroads Ribbons of steel opened up the West to new waves of settlers and opportunists. Cathy L." the railroad. 2003. Laxalt. Iron Trail. * The Shepherd of Guadaloupe. The best of those engaged in this short-lived but lucrative trade were called runners instead of hunters. Clamp. Reissued in 2001. Time of the Rabies. and when a gang of renegades disrupts the process even more. 2003. Zane. wreaks havoc on Comanche life. 1906. Tim.110 Chapter 6—Westerns Grey. Grey. 1930. Whispering Smith. Champlin. Quest of the Mountain Man. In 1920 a coyote attacks an ewe in broad daylight. Adams. T. Spearman. Reissued 2000. 1987. Frank. 1922. as they had to keep on the move because their prey was always roaming. abundant herds of millions of buffalo were decimated almost to the point of extinction. In 1887 the men of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad raced against those of the Colorado Midland to put in the track that would open up the lucrative route to Aspen. 1918. Trail. Buffalo Runners In just a few years. Road to Riches: The Great Railroad Race to Aspen. Laxault has written several books and stories that feature the Basque sheep ranchers of Nevada. * Johnstone. Smith is sent in to solve the problems. William W. Cattlemen versus sheepmen in Arizona. Blake. To the Last Man. 2001. Robert. Michael. * Colorado presented some of the most difficult terrain for building a useable railroad route. Zane.

1985. Grove. this tale tells of Wild Bill Hickock. is thrown from a train in the middle of the desert. . 1986. 1988. seeking adventure. 1 2 Desperate and depraved bounty hunters search for Indian scalps on the Texas-Mexico border. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Blood Meridian. 1998. and the two team up to hunt buffalo and face the Cheyenne. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. 1985. finds all kinds among those who were slaughtering the immense herds of buffalo that darkened the plains in 1876. Unromanticized These Westerns reveal the ugly underbelly of the West.Unromanticized 111 Estleman. McCarthy. Kelton. à Wild Bill j ^ ^ Estleman. * ft The Buffalo Runners. TheHider. Glendon. Reissued 1997. Fred. 1958. Calamity Jane. he is rescued by Jeff lane. Buffalo Spring. Greg. Winner of the Spur Award. • The last buffalo hunter hunts down the last wild buffalo on the frontier. ft Journey of the Dead. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. a former Confederate soldier. Reissued in 2002. Winner of the Spur Award. Swarthout. ft The Homesman. Deadwood. Elmer. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage Awards. and others in the dangerous town of Deadwood. Dexter. * After Nigel Smithwick. British gambler. Cormac. 1978. Loren D. Matthews. 2001. uncompromising view of the area and times. ft Slaughter. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Loren D. ft Heart of the Country. 1968. 1992. Pete. ft The Master Executioner. with the patina of a glamorized frontier rubbed away to give a grim. Shocking and gritty. Keith Hayden. Reissued 2005. 1967. ft Buffalo Wagons.

* Dallas. S a n d r a . Culp. * à A picaresque tale of a Jack Crabbe. # The Chili Queen. and Wild Bill Hickock. The Return of Little Big Man. the madam at the Chili Queen whorehouse in 1860s New Mexico. 2002. Winner of the Spur Award. Guy. 1999. Brady. clever and often amoral. is depicted in an episodic series of incidents. 1998. They are accompanied on their quest by a diverse group of individuals. 1994. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. who has been abandoned by the man she was to marry. * . Win. his father sends his two brothers into the wilds of Indian country to see if they can determine what happened to him and to rescue him if he still lives. Frequently these stories are humorous and satirical.112 Chapter 6—Westerns Picaresque In this type of story a roguish protagonist. Vanderhaeghe. 2001. by an octogenarian first novelist. John H. # The Miracle Life of Edgar Mint. Thomas. The Last Crossing. Addie French. a settler's child raised by the Cheyenne. Brand. and outlaw Cat Brûles. 1985. The Bright Feathers. 1965. takes in mail order bride Emma Roby. The Rock Child. Harry. who experiences all the major events in the history of the West and runs across all the major personalities. 1964. Winner of the Spur Award. Gritty tale of mountain man. When a young. Brûles. Berger. Emma and Addie join forces with bank robber Ned Partner to rob the local bank. Udall. The Gentle Desperado. Combs. Comedy and Parody Those who have read extensively in the genre and recognize the unique conventions and traditional devices will derive the most enjoyment from and find the most humor in the following titles. Blevins. 2004. Indian fighter. Max. including Custer. Wyatt Earp. well-to-do Englishman goes missing. # Little Big Man.

1968. 1996. * Chancy. Kelton. 1985. The Fast Men. 1965. 2000. Blakely. 1987. Pumpkin Rollers. and mainstream fiction. • Summer of Pearls. Bill. 1991. This is a popular theme in several genres. . Louis." but now protagonists of both genders are experiencing the trials and travails of the journey from childhood to adulthood on a harsh frontier. Reissued 1997. Ann B . The Misadventures of Silk and Shakespeare. Loren D. Winner of the Spur Award. Winner of the Spur Award. # Prophet Annie. Robert J . Christian fiction. Reissued 1983. Squani. 1995. Mike. The Last Days of Horse-Shy Halloran. 1998. Reissued 1993. half Spanish. 1987. The Rounders. * McNab. Pronzini. fantasy. Tom. The Pilgrimage. • The Dark Island. Winner of the Spur Award. 1999. Comanche Dawn. Coming of Age Traditionally in this genre. half Indian. Elmer. This is part of Conley's Real People series. Max. Ross. 1986. The Great Caddo Lake Pearl Rush of 1874. including science fiction. Readers who like this theme may also enjoy many of the titles written for young adults. Recknor. confronts his identity. Reissued 2000. Winner of the Spur Award. Ellen. annotated in the "Native Americans" section of this chapter. historical fiction. coming of age could be described as "boy becomes man. Sudden Country. 1968. Estleman. Blevins. Conley. L'Amour.Corning of Age 113 Evans. Win. • Down the Long Hills.

Judy. Bill. East of the Border. 1927. 2004. 1932. Wild Bill Hickock. 1926. Robert. Alter. Law of the Land: A Guns and Gavel Novel. The Magic Wagon. Joe R. Etta Place. Burns. he finds refuge with a traveling medicine show run by Billy Bob Daniels. 1997. Davy Crockett. Matthews. Sundance. Dee. Celebrity Characters The names of legendary Western personages continue to evoke the spirit of the Wild West. The Stone Garden : The Epic Life of Billy the Kid. Reissued 2001. where she meets the Sundance Kid and joins him and Butch Cassidy on their adventures. Laxalt. 1998. à Joaquin Murieta. Brown. McMurtry.114 Chapter 6—Westerns Lansdale. * Wyatt Earp. Wave High the Banner. Reissued 1992. who claims to be Wild Bill Hickock's illegitimate son. Shauna. Butch and Me. 1961. Tombstone: An Iliad of the Southwest. Billy the Kid. . 1999. m Hud. fleeing her abusive father. Johnny D. Dust Devils. The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Larry. ends up in a San Antonio brothel. Walter Noble. Reilly. Reissued 1999. Horseman Pass By. Brooks. Reissued 1999. When Buster Fogg's family is wiped out by a Texas tornado. 2001. 2002. Greg. 1986. Reissued 1999. The Saga of Billy the Kid. Freedom in My Soul. 2004. Boggs. * The Robin Hood of El Dorado. 1983.

and Ken Babbs. John Byrne. Loren D. A sixteen-year-old fleeing the New York draft riots of 1863 becomes a piano player in the West and meets the famous and infamous. 1919 movie set. Lewis. Billy Gashade. 1988. The Kinkaid County War. McMurtry. The legend of Big Jim Bowie. Brian. Kesey. m Aces and Eights. over the next several decades. 1989. Oscar Wilde. Garfield. Last Go Round: A Dime Western. Judd. Wild Bill Hickock. and others.Celebrity Characters 115 Camp. Eickhoff. 1998. Winner of the Spur Award. Butch Cassidy and Charlie Siringo. 1984. Belle Star: A Novel of the Old West. 1982. Estleman. John Muir makes an appearance. 1989. Wild Bill Hickock. Larry. . This Old Bill. Buffalo Bill Cody. Cooke. Clifford. Bowie. Winner * of the Western Heritage Award. Billy the Kid: The Legend of El Chivato. Teddy Roosevelt in the Badlands. South of the Border. 1981. Elizabeth. Billy the Kid. 1999. 2004. Ken. 1995. Cole. Fackler. Deborah. Eickhoff. • And Not To Yield: A Novel of the Life and Times of Wild Bill Hickok. 1997. Randy Lee. Billy the Kid. Randy Lee. Anything for Billy. 1994. Wild Bill Hickock. 1987. including George Armstrong Custer. Manifest Destiny. and Leonard C. Tom Mix and Pancho Villa. Irving.

1967. Max. Norman. Black Marshal. African Americans in the West Up until recently. Evans. Bound by Blood. Fackler. • Follow the Free Wind. Wyatt Earp. African American sisters in the Southwest. 1985. Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp. Gunman's Rhapsody. Elizabeth. # Masterson. get together in 1916. One More River to Cross. 1963. 2001. Glendon. 1993. David Anthony. Robert B. but Gabriel is unhappy and heads to Texas with an ill-fated group. but in truth there were many who were Hispanic and black. "buffalo soldiers. Parker. 1993. Durham. 1999. 1982. 1990. Gabriel's Story. Buffalo Soldier. "^ . Will. now old. Calamity Jane." Brackett. African American soldiers were seen frequently enough that Native Americans created a name for them. Faraway Blue. Breaking Even. Charles R. Winner of the Spur Award. 1999. Reissued 2002. Swarthout. 1998. Solomon. Goodman. Richard S. 1981. 2001. Henry. Fleeing the disruptions of Reconstruction. Winner of the Spur Award. Leigh. fifteen-year-old Gabriel and his mother head west to Kansas to join his stepfather. Wheeler.116 Chapter 6—Westerns * Buffalo Girls. * Burchardt. Zollinger. Black Cheyenne. The Old Colts. Meridian: A Novel of Kit Carson's West. cowboys have been most often portrayed as white. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Bill. 1997.

a series about a family of African American military men. 1992. Mormons All well-defined groups who headed west are subjects of some Westerns. and the activities of the notorious Danites make this group a favorite element in Westerns. F. Broken Ranks. the extremes of polygamy some practiced. Walter Dean. even though it was written for young teens. High Prairie. The Medicine Calf: A Novel 1981. Black mountain man adopted by Indians. Hiram. * Wagontongue. The Wolf and the Buffalo. 1996. ^ This humorous. 1998. Willard. 1972. George W. The Righteous Revenge of Artemis Bonner. Buffalo Soldiers. 1996. Elmer.Mormons 117 Hotchkiss. Often they are portrayed in a very unflattering light. Kelton. Keaton. African American soldiers go from fighting the Apache in Arizona to the Philippines to fight in the Spanish-American War. Bill. 1998. King. Dark Trail. Tom. Jones. Robert F. Former slave Augustus Sharps rises through the Army ranks in the West following the Civil War. 1990. 1984. Season for War. Myers. Deadville. Reissued 1998. . 2001. Kluge. 1980. picaresque novel is enjoyed by adults. Rina. The large group of controversial families traveling with Brigham Young. P. 1997. Proctor. Walks Without a Soul. Nate Wagoner hunts the Comanches who killed his baby and kidnapped the rest of his family. This is the first book in the Black Sabre Chronicles. Revenge of June Daley.

Riders of the Purple Sage. The Wedding Dress. Libbie. told from the viewpoints of three of the wives of John D. 2002. Judith. Cry of the Hawk. Reissued 2005. A Confederate soldier who served in the Union Army in the West returns home to discover his family kidnapped by Mormons. Freeman has won awards from the Association for Mormon Letters for her contemporary novels. The Mountain Meadows Massacre of 1857. 1994. Christian fiction that aims to expose the wrongness when a young woman discovers that she is not her husband's only wife. Terry C. Fortunately this has changed in recent years. Lee. 1993. Dinah. lives the history of the early life of the church. and sets out on a violent quest to find them. Wells. and the daughter. women played lesser roles than horses and were often depicted stereotypically or in unflattering terms. 1961. Singular Women In early Westerns. Richard. Cherokee Rose: A Novel of America's First Cowgirl.118 Chapter 6—Westerns Card. . Zane. from a secret marriage to Joseph Smith to the journey west and subsequent polygamous marriage to Brigham Young. A Woman of Destiny. 1995. Jessie. independent women playing prominent roles. Wormser. with strong. Alter. Also published as Saints. An English family having difficult times converts to Mormonism. 1996. 1988. 4fc Mattie. Grey. 1912. Johnston. Marian. Elizabeth Bacon Custer's fictionalized story. A novel about Jessie Benton Freemont. * A very negative look at Mormons. 1984. Winner of the Spur Award. Orson Scott. Reissued 1994. Battalion of Saints. Freeman. Judy. Red Water. * The Mormon Battalion marching to the war with Mexico. 1982. who was the only individual to be prosecuted and executed for the massacre.

Cimarron. 2000. Jfr Out of Eden.000 on the Hoof(1940). The Ludlow Massacre. JoAnn. Daughter of Joy: A Novel of Gold Rush California. Woman of the Frontier. Carroll. Sybil. Looking After Lily. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Breaking Even. # A Sweetness to the Soul. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. she doesn't expect to learn that he didn't just look like a bad boy but really was one. The Passion ofDellie O'Barr. . Zane. McDade Cycle series. Elizabeth. Fire in the Hole. 1996. One Hundred Girl's Mother. Lehrer. African-American sisters in the Southwest. Lenore. 1995. 1998. C i i Q Grey. 1992. Hay wood Beatty. Published previously in a cut version as 30. Jane. Fackler. 1998. Badlands. Edna. 1994. 1930. Ferber. 1997. Lily. 1996. A female missionary works with Chinese women in San Francisco. Texas. looks after Lily while Marion serves time in prison. Downing. The story of Lily's younger sister. Charbonneau. Cindy. 1998. Rachel Lemoyne. 1998. A young Chinese woman in Gold Rush California. the youngest brother of a family notorious around McDade. 1995. Texas Lily. Levy.Singular Women 119 Bonner. 1996. When fifteen-year-old Lily Delony falls for eighteen-year-old Marion Beatty. Kate. Marion's older brother. Kirkpatrick. Eileen.

Whitson. Williamson. Tacey Cromwell 1942. * Smiley. Readers who like Western romances should also check the romance chapter. Saga" section of chapter 9. even though he is dead. Richter. Features a Cherokee schoolteacher. Janet. 2000. Spring Came on Forever.120 Chapter 6—Westerns Recknor. * Bittner. Home Mountain. 1935. The strong individuals who settled the area also make for engaging romantic leads. Rosanne. and with his information from the beyond. Jonas. Penelope. the sheer abundance of cowboys in romance publishing makes it appear that all American men are cowboys (or at least the good-looking. 1996. Stratham. 1990. leaving her no money and his two elderly relatives. 1993. Annie becomes a celebrity as a medium. Prophet Annie. She has more than fifty titles. 1998. Trail of Tears. Annie goes to the Arizona Territory to marry a rich old man. Calder saga. 03 The story of a strong young woman who moves with her new husband to the Kansas Territory in the mid-1800s. Jane. Winner of the Spur Award. Jeanne. Several are listed in the romance chapter (chapter 9). and vivid sunsets make the West a natural setting for romantic fiction. Stephanie Grace. 1995. Frances Patton. Bess Streeter. published as romance. romantic ones). Titles are listed in the "Historical Romance. Ellen. is not gone. Walks the Fire. towering mountain ranges. . Dailey. # The All-True Travels and Adventures ofLidie Newton: A Novel. 1995. Williams. Aldrich. The Western setting and heroes have become extremely popular in romance. Has a Christian emphasis. Romance Wide-open landscapes. Heart of the West. Conrad. who drops dead right after the wedding. The Outsider.

Smiling Country. * Kelton. * Grey. Ives. Soldier Boy. Billy Christmas. Zane. 2000. known as Scrip. Oke. both named Melvin. Ric. Simon Green. makes his living in the old West by writing letters home for folks who are illiterate. and ends up living in a brothel. Sid. Burks. Elmer. Janette. Karr. 1998. Oke's Christian tales of prairie romance are sometimes read as Westerns. Brian. thirteen-year-old Eva Wilkins goes to Denver to find the mother who gave her up at birth. Stick and Whittle. The Great Turkey Walk. A teenage bare-knuckles boxer enlists in the Army of the West to get away from his promoter after he fails to throw a fight. 1972. where her mother is a prostitute. The Light of Western Stars. Elisa. 2005. Hardeman. 1942. David. Scrib. Marilyn. as they deal with life on the western frontier of Canada. Seventeen-year-old Wylie Jackson lands a job as an assistant cook on a cattle drive. Sunshine Rider: The First Vegetarian Western.Young Adult Westerns 121 Durham. 1998. Hite. Recently reissued titles are listed in the Christian fiction chapter (chapter 13). Carbone. figures on making his fortune by driving a thousand head of turkeys from Missouri to Denver. but adults enjoy them. When her foster parents die. L£ I \> . Roselle. a fifteen-year-old. but when someone threatens him he takes his idiosyncratic spelling and looks for other work. 2005. à Young Adult Westerns The following Westerns may have been written for teens. taking along his friend's pet cattalo. 1998. Kathleen. Last Dance on Holladay Street. A Civil War veteran and a sixteen-year-old. 1997. find adventure as they travel together from Texas to Kansas. too. The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing.

m Smoke Signals Reservation Blues. a young man from Mobile.122 Chapter 6—Westerns Oh. fourteen-year-old Daniel LeBlane joins a westward bound wagon train. Reissued 1999. Alabama. The Righteous Revenge of Artemis Bonner. and many are literary. Myers. Native American. Stone. Richard. 1962. The Brave Cowboy. rather than Westerns. and suffers intense hardships on the Oregon Trail. 1972. Spooner. 1956. Bless Me. During World War II. 2001. Red Sky at Morning. The Adventures of Midnight Son. 1993. Gerald Eugene Nathan. 1995. Many of the titles listed here are considered mainstream novels. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. The Monkey Wrench Gang. The following list demonstrates some of the cultural diversity of the region and the changes that have occurred in the twentieth century. Ultima. Daniel's Walk. Rockhand Lizzie. The West Lives On The qualities that make Western heroes popular are still inherent in the children of the West today. Bradford. 1992. Alexie. Sherman. A rollicking picaresque novel set in Arkansas and the Indian Territory begins in 1901 when Lizzie is orphaned shortly before her seventh birthday. 1992. Michael. comes of age in the mountains of northern New Mexico. Hispanic coming-of-age story set in New Mexico. 1992. Walter Dean. . 1999. Albuquerque. walks more than a thousand miles. Patrick. Edward. Taking up residence with a series of folks she has adventure after adventure. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. jfc Fire on the Mountain. 1975. Abbey. The Longest Ride. Reissued 2003. Denise Lewis. Hayduke Lives! 1989. Those Harper Girls! Or Young and Dangerous. Rudolfo. 1997. In 1856. Anaya. 1968. 1999. all in a quest to find his father.

Freeman. Thomas. Winner of the Western Heritage * Award. A Desert of Pure Meaning. Montana. 1990. Native American. Dorris. A Yellow Raft in Blue Water. J | Bluefeather Fellini in the Sacred Realm. # Pigs in Heaven. Bean Trees. 1988.) Hyson. Tony. 1998. A Texas executive is taken in by the Tafoya family in a warm. 1993. Medicine River. Reissued 1998. 1961. 1996. Judith. Winner of the Spur and Western Heritage * Awards. Animal Dreams. ffl Native American coming-of-age story set in contemporary times. 1973. Elmer. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Running Water. TheHi-Lo Country. * The Time It Never Rained. Green Grass. . Reissued 2003. Baptiste Yellow Knife. Barbara. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. 1973. and very authentic slice-of-life tale about New Mexico in the 1970s. The Calling. * Ranchers and farmers in Texas during the 1950s have weather worries. Earling. 1990. The story is rich in cowboy tradition and the Westerners' love of the land. with Louise White Elk. • Ferma Red. Native American (Check crime chapter [chapter 7] for lists. 1989. Native American. * i i Two ranchers in love with the same woman after returning to New Mexico following World War II. and others.The West Lives On 123 So Far from Heaven. Evans. Winner of the Spur and Willa Awards. Hillerman. 1993. Many mystery titles featuring Jim Chee and Joe Leaphorn. 1991. humorous. 1993. 1987. Chinchilla Farm. King. 2002. Max. Debra Magpie. Bluefeather Fellini. Reservation life in Perma. Kingsolver. Kelton. • Set for Life. Charlie Kicking Woman. Michael. Dick T. 1994.

fk All the Pretty Horses. m Texasville. 1992. The Last Picture Show.124 Chapter 6—Westerns McCarthy. 1998. that is working against a bio-engineered potato. The Sharpest Sight. Cormac. 1998. Salisbury. The Work of Wolves. Kent. à Meyers. Ozeki. Larry. an anti-biotech group. Native American. 1999. . a Lakota working toward a college scholarship. 1994. McMurtry. Donald. Bad Dirt: Wyoming Stories 2. 2004. Power. The Border trilogy. Susan. The Circle Leads Home. Ralph. Louis. The Last Rattlesnake Throw. 1998. 1994. Parks. 2004. Survivor's Medicine. All Over Creation. ffl Close Range: Wyoming Stories. Annie. E. 03 That Old Ace in the Hole. Native American. 2000. Winner of the Willa Award. Winner of the Western Heritage and National Book Awards. Cities of the Plain. 1996. Ruth. Proulx. A gifted horse trainer. 2003. returns home to the large natural seed farm in Idaho where her elderly parents can no longer take care of themselves. The Grass Dancer. £Q Bob Dollar leaves Denver to scout for land for the Global Pork Rind corporation in the Texas panhandle. and a German exchange student combine forces to rescue three abused horses. Nightland. 1966. a Japanese American former hippie. Reissued 1999. Owens. 1992. 1994. 1998. Dark River. Yumi. Bone Game. The Crossing. 1988. Mary Anderson. Reissued 1999. It has also become the home of Seeds of Resistance. Two-Rivers. 2003.

1990. the books in this category remain popular with readers and are readily available in many public libraries. The Haunted Mesa. Pat Garret. Bittner. Savage Destiny series. Estleman. and conflicts with homesteaders. A young female werewolf goes west. Through the Civil War. Murphy. 1999. 1996. Foster. Even though this trend has not continued. Alan Dean. Cyber Way. 1987. Hays. Midori. Loren D. 1994. Titles are listed in the romance chapter (chapter 9). Louis. Sagas Western sagas tend to take place over several generations and span a huge variety of Western themes. • A breach in the universe opens parallel worlds. A futuristic. 1998. Seven volumes filled with romance take Abbie from a young woman in 1845 to a time when her grandson engages in a forbidden affair with a rancher's daughter.Sagas 125 Wheeler. the coming of the railroads. Hillerman-type mystery. seeks out a Mexican alchemist who is more than 100 years old. The Flight of Michael McBride. and Kathleen McFall. a railroad baron's son heads west to the end of the tracks. Snyder. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Rosanne. who just may be the next queen of the vampires. 1998. Nadya. The Buffalo Commons. # Journey of the Dead. Richard S. A contemporary Wyoming cowboy must fight for the woman he loves. Eccentric Variations The 1990s saw the Western setting finding its way into horror and fantasy as well as mystery and romance. The Cowboy and the Vampire: A Very Unusual Romance. Abbie loves Lone Eagle. Pursued by evil denizens of Faerie. L'Amour. Pat. . haunted by the ghost of Billy the Kid. Clark.

2003. Song of the Rock. 1983. Bride of the Morning Star. Cooke. Doig. Moon of Thunder. 4ft Prairie Nocturne. 1994. 1984. 1995. Ivan. 1999. 2004. Pipestone Quest. Bucking the Sun. Return to the River. 1986. 1989. Published in hardcover and reprinted in paperback. 1991. Mariah Montana. 1990. 1985. 1992. Thunderstick. 1988. 1986. Trail from Taos. Dancing at the Rascal Fair. 1985. The Elk-Dog Heritage. Follow the Wind. Medicine Hat. Winner of the Western Heritage Award. Mountain Time. Track of the Bear. 1984. 2001. Winner of the Spur Award. Two-Rivers Trilogy. Reissued 2004. Modern Montana Trilogy. 1995. Winner of the Spur Award. The Lost Band. Don. 1996. 1990. Child of the Dead. 4ft English Creek. 1990. Ride with Me. 1989. Listed here in series order. it relates the story of the Elk-Dog People of the plains. Trail of the Spanish Bit. 1982. 1987. 1983. 4ft The Snowblind Moon. 1998. The Spanish Bit Saga.126 Chapter 6—Westerns Coldsmith. 1981. Quest for the White Bull. Reissued 2004. Walks in the Sun. 1987. 1990. Pale Star. 1993. The Flower in the Mountains. Buffalo Medicine. 1980. 1984. Bearer of the Pipe. 2000. Daughter of the Eagle. 1988. . Man of the Shadows. The Sacred Hills. Return of the Spanish. Fort De Chastaigne. The Medicine Knife. John Byrne. The Raven Mocker. River of Swans.

1992. 1997. Lonesome Dove. Sin Killer. By Sorrow's River. Comanche Moon. Listed in chronological series. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize. The Berrybender Narratives. Wyoming Giant. * Seventeen novels. 1995. Red River of the North series. The Barrons of Texas. Lauraine. Lonesome Dove saga. 1993. 1994. The Baynes Clan. The Barron Brand. Montana Horseman. 2002. 1998. not publication. 1995. John S. 1971. Louis. 2004. 1997. The Barron Honor. # Angle of Repose. The Wandering Hill. 1988). 1991. 1997. Dead Mans Walk. 03 . order. Sackett Family series. Snelling. Kansas Gambler.Sagas 127 L'Amour. California Eagles. The series started with The Daybreakers in 1959. Texas Comebacker. 1985. 2000. several titles continue to be best-selling Westerns. 2002. Jory. Reissued in 2002 and 2003 in large print. McMurtry. 2003. The Streets of Laredo. Stegner. and unfortunately L'Amour died before writing the seven or eight titles that would have completed the series. 1990. The Barron Range. Folly and Glory. Wallace. Larry. Grass Kingdom. 2005. L'Amour also wrote a guide to the series titled The Sackett Companion: The Facts Behind the Fiction (Bantam. 1996. McCord. The Barron War. Sherman. 2003. The Barrons series. Nevada Tough.

Compton. Many of the inspirational. 1994. A third title. Brûles. Series One of the curiosities about Western series is that two very divergent styles appear together in them. gritty tale of mountain man. 1993. Bandera Trail. as do the "adult" Westerns featuring explicit violence and sex. Norman.128 Chapter 6—Westerns Thoene. . is not a Western. 1992. Combs. 1995. The series has been resumed by Dusty Richards. by an octogenarian first novelist. 1981. evangelical. Harry. Titles are listed in the Christian chapter (chapter 13). and outlaw Cat Brûles. Goodnight Trail. Trail Drive series. (Christian). Chisholm Trail 1993. The Legend of the Painted Horse (1996). Not of War Only. Bly. Sequel to the best-selling Brûles. but Ralph Compton's name is still prominent on the covers. Winner of the Spur Award. Saga of the Sierras. 1992. Zollinger. 1991. 1992. or Christian Westerns appear as series. Brock. New Mexico Saga. Shawnee Trail 1994. # Rage in Chupadera. Stuart Brannon series. Virginia City Trail 1994. and Bodie Thoene. Dodge City Trail. 1995. The Abilene Trail: A Ralph Compton Novel 2003. Picaresque. Ralph. Trail to Fort Smith: A Ralph Compton Novel 2004. Stephen. Titles are listed in the Christian fiction chapter (chapter 13). Indian fighter. Corey Lane. although a story about Steven Cartwright (who appeared in the first two novels). California Trail 1994. Western Trail. The Scout.

Page Murdock series. (Christian). Seth Strummer series. 2000. Fackler. Border Showdown. Backtrail. Angel of Mercy series. Gunmetal Justice. Longarm series." The High Rocks.Series 129 Estleman. Blood Kin. Breaking Even. (Christian). Number 314 was published in 2004. Road from Betrayal. Bounty Man. "A lawless lawman. 1991. Murdock's Law. 2004. Badlands. A Gallows Waiting. Cody's Law series. 1992. 1993. 1994. . Lacy. (Christian). 1979. and Joanna Lacy. End of the Line. 1982. Hart. 1993. Mano a Mano. 1993. (Christian). Mail Order Brides series. Hannah of Fort Bridger series. 1992. 1991. City of Windows. 1992. White Desert. Renegade Trail. 1995. 1984. Matthew S. Die Lonesome. Lacy. Elizabeth. 1994. Evans. Fort Bridger series. Prisoners. Comanche Code. 1998. Stamping Ground. Port Hazard. 1992. The Strangle™. /tetf Moow s /toi*/. Al. Tabor. (Christian). (Christian). 1991. Loren D. (adult). Battles of Destiny series. Al. 1996. 1980. Journey of the Stranger series. 1991. 1993. 1994. Eagle Pass.

by Gary McCarthy. 1989. 1994. Books in Motion. numbers them differently than Bantam Books. 1992. Wheeler. The Pecos River. The Gila River. The Powder River. 1998. The High Missouri. 1997. 1993. The Rio Grande. by Gary McCarthy. Various Western authors contributed to the series. 1990. by Gary McCarthy. . The Yellowstone. 1994. Trailsman series. 1999. The American River. (adult). Christian emphasis. Jon. 1996. 1999. The Two Medicine River. by Gary McCarthy. The Cimarron River. They are listed here in alphabetical order. While they were given numbers. by Don Coldsmith. 1991. Number 279 was published in 2005. Slocum series. 1991. 1996. Number 45 was published in 2005. which is publishing the audio versions. The Snake River. David. In fact. by Gary McCarthy. Rivers West series. (Adult). The Columbia. (adult). The Arkansas River. they don't have to be read in sequential order. Lee. by Jory Sherman. Thompson. by Jory Sherman. Various Authors. which originally published them as paperback originals. Sharpe. 1990. The Brazos. The Colorado. Jake. The South Platte. The Humboldt River. 1995. (Christian). by Win Blevins. by Frederic Bean. 1988. by Richard S. The Russian River. Wilderness series. by Frederic Bean. Nelson. by Win Blevins. by Win Blevins. by Jory Sherman. by Gary McCarthy. Storm Testament series. by Win Blevins. The Red River. 1992. Number 312 was published in 2005. by Jory Sherman.130 Chapter 6—Westerns Logan. The Smoky Hill. by Jory Sherman.

American West: Twenty New Stories from the Western Writers of America. Larry. 2003. 2000. and Candy Moulton. 2001. New American Library. 131 . Judy Alter. 1997. 1996. New Trails: Twenty-Three Original Stories of the West from Western Writers of America. Max. The Western Hall of Fame: An Anthology of Classic Western Stories Selected by the Western Writers of America. Ed. Doubleday. Jakes.Topics Short Stories Short stories are a good way for readers to sample the writings of various authors and find those they most enjoy. Loren Estleman. c2002.. Greenberg. 1986. and Martin H. University of New Mexico Press. Richard Wheeler. St. . John. Hot Biscuits: Eighteen Stories by Women and Men of the Ranching West. ed. Greenberg. 100 Years of Cowboy Stories. Robert J. Ed. Bill. eds. Boot Hill. Don Coldsmith. Stone. and Ed Gorman. 1984. and many of these volumes still remain on library shelves. Ted. Forge. 1995. Evans. Brown. These seventeen stories do warrant the "Hall of Fame" label. 1997. Randisi. Western stories by crime writers. Great Stories of the American West II. The Fatal Frontier. Schaefer's Stubby Pringle's Christmas and Rhodes' s Paso por Aqui. ed. Stagecoach. Includes stories by Louis L'Amour. 1997. Kittredge.. Bill. Carroll & Graf. Berkley. Martin H. Martin's Press. Gorman. The Best of the American West: Outstanding Frontier Fiction. . and Martin H. Jove. William. Christmas out West. Fifteen new stories. For many years the Western Writers of America released an anthology. Simon & Schuster. Includes Haycox's "Stage to Lordsburg" and two classic novellas. Gorman. Greenberg. Berkley. Robert Conley. . Bantam. . ed. ed. Still Wild: Short Fiction of the American West 1950 to the Present. 1997. Robert J. and Martin H. Morrow. eds. Loren. 1998. Red Deer College Press. Bedford Books. 1990. Berkley. eds. eds. ed. McMurtry. Greenberg. The Portable Western Reader. Reading the West: An Anthology of Dime Westerns. Pronzini. Penguin USA. Randisi. ed. Great Stories of the American West. Best of the West: Stories That Inspired Classic Western Films. ed. Estleman. 1994. 2002.

1998. An interpretive grouping of authors: "The East Goes West" (Mark Twain. 2005. Wayne. Stories of the Golden West. Jon. Bibliographies and Encyclopedias Barton. Five Star Westerns is releasing anthologies that consist of three novellas that up until now have been considered too long for short story anthologies and too short to be published alone. Walter Van Tilburg Clark. The American West in Fiction. Luke Short). . Kirkpatrick. including fiction in three groupings: "Formulary Westerns" (eighteen authors). Johnson. eds. Benjamin Capps.. "The West of the Storytellers" (Zane Grey. Shadow of the Lariat. and "Historical Reconstruction" (eighteen authors). Vinson. and "The West in Revision" (Elmer Kelton. "Where West Was West" (Dorothy M. Garland. "Romantic Historical Reconstructions" (sixteen authors). The Western Story: A Chronological Treasury. Max Evans). and critical essay for each of 310 authors. Lists 700 works that have one or more sequels. Stephen Crane. Ernest Haycox). eds. 1982. ed. Sonnichsen. 1997. Walker. There are bibliographies or suggested further readings. 1997. Forge. Eugene Manlove Rhodes.132 Chapter 6—Westerns Tuska. William Morrow. University of Nebraska Press. Twentieth Century Western Writers. The Western Hall of Fame Anthology. 1993. Encyclopedia of Frontier and Western Fiction. bibliography. Will Henry. 1982. Many of them are by classic Western authors. Bret Harte. Canon Walls by Zane Grey. John G. Western Series and Sequels. Mentor/NAL. and Showdown on the Hogback by Louis L'Amour. James C . London: Macmillan. Dale L. . James. Gale. The sixth volume in the series was published in 2005. Frederic Remington. Tuska. 1996. Carroll & Graf. What Western Do I Read Next?: A Reader's Guide to Recent Western Fiction. Dorchester. Gunfightl Thirteen Western Stories. McGraw-Hill. Jon. Includes frontier fiction. 2003. Jon. and D. Bernard A. A brief biography. ed. Novella Anthology Series Tuska. University of Nebraska Press. and Vicki Piekarski. . L. Owen Wister). Three short novels: Black Sheep by Max Brand. Jon. The Untamed West. L. Max Brand. Drew. . eds. 1995. Preface by C. James Warner Bellah. Work. 1997. Louis L'Amour. Westward: A Fictional History of the American West: 28 Original Stories Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Western Writers of America. A dozen stories by authors selected by the Western Writers of America. The Morrow Anthology of Great Western Short Stories. and Vicki Piekarski. 1983. Tuska. . Berkley. Willa Cather. ed. Neihardt. More than 300 authors are discussed. ed.

In 1998 the categories were Best Western Novel (under 90. Etulain. Nonfiction Contemporary. 1997. Western Heritage Award or the Wrangler Award. Medicine Pipe Bearer Award (Best First Novel). Scott. eds. Gender and Genre: An Introduction to Women Writers of Formula Westerns. Greenwood.nationalcowboymuseum. which includes book reviews and is available for subscription by libraries. 1982.westernwriters. Nonfiction Historical. Jane P. The Western Writers of America established the Spur Award in 1953." The award is called the Western Heritage Award or the Wrangler Award. it was awarded in the divisions of novel. Juvenile Nonfiction. West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns. It publishes (since 1953) a monthly journal. When it started. Short Nonfiction. historical novel. Norris W. Nonfiction Biography. Story Teller Award (for best illustrated children's literature).Awards 133 History and Criticism Allmendinger. Women Writing the West.000 words). 1900-1950. Spur Awards. 1992. Oxford University Press.womenwritingthewest. short story. At one time there were categories for best TV script and best short subject. The broad categories demonstrate the interest of fans of Westerns in all facets of the Western experience. Erisman. and reviewer.html. University of Idaho Press. Short Fiction. and by taking their information on the road to booksellers' conferences. Documentary Screenplay." Women Writing the West (http://www. The books that have won the award for "Outstanding Novel" are listed at http://www. Fifty Western Writers. Organizations Western Writers of America (http://www. If*! Awards The major awards for Westerns are awarded by the Western Writers of America. and the Golden Saddleman Award is given for an "outstanding contribution to the history and legend of the West. juvenile. a catalog.htm. The National Cowboy Hall of Fame selects specific works in several different media categories that their judges feel "helped preserve the spirit of the West. Emmert.org/e_awar_winn.000 words). Tompkins. and Richard W. and the Cowboy Hall of Fame. Blake. The Western Writers of America has a membership of writers of Western fact and Westerns (fiction). an annual conference. A list of all winners since the inception of the awards is found at http://www.org/spur_award_history. . 1995. Best Novel of the West (over 90.org/). and Drama Screenplay. making it the oldest annual genre fiction award still in existence. Spur Awards are given in several categories.westernwriters. Juvenile Fiction. Routledge KeganPaul. This nonprofit organization promotes the women's West through a newsletter.org). Loaded Fictions: Social Critique in the Twentieth-Century Western. 1998. The Roundup. University of New Mexico Press. Ten Most Wanted: The New Western Literature. Fred. At its annual convention. Yates. Original Western Paperback.

Win. Harvest. where he becomes a mountain man. Crossways. Many of the Westerns found on the mass-market racks are reprints. Seeking solace in the woods he calls Eden. fights enemies. are reprinting classic Westerns.womenwritingthewest. then in the West. Thorndike has a large-print Western series. including Bethany House. D's Western Picks Blevins. 2005). Sam heads out on the river. first on the river. Publishers Many of the large-type publishers are issuing reprints in both hardcover and paperback. Several university presses are also publishing in this area. http://www. The Salt Lake County Library System. The meticulous research based on actual adventures of early nineteenth-century mountain men facing wildfires. armed with the rifle he inherited from his father.org/past_willa.slco. . womenwritingthewest.org (accessed February 8. as does Linsford. publisher of The Collected Stories of Max Brand. all set before 1900. see: http://www. capture by the Pawnee. http://www. Severn House often reprints paperback originals as hardcovers. For a full list of winners and finalists. Along the way he makes friends. originals and reprints. The Willa Award is awarded annually by Women Writing the West to honor women's stories set in the west. The Western Writers of America. Some university presses. and Council Press. Multnomah. Forge is publishing hardcover and paperback originals. The adventures are endless for a young man in 1822. So Wild A Dream. who advises him to "follow his wild hair. Word. and works that originally appeared only in serialized form. A number of religious publishers. 2005).htm (accessed February 8. and falls in love. 2003. cowboyhalloffame." Determining that there is no longer anything for him in Morgantown. http://www. Sam Morgan is shocked by the betrothal of his sweetheart to his brother. 2005). Women Writing the West. he meets a Delaware named Hannibal MacKye.html. which includes his short fiction in other genres as well. (mountain men) On the day following his eighteenth birthday and the second anniversary of his father's death. publish Westerns.us/spur.org (accessed February 8. Leisure publishes sixty paperback Western titles per year. Five Star is publishing approximately thirty-four hardcover traditional Westerns each year.134 Chapter 6—Westerns Willa Award. lists all the Spur Awards from the Western Writers of America. and a 700-hundred-mile solitary trek makes Sam's adventures very real.com (accessed February 8. previously unpublished works by classic authors. Online Resources The National Cowboy Hall of Fame and Western Heritage Center.westernwriters.lib. Gunsmoke Large Print Westerns publishes three Westerns per month. including University of Nebraska. 2005). including originals. to find adventure. http://www.ut. including the University of Oklahoma. Roundup and Sagebrush also publish Westerns in large print.

Emma Roby. Dallas. claims to believe The Chili Queen is a respectable ladies' boarding house and moves in. As the four characters come to know each other they fall into planning a bank robbery. 1960. Elmer. Walter Dean. takes a shipment of corn to Ireland during the Great Potato Famine and marries Rare to save his life. Sam Houston Cloud. The 1880s are wild and wooly in this caper within a caper within a con. Eileen. The Righteous Revenge of Artemis Bonner. . now she owns The Chili Queen parlor house in Nalgitas. has been through much in her life. Sam fights his attraction to her. What she really wants to do is own a chili restaurant in San Antonio. then to the Alaska Territory and back again in pursuit of the villains. New Mexico. then a whore. The handsome and gallant Ned Partner. A hilarious quest through the West from Tombstone to Mexico. a member of the Texas Rifles discovers one of the young Indian mothers encountered on a raid is really a white woman. Her mysterious cook and housekeeper. Catfish Grimes and Lucy Featherdip. left behind. (Indian captives). She is wrenched from her baby and forced to go back to white civilization. young adult). Atoka. then becoming a con artist. a former slave named Welcome. they make their way to Oregon in the late 1840s. where she cannot adapt because she is worried about her sickly baby. Ugly Ned Bonner. in part to avenge an insult to Addie. may have turned up out of the blue a month ago but has proven to be of more worth than the whores who work at The Chili Queen. who keeps the traditional ways.Online Resources 135 Charbonneau. Along with her husband and her brother. Sandra. Rachel Lemoyne. starting out as an abused child. (singular women). (singular women) Addie French. a notorious bank robber. Texas Rifles. (African Americans in the West. facing danger and adventure every step of the way. 2002. 1992. Rachel. The Chili Queen. 1992. a rejected mail order bride. taking Addie's downstairs room. but when she is rejected by her family he comes through for her. a mixed blood Choctaw. Kelton. Young Artemis leaves New York for Tombstone to avenge the death of his uncle. not the name she started life with. Myers. deserting his unit to take her back to the Indians. frequently makes The Chili Queen home.

.

Chapter 7
Crime
Essay
Erin A. Smith

By some estimates, crime fiction currently constitutes fully a third of the fiction published in English worldwide.1 Mysteries were the first mass-market category of fiction in the United States, their audience having been delivered to book publishers already constituted from readers of popular detective magazines in the 1920s and 1930s. The publishing industry has traditionally divided mystery fiction into subgenres: the "cozy," hard-boiled stories, police procédurals, and (sometimes) spy thrillers. Spy thrillers are discussed in this volume under "Spy/Espionage" in chapter 8. The larger catchall category of suspense includes a variety of books that involve crime but do not necessarily have a detective or focus specifically on the solving of the crime. The psychology of the perpetrator is often more important than his or/her identity. Crime/caper stories (as well as some true crime narratives) involve criminals as protagonists, describing their adventurous exploits and the criminal underworld they inhabit.

The "Cozy" or Classical Mystery
The "cozy" or classical mystery is perhaps best exemplified by the works of Agatha Christie and Dorothy Sayers. These stories frequently involve a close, intimate community—a family, a small town, a university. The character of the detective is central to the story's unfolding, and to the book's appeal to readers. In these stories, the detective uses close observation and rational deduction to explain how a crime was committed, identifies the single individual responsible for it, and ultimately restores social order by expelling that individual from the community.

137

138 Chapter 7—Crime These stories allow readers to engage latent feelings of hostility and violence generated by the repressiveness of families or other institutions. However, they also offer reassurance that we live in a just, rational society in which evil is the result of single individuals rather than corrupt social institutions.2 These stories are also intellectual puzzles, and some readers enjoy the deductive challenge of solving the crime before the detective does. The father of the classical detective story is Edgar Allan Poe, whose ratiocinative detective, C. Auguste Dupin, used his powers of deduction to solve three crimes in the 1840s— "Murders in the Rue Morgue" (1841), "The Mystery of Marie-Rogêt" (1842-1843), and "The Purloined Letter" (1844). Arthur Conan Doyle perfected the form in the late nineteenth century with a series of short stories and novellas about Sherlock Holmes, beginning with A Study in Scarlet (1887).

The "Golden Age" of Detective Fiction
The "golden age" of detective fiction refers to the flowering of these classical mysteries (especially in Britain) between the two world wars. British writers such as Agatha Christie, Dorothy Sayers, Josephine Tey, Margery Allingham, Gladys Mitchell, and the Americans John Dickson Carr and S. S. Van Dine created one puzzle mystery after another designed to test the wits of attentive readers. Many of these writers were members of the London Detection Club, whose 1928 "oath" included such guidelines for authors as not withholding clues from readers; avoiding reliance on coincidence, intuition, and hunches rather than reason; and minimizing use of suspect devices like evil twins, conspiracies, and lunatics. The American writing team of Frederick Dannay and Manfred B. Lee, better known as Ellery Queen, left their mark on the era through countless anthologies, reprints, and a magazine that offered prizes to readers who could solve a fictional crime before the solution was presented.

Hard-Boiled Crime Stories
Writers of hard-boiled crime stories such as Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, and the early Erie Stanley Gardner defined their kind of fiction against the London Detection Club prototype. They saw their fiction as a manly, American, "realistic" reaction against the silly, aristocratic English-country-house fiction written by the likes of Christie and Sayers. Hard-boiled fiction emerged as a subgenre in the 1920s and 1930s in cheap, pulp magazines like Black Mask, Detective Story, and Detective Fiction Weekly, which targeted a mostly working-class, white, male audience. Hard-boiled heroes rely as much on brawn and tough talk as their brains, and the worlds they inhabit are often overrun by systemic crime. These tough-guy detective stories addressed the de-skilling of manual work; the rise of consumer culture; the changing role of women as workers; and the links between class, language, and culture.3 Although the faith in a benevolent social order of the classical mysteries is absent, hard-boiled stories often represent the power of a single, exceptional individual to maintain a code of integrity in the face of overwhelming corruption. Pulp magazines folded in the early 1950s, victims of competition from comic books, television, and mass-market paperbacks, but hard-boiled private eyes still appear in the work of Ross Macdonald, Robert B. Parker, John D. MacDonald, Walter Mosley, Sara Paretsky, Sue Grafton, and others.

Increasing Diversity in Crime Fiction 139 Although tough guy detectives first appeared in pulp magazines in the 1920s, their literary ancestors can be traced back to the ubiquitous dime novels that circulated in the United States from the 1840s into the early twentieth century. Dime novels were cheap, mass-produced sensation fiction sold to the urban working classes for between 5 and 10 cents. Although they included all kinds of stories of action, adventure, and romance, many of the best known series characters were detectives—Beadle & Adams' Old Sleuth and Street & Smith's Nick Carter, to name a few.

LJ

Police Procédurals
The early history of crime stories includes a number of police detectives —Eugène François Vidocq (1827-1828), Emile Gaboriau's M. Lecoq (1868), Georges Simenon's Inspector Maigret (1931)—but police procédurals achieved prominence only in the years following World War II. These stories focused less on the efforts of a single, heroic detective (whether tough or brainy) and more on the plodding, painstaking work of a team of interdependent criminal investigators. Many of the best-known writers—Hillary Waugh, John Creasey, Ed McBain—began writing in the 1950s, although Joseph Wambaugh and others carried the thriving genre into the 1980s and 1990s. Police procédurals have been immensely popular on television, including such programs as Hill Street Blues, NYPD Blue, and Prime Suspect. These stories demonstrate a faith in the power of patient, well-orchestrated, scientific investigation by loyal members of a team to achieve truth and justice.

Increasing Diversity in Crime Fiction
Since the 1980s, the detectives appearing in crime fiction have become increasingly diverse. Readers and scholars increasingly parse the field by classifying fiction according to the detective's gender, race, religion, sexuality, and regional/national characteristics, diminishing the importance of distinctions between amateurs and professionals, nosy spinsters, cops, and hard-boiled dicks. For example, in the early 1980s, there were approximately forty professional women private eyes in print. By 1995, there were roughly 400.4 P. D. James's An Unsuitable Job for a Woman (1972) was a feminist touchstone. A small group of female hard-boiled detectives appeared in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the works of Marcia Muller, Sara Paretsky, and Sue Grafton. Paretsky was a founding member of Sisters in Crime, an international organization of authors, publishers, librarians, and fans of women's detective fiction dedicated to reading and advocating for women's mysteries. The organization was, in part, a pressure group opposing pay discrimination by publishers and inequitable reviewing practices to which women authors had been subject. Paretsky was named the 1986 Ms. Woman of the Year for her work with the organization.5 Lesbian and gay detectives are more prominent as well. Since the 1970s, feminist presses such as Naiad, Seal, and Virago have offered an increasing number of books about lesbian investigators by such writers as Barbara Wilson, Eve Zaremba,

140 Chapter 7—Crime Katherine Forrest, Mary Wings, and Claire McNab. These avowedly feminist presses are driven not only by profits but by a desire for social change. Although the first gay detective appeared in 1966, writers like Joseph Hansen, Michael Nava, Julian Barnes, and Edward Phillips have left their mark on the field since the 1980s. Although over two-thirds of gay and lesbian detective novels are still bought in gay or specialty bookshops, there is some evidence of crossover reading. For example, a number of lesbian writers have begun publishing with mainstream houses or have switched over from small, feminist presses to commercial publishing houses.6 Detectives from a variety of ethnic and racial backgrounds crowd the contemporary scene. Stephen Soitos traces the development of African American detectives in The Blues Detective.1 The first African American detective novel was Rudolph Fisher's The Conjure Man Dies (1932). Chester Himes wrote about two hard-boiled Harlem cops, Grave Digger Jones and Coffin Ed Johnson, in When Cotton Comes to Harlem (1965), Blind Man with a Pistol (1969), and eight other novels. Walter Mosley's ongoing series about Easy Rawlins, a working-class Los Angeles detective, began with Devil in a Blue Dress (1990), and Barbara Neely's ironically named housekeeper/detective, Blanche White, explores the crimes of black and white society in her series that began with Blanche on the Lam (1992). Perhaps the best-known writer of Native American detective stories is Tony Hillerman, whose Sergeant Joe Leaphorn first appeared in The Blessing Way (1970), and whose younger investigator, Jim Chee, first appeared in People of Darkness (1980). Although criticized for romanticizing the Navajo, Hillerman is well known for the dense anthropological grounding of his novels in the cultures of the Southwest. Other authors writing about Native American detectives include Linda Hogan, Louis Owens, Jean Hager, and Dana Stabenow. Although smaller bodies of work, there are crime stories centered in Hispanic communities, Asian American communities, and Jewish neighborhoods. Michael Nava, Marcia Muller, and Alex Abella write detective stories featuring Latino/a detectives. Asian American detective stories have come a long way since Earl Derr Biggers created the first Charlie Chan mystery in 1925. S. J. Rozan writes about detective Lydia Chin, and Chang-Rae Lee uses Henry Park, a Korean American surveillance agent, as the focus of his celebrated 1995 novel, Native Speaker. Harry Kemelman explores Jewish identity through a mystery-solving rabbi. Faye Kellerman's serious crime fiction explores the role of orthodox religion in contemporary identity; Kinky Friedman's not-so-serious crime fiction uses Jewish wit. In the last thirty years, movements for civil rights, women's liberation, and gay liberation have focused attention on the crimes perpetuated against classes of people lacking access to social power. In part, crime stories featuring detectives who are ethnic, female, or gay allow readers to examine questions of social justice in a safe, fictional space, and to think about the ways narratives of identity are constructed. These stories ask not only what equitable treatment of different people might look like, but also just what being black or Jewish, male or female, straight or gay, working-class or professional might mean to an individual, personally and socially.

True Crime 141

Crime/Caper Stories
Crime/caper stories focus on crime and the world of criminals rather than the process of detecting who committed the crime and their reasons for doing so. The criminal protagonists of these stories run the gamut from established, wealthy career criminals to petty thieves, burglars, rogues, and drifters who are pushed by circumstances into a life of crime. Although the brains or brawn of detectives are the central concern of detective stories, the cunning of these criminals takes center stage in crime capers. These books include James M. Cain's The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934), Michael Crichton's The Great Train Robbery (1975), Elmore Leonard's Get Shorty (1990), Patricia Highsmith's The Talented Mr. Ripley (1966), and such comic adventures as Ken Follett's Paper Money (1977) and Mark Childress's Crazy in Alabama (1993).

Legal Thrillers
Legal thrillers are a subgenre that has been extraordinarily successful in both print and the movies. Legal thrillers are crime stories featuring a lawyer, law student, or judge as the main character. Although they include some detective work, typically these courtroom dramas involve the ingenuity of the attorney in extricating himself or/herself from a setup or significant legal troubles threatening his or her law firm and personal integrity. That is to say, fast talking and a good legal mind often serve a hero better than plodding, patient detective work. Prominent authors in this genre include David Baldacci, Phillip Margolin, John Grisham, Steve Martini, Richard North Patterson, and Scott Turow.

Postmodern Crime Novels
In recent years, a number of authors have written postmodern crime novels that co-opt the form of the detective story to call into question whether narratives of "truth" or the creation of coherent subjectivities/identities are even possible. These meta-fictional stories undermine the faith in coherent narratives and individual agency at the center of the detective story. Books typically discussed under this rubric are Thomas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), Ishmael Reed's Mumbo Jumbo (1972), Paul Auster's New York trilogy (1985, 1986, 1986), Barbara Wilson's Gaudi Afternoon (1990), and the work of Sarah Schulman (see especially The Sophie Horovitz Story [1984]). Umberto Eco and Jorge Luis Borges, in particular, are claimed as appropriators of the form who use it to undermine moral and epistemological certainties.

True Crime
Since the mid-1980s, writers such as Joe McGinness, Ann Rule, Jack Olsen, and Edna Buchanan have made true crime stories increasingly popular. Because these writers market accounts of actual brutal violence and murder, the narratives are often criticized as voyeuristic or sensational. True crime stories often share

142 Chapter 7—Crime qualities with the horror genre—dark atmosphere, psychological suspense, and graphic descriptions of heinous events. Some true crime stories are written from the criminal's point of view, but others are told through the eyes of cops, prosecutors, jurors, attorneys, or victims. Many best sellers are written by urban crime reporters, and these stories are part exposé and part ethnography of modern police departments. Others are written by historians, who avoid the guesswork and fictionalizing common in the genre. The tradition of true crime writing can be traced back through Truman Capote's In Cold Blood (1965) to the latter part of the nineteenth century. Literary precursors include sensational, broadsheet ballads from the sixteenth century (some featuring verses written by the criminal) and the cheap, ubiquitous "true confessions" printed as pamphlets in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Readers of true crime are generally middle class, with more female book buyers than male, and there is a strong teen market. Few fans of mystery fiction cross over into true crime, although some true crime writers study mysteries as a way to learn the craft of storytelling. Because this volume focuses on fiction, true crime stories are not listed.

The Cultural Work of Modern Detective Novels
Although crime stories have been around a long time, the detective story is a uniquely modern form of narrative. Dorothy Sayers claimed Oedipus the King as the first crime story. Others point to such novels as Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders (1722), William Godwin's Caleb Williams (1794), Charles Brockden Brown's Wieland (1798), Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist (1838) and Bleak House ( 1853), and Wilkie Collins's The Woman in White ( 1860) and The Moonstone (1868) as early crime novels. With the exception of Poe's ratiocinative detective, however, stories with a detective and the act of detection at the center emerged only in the 1880s. The detective story, then, is a narrative form of complex, modern, industrial capitalist societies. As such, it engages a number of problems at the center of modern, urban life. First, such complex societies require a profound degree of interdependence. That is to say, one must hand over management of certain aspects of daily life to experts who have the specialized knowledge necessary to manage particular problems. Since it is impossible for a person to be an expert in every field, modern life requires trust in the integrity, skill, and character of others. R. Gordon Kelly claims that detective stories take up the problem of how to "read" both interpersonal cues and the physical world in order to identify situations and individuals worthy of trust.8 Second, (post)modernity is characterized by such complexity that a single, coherent narrative cannot accurately represent the world. The problem posed to human consciousness, then, is how to tell a story that gives shape and meaning to a fragmented, incoherent, complicated life. The detective story is concerned with this central problem and offers the fantasy of resolution at the denouement, when the detective presents a narrative of the crime constructed from seemingly random bits of information (clues).9 There is a gap, however, between scholarly discussion of crime fiction and the reports of fan-readers of the genre. Literary critics have focused on the denouement of detective novels, where the mystery is solved, the various clues woven together into a seamless and coherent narrative, and social order restored. Such exclusive focus on the form of detective fiction has a number of troubling consequences. First, it privileges formal continuities over differences in subgenre, setting, and protagonist that are of great importance to fan-readers.

The Cultural Work of Modern Detective Novels 143

Second, it ascribes a monolithic, reactionary politics to detective fiction—that the fiction inevitably recommends an ideology of competitive individualism or that it affirms existing power structures by locating crime in evil individuals rather than corrupt social institutions. Although there are few studies of mystery readers, one study of white, professional female fans reveals a variety of different ways of reading, many of which have nothing to do with the ending and a great deal to do with characters, language, setting, and other aspects that resonate with readers' everyday lives.10 Although this study included only women, general surveys typically reveal mystery fans to be well-educated, middle- and upper-middle-class professionals, with slightly more women readers than men."

Character
The most important analytic category for fan-readers is character. Fans talk about characters as if they were real people. Many describe a book as "company," and think about reading books about a series detective as spending time with a friend, without any of the demands of human relationships. Readers overwhelmingly prefer protagonists like themselves, detectives whose gender, education, class background, occupation, or life situation resembles their own. The fluid boundary between readers' lives and the stories they choose to read, then, offers opportunities to think through their own concerns while reading, to "try on" ways of being in the world (physically courageous, mouthy, brave) through a protagonist's adventures. Inevitably, a question about a particular book ("I don't know that one. Tell me about it.") is interpreted as a question about the protagonist. At the close of a response, fans have described the main character's history and personal/professional situation, but have said nothing at all about what happens in the book. If pushed, they will struggle to remember the plot, but most often end with an apology and an explanation, "They all run together." Clearly, the boundaries of the text for readers are not the plot structures that interest scholars, but the subjectivity or personality of the protagonist. Everything about a series character is recalled as a unit, with little memory of which specific texts these details come from.

Settings
Although important, identification with main characters is only one of many ways of reading. Settings loom large for some readers. Reviews of mysteries frequently praise the realism in the descriptions of cities, noting the faithfulness with which authors reproduced the local color of specific neighborhoods and landmarks. Many readers prefer to read books set in places they have lived or visited. Some plan to read local authors while in a new city. Many readers carry around a mental atlas of mysteries, including categories such as "New Orleans mysteries" or "Italian murders." In this way, the books can operate like photographs, inviting readers to remember their own experiences in that place, or like brochures from the travel agent, inviting readers to imagine what visiting or living in such a place might be like.

144 Chapter 7—Crime

Other Appeals
Identifications can be multiple, and "good mysteries" are usually those with which readers can find resonances with their own lives. For example, some readers love hard-boiled stories because of the dry, sarcastic "voice" of the detective, regardless of his or her race, gender, profession, etc. One reader enjoyed the interplay of temperaments between an artist and a scientifically minded police detective in one series, since it resonated with her own artist-scientist marriage. Others find they love mysteries that prominently feature a hobby. Gourmet cooks often like mysteries with food in them. Animal lovers frequently choose stories featuring pets.

Plot Structures
Readers, then, are generally less interested in the particular structure of mystery novels than they are in finding characters, scenes, dialogue, and an idiom through which to make sense of their own experience. However, plot structures seem to be important in a paradoxical way. Although almost completely absent from discussion and recall, readers in forced choice surveys rank elements like pace, well-hidden motives, surprises, red herrings, and narrative twists and turns as very important. Readers may choose to be fans of mysteries because of the plot structure, but a good mystery requires other resonances as well. If formal aspects of detective novels are important, the satisfaction they can provide readers is constrained and complicated by the locale, voice, preoccupations, and personalities that inhabit these structures and are enmeshed with the reader's own life circumstances.

Notes
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stephen Knight, Crime Fiction 1800-2000: Detection, Death, Diversity (New York: Palgrave, 2004), x. John G. Cawelti, Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), 105. Erin A. Smith, Hard-Boiled: Working-Class Readers and Pulp Magazines (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000). Priscilla L. Walton and Manina Jones, Detective Agency: Women Rewriting the Hard-Boiled Tradition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 29. Erin A. Smith, " 'Both a Woman and a Complete Professional': Women Readers and Women's Hard-boiled Detective Fiction," in Reading Sites: Social Difference and Reader Response, ed. Patrocinio P. Schweickart and Elizabeth Flynn, 189-220. (New York: Modern Language Association Press, 2004). Smith, Hard-Boiled, afterword. Stephen Soitos, The Blues Detective: A Study of African American Detective Fiction (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996). R. Gordon Kelly, Mystery Fiction and Modern Life (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998). Smith, "Both a Woman," 212. Smith, "Both a Woman."

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Bibliography 145 11. Winn Dilys, ed. Murder Ink (New York: Workman, 1984), 441 ; Cawelti, Adventure, Mystery, and Romance, 105; Kathleen Gregory Klein, The Woman Detective: Gender & Genre, 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995), 8.

Bibliography
Cawelti, John G. Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. Dilys, Winn, ed. Murder Ink. New York: Workman, 1984. Kelly, R. Gordon. Mystery Fiction and Modern Life. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998. Klein, Kathleen Gregory. The Woman Detective: Gender & Genre. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995. Knight, Stephen. Crime Fiction 1800-2000: Detection, Death, Diversity. New York: Palgrave, 2004. Reddy, Maureen T. Traces, Codes, and Clues: Reading Race in Crime Fiction. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2003. Smith, Erin A. " 'Both a Woman and a Complete Professional': Women Readers and Women's Hard-boiled Detective Fiction." In Reading Sites: Social Difference and Reader Response, ed. Patrocinio P. Schweickart and Elizabeth Flynn, 189-220. New York: Modern Language Association Press, 2004. . Hard-Boiled: Working-Class Readers and Pulp Magazines. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000. Soitos, Stephen. The Blues Detective: A Study of African American Detective Fiction. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996. Walton, Priscilla L., and Manina Jones. Detective Agency: Women Rewriting the Hard-Boiled Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Themes and Types
Diana Tixier Herald

Crime fiction, encompassing stories of detection, suspense, legal thrillers, and crime capers, is a huge category and probably the most popular genre in public libraries. Novels of detection tend to be written in series. The detective and the setting are what readers generally seek in books of this type. Suspense tales depend on the unexpected, the plot is of major importance to the readers and the atmosphere, and the feeling one has of impending disaster is also extremely important in this type. Legal thrillers often have recurring characters, but the plot is also a primary consideration. In crime capers, readers are often looking for quirky characters and intricate plotting.

Selected Classics
As one of the most established, plentiful, and diverse genres, Crime claims hundreds of classic titles and authors. The following list is just a sampling of the most prominent and still-popular authors of the genre. With the exceptions of Edgar Allan Poe and Wilkie Collins, the literary predecessors of crime writing (such as Sheridan LeFanu and Charles Dickens) are not listed here, but they are noted in this chapter's essay. Popular detective characters and groundbreaking titles that established new subgenres and themes in the genre are noted when appropriate. Allingham, Margery. (Albert Campion, aristocrat). Diggers, Earl Derr. (Charlie Chan series), (police detective). Brown, Fredric. (Ed and Am Hunter, Chicago). Cain, James M. The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934). Carr, John Dickson. Chandler, Raymond. (Philip Marlowe, Los Angeles, hard-boiled), (private detective). Charteris, Leslie. (Simon Templar, "The Saint," Robin Hood type). Chesterton, G. K. (Father Brown, Roman Catholic Priest, British), (unofficial detective— ecclesiastical). Christie, Agatha. (Hercule Poirot, ex-cop; Miss Jane Marple, amateur, cozy), (unofficial detective). Collins, Wilkie. The Woman in White, 1860, and The Moonstone, 1868. Creasey, John, (the honorable Richard Rollison, "The Toff," gentleman burglar, "the poor man's Lord Peter Wimsey"). (police detectives/police procedural). Crichton, Michael. The Great Train Robbery. 1975. (crime/caper). Doyle, Arthur Conan, Sir. (Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson, cozy). Ferrars, E. X. (Andrew Basnett, retired professor), (unofficial—academic).

147

soft-boiled. Dashiell. 1794. Hillary. and Black Mask are not synonymous in meaning. Erie Stanley. and Richard Lockridge. Hunter's Green. Paper Money. (Mike Hammer. hard-boiled). Himes. Harlem). 1966. Hard-boiled. Sayers. 1965 and Blind Man with a Pistol. (C. John D. amateur sleuth). Ellery. Dorothy L. S. (police detective/police procedural. (crime/caper). Lockridge. Waugh. Emile. "Murders in the Rue Morgue. (romantic suspense). (Nero Wolfe and Archie Goodwin). Stewart. Rex. (Pam and Jerry North). Frequently terms such as hard-boiled. (the Continental Op. hard-boiled). Simenon. (Coffin Ed Johnson and Grave Digger Jones. Caleb Williams. These are mysteries in which the . Mitchell. Chester. Whitney." 1842-1843. (police detective/police procedural). 1932." 1841 . 1960. Ed. but they are terms often used together to describe a certain type of mystery. (police detective. Gardner. hard-boiled). hotel manager). (Pierre Chambrun. Godwin. When Cotton Comes to Harlem. S. insurance investigator. (David Brandstetter. (Travis McGee). Over eighty novels. Highsmith. (police detective). and cozy are used to describe the different types within this category. Spillane. Joseph. Gaboriau. Poe. Frances. William. Rudolph. Mickey. The character of the detective is vital. Lee). Van Dine. Queen. (nom de plume for Frederick Dannay and Manfred B. Gladys. (police detective/police procedural). finding the culprit. Patricia. My Brother Michael. Georges. Hugh. noir. Pentecost.148 Chapter 7—Crime Fisher. Phyllis. Follett. The Conjure Man Dies. (crime/caper). 1969. Stout. or at least the most plentiful. celebrate attorney Perry Mason with his aides. 1968 (romantic suspense). (Lord Peter Wimsey. (police detective. police procedural). Hansen. and unofficial detective—lawyer). (cozy. 1974 (as well as other books). Ripley. Mary. of crime stories. The focus of these stories is on the detective and the process he or she uses to solve the crime. Gardner's total was about 103 volumes. and bringing him or her to justice are the most popular. "The Mystery of Marie-Rogêt. Sam Spade." 1844. Ken. The Talented Mr. (private detective. Strangers on a Train. Edgar Allan. gay). and "The Purloined Letter. (historical). MacDonald. and series based on detectives keep readers coming back for more. Montague Egg). Hammett. Nick Charles). Paul Drake and Delia Street. the first in 1933. The Detective Story Tales of detection that involve solving a puzzle. Auguste Dupin). 1911. McBain.

The Detective Story 149 protagonist. author of the award-winning Make Mine a Mystery (Libraries Unlimited. rather than merely being common. the "traditional. There are many variations within and between the "hard-boiled" and "cozy" types of mysteries. being amateurs who just seem to be at the right (or perhaps the wrong) place at the right time. Gary Niebuhr. Police Detectives Mysteries involving police detectives often include several characters from a squad or division. often depicted in vivid and gory detail. designates a third category. are more genteelly described. usually a male private investigator. Soft-boiled and cozy are often used interchangeably. In this type of mystery the community is often smaller or rural as opposed to the urban scenes found in hard-boiled stories. instead of meeting a series of strangers in pursuit of answers. Dashiell Hammett. all of whose books continue to be read. Even the series that feature independent sleuths who are on a police force have to work within the constraints imposed by the organization and stay within the law they are trying to uphold. Often the sleuths have no official standing. even if it is his or her first appearance. although some argue that soft-boiled falls between hard-boiled and cozy. we limit the major types to two. The murders often occur "offstage" or. Many detective series that start off as paperback originals eventually move into hardcover publication as the sleuth becomes popular and develops a following of readers. family and friends. The detective usually has no close personal relationships. detective series have virtually become the rule in crime fiction. working for the most part alone. James Ellroy is currently writing in this vein. For the purposes of this guide. and Jim Thompson. Until recent years the focus in these novels was completely on the detective and how he or she solved the crime. Now. explores the dark underbelly of a major city while trying to solve the crime. orderly place—it is harsh. However. although the focus is still on the crime. New mysteries frequently identify the sleuth on the cover. The Professionals The two major types of professional detectives are the police detective and the private investigator. if conducted in full view. Some of these tales feature one-person po- ." The world of these novels is not a comfortable. and only the strong survive. tough. with the focus on atmosphere and action. The crimes. 2004). are more important and often play a role in the story. interacts with people known to him or her. and even caustic. the detective—his or her persona and how he or she solves the crime—still provides the central appeal and focus of these novels. In this category. amateur sleuths. professional detectives. rather than graphically as in hard-boiled detection. and the writing is spare. the detectives have relationships and families that help define them and add multiple levels to the tale of the detective and the crime. interpersonal relationships. Today. Dialogue is clipped. with further distinction made according to detective types—that is. and past masters include Raymond Chandler. The detective." which combines elements of both types. can be described as "gritty.

dictates the character of the detective and the type of story readers will encounter. Those set in New York. The other. Thus. Twenty-nine novels originally published between 1929 and 1962. lesbian). although one case is the focus of detection and. the sixteenth in 2004. The characters and notable time periods or places are provided in parentheses after the author name. Los Angeles. Television series such as NYPD Blue and CSI are good examples of the composite stories and cast of characters found in police procedural novels. which often looks as though it could have been taken from a crime blotter. and France. Because readers often recall the name of the character or the setting. uses the police blotter to dictate the story line: Every case followed up by the police station staff is observed in varying degrees. Garry. 1970s). The best-known type of book featuring police detectives is the police procedural. half-aborigine). deal with more cozy crimes. he or she lacks the freedom of the private detective. (Inspector Napoleon "Bony" Bonaparte. Jon. who is often a loner). One uses a single murder (or several linked murders) or mystery for the basic plot. in effect. Upfield. Two plot patterns are common. The first series book was published in 1988. Rural Australian hard-boiled police procedural.150 Chapter 7—Crime lice departments. thus giving the sleuth much in common with independent private investigators. Great Britain. Time period plays into the mix as well—with the more contemporary stories generally being the most brutal. Arkansas. while those set in places like the fictional Maggody. most police detectives work as part of a team (as opposed to the private detective. The detective in the police procedural must function within the rules of the police department. (Detective Inspector Carol Ashton. (Detective Inspector Hal Challis). Although the pattern may vary because of the personality of the detective. Sample titles are also given for some authors. Detection novels featuring police detectives can be either hard-boiled or cozy. A group of police officers solve crimes as they come up. often. The stories of police detectives became popular with the rise of organized police forces in the United States. Australia Cleary. the environment. to a great extent. The most common type of readers' advisory inquiry by readers of detection stories it to find the author of a book featuring a detective that the reader liked. Frequently the plot will involve several crimes. and Chicago tend to be more hard-boiled. Under the "United States" heading the grouping is by state. (Detective Sergeant Scobie Malone. Arthur. Disher. requiring the detective to work more than one case at a time or to consult on other cases. the other cases are ingeniously linked to the main crime. Joseph Wambaugh and Ed McBain wrote the prototypes in this area. Claire. Many of the titles by the following authors are quite old but still are read. McNab. where Chief Arly Hanks is the sum total of the local police force. . the following authors are listed by the country to which the police detective belongs. The best indication of which category a book falls into is usually the size of the community in which the detective functions.

Canada Blount. Shanghai Head of Special Investigations). West. (Yellowthread Street Police Station. Eric. (Henri Castang). Bosnia Fesperman. Toronto). L. (Inspector Matteesie. Pattison. Eliot. Maureen. (Shan Tao Yun. (Inspector Wang Anzhuang of the Beijing Central Investigations Department). Nicolas. the Mamur Zapt British head of Cairo's secret police). . Egypt Pearce. (Ministry of Public Security agent Liu Hulan). Algonquin Bay. (Detective William Murdoch. Lie in the Dark. Qiu Xiaolong. (Charlie Salter. David. Sale. Giles. Brazil Garcia-Roza. Chief Harry Feiffer). Scott. Royal Canadian Mounted Police). 1999. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (Inspector Andrew Coggin and Sergeant Fred Stemp. Luiz Alfredo. Dark police procédurals with deliberate pacing started with The Silence of the Rain in 2002. (Inspector Espinosa). Murphy's Harbor. Toronto). Lisa. John. 2003. Ontario). Victorian era). The sixteenth and last one was The Dwarf Kingdom (1997). (Judge Dee. Young. Tibet). Wright. Ontario). (Staff Sergeant Karl Aberg. Wood. See. R. eighth century). China Marshall. Reeves. British Columbia). The fourth book is A Window in Copacabana. Craig. Royal Canadian Mounted Police). Wright. 2005. Laurence. Rotenberg. Gough. Toronto). Ted. Medora. (Zhong Fong. Toronto. Dan. (Reid Bennett. Robert. The Small Boat of Great Sorrows. Jennings. (Detectives Jack Willows and Claire Parker. (Gareth Owen. (Chief Inspector Chen Cao). (Detective Inspector Vlado Petric). (John Cardinal and Lisa Delorme. Alisa. Christopher. William. (Detective Inspector John Sanders. Van Gulik. (Madoc Rhys. Michael.The Detective Story 151 Belgium Freeling. Vancouver).

nineteenth century). (Commander George Gideon). Harrison. (Inspector Crow). Elizabeth. (Chief Inspector Frederick Troy). (Henri Castang). Vincent. Gwendoline. Butler. (Inspector Pitt. Perry. (Chief Inspectors Hannasyde and Hemingway). nineteenth century). (Chief Superintendent George Gently). (Detective Harry Kyle). Cyril. . Georgette. Roy. (Inspector Henry Peckover). Marrie. James. (Chief Superintendent Henry Tibbett and his wife Emmy). World War II occupied France). Ormerod. (Inspector Roderick Alleyn). D. (Francois Vidocq. Barnard. London City Police. Kenyon. Great Britain: Scotland Yard The legendary detective department of the Metropolitan Police Force of London has an almost mythical standing in detective stories. (Sergeant Cribb and Constable Thackeray. Heyer. Martha. (Inspector Evariste Clovis Désiré Pel. Michael. John Appleby. Jones. Peter. Simenon. Robert. Lawton. Peter. Ray. Art and Antiques Squad). Grimes. Hilton. (Inspector Mallett). McConnor. Janes. Robert. Crombie. Marsh. Roger. Alan. Anne. (Inspector Maigret). (Detective Inspector Tom Pollard and Inspector Gregory Toye). J . Deborah. retired). and also in retirement). (Francis Corti.152 Chapter 7—Crime France Freeling. nineteenth century). Nicolas. (Superintendent Duncan Kincaid and Sergeant Gemma James). Elwyn. (Sergeant Bragg and James Morton. (Detective Inspector Raven. MacKenzie. Inchbald. (Hauptkommissar Jens Muller of the Berlin Police). (Commander Adam Dalgliesh). Burgundy). founder of the Sûreté. (Inspector Kenworthy). John Buxton. J . (Inspector Coffin). (Inspector. Patricia. (Superintendent Percy Trethowan and Superintendent Sutcliffe). J . Lewis. Georges. Lovesey. Hebden. Mark. Donald. Lemarchand. 1890s). P. Hare. Moyes. Hunter. (Detective Superintendent Richard Jury and amateur Melrose Plant). Innes. (Inspectors Jean-Louis St-Cyr of the French police and Hermann Kohler of the German police. (Detective Chief Superintendent Barlow). John. later Sir. Germany Savarin. Julian Jay. Ngaio. Michael.

Patrick Petrella). Colin. (Inspector Liz Graham and Sergeant Cal Donovan). Luke Pagan. Eccles. (Constable Ben Cooper and Sergeant Diane Fry). (Constable Evan Evans. (Chief Inspector Morse. Jo. Cork. Barnard. Freda. (Inspector Ian Rutledge). Michael. (Angus Straun). (Detective Inspector Rafferty and Sergeant Llewellyn). Stubbs. Charles. Josephine. (Inspector Sholto Lestrade. (Chief Inspector Meredith. Superintendent Ian Dundy). Billingham. (Superintendent Merle Capricorn and Inspector Copper). M. (Chief Inspector Lennox). J . W. George. (Inspector Tom Thorne). (Inspector Lintott. Dexter. Symons. Catherine. Trow. (Ludovic Fender). Gilbert. Burley. (Inspector Don Packham and Constable Frank Mitchell). Coward. Ashford. Scotland). M. Pauline. (Inspector Christy Kennedy). Bowen. (Inspector Keith Tyrell). Sergeant Kate Power. Cutler. C. Robert. J . R. Sergeant Barbara Havers). (Chief Inspector Henry Beaumont). George. Todd. Charles. nineteenth century). Booth. Francis. Barry. Fraser. Da vies. Kate.The Detective Story Selwyn. Smith. (Inspector Bland). (Chief Inspector David Webb). John. Anderson. Graham. W. (Constable Hamish MacBeth. (Inspector Gil Mayo). Beaton. Rhys. Bannister. (Chief Superintendent Wycliffe). Mark. Caroline. Julian. (Inspector McLean). (Harry Fathers). nineteenth century). (Sergeant Verity. Atkins. Elizabeth. (Chief Constable Pier Deventer). L. Judith. Mat. Wales a cozy series). Paul. (Inspector Thomas Lynley. 153 Great Britain Other Than Scotland Yard Aird. (Inspector Sloan). Winslow. Marjorie. Geddes. (Det. (Inspector Alan Grant). Stephen. D. Sgt. Paul. Birmingham). Jeffrey. Clare. (Detective Inspector Don Kerry). J . . Oxford). Jean. Wesley Peterson). Wainwright. Tey. Ellis. nineteenth century). (Chief Superintendent Charlie Knott. Evans. (Chief Inspector Tom Barnaby). Goodchild. (Det. Géraldine. (Superintendent Mike Yeadings). Curzon. Meg Elizabeth. Anthea.

(Sergent Seth Mornay. Oldham. William. (Inspector John McLeish and Sergeant Bruce Davidson). . (Sergeant Kathy Kolla and Chief Inspector Brock). Fishery Protection Service). Radley. Janet. Bill. (Inspector Luke Thanet. Maitland. Ian. Bill. Frank. (Superintendent Bone). Jennie. The fourteenth title. J . Murray. (Chief Superintendent Colin Harpur). Sheila. Peter. Glasgow). (pseudonym of Jill Staynes and Margaret Storey). (Inspector Roper). Hall. Nick. Sally. Harrod-Eagles. Patricia. Ruth. (Inspector Henry Christie. G. Susannah.154 Chapter 7—Crime Granger. Ruell. Hill. A Question of Blood. S. 2004. M. (Colin Thane and Phil Moss. Superintendent John Lambert and Sergeant Bert Hook). H. Lovesey. (Detective Inspector Dog Cicero). (Chief Inspector Douglas Quantrill. (Sergeant Charmian Daniels). Hilton. (Detective Inspector Laidlaw. F. Richard. Knox. Gay. (DCI Michael Thackeray). Detective Brunt. Jardine. Robinson. (Detective Inspector Jessie Driver). (Chief Inspector Woodend). Stephen. Ellis. Cynthia. (Inspector Pickford. Blackpool). Derbyshire. (Chief Inspector Alan Banks). Keating. T. (Chief Inspector Markby and former Foreign Service Officer Meredith Mitchell). Scotland). Hunt. Peters. Jonathan. (pseudonym of Reginald Hill). (Superintendent Dalziel and Sergeant Pascoe). (Detective Chief Inspector Sidney Walsh). Peter. McGown. Neel. (Chief Superintendent Peter Diamond). Roy. (Detective Inspector Bill Slider). Smith. Edinburgh). Hart. Rankin. Quintin. Jill. Webb Carrick. Haymon. Barry. Mcllvanney. R. Stacey. Ross. (Chief Inspector Wexford and Inspector Borden). Ann. James. (Detective Inspector George Felse). M. (Detective Harriet Martens). Simpson. Dorothy. (pseudonym of Gwendoline Butler). (Detective Inspector Benjamin Jurnet). Longworth. (Inspector John Rebus. Spencer. Suffolk). involves a school shooting. Edinburgh). and Sergeant Nadin. (Detective Superintendent George Rogers). John Buxton. nineteenth century). (Alec Stainton). Gregson. (Chief Inspector Neil Paget). Melville. (Inspector Percy Peach. (Detective Chief Inspector Lloyd and Inspector Judy Hall). Patrick. Glasgow. (DCC Bob Skinner. Kincaid. Rendell. Reginald. Kent).

(Joe Sandilands). (Achille Peroni. Rome). Turnbull. (Marshal Guarnaccia. Whitehead. Marshall. Gary. (Inspector Purbright and Miss Teatime). Peter. Mann.The Detective Story 155 Thomson. Venice). Watson. (Commissario Guido Brunetti. Venice). (Police Inspectors Dave Smart and Bob Southwell. (Superintendent Otani. R. Laura Joh. (Inspector George Sansi). editions. India Cleverly. (Detective Michael Ohayon. June. Iain. Williams. Donna. Japan Melville. (Palestinian cop Ben Kamal and Israeli government agent Danielle Barnea). Detective Inspector Rudd). (Detective Inspector Finch. Timothy. Jerusalem). Tokyo). Florence).S. Batya. (Inspector Ghote. York). Land. Rowland. Dublin). Rome. Hewson. Gill. Israel Gur. David. Sicily). Colin. Timothy. Camilleri. Andrea. H. (Inspector Matt Minogue). (Superintendent Bamsan Kiet). Pears. Dibdin. John. (Inspector Salvo Montalbano. Leon. Detective Roy Sussock. (Nic Costa. (Aurelio Zen). Italy Browne. 17th century). in U. Holme. Alexander. Magdalen. (Police Constable Phil Hamilton. Nabb. (Sano Ichiro. James. (Chief Inspector Peter McGarr. Keating. . (Inspector Anders). Bartholomew. Jon. (Flavia di Stefano. Paul. Luong (Fictional Southeast Asian Kingdom). Barbara. F. (Commissario Trotti). Ireland Brady. Barbara. Art Squad). Bombay). Glasgow). Michael.

Murder on the Trans-Siberian Express. (Superintendent Louis Bernai. Pawel. the fourteenth book. Àke. Russia Kaminsky. Sweden Edwardson. Turkey Nadel. (Chief Homicide Investigator Arkady Renko). Puerto Rico Torres. South Africa McClure. David. Thailand Burdett. Van de Wetering. Spain Jeffries. C. 1989. Maj. Siberia). (Ben Wellman). (Inspector Van der Valk). The Hundredth Man. Afrikaner. Moscow. James. 2005. (Martin Beck). Steven. Sjôwall. Series started with Death of a Dissident in 1981 . (Inspector DeKok). Martin Cruz. Seville). a lieutenant in the Guardia). . 2004. A. Stuart. Serafin. Freeling. Mankell. Thomas H. (Inspector Jefe Javier Falcon. (Chief Inspector Erik Winter). (Luis Gonzalo. (Inspector Kurt Wallander). Henning. United States Alabama Cook. Robin. Robert. Smith.156 Chapter 7—Crime Netherlands Baantjer. Barbara. Kerley. (Detective Gnjpstra and Detective Sergeant de Grier). (Detective Sonchai Jitpleecheep). (Inspector Enrique Alverez. Bantu). Madrid). Rebecca. Janwillem. (Police Inspector Çetin Ikmen). (Carson Ryder). Wilson. Majorca). White. sheriff of Angustias). Nicolas. Sun and Shadow. and Per Wahlôô. (Lieutenant Tromp Kramer. Jack. John. was published in 2001. Streets of Fire. (Gregori Nowek. Roderic. (Inspector Porfiry Petrovich Rostnikov. Detective Sergeant Zondi. (Carlos Tejada Alonso Y Leon.

Los Angeles). Stuart. (Carolyn Sullivan. Death and the Walking Stick. Florida Woods. (Lieutenant Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee. Faye. 1982. (Liam Campbell). Orchid Blues. Stephen J. Michael. Joens. (Chief Holly Barker. (Masao Masuto. Linda. 2005. Sentenced to Die. (Virgil Tibbs. 2005. James D. The Closers. Georgia Berry. T. 1965. Jefferson. 2004. Pasadena). Navajo Tribal Police). Nancy Taylor. 2004. Beverly Hills). Maggody). Nothing Gold Can Stay. (Officer Trudy Roundtree). Dead Soul. Los Angeles). Jance. (Shane Scully. probation officer. Dana. Shaman Pass. Orange County). California Ball. Slaughter. (Chief Arly Hanks. Karin. Paula L. E. Michael. 2003. Muletrain to Maggody. 2002. 2001. Joan. In the Heat of the Night. John. (Detective Harry Bosch. A Faint Cold Fear. V. ^ . African-American. Sullivan's Justice. 2002. 1999. (Detective Sandra Cameron.The Detective Story 157 Alaska Jones. Stan. Colorado Doss. Cochise County Sheriff). (Detective Charlotte Justice. (Merci Rayborn. Vertical Coffin. Stabenow. 2003. (Scott Parris and Charlie Moon. Case of the Kidnapped Angel. 2000. Dirty Laundry. Straight into Darkness. Kellerman. Southwest area and Ute Reservation). Better to Rest. (Nathan Active. Skeleton Man. An Animated Death in Burbank. Reissued 2001. Tony. 2004. Rosenberg. (Joanna Brady. Los Angeles). Los Angeles). Connelly. state trooper). Cunningham. 2005. J. (Peter and Rina Lazarus. White Sky. Black Water. Cannell. 2004. Orchid Beach). Parker. 2005. 2005. Arizona Hillerman. (Chief Jeffrey Tolliver). 2004. Woods. Arkansas Hess. A. 2003. Reissued 2001. Nisei. Ventura County). Los Angeles). Black Ice.

a veteran Chicago cop in his sixties). The series started with Lieberman's Folly in 1990. Parker. Chicago). reissued 2003). The fifth title is A Long December. starting off as a homicide detective in New Orleans. (Carl Houseman. Gregory. and returning to serve as a cop in New Iberia. Hampstead). Charlene. Stuart M. published in 2003. (Skip Langdon). (Marti MacAlister and Vik Jessenovik. The series started with Eleven Days in 1998. a sometimes recovering alcoholic. published in 2003. Konrath. Flynn's World. the eighth book. Lincoln Prairie). Boston). The series started with New Orleans Mourning in 1990. was published in 2003. Louisiana Burke. the ninth book featuring this police woman is Mean Woman Blues. (Lieutenant Jacqueline "Jack" Daniels of the Violent Crimes Unit. but the intelligence officer who uses a detective job as a cover first became a series detective in Flynn (1977. Robicheaux is a Cajun. Hugh. the fourteenth in the series. Holton. Robert B. was published in 2004. 2003. (Sergeant Abe Lieberman. James Lee. A Cold and Silent Dying. Smith. published in 2003. (Larry Cole. The Last Dark Place. Kaminsky. The series started in 2004 with Whiskey Sour. The fourth book in the series is Stone Cold. J . insomniac). Chief Jesse Stone. 2002. 2004. Iowa Harstad. Criminal Element. A. (Inspector Francis Xavier Flynn. (Police Chief Susan Wren. Julie. Kansas Weir. is Crusader's Cross (2005). the fifth book in the comédie series. the second in the darkly humorous series is Bloody Mary. The Dave Robicheaux series started with The Neon Rain (1987). leaving the force. moving to Montana. and a police detective on and off. Eleanor Taylor. Donald. is first featured in Night Passage (1997). Flynn first appeared in Confess Fletch.158 Chapter 7—Crime Illinois Bland. the sixth book is Up in Smoke. The series started with The Winter Widow in 1992. a former LAPD cop who moves to a small town named Paradise. deputy sheriff rural Nation county). 2005. Massachusetts McDonald. and the most recent. .

Missouri Kennett. Detectives Leo Magozzi and Gino Rolseth appeared first in Monkeewrench in 2003. Jon A. set in the northern city of Rutherford. (Sergeant Mulheisen.The Detective Story 159 Michigan Jackson. started with Triple Play in 1997. Jodi. The series started with Third Person Singular in 2001 and is now up to the fourth book. K. was published under the pseudonym Avery Morgan. J. in which Mars moves from the Minneapolis Polic Department homicide to the cold case squad. Monsour. Randisi. Elizabeth. The fifth book. Theresa. Peter. Robert J . and Fang Mulheisen is an ex-cop in No Man's Dog (2004). The Captain Jake Hines series. The twelfth book in the series is Stewball (2005). which is Alone at Night (2004). A fifth title in the series. Time of Death. is the first in the series. first appeared in Coyote Wind in 1994. a psychologist and single mom. . Detroit). Shirley. P. This series featuring P. J . Arch Angels. The third title in this comédie series involving a group of high-tech computer and game programmers is Dead Run (2005). was published in 2004. has been hired by the St. (Homicide Detective Paris Murphy). J. (Marshall "Mars" Bahr). The fourth novel. P. a cattle brand inspector. Tracy. in which Sarah sees her new husband kidnapped. Montana Bowen. published in 2004. Gray and Leo Schultz started with Gray Matter in 1996. Sympathy Between Humans (2005) starts right where the first title left off. The Joe Keough series started in 1998 with Alone with the Dead. (Sheriff's Detective Sarah Pribek. The third title is Dark Horse (2005). The series started in 1977 with The Diehard. This gritty series started with Clean Cut in 2003. J. Gunn. Minneapolis specializes in missing person cases). was published in 2005. Gabriel Du Pre. The 37th Hour. The sixth book is Crazy Eights (2005). Minnesota Compton.. Louis Police Department to use virtual reality techniques in the Computerized Homicide Investigations Project (CHIP) and is teamed up with veteran detective Leo. Act of Betrayal (2000). Erickson.

The series started with Tularosa in 1996. the twelfth book. Mahoney. (Chief Kevin Kerney. The fifth book is At Hell's Gate (2004). Steven F. Fairstein. Michael. (Alexandra Cooper. Detective Brian McKenna was introduced in Detective First Grade in 1993 and made his eighth appearance in Justice in 2003. head of Manhattan's sex crimes unit). Ethan. Hark!. the ninth book was Slow Kill. Jerome. This series featuring Conrad Voort began with The Broken Hearts Club in 1999. Leslie. was published in 2005. (Steve Carella. Navajo Tribal Police). Dan. The first in the series was Heartshot in 1991 . 87th Precinct). Hillerman's evocatively described Four Corners setting and respectful depiction of Navajo peoples started a major trend in mysteries. It started in 1956 with Cop Hater. Glass. Deaver. The first book was Night Rituals ( 1982). Murder in Coney Island. The first title in the series was Final Jeopardy (1996). The Isaac Quartet. was published in 2004. an omnibus of the first four titles in the series. New York (New York City unless otherwise noted) Black. Jahn. JefFery. appeared in 2005. Entombed. and the ninth. The benchmark of police procedural series has been going strong for nearly half a century. was published in 2003. published in 2004. (Undersheriff Bill Gastner later Sheriff and Undersheriff Estelle Reyes-Guzman). Ed. (Lincoln Rhyme and Amelia Sachs). Charyn.160 Chapter 7—Crime New Mexico Havill. The Twelfth Card. The seventh. (Bill Donovan). Tony. (Lieutenant Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee. was The Bone Collector (1997) ! • . was reissued in 2002. Convenient Disposal. Michael. Hillerman. . The first title in what has become one of the most loved mystery series of all time was The Blessing Way (1970). The first title in this series featuring quadriplegic criminologist Lincoln Rhyme. April Woo was introduced in the Burning Time (1995). The Isaac Sidel series started with Blue Eyes in 1974. Set in Posadas County at the very southern edge of the state. The ninth is A Clean Kill (2005). McBain. McGarrity." Amelia Sachs. and the sixth title. The Skeleton Man (2004) is the seventeenth in the series. was published in 2004. who does not let his injuries incurred in the line of duty stop him from tracking down serial killers with the help of his "eyes and hands. the fifty-fourth title. Linda. Santa Fe).

O'Connell. the second features a stint Troy. Breakthrough (2003). features her internship in upstate Canaan ville. reissued 2002). The seventeenth in the Rocksburg series. K. Even though she works for the NYPD. of Prophesy County first appeared in The Man in the Green Chevy in 1988. Otto Penzler called Uncivil Seasons "one of the few nearly perfect novels in the history of detective fiction. features three beat cops. Susan Rogers. Michael. of Peekamoose Heights. is involved in a missing persons case in Still Life (2000) and pursues a serial kidnapper/killer in Sub Rosa (2001). she is on maternity leave. Jonathan. His eighth appearance is in Lying Wonders (2003). was adopted at age eleven by a cop. Harker. North Carolina Malone." Ohio Mclnerny. Chief Cuddy Mangum and Lt. and in the third. Winter House (2004) is the eighth in the series. . a Japanese American homicide detective in Manhattan. appears in A Cruel Season for Dying (2003) and A Mourning in Autumn (2004). Ralph. Carol. Stackhouse. Sergeant Kathleen Mallory. Detective Ruggerio "Rugs" Carlucci. Justin Savile are featured in Uncivil Seasons (1983. who has been called a sociopath and a homeless street thief. Time's Witness (1989. Julian Palmer is a smart young policewoman who submerses herself in the crimes she is solving. Pennsylvania Constantine. Stone. sleepy little village in the Catskills. Egidio Manfredi.The Detective Story 161 Moore. Lieutenant James Sakura. The Cold Truth (1999). Bill. The series started in 1972 with Rocksburg Railroad Murders. and First Lady (2001). first appeared in Stream of Death in 2001.Saving Room for Dessert (2002). (Chief of Police Mario Balzic. Sheriff Milt Kovack. reissued 2002). She first appeared in Mallory's Oracle (2004). C. the first novel. Rocksburg). Oklahoma Cooper. soon to retire from the Fort Elbow Police Department. Wash and Wear (2003) was the fourth book in the series. a quiet. Chief Ed McAvoy.

A. Texas Crider. Seattle). Tennessee. was originally published in 1988 under the pseudonym John Kevin Dugan.162 Chapter 7—Crime Griffin. Jones. Laurie. The first book in the Badge of Honor series. The Lieutenant Joe Gunther series. White. Archer. The Lady Godiva Murder introduced Cezanne Martin. a cop who has just passed the bar exam. Marcos McPeek. J . The series started in 1988 with Undercurrents. W. a gritty noir thriller dealing with the kidnapping of a little girl from a notorious housing project. This series started with Patricide in 2000. Elizabeth. which won an Anthony Award for best first novel. B. in 2002. The ninth book is The Body of David Hayes (2004). Moore. Sharyn. The eighth book in the series is Final Justice (2003). (Devon Gray. Ridley. followed by Minos (2003). Vermont Mayor. Washington Jance. Alban's Fire (2005). appeared first in Home Killings (2001). Romilia Chacon. a Salvadoran who is now a Nashville homicide cop. Tennessee McCrumb. . Pretty Peggy-0 (1990). Fackler. (Cezanne Martin. E. and Blue Murder (2003). Solomon. began in 1988 with Open Season. The series started with Until Proven Guilty in 1985. set in Hamelin. This series featuring Sheriff Don Rhodes started with Too Late to Die (1986). the seventeenth book. Bill. Fort Worth). Long Time Gone. Pearson. The seventeenth book is St. (Jonas Piedmont Beaumont. Men in Blue. El Paso). set in Philadelphia. Sheriff Spencer Arrowood first appeared in If Ever I Return. Philadelphia Detective Kevin Lynch is featured in The Bridge (2003). Ghost Riders (2003) is the seventh book. (Detective Lou Boldt and police psychiatrist Daphne Matthews. the third book is Endless River (2005). set in Brattleboro. Villatoro. The twelfth in this humorous series is Red. in a series that combines past and present mysteries. was published in 2005. Seattle).

(Precious Ramotswe. a detective who strikes out on his own after his partner is killed in The Maltese Falcon. Dunant. France Black. 2003).I. Dashiell Hammett created two immortal prototypes: the Continental Op. who make it their business to honor excellent work in the genre with their Shamus Awards.or two-investigator agency. Greenwood. (ex-cop Vlado Petric in The Small Boat of Great Sorrows. C. Private Investigators The Private Eye Writers of America. Bosnia Fesperman. Cara. Australia Day. (Kate Brannigan). (Benny Cooperman). Botswana McCall Smith. and Sam Spade. Manchester). Adam. (Chris O'Brien). Marele. Canada Engel. McDermid. Christian.The Detective Story 163 Wisconsin Greenlief.I. Staincliffe. Sam Spade also became the prototype for the hard-boiled private eye. Dan. break the rules." The official private detective started out as one of two types—the employee of a large agency or a lone operator—but now is often part of a small one. (Phryne Fisher 1920s Melbourne). a character often short on morals but long on integrity. simply identified for his agency and never named. . (Inspector Alphonse Dantan). Kerry. Cath. Death at the Door (2003) is the second. Thompson. Botswana). (Sheriff Lark Swenson and Detective Lacey Smith). This type of detective is currently most often referred to as a P. Val.s often cross boundaries. K. Howard. (Hannah Wolfe). Blank. Alexander. (Claudia Valentine). and are individualistic characters. Sarah. P. 'but not a police officer or government agent. Great Britain Baron. The first book in the series was Cold Hunter's Moon (2002). (Billy Rucker). define a "private eye" as any mystery protagonist who is a professional investigator. Hannah. (Sal Kilkenny. (Aimée Leduc).

Marcia. (Bill Damen. Walter. Bill. (insurance investigator Hobart Lindsey and Marvia Plum. Mosley. Oakland). (Gil Yates). Alistair. (Toby Peters. (Leo G. Copper Basil. (Nameless detective. . Robert. John. Straley. Oakland. Dawson. California Barre. Berkeley). high-tech P. Muller. Patricia. (John Sampson and Shandy). very hardboiled). Los Angeles). Hollywood). (Kiernan O'Shaugnessy. (Kat Colorado. private investigator). Kijewski. United States Alaska Stabenow. (Kazuo Mori. (Jeri Howard. Susan. (John Marshall Tanner. Peter. Joe. San Francisco). Greenleaf. Los Angeles). (Jack Liffey. Los Angeles). Mexico Taibo. skip-tracing agency). (Miss Maude Silver).. Janet. John. Sitka). (Easy Rawlins. Dunlap. Ireland Bruen. Corpi. (Nick Polo). San Francisco). # The Guards. Macdonald. (Catherine Saylor. Los Angeles). Calder. James. Daniel Kearny Associates. (Sharon McCone. Grafton. Stuart. (Hector Belascoaran Shayne). (Neal Fargo. II. Stephen. (Allen Choice. Ken. Gores. 2003. police officer). (Gloria Damasco. Lucha. Japan Tasker. Dick. Wentworth. Justin Escobar and Dora Saldana). Kaminsky. Shannon. Robert. former district attorney). San Francisco). (Mike Faraday. (Cecil Younger. Paco Ignacio. Campbell. Dana. (Wil Hardesty). Richard A. Ross. Boyle. Winner of the Shamus Award. Miles. Leonard. (Lew Archer. Linda. Richard. Grant. Crais. (Elvis Cole).164 Chapter 7—Crime Tripp. (Jack Taylor). Sue. Santa Barbara). (Whistler). Silicon Valley). Los Angeles). Kennealy. Bloodworth. Lochte. Karen.I. Pronzini. Jerry. (Kate Shugak. Chang. San Francisco). (Kinsey Millhone). Lupoff.

Mm if . Sara. appeared in the first title in 1999. Gaylord. Colorado Dold. (Paul Whelan).The Detective Story 165 Simon. Stuart M. (Anna Peters). (Malachy Foley). formerly an investigator for the District Attorney's office in Chicago. J . Indiana Lewin. an on again off again sometimes cop sometimes P.I. Indianapolis). D. District of Columbia Law. David J . Sallis. Janice. a depressed process server in Sarasota. Luis Montez). P. Louisiana Burke. Ronald. James. George P. I. Parrish. The first three titles were all reissued in 2004. Julie. Singer. the fourth book. (Jake Samson and Rosie). Denial. Lew Fonesca. (Albert Samson. 1950s). (Deets Shanahan). James Lee. (Lew Griffin). Roger L. Tierney. Raleigh. J . (Mitch Roberts. On a Hot Tin Roof. The series has been continued by Vincent Lardo. Lawrence. Kit Franklin. was published in 2005. Kris. (Danny "Moony" Mora.. Ramos. (Dave Robicheaux. Illinois Nelscott. Ed. African American poet and P. P. who never seems to make it home to Colorado).I.)Donaldson. the fifth title. Walker. Florida Kaminsky. Talba Wallis. Michael Z. Shelley. Paretsky. (Louis Kincaid). (Smokey Dalton). was published in 2005. (Sam McCain. (Moses Wine. was introduced in Louisiana Hot-Shot in 2001 . Smith. Michael. Black River Falls. I. Pelecanos. and Chief Medical Examiner Andy Broussard). Manuel. (V. Warshawski). Los Angeles). Iowa Gorman. (Archy McNally). Sanders. criminal psychologist. (Derek Strange). (Dr.

Louis). Mississippi Hegwood. Lucas goes up against hit woman Clara Rinker from Certain Prey (1999). Sandra West.D. John. (Amos Walker. was published in 2004.166 Chapter 7—Crime Maine Connolly. Bad Business. Detroit). Rudolfo. Spenser was a television show and a couple of made-for-television movies. (Phoebe Siegel). Reed Farrel. The thirty-first title. John. Chesbro. Baltimore). (Tess Monaghan. George C. Minnesota Sandford. Walter. (Moe Prager). New Jersey Evanovich. (Lucas Davenport). Lehane.. ex-cop). Martin. (Patrick Kenzie and Angie Gennaro). (Alo Nudger. Ph. (Carlotta Carlyle. Montana Crumley. In Mortal Prey. St. Robert '"Mongo" Frederickson. (Sonny Baca). (Bubba Mabry). Michael Spraggue. Laura. The Spenser series. (Stephanie Plum. James. (Charlie Parker. Massachusetts Barnes. the first Prey book again. Coleman. Prey series. Boston). Maryland Lippman. (Dr. Brewer. New Mexico Anaya. Steve. little person). started with The Godwulf Manuscript in 1973. Missouri Lutz. (Sughrue and Milo Milodragovitch). Prowell. Lawrence. Linda. (Jack Delmas). Michigan Estleman. (Joshua Croft). Parker. Janet. New York Block. . Satterthwait. the thirteenth Prey novel. Robert B. John. bounty hunter and former discount lingerie buyer). Dennis. set in Boston. Loren D. (Matthew Scudder).

Depression era). (Thomas Black). West Africa Wilson. Stephen. The sleuth often still has friends on the force who can give him or her inside information and test results. (Joe Kurtz. (Terry Orr). Richard. Nashville). (Desiree Shapiro).The Detective Story 167 Collins. Robert. G. M. Some of the following sleuths are also listed in the "Police Detectives" section because they played the role of police detectives in their earlier books. (Lauren Laurano). Selma. Saratoga). drives a Boston cab while working as a P. 2001. one-armed). Hall. Earl W. Rozan. . professional "fixer"). (Harry James Denton. Washington (all Seattle). (Burke). Michael. Hoyt.I. Winner of the Shamus Award. (Charles Bradshaw. Parnell. Kinky. (Kinky Friedman). (John Denson). (Bruce Medway. (Carl Wilcox. (Très Navarre. while at the same time he or she can believably display a knowledge and use of police procedures. • Reflecting the Sky. Ex-Cops Former police officers now working as private investigators are featured in a subgenre that offers the best of both major types of sleuths. J. Sandra. South Dakota Adams. Eichler. Andrew. Friedman. Texas Riordan. Tennessee Womack. (Stanley Hastings). Simmons. Ohio Roberts. The investigator has an autonomy and independence that are not possible within the confines of an official law enforcement agency. Harold. S. (Lydia Chin and Bill Smith). Scoppettone. Ford.). Dan. (Milan Jacovich). (Dan Fortune. Emerson. San Antonio). Les. (Leo Waterman). Rick. Vachss. Fusilli Jim. (Carlotta Carlyle. Buffalo). Steven. Dobyns. Linda. Barnes.

Wallace. Krueger. Pacific Northwest). former military police). G. Valerie Wilson. (Filoména Buscarsela). They may be young or old. Wesley. (Cork O'Connor). A. (Jeff Jackson). J. Third in 2004. Child. a gambling consulting company). James. J. David.A. Hard-Boiled Many of the hard-boiled detectives who work as private investigators are listed in the ex-cop section. (Brandon Walker). (Gregor Demarkian). (Homer Kelly. # Blackwater Sound. Philip R. (Tony Valentine. Michael. Jane. A. Waiwaiole. K. The soft-boiled is not as warm and fuzzy but is also not filled with the angst of hard-boiled detectives. Daniel. (Harry Bosch). Amateur Detective. James Lee. (Paul Whelan). Lee. Michael. Stuart. Steve. McKevett. Craig. Hall. Lawrence. retired homicide detective). Cozy novels featuring amateurs predominate. head of Grift Sense. Dunning. John. Many of them use only one name. William Kent. Winner of the Shamus Award. Cozy and Soft-Boiled Amateur detectives appear everywhere. the eighteenth book is Steeplechase (2005). Wishnia. (Harry Rane). however. Stroby. (Matthew Scudder. (Tamara Hay le). These are simply individuals who are somehow drawn into the process of solving the crime—whether as an innocent bystander or as a party somehow related to the victim. a recovering alcoholic). 2002. (Savannah Reid). (Jack Reacher. Langton. James W. (Alex Rasmussen). Jane. Connelly. King. Raleigh. single or married. either as an officer of the law or as a paid private detective. Haddam. Hamilton. (Dave Robicheaux). The amateur detective in cozy mysteries is always curious and has a sincere need to help others. hard-boiled noir types also exist. immersed in the community or reluctantly drawn out of solitude. Florida). (Max Freeman). Burke. Unofficial Detectives Many novels employ a crime-solving protagonist who has no official standing. Jonathon. (Stone Barrington). Swain. Lono. (Thorn. (Alex McKnight). Jance. (Cliff Jane way). Woods. The series started with The Transcendental Murder (1964). . (Wiley.168 Chapter 7—Crime Block.

(Amanda Pepper. antiques dealer). (Callahan Garrity. (Lovejoy. Neal. (Trixie Dolan and Evangaline Sinclair. (Miss Seaton. crossword-puzzle editor). Gillian. Susan Wittig. mom). Kozak. Haley Jane. drawer of dinosaurs). (Kate Austen. Lawrence. Fowler. Nancy. Blanc. Jeanne M. widow. Pickard. Susan Rogers. Cooper. cleaning lady. curator of folk art museum. (John Putnam Thatcher. Matteson. (Tim Simpson. Leslie. Roberts. (Hitchcock Sewell. (Charlie Plato. Phoebe Atwood. ("Mitch" Mitchell. Blevins. Jonnie. (Dorothy Martin. a ghost—very cozy). astrological advice columnist. J r . (Mark Treasure. Meier. Bannister. Arkansas). undertaker. (Lily Bard. Gentry. (Sarah Kelling. (China Bay les. (Charlotte Graham. Earlene. art investment advisor). and her mother-in-law Madame Mina. (Asey Mayo. (Matt Sinclair. Jo. Marian. Fennelly. suburban homemaker). Gerald. cozy). (Brodie Farrell. (Ellie Haskell. J. Sharyn. Valerie. Christine T. f . banker). cleaning lady. widowed writer. Emma. Allyn. (Elizabeth MacPherson. Marin County. Cockey. vampire. tax inspector). Mrs. MacLeod. Scotland). Barrett. Lacey. Dean. a Gypsy). Lathen. Nancy. (Wollie Shelley. Los Angeles). banker). amateur). historian. (First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt). Chittenden. Tim. Harris. (Wiley Moss. (Bonnie Indermill. seventy-something movie star). psychic). gunsmith. (Carole Seddon. Jonathan. and mystery author). Denver). Heron. Brett. Wolzien. (Lori Shepherd. romance-writing suburban mom). McCrumb. (E. David. Carole. Malcolm. Charlaine. Charlotte. (Leah Hunter. James. administrator). herb shop proprietor). Dorothy. a mom and Aunt Dimity. (Belle Graham. mom. Christine. Doug. (Susan Henshaw. Kathy Hogan. Holt. single mom. Jorgensen. California). Williams. Sarah. Gash. (Elizabeth Chase. (Simon Kirby-Jones. Babson. Berry. (Jenny Cain. (Stella the Stargazer. New Englander). Atherton. British widow). (Lucy Stone. Stefanie. Taylor. Carvic. Baltimore). co-owner of a country western dance club). Martha C. j^lM i~_J .The Detective Story 169 Allbert. formerly a cop). California). Pugh. Simon. Cannell. café owner). Hammond. Roosevelt. greeting card business. Melita Pargeter. (Benni Harper. John. Tony. wacky but grisly humor). Trocheck. (Sheila Malory. (continued by Hamilton Crane and Hampton Charles). Dams. office temp). single mom who runs a finding agency). Elliott. antiques dealer). (recently reissued). American living in England). Nero. aging movie stars). Meredith. (Annie Szabo. (Keith Calder. Margaret. Hazel. Jacobs. anthropologist). (Ansel Phoenix. British spinster). English teacher). illustrator. amateur).

Masters. forensic anthropologist).S. John Grisham. Kellerman. Aaron. and Chief Medical Examiner Andy Broussard). quadriplegic criminologist). Jonathan. (Coroner Martha Gunn. This type of detective story often features scenes of courtroom interrogation in which all is revealed. often dramatically. (Alex Delaware. ^ ^ Bones Slaughter. Kennett. Priscilla. forensic anthropologist). therapist). forensic sculptor). the reader is treated to considerable analysis of the law. Alan Gregory. Forensic Scientists Those who solve mysteries by finding all the clues to be found by working with the human remains have become increasingly popular in a trend that is reflected by television shows such as CSI. 1999) supplies this background information. (Sara Linton. Karin. In some of the following books. Matthews. and Steve Martini all made it to the best-seller lists with their crime novels that feature lawyers. Scott Turow. Shrewsbury). medical examiner). Deaver. However. J. . Lawyers Lawyers might qualify more as private investigators than as amateurs because they seek to extricate clients from jeopardy. (Gideon Oliver. J. and the satisfaction that "justice will be served" is the promise of these novels. The legal thriller achieved great prominence in the 1990s. Tess. Gray. Beverly. (P.170 Chapter 7—Crime Psychologists and Psychiatrists Those who deal with the mind find more than their fair share of crimes that need solving. (Cassidy McCabe. Johansen. forensic anthropologist). Jon Breen's bibliography. (Tempe Brennan. Kit Franklin. Shirley. (Eve Duncan. In the delicate interface between crime and justice lies the law. or others from danger. (Dr. Kathy. Reichs. Novel Verdicts: A Guide to Courtroom Fiction (Scarecrow Press. psychologist). the legal thriller's emphasis is not necessarily on detection but rather on a crafty attorney's abilities to extricate himself. Elkins. medical examiner). Stephen Walsh. Alex. Gerritsen. readers when the focus is on British jurisprudence. criminal psychologist. (Kay Scarpetta. (Lindsay Chamberlain. (Lincoln Rhyme. which can be confusing for U. Iris. medical examiner). however. psychologist). herself. Connor. psychological profiler). these sleuths become intimately involved with the crime. Whether they are actually digging into the victim or reconstructing a face to seek the identity of a victim of whom only the skull remains. Maura Isles. (Dr. Cornwell. Donaldson. their investigations are usually outside of their professional line of duty. (Dr. Jeffery. The legal thriller is covered later in this chapter. Patricia D. White. D.

Kali O'Brien leaves a big San Francisco law firm and moves back to her hometown. Historical mysteries featuring the clergy are included in the historical mystery section later in this chapter. Parker. David. Tapply. Church of England setting). which she discovers is just as dangerous and exciting as the city. North Carolina). Mortimer. Agatha. Andrew. an underdog defense attorney). keeps being drawn into cases that connect with her personal life. Lennox Kemp may be mild mannered. New Jersey. Cooper. M. Natasha. Wyoming). Untidy. Boston. Anthony. Kate. (Father Blackie Ryan). Jacobs. Stanley Hastings is a P. Sarah. Trish McGuire. a barrister known for arguing child abuse cases. (Brady Coyne. Margaret. Kate. Harry. an attorney who takes on socially important cases in Oregon). who works as an ambulance chaser to drum up clients for a negligence lawyer. (Painter Lucy Kingsley and solicitor David Middleton-Brown. Billy Bob Holland. Paterson. John. Charles. These stories usually contain an extra layer of moral turpitude as well as moral resolve. Greeley. William. Kemelman. Julia Larwood and Selena Jardine). and Macavity Awards. but he sticks to his cases with dogged persistence. Catholic nun. Veronica. (Professor Hilary Tamar. (Father John O'Malley. Oxford don. Barbara. United States Burke. Mclnerny. Margaret. defense lawyer). (Don Robak. Joe L. Lashner. 171 Ecclesiastical Although those in the clergy usually watch out for the souls of the faithful and those in need. which won Edgar. (Andy Carpenter. the following sleuths often find themselves investigating people wrongly accused and subsequently discovering the real culprits. . D. Cornwall). Arapaho Indian Reservation. James Lee. Parnell. Hensley. (Andrew Broom. New England). Jonnie. Maron. tries to keep his inner violence repressed.I. The series starts when Deborah is running for judge in the Bootlegger's Daughter (1992). (Gail Connor and Anthony Quintana. he is featured in hundreds of stories. (Barbara Holloway. Wilhelm. and his inimitable Lincoln's Inn lawyer friends. Rosenfelt. middle-aged Horace Rumpole pleads cases at the Old Bailey.The Detective Story Great Britain Caudwell. Coel. (Rabbi David Small. transplanted to Montana from Texas. Ralph. (Deborah Knott. (Victor Carl. a small-town Indiana attorney). William G. (Sister Joan. Miami lawyers who marry). R. Meek. low-key and self-reliant). including two delightful women lawyers. a criminal lawyer turned judge). Black. Hall.

Ralph. Wyoming). (Dr. law professor). Massachusetts). Texas). Mary Willis. (Brother Bartholomew. Florida-based true-crime writer). Chicago area). schoolteacher. Roman Catholic. Ralph. (Cat Marsala. and not always on the campus. Kate Fansler. (Steve Allen and Jay ne Meadows). Amanda. (Doug Perkins. Sullivan. This is teamwork with a dash of romantic tension. (Sweeney St. LAPD Detective Sergeant Peter Decker). anthropologist). Taylor. licensed private investigator and nun). (Dr. and is often listed as a detective type in critical works on the genre. PR man. Roman Catholic. William X. London). Nora. women's history professor. Elkins. Nancy. Los Angeles). . Burke. (Roger Knight. London). Mclnerny. Sumners. Cristina. (Rev. Jan. George. D'Amato. Bruce. (Father Dowling. Sister Carol Anne. Kelly. (Gillian Adams. Babson. Chicago reporter). (Joanne Kilbourne. Pickard. Gail. (Molly Cates. Kellerman. Episcopal). Notre Dame). professor of history). Barbara. (Carolus Deane. Saskatchewan. Faye. Anglican priest). Canada). The increase in recent years of the importance of relationships in the lives of sleuths is evidenced by the increasing number of paired significant others appearing in the following list. art history professor). Eccentricity—that obvious characteristic of academics—is present in most. Academic The professors in the following novels use their scholarly training for crime detection. O'Marie. Leo. (Sister Mary Helen). (Sister Cécile. Winona.172 Chapter 7—Crime Kienzle. widowed professor. Allen. David. ("Mustang" Sally Alder. Walker. Faith Abbey. (Clare Fergusson. (Father Bob Koesler. Husband-and-Wife Teams A combination of considerable charm is a married pair of sleuths. Marian. Denise. magazine journalist. Manuel. Julia. Steve. Spencer-Fleming. (Marie Lightfoot. Aaron. (Eve Diamond. Virginia. (Orthodox Jewish housewife Rina Lazarus and her husband. Bowen. Swift. Mclnerny. Kathryn Koerney. (Mac Smith. Hamilton. (Irene Kelly. Cross. Detroit). Southern California journalist). Margaret. Journalists The investigative reporter may also be considered a private detective (without license). Dr. Books by the following authors illustrate this type of character. Sarah Stewart. professor of English). Gideon Oliver. Truman.

(Mac Smith and Annabel Reed). Patricia. Berenson. The most famous team is probably that of Qwilleran and his cats KoKo and Yum Yum. (Melanie Travis dog fancier series). (Kate Martinelli. British widow. California). Griffith. (Rachel Alexander. (Quin St. Susan. J . Nicola. . Laurie R. Kate. in the series written by Lillian Jackson Braun. police officer. restaurateur). 173 Human-and-Animal Teams Americans have a great affection for and fascination with the pets in their lives. T. (Alison Kane). Watson. Braun. of the Siamese persuasion). and it is a feature many readers seek out A variety of backgrounds bring a wealth of diversity to the detective novel. race. Several authors write about human sleuths or animal sleuths working together with the other species. (The Dog Lover's series. (Jackie Walsh and her shepherd. and feline Sneaky Pie. (Midnight Louis series.M. Rita Mae. Brown. postmistress. Katherine V. King. Dashiell). (The Cat Who series. Kate. a studly. and sexual orientation play a major role in how that detective relates to the crime to be solved. featuring Qwilleran. Cynthia. (LAPD detective Kate Delafield). and her dogs Max and Lou). Until recently women were considered an anomaly as crime solvers. but no more. (Charlie Meiklejohn and Constance Leidl). adding fascinating insights to the unfolding of the characters within. Baxter. a human journalist. (Scotty Bradley. as well as to the world in general. big black cat). cat mysteries). Adamson. Jake). Greg. Ellen... (Alice Nestleton. Carstairs). (California P. ethnicity. Hart. Wilhelm. Truman. Norwegian American lesbian ex-cop). (Mary Minor "Harry" Haristeen. and her pit bull. D. Lydia. Margaret. Lilian Jackson. (Jessica Popper. Benjamin. featuring Las Vegas publicist Miss Temple Barr and Midnight Louie. Gay and Lesbian Allen. P. James and Mike McCleary).The Detective Story MacGregor. Women as sleuths now seem to make up about half the detectives featured in novels. Conant. Douglas.I. Carole Nelson. Carol Lea. Davis. (Aud Torvingen. Doan and his oversized Great Dane. Forrest. and her Doberman. Cleary. (Jane Lawless. Guiver. Herren. Diversity in Detection A detective's gender.V.I. with occasional assistance from canine Tee Tucker). Norbert. featuring Holly Winter and Alaskan malamutes Rowdy and Kimi). and KoKo and Yum Yum. Melissa. (Delilah Doolittle. Laurien. ex-exotic dancer). San Francisco).

(Tamara Hay le. Fearless Jones). private investigator. amateur). Tom Mason and Scott Carpenter). but it is likely that publishing in these areas will continue to grow in the next years to meet increasing reader demand. (Paul Turner. Simone Covington. and Suspense Fiction of the 20th Century (Doubleday. Sandra. (Detective Inspector Carol Ashton). Val. (Chicago Police Commander Larry Cole). (Aaron Gunner. California. Botswana). Rudolfo. Nava. film. 1960s). Crime. Chicago. and recent examples of the diversity to be found in tales of crime written by blacks. and her paralegal daughter. McDermid. Michael. Black Sleuths Frankie Y. homicide detective). private investigator. (Smokey Dalton. lawyer). Hispanic Sleuths Unfortunately. (Mali Anderson. (Lindsay Gordon). Nora. 1995) features original. Nelscott. (Virgil Tibbs. Jones. Grace F. A good resource for readers' advisory information on African American crime. Zubro. edited by Alma Dawson and Connie Van Fleet (Libraries Unlimited. Kris. long-lost. there is not yet a book like Bailey's Out of the Woodpile for either Hispanic or Native American crime and detective fiction. Worcester. James. and detection novels is African American Literature: A Guide to Reading Interests. (police lieutenant Starletta Duvall. Stevenson. suspense. Paula L. Woods's award-winning anthology Spooks. (Dez Reilly and Jaylynn Savage. DeLoach. Paula L. (Precious Ramotswe. a domestic with a keen eye for crime). Lori L. (Henry Rios. Burns. Massachusetts). Minnesota police officers). Richard. Claire. Smith-Levin. Scoppettone. Eleanor Taylor. McCall Smith. (Gabe Wager. Mark Richard. Alexander. P. Elizabeth. police force). 1991) includes a directory of black characters in crime and detective fiction. (Alex Cross. Walter. Judith.). Gar Anthony. a social worker. Woods. and television. private investigator). Patterson. (Detective Kevin Lynch. South Carolina). Anaya. James. The following list of books is just a small sampling of detective novels featuring black sleuths. Bland. Rex. (Mama. Sims.174 Chapter 7—Crime Lake. John D. 2004). (Blanche White.I. Hay wood. (Sonny Baca. Sallis. Mosley. Hugh. Wesley.I. Holton.. Valerie Wilson. at different times in his life). (Marti MacAlister. (Lew Griffin. Albuquerque). . (Charlotte Justice. McNab. (Don Strachey. (Lauren Laurano). Spies and Private Eyes: Black Mystery. ex-cop of NYPD). Barbara. detective. Neely. P. Pasadena. (Lillian Byrd. Philadelphia). police forensic psychologist). Denver). Edwards. Los Angeles). Ball. Bailey's historical and scholarly look at black characters in Out of the Woodpile: Black Characters in Crime and Detective Fiction (Greenwood. police officer). Solomon. (Easy Rawlins.

J . (Gloria Damasco. seventeenth-century Japan). Garcia-Aguilera. Japanese American. Christine. (Lupe Solano. PI Denver). ex-cop). Chinese American). Sujata. (Samurai Sano Ichiro. 1997). Korean American. Dale. Villatoro. (Ansel Phoenix. Aleut). Harker. Cunningham. (April Woo. Martin's Press. Salvadoran American. Leslie. Metis). Glass. (Agent Ella Clah. With the advent of automated catalogs and Library of Congress/OCLC GSAFD fiction subject headings and electronic products like NoveList and What Do I Read Next?. (Gabriel Du Pre. Native American League). (Lydia Chin. Seneca). police chief. Medawar. Dana. E. Furutani. it is now easier to locate mysteries with particular settings or subjects. S. Hillerman. Denver. FBI). Thomas. Ute Tribal Police). James D. Oakland. (Kate Shugak. organization. Carolina. (Ken Tanaka. Jean. Perry. (Jane Whitehead. Native American Sleuths Bowen. Gentry. Tony. Paco Ignacio. NYPD homicide detective). Moore. V. Manuel. a Kiowa healer in the 1860s). Lucha. Cuban American. (Luis Montez. (Thumps DreadfulWater. Or Nina King's Crimes of the Scene: A Mystery Novel Guide for the International Traveler (St. others seek those stories with a particular background of country. Molly Bearpaw. (Romilia Chacon. Justin Escobar and Dora Saldana). social order. San Francisco). Massey. and David Thurlo. (Hector Belascoaran Shayne. Doss. Navajo Tribal Police). activity. Asian Sleuths Chang. Mexico City). half-Blackfoot). Peter. (Tay-bodal.The Detective Story 175 Corpi. Nisei. lawyer. (Allen Choice. seventeenth-century Japan). Mardi Oakley. (Rei Shimura. Hager. Florida). Matsuyama Kaze. Aimeé. Danny "Moony" Mora. (Masao Masuto. Winner of the Shamus Award. Laura Joh. (Mitch Bushyhead. Goodweather. Chinese American). Subjects and Themes Just as many readers of detective fiction prefer a particular type of detective. There is also a guide for selecting titles by locale. (Jim Chee and Joe Leaphorn. Japanese American English teacher living in Tokyo). . Beverly Hills). Cherokee. Taibo. Stabenow. Navaho. Thurlo. Leonard. Hartley. Rowland. private investigator. # Havana Heat. (Charlie Moon. Nashville). Ramos. Marcos McPeek. or profession. 2000. (Lieutenant James Sakura. Rozan.

Martin H. Ed. ed. Dick. Isleib. Francis. and others connected with British horse racing). (Lee Ofsted. Penzler. Michael. owners. The Mammoth Book of Roman Whodunnits. Signet. Berkley Books. 2001. Berkley Prime Crime. Dangerous Women. Mystery Writers of America Presents Show Business Is Murder. These anthologies also provide the reader (and the readers' advisor). (Cassie Burdette.176 Chapter 7—Crime Following are several of the available anthologies that deal with settings and subjects. ed. Joseph. Shades of Black: Crime and Mystery Stories by African-American Authors. (Mickey Rawlings. 2005.. 2005. (jockey. eds. Carroll & Graf. Carroll & Graf. New American Library. Carroll & Graf. 2005. Morgan. ed. and Aaron Elkins. and commentators find the final score in settings involving both amateur and high-stakes professional sports. Soos. baseball player in the second decade of the twentieth century). and art world) are included after the list to show the readers' advisory potential of analysis by type. Jill. . 2002. And the Dying is Easy: All-New Tales of Summertime Suspense. A Century of Noir: Thirty-Two Classic Crime Stories. 2004. Ashley. 2002. Cat Crimes Through Time. Berkley Prime Crime. golf). ed. with a good way to become familiar with previously unknown authors. Bland. eds. baseball writer. Jakubowski. A few examples of subject groupings (sports. ed. Stuart M. Mike. Greenberg. ed. Roberta. Kaminsky. and Larry Segriff. ed. trainer. Sports The players. Eleanor Taylor. Claudia. eds. The Mammoth Book of Comic Crime. 2004. Harlan. 2003. Coben. (professional golf). and Dean James. Mickey. Featuring cozy stories with pets. cookery. Death Dines In. sports agent). Otto. ed. Mysterious Press. (Myron Bolitar. Alison. Gorman. and Annette Riffle. Elkins. and Max Allan Collins. Gordon. (Kate Henry. women's professional golf). 2004. Maxim. Connelly. Pittman. Bishop. Murder in Vegas: New Crime Tales of Gambling and Desperation. Miles. bibliomysteries. 1999. Troy. Creature Cozies. Berkley Prime Crime. Charlotte. Spillane. Toronto). Tom Doherty Associates. Keith.

and Mrs. 1998. 1995. (Chef Angie Amalfi). 1994. caterer/cookbook writer). and dining play major roles in the following selection of mysteries. Michael. 1998. book collector and expert). caterer and her family members). writers. Original Sin. Jennifer. P. Hall. (Annie Laurance and Max Darling. food. \> . Unbound. (Chas Wheatley. Julie Wallin. Cooking. Sarah. Unfitted. whether as librarians. Myers. originated by Virginia Rich. and his American fiance. finds himself in the strange and dangerous world of publishing. (Mr. Richman. Farmer. Unsigned. 2002. restaurant critic).The Detective Story 177 Cookery Mm-mm-good. 1999. (Claire Malloy. illustrators. Page. Unprintable.. Carolyn G. bookseller). 2001. Described by Publishers Weekly as "Agatha Christie-meets-Nancy Drew. Uncataloged. 1997. The character's dog is Pommes Frites. Dunning. Pence. caterer. (Heaven Lee. Crawford. writers). Lou Jane. Los Angeles). (Goldy Bear. of Plumtree Press. James. Temple. Diane Mott. Joan. Joanne. (Darina Lisle. Davidson. Barry Vaughan. Her Booklover's Mystery series features British publisher Alex Plumtree. Eugenia Potter series. Phyllis. Isis.. bookstore owner). featuring Magdalena Yoder. Hess. (Libby Simmons." Unsolicited. John. Kaewert. Laurence. gourmet chef). Nancy. Katherine Hall. Colorado). Pennsylvania Dutch Mystery series. (Faith Fairchild. caterer. Parnell. D. publishers. Tamar. (Cliff Janeway. Pickard. Suspense. Janet. (Madeline Bean. restaurateur). Jordan. Bibliomysteries In the following books the amateur sleuths are somehow involved in the world of books. or booksellers. Monsieur Pamplemousse series. Adam Dalgliesh and Kate Miskin investigate some mysterious goings-on in England's oldest publishing house. a reluctant detective. Some even include recipes! Bond.. Hart. Stanley Hastings. Jerrilyn.

Papazoglou. The Flanders Panel. Judith. 2001. Marcia. Alice. Pérez-Reverte. Historical settings do provide a shadowy and unfamiliar but realistic milieu for tales of detection. (Tim Simpson. Macdonald. Fearless Jones series. A seventeenth-century bookseller. Elizabeth. and intrigue. 1996. Wilkie Collins. One may only guess at reasons. Walter. McClure. More historical mysteries can be found in the "Historical Fiction" chapter (chapter 5). Pears. (Dido Hoare. with the nineteenth century and the medieval period being particularly popular. The Ghost and Mrs. It has been posited that the appeal lies in the premise that the methods used to solve mysteries during these times were more "primitive" and thus. and others who wrote before the creation of Sherlock Holmes. Marianne. (archivist Claire Reynier.178 Chapter 7—Crime Kimberly. more natural and intuitive. written as contemporaries. Sheridan LeFanu. Genreblends Historical Mysteries Most mystery and detection novels are essentially timeless: Readers simply accept the period backgrounds. Peters. The Club Dumas. (Patience McKenna. is summoned by Lady Marchamont to find a missing ancient and heretical manuscript. chess. 2004. New Mexico). Muller. writer). and a 500-year-old mystery. writer). Some mysteries. (Jacqueline Kirby. (Elena Oliverez. After he agrees to authenticate a scrap of an old manuscript of The Three Musketeers. John. murder. (Jonathan Argyll and Flavia di Stefano). Orania. History fans might find the backgrounds as interesting as the plots. Sarah. Arturo. A tale of art. Some readers seek out the nineteenth-century sources of the detective story in Edgar Allan Poe. Mosley. Perhaps readers of this type like to learn about history at the same time as they read for enjoyment. Ross. can now be read as historicals. art curator). King. Pérez-Reverte. (1950s bookstore owner Paris Minton). 1998. . Shankman. (Samantha Adams. Art World Malcolm. librarian/romance writer). art investment advisor). Arturo. Art History Mystery series. Isaac Inchbold. One of the fastest-growing subgenres in mystery is the historical. Penelope Thornton-McClure discovers her Rhode Island bookshop is haunted. antiquarian bookseller). Iain. Ex-Libris. Spanish book detective Lucas Curso is drawn into a world of occult. The Labyrinth of the World. Van Gieson.

1997. An Experiment in Treason. a blind magistrate who actually did exist in eighteenth-century London. The Thief-Taker: Memoirs of a Bow Street Runner. These novels will appeal to Austen fans who also have an interest in amateur detection. ! m ' . Murder on the Lusitania. His John Fielding series features Sir John Fielding. Stephanie.The Detective Story 179 Alexander. 2000. 1999. Jane and the Ghosts on Netley. Knave and Fools. The Color of Death. 2001. 1994. 2001. Murder on the Salsette. Banks. Murder on the Minnesota. Barron. Murder on the Mauretania. 2001. Conrad. 2005. Watery Grave. Jane and the Stillroom Maid. visiting the ruins of Netley Abbey with her young nephews. a widow who may be working against British interests in the Peninsular War. Jane and the Unpleasantness at Scargrave Manor. 1999. 2005. Allen. 1997. Person or Persons Unknown. Jane and the Man on the Cloth. The Memoirs of a Bow Street Runner series is set in early nineteenth-century London. 2002. 1999. Her Jane Austen Mystery series is set set in England's Regency period and features author Jane Austen as protagonist. 2004. 1998. 1995. Murder on Grub Street. Death of a Colonial. Jane and the Prisoner on Wool House. 2005. Rules of Engagement. F. Murder on the Caronia. 2000. 1998. Jane and the Genius on the Place. The Emperor's Assassin: Memoirs of a Bow Street Runner. Jack. Murder on the Marmora. is drawn into spying on Sophia Challoner. 1996. r —--. T. Jane. 2003. Blind Justice. 2003. His Ship Detectives series features George Porter Dillman and Geneviève Masefield. Smuggler's Moon. 2003. Jane and His Lordship's Legacy. 2003. 2000. 1996. The Price of Murder. Bruce (pseudonym of Bruce Cook). early twentieth-century ship detectives for the Cunard Line. Jane and the Wandering Eye. 2002.

Jeffries series takes place in Victorian England. To Ruin a Queen. 2000. 2003. Clark. and uncovers a dangerous secret. Death ofRiley. The series started with Mrs. 1996. Two young girls have been murdered. 2004. 2001. # Murphy's Law. White's Confession. Invitation to a Funeral. and all signs point to the eccentric photographer Mr. White—until police Lieutenant Wesley Horner starts investigating. Sir Robert is sent to the Scottish Border to take up his duties as Deputy Warden. Winner of the Agatha Award and the Herodotus Award. A Pawn for the Queen. Listed in series order. 2005. Her Mrs. 1997. playwright and former spy. The Molly Murphy series takes place in the early 1900s in New York. 2000. 2002. 1995. 1997. A Plague of Angels.180 Chapter 7—Crime Bowen. Emily. 1998. investigates the deaths of two brothers. Robert. To Shield the Queen. A Surfeit of Guns. Brightwell. Fiona. A Season of Knives. The Siren Queen. Aphra Behn. The Fugitive Queen. The nineteenth title is Mrs. In Like Flynn. lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I. Molly. Brown. Jeffries Stalks the Hunter (2004). P. 2001. Jeffries and the Inspector in 1993. The Doublet Affair. 1998. Minnesota. . Winner of the Anthony Award for Best Historical * Novel and the Bruce Alexander Historical Award. Restoration London. Her Elizabethan mysteries feature Ursula Blanchard. First published in England in 1995. Queen of Ambition. 1939. Mr. F. 2002. 4fc For the Love of Mike. In 1592. A Famine of Horses. Chisholm. Rhys. 2000. His Sir Robert Carey series takes place in sixteenth-century England. Queen's Ransom. 2003. Buckley. 1998.

and Heller is back in Chicago in a case involving Frank Sinatra. an independent career woman in turn-of-the-century San Francisco. 2001. 2005. Michael. Collins. 2001. Her Hilda Johansson series is about an early 1900s Swedish immigrant in Indiana. The Accusers. Doherty). Chicago Confidential. 1983.) Day. 2001. True Detective. Red White and Blue Murder. 2001. Featuring Fremont Jones. Davis. 2002. Death in Lacquer Red. (pseudonym of P. mobster Sam Giancana. Featuring private eye Nate Heller. Senator Joe McCarthy. The Silver Pigs. In Falco's first case. featuring Sir Richard Shattot.The Detective Story 181 Clynes. and Jayne Mansfield. Dams. Silence Is Golden. Falco is trying to find out who killed Aurelius Chrysippus and if it was his publishing or banking activities that motivated the crime. 2003. 1989. A Body in the Bath House. Nate Heller's first client in Prohibition-era Chicago is Al Capone. The twelfth Nate Heller mystery takes place in Hollywood. 2002. Scandal Takes a Holiday. 1999. The Marcus Didius Falco series features Marcus Didius Falco. 2002. where he becomes a slave while trying to track down the reason behind the murder of a senator's daughter. Ode to a Banker.C. Kisses of Death. Twelfth in the series. A collection of shorter Nathan Heller stories. including a novella featuring Marilyn Monroe. "l——-~J i<d|SIf*j ^ —~J \> . It has not yet been published in the United States. he goes to Britain. take place in sixteenth-century Britain. 2003. Dianne. Max Allan. 2000. who becomes involved with various notorious cases in the 1930s and 1940s. a finder in Ancient Rome. Falco is looking for a gossip columnist who has gone missing. The Journals of Sir Roger Shallot. The sixth title was The Relic Murders (1998). It's 1950. Jeanne. The Jupiter Myth. Lindsey. Green Grow the Victims. 2004. (British publication date. Angel in Black. See Delphi and Die. Improvements to his bathhouse create problems for Falco.

Tudor England. 1995. Queen of Scots. France. and she comes to fear that it may be some kind of poison. 1994. 2004. Hugh Corbett. Carole Nelson. Corpse Candle. Hugh investigates a locked room mystery in 1303. Carola.pierced body in the London Natural History Museum. C. 2001. Doherty. Nicholas Segalla travels through time solving historical mysteries. a clerk and spy in the court of Edward I. is introduced and investigates a murder. The Treason of Ghosts. To Davy Jones Below. Dukthas. The Hugh Corbett series. Daisy and Scotland Yard inspector Alex Fletcher take a cruise to the United States for their honeymoon.182 Chapter 7—Crime ft The Strange Files of Fremont Jones. takes a magazine job. Femme Fatale. 1996. Mary. Irene finds an international conspiracy and lost treasure. Beacon Street Mourning. In the first book of the series. Her Daisy Dalrymple Mystery series contains cozies set in 1920s England. Holmes. The first book of the series. The Time of Murder at Mayerling. Death at Wentwater Court. Mary's. A Time for the Death of a King. early nineteenth century. Good Night Mr. Rattle His Bones. in the Victorian era. In the Time of the Poisoned Queen. 1990. Still seeking her mother. Dunn. 1986. Ann. 1994. In the sixth title. Satan in St. 2001. the Honorable Daisy finds a dinosaur-bone. Winner of the Macavity Award. Spider Dance. P. Daisy. Her Irene Adler series features American opera singer Irene Adler. Nineteenth-century Austria. 1995. the antagonist of Sherlock Holmes. 2000. . Fremont heads home to Boston. Reissued 2000. Irene Adler goes to New York in 1889 after Nelly Bly entices her with possible information about her hidden parentage. In her eighth outing. The twelfth book in the series sees Hugh on the trail of a serial killer. Fremont Jones goes to San Francisco to start up a typewriting business. having lost most of the men in her life to World War I or the horrible influenza. where her father is suffering from a wasting disease. 2000. 1998. The Prince Lost to Time. Douglas. 2000. 2003.

Leech. Gordon. In the fourth book in the series. 2005. Kathy Lynn. The Samurai Mystery series. A Shrine of Murders: Being the First of the Canterbury Tales of Kathryn Swinbrooke. An Antic Disposition: A Medieval Mystery. 1993. L. Deadlier Than the Pen. 2001. 2000. Kill the Shogun. In the first installment of the series Kathryn looks for a poisoner. 2002. Face Down Before the Rebel Hooves. The Kathryn Swinbrooke series features a medieval physician in fifteenth-century Canterbury. The fourteenth in the series. Grace. Die Laughing. (pseudonym of P. 1999. Dale. 1997. Doherty). Alan. Tenth in the series. Face Down Among the Winchester Geese. This fifth title is a thirteenth-century telling of a story about a prince of Denmark. and Physician. A Mourning Wedding. Mistletoe and Murder. Japan. Face Down Beneath the Eleanor Cross. 2004. Saintly Murders. C. 2002. Emerson. . Face Down upon an Herbal. 1997. and runs into horror author Damon Bathory. a headstrong herbalist. A pregnant Daisy tries to solve a murder at a country house party. Winner of the Anthony Award. Face Down Under the Wych Elm. Furutani. both rodents and humans. 2000. Kathryn takes on an infestation of rats. 2005. 2004. Fall of a Philanderer. 2002. Face Down Across the Western Sea. The Diana Spaulding Mystery series features journalist Diana Spaulding in late nineteenth-century New York. 2000. 1998. C.The Detective Story 183 The Case of the Murdered Muckraker. Face Down in the Marrow-Bone Pie. features # Death at the Crossroads. set in seventeenth-century Matsuyama Kaze. Lady Appleton. 2001. Spaulding investigates the murder of two fellow journalists. 2004. Jade Palace Vendetta. 1999. Medieval Mysteries. Her Elizabethan-era mysteries feature Susanna. 2004. Face Down Below the Banqueting Hall.

Charlie Chaplin). published in 2004. Now a wife. Dead March. (Nell Bray. Hambly. 1997. in the early twentieth century. 2004. Kilian. 2004. Pip.. Her Hannah Trevor series features Hannah Trevor. Her Mary Russell series features Sherlock Holmes's apprentice. Kaminsky. Gillian. The Harrison Raines Civil War Mystery series features Virginia gentleman and secret Pinkerton agent Harrison "Harry" Raines. Featuring Ben January in 1830s New Orleans. Hall. 1998. Civil War mysteries. 1999. later his wife. Barbara. private eye. . Seventh book. in the 1940s. Tenth in the series. a midwife in eighteenth-century Maine who is drawn into solving mysteries following the American Revolution. The Burning Bride. 2000. Ann. 1996. Kathryn is once again investigating poisonings. Dead Man Riding. Granger. Linscott won the CWA's Ellis Peters Historical Dagger 2000 and the Herodotus Award for Best International Historical Mystery Novel.184 Chapter 7—Crime A Maze of Murders. Robert Lee. 2002. Michael. Angel Trumpet. A Feast of Poisons. King. Margaret. Harper. The Iceweaver. Blood Red Roses. Laurie R. Featuring Zelda Fluck in London in the 1940s. An unsavory knight is beheaded in a maze. Ninth in the series. in a series in which actual motion picture stars are characters (e. English suffragette).g. Linscott. Featuring sleuthing done by Elizabeth I. 2002. 2000. The Perfect Daughter. Hollywood. Featuring Toby Peters. Lawrence. 2004. Featuring Benjamin Franklin in the late eighteenth century. Hearts and Bones. McMillan. John Wayne. 1998. The Game. Karen. Blood on the Wall. Stuart M.

These books feature the obtuse and bumbling Sheriff Pieter Tonneman. The Dutchman. Death at Blenheim Palace. . 2000. Heresy. Winner of the * Hammett Award and the Herodotus Award. 2004. Honor's Kingdom. Strong as Death. 1994. Shadows of Glory. 1999. 2003. 2000. 1999. Death at Bishops Keep. Sharan. 2001. Robin. Faded Coat of Blue. Death at Epsom Downs. Parry. The Devils Door. while Lord Charles and Kate are visiting the hereditary home of the Dukes of Mariborough. 1992. Fifth in the series.The Detective Story 185 Civil Blood. 2001. 1995. New Amsterdam (New York). 1994. The Wandering Arm. 2002. Owen. 2002. 2003. Newman. Maan. 2001. 1993. The Catherine LeVendeur Mystery series features Catherine and Edgar in twelfth-century Europe. To Wear the White Cloak. In 1903. 1998. The Difficult Saint. # The Abel Jones mystery series is set in American in the 1860s. in the seventeenth century. 1999. 2004. Death at Glamis Castle. Chickahominy Fever. both a maid and a mistress go missing. Outcast Dove. 2003. Death in Hyde Park. an American writer of penny-dreadfuls. This couple travels! Death Comes as Epiphany. 2000. Cursed in the Blood. 2002. Death at Dartmoor. meets amateur sleuth Sir Charles Sheridan in this first book of the series. Kathryn Ardleigh. 2005. Death at Whitechapel. Call Each River Jordan. Paige. Bold Sons of Erin. Sir Charles Sheridan series. 2003. The Witch in the Well. Meyers. Death at Rottingdean. 1996.

The Face of a Stranger. In Oxford. Slaves of Obsession. fencing master Don Jaime Astarloa leads a dull life teaching a dying art—until he meets a mysterious woman with an uncanny skill at swordplay. Amelia Peabody. 1998. Southampton Row. 2003. and ends up solving mysteries while in the employ of Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. Elizabeth. Arturo. An Instance of the Fingerpost. A Funeral in Blue. apparently the victim of poisoning. Seven Dials. The Cater Street Hangman. Iain. Twenty-first in the series. Monk and his wife Hester travel to the United States and into the Civil War. Perry. Victorian Egyptologist. is introduced. 2005. 1998. The Queen's Man. Her Medieval Mystery series features Justin de Quincy. sets out to make his way in the world. Death of a Stranger. Sharon Kay.186 Chapter 7—Crime Pears. The Fencing Master. Crocodile on the Sandbank. but only one reveals the truth. discovering he was not a poor foundling taken in by the powerful bishop of Chester but rather the man's unacknowledged bastard. A carriage accident leaves Monk with no memory. Her William Monk series is about an amnesiac Victorian police detective who later turns private investigator. 1996. Robert Groves is found dead. 2004. Monk regains his memory. and a young woman is accused. 2002. Long Spoon Lane. Her Thomas and Charlotte Pitt series takes place in London in the nineteenth century. Anne. . The Whitechapel Conspiracy. Prince of Darkness. 2001. Dr. 1990. 2001. Restoration England. 2000. 2005. 2003. Peters. 2002. The Amelia Peabody series. Justin. Penman. 1979. Inspector Thomas Pitt and the socially privileged Charlotte Ellison meet and start their crime-solving partnership. Cruel as the Grave. 1998. Dragon's Lair. 1975. In nineteenth-century Spain. Then four witnesses tell conflicting stories about what they saw. Pérez-Reverte. The Shifting Tide.

The Perfumed Sleeve. 2003. Laura Joh. Fifth in the series. His books feature Pinkerton detective Phil Beaumont and his British partner. The Dragon King's Palace. Slayer of Gods. and other lost generation luminaries lurking on the periphery. 2003. Jane Turner. 1991. Lord of the Silent. Steven.The Detective Story 187 He Shall Thunder in the Sky. Guardian of the Horizon. A murder investigation with Gertrude Stein. The Golden One. Roman Blood. 2001. The Apothecary Rose. 1998. Her Lord Meren series takes place in ancient Egypt in the fourteenth century B. Her Sano Ichiro series features Samurai Sano Ichiro in seventeenth-century Japan. Robinson. seeks a murderer who desecrated the Place of Anubis. 2000. This twelfth book in the series takes place in the winter of 1914-1915. r . Lord Meren. His Roma Sub Rosa series features Gordanius the Finder in ancient Rome. A Spy for the Redeemer. the "eyes and ears" of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Saylor. Robb. in 1920s Paris. Masquerade. Satterthwait. Emerson is asked to dispose of a golden statue that the late owner's widow thinks is cursed. The Samurai's Wife. The Pillow Book of Lady Wisteria. 2003. Candace. 1994.C. Black Lotus. Seventh in the series. 1994. Gordanius the Finder is introduced. 2004. 2001. In the sixth title in the series. 2002. Pablo Picasso. The Cross-Legged Knight. 2001. 2003. 2005. Children of the Storm. 2002. Lord Meren investigates Nefertiti's death. Murder in the Place ofAnubis. Shinju. 2000. . Her Owen Archer series takes place in fourteenth-century England. In this seventeenth installment. 1993. Lynda S. 2002. Ernest Hemingway. The Serpent on the Crown. Rowland. Walter.

For example. A Mist of Prophecies. Shadows in the Darkness. Sedley. Cunningham. 200 A collection of nine stories featuring Gordianus. Roger leaves the monastic life and becomes a traveling peddler. Bizarre Blends A recent trend in the crime genre involves some unlikely detectives. most notably vampires and dinosaurs. A Gladiator Dies Only Once: The Further Investigations ofGordianus the Finder. Eric Garcia's Dinosaur Mafia series features dinos who went into hiding. 2002. 2004. 1991. 2003. The Burgundian's Tale. Driver. 2001. In 1471. who not only has a shapeshifter for an assistant. Roger is asked to clear the king's favorite mistress of a murder charge. as are Caesar. The Judgement of Caesar. The dark world of Faerie merges with our world. The Good Die Twice.188 Chapter 7—Crime Last Seen in Mas s ilia. Nine Men Dancing. The Chase Dagger Mystery series features Chase Dagger. The Midsummer Rose. Lee. 1999. Futuristic Mysteries In direct counterpoint to historical mysteries are those set in the future. except through story. In the tenth title in the series. 2000. disguised as humans. and mysteries with fantasy settings can be found in the fantasy chapter (chapter 11). Gordanius is in Marseilles in on a personal quest to learn the truth about his missing son. Kate. 2002. This tenth entry in the series sees Roger and his wife traveling to London for the royal wedding of King Edward IVs four-year-old son. Gordanius is in Alexandria. Elaine. In the eighth title in the series. 2004. These novels often have the same appeal of an exotic setting in a place unreachable. . and Ptolemy. The Goldsmith's Daughter. Her Roger the Chapman series features a fifteenth-century peddler cum amateur detective. Futuristic mysteries are also listed in the science fiction chapter (chapter 10). 2004. 2005. Cleopatra. realizing he had no vocation. he also has a way of becoming involved in mysteries where the paranormal has had an influence. The Lammas Feast. Death and the Chapman.

Living Dead in Dallas. 2004. Club Dead. the series is the exception rather than the rule. 2003. Jack is out to rescue a kidnap victim. 2000. The ninth book in the series sees Jack finally having enough money to open his nightclub. but must keep reading to find out what happens next. A Song in the Dark. in suspense. he sets out discover who killed him. Dead as a Doornail. Lady Crymsyn. P. Cold Streets. Charlaine. 2001. Casual Rex. His Dinosaur Mafia Mystery series features Vincent Rubio. Bloody Moon. Unlike novels of detection. When reporter Jack Fleming wakes up dead and a vampire. 2000. Garcia. The Vampire Files. Harris. N. The Vampire Files series features Jack Fleming. Suspense Even though crime-solving and detection are common elements in novels of suspense. 2001. The Unseen. 2004. Dead to the World. where the series sleuth has become the norm. Hot And Sweaty Rex. . Often in novels of suspense. 2004. 1990. 2000. The psychology of the perpetrator of the crime takes center stage in these stories. The reader often feels a sense of impending doom. the reader knows the identity of the perpetrator early on. but he finds a murdered corpse in a wall. in 1930s Chicago. 2002. Bloodlist. 2005. Many of the books listed under "Legal Thriller" are also novels of suspense. Her Southern Vampire Mysteries features psychic waitress Sookie Stackhouse. private investigator and vampire. 2003. Anonymous Rex. 2005. and dark atmospheres are commonplace. was published in 2003.Suspense 189 Full Moon. the emphasis is not so much on "who done it" but on why it was done. an omnibus of the first three titles. Elrod. Eric. a hard-boiled Los Angeles private investigator and dinosaur in disguise. Dead Until Dark.

Thomas H. Mary Jane. Aphrodite. Puppet. Clark. 2003. she finds her past is difficult to shed. who at age ten accidentally shot and killed her mother. 2002. 2002. Andrews. The Eighth Day. No Place Like Home. Cook. The Last Good Day. 2004. has changed her name and made a new life for herself. John. 2003. Lost. Mary Higgins. 2004. Nighttime Is My Time. . 1997. 2003. Bayer. 2000. The Tutor. Don't Cry Now. 1980. The Dream of the Broken Horses. 2001. Their Wildest Dreams. Liza Barton. Coben. The Interrogation. Peter.190 Chapter 7—Crime Abrahams. 2005. Blauner. shows up at the school reunion. 2002. 2005. Grand Avenue. 2003. Fielding. 2004. 1995. But when she moves with her husband and son back into her childhood home twenty-four years later. Just One Look. Case. Joy. Russell. The Murder Artist. Harlan. 2004. The First Time. and someone is out to get her and her family. 2003. The Second Time Around. A serial killer who calls himself "the Owl. 2003. Nowhere to Run. 2003. Peter. Missing Pieces. Peril. William." who is also a former classmate of Jean Sheridan's. Kiss Mommy Goodbye. Clark.

One evening Olivia and a couple fellow journalists are talking about how far they have gone to get a story. At the time Olivia has no inkling that she will shortly be going so far over the edge in her quest for the truth in a story she is writing that she may not make it back. Koontz. Matheson.S. 2000. Walker. She Can Hear. Under the Beetle's Cellar. Hogan. Leah. At its center is not who did it or why it was done. 2003. 1997. Mystic River. Kellerman. Palmer. Billy Straight. The Red Scream. Dennis. Prince of Thieves. Frances. Body of a Girl. Undercurrents. 1995. Richard. Life Expectancy. Medical suspense that verges on horror. Shutter Island. Stewart. A grittily realistic story about a criminal mastermind from a rough Boston neighborhood. 1994. Marshall Teddy Daniels comes to Shutter Island's Ashecliffe Hospital for the Criminally Insane to investigate the disappearance of a patient. 2004. . Suspect. 1999. Michael. 2005. he knows a murderer is on the loose. 2005. Mary Willis. Then the hurricane hits. Speak Softly. 2002. 2005. Lehane. Lewis. Blind Date. All the Dead Lie Down. The Society. Although this is a crime story with plenty of detection it is not a mystery. Jonathan. Pam. Robotham. but who the victim really was. Hunted Past Reason. 2001. 2002. Dean. Light Before Day. Chuck.Suspense 191 Fyfïeld. 2004. When U. Christopher. 2004. Rice. Michael. 1998.

The Dark Room. The Tinderbox. Gruber. 1995. 2002. Outside Valentine. The Good Children. The Scold's Bridal. he starts on the treacherous trail to find the horrifyingly twisted predator called "the Pipe. 2005. Ward. John. and some examples are included in the psychological horror section in chapter 12. Michael. 2003." Connelly. Madness and murder appear in other genres. 2004. 1999. The Anniversary. a down-and-out suburban London housing project. The Murder Artist. Fox Evil. When television correspondent Alex Callahan's six-year-old twins are kidnapped. Amy. Skeletons.192 Chapter 7—Crime Walters. 1997. Torpedo Juice. Disordered Minds. Tropic of Night. David. Kate. 1999. Baldacci. The Echo. 1994. Liza. Wilhelm. 2005. Michael. The Breaker. 2002. . Case. 2000. Gutman. 2002. Acid Row. 1998. 1998. Tim. 2004. Acid Row. 2003. Serial Killers and Psychopaths A psychopathic killer pursuing (usually) a woman is as common a plot element in this subgenre as are serial killers. Minette. Dorsey. Blood Work. The Sculptress. The Shape of Snakes. The Ice House. 1993. 2004. goes over the edge when a ten-year-old girl disappears and residents discover that the government has moved a pedophile into their midst. 1992. Hour Game.

David. Many of the following authors are also included in the romance chapter. 2005. In Dark Places. John. and Tess Gerritsen—were closely associated with the romance genre. Last Witness. Jilliane. The combination of suspense and romance adds excitement in both directions for readers. Michael. 2003. Ruth. Night Spider. 2003. Wiltse. John. James W. 2005. Michael. Psychopathic killers appear frequently in his Prey series.Suspense 193 Hall. Phillip. 1998. Body Language. 2001. 2004. Sandford. these authors—specifically Tami Hoag. Darkness. Broken Prey. 2004. 1997. Night Watcher. Romance/Suspense Writers Romance writers who write suspenseful romances often include more suspense than romance. Five years ago. 2003. Dexter Morgan. Loverboy. Dearly Devoted Dexter. 2004. Darkly Dreaming Dexter. Hello. The Rottweiler. 2001. 2002. The sixteenth Lucas Davenport novel features a whole slew of serial killers. Sequel to Darkly Dreaming Dexter. Rendell. 2005. but in the intervening time they have acquired reputations for solid suspense. White Hot. 2004. Sandra. is also a psycho serial killer. Sleeping Beauty. Jaffe. Karen Robards. Blown Away. Adam and Eve and Pinch Me. 2004. Brown. Prescott. Lindsay. a blood splatter analyst for the Miami Dade Police Department. Margolin. Jeff. Lutz. . Hoffman. Night Caller. Iris Johansen.

Countdown. 2002. 2003. Ethan Truax. 1998. Riptide. Hurricane Bay. 2004. Her Eve Duncan Series includes the following: The Face of Deception. 77ié? Sm/îéT. 2002. Johansen. The Target. 2002. Graham. Borfy Double. 1996. 2000. Catherine. 1997. 2004. Gardner. Heather. Hemlock Bay. Krentz. 1999. 1996. 2004.I. 1998. 2001. Gerritsen. Iris. Point Blank. 77ie Apprentice. 1995. 2004. 1998. Jayne Ann. 2002. 2001. Killing Hour. Eleventh Hour. Her Sherlock and Savitch series includes the following: The Cove. Atetf Accident. Ugly Duckling. 2001. 2005. Her Whispering Springs series features psychic designer Zoe Luce and P. Blindside. Tami. Blind Alley. 2003. The Surgeon. 77ié?H You Die. 2005. Blowout. 2003. 2005. 1999. Lisa. Guilty as Sin. The Maze. #i// f/ïé? Messenger. .194 Chapter 7—Crime Coulter. Night Sins. Tess. 2000. fiod> of Lies. 2005. The Edge. The Killing Game. Alone. Hoag.

Don t Point That Thing at Me. is Burglar on the Prowl. Pearl Cove. 1997. And while some are charming or even likable. Cannell created TV's The Rockford Files. Amber Beach.Crime/Caper 195 Lowell. After You with the Pistol. published in 2004. gender. The Midnight Hour. car chases. pulls a poker con on Joe Rino. education. 2000. Stephen J. teams up . Cannell. Hit Man. The series started in 1977 with Burglars Can't Be Choosers. Reissued in 2004. economic level. 2003. Bates. the tenth book. Lawrence. one trait the diverse rogues all possess is cunning. Jade Island. 1998. 1999. Transsexual assassin Estela Santos has returned to Manchester. Beano X. Bait. 1999. The Color of Death. and lots of drugs. while others may be ordinary folks pushed by circumstances into committing crimes. regardless of social standing. His Bernard Rhodenbarr series includes lighthearted stories featuring Bernard Rhodenbarr. that results in his near death at the wrong end of a savagely wielded golf club. the reigning king of the con. The titles noted are examples of their novels that distinctly involve a caper. Beano decamps from the hospital as soon as he regains consciousness. King Con. Karen. Block. 1997. Elizabeth. Reissued in 2005. His series of books features the Honorable Charlie Mortdecai. Kyril. 2004. flying bullets. Acid Casuals. Crime/ Caper Crime and its perpetrators. Many of the following authors write other types of books involving crime. and others are detestable. Bonfiglioli. Mafia don. Nicholas. As a member of the FBI's 10 Most Wanted list. 2004. Blincoe. Some of the protagonists are career criminals. provide the focus in the following titles. rather than those finding out who did it or even why it was done. in this story that is an explosive mix of gangs. or race. Robards. England. 1998. Whispers at Midnight.

and sets out to execute the ultimate con and turn Joe and his brother Tommy against each other. 2004. 2004. Barry. Rain Storm. Florida Roadkill 1999. 2000. 2003. 1989. His Serge A. Sick Puppy. 1993. 2003. 2005. Storm series features a serial killer. Elmore. His "Bannerman" series includes: The Bannerman Solution. Tishomingo Blues. This series of books features John Rain. Pagan Babies. Lucky You. 2000. Stormy Weather. a Japanese American freelance hit man. Hiaasen. Tim. Bannerman's Ghosts. 1997. Mr. John R. 1990. 1991. A Matter of Honor. Hammerhead Ranch Motel. The Stingray Shuffle. Torpedo Juice. The Bannerman Effect. i i Maxim. 2001. Eisler. Rain Fall. 2003. Leonard. i i Be Cool. Bannerman's Law. 1995. 1991. 2002. 2001. Orange Crush. 2002. 2002. Cadillac Beach. 2002. Dorsey.196 Chapter 7—Crime with a disgruntled prosecutor. 2004. Hard Rain. His Chilly Palmer Duet includes: Get Shorty. Triggerfish Twist. Basket Case. 2000. 2002. . 2000. Carl. Skinny Dip. Paradise. Bannerman's Promise.

Naked Justice. 1996. Bernhardt. with a reputation as a defense attorney who fights tirelessly for his clients. 1991. Death Row.Legal Thriller 197 Legal Thriller The protagonist in this type is usually a lawyer who has gotten into a fix and needs to extricate himself (or herself) through clever use of a superior intellect. Rosemary. 1999. Extreme Justice. 2003. 2003. refuses to take the case of a notorious bigot accused of a hate crime but ends up getting into the case when his partner. 2001. There actually is variety within this subgenre. Leave Me By Dying. Blind Justice. 2004. or an earnest judge who is manipulated into an explosive situation. 1992. The Simple Truth. Silent Justice. Murder One. Criminal Intent. he discovers that what is right and what is in the client's best interests are not the same. The Ferryman Will Be There. His Ben Kincaid series includes: Primary Justice. as an intellectual exercise. . because of her theories. The hero may also be a young legal student who. Ben. 2002. 1998. An appeal sent to the Supreme Court starts a string of murders and the exposure of corruption at the highest levels. runs into trouble. the focus is not on the solving of a mystery but rather on the thrill of the chase. with protagonists ranging from the earnest young attorney who finds out that he is unwittingly representing organized crime to the attorney wrongly accused of murder and duped by those close to her. Deadly Justice. In this type of story. Perfect Justice. Her Ellis Portal series features a homeless former judge. David. but when he leaves the DA's office for a big firm. Baldacci. 1994. 2000. Cruel Justice. tries to solve murders. 1997. 1998. Christina McCall. 1993. usually from the point of view of the one being chased! Aubert. 2001. The Feast of Stephen. Hate Crime. but then. ends up as the target of the killers. 1999. Ben Kincaid has always believed injustice. Dark Justice. William.

2002. had executed the perfect frame-up and is not going to be happy about this turn of events. he sets the ball rolling to have Steve Greerdon pardoned. David. High Crimes. Grisham. Hoffman. 2003. Grudge Match. The Runaway Jury. Compton. The Summons. The Brethren. 2004. The Chris Sinclair series includes: After Image. When San Antonio District Attorney Chris Sinclair discovers that a man he thought was a dirty cop and had prosecuted eight years earlier was really innocent. 1995. 2000. A Justice Department lawyer is in over his head when he is assigned to look into the disappearance of an aide. 2000. Retribution. The King of Torts. Jilliane. 1998. could find something to hold over her head. 2000. 1999. In Her Defense. Impaired Judgment. faces a dilemma when the accused admits that he was the rapist who destroyed her life when she was a promising law student with a different name who had everything going for her. is above reproach. Stephen. It seems impossible that a mafioso. Someone. The Testament. Finder. Law of Gravity. Jay. 2001. A Miami prosecutor. The Street Lawyer. Her husband won the presidency on their integrity and partnership. Executive Privilege. John. working on the case of a serial killer. . Joseph. The Rainmaker. but Tony Remalli's sleazy lawyer and his sexy private investigator have found something that could conceivably bring down the presidency. 1996. m A lawyer takes on the military courts when her husband is accused of a heinous massacre. The Partner. though. 1997.198 Chapter 7—Crime Brandon. Paula Candler. 2000. 2002. The Last Juror. Horn. 2004. 2003. a federal judge and the first lady. 1998. Silver Moon. accused of murdering another federal judge. 2004.

Margolin. The Oath. 1997. Tap. His Dismas Hardy series features an ex-cop defense attorney. Nothing but the Truth. 1998. 2003. 1998. 2003. The Burning Man. 7%e/wry. 2005. 199 . Jackie Flowers. The Judge. The Hearing. Guilt. A Certain Justice. 2001. 1994. 77ié> Attorney. 2004. Undue Influence. Steve. 1995. 1989. Dead Irish. Seeds of Doubt. The Motive. 1996. His Paul Madriani series includes: Compelling Evidence. 1998.Legal Thriller Kane. 2002. Critical Mass. 2003. The Second Chair. 1999. The List. Hard Evidence. Phillip. takes a client into her home while she defends her against charges of kidnapping a child. John. 77ié? Undertaker's Widow. 1995. Lescroart. 2000. Ties that Bind. 1997. 7Yie Arraignment. Martini. Wild Justice. 1990. The 13th Juror. The Associate. 2000. 2002. 1993. After Dark. 2001. The Mercy Rule. a dyslexic Denver attorney. 2001. The Vig. Her Jackie Flowers series includes: Blind Spot. 2004. 1996. 1993. Stephanie. 2000. 1992. Prime TOwm. Extreme Indifference. 1996. The First Law. 2005.

Killer Smile. Reissued 2003. 2003. Protect and Defend. 1999. Her Vicki Allegretti series includes: Devil's Corner. 2001. 1991. Courting Trouble. high-powered corporate attorney. Reversible Error. Twist of Fate. 1994. 2005. the owner of the remodeled church she rents for office space. Putney. Depraved Indifference. Moment of Truth. 2005. 2002. Tanenbaum. 1997. 1996. Mistaken Identity. Everywhere That Mary Went. Conflict of Interest. 1989. 1993. 2004. Conviction. Dead Ringer. Robert K. 1996. Winner of the Edgar Award. His Butch Karp and Marlene Ciampi series includes: No Lesser Plea. 2003. 1992. 1994. Kendra. 4ft Final Appeal. her paralegal. 1997. Balance of Power. Trial by Fire. 1995. She finds an excellent investigator (and love interest) in Rob Smith. Rough Justice. 1987. Her Rosato & Associates series is about a woman-powered law firm. Legal Tender. 2000. When Val Covington. Nancy Taylor. 2000. Silent Witness. who has his own reasons for fighting against the death penalty. Buried Evidence. who is facing imminent execution. Material Witness. Degree of Guilt. 2002. The Vendetta Defense. Lisa. agrees to join her under the condition that she take on a last-ditch effort to prove the innocence of death row inmate Daniel Monroe. . No Safe Place. Rosenberg. Mary Jo. 1998. Running from the Law. she decides to go out on her own to work for real justice. Reissued 2003. 2000. Scottoline.200 Chapter 7—Crime Patterson. receives a million dollar windfall. Immoral Certainty. Richard North. 1997. 2003.

Corruption of Blood. 1998. 1997. Resolved. Reckless Endangerment. Falsely Accused. 2000. 2002. 1996. Irresistible Impulse. Turow. Absolute Rage. True Justice. Personal Injuries. 2004. 1994. 2001. Reversible Errors. Enemy Within. 1999. 2003.Legal Thriller 201 Justice Denied. Scott. 1999. Act of Revenge. 1994. 2002. t. .

2004. Greenberg . 2000. Houghton Mifflin. some include material on allied genres.) Forge. Best American Mystery Stories. it is impossible to list all sources of information here. Bleiler. Detecting Women: A Reader's Guide and Checklist for Mystery Series Written by Women. Vassilakos. Heising. 2005. Burgess. and several embrace a number of aspects. pseudonyms. 2000. Anthology Series The number of anthology series being published has sharply diminished in recent years. Fortunately there are still two at this writing that are appearing regularly. 202 . Willetta L. Mystery Readers' Advisory: The Librarian's Clues to Murder and Mayhem. The book includes a glossary. types. and Candace Clark. 2002. Fischer-Hornung. Edited by a different prominent author each year. Charles. ed. Selected by the Independent Mystery Booksellers Association. They are included with a list of titles and a short biographical note. This is a sample of resources for the curious. some are of secondary works. Huang. and a chronology. 100 Favorite Mysteries of the Century. a starting point for the ambitious. Joanna Morrison. Libraries Unlimited. World's Finest Mystery and Detective Stories. Reference and Research Guide to Mystery and Detective Fiction. and Jill H. Some cover the authors in the genre. Richard. 2nd ed. ALA Editions. Dorothea. Lists women authors who have written mystery series that have had at least two titles published. geographical settings. Jim. Crum Creek Press. Purple Moon Press. Murder in Retrospect: A Selective Guide to Historical Mystery Fiction. in 2004 it was Nelson DeMille. series characters. (The fifth collection was published in 2004. convention and award information. Edited by Ed Gorman and Martin H. 2003. a great list of resources. Sleuthing Ethnicity: The Detective in Multiethnic Crime Fiction. Bibliographies and Genre Guides The following bibliographies and genre guides vary in coverage. Michael. Associated University Presses.Topics So much has been written about the crime genre. Libraries Unlimited. John. and Monika Mueller.

ab. Make Mine a Mystery: A Reader's Guide to Mystery and Detective Fiction. and British associations present annual prizes. Kelleghan. St. "Twenty Rules for Writing Detective Stories. The signed critical essays vary greatly in length and quality. Writing Mysteries: A Handbook. Encyclopedias Ashley. setting. Libraries Unlimited. Writer's Digest Books. William L. Mike. . title. Some 600 writers are given bibliographical and critical coverage. 100 Masters of Mystery and Detective Fiction. 1749-2000. in its expanded fourth edition. Niebuhr.S.htm. 2001. 4th ed.. Macmillan. Radio. Fiona. Salem Press. 4th ed. Allen J. Michael Wiese Productions. 2004. movie. This multi-award-winning (the Macavity Award for Best Biographical/Critical Mystery Work for 2004 from the Mystery Readers International and the Anthony Award for Best Critical/Non-fiction Work for 2004) readers' advisory resource groups more than 2. Writers' Manuals Grafton. Roth. Pederson. 2002. 2003. who note an author's prize-winning status in advertisements and on book jackets. ed. The prestige of these associations is recognized by publishers. 1996." Originally published in American Magazine (1928) and subsequently included in the Philo Vance Investigates Omnibus (1936). Jay P. James Guide to Crime & Mystery Writers. Associations and Conventions Associations of mystery and crime writers serve to further the status and publishing of the subgenre as well as the economic welfare of writers. Encyclopedia Mysteriosa: A Comprehensive Guide to the Art of Detection in Print. 2003. Martin. Crime Fiction IV: A Comprehensive Bibliography. The U. 2002. S. 2003. Tapply. Carroll & Graf. The Elements of Mystery Fiction: Writing the Modern Whodunit.500 mystery and detective fiction titles into useable categories. Formerly titled Twentieth-Century Crime & Mystery Writers. Mystery Writers of America. Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction. James Press. 2001. Saricks. William G. comp. Gary Warren. St. Poisoned Pen Press. Noted are series detectives and pseudonyms. Battered Silicon Dispatch Box. DeAndrea. Sue. and series characters. There are several indexes: author. S.Associations and Conventions 203 Hubin. Van Dine. The Crime Writer's Reference Guide. and Television. Film. The most comprehensive bibliography of crime fiction. this brief article is available at http://gaslight. The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Modern Crime Fiction.ca/vandine. Joyce. mtroyal. ed. ALA Editions. 1994.

The Shamus Award is for outstanding paperback and hardcover novels. Macavity Awards. Awarded annually at the Malice Domestic Convention. A full listing of winners is at http://www.org/pages/awards/winners. 2005). Private Eye Writers of America. group was established in 1982. This U. Malice Domestic holds an annual convention celebrating "cozy mysteries" in the Washington. Mystery Writers of America.204 Chapter 7—Crime Associations Crime Writers' Association. Winners and finalists are listed at http://www.C. International Association of Crime Writers. Founded in 1986. organization was founded in 1945.org/ agathapast_new. Edgar Awards. a pseudonym of William Anthony Parker White. Founded in 1982. Awards Agatha Award. whose works exemplify the traditional (sometimes called cozy) mystery. Awarded by Mystery Readers International annually at Bouchercon. best true crime book.600 members in 2005. The International Congress of Crime Writers held its first congress in London in 1975. best short story. Anthony Awards.S.htm (accessed March 25. The Dilys Award from the Independent Mystery Booksellers Association is also awarded at this conference. Awarded annually at Bouchercon. the World Mystery Convention. Sisters in Crime. The Eye Award is for career achievement. mysteryreaders. Awarded by the Mystery Writers of America.S.mysterywriters. . its national chapters present Hammett Awards. Conventions Bouchercon is the annual Anthony Boucher memorial convention. they are listed at http://www. Formed in 1985 to work for gender equality in crime publishing. this is an international organization. This U. it is named for Agatha Christie. best first novel. with over 3. wrote detective and science fiction stories and was notable as a critic and reviewer. Crime Writers of Canada. This British group was founded in 1953. The first was held in 1969. The seventeenth convention was in 2005. and best work of criticism or reference. Anthony Boucher. area. There is a memorial John Creasey First Novel award. 2005). D. "Edgars" (Edgar Allan Poe Awards) are presented in several categories at the annual dinner.html (accessed March 2 5 .org/macavity. The sixteenth annual convention is scheduled for March 2006 in Bristol. the World Mystery Convention by members of the convention.htm (accessed March 25. England. The "Gold Daggers" are the annual awards. this group presents Arthur Ellis Awards (named after the traditional pseudonym for Canada's official hangman) in the categories of best novel. Left-Coast Crime awards the Lefty Award for the funniest novel of the previous year.malicedomestic. 2005). The 2004 meeting was in Amsterdam and Antwerp.

2003. Max Freeman is living in the Florida Everglades as a hermit. But his peace is destroyed when he is thrust into the limelight and comes under police suspicion . Now living in the town of Chinook adjacent to the Blackfoot Reservation.com. authors. it features information about awards. which sends her back to the seamy underside of the city and to Underhill. The Mysterious Home Page is also found here. she makes discoveries that lead right back to her own mysterious past. reviews. more outsiders visiting Chinook end up dead. publishers. (pseudonym of Thomas King). who ends up dead. Overbooked. (ex-cop). Thumps DreadfulWater. Goodweather. who is Cherokee and a former California cop. GiGi Gellman. has ended her career with the Providence. DorothyL. Jonathon. from turning into a suspect. who is also the tribal leader. a very busy listserv for mystery readers and writers. a "gentlemen's club" that caters to pedophiles. who was totally opposed to the project. King.com/(accessed March 2 5 .com (accessed March 25. DreadfulWater Shows Up. provides links to many sites of interest to mystery fans. Additional online resources and updates to the links listed here are regularly published on the Genreflecting Web site at http://www. is called in to photograph a murder victim at the luxury resort and casino the tribal band is due to be opening soon.org/genres/mystery/index. blamed for a blood bath in a sting that went wrong. D's Crime Picks Cunningham. 2002. ClueLass. Shadows in the Darkness. 2005). organizations. http://www.cluelass. The Thrilling Detective. and new mysteries. This gently humorous mystery with a strong sense of place and realistic characters is a worthy diversion. is a volunteer project by Ann Chambers Theis and the Chesterfield County (Virginia).overbooked. (diversity in detection—Native American). Elaine. The following sites are of particular interest and use to librarians and booksellers. Public Library collection management staff. Delving into both cases. 2004.D's Crime Picks 205 Online Resources The plethora of resources on the World Wide Web is overwhelming. asks him to investigate in an attempt to keep her teen son. (bizarre blends).nsknet. http://www.or.html (accessed March 2 5 . Hartley.genrefluent. • The Blue Edge of Midnight. magazines.2005). young looking for her age. Now as a private investigator she is called on to find a missing teenager. http://www. 2005). she passes it on to her retired mentor.com/(accessed March 25. Lists forthcoming titles. http://www. reading lists.dorothyl. The Gumshoe Site. When the owner of Underhill gives her a file on a missing heir he wants her to investigate. Rhode Island. provides subscription information for DorothyL. 2005). The woman in his life. 2005). http://www.thrillingdetective. As Thumps investigates. characters. police department under a cloud.jp/~jkimura (accessed March 2 5 . bookstores.

and giggles may turn into guffaws.206 Chapter 7—Crime when he finds the body of a child who had been kidnapped by a serial killer. (unofficial detectives—lawyers). a northern New Jersey criminal attorney. He has no idea that he is going to end up defending someone who is accused of killing women seemingly at random and lopping the hands off his victims. Colonel Sara Brannon. The serial killer leaves notes and dead animals threatening Kerney. All is not laughs however. Winner of the Edgar Award. 2003. Santa Fe police chief Kevin Kerney is supposed to be on leave. Uniform Justice. Leon. Rosenfelt. Andy's pal Vince at the newspaper puts him on a retainer shortly before his star reporter is arrested for the killings. he finds that there may be more to the apparent suicide of the son of a reform minded politician. Donna. as Andy tries to balance right and wrong. Andy Carpenter. His wife. is ready to give birth to their first child at any moment. McGarrity. 2003. ethics. Lt. and a honey of a girlfriend he cleared in one of his earlier exploits. when he is called back to duty when the city's best known attorney is murdered. Max's tortured past is portrayed through flashbacks that show him shooting and killing a twelve-year-old and arresting a man for murder whom he has come to believe is innocent. (police detectives—New Mexico). and fairness. (police detectives—Italy). David. The pace accelerates as the killer gets closer to Kerney and those he loves. 2004. the Tara foundation that places rescued dogs. but the compelling plot and interesting characters make this a winner. When Commissario Brunetti of the Venice police department is called to an exclusive military academy. Andy and his crew are likeable. Brunetti's wife adds a philosophical perspective that keeps the story from being hopelessly bleak. Bury the Lead. has no worries what with all the money he's accumulated lately. Michael. The New Mexico setting alone is well worth the read. Everyone Dies. .

However. The Epic of Gilgamesh. a superhero. and other genres. first chronicled on clay tablets in the third millennium B. nearly guaranteed a spot on the best-seller lists when they are released. Western. it marries particularly well with the genres crime. science fiction... 207 . is a form on its own—and in fact. the pure adventure. and although some bookstores have separate shelves for action.g. Publishers have not clearly defined it. adventure is often present in many other genres. the adventure genre had no societies as may be found for romance. and his quest for immortality. science fiction. such as those written by Tom Clancy and Michael Crichton. Indeed. a story involving a hero (or heroine) taking risks and overcoming dangers to complete a journey or task. In fact. historical fiction. mystery. where the existence of the world as we know it is threatened. and fantasy. rather than a distinct genre. Adventure is also one of the most popular genres today. some may argue that adventure is a quality or characteristic of literature.Chapter 8 Adventure Essay Diana Tixier Herald The adventure story comes in many guises—from swashbuckling tales of pirates on the high seas to contemporary high-tech conspiracy stories. adventure. the King of Uruk (located in what is now Iraq). when The International Thriller Writers was formed at the World Mystery Convention (Bouchercon). with exemplary stories. two-thirds divine and one-third human. rather than the rule.C. Until late 2004. or intrigue. tells of the adventures of Gilgamesh. mystery/suspense). it is probably the oldest recorded genre in existence. critics and review journals often treat it as an appendage of other genres (e. this is the exception.

Whether the challenge is a sinking ship. or the forces that the hero battles. from the inexperienced and naive to the seasoned and worldly-wise. The basic elements of the adventure story are simple: a protagonist (either individual or group. Clive Cussler's Dirk Pitt. the adventurer is a superhero of sorts—one with special skills. Sometimes the term "thriller" is used to describe books in this genre.208 Chapter 8—Adventure Definition Colleen Warner. or likewise as "page-turners"—books too exciting to put down. emotional. intrigue. . heroic quests. a volcano. usually "virtuous") and a great challenge. like Jack Forman in Michael Crichton's Prey. fits this type. who stumbles onto a nanotechnological plot for world domination and is the only one available to stop it. In the other case. strengths. protagonists generally fall into two categories: There are two kinds of adventurers: those who go truly hoping to find adventure and those who go secretly hoping they won't. pulling the reader through the story—sometimes at record speeds. and they qualify as adventure stories. with his underwater expertise and constant quests. That challenge may come in the form of obstacles encountered on a journey. or any combination thereof. vile terrorists. in many ways direct the adventure story. head librarian of the Popular Culture Library at Bowling Green State University. employ a more deliberate pacing that nonetheless excites readers. and tales of exploration. Danger and fast pacing are essential to the thriller. it may be the threat of a villain or group of villains. or it may be the effects of natural disasters. and the character of the protagonist. Yet it is the resulting effect of the story that defines the genre: To be successful. "in which the virtuous hero tries. to attain the prize. who makes a profession (paid or unpaid) of heroics. Although there are many types of protagonists. The story form runs the gamut from survival stories. the triumphs of the story. the adventurer is simply caught up in unforeseen circumstances and must work his or her way out. The experience of adventure builds the character of a common human being into a hero. and all thrillers may be considered adventure stories. or abilities.2 In one case. the catastrophe. and sometimes fails. Simply put. and generally. evil Nazis. and espionage. corrupt politicians. Readers sometimes describe these stories as "roller-coaster rides. describes adventure fiction as a form of male romance. The challenge may be physical. Plot line and pacing play important roles in the adventure story. However. Almost as important as the protagonist in the adventure tale is the nature of the challenge—the villain. many adventure stories."1 Warner's description provides a good place to start. devious spies. Characteristics and Appeals The satisfying reading experience for the adventure fan is one in which the reader vicariously experiences the story and its sensational impact. the risks. mental. the adventure tale must be told in a way that conveys excitement and allows the reader to vicariously experience the "adventure"—the dangers. such as the seafaring adventures of Patrick O'Brian. The protagonist. to war stories and tales of revenge. an adventure is a story that involves a protagonist (singular or group) who faces adversity and grave danger and actively struggles to overcome them." indicating the thrill and adrenalin rush that accompany them.

As Michael Gannon explains in his informative guide to the genre: The characters (and the reader) can always expect the worst—the main characters (the hero/heroine) can. and usually. violence is commonplace. in the long shadows of the Cold War. conspiracy. whether or not they involve traditional spies. or mission . or depraved doctors. Other high-tech gadgetry performs a more ornamental function. . Vietnam. Back in the late 1980s. and cameras that shoot daggers. in many adventure stories "the end justifies the means. and evil of the challenge.5 Today. Love interest and sexual exploits are also common to the adventure story. a specific and currently popular subgenre of adventure. have everything thrown at them as they proceed on their quest. The popularity of such subgenres as biothrillers. such as the submarine in Clancy's Hunt for Red October. without an adversary or obstacle. particularly in tales of assassination and espionage. its purpose being to amuse or amaze—a voice transmitter embedded in a fountain pen. financial thrillers. with international terrorism threatening the safety of the world."4 which can also be found in many thrillers. this preoccupation has become even more relevant. the better the ride. an Aston Martin missile. Weapons. and even cipher thrillers speaks to this obsession. Likewise. The adventure hero must be adept in using whatever means it takes to overcome the challenge. and usually do. Settings in adventure stories range from the icy wastelands of polar ice caps and steamy. cigarette lighters that double as cameras.Characteristics and Appeals 209 greedy businessmen. The love interest is often "the prize" the . particularly in the technothriller and espionage subgenres. . and Watergate. Sometimes the weapons almost take the role of a character. cars that eject passengers and explode. but it is always in service to the greater good. or a lethal bowler hat. holds an added appeal of what John Cawelti and Bruce Rosenberg (1987) call "clandestinity. money clips that encase vials for poison. and technical expertise are also important to many adventure stories. search. force. shoe phones. They may be part of the protagonist's challenge." In any case. In the adventure novel. gadgetry. Rules are broken. and otherforms of clandestinity. tropical rainforests to urban metropolises and the interior of a submarine. the settings are generally in some sense "extreme. Must brute strength be used? Quick wits? Strategic thinking? Technical expertise? The drama and excitement of the adventure story are accentuated by the strength. whether it is a machete. good usually triumphs over evil. but if given any prominence in the story. the explosion of technology. that challenge will in part determine the type of response the protagonist must make. the more extreme the challenge. however they are not usually center stage. and issues of privacy and surveillance on the rise. they wrote: We live in a time that has become deeply obsessed with espionage. there can be no adventure." with heroes acting in ways not normally considered exemplary.11 The spy/espionage novel. but sometimes it is difficult to determine who is good and who is evil. the hero must always exhibit control of his or her environment in order to succeed at the task at hand. a Walther PPK handgun.

often set in wild or "primitive" parts of the world.L. They commonly feature treasure hunts. Consider the heroic tales of The Kalevala. World War I became the favored setting for novels of espionage. rising to great heights during the Cold War of the 1950s. and the like. Many works of classic literature are still read today as lively adventure stories—Alexandre Dumas's Three Musketeers (1844) and The Count of Monte Cristo. Joseph Conrad published Under Western Eyes. despicable villains. who served as a spy during the war.g. History The Epic ofGilgamesh has been mentioned as an early adventure tale. 1887) grew in popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century. and Beowulf. and Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884). sexual favors may be granted along the way. Numerous other examples of adventure in ancient literature exist. a spy story set against the exotic backdrop of India. During the 1920s. publishers and readers have turned their attention to tales of spies and espionage.210 Chapter 8—Adventure hero receives for the successful completion of his tasks. which featured an antihero protagonist and is considered the first realistic spy story. written by Michael Curtiz. although in many cases. Male romance (so termed because it was considered the male equivalent genre to romance for females). Of course. The Ipcress File. Ivanhoe) and James Fenimore Cooper {Last of the Mohicans.C. and The Spy Who Came in from the Cold. reflected and reinforced the subgenre's pop- . Ian Fleming's James Bond series epitomized this subgenre with its urbane spy. W. lost mines.E. However. including the James Bond movies. the commercial success of the film version of the espionage romance Casablanca. but rather in flat or fairly stereotypical terms. 1960s. piracy. for most of the twentieth century. and James Oliver Curwood. These stories add suspense to the adventure tale. and in 1915. and alluring but treacherous women. Robert Louis Stevenson's adventure classics. She. Other adventure authors during this period.N. Somerset Maugham. These stories. 1885. Chesterton's The Man Who Was Thursday: A Nightmare (1908) featured anarchists and double agents. In 1942. In 1901 Rudyard Kipling published the eponymous Kim. The Spy) were wildly popular with readers.. The Ramayana. which tells the story of an Englishman living in Czarist Russia and holding a dark secret. such as books written by H. works written by Sir Walter Scott in England (e. John Buchan introduced series character spy and spy-catcher Richard Hannay in the classic The Thirty-Nine Steps. and 1970s. marked the beginning of the marriage of media for the spy story. are filled with combat and villains of all sorts. the characters of the love or lust object (usually women) are not represented in full dimension." G. almost dispassionate tone the action adventure Ashenden: Or the British Agent (1928). Nearly a decade later. The Pathfinder. and many readers today equate "adventure" with this type of fiction. wrote in a subdued. including Trea- sure Island (1883). In the early nineteenth century. thereby purportedly heightening the reading experience. The popularity of spy novels continued throughout the century. emphasized survival in nature. The Pioneers. Television series such as Man from U.. The Odyssey. in which the protagonist refers to his espionage activities as "The Great Game. In either case. later immortalized by Alfred Hitchcock in the film of the same name. and Mission Impossible and an eruption of films. Waverly. typified by Jack London. Rob Roy. futuristic technologies. these may simply disguise further dangers. K. Edgar Rice Burroughs. Rider Haggard {King Solomon's Mines. mainly for their elements of adventure.

such as David Aaron's Agent of Influence. there has been no dearth of stories about terrorists and terrorism. the Austin Powers movies have poked fun at the spy story." and which types of adventure fiction the reader prefers. However. the technothriller.. This subgenre has even made it into the movies with National Treasure (in which the directions to a treasure trove are deciphered from hidden writing on the back of the Declaration of Independence) and TNT's The Librarian: Quest for the Spear (in which a librarian uses his encyclopedic knowledge to decipher clues and reunite three parts of a magic spear). starting the new paperback category known as "action/adventure. in 2003 a new subgenre rose to the top. Further. Don Pendleton's Max Bolan series also burst onto the scene during this time. clues.. another publishing phenomenon of the early twenty-first century. and biothrillers. but Tom Clancy was king. since it focuses on clues that are hidden in Bible passages. The late twentieth century saw many types of popular thrillers. That year Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code occupied the Publishers Weekly bestOseller list for thirty-nine weeks. Finding titles the reader has previously enjoyed. Advising the Reader Because adventure is a diverse genre that appeals to a broad range of readers. through a readers' advisory interview. spoofs and parodies of the genre made there way into popular culture. also arguably falls into the cipher thriller category. Martial arts thrillers rose to prominence in the 1970. Loren Singer's The Parallax View and James Grady's Six Days of the Condor) also rose to popularity in the 1970s. dominating best-seller lists with such titles as The Hunt for Red October (1984) and his Jack Ryan series." Conspiracy thrillers reflecting real-life espionage activities (e. which featured biological agents as tools of terrorism (e. whether or not they . Also gaining popularity were financial thrillers. and code-cracking feature prominently in these stories. Recent Trends As terrorism has increased around the world. Graphic novels. an offshoot of the espionage tale that focuses more on technology. 1997). in response to the profound technological innovations of that decade. and particularly since 9/11. the readers' advisor must establish. and remained on the list through 2004." are a burgeoning field of publishing and reading interest. Richard Preston's The Cobra Event.g. many of which can be considered "adventure. (More recently. emerged. Conspiracies. positioned as number one best seller for twenty-five of those weeks.) In the 1980s. The Da Vinci Code formalized a new adventure subgenre—the cipher thriller. what the reader means by the term "adventure.g. The Left Behind series. Stephen Coonts (with his Jake Grafton novels) and Dale Brown were in demand. particularly with younger readers. Ward Carroll's Punk's Wing (2003) is a case in point. with the television series Man from Uncle and the film Our Man Flint. and by the 1990s it had become the most popular subgenre of adventure.Advising the Reader 211 ularity. secrets. which explores the cutthroat tactics of investment bankers.

However. these characters are so resilient that they sometimes (as in the case of James Bond) outlive their originators. 5. and Bad Guys: A Reader's Guide to Adventure/Suspense Fiction (Westport. For example. Many of the title groupings that follow are based on these characteristics. Other readers may prefer heroes they can more closely identify with—regular people who just happen to be thrown in harm's way. but undoubtedly it will change. urban. Other considerations include what type of challenge or conflict is involved—natural disasters. is the standard way to start. such as Louis L'Amour's Joe Mack in The Last of the Breed. and so on. It is unlikely the genre will disappear. Blue Highways: A Journey into America (New York: Little.2 1 2 Chapter 8—Adventure are classified as "adventure" in this guide. keep in mind that elements of adventure can be found in many other genres (and specific subgenres) as well—particularly in science fiction. war stories. fantasy. Setting involves time and place. Bullets. 1983). Michael B. as well as atmosphere. 1987). Rosenberg. For example. . Conn. as did (and to some extent still does) James Bond. Ibid. and historical fiction. Notes 1. the complexity of the plot—may be the primary appeal. and then looking for other titles in the same categories that follow. William Least Heat Moon. Setting can also be a draw—contemporary. John G. The Spy Story (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Blood. but the character of the protagonist is also an important factor. exotic locales. 2004). Westerns. at sea.: Libraries Unlimited. The iterations and manifestations we see in this lively genre over the next decade will likely tell an adventure story of their own. Jack Ryan and Dirk Pitt (larger-than-life series characters in Tom Clancy's and Clive Cussler's works) have huge readership followings. which involve contemporary oceanography. May 15. it is important to keep in mind that different novels that share some setting elements may have entirely different stories. with other authors continuing to write about their escapades." Ascribe Higher Education News Service. 2002. 4. 3. In fact. crime. historical. The story—its pacing. hold a different appeal than Patrick O'Brian's historical seafaring adventures. For the reader who has exhausted his or her preferences in the adventure genre. but often more is needed. Bedlam. "Extraordinary Collection of Adventure Fiction Now at Bowling Green State University's Popular Culture Library. with series based on particular heroes common to the genre. 2. Cawelti and Bruce A. and so on. Militaristic science fiction is a subgenre that is full of adventure and sometimes presents weaponry that appeals to readers of technothrillers. Closing Adventure stories have captured the human imagination since prehistoric times. Readers who enjoy political intrigue and espionage often find the suspense subgenre in crime of interest. Brown. Clive Cussler's adventure tales. wilderness survival stories. Gannon.

Adventure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2004. 1989. Westport. Mystery. 2004. and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture.: Libraries Unlimited. Bedlam. How to Write Action Adventure Novels. Newton. Michael. Conn. and Bad Guys: A Reader's Guide to Adventure/Suspense Fiction. John G. Gannon. Blood. Cawelti. and Bruce A. The Incredible World ofSpy-Fi: Wild and Crazy Gadgets. Danny. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. Props. Rosenberg. 1976. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books.Bibliography 213 Bibliography Biederman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1987. Cawelti. Bullets.. w\& . John G. and Artifacts from TV and the Movies. Michael B. The Spy Story.

.

directed by Alfred Hitchcock. E r i c (spy/espionage).Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald This chapter is arranged in several groupings. a smaller subgenre but one with enduring popularity. With several movies in the works dealing with the tsunami of December 2004. and the predecessors of the genre as a whole." Selected Classics The classics below fall mainly into two types—male romance and spy/espionage. which was the dominant type of adventure fiction in the twentieth century. and other subgenres have risen to prominence. Exploration. Mask of Dimitrios. Several of his titles have been reissued since 2000. John. soldiers of fortune. spy-catcher and spy. More recently. it is expected to rise in popularity. Tarzan series. who appears in several of Buchan's novels. exotic locales. (male romance. Although it is still too early to declare classic authors and titles. 1939. covers tales of spies and espionage. and action/adventure series are grouped together in the "Male Romance" section. Survival. The first. The former were generally the first to appear. disaster novels. long chase scenes in the genre. followed by "Military and Naval Adventure. Ambler. Buchan. 1915. covers tales featuring personal survival as well as tales of coping with large-scale disaster. (male romance). follow. and multiple reissues can be an indication of forthcoming classic status. The Thirty-Nine Steps. Edgar Rice. Burroughs. Following is a sampling of established classics. The Intercom Conspiracy. it is likely we will see many of these recent publications emerge as new classics over the next decade. 1969. cipher thrillers. Thrillers—from technothrillers to cipher thillers—currently the most popular type. à This book introduces Richard Hannay. backlist titles are important in this genre. The Levanter. spy/espionage). 215 . Spy/espionage stories comprised a second wave for the genre and dominated adventure publishing during the twentieth century. As in Westerns and science fiction. It became a classic motion picture. biothrillers. The Middle East and the Balkans are the settings for Ambler's tales. 1972. The Thirty-Nine Steps has one of the greatest. in which antiheroes and amateurs are unwittingly caught up in a spy network run by scheming spymasters and their sardonic agents.

Linked to Bond is the tag "Licensed to Kill. established 007's flamboyant characteristics. The Man Who Was Thursday: A Nightmare. fi Introduced the theme of the German plot to invade England. (male romance). The Count of Monte Cristo. The most recent 007 title is The Man With the Red Tattoo (2002). complete with a British traitor and an amateur hero. The Andromeda Strain. (male romance). (male romance). 1969. Gardner. the 2004 film switches the evil entity to a corporation. i i A deadly disease from space. S. (survival-disaster). Condon. (spy/espionage). The Riddle of the Sands. Alexandre. (spy/espionage). Eye of the Needle. Deighton. The first Bond adventure. !• The Secret Agent. Curwood. Richard. . 1844. 1959. Conrad. written by Raymond Benson. the British Secret Service agent. Funeral in Berlin. who has taken over from John E. G. 1911. 1964. 1908. (spy/espionage). 1902. i i While the book features an international espionage plot. (spy/espionage). (male romance). Joseph. à Dumas. James Bond. Fleming had experience in naval intelligence during World War I. is of course among the immortals of spy/espionage literature. 007. m The Ipcress File. 1962. Ian. 1844-1845. Ken. in Three Musketeers. The Manchurian Candidate. à Forester. 1978. Erskine. K. à Fleming. James Oliver. (spy/espionage). Michael. 1907." So popular was the series that the Bond legend has continued beyond the death of its creator. (spy/espionage). C. Crichton. 1903. 1919. (historical military and naval). (spy/espionage). Sex and sadism in an international setting were ingredients for some outrageous adventures with Cold War spies. Childers. i l The Secret Agent brings in the world of revolutionaries and anarchists. Heart of Darkness. Casino Royale (1953). Follett. (spy/espionage).216 Chapter 8—Adventure Chesterton. The surreal world of anarchists and double agents. Len. Reissued 1994. Under Western Eyes. Reissued 2005. Horatio Hornblower series. Nomads of the North.

introduced the exotic background. the pattern of double agents. Le Carré. 1901. (male romance). 1971. Greene was in intelligence and he undoubtedly drew from his experience for the classic parody. Le Carre's experience in the British Foreign Office undoubtedly contributed to his writings. King Solomon's Mines. (spy/espionage). He also wrote The Quiet American (1955). 1904. Jack. Geoffrey. i i Kipling. as a boy. a somber spy novel set in Vietnam in the 1950s. which is no longer widely available. Although most of his older work qualifies as classic. 1976. Haggard. Kim. à London. a notable contribution to the genre is The Spy Who Came in from the Cold. Boys from Brazil. which reduces the genre to the ridiculous. à Household. most recently in 2003. Hughes. Richard. Nazis. During World War II. 1963. iii . !llL!Lj Levin. an aspect that adds greatly to the appeal of the genre. (spy/espionage). 1887. spy/espionage). John. and the book was reissued by Penguin Classics in 2004. (male romance). wild frontiers). Graham. A High Wind in Jamaica. m This set the classic pattern for the spy as antihero. Rogue Male.Selected Classics 217 Forsyth. Our Man in Havana. This is the classic story of the private citizen who undertakes his own spy mission. 1929. his first being The Confidential Agent (1939). 1885. 1941. m Greene. (male romance. i i She. The Sea Wolf. is trained for his work is described marvelously. (male romance. Reissued 1999. and the anatomization of the bureaucracy of intelligence headquarters operations. 1938. (spy/espionage). It was made into a movie twice. i i "The Great Game. m Maclnnes. H. but he wrote notable spy novels. in this case an assassination. Helen. Day of the Jackal. (spy/espionage). Frederick. Above Suspicion." as Kim calls his spying for British intelligence in India. Rider. encountering extreme danger and exciting chases. How Kim. Ira. R u d y a r d . Greene is generally considered a literary rather than genre fiction author.

Beau Geste. Phillips. historical). Treasure Island. Reissued 2004. and the outrageous or sensational is toned down to the ordinary. Jules. C. Several of Oppenheim's many spy novels survive. 1920. . 1905. The Scarlet Pimpernel. His first published novel of international intrigue was issued in 1898. P. He introduced the spy world of elegant high society and exotic European cities. Reissued 1999. and by the 1990s the character type had all but disappeared from the genre. 1922. Rafael. Monte Carlo with its gambling setting was often used. In the middle part of the century. (spy/espionage). being reissued in various electronic formats. W. The spy character did not become a major figure in literature until the twentieth century. Baroness. 1883. The Great Impersonation. and several more appeared during World War I. Sabatini. Orczy. i i Journey to the Center of the Earth. (military.000 Leagues Under the Sea. Maugham was an agent during World War I. m Wren. i i The Mysterious Island. Oppenheim. Stevenson. i i Verne. 1814. 1873. Titles include: Around the World in Eighty Days. Ashenden: Or. and many of these titles remain popular with today's readers. à The aristocratic fop as a disguise for the highly intelligent agent is here at its most romantic. the British Agent. Captain Blood. His tone is realistic and sardonic. historical). m The Sea Hawk. (spy/espionage). Sir Walter. probably the first of the agents to turn his experience into a novel. The theme is introduced of daring rescues from enemy countries. Robert Louis. and made into movies. (male romance). 1925. à Spy/Espionage The spy or secret agent has never been portrayed as a fully respectable figure. Somerset. 1870. 1928. in this case aristocrats saved from the guillotine during the French Revolution. 1864. (spy/espionage. E.218 Chapter 8—Adventure Maugham. Verne wrote fantastic tales that have been reissued countless times. (male romance). 1817. à Waverley. He introduces the antihero as agent. iii 20. m Scott. 1915. but shady dealings and devious personalities make for great reading. 1819. Ivanhoe. spies in all their various permutations were the epitome of adventure. 1875. in Rob Roy. Often credited as the first adventure novelist and the first science fiction writer. (male romance). recorded. (male romance). however.

Hawke series. and the final is Tanner on Ice (199%). but by and large the following lists of spy books feature the tried and true that still have folio wings in public libraries. Jeffrey. reissued 1998). Saving the Queen (1976. William F. 2003. with few titles being published in the 1990s. Assassin. Phillips Oppenheim. Block. Bell. Cold Tactics. Many of the titles were reissued in the late 1990s. Spy Novels The end of the Cold War seemingly sounded the death knell for the spy thriller. Rules of the Game. Tanner Series. The first title in the series is The Thief Who Couldn't Sleep (1966. is also publishing new spy espionage novels. The tenth and final installment is A Very Private Plot (1994). Archer. The first title in the series. Hawke. 2004. Hostage. J r . is set in England in 1951. Featuring CIA operative Blackford Oates. Kim (1901) by Rudyard Kipling. Buckley. Severn House is publishing some British novels in the United States that were first published in the United Kingdom decades ago. 2001. but the twenty-first century saw a small but significant revival with Vintage Crime/Black Lizard publishing reprints and some originals. during and after the Cold War.Chesterton. Ted. Gorgeous British super-spy Lord Alexander Hawke takes on secret missions for the United States and United Kingdom chasing down terrorists and murderers. W\& . Under Western Eyes (1911) and The Secret Agent (1907) by Joseph Conrad. Most have also been reissued since 2000. Forge. K. and The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905) by Baroness Orczy. Originally published in Great Britain as A Place to Hide in 1984. Block also writes crime novels. Originally published in Great Britain as A Wilderness of Mirrors in 1988. Ted. The Great Impersonation (1920) by E. 2001..Spy/Espionage 219 The pattern for this subgenre was set in The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915) by John Buchan. Blackford Oates Series. 1998. all of which were still in print in 2005. The Man Who Was Thursday: A Nightmare (1908) by G. The British Agent (1928) by W. an imprint of Tom Doherty and Associates. The Eleventh Commandment. Ashenden: Or. Lawrence. Allbeury. The Riddle of the Sands (1903) by Erskine Childers. Somerset Maugham. Originally published in Great Britain as The Twentieth Day of January m 1981. 2004. reissued 2005).

Reissued 2002. Petersburg (1982). • Finder. Twinkle. 1964. Furst. To make things even more confusing. Joseph. his merchant vessel. . Deighton. Reissued 2002. Catch a Falling Spy. Reissued 1998. Reissued 2002. The Polish Officer. Originally published in Great Britain as Twinkle. 1988. most recently the biothriller. 1995. 1976. 1991. Key to Rebecca (1980).) Night Soldiers. 1985. The Last Heroes. 2002. Extraordinary Powers. Featuring the disheveled and cranky Charlie Muffin. * à Although the book features an international espionage plot. In following years. While most titles in the series are still available in larger library systems. * à Spy Story. Brian. A Dutch captain. the author has turned his pen to other subgenres. * Funeral in Berlin. Triple (1979). including Lie Down with Lions (1986). 1999. 2004. the 2004 film switches the evil entity to a corporation. Freemantle. E. they may be published under the British rather than the U. The Man from St. 1959. and assorted crew undertake secret missions for the British navy in 1941. Follett wrote a number of spy novels in the late 1970s and 1980s. Originally published under the pseudonym Alex Baldwin and reissued between 1998 and 2001. Dark Star. W. 1974. The first in the series was Charlie Muffin (1977). and the twelfth was Kings of Many Castles (2002). Dark Voyage. (Listed in original publication date order. Moscow Club. Blood of Victory. Follett. Alan. Len. 2000. 1994.. Reissued 2001. and Eye of the Needle (1978). Griffin. some are out of print and difficult to locate in smaller library collections. The Manchurian Candidate. they were published with different titles in different English-speaking countries with different copyright dates. Furst's novels are rich in historical detail and feature complex plots. Ken. also published as Charlie M. 1962. Reissued 1994. As some are rissued in audio or large print format. Set in Europe during World War II. Kingdom of Shadows. m The Ipcress File. Little Spy. Red Gold. title. B.220 Chapter 8—Adventure Condon. Men at War series. Richard. Reissued 2003. which was reissued in 2005. 1991.S.

Noel. 2000. 2004. 1985. Flowers from Berlin. Hunter. 1975. 2004. 2003. Reissued 2000. 1999. Edge of Danger. The Spanish Gambit. Fighting Agents. 2001. 1994. The Color of Night. or even the president of the United States. 1985. • On Dangerous Ground. à Midnight Man Thunder Point. 1995. 1988. The Eagle Has Landed. who is always in the middle of the action when there are plots to assassinate the queen. Jack. Reissued 2001. i i Angel of Death. The Soldier Spies. Hynd. John. IRA Operative.Spy/Espionage 221 The Secret Warriors. 2002. Drink with the Devil. Higgins. prime minister. Day of Reckoning. Absolute Friends. A satirical tale inspired by Greene's classic Our Man in Havana. The White House Connection. Reissued 2000. The President's Daughter. 1997. 1996. Reissued 2001. Reissued 2000. Features former hit man and IRA enforcer Sean Dillon. 1993. James. Reissued in 1997 as Tapestry of Spies. 1992. Le Carré. à Touch the Devil. Stephen. Liam Devlin series. 1986. fi Eagle Has Flown. 1999. Dark Justice. 2002. Split. 1991. The war in Iraq brings two Cold War agents back into play. Lindsey. Reissued 1998. 1996. Confessional. 1982. David L. Tailor of Panama. . 1987. Sean Dillon series. Bill. Midnight Runner. His books feature FBI Special Agent Thomas Cochrane. Eye of the Storm. 1985. Bad Company.

Philip. Reissued 2004. Lewinter. The Bourne Legacy. 1991. 2002. Robert. à The Bourne Ultimatum. Reissued 2003. Ludlum. The Kill Artist. 2004.2 2 2 Chapter 8—Adventure Littell. 1966. The Bourne Identity. Twilight at Mac's Place. Mac McCorkle and Mike Padillo books. 2003. (A film version of The Bourne Ultimatum is in production for late 2007/2007 release. 1973. 1992. 1978. Cast a Yellow Shadow. Backup Men. Reissued 2002. Daniel. Listed in original publication date order. 2000. The Marching Season. 1990. Thomas. A Death in Vienna. Wolfsbane. Gatekeeper. 1990. 1998. The Debriefing. 1999. 1986. The Amateur. WildCat. Reissued 2003. Reissued 2003. Agent in Place. Last Raven. Gabriel Allon series. Eric Van. The Company. m The Bourne Supremacy. Lustbader. 2004. 1977. Art restorer Gabriel Allon is an undercover Mossad agent. 1980. The Confessor. 1990. 1979. 1995. The Once and Future Spy. 1990. 1981. Eric Van Lustbader continues the series. Continuation of Ludlum's Bourne series. 1967. which sent them back onto best-seller lists in 2004. Prince of Fire. Shelby. J. The Defection of A. Firefox. 1998. 1971. Reissued 2004. 1991. 2002. Silva. Robert.) At the behest of Ludlum's estate. Thomas. The popular series featuring Jason Bourne received a new lease on life with the success of the movie versions. The Mark of the Assassin. 2005. in A Hooded Crow. The English Assassin. Ross. Craig. . The Cold War Swap. Wild Justice.

Deverell. when British Intelligence loans her to the FBI. Death of a Raven. . a woman is the main character. Kathryn "Casey" Collins works for a terrorist-fighting State Department agency. A Hanging Matter. Novelist Ingrid Langley is married to fellow agent Patrick Gillard in this comedic British series. 1989. Ingrid Langley and Patrick Gillard. Readers searching for strong female protagonists will find them here. 12 Drummers Drumming. Margaret. Could undercover agent Grace Flint's new husband be part of the money-laundering scheme she is trotting the globe to stop? Gilman. The first book in the series appeared in 1966 and the fourteenth in 2000. Duffy. 2002. Reissued 2001. loses everything dear to her when a sting operation turns bad. but in each of the following books. Women Spies Female spies appear frequently as secondary characters in many of the older espionage novels. but she gets her chance for revenge years later.Spy/Espionage 223 Trevanian. The Eiger Sanction. 1999. Stuart. at Loo Sanction. 1988. Eddy. Pollifax. A Murder of Crows. Reissued 2005. as much as novels of espionage. W\s Flint. Who Killed Cock Robin? 1990. Gallows Bird. 1993. 2000. Brass Eagle. 1973. 1991. Dorothy. Paul. 1987. 1986. Inspector Grace Flint. 2004. Deep Lie. Dead Trouble. Night on Fire. and four of the women are series characters. grandmother and CIA agent. These stories are considered mysteries. a British undercover cop. Woods. Rook Shoot. 1998. all with exotic locales. 1972. Flint's Law. 2002. Diana. Featuring the beloved and indomitable Mrs.

Pollifax on Safari. Pollifax Pursued. Pollifax and the Second Thief. 1941. The Elusive Mrs. 1996. Maclnnes. Pollifax and the China Station. 1985. Mrs. 1971. Time travel between present-day New York and sixteenth-century London. Gayle. 1996. 1997. 1983.224 Chapter 8—Adventure The Unexpected Mrs. Peter. Ride a Pale Horse. Cutout. Helen. 1973. Francine. A Cold War thriller featuring Professor Faith Whitney. Innocent Tourist. 1993. O'Donnell. 2001. Mrs. Pollifax and the Whirling Dervish. 1976. and last. Mrs. Maclnnes's twenty-first. Pollifax Unveiled. all in the most exotic spots in Europe. Her female spy is usually an amateur and often paired romantically with another amateur. Above Suspicion. where private eye Kate Morgan discovers the truth behind the death of playwright Christopher Marlowe. Matthews. Raelynn. novel. A Palm for Mrs. 1985. Lynds. Mrs. 2004. Featuring Modesty Blaise. She is the female equivalent of James Bond. Leslie. Pollifax. . Pollifax and the Hong Kong Buddha. 1970. 1988. Ex-CIA agent Liz Sansborough just can't seem to escape her past. Truman. Hillhouse. 1990. Margaret. Murder in the CIA. Pollifax and the Golden Triangle. Mrs. Pollifax. Mrs. Pollifax. Pollifax. 1987. The Coil 2004. Pollifax and the Lion Killer. 2004. 2000. à The Amazing Mrs. Rift Zone. Mrs. Pollifax. * iii With this book Maclnnes began a best-selling line of novels of romantic international intrigue. a character who began in the comic strips in 1962 and appeared first in book form in 1965. Masquerade. 1995. Mrs. Silbert. Mrs. Mrs. 1966. The Intelligencer.

The Enemy Within. Allan. . 1996. Neil. 1998. Blood of Patriots. travels to Moscow in an effort to restore the Romanov dynasty. Shall We Tell the President? 1977. 2002. Hunting Season. Garber. frequently with futuristic overtones of science fiction. P. Forsyth penned several best-selling espionage novels in the 1970s. Whirlwind. that hit the best-seller lists and were turned into films. Joseph R. Folsom. Aellen. 1998. known as the Whirlwind. including undercover operatives and weapons of mass destruction. Steve. With the demise of the Cold War he turned his hand to historical mysteries. Day of Confession. Arnaldo. 2004. 2003. Bond. 1997.Spy/Espionage 225 Political Intrigue and Terrorism Common to this subgenre are many of the characteristics of the spy/espionage and disaster subgenres. 2004. but returned to espionage with The Avenger in 2003. Liars and Thieves. Larry. 1999. Spy's Fate. comes out of retirement to track down a stolen secret weapon. Correa. Coonts. Miles Lord. 1993. The Cain Conversion. an African American lawyer. Berry. Richard. Stephen. Agencies such as the CIA are often featured. and Richard Hoyt. T. The Amber Room. reissued 2002) and The Odessa File (1972). Deutermann. Frederick. among them The Day of the Jackal (1971. Jeffrey. Reissued 1987. Abercrombie. a tale of a vigilante who is tracking down an FBI-protected Serbian killer. Day of Wrath. The ominous threat of terrorism pervades current releases. 2001. Archer. The Romanov Prophecy. The Eleventh Commandment. An ex-CIA agent. 2004. Forsyth. Charlie MacKenzie.

Rising Phoenix. By Dawn's Early Light. No Safe Place. Gatekeeper. Stone. While spies and espionage frequently are evident in these stories. Reissued 2005. Kyle. 2004. 1993. The League of Night and Fog. 1997. Point of Impact. Shelby. 1998. 1998. Damascus Gate. Trevanian. 1979. 1996. Alan. with new twists and titles regularly cropping up on best-seller lists. Liu. Reissued 2003. Black. Heart-pounding action. 1997. Thrillers Often equated with the page-turner because of its fast pacing and high level of suspense. 1998. Extreme Denial. Blackout. and larger-than-life heroes fill their pages. Judd. Stephen. John J. 2002. 1996. 2003. Last Rights. Philip. Shibumi. Aimee. Richard North. 2002. 1987. 2003. Patterson. the thriller is currently the most popular subgenre of adventure fiction. David. Morrell. The Protector. . Senator Kerry Kilcannon is running for president—and for his life. Sphere of Influence. nail-biting suspense. The Last Hostage. Mills. Whitcomb. Legacy. 2000. as he is pursued by a crazed right-to-life activist. Robert. Medusa's Child. Days of Drums. Flash House. 2003. Christopher. Nance. 1997.226 Chapter 8—Adventure Hunter. 1999. disasters of a natural or man-made type also are popular.

which has been hidden in a cipher within the pages of an obscure Renaissance text. Harvard symbologist Robert Langdon and French cryptologist Sophie Neveu play suspects and detectives in solving the murder of Neveu's grandfather and unraveling a tightly guarded mystery that sheds new light on Western history. Eco. Brown. 2000. CQ When journalist Paul Tomm visits his alma mater to write an obituary of an eccentric professor. A film version is currently in production fro release in 2006. The Third Translation. In this runaway best seller. Bondurant. Digital Fortress. seeking a rare book. \> .Thrillers 227 Cipher Thrillers The runaway popularity of Dan Brown's Da Vinci Code has turned readers' attention to these clever thrillers that involve history and the high-level thinking required to crack codes. Recent films such as National Treasure and The Librarian: Quest for the Spear illustrate the type. he stumbles upon a mystery involving fifteen stolen artifacts that may hold the key to eternal life. 2005. Thomas F. Angels & Demons. Lev. Deception Point. Egyptologist Walter Rothschild has one week to solve a cryptic reference on an ancient funerary stone. Caldwell. finds parallels in a computer game. CQ What begins as a game for three editors in Milan becomes far too real. Codex. 2004. The Da Vinci Code. Fasman. The Rule of Four. A young investment banker. Umberto. 1990. Eyes of the Virgin. Jon. Monteleone. Foucault s Pendulum. Matt. Ian. 2005. 2003. 2002. 2004. Dan. Grossman. The clues here are in the stained glass eyes of the Virgin Mary. 1998. and Dustin Thomason. £Q Two college students search for the location of a secret treasure-filled crypt. 2001. The Geographer's Library.

Diehl. Zafon. 1999. Silbert. an ex-bootlegger takes on agent 27. CQ Cryptology and treasure in two different time lines. Hitler makes a guest appearance. 27. 1988. The Da Vinci Legacy. Garden of Beasts. Dr. A one-eyed German banker carries on a covert fight against the Nazis in the 1930s. The Eye of the Abyss. 2003. Stephenson. Vance Erikson. continue to occupy their standard role in today's adventure fiction. The Shadow of the Wind. Carlos Ruiz. William. 2004. Jeffery. Codeword Janus. The Intelligencer. 2003. Evelyn. Marshall. 1983. Originally published in Great Britain as The Grave of Truth. Neal. Eighteenth-century novices and a 1970s computer wiz seek. Katherine. Cryptonomicon. 2004. for decades the evil antagonists in many genres. a Da Vinci scholar of the Indiana Jones persuasion. Retitled The Hunt. Browne. Folsom. ffl Nazis Nazis. the pieces of Charlemagne's chess set that posses enormous powers. the Third Reich's perfect spy.228 Chapter 8—Adventure Neville. A volume of sixteenth-century espionage documents in ciphered form is the object of an attempted burglary. 1990. Often they are remnants of old Hitlerian plots resurfacing in current times. rather than neo-Nazis. A Mafia hit man is sent to Berlin in 1936 to take out a high ranking Nazi. 2004. Anthony. The Day After Tomorrow. The Eight. discovers that some of the pages in a rare Da Vinci codex were forgeries and is thrust into a worldwide maelstrom of secret societies and assassinations. Allan. . Titles about Nazis can usually be identified by a swastika or the lightning bolt symbol of the S S on the cover. Leslie. Deaver. On the eve of World War II. Reissued 2004. Perdue. 1994. Lewis. through ciphers and other clues.

Thrillers 229 Gifford. The Wind Chill Factor. 1995. 2003. A literary thriller featuring a search for a Nazi scientist. Brenda. Stan. The Last Nazi. The Chase. When Tom Clancy's The Hunt for Red October generated an interest in books that used technology to the extreme. Modern-day Norwegian Nazis. Until the enormous changes in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s." who in some way conveyed superior Soviet technology to the United States. Silva. Robert. Ludlum. Ira. and a common theme was that of the "good Russian. 1987. Murder at her husband's birthday party starts a woman on the trail of a Nazi spy and serial killer who has evaded capture for sixty years. however. The war on drugs is also finding an important place in the plots of technothrillers. The Apocalypse Watch. the gadget became as important as a character. . Sam. Thomas. Volpi Escalante. The Unlikely Spy. 1996. 1976. Berkut. 1994. W\s Technothrillers Technothrillers emerged in the 1980s as one of the most popular types of adventure tale. Joyce. Jorge. Daniel. the enemy was usually the Soviets. Joseph. More recent technothrillers use the Middle East and South America for settings. Leisure Books publishes paperbacks regularly with the technothriller designation. In Search ofKlingsor. 1975. Maelstrom. Most technothrillers feature an armed conflict between military forces. works in England to uncover the details of the Allied invasion of Normandy. 2002. Boys from Brazil. Pottinger. Heywood. An American agent disappears after infiltrating the neo-Nazis. Catherine Blake. a beautiful Nazi spy. Nazi survivors plan to resurrect the Reich. 2002. • à Llewellyn. Levin. there are exceptions. Mengele's foster son and contemporary bioterror.

230 Chapter 8—Adventure Alten, Steve. Goliath. 2002. Anderson, Kevin J . , and Doug Beason. Ignition. 1997. Antal, John. Proud Legions: A Novel of America's Next War. 1999. Ballard, Robert, and Tony Chiu. Bright Shark. 1992. Berent, Mark. Berent, an air force pilot who served in Vietnam, uses the Vietnam War setting for his tales of good men fighting a bad war, hindered from winning by the unprincipled policy makers in Washington. Listed in original publication date order. Rolling Thunder. 1989. Reissued 2004. Steel Tiger. 1990. Reissued 2004. Phantom Leader. 1991. Reissued 2005. Eagle Station. 1992. Storm Flight. 1993. Bond, Larry. Futuristic setting. Listed in original publication date order. Red Phoenix. 1989. Vortex. 1991. Cauldron. 1993. Dangerous Ground. 2005. The last mission of the USS Memphis, a submarine ready for the junk pile, is not what it seems. Brown, Dale. Patrick McLanahan series. After Brown's early success with his technothriller series featuring Patrick McLanahan and crew, he wrote several prequels. The books are listed here in the order in which the action takes place, not chronologically by publication date. Plan of Attack. 2004. Air Battle Force. 2003. Wings of Fire. 2002. Warrior Class. 2001. Battle Born. 1999. The Tin Man. 1998. Fatal Terrain. 1997. Shadows of Steel. 1996. Day of the Cheetah. 1989. Storming Heaven. 1994. Chains of Command. 1993.

Thrillers 231 Night of the Hawk. 1992. Sky Masters. 1991. Hammerheads. 1990. Flight of the Old Dog. 1987. Silver Tower. 1988. Buff, Joe. Commander Jeffrey Fuller Series. Commander Jeffrey Fuller and the nuclear submarine, US S Challenger, find adventures at the bottom of the ocean. Deep Sound Channel. 2000. Thunder in the Deep. 2001. Crush Depth. 2002. Tidal Rip. 2003. Straits of Power. 2004. Carroll, Ward. "Punk" Reichert series. Former fighter pilot Ward Carroll's series features Navy Lieutenant Rick "Punk" Reichert. Punk's War. 2001. Persian Gulf. Punk's Wing. 2003. Punk is training new pilots when September 11 happens. Punk's Fight. 2004. Punk is taken captive in Afghanistan. Clancy, Tom. Jack Ryan series. While The Hunt for Red October has been heralded as the beginning of the technothriller trend, not all titles in the Jack Ryan series have the same emphasis on the gadgets, nor even the same emphasis on Ryan. They are listed here in the order in which events take place in the series. Without Remorse. 1993. Patriot Games. 1987. 'm The Red Rabbit. 2002. The Hunt for Red October. 1984. à The Cardinal of the Kremlin. 1988. Clear and Present Danger. 1989. à The Sum of All Fears. 1991. i Debt of Honor. 1994. Executive Orders. 1996. Rainbow Six. 1998.

2 3 2 Chapter 8—Adventure The Bear and the Dragon. 2000. The Teeth of the Tiger. 2003. Jack Ryan's son, also called Jack, and his two friends, Dom and Brian, join a vigilante organization, Henderson Associates, to fight terrorism. Cobb, James H. Amanda Lee Garrett series. Action at sea, featuring Naval Commander Amanda Lee Garrett. Choosers of the Slain. 1996. Sea Strike. 1997. Sea Fighter. 2000. Target Lock. 2002. Coonts, Stephen. Coonts is a former navy pilot and catapult officer. Fortunes of War. 1998. Jake Grafton Series. Featuring Admiral Jake Grafton. Flight of the Intruder. 1986. à In 1972, as the Vietnam War drags on and the commitment of Washington wanes, U.S. Navy pilot Jake Grafton flies missions in an A6 Intruder, a carrier-based attack bomber—stressed out and disillusioned, but courageous to the end. The Intruders. 1994. Final Flight. 1988. Minotaur. 1989. Under Siege. 1990. The Red Horseman. 1993. Cuba. 1999. Hong Kong. 2000. America. 2001. Liberty. 2003. Liars and Thieves. 2004. Featuring Tommy Carmellini, ex-burglar and CIA operative. Coonts, Stephen, and Jim DeFelice. Stephen Coonts'Deep Black. 2004. When a spy plane is shot down over Russia, Charlie Dean, an ex-marine sniper, teams up with a former Delta Force trooper, Lia DiFrancesca, to investigate. Coyle, Harold. Against All Enemies. 2002. Bright Star. 1990. Dead Hand. 2001. God's Children. 2000. More Than Courage. 2003.

Thrillers 233 Sword Point. 1988. Team Yankee. 1987. Lt. Col. Harry Shaddock and his elite force take on a dangerous mission to rescue POWs. Crichton, Michael. State of Fear. 2004. Radical Nick Drake is at the center of global warming hysteria, and his motives are none too pure. DiMercurio, Michael. Peter Vornado series. A former submarine commander is recruited by the CIA. Emergency Deep. 2004. Terrorists in a Soviet submarine. Michael "Patch" Pacino series. Pacino, starts out as commander of the USS Devilfish, a submarine, and rises to admiral in command of the Unified Submarine Force, along the way he experiences single combat between submarines and tries to stave off World War III. Voyage of the Devilfish. 1992. Attack of the Seawolf. 1993. Phoenix Sub Zero. 1994. Barracuda Final Bearing. 1996. Piranha Firing Point. 1999. Threat Vector. 2000. Terminal Run. 2002. Grace, Tom. Quantum. 2000. Harrison, Payne. Black Cipher. 1994. Storming Intrepid. 1989. Thunder of Erebus. 1991. Herman, Richard, Jr. Against All Enemies. 1998. Iron Gate. 1997. Power Curve. 1997. The Warbirds. 1989. Huston, James W. Balance of Power. 1998. Fallout. 2001. Flash Point. 2000. The Price of Power. 1999. Secret Justice. 2004.

f |lL

234 Chapter 8—Adventure Shadows of Power. 2002. Ing, Dean. Butcher Bird. 1993. Loose Cannon. 2003. The Ransom of Black Stealth One. 1989. Kent, Gordon. Peacemaker. 2001. Kyle, Stephen. After Shock. 2002. Mayer, Bob. Dave Riley series. Featuring Green Beret hero and Chief Warrant Officer Dave Riley. Dragon Sim 1 3 . 1992. Cut-Out. 1995. Eternity Base. 1996. Eyes of the Hammer. 1991. Reissued 1994. Synbat. 1994. Z. 1997. Pineiro, R. J. 01-01-00: A Novel of the Millennium. 1999. Breakthrough. 1997. Conspiracy.com. 2001. Cyberterror. 2003. Tom Graham, counterterronst, computer whiz Michael Patrick Ryan, and FBI agent Karen Frost team up to battle an evil terrorist who is using the computer to control gas lines and triggering massive explosions. Exposure. 1996. Firewall 2002. Retribution. 1995. Shutdown. 2000. Y2K. 1999. Poyer, David. Dan Lenson Series. Naval officer Lenson and the vessels and weapons of the modern navy fight for America. Titles in the series can be read in any order, bur Poyer recommends the following sequence. The Circle. 1992. TheMed. 1988. The Passage. 1995. Tomahawk. 1998. The Gulf 1990.

Thrillers 235 China Sea. 2000. Black Storm. 2002. The Command. 2004. Robinson, Patrick. Kilo Class. 1998. Nimitz Class. 1997. Stewart, Chris. The Kill Box. 1998. Shattered Bone. 1997. The Third Consequence. 2000. Thomas, Craig. A Fine and Private War. 2002. Mitchell Gant Trilogy. Firefox. 1977. m FirefoxDown! 1983. Winterhawk. 1987. Weber, Joe. Assured Response. 2004. Dancing with the Dragon. 2002. DEFCON One. 1989. Shadow Flight. 1990. Targets of Opportunity. 1993. White, Robin A. T i ? Flight from Winter's Shadow. 1990. Té The Last High Ground. 1995. Sword of Orion. 1993.

Typhoon. 2002.

Financial Intrigue/Espionage
Paul Erdman started this subgenre in 1973 with 77ie Billion Dollar Sure Thing, and since then authors have gleefully taken on the world of international banking, oil cartels, and multinational corporations as well as lesser businesses. Political chicanery is often involved, along with crooked doings among the rich and powerful. The following novels show wide variation in their plots, but money is always the prime factor. The subgenre declined in popularity in the late 1990s, but it continues to have a readership following, and a steady stream of new titles appears every year. Davies, Linda. Nest of Vipers. 1995. Wilderness of Mirrors. 1996. Erdman, Paul E . The Billion Dollar Sure Thing. 1973. *

236 Chapter 8—Adventure Finder, Joseph. Company Man. 2005. Paranoia. 2004. The Zero Hour. 1996. Frey, Stephen W. Day Trader. 2002. Shadow Account. 2004. The Silent Partner. 2003. The Take Over. 1995. The Vulture Fund. 1996. Morris, Ken. The Deadly Trade. 2004. Combining biothriller with financial. Man in the Middle. 2003. Patterson, James. Black Market. 1994. Retitled and Reissued as Black Friday in 2004. Reich, Christopher. Numbered Account. 1998.

Biothrillers
With the advances in genetic engineering and the rise of terrorist activities in the 1990s, a subgenre that combines the two trends arose: biothrillers. News of gruesomely horrible diseases fueled the fire. As in technothrillers, the agent of change, in this case biological rather than technological, plays a major role, on a par with and sometimes ahead of characterization and plot. Cataclysmic disaster, narrowly averted, is a frequent theme. Terrorists who have genetically engineered a disease or stolen biological weapons often appear. Occasionally the culprit is merely science gone awry to disastrous ends. Readers of biothrillers often also enjoy technothrillers, disaster novels, science fiction, and horror novels that deal with medicine or science gone bad. Anderson, Kevin J., and Doug Beason. /// Wind. 1995. Biological eradication of an oil spill gone wild. Balling, L. Christian. Revelation. 1998. Reissued 2004. Cloning mummified DNA. Case, John. The First Horseman. 1998. Will an eco-terrorist be able to unleash a biological doomsday? The Genesis Code. 1997. Biotechnology, ancient beliefs, and murder.

Thrillers 237 Cassutt, Michael. Tango Midnight. 2003. Deadly disease on a space station. Crichton, Michael.

Prey. 2002.
Nanotechnology out of control starts secretly replicating and replacing humans. Follet, Ken. Whiteout. 2004. Bioterrorism. Gerritsen, Tess. Formerly a practicing physician, Gerritsen's more recent books are in chapter 7. Bloodstream. 1998. A plague of violently irrational behavior strikes teens. Gravity. 1999. A space station experiment unleashes a deadly biohazard. Harvest. 1996. Some will go to any lengths to obtain organs for transplants. Life Support. 1997. An upscale retirement home is experiencing an epidemic of a rare disease. Hogan, Chuck. The Blood Artists. 1998. A deadly and virulent virus turns up in Southern Carolina even after the source in Africa had been annihilated. lies, Greg. The Footprints of God. 2003. A project to imbue a computer with human intelligence results in violence and visions. Johansen, Iris. And Then You Die. 1998. A photojournalist finds a village in which all are dead except one lone infant. Koontz, Dean. By the Light of the Moon. 2002. A mad doctor injects two strangers with nanotechnology that has surprising consequences. Mr. Murder. 1993. A writer's life is devastated by someone who appears to be his exact double. Watchers. 1987. Reissued 2003. Two genetically engineered animals have escaped from a top secret lab, one a veritable killing machine, the other, perhaps the only thing that can stop the killing. \>
!

^ *** "• '

238 Chapter 8—Adventure Christopher Snow series. Fear Nothing. 1998. Due to a genetic disorder, Chris Snow can only go out after dark, so he ends up being the one to discover the danger facing the world from a troop of genetically altered monkeys. Seize the Night. 1998. Chris tries to save the children that he is sure are being held prisoner on a military base, where diabolical scientific experiments are being conducted. Land, Jon. Fires of Midnight. 1995. An infectious disease expert finds out that new biological weapons may be what killed a mall full of shoppers. Lynch, Patrick. Carriers. 1995. Will bio-warfare experts be able to determine what caused a viral outbreak in Indonesia? Omega. 1997. A genetically engineered antibiotic may be the only cure for a plague of common diseases run amok. Marr, John S., and John Baldwin. The Eleventh Plague. 1998. Could bioterrorism be responsible for the otherwise seemingly unrelated deaths of race horses and two children? McAuley, Paul. White Devils. 2004. Plagues and genetic manipulation rage out of control in Africa. Morris, Ken. The Deadly Trade. 2004. Bio-weapons. Nagata, Linda. Limit of Vision. 2001. Sentient nanotechnology implanted in humans may turn into a plague. Nance, John J. Pandora's Clock. 1995. A plane is not allowed to land after a passenger dies from what may be a virulent engineered virus. Scorpion Strike. 1992. Saddam Hussein unleashes biological weapons following the Gulf War.

Survival 239 Nayes, Alan. Gargoyles. 2001. A young med student gets more than she bargained for when she agrees to be a surrogate mother. Patterson, James. The Lake House. 2003. The genetically altered children from When the Wind Blows are back. Maximum Ride. 2005. When the Wind Blows. 1998. Genetic manipulation creates flying children. Perdue, Lewis. Slatewiper. 2003. When a racist gets control of a genetic engineering firm, he bioengineers a new genetic weapon. Preston, Douglas, and Lincoln Child. Mount Dragon. 1996. A genetically engineered cure for the flu gone rogue. Preston, Richard. Cobra Event. 1997. Bio-terrorism.

Survival
Survival is a human being's strongest drive, and it lends great force to adventure thrillers. The survival can involve escape from a burning high-rise or from the steppes of Mongolia. The main theme that the following books have in common is this: The protagonist's life is threatened by extreme danger, but through wit and dogged determination, the heroes survive. Some of these stories, particularly in the "Lone Survivor" category, have a slower pacing than other adventure stories—creating a grueling or agonizing aspect to the stories. Protagonists in this subgenre are generally of the "reluctant" variety, thrown into harm's way, but becoming heroic through their actions in the face of danger.

<C

The Lone Survivor
One person (or sometimes a few individuals), for some reason cut off from civilization (as we know it!), resourcefully make(s) his or her (their) way out of danger. Branon, Bill. Spider Snatch. 2000. A grieving mother and her unemployed former DEA agent husband go on a cruise and run afoul of a vicious drug lord.

240 Chapter 8—Adventure Garber, Joseph R. Vertical Run. 1995. Dave Elliott has only himself to depend on as he tries to stay alive while being stalked in a fifty-story office building. Grell, Mike. Sable. 2000. Game warden Jon Sable lost everything when poachers killed his family, but he acquired a need for vengeance. L'Amour, Louis. The Last of the Breed. 1986. Matheson, Richard. Hunted Past Reason. 2002. A weekend hike for writer Doug Hansen and his actor friend Doug Crowley turns into a wilderness race for survival. West, Owen. Four Days to Veracruz. 2004. A honeymooning couple escape drug dealers and are relentlessly pursued as they flee across Mexico. Woods, Stuart. White Cargo. 1988. Reissued in 2001. An entrepreneur, Wendell Catledge, goes after the drug cartel that pirated his yacht and took his wife and daughter.

Disaster
Disaster thrillers fall into several categories. The catastrophe may be natural (that is, nature's fury or an act of God) or man-made, either intentional or accidental. Natural disasters include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves, meteor strikes, a new ice age, floods, plagues, aberrant behavior of bird or animal life—the only limit is the author's imagination. (Excluded from this chapter are supernatural disasters, which reside in horror.) Man-made disasters include nuclear explosions, accidents caused by experimenting with bacteria or with humanity's biological heritage, accidents involving aircraft or ocean vessels (such as the sinking of the Titanic), and catastrophes caused by tampering with nature's equilibrium (for example, destroying the ozone layer); again, the range is determined by the author's imagination. Frequently, the disaster has a political link, relating this type of book to the spy/espionage subgenre. There is also a science fiction connection in the themes of apocalypse, doomsday, and colliding worlds. The trend in the 1990s was toward narrowly averted disaster, and was paralleled in movies such as Deep Impact and Armageddon; but the complete disaster with some survivors, such as occurred in Titanic, was also popular. The early twenty-first century has seen a trend toward themes of reconstruction and overcoming smaller disasters, such as plane crashes and series of car wrecks.

Jaws. Clive. â Cussler. Michael. * A deadly disease from space. confronts monsters. Peter. Final Approach. Dead Aim. Plane crash. 2003. Ice Age. Iris. Geochemical disaster. 2003. always saves humankind. . Airplane accidents. Johansen. 1990. John J. and ultimately. greatest action hero of our time. 2000. 2000. Developer Mick Walker is building a fancy resort on the island of Cascadia—on top of a major fault line. searches shipwrecks. Dirk Pitt. 1996. * m A killer shark threatens a community. Dirk Pitt battles neo-Nazis who are planning a cataclysmic event. Valhalla Rising. The Andromeda Strain. 2005. A hurricane threatens an undersea hotel. A collapsing dam. Crichton. Brian. 1990. The Burning Rocks. Blackout. Sinking cruise ship. Powlik. Earthquake and tsunami. Aging accelerated by a deadly virus. 1999. An underwater nuclear detonation endangers the arctic. m Cloned dinosaurs escape on an island theme park. 1975.Survival 241 Benchley. Marlow. evades death. Reissued 2003. Trojan Odyssey. Cascadia. Nance. Max. Meltdown. Reissued 2005. 1969. Freemantle. Jurassic Park. Atlantis Found. James. 2001. 2002.

a ship or plane wreck. just as the romance is identified for women. Wiltse. Often they feature treasure hunts or lost mines. 1980. of course. Darwin's Blade. A serial bomber. 1976. Crichton. Blown Away. some involve piracy. Reissued 1996. Reissued 2000. most are full of combat with villains of all sorts. romance authors have begun to write in this area. à An expedition sets out for a mysterious lost city in the depths of the Congo. • Vixen 03. The story may concern the search for a friend or relative lost under strange circumstances. Cussler. .242 Chapter 8—Adventure Simmons. Night Probe. or mercenary activities. exploration expeditions. 1996. of course. Dirk Pitt series. Iceberg. the overcoming of natural disasters. The adventures of underwater recovery mariner Dirk Pitt often have elements of the disaster subgenre and also political overtones. 2000. gun-running. In this subgenre. pioneering treks. 1973. or an escape and the ensuing chase—the possibilities are limitless. or in the air. Wild Frontiers and Exotic Lands Exotic lands and unexplored frontiers are the perfect backdrop for action-filled adventure. Male Romance The term "male romance" is derived from the fact that adventure is considered the subgenre of male interest. Reissued 2003. Car wrecks. Dan. following the old tradition of the hero who matches his strength against the powers of natural elements and enjoys the fight. sea. 1978. the protagonist chooses or actively seeks adventure on land. also write adventure of other types. hijacking. Although this has been a rather dormant subgenre in recent years. There is often a political angle to these adventures because many involve revolutionary action in non-European countries. hunting wild animals. Many of these authors. Congo. Raise the Titanic. David. but they always take Pitt into interesting settings both above and below the sea. adding a good deal of romance. The Mediterranean Caper. Clive. The titles listed here are ones that are still circulating in public libraries. 1981. adding the appeal of exotic settings to exciting story lines. 1975. Michael. Many of these books are set in wild and primitive areas of the world.

and international terrorism in the late twentieth century. which follows. He is frequently an antihero. to Isabella in The Golden Fox (1990). The African Queen. A nineteenth-century quest for an Arctic Shan-gri-la. Reissued 1984. King Solomon's Mines. Inca Gold. 1992. 2003. 5/iocA: Wave. 1885. 1935. 1990. Deep Six. ' Tide. live life to the fullest. Forester. The Sunbird. 1988. TVo/an Odyssey. The Rope Eater. l . He will stop at nothing to accomplish his goals. 2003. C. 1996. Cyclops. He is a rogue who bends and breaks the rules. In his Courtney series. Titles are listed in the "Saga" section of the historical chapter (chapter 5). because he was buried with an ancient Mayan artifact worth billions to pharmaceutical companies. privateers. Jones. In recent years the soldier of fortune has = m^^ . from Sir Francis in Birds of Prey (1997). 2001. Rider. fit this mold. Three brothers seek their father's tomb deep in the rain forest. a privateer fighting the Dutch in the seventeenth century. H. 1999. two continents. Reissued with Floodtide in 2001. 2003. • Found. caught between two men. The Codex. in the pay of the highest bidder or for personal gain. 1973. à English explorers seek a fabled lost empire in a remote African country. 1984. Dragon. Wilbur. 1994. and explorers caught up in conflicts on the African continent.Male Romance 243 Pacific Vortex! 1982. Douglas. Preston. treasure seekers. The She series. Ben. Treasure. Reissued with Cyclops in 2001. Many of the protagonists in the "Male-Action /Adventure" section. Sahara. * â Haggard. 1986. Reissued 1985. the Courtneys. Valhalla Rising. Reissued 2002. Soldier of Fortune The hero as picaresque soldier-of-fortune has appeared in many adventure novels over time. The Alan Quartermain series. 1997. Smith. S.

with Diana Palmer writing several that feature a soldier of fortune as a romantic hero. all of which regularly feature series heroes. however. 2002. The prototypes for plots and characters may be found in the pulp magazines that flourished before the paperbacks took over as purveyors of action/adventure in the 1940s. Sadler. the Southern United States of America. An immortal warrior hires on for war after war throughout the ages after he plunges a spear into the side of Jesus Christ on the cross and must live until the second coming. In these series men (and sometimes women) function as vengeance squads. The first title in the series is Rogue Warrior. The first novel in the series was Red Cell (1994). Demo Dick goes up against fat-cat bureaucrats and terrorists. these series are highly lucrative. are a few of the enduring ones. Vengeance." Marcinko. William W. He also appears in science fiction. of which perhaps only two dozen may be current at any time. a writer. detectives. After the world as we know it is destroyed in nuclear and biological attacks. mercenaries. Male-Action/Adventure Series The Western has traditionally been considered an action/adventure genre. The most recent titles are: Violence of Action. starting with building their own homeland. bodyguards. The thirty-fourth book was published in 2003. With Portland. Richard. as have many detective and spy/espionage stories. 2005. which is not a novel but an autobiography. who go about setting the world to rights. soldiers of fortune. but undercover he is also a soldier of fortune working for Shaw's. Sam. Ben Raines. and publishers continually experiment with them. They are specifically aimed at a male reading audience. Barry. and probably worse. The following series are all original titles issued by paperback publishers and noted in trade parlance as action/adventure. Hill. It would be futile to list all the evanescent series. puts together an army called Raines' Rebels. The series started with Casca: The Eternal Mercenary in 1979. Ashes series.244 Chapter 8—Adventure turned up frequently in romance novels. where liberals are not welcome. Casca series. and the last one that Sadler wrote was published posthumously as Casca: The Mongol in 1993. Oregon. martial arts experts. . Buzz Monkey. "the world's leading booking agency for mercenaries. and adventurers of almost any type. Rogue Warrior series. When commercially successful. Johnstone. the Rogue Warrior springs into action to save the day. Paul Dengelegi began writing the series in 1999. the target of nuclear armed domestic terrorists. The following. 2004. Top Kiernan runs his research company from his home in an old schoolhouse.

Alexander. he licensed the character and series name. Edward L. Sixty Minutes for St. Cold Is the Sea. Doc Savage series. Blooding of the Guns. Doc Savage. Twentieth Century Beach. goes up against those he believes killed his family. Tom. George. Clancy. Warren. The sixteenth book was published in 1999. Fullerton. War Against the Mafia (1969). Reissued 2001. Even though Pendleton's last Mack Bolan: The Executioner book was Satan's Sabbath in 1981. 1955. Don. Nick Everard series. Patrol to the Golden Horn. Destroyer series. Reissued 1990. The Hunt for Red October. Mack. Wingman series. 1978. in the first book of the series. He is the richest and most handsome man in the world and has five of the world's top scientists for sidekicks. * m Submarines are the central force in this U. Run Silent. Kenneth. 1978. Reissued 2002. Reissued 2004. Reissued 2002. Murphy.S. 1984. Mack Bolan: The Executioner series. debuted in the 1930s. 1976. the man of bronze. Action is of major importance. His headquarters are on the 86th floor of a Manhattan skyscraper One hundred and eighty-one pulp novels featuring Doc Savage were published between 1933 and 1949.Military and Naval Adventure 2 4 5 Maloney.-Russian political adventure that started the popular technothriller subgenre. Run Deep. Featuring young British naval officer Nick Everard during World War I. 1978. Many of the titles set in the late twentieth century can fit just as easily into the technothriller category. Robeson. m Submarines and the United States after World War II. Pendleton. Reissued 2003. and Richard Sapir. The 139th title was published in 2005 by Signet. . Mack Bolan. W\& Military and Naval Adventure The following books focus on the adventure aspects of war. Currently being released by Black Mask. The 318th title was published in 2005 by Gold Eagle Books. a larger-than-life hero who is dedicated to justice.

S. The British Navy in World War II. Rosenbaum.S. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize. The British Navy in World War II.246 Chapter 8—Adventure Griffin. A Prayer for the Ship. 1980. B. 1976. Sharpe's adventures in the British Army from India to the Napoleonic Wars. customs. Wouk. The Brotherhood of War series. Jack. The life of Homblower is the subject of a "biography" by C.S. The Life and Times of Horatio Homblower (1971. 1994. (also writes under the pseudonym Alexander Kent). Reissued 2005. Cornwell. which follows Homblower's career from midshipman to admiral. Westheimer. * !• Von Ryan's Return. Nicholas. These novels are rich in historical detail about life aboard ship. Army and Army Air Force in World War II. Historical Naval and Military Adventure Most of the following books are published in series. Bernard. Navy in World War II. 1951. forces in World War II. W. 1951. Falcons. The Cruel Sea. Higgins. 1964. Hawks. 1958. 1999. Richard Sharpe series. The Caine Mutiny. Reeman. . 1997. Condors. Von Ryan's Express. Storm Warning. Many of the naval warfare series are set during the Napoleonic Wars. Ray. reissued 2005). Douglas. The Corps series. Sharpe's Fortress. Reissued 2000. which is so authentic as to persuade the unwary that he really existed. Reissued 2000. 1995. 2002. Monsarrat. The beloved and often imitated prototype is C. E . Northcote Parkinson. The U. 1998. Bombers during World War II. David. * |£ï The U. S. Reissued 2003. Forester's Hgiatio_Honiblower_seiies. Sharpe's Triumph. Twelve Seconds to Live. The U. Wings of War series. and naval warfare. ^ ^ Sharpe's Tiger. Herman. 1993.

Civil War. Ship of the Line. Horatio Homblower series. 1958. C. S. 2003. Reissued 1999. Sharpe's Escape. Admiral Homblower in the West Indies. Beat to Quarters. 1967. Sharpe's Waterloo. The Bloody Ground. 1962. Sharpe's Gold. 1987. Sharpe's Siege. 2001. 1994. Sharpe's Honor. 1983. Reissued 1999. Sharpe's Sword.Military and Naval Adventure 247 Sharpe's Trafalgar. Nathanial Starbuck is a Northerner serving in the Confederate Army during the U. Sharpe's Company. 1938. Sharpe's Havoc. Reissued 1999. 1946. 1989. . 1981. 1939. Commodore Homblower. 1995. 1996. 2000. Reissued 1999. Lord Homblower. Reissued 1999. 1982.S. /tefo?/. Forester. Sharpe's Eagle. Reissued 2003. Reissued 1986. 1992. 1988. Sharpe's Devil. 1950. 2004. 1993. Flying Colours. 1952. Sharpe's Battle. Batffe Ftog. Sharpe's Prex. Sharpe's Regiment. Copperhead. 1945. Sharpe's Rifles. Reissued 1974. 1985. Starbuck Chronicles. Homblower and the Atropos. 1986. 1981. 1953. 1984. Mister Midshipman Homblower. Homblower During the Crisis. Reissued 1989. Lieutenant Homblower. Sharpe's Enemy. 1995. The titles are listed here in chronological order starting when the teenaged Homblower joins the Royal Navy in 1793 during the Napoleonic wars and following his career as he rises through the ranks to become the commander-in-chief of the British Navy in the West Indies. [ j ^ * in Featuring Horatio Homblower. Reissued 1999. 1937. Sharpe's Revenge. 1990. Reissued 1995. Homblower and the Hotspur.

" 1978. 1996. Georgette. Reissued 2001. Reissued 2005. Reissued 2003. Reissued 2005. To Glory We Steer. Reissued 2000. 1969. 1993. Reissued 1999. Second to None. Cross of St. He is assigned to keep the shipping lanes safe from pirates. 1937. 1990. through several wars and campaigns. The Peninsular Campaign in the Napoleonic Wars. . 1973. Form Line of Battle. 1988. already a four-year veteran of the King's navy. An excellent account of the Battle of Waterloo. In Gallant Company. Richard Bolitho. 1975. Reissued 1998. Colours Aloft! 1986. Success to the Brave. 1968. The Spanish Bride. With All Despatch. Reissued 1998. 1976. Reissued 2001. 1972. Reissued 2000. The series starts with Richard Bolitho in 1772 at age sixteen. 1995. Reissued 2000. Passage to Mutiny. The Flag Captain. Stand into Danger. Reissued 2000. Reissued 1999. Midshipman. Midshipman Bolitho and the "Avenger. Bolitho series. 1992. 1983. and to the rank of admiral. Signal—Close Action! 1974. 1980. in fact. The series follows his career for over forty years. 1977. 1971. who follows in his uncle's footsteps. 1987. feature a plot that revolves around a romantic entanglement. Alexander. Beyond the Reef. 1999. Sword of Honour. Honour This Day. beginning his service aboard the Gorgon. Reissued 2004. The Inshore Squadron. 1977. 1940. 2003. Reissued 2005. Reissued 1990. Sloop of War. Reissued 2000. The Darkening Sea.248 Chapter 8—Adventure Heyer. Reissued 1998. George. Reissued 1998. Reissued 2003. Reissued 1999. they are known for their exquisite historical military detail. Command a King's Ship. 1981. A Tradition of Victory. An Infamous Army. For My Country's Freedom. Reissued 1999. 1998. The naval adventure continues with Richard's nephew Adam. Kent. Reissued 1998. Reissued 1998. Enemy in Sight! 1970. Sea adventures featuring Richard and Adam Bolitho. Reissued 1998. Man of War. Reissued 2000. Although the following two titles are generally classified as romances and do. Reissued 2001. Relentless Pursuit. 2001. The Only Victor.

The British Royal Navy in the eighteenth century. H. Surprise. 1983. Midshipman Easy. The Captain's Vengeance. these stories have been compared to those by Patrick O'Brian. PI 8 . à The Reverse of the Medal. The King's Commission. 1981. Havoc's Sword. The Mauritius Command. there is a meeting with Hornblower. The first book isjialfhyde at the Bight of Benin (1974. Mr. 1991. When O'Brien died. Frank Mildmay or the Naval Officer. Reissued 2001. The Fortune of War. 1978. A King's Commander. Alan Lewrie series. The Letter of Marque. Patrick. 2004. 1988. 1999. Marryat.S. 1993. he left behind three chapters of the twentyfirst entry in the series. The Surgeon's Mate. The Ionian Mission. 1989. 1977. 1973. The Gun Ketch. HMS Cockerel. 1969. McCutchan. Sea of Grey. O'Brian. Reissued 1999. à Post Captain. 1995.Military and Naval Adventure 249 Lambdin. 2003. Classic sea tales set during the Napoleonic Wars. 1988. The Thirteen Gun Salute. Treason's Harbour. Aubrey and Maturin series. The King's Privateer. 1836. The French Admiral.M. The British Royal Navy in the Victorian era. Frederick. Halfhyde series. Jester's Fortune. 1992. Reissued 2000. physician. 2000. The King's Captain. They feature Captain Jack Aubrey and Stephen Maturin. 1990. Master and Commander. In the second title in the series. 1972. 1829. reissued 2004) and the sixteenth title is Halfhyde and the Fleet Review (1992). 1981. 1984. Dewey. Philip. Desolation Island. O'Brian's sea adventures are among the most popular with fans and the most historically detailed and authentic. 2002. The Far Side of the World. 1997. The King's Coat. 1979. Reissued 2000. 1986.

1996. 1991. Ramage & the Rebels. A King's Cutter. Ramage & the Renegades. The Corvette. 1967. Ramage & the Guillotine. Originally published as Clarissa Oakes. Reissued 2001. 1982. Reissued 1999. The Shadow of the Eagle. 1999. Under False Colours. Reissued 2001. 1998. The Bomb Vessel. Reissued 2002. 1990. 1999. 1978. Reissued 2000. A Brig of War. An Eye of the Fleet. Reissued 2000. Ramage's Devil. Ramage's Signal. 1988. 1975. Pope. 1986. . Captain Lord Nicholas Ramage's naval story starts in 1796 and takes him through the Napoleonic Wars to 1807. Reissued 2002. Reissued 2001. 1998. Reissued 2002. Ramage's Diamond. 1981. 1985.N. Ramage's Mutiny. Reissued 2002. 1984. Beneath the Aurora. In Distant Waters. Ramage's Challenge. The Flying Squadron. Ramage & the Saracens. Governor Ramage R. The Wine-Dark Sea. 1989. Featuring Nathaniel Drinkwater. Ramage at Trafalgar. 1995. Ramage's Prize. 1965. 1997. The Commodore. The Truelove. Ebb Tide. Reissued 2000. Ramage's Trial. 1995. Reissued 2001. 1979. Reissued 2002. 1973. Reissued 2001. in the nineteenth century. Baltic Mission. The Ramage Touch. 1983. Reissued 2000. Reissued 2000. 1992. Dudley. 1980. 1989. Earlier published as Decision at Trafalgar in the United States. Woodman. The Hundred Days. Reissued 2001. The last of the series. 2000. Ramage & the Dido. Reissued 2000. 1986. The Yellow Admiral. 1984. Ramage. Nicholas Ramage series. Also published as Drumbeat. Richard. 1986. Ramage & the Drumbeat. British Navy. Reissued 2001. Reissued 2000. 2001. 1982. Reissued 1999. 1988. 1987. Reissued 2001. 1992. Reissued 2002. Reissued 2001. Reissued 2002. A Private Revenge. Reissued 2001. 1805. Ramage & the Freebooters. 1977.250 Chapter 8—Adventure The Nutmeg of Consolation. Blue at the Mizzen. 1976. 1974. Reissued 2002. Reissued 2001.

Topics Bibliographies Drew. It hosts a book club and offers a newsletter. Michael B. 2004. and Soldier of Fortune Novels. Bernard A. The bio-critical annotations list the works. D's Adventure Picks Deutermann." the definitions are often amusing. and Katy Fletcher. It ranges from first edition classics of the late Victorian and Edwardian ages to contemporary works. Gannon. "List of Abbreviations. Donald.thrillerwriters. including books perceived by many to fall into the genres of horror. Awards The International Thriller Writers. Organizations International Thriller Writers. Special Collections The Gary C. Organized in 2004. The introduction is historical and critical. accessed June 13.org). A former FBI "sweeper" whose job was finding rogue agents re-enters the world of espionage when his daughter disappears on a camping trip. (spy/espionage). Bedlam. McCormick. and Bad Guys: A Reader's Guide to Adventure/Suspense Fiction. 2001.2005). 251 . Bullets. science fiction. Action Series & Sequels: A Bibliography of Espionage.html. Blood. and mystery. (http://www. uncovers a plot to bomb Washington. Conn. its first convention (Thrillerfest) is planned for 2006. The Web site also offers a list of "must read" thrillers. Inc. 1990.org/awards. T. has announced that awards will be given for books at its first convention in 2006 (http://www. Garland. Vigilante. Facts on File. Westport. Hunting Season. Hoppenstand Adventure Fiction Collection is housed at Bowling Green State University. Spy Fiction. In the appendix. fantasy.thrillerwriters. and with the female agent assigned to the case. 1988. P. Titles and Jargon Used in Espionage in Fact and Fiction.: Libraries Unlimited. Inc.

2 5 2 Chapter 8—Adventure

L'Amour, Louis. The Last of the Breed, 1986. (survival).
Joe Mack, a Native American pilot, crashes over Siberia during the Cold War and must make his way to the Bering Strait while being pursued by Soviets.

Patterson, James. Maximum Ride. 2005. (biothriller).
The bio-engineered kids from The Lake House fly into danger when one is abducted by government agents, in this sequel published as a young adult novel.

Preston, Richard. Cobra Event. 1997. (biothriller).
A horrific fast-moving disease kills a schoolgirl, starting a race to find a bioterrorist before he unleashes a genetically engineered weapon of mass destruction on an unsuspecting populace.

Chapter 9
Romance
Essay
Denice Adkins

What Is Romance?
The couple is entwined in an unlikely position. His muscles are bulging. Her flowing dress is half off her body, but her blue eye shadow is firmly in place. Above them, in the skyline, an oxymoron flows in script and foil. You need look no further to know that this book is a romance. But this cover tells its reader more than just genre, title, and author. It tells the reader what kind of story, what level of sensuality, and what kind of ending to expect. These cover features suggest something about the genre, too—romance novels are stories of beautiful women and powerful men swept off their feet by love. It is this emotional quality that makes the romance genre unique. Romance novels celebrate the emotional development of a love relationship. While mystery is moved by plot and horror by conflict, the action of the romance novel is internal. A man and a woman must come to admit that they love each other and form a pair bond. Beyond that focus, there may be any number of obstacles that interfere with the admission of love, and these may comprise a significant plot, but the theme of the romance novel is one of emotion. Several romance scholars, including Pamela Regis and Margaret Ann Jensen,1 have examined the romance "formula." In brief, it is this: The protagonists meet and realize their attraction, but something keeps them apart. This obstacle appears insurmountable. Eventually, though, it is overcome, and the hero and heroine live happily ever after. Throughout it all, the reader is able to vicariously experience the emotions of meeting someone special, being kept apart from that person, challenging the obstacle, and finally overcoming it. The reader knows that the obstacle will be overcome, which enables her to keep reading no matter how desperate the story seems.

253

254 Chapter 9—Romance

Why Romance?
What is it that makes the romance novel so popular? What is it about this genre that hooks and keeps its readers? Studies have been conducted of the romance genre and romance readers. While the critics disagree on almost everything else, including whether or not the genre is a tool of the patriarchy, they agree on this: Romance novels make women happy. Explanations as to why this is can be found in the romance text and in the life of the reader as well. The woman is the lead character. The romance novel revolves around a woman. She is the central character. Life (and men) revolve around her, and the novel portrays her during her courtship. This courtship is symbolic of choice; although she does not use it, the heroine has the power to reject and hurt her hero. In this stage of her life, the heroine has power. More specifically, the heroine uses her power to overcome an obstacle and improve her life. Far from passively waiting for a man to rescue her, heroines are working toward their own resolutions. These heroines are women with agency; they can make things happen in their lives, and this is what romance readers want to see. The woman is a strong character. Although this has not always been the case historically, current romance novels feature an independent heroine who is not afraid to confront the obstacle that keeps her from true love—even if that obstacle is the hero himself! Carol Thurston provides a content analysis of romance novels in which women show strong career orientation.2 The women portrayed here are true to their principles, and unafraid of conflict. In Love and the Novel, George Paizis goes on to suggest that the romance script portrays a woman's search for esteem, saying that romance novels present women overcoming their fears.3 Romances set up a positive story line to contrast with society's negative reality. The man surrenders to the woman. Romance is a genre of female empowerment. It is a genre in which woman, the embodiment of emotion, gets the better of man, the embodiment of rationality. In romance novels, men are forced to acknowledge their need for women, and learn that they must play the love game by women's rules: expressing their feelings and emotions. Research by Janice Radway and Lynda L. Crane suggests that readers want to see a caring, intelligent, nurturing hero.4 While women take up the burden of work, penetrating men's domains, they want to see men take up the formerly female role of nurturing their partners. The reader needs validation of her beliefs. The romance novel provides immense psychological reassurance to its reader. Through its formulaic nature, the romance novel assures the reader that in this world of dynamic change, it, at least, stays constant. Virtue will be rewarded. Men will be willing to look past surface attraction to see the beauty within. There will be a happy ending, regardless of how insurmountable the obstacle seems. Some critics fear that this confidence in happy endings in the face of evidence to the contrary may lead women to accept domestic abuse as a prelude to the happy ending. Readers say they enjoy the happy ending and the feeling that romance has triumphed again, but they don't confuse romance with reality. The reader wants a predictable pleasure. One of the pleasures of reading a romance is that the reader knows more or less how the story line will be resolved. The couple will acknowledge their love and live happily ever after. But knowing the resolution is not the same thing as knowing the process by which the characters obtain that resolution. Immersion in

How Do Women Become Romance Readers? 255 the story line lets women look into another life. Another predictable pleasure that comes from some romance novels is a validation of women's sexual desires. Although Suzanne Juhasz suggests that women read romance because they reproduce the quest for mother love,5 others suggest that they help women develop identities as sexual beings. The romance hero is the perfect lover, reassuring the heroine that her desire, and the desires of the readers, are right and valid. The reader needs her own space. Radway's study of romance readers in Midwestern "Smithton" found that women used romance reading as an escape from their normal lives, and as a way to stake out some territory for themselves.6 Reading a romance allowed women to take time away from caring for a husband and children and give that time back to themselves. In this way, reading becomes an act of resistance and a rejection, if only temporarily, of the traditional roles of wife and mother.

How Do Women Become Romance Readers?
Two forces combine to create the romance reader: heavy marketing and reader networks. Purchase opportunities are ubiquitous; romances are not found only at traditional venues such as stand-alone bookstores and public libraries. When a woman buys groceries, goes to a discount store, picks up a prescription, or visits the shopping mall, she has an opportunity to buy a romance novel. If she has a subscription to a publisher's books-by-mail programs, she goes only as far as her mailbox to find romance. The effect of this purchasing ubiquity is a $1.63 billion sales figure for romance fiction, according to the Romance Writers of America, Inc.7 Harlequin engaged in extensive advertising in other popular media such as television and magazines, to convince more women to try them, and in intensive market research, to find out what women wanted in a romance novel. Romance novel marketing in the 1980s attempted to create community by hosting parties at which authors and publishers met with their readers. Similarly, romance writers and fans gather at conferences, including "Celebrate Romance," the Romance Writers of America national conference, and various regional conferences. In addition to being widely available, however, romance novels are also easily recognizable. By standardizing the appearance of romance novels, Harlequin and other romance publishers lower their costs, while readers are more easily able to identify the books. Harlequin's intensive market research also helped determine what kind of content women wanted in a romance. By standardizing content, using tip sheets for authors, and making all books the same length, readers' emotional costs in reading the book were minimized. Every book is a more or less known quantity; no book is likely to be a bad investment. Exchanging books with other readers is another way to ward off a bad emotional investment in a book. Women share romances with relatives, friends, and colleagues, talking about the books they enjoyed and warning others off the ones they did not. Women learn romance reading from mothers and close relatives; romance forms a family identity. Jensen's Harlequin readers exchanged books with other readers, as an excuse to get out of the house.8 Radway's Smithton readers relied on a romance bookseller to tell them which books were good, and they shared

256 Chapter 9—Romance their reading experiences with the bookseller in turn.9 From Web sites to newsgroups, romance reader communities have proliferated online as well. Romance readers have developed strong communities to share their reading experiences. However willing romance readers are to admit their genre choice within their social networks, there is some evidence that women prefer to hide their romance reading. Besides being considered less worthy than other forms of literature, romance novels are scorned by academics and librarians for their formulaic nature, mass-market appeal, and inclusion of detailed sexual descriptions. Romance novels are further derided by feminists for showing female characters whose lives revolve around their relationships with men and who are rewarded for their beauty rather than their actions. Even in family groups, husbands and children may be resentful of time taken away from them; strangers may chide them for their reading tastes. Some romance readers use book covers or otherwise hide their reading. Reading a scorned genre can be a very solitary activity.

Development of the Romance Genre
The book acknowledged as the prototype for current romance fiction is Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, written and published in 1740 by Samuel Richardson. Pamela, a servant, is threatened by her employer, Mr. B. At last, though, Mr. B. confesses his love, and Pamela's virtue is in fact rewarded with marriage. Successors to Pamela include Horace Walpole's gothic The Castle ofOtranto (1764), Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries ofUdolpho (1794), and three novels by Fanny Burney about young women's entry into polite society (Evelina, 1778; Cecilia, 1782; Camilla, 1796). In the 1800s, another novelist furthered the cause of romance: Jane Austen. Her novels, published between 1811 and 1818, include the genre classic Pride and Prejudice. Austen's novels showed humans with foibles and flaws and introduced the comedy of manners. Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre and Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights (both published in 1847) exemplified the romantic themes of the conquering heroine and the tormented hero. Although works of romance fiction have been published since the 1700s, and Mills & Boon in the United Kingdom had been publishing romance since 1909, the genre hit its stride in North America in 1957. Harlequin, a publisher of paperback mystery and adventure stories, started publishing romance fiction. This move was so successful that Harlequin soon started publishing romance exclusively. They presented an opportunity to other potential romance publishers to offer the romances that Harlequin did not. Harlequin romances were "sweet," in that they did not have sexual content. The door to the hero's and heroine's bedroom was closed. The opportunity for racier romances came in the 1970s, with the women's liberation movement. Women who had control of their reproductive systems were able to engage in varied sexual activity, unfettered by fear of pregnancy and social values. In 1972, Kathleen E. Woodiwiss's The Flame and the Flower was published, bringing sexuality into the genre. During this period, sexual mores were caught between the traditional unschooled virgin and the modern liberated woman. Romance novels indicated the conflict through the inclusion of violent sexuality; a heroine could have sex (modern sentiment) but only if she didn't want to (traditional). Rape and humiliation were stock-in-trade. Throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, romance readers who identified with the feminist cause encouraged publishers to experiment with consensual sexuality.

Development of the Romance Genre 257 Harlequin's original method of operation was to reprint Mills & Boon romances from the United Kingdom, marketing them in the United States and Canada. Though Janet Dailey wrote American-themed romances for Harlequin, the bulk of their offerings were set in England or abroad. Silhouette, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, stepped into the void by offering romances set in the United States. Silhouette also introduced the Desire line, which featured a higher level of sensuality than the traditional Harlequin romance. Dell, Jove, Bantam, and NAL followed suit in the 1980s, greatly increasing the output of romances during this heyday of the genre. Ultimately, Harlequin bought Mills & Boon and Silhouette and was itself purchased by Torstar, the media conglomerate that owns the Toronto Star. Statistics from the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s suggest that although romance readers have one general characteristic—93 percent of all romance readers are women—they come from a variety of backgrounds. The Romance Writers of America maintain that three out of four women in the United States have read a romance novel at some point in their lives.10 Given a broad diversity of readers, there is a corresponding diversity of interests. Some of the latest trends in the genre indicate this, with new books ranging from sweet to spicy, and acknowledging many different types of reader. Erotica: Although the erotic romance has always been a "hot" commodity, a more recent trend is the publication of erotica for women. These novels, like those published by Kensington under the Brava imprint, are less focused on the development of the love relationship between the protagonists. They focus on the sex act itself, and push the boundaries farther than traditional steamy romances, with the protagonists participating in orgies, bondage games, and alternative sexualities. This move toward an erotica imprint has been coupled with an increased sensuality in category romances such as Harlequin's Blaze line. Christianity: Along with the rise of the erotic romance in recent years has come the rise of the Christian-oriented romance. While developing a love relationship, protagonists in these novels are also facing spiritual crisis. These romances suggest a return to more traditional values. The bedroom door is closed again; the church door is open, and women in these novels choose more traditional roles. Harlequin's Steeple Hill line provides mainstream representation for these stories; other publishers include Multnomah Publishers and Bethany House. Multicultural: During the 1990s, and particularly in the early 2000s, publishers developed a new awareness of multicultural audiences. Until this point, most romance heroines were white. Cultural diversity appeared, if it did, by virtue of the hero's mixed heritage. He may have been half Native American or half Arab. Blacks, Latinos, and Asians were scarcely represented in the genre; Native Americans and Middle Easterners, though represented, were seldom portrayed accurately. This changed in 1994, when Kensington developed the Arabesque line. Arabesque romances featured African American protagonists and was successful enough to be purchased by BET in 1998. Kensington less successfully developed a line of romance for Latina readers. The Encanto line, developed in 1999, folded in 2002. Genesis Publishing, a small press, produces books in the Indigo imprint.

258 Chapter 9—Romance Indigo romances feature African American protagonists; the Love Spectrum imprint features interracial couples. The Indigo After Dark imprint is a more erotic line. Paranormal/Time Travel/Futuristic/Fantasy: Genre boundaries are stretched with these romance subgenres. Paranormal romances share features with horror novels, which are populated by ghosts, vampires, and werewolves. Futuristic and fantasy romances take elements from science fiction and fantasy novels respectively. However, in each subgenre, the romance plot generally takes precedence over the other genre. Major authors in this subgenre include Laurell K. Hamilton, Susan Krinard, and J. D. Robb (a pseudonym for Nora Roberts). Chick Lit and Humor: The phenomenal success of Helen Fielding's Bridget Jones's Diary left romance publishers wondering if they'd missed something regarding the younger generation's views of romance. Harlequin's response was Red Dress Ink, an imprint dedicated to young, urban women who were living a lifestyle, not having a relationship. These heroine-dominant novels focus on careers, clothing, and empowerment. Although there is frequently a male hero partnered with this strong female heroine, the romance interest is not always resolved by marriage. However, the books do end with the heroine overcoming an obstacle and making her success on her own terms.

Judging a Book by Its Cover
The cover described in the introduction is the classic "clinch" cover, so called because the hero and heroine are clinched together. This kind of cover was the mainstay of the genre in the late twentieth century, helped along by male bookstore distributors who needed a quick way to identify romance novels. The clinch cover was in part responsible for the view of the romance genre as pornography for women, and caused many a romance reader to invest in book covers rather than be seen reading "trash." However, some readers enjoyed the vision of the hero and heroines provided by the clinch cover. A more recent adaptation of the clinch cover is the man-only cover, which shows the hero but not the heroine. Connie Mason's The Last Rogue features a cloaked man standing alone in sea foam. Romance publishers have lately been experimenting with different kinds of covers. The "real estate" cover might have a picture of a castle on it, rather than the couple. The real estate cover evokes the feeling of the story without also evoking erotic overtones. Related to the real estate cover is what some call the "stuff cover, which features fans, swords, jewelry, or other "stuff evocative of the story line. Johanna Lindsey's A Loving Scoundrel is an example of a real estate cover; Mary Balogh's Slightly Sinful typifies the stuff cover. The stepback cover combines the respectable real estate or stuff cover with an inset clinch. Passers-by see the real estate without seeing the couple, and the reader can open to the clinch if she desires. The cartoon cover features a cartoon-like drawing, typically of the heroine, sometimes of the couple. These are found on historical and contemporary romances, and suggest a light, humorous story. Mary Janice Davidson's Undead and Unwed is a good example of a cartoon cover suggesting humor. Another recent development is the "bits-and-pieces" cover. These covers show part of a woman, usually in soft lighting. Susan Krinard's Kinsman 's Oath shows only the heroine's face, Katie McAllister's Sex and the Single Vampire a pair of legs.

Bibliography 259 Romance novels are popular because they present a world in which caring and emotion come from both partners. They remind women that there is a happy ending out there, even if it is just in the next novel. They demonstrate that women have power to change their own lives. As evidenced by the new trends in the genre, romances remain popular because they are moving with their demographic. The fact that these novels are the products of women with the same hopes and dreams as the reader base suggests that romance novels will be speaking to women's hearts for many years to come.

Notes
1. Pamela A. Regis, A Natural History of the Romance Novel (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003); Margaret Ann Jensen, "The Grand Passion of Practical People," in Love's $weet Return: The Harlequin Story, ed. M. A. Jensen, 140-58 (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1984. 2. 3. 4. Carol Thurston, The Romance Revolution: Erotic Novels for Women and the Quest for a New Sexual Identity (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987). George Paizis, Love and the Novel: The Poetics and Politics of Romantic Fiction (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998). Janice A. Radway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Culture, 2d ed. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991); Lynda L. Crane, "Romance Novel Readers: In Search of Feminist Change?" Women's Studies 23 (1994): 257-59. Suzanne Juhasz, Reading from the Heart: Women, Literature, and the Search for True Love (New York: Viking, 1994). Romance Writers of America, Inc. 2003 Romance-Fiction Sales Statistics, Reader Demographics, and Book-Buying Habits. 2003. Available at
http://www.rwanational.org/StatiticsBrochure2003.pdf

5.

6. Radway, Reading the Romance. 1.

2004).

(accessed June 1,

8. Jensen, "Grand Passion." 9. Radway, Reading the Romance. 10. Romance Writers of America, 2003 Romance-Fiction Sales.

Bibliography
Crane, Lynda L. "Romance Novel Readers: In Search of Feminist Change?" Women's Studies 23 (1994): 257-59. Jensen, Margaret Ann.. "The Grand Passion of Practical People." In Love's $weet Return: The Harlequin Story, ed. M. A. Jensen, 140-58. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1984. Juhasz, Suzanne. Reading from the Heart: Women, Literature, and the Search for True Love. New York: Viking, 1994.

260 Chapter 9—Romance Kaler, Anne K., and Rosemary E. Johnson-Kurek, eds. Romantic Conventions. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1999. Krentz, Jayne Ann, ed. Dangerous Men & Adventurous Women: Romance Writers on the Appeal of the Romance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. Paizis, George. Love and the Novel: The Poetics and Politics of Romantic Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. Radway, Janice A. Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Culture. 2d ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991. Regis, Pamela A. A Natural History of the Romance Novel. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. Romance Writers of America, Inc. 2003 Romance-Fiction Sales Statistics, Reader Demographics, and Book-Buying Habits. 2003. Available at http://www.rwanational.org/ StatiticsBrochure2003.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2004. Thurston, Carol. The Romance Revolution: Erotic Novels for Women and the Quest for a New Sexual Identity. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Themes and Types
Diana Tixier Herald

There are many ways to categorize romance fiction—series fiction versus stand-alone titles, contemporary versus historical, sensual versus sweet. The categories used in this chapter reflect common reader preferences and current publishing trends—womanly romance, contemporary romance, romantic-suspense, historical, fantasy and science fiction, and ethnic romance. "Chick Lit" which is closely related to romance, is covered with "women's fiction," in chapter 14. There is some overlap among these categories, and although single titles may arguably be put in more than one place, the categories presented here will provide choices that satisfy most romantic tastes. In the 1970s and 1980s publishers identified the subgenres on paperback spines or on hardcover dust jackets (for example, gothic, career, romantic suspense); but the trend today seems to be moving toward more general categorization. On paperbacks one is likely to find only the designations "romance," "historical romance," and "regency romance," while romance novels are often published with merely the designation "novel" or "fiction." Beyond the categories used here to organize titles, there are other characteristics to keep in mind when advising readers. Sensuality levels are important to many romance readers. (This is why reviews in Romantic Times always contain sensuality ratings.) However, terminology for the levels varies, and categorizations are somewhat subjective. What one reader calls "innocent" another may call "sweet" or even "sensual." One reader may be interested in "spicy" novels, while others call it "erotic," "hot," or "sexy." One way to identify what level of sensuality a reader prefers is to ask about previous romances enjoyed and then find other titles that fit that rating. If you cannot find that information, simply ask the reader. Another issue to consider with romance readers is series versus stand-alone titles. Some read series fiction only, some read only stand-alone, and still others read both. Again, you can determine your reader's preference by asking about previous reads or asking directly. Keep in mind that yesterday's contemporary is tomorrow's historical. Romance Writers of America Inc. defines contemporary romances as those that have a setting after the world wars, which gives readers a choice of settings that spans more than half a century. Women's fiction and Chick Lit are frequently included in discussions of romance, and many types that were traditionally found alongside romance, such as soap opera, mainstream womanly romance, and contemporary mainstream romance, including glitz and glamor, belong more in the women's fiction category. Many authors who gained recognition as romance writers move back and forth effortlessly between romance and Chick Lit or women's fiction.

261

262 Chapter 9—Romance

Selected Classics
The titles below represent some of the older classics of the genre that are still available. The type or subgenre is indicated; more titles in each type as well as classics published after 1970 can be found in the categorized lists that follow. Additional titles of historic interest are mentioned in Kristin RamsdeH's Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre (Libraries Unlimited, 1999). The titles are listed in publication order. Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. 1811. Pride and Prejudice. 1813. Mansfield Park. 1814. Emma. 1815. Persuasion. 1817. (historical Regency). Northanger Abbey. 1817. (suspense, gothic parody). Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. 1847. (suspense-gothic). Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights. 1847. (suspense-gothic). De La Roche, Mazo. Jalna series, (historical-saga). Sixteen novels. The first novel of the series was published in 1927. The series spans 100 years in the lives of the wealthy Whiteoaks family. Du Maurier, Daphne. Rebecca. 1938. (suspense-gothic). An unnamed protagonist traveling through Europe as a companion meets and marries widower Maxim de Winter and is haunted by tales of his late wife. A sequel was published in 2001, titled Rebecca's Tale and written by Sally Beauman. Galsworthy, John. The Forsyte Saga, (historical-saga). Three volumes. The first volume, published in 1906, was reissued numerous times, most recently in 2004. The three trilogies detail the affluent Forsyte family starting in 1886. Followed by: A Modern Comedy. (3 volumes), (historical-saga). End of the Chapter. (3 volumes), (historical-saga). Heyer, Georgette. Many titles. (historical-Regency). Holt, Victoria. Mistress ofMellyn. 1960. (suspense-gothic). Bride of Pendorric. 1963. (suspense-gothic).

Samuel. (historical). Scaramouche. 1764. 1947. There are other titles. Madam. Charlotte Temple: A Tale of Truth. Prince of Foxes. Rafael. Sabatini. (historical-saga). Richardson. 1945. 1921. Anne. 1956. Described as an (East) Indian Gone With the Wind. The series follows several generations of the Herries family. Will You Talk. Seton. Theodosia Burr. Michaels. Hugh. The first volume was published in 1930. Radcliffe. (historical). Forever Amber. (suspense-gothic). M. Seventeenth-century England. 1740. Captain from Castille. The Mysteries ofUdolpho. (historical). Master of Blacktower. Mary. 1967.Selected Classics 263 Kaye. Shellabarger. (historical). Katherine. Susanna Haswell. 1955. (historical). Kathleen. 1950. The Herries chronicle. (suspense-gothic). M. Four volumes. My Theodosia. Stewart. Walpole. 1791. (suspense-gothic). 1966. . (historical). starting in 1730 when they first arrive in the Lake District. The King's Cavalier. Romance amid the French revolution. (historical). 1978. 1944. The Castle ofOtranto. Sixteenth-century Mexico. The Trembling Hills. Barbara. The Far Pavilions. Phyllis A. Rowson. Whitney. Anya. The Gabriel Hounds. 1954. (suspense-gothic). 1747. (historical). 1794. Samuel. 1941. Winsor. Pamela. or Virtue Rewarded. Clarissa Harlowe. Wife of John of Gaunt. (suspense-gothic).

sff. but there is no way to keep up with them all. Jennifer. are the protagonists of this humorous and sexy romp.net/people/JenniferCrusie/) Bet Me. They can be of any ethnicity or socioeconomic class. but a list of her contemporary romances can be found online at http://www. but more mature heroines are not unknown. remember that it is a rare romance writer who does not have her (or his) own Web site. but found much more. Most of the following authors write prolifically. Brown. because while it is easy to locate books by a specific author. A Treasure Worth Seeking. 2004. The heroine is usually in her twenties or thirties. more are showing up in library catalogs. defines contemporary romance as those stories that are set in a time after World War II. Banks. (Scarecrow. (http://www.. As more libraries begin cataloging paperback original romances. Sandra. Only a few titles are mentioned. (http://www. 2003. it can be extremely difficult to locate specific titles. with a happily-ever-after ending. Those who particularly enjoy reading stories about characters they can relate to (i. a do-it-yourselfer who practices home improvement all through the night. which gives readers a choice of settings that spans more than half a century. Erin finds romance with a federal agent. When advising readers of contemporary romance. Peggy J. identified many titles in this category.com/) Some Girls Do. The Romance Writers of America Inc. keep in mind that romance authors frequently write in more than one subgenre.leannebanks. Her recent titles have been moving more and more into the suspense subgenre. and books slip in and out of print at an alarming pace. Delinsky. Also. focusing on the relationship between one man and one woman. .e. When She's Bad. 1997). Leanne. this situation should improve. Jaegly. and as the large print houses and reprint publishers such as Severn House reissue paperback originals in hardcover.com/) Delinsky's recent titles are mainstream women's fiction. Crusie. Characters' occupations and station in life are varied. a character who lives in contemporary times and faces similar challenges to those they themselves face or have faced) will enjoy these titles. 1982. (http://www. Cal asked Min out on a date to win a bet.sandrabrown. Her older titles are frequently reissued. Searching for her long-lost brother. Humorous. Reissued 2001.barbaradelinsky. An insomniac spa owner and her new neighbor. in Romantic Hearts: A Personal Reference for Romance Readers.html. These sites usually include a list of books published and information on forthcoming titles. Barbara.net/books/romance. This subgenre is extremely active and volatile. 2003.264 Chapter 9—Romance Contemporary Romance The contemporary romance is a "purist's" romance.

a librarian and long-time Romance Writers of America Library Liaison. 2005.barbarafreethy.net/people/laresnick/) Leone. finds that his cardiologist is the girl he left behind. (http://www. 1992. J a y n e A n n .com/) Krentz is a former librarian. who also writes medical thrillers. A baby left between their doors brings two apartment-dwelling neighbors together. After accidentally knocking out her new boss with a thrown softball. A shy researcher and a deep-sea diver find love off the Florida keys. (http://www.krentz-quick. A famous model returns to her Wyoming home town. When librarian Letty Thornquist inherits a sporting goods company.L. 2000. 1996. Some Men's Dreams. Perfect Partners.Contemporary Romance 265 T.com/Eileensotherself. (http://www. (http://www.com/publications. (http://www. 2003. Korbel. Eagle. A widow's life is changed when a suicidal motorcycle-riding author comes into her life. Kristin.shtml) Korbel is a pseudonym of Eileen Dreyer. B a r b a r a . Kathleen.jillmarielandis. Kathleen.kristinhannah.sff. now Dr. Leone.com/) Lintz.kathleeneagle.com/) Some Kind of Wonderful 2001. Hannah. She has written twenty-two Silhouette paperback originals. who is none too happy with the idea at first. Brice Carlin has rescued Karen Drew from a snowy death. (http://www. usually features military men as the heroes in her novels.eileendreyer. a pseudonym for Laura Resnick. Reissued 2001.cathielinz. The Last Good Man. L a u r a .C. Jill M a r i e . and together they are snowbound. needing a heart transplant. 1992. A famous actor. Krentz. also writes fantasy novels. Cathie.com/) Heartbreak Hotel. Untouched by Man. where she enters into a marriage of security with a childhood friend and finds true love.html) Eagle's novels feature Native American heroes and strong women in contemporary settings. Reissued 2001. \> . Freethy. Landis. Once he tried to have her put in jail. Linz. she knows she will have to learn the ropes from CEO Joel Blackstone. (http://www. Gen pitches in to watch his daughter and discovers a serious problem.com/) Home Again. 1988. (http://www.

Putney. 2002. (http://www. Smith. Spencer.com/) Breathing Room. (http://www. Phillips. Now in her twenties. Hannah. a librarian. a dog trainer. (http://www. written under the name Ann Bouricius. M a r y J o . (http://www. they discover depths in each other they had never found during their truncated marriage. 1991. S u s a n Elizabeth. Coming Home. she returns to her birthplace. Reissued 2003. Annie. M a c o m b e r . however. her famous fantasy-writing mother committed suicide. grieving for her dead fiancé. with an inheritance. The Perfect Neighbor. 2004. As of 2005 she had more than 280 million books in print. LaVyrle. Spencer has several best-selling titles. Seidel. has also written contemporary romances under the name Annie Kimberlin and is also the author of The Romance Readers ' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Love in the Stacks (ALA Editions. becomes involved with Tanner. Smith. where she meets a local politician who is on what may seem like a crazy quest. Cartoonist Cybil is so tired of her well-meaning neighbors setting her up on blind dates that she claims to have a date with another neighbor and then must figure out how to not look like a liar. Nora. Please Remember This. who has added a teenager and a rambunctious puppy to her cat-friendly household after the death of her best friend. Roberts.266 Chapter 9—Romance The Marine Meets his Match. 1997.com/) Roberts has written more than 100 titles. Reissued 2005. 2002. she is no longer writing. many of them best sellers. Debbie. An angst-filled historical film drama throws a divorcing acting couple together. .com) Navy Baby. 1999. 2000). A bookseller enters into a sham marriage with a Marine to save him from the clutches of a general's daughter and finds much more than she bargained for. cozy tale. Sally. Reissued 2002.maryjoputney.debbiemacomber. in this heartwarming. loses her virginity and becomes pregnant with a sailor's baby during a one-night stand. A Nashville star returns home to care for her mom and finds love. 2002. A disgraced lifestyle diva (think Martha Stewart) and a bad boy actor are thrown together in the Tuscan countryside. 2002. Smalltown Girl. a preacher's daughter.noraroberts. The Spiral Path.com) Putney also writes historical and paranormal romances. Kathleen Gilles.susanephillips. When Tess was still a baby.

where she encounters Liam. . When readers ask for "spicy" or "erotic" romance. Brazen. Ruth. Jennifer. Perfect. The stories often also include other elements such as humor or suspense. 2000. Garden of Scandal. (http://www. were unable to fight their feuding families to create a life together. Carly.barbarasamuel. 2005. Head over Heels. Ain't She Sweet? 2004. Phillips. Phillips.Contemporary Romance 267 Wind. Hot & Bothered. 1995. Veterinarian Anne Foster returns to Virginia and the horse-racing world. Greene. Leigh. Wild in the Moment. Susan. a famous fashion photographer. 2001. Getting Lucky. Wolf. Jo. Meant to Be Married. 2003. Blake. they may have a second chance. Joan. a dozen years later.joanwolf. Reissued 2003. but now.com/) That Summer. Jennifer. (http://www. Mr. 2004. 1999. Susan Elizabeth.com/) A pseudonym of Barbara Samuel. and Sarah. whom she knew as a teenager. 2003. these authors will generally fit the bill. Linda. 1997. 2004. S Sensuous Contemporaries A contemporary setting and detailed descriptions of the intimate encounters between the hero and heroine may be considered soft-core pornography by some. A Lick and a Promise. 2002. but to the legions of their readers the vivid descriptions in these romances are merely another way of making the characters live in the reader's imagination. Howard. Andersen. Crusie. Related titles are listed in order of how the action occurs. Jennifer. a successful businessman. Reissued 2005. Welcome to Temptation. Elias.

and yesterday's writer of sweet romance may be today's suspense writer. Cinderella's Sweet-Talking Marine. 2000. A Little Town in Texas. rates high in romantic appeal. Macomber. in which the mystery dominates the romance. 2003. Romantic-suspense novels are women's novels: Although full of adventure and suspense. Lisa. 2004. and swooning emotional swells are about as far as things go. making the novel of equal interest to both romance and mystery-suspense readers. but the suspenseful elements of foreign adventure involving both romantic leads is also . (Some of the following authors are also listed for other types of romance. Avalon romances. 2004. Reissued 2003. neither is allowed to diminish the heroine's emotional involvement. Forever and a Baby. An Apple from Eve. Lone Star Café. Romantic Suspense Titles in the romantic-suspense subgenre (or romantic mysteries. and authors of romantic-suspense novels usually write in several other subgenres of romance as well. one of the progenitors of this subgenre. Margot. 1982. at least in terms of what is printed for the reader. in which sexual activity is not described. 2003. The authors often change subgenres. Many of Neels's numerous titles are currently being re-released. frequently found as standing-order plans in libraries. Neels. The Snow Bride. hand-holding. whose novels have equal amounts of romance and espionage. or into the spy/espionage thriller subgenre in the hands of such authors as Helen Maclnnes. Debbie. as they are sometimes called) often blend into the mystery-suspense thriller subgenre. Linz. Early. Readers who only want sweet romances may also enjoy the contemporary Christian romances. Campbell. Bethany. Mary Stewart. also fall into this category. Harlequin Romance and Silhouette Romance series are both this type. however. Kissing. However.268 Chapter 9—Romance Sweet Contemporaries Sweet is the romance code word for "innocent" romances. the distinguishing feature in romantic suspense is the central role of the love relationship. Wingate. Many other types of romance have elements of suspense and mystery. Betty. These are the romance equivalent of "gentle reads" and "cozy" mysteries.) So it can be challenging to categorize these titles. as well as some historical romances. Cathie.

1995. Slow Heat in Heaven. Barbara Taylor. Aitken. 1993. Fat Tuesday. Where There's Smoke. Hot Target. Stella. Related titles are listed in the order that the action occurs. French Quarter. Best Kept Secrets. Reissued 2001. 1992. The Defiant Hero. Contemporary Romantic Suspense Contemporary romantic suspense novels are stories of love intertwined with mystery. Elizabeth. The Switch. 1998. Brockman. 2001. Reissued 2001. 2004. French Silk. Secret Shadows. 2000. Unspeakable. Reissued 2001. Bayou series. 1999. 2003. 1997. Unrelated titles are listed alphabetically. Darkness. Hello. Cameron. 1991. Breath of Scandal. 1988. Bradford. 2001. 1998. 1999. 1988. 1990. Reissued 2001. Standoff. \> . The contemporary setting makes them the most realistic of romantic-suspense novels. Reissued 2001. Reissued 2001. Sandra. 2000. The Crush. Judie. Envy. Reissued 2004. 2000. In a Heartbeat. 1996. taking place in the present. Charade. 2003. Many of the following authors appear in hardcover editions as well as in paperback. 2002. Suzanne. Adler. 1994. Mirror Image. The Witness. All or Nothing. Reissued 2001. Brown. The Alibi. Exclusive. The Triumph of Katie Byrne. 2004. 2004. White Hot. Reissued 2001. Gone Too Far.Romande Suspense 269 strong—so strong that her books are of interest to men as well as women readers. Reissued 2001. 2001.

Shadows trilogy. Heather. Every Breatfi S/ie TYzte. 2000. 2005. 2000. 2004. Linda. 1999. 2002. 1998. Howard. Per/ert. Delinsky. Suzanne. i/wftwg / « tfie Shadows. Graham. The Maze. Amanda. Blindside. 2003. 2000. 1997. Cry Afo More. Glass Houses. Flirting with Pete. Forster. 2000. Blowout. Catherine. 1998. FBI series. Eleventh Hour. Point Blank. 1999. 1986. Riptide. Christina. 2003. The Target. 1999. The Edge. 2000. 2003. 2001. Barbara. 2004. The Cove. The Morning After. Killing Kelly. To Die For. Almost Like Being in Love. 2000. Talon & Flynn series. Kay. WMe S/ie was Sleeping. 2001. Stealing Shadows. Kiss Them Goodbye. Mr. Haunting Rachel. 2002. Key West. Now You See Him.270 Chapter 9—Romance Cold Day in July. 2005. . 2004. Dodd. After Caroline. 2003. 1996. 2000. Open Season. 2004. Hooper. Coulter. 1997. Out of the Shadows. 2003. Ange/Face.

1996. 1997. 2003. Doris. . 2001. Neggers. Kat. Die in Plain Sight. The Color of Death. Potter. 2004. 2000. 2004. 2000. 2001. 2003. Amber Beach. Meagan. 1997. Rarities Unlimited series. Cold Target. Die? i/i P/a/w Sig/i*. Missing You. The Donovans series. Krentz. Lamb. Long After Midnight. Lost & Found. 2001. 2002. Truth or Dare. Pearl Cove. 2004. Jones. Lowell. 1998. 2003.Romantic Suspense 271 Johansen. 2003. 2004. Running Scared. in f/ie Art. Falling Awake. Jayne Ann. Mortman. 77ié? /topwfc. And Then You Die. 2003. McKinney. 2002. Carla. 2001. 2004. Iris. 2003. Elizabeth. Cold Ridge. 1998. Moving Target. Before and Again. 2002. Soft Focus. Martin. Light in Shadow. The Ugly Duckling. Jade Island. Out of Nowhere. Joyce. Smoke in Mirrors. Pauline Baird. 1999. The Secret. 1998. Still of the Night. Midnight in Ruby Bayou. Patricia.

Sally. Whispers at Midnight. 2004. The Georgian era has been a popular historical setting of late. the level of sensuality in historical romantic suspense tales varies greatly. Northern Lights. The Secret Hour.272 Chapter 9—Romance Rice. 2003. with a few changes for today's readers. Laura. . For example. Luanne. Catherine. Catherine Gaskin. Coulter. An American translator in Paris discovers that her employers are really illegal arms dealers. Readers who love old-fashioned romantic suspense by writers such as Joan Aiken. 2000. A Hint of Witchcraft. 2001. Ferguson. 2003. The Villa. Roberts. 2001. making this one of the most enduring romance subgenres. Candace. Stuart. from innocent to erotic. Jo Ann. Robards. Black Ice. Gilbert. A Morning in Eden. The Kill Fee. Historical Romantic Suspense A historical setting adds another dimension to romantic suspense. 2005. Velda Johnston. as many authors who wrote in this genre are no longer publishing new titles. Television journalist Sally Harrington seems to be a danger magnet. 2000. 2003. A companion novel to Daphne du Maurier's classic gothic. 2002. 2004. Rebecca. Camp. and Norah Lofts may wish to consult previous editions of Genreflecting. Faire Game. Historical romantic suspense continues in popularity today. and she ends up on the run with a dangerously sexy man. James and Jason Sherbrooke must work around their love lives to discover who is trying to kill their father. Beachcomber. 2001. Rebecca's Tale. Promise Me Tomorrow. Anna. Karen. Beauman. Anne. 2003. Nora. Van Wormer. The Sherbrooke Twins. 2004. Bait. Mignon Good Eberhart.

Heather Graham. a psychic. The Silver Lion. Hannah. 2003. Nicole. St. Heart of the Tiger. an FBI agent. The Fifth Victim. Orchid. The Earl of St. falls for Genny while they seek the psycho who killed his niece and is targeting Genny. Lynn. 2003. 2002. Beverly. Jayne. the first four victims at random and the fifth a psychic. 2003. 1999. Genny. The Golden Leopard. 1995. 1997. A romantic mystery in a Georgian setting. 1996. Linda. Now You See Her. Kerstan.Romantic Suspense 273 Jordan. A combination of science fiction and psychic powers. 2004. Amanda. he hires Elenora Lodge to masquerade as his fiancée. . suspense. Kristin. 1997. Telepathy. Merryn has business of a secret nature in London. Amaryllis. Waiting for the Moon. "sees" a brutal murder before a profiler reveals that the perpetrator kills in series of five. Psychic abilities and other paranormal aspects bring an interesting twist to these stories. Helen's trilogy. If Looks Could Kill. Zinnia. Psychic. and speculative fiction—come together to delight and engage readers in this lively subgenre. Howard. 1998. Quick. and to keep from drawing notice as a most eligible catch. but added elements of mystery and futuristic settings add to the appeal. Castle is a pseudonym of former librarian Jayne Ann Krentz. 2003. Castle. Psychic. Lucas. Pozzessere. The Paid Companion. The love interest remains central. Barton. The Prince of Pleasure. and is used for her paranormal fiction. Paranormal Romantic Three genres—romance.

the widowed lord of the castle. Brontë. began in the late eighteenth century and was so stylish by the early nineteenth century that Jane Austen wrote Nonhanger Abbey. these stories typically take place in castles or mansions set on foggy or windswept landscapes and containing shadowy hallways. Victoria. Charlotte. 2003. dark secrets. Earlier editions of Genreflecting provide more detailed discussions of the gothic subgenre and contain lists of authors who. 1847. Rebecca. Roberts. finds happiness as a governess at Thornfield Manor. are still quite popular with readers. . * à Orphaned Jane. published in 1995. Jane Eyre. young Martha Leigh falls in love with Connan Tremellyn. but it still has its devotees. Key of Valor. Emily. where they are told they must find the keys to free the souls of three demigoddesses who have been imprisoned for centuries. Holt. 1938. Wuthering Heights. and brooding heroes are likely to inhabit these forlorn landscapes. locked rooms. J . * Taking a job as a governess in Cornwall. and no dearth of evil-doings. the majority are no longer living). Characteristically dark and atmospheric. * m A sequel was published in 2001. D. Ghosts and spirits. a cop with a tortured past who marries a fabulously wealthy businessman. where she falls in love with her employer.274 Chapter 9—Romance Robb. 1960. titled Rebecca's Tale and written by Sally Beauman. Nora. Brontë. though no longer writing (indeed. Daphne. was Naked in Death. the gothic romance. 1963. The twenty-third in the series was due out in 2005. The titles listed below are all considered classics. 2003. Rochester. Celtic mythology. 2004. (pseudonym of Nora Roberts). Bride ofPendorric. Three young women meet at a mansion. * à Revenge destroys any happiness Catherine and Heathcliff may have been able to find. Key of Knowledge. Today. a parody of a gothic novel. * Mistress ofMellyn. insane relatives. 1847. Du Maurier. Key trilogy. This best-selling series is set in the near-future and features Eve. The story inspired a science fiction retelling by Sharon Shinn called Jenna Starborn. Key of Light. The first title. and the novel plays a pivotal role in the recent best seller The Eyre Affair. Gothic Romance One of the oldest and most enduring of romance subgenres. it is less popular. raised by a cruel aunt and then sent off to a mean boarding school. Eve Dallas series.

Phyllis A. Those who revel in the exotic attire and settings may also enjoy futuristic or fantasy romances. Many are set in nineteenth-century Louisiana. 1993. Will You Talk. Tenth-century France. * The Trembling Hills. 1985. others simply use history as a backdrop. Dozens of historical titles published in the last thirty years. These are stories that take the reader to another time and place. 1967. Jennifer. * Madam.Historical Romance 275 Michaels. at other times they are character-driven. 1966. 1998. 1972. Arrow to the Heart. Nineteenth-century Scotland. Historical romance (or period romance. * Master of Blacktower. . it adds another dimension of enjoyment for readers. filled with sensory detail. found in the paranormal section of this chapter. Unique settings also are featured in this section. Borchardt. Although some historical romances take a serious look at past people and events. Sometimes the stories are descriptive and atmospheric. Sequel to Devoted. 1995. * Historical Romance Historical settings can be very romantic. Blake. Alice. historical romances are romances set in the past. 2005. The Gabriel Hounds. Challenge to Honor. Listed here are novels that have retained their popularity with readers even if the time periods are not currently popular. others merely use the costumes of the past to add interest to their tales of passion. Simply put. General Historical Romance Any time in the past is fair game for the settings of historical romance. * Stewart. Devoted. Readers who enjoy the authentic details of historical romance may also enjoy historical fiction (see chapter 5). * Whitney. Greygallows. and when a tale of love is set against the backdrop of another time. Barbara. Beyond that. Dream of Orchids. 1956. Beguiled. Mary. using the love story to provide a reason for relating authentic historical detail. Some are loosely based on historical events or characters. there is a great diversity within the genre. novels that the reader can become immersed in. 1955. But the setting contributes to a special reading experience. as it is sometimes called) also varies as much in sensuality levels and authentic detail as in all the different time periods used as settings.

2004. 2002. the historicals she wrote in the 1980s are still found in public libraries. Danger and romance abound along the route from Oklahoma in hopes of a better life away from the dust bowl and the worst of the Great Depression. 1945. 1999. The Falcons of Montabard. Set in and around Fertile. The Marsh King's Daughter. Medieval France. in the 1920s and 1930s. Dodd. Eleventh-century England. The Edge of Town. 2003. CatherincMore than 90 books. 1986). Medieval England. men who are never less than perfection. Medieval England. By Right of Arms.276 Chapter 9—Romance Cach. The Troubadour's Romance. Chadwick. Nineteenth-century Cornwall. most set in nineteenth-century England. 1998. The Winter Mantle." (Betty Rosenberg. Hope's Highway. Catherine. 2001. Medieval. Lisa. Fourteenth century.catherinecoulter.com) Coulter has written and rewritten dozens of historicals. Cartland published 623 books. 2001. Elizabeth. Many of her early historical romances were republished in the early 2000s with extensive revisions.. 2004. Garlock. 2003. 2004. Medieval England. With Hope. Lords of the White Castle. 1984. Seventeenth century. The Braeswood Tapestry. The Champion. Missouri. "The Cartland formula is costume romance. 1999. Carr. Route 66 series. 1986. all with happy endings. . Mother Road. Costain. Dorothy. fairy tales with passive heroines. 2nd éd. (http://www. Known for well-researched. sex is never consummated without marriage. 1985. The Black Rose. Christina. Some Enchanted Evening. 1998. Nineteenth-century Scotland. and love that is spiritual. Cookson. Although Cartland always finds a way to titillate her readers by maneuvering the lovers into bed. Twelfth century. 2004. The Love Knot. Robyn. Song of the Road. Jones Family and Friends. Barbara. Cartland. Genreflecting. Coulter. Even though Carr has made the switch to contemporary women's fiction. The Mermaid of Penperro. Twelfth-century Crusades. authentic historical detail. Thomas.

M. 1999. Nineteenth-century England. 1997. Holland. Thin Moon and Cold Mist. Victoria. 1991. Belt of Gold. Lion's Bride. 1985. Eighteenth-century Canada. 2005. Dark Rider. Breathless. 1995. French Revolution. 1978. Guilty Pleasures. . 2004. River Rising. 1986. Tenth-century England. early twentieth century. The Magnificent Rogue. Through a Glass Darkly. 1985. England. 2002. Fair Wind of Love. Cecelia. Daughter of Fortune. Elizabethan England. Colonial Boston. Circle of Pearls. The Golden Barbarian. 1995. 1995. ^ ^ Jekel. Natchez. Nineteenth-century Hawaii and England. Seventeenth-century England. Ninth-century Byzantium. eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Rosalind. 2000. Storm Winds. My Enemy the Queen. M. 1984. Johansen is now writing mystery and suspense fiction. Sixteenth-century Scotland. Nineteenth-century England. [MM Johansen. Colonial Virginia. Kaye. Nineteenth-century California. Holt. 1996.Historical Romance 277 High on a Hill 2002. * Described as an (East) Indian Gone With the Wind. Koen. A Place Called Rainwater. Karleen. 1988. Sequel to Through a Glass Darkly. . Small town. Nineteenth century. 1990. Carla. 1977. The Devil on Horseback. Eighteenth-century England. Railroad Schemes. but her older romantic suspense titles are still enjoyed by readers. 1994. Pamela. Kathleen O'Neal. 2000. Laura Lee. Medieval Damascus. The Charade. Now Face to Face. Seventeenth-century American West. Guhrke. \> Laker. 2003. The Beloved Scoundrel. Gear. _. Iris. 1995. Ninth-century France. The Far Pavilions. Pillar of the Sky. prehistoric. 1978. Angel and the Sword. Kelly. Nineteenth-century Colorado. 1990. Revolutionary France. Louisiana. Soul Thief. 1993.

2004. Tamsin Harte. 1939. What the Heart Keeps. Reissued 2004. 1991. 1987. but the stories contain a good deal of romance and have a strong emphasis on relationships. 1975. Yankee Wife. . Eighteenth-century Russia. 1993. 1998. 1994. Belva. Victorian saga. Eighteenth-century England. 2000. Georgian saga. Plantagenet saga. 1974. 1984. a pseudonym of the late Eleanor Hibbert. Mitchell. New World.S. Linda Lael. South. Crown is currently reissuing many of her titles in the United States. The Bastard King. Norman trilogy. Colonial America. Miller. She also wrote a trilogy on Lucrezia Borgia and quartets on each of the following: Catherine de Medici. Margaret. Eugenia. Eighteenth-century England. To Dance with Kings. and the Stuarts. Martin. * Potter. 2003. 2001. Macdonald. Price. Plaidy. Fourteen titles. Patricia. Eighteenth-century Italy. Early twentieth-century Cornwall. The Lion of Justice. New Love. Edwardian era. Dancing with a Rogue. 1988. England. also wrote as Victoria Holt and Philippa Carr. Jean. Five generations of women and French kings. Nineteenth-century U. Spanish California. The Venetian Mask. Early twentieth century. Six titles.278 Chapter 9—Romance The Golden Tulip. The Sugar Pavillion. Price's titles are listed in the historical fiction chapter (chapter 5). Seventeenth-century Holland. To Dream of Snow. Plain. The Silver Touch. Plaidy. Isabella and Ferdinand. Midnight Rider. 1993. 1985. 1976. Charles II. 2002. The Passionate Enemies. Gone With the Wind. Kat. Crescent City. Catherine of Aragon. Ten titles. Malcolm. Rose of Nancemellin. Late nineteenth-century mail order bride.

The Horsemasters. Woodiwiss. 1993. Early twentieth-century North Dakota. . 1991. Scotland. Prehistoric. Lorenzo de' Medici. Captain from Castille. Charleston. 1921. Sabatini. The Workhouse Girl. * Prince of Foxes. 1940s. 1876 Dakota Territory. Winner of the Rita Award. Prehistoric. 1984. 1983. 1993. Joan. Romance amid the French revolution. The Good Provider. 1989. * Seton. The beginning of the trend toward sensual romance is attributed to Woodiwiss's The Flame and the Flower. My Theodosia. 1981. Prehistoric. Nineteenth-century Charleston. * Spencer. Samuel. November of the Heart. Early twentieth-century Minnesota. 1988. From Fields of Gold. The Reindeer Hunters. Seventeenth-century England. 1950. Forever Amber. # The Endearment. Winsor. 1985. 1998. Kathleen E. Antebellum South. Reissued 2000. Nineteenth-century Wyoming. 1979. * Shellabarger. 1991. Wife of John of Gaunt. * Wolf. Daughter of the Red Deer. Alexandra. Years. Forgiving. The Elusive Flame. 1994. 1947. Winner of the Rita Award. 1989. On Leaving Charleston. Twice Loved. Scaramouche. Kathleen. 1988. Morning's Gate. Born of the Sun. 1986. Jessica. 1995. Vows. United States. The Time Returns. Anya. Rafael. fifteenth-century Florence. The Fulfillment. Mail order bride. 1997. Roberts. 1945. 1984. Ann Victoria. • Morning Glory. * The King's Cavalier. Saxons. 1991. â Stirling. Scarlett: The Sequel to Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind. 1944. Sixteenth-century Mexico. Nineteenth-century Scotland. 1941. Theodosia Burr. * Katherine. 1991. Early twentieth-century North Carolina. 1954. Early twentieth century. L a V y r l e .Historical Romance 279 Ripley. Victorian era.

Almost Eden. Emma's Folly. 2003. Gypsy. Garlock. Velvet. Garnet. Texas Star. 2003. 1977. 2000. Just Grace. leaving the authors who do the subgenre the best to continue. Oklahoma Land Rush series. 2003. 2003. Into the Valley: The Settlers. Dorothy. The Midwife's Secret. Chastain. Elaine. Maggie's Mistake. 2002. Renegade Moon. To Meet Again. The Engagement. Rosanne. Harlequin regularly publishes "historical Westerns. Sara. The Surgeon. 1972. Bittner. 1998. romances with an emphasis on the rugged outdoors have decreased in numbers. 1985. Missouri Territory. Westward America series. Donati. 2000. The Promised Land Series. Shanna. 2004. Kate. Dawn on a Distant Shore. 1995. these stories combine romance with the rugged individualism and moral strength of the Western. when it seemed that almost every romance had a cowboy." Against the dramatic backdrop of the American West. Barbieri. Sandra. Into the Wilderness.280 Chapter 9—Romance The Flame and the Flower. 2003. 2002. Frontier and Western Romance A popular genre in the early 1990s. Missouri Territory. 2003. Carolyn. 2004. The Mail Order Groom. Bridges. 2004. 2001. Into the Prairie: The Pioneers. 2004. 2004. . Annie Lash. Brown. Willow. 2003. 2003. The Outlaw Bride.

Reissued 2002. Jill Marie. Julie. 1998. 1995. 1998. Jake. For the Roses. 1997.Historical Romance 281 Sins of Summer. Clay. Chances Are. Maggie. To Tempt a Texan. 2003. Pamela. Wild Sweet Wilderness. 1985. The Clayborne Brides. Ana. Miller. 2004. 1996. Missouri Territory. The MacKenzies series. David. Gentry. Summer Moon. Come the Spring. Wyoming Widow. 1997. 2004. The Frasers series. Elizabeth. 2001. Nineteenth-century Idaho. Peter. In His Arms. 2002. 2004. 2001. Arizona Territory. Osborne. 1890s Texas. Wyoming Wildcat. 2003. Wyoming Woman. 2005. Cole. The Bride of Willow Creek. 122 Josh. 2003. Secondhand Bride. Zach. Idaho. Reissued 2004. Shotgun Bride. Lane. 1998. Landis. Robin Lee. Jared. \> . 1996. 2001. McKettrick series. Wyoming. Morsi. 2001. Leigh. Garwood. Cleve. Reissued 2001. To Tame a Texan. 1999. 1997. 1998. 2003. Hatcher. Reissued 2004. Luke. Georgina. Flint. (Christian emphasis). 2002. 1994. Sealed with a Kiss. 2000. Linda Lael.

Abbie meets Zeke (aka White Eagle). That being said. The last in the series to feature the love of Abbie and Lone Eagle. Colorado Sunrise. 2003. Baker. all with a Western setting and most with Native American characters. 2004. 2003. 2000. 2000. Smith. Thomas. A Texan's Luck. 2001. When a Texan Gambles. Shotgun Wedding. 1995. Meet the New Dawn. Pendergrass. Fifty-three titles as of 2005. In the first book in the series in the chronology of the series itself. Savage Destiny series. The Texan's Wager. Jodi. who is searching for his Cheyenne mother. 1999. but the last one published. 2002. Bobbi. Mystic Indian series. 1986. Mystic Visions. Prairie Moon. many of the romances featuring Native American heroes were of the sweet-and-savage type. Tess. The Wife Lottery series. . 1997. Colorado Twilight. many readers still love the earlier type of Native American romance. Reissued 2002. Williamson. Brides ofDurango. 2003. Bittner. 1995. The Promise of Jenny Jones. Wolf Shadow. Mystic Warriors. Mystic Dreamers. 2003. Rosanne. but times have changed and so have the books (for the most part). 2004. featuring abductions and rapes. Apache Runaway. in which the hero is a noble savage. 2001. Colorado Shadows. Montana.282 Chapter 9—Romance Foxfire Bride. Native American Back in the 1980s. Sweet Prairie Passion. Colorado trilogy. 2002. Madeline. 1986. Penelope. 2000. Heart of the West.

1996. Theresa. 2001. Terri. Rexanne. Beverley. 2002. 2000. 1998. 2002. and courtly love is a natural setting for tales of romance. Gentry. 1999. To Tame a Rebel. Spirit Warrior. Savage Heat. Fire Cloud. Jude. Georgina. fair damsels. Scott. Becnel. The Mistress of Rosecliffe. As of 2005 Edwards had published seventy-eight titles. Savage Thunder. 1993.Historical Romance 283 Eagle's Song. Cassie. 1998. Reissued 2003. weary of Lady Marguerite of Alencon. The Golden Rose. Rosecliffe trilogy. Eagle Dancer. determines that she will be a perfect reward for the loyal Lord Orrick of Silloth and sends her to be his wife. 2001. 1998. Apache Conquest. and she must enlist the help of a powerful man to get it back. Medieval The world of castles. Brisbin. knights in shining armor. almost all romances involving Native American characters. The Knight of Rosecliffe. Deveraux. In the early twelfth century. The Bride of Rosecliffe. 2003. Twelfth-century Wales. Jo. 2001. 2005. 1998. Savage series. \> . Lord of Midnight. A sequel set at a family reunion tells of the children and grandchildren of Abbie and Lone Eagle. The King's Mistress. Imogen's castle is taken by a brutal neighbor. Denée. Dark Champion. Henry Plantagenet. The Conquest. 1991. Edwards. 2001. Savage Moon. Cody.

Highland Velvet. Joining. Shield of Three Lions. Four truly exceptional brothers and the unique women they wed are the basis for one of the most beloved historical romance series ever. they formed an instant antipathy. eleven-year-old Alix cuts her hair to disguise her gender and follows King Richard the Lion Heart to France as he heads out on crusade. Roberta. Set in 1152. 1983. 1983. Now as adults it is time to marry. most recently in 2005 by Harlequin Signature Select. 1974. Reissued 2002. 1986. Original paperback series. Medieval. Johanna. 1991. Rowena is forced into marriage with a man who dies before the marriage is consummated. Velvet Song. 1982. 1999. Woodiwiss. Untamed. Gellis. Then they discover that an outside force will go to any length.284 Chapter 9—Romance Montgomery family saga. Lowell. The Wolf and the Dove. but neither is in any hurry. Prisoner of My Desire. Lady Alix is back in England following her crusade experiences. Reissued 2003. Kathleen E. Roselynde Chronicles. Forbidden. 1983. Pamela. When Wulfric and Milisant became betrothed as children. Enchanted. Reissued in 2002. Lindsey. and while her husband is off at war she goes to Germany. including murder. reprinted several times. Then she is forced to try to become pregnant by a surrogate before the death is announced. Heather. A Viking hero. Kaufman. Velvet Angel. to keep them apart. to cement her evil stepbrothers' aspirations. * . Tales of their many descendents are told in several related books. where King Richard is held prisoner. When her family is killed by those wanting to seize their rich holdings. 1993. Specific titles within the series are listed in the "Saga" section of this chapter. Velvet Promise. 1993. The Lord of the Wolves. 1993. Banners of Gold. 1994. 1981. Graham. Elizabeth. They have all been reissued several times in various formats.

Set in Scotland while King John reigns in England. 1991. Highland Lady. 2000. Julie. Garwood. Betrayed. 2005. 2003. Voyager. Fourteenth century. 1999. The Outlander series. Faulkner. Arnette. Highland Velvet. The rugged highland setting and frequent conflicts between clans and more frequently with the English creates an adventure-filled setting. The Graham Clan series. In 1206 a sixteen-year-old widow is saved from marrying a henchman of King John by instead marrying a Scottish laird. Dragonfly in Amber. Colleen. 1996. 1993. 1989. McNaught. Born of Fire. 1989. Seventeenth century. A Kingdom of Dreams. Deveraux. 2002. Reissued 2003. 1991. Highland Rogue. is set in North America. . Ransom. Reissued 2003. 2004. time travel.Historical Romance 285 Scotland The fierce Scottish warrior has much the same appeal as the fierce Native American warrior. Beguiled. Gabaldon calls these the Old World Trilogy. 1994. An English bride and a Scottish laird. Reissued in hardcover in 2002. Eighteenth century. Judith. Gabaldon. 2001. 1996. 1992. The Wedding. Most are set in the eighteenth century. Jude. Diana. The Bride. Let Me Be Your Hero. Highland Bride. 1995. The New World Trilogy. Coffman. Highland Lord. 1982. Outlander. continuing the saga of Jamie and Clare. Saving Grace. but the medieval era is also well represented. Elaine. The Highlander. Medieval. Lamb.

thebeaumonde. the Regency Reader. They have a Web site at http://www. Battle of Glencoe. Regency Romance Perhaps the most distinctive of historical romances are those set in the Regency period.) The Regency world is one of high society and gracious formalities: the London Season of the wealthy and titled enjoying the assemblies at Almack's.286 Chapter 9—Romance Roberson. detection and the paranormal are no longer unknown in this formerly genteel subgenre. this is no longer the case. The wildly successful adventure tales of Patrick O'Brian are also set during this time period. The Smile of the Stranger. The Beau Monde chapter of the Romance Writers of America publishes a monthly newsletter for their members and a quarterly listing of regency titles. was "The Nonpareil. which encompasses the Regency). Recent trends have seen romances set in the Regency and Georgian eras becoming spicier and blending with other genres. (For example. and often witty dialogue. Aiken. These novels are set in England in the early nineteenth century (technically the Regency period spans 1811-1821. with reviews. A Lady of Independence. Lady of the Glen. Kristin Ramsdell's Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre (Libraries Unlimited. 1982. * Angers. as are the fashionable doings at Bath. thenonesuch. Frequently. a calendar of scheduled new releases. Seventeenth century. Recent Regency-era novels with a spicy treatment of the physical relationship between the hero and heroine are not included. the dandies in their fashionable garb. and are epitomized by the novels of Georgette Heyer. 1999) features extensive information on Regencies and lists many more authors and titles. Regency dancing has quite mysteriously become an event at some science fiction conventions. and fans of the era may well enjoy them. While traditional Regencies were always of the "innocent" variety. in the diction of the Regency. Good Ton (http://www. Manners and dress are of utmost importance. Jennifer.com). 1996. Helen. The Friends of the English Regency.com/~foter/.geocities. the heroine is impoverished. a California association of devotees of Georgette Heyer and the Regency romance. holds an annual assemblée (at which there is period dancing in costume). 1978. that is free to libraries (http://www.com) is the definitive site on the Web for Regency romance purists. publishers' notes on jackets or paperback covers for years said things like "In the grand tradition of Georgette Heyer" or "The best since Georgette Heyer. sophisticated." and all other authors using the period are "poor drab" imitators. * . but always she is a lady. and neither are Georgian titles that fall outside the specific years of the Regency. The Regency novel features lively. but in terms of romance Regency readers find enjoyment in novels set in the Georgian era. and lots of links to all that is Regency. Likewise. the daughter of a poor country parson or an orphan. The country estate is also featured. She. Joan.

the youngest Bedwyn. The Bedwyn Saga. Reissued 2003. 1992. 2005. Reissued 2004. Christmas Angel. 2004. 1994. Forbidden. Slightly Married. 2003. Beverley. Jo. Reissued 2000. by a bevy of fallen women. Duke of Bewcastle. An Arranged Marriage. 2004. the Duke of Bewcastle. . Hazard. 2003. Skylark. Early titles are traditional Regencies. Mary. tells the tales of four young women who teach at a school secretly funded by Freyja Bedwyn. 2003. 2002. related to the Bedwyn Saga. More than twenty-five titles. wanting one night of passion before settling into a dull life as a companion. 2004. Slightly Dangerous. Simply Quartet. Spicy Regency and Georgian settings. Lady Freyja Bedwyn should have known that her brother Wulfric. (also sometimes called the Slightly series). Raven. This series. The Devil's Heiress. unconscious and amnesiac. 1992. Dangerous Joy. The six aristocratic Bedwyn siblings find love in unexpected ways. St. encounters a fun-loving. 1991. would show up when she entered into a sham engagement. Winner of the Rita Award. • My Lady Notorious. Slightly Wicked. Company of Rogues. 1995. after the Battle of Waterloo. Wulfric Bedwyn. Lord Alleyne Bedwyn is rescued. Slightly Sinful. and The Demon's Mistress. comes into her own in Brussels. Reissued 2001. An Unwilling Bride. Omnibus of The Dragon's Bride. Judith Law. 2003. he didn't know he would have to marry her to keep his word. 2004. while recent titles are much spicier than traditional Regencies. 1993.Historical Romance 287 Balogh. When Colonel Lord Aidan Bedwyn promised to protect the sister of a dying officer. Three Heroes. Slightly Scandalous. Lady Morgan. impoverished widow at a country house party and finds himself acting in unpredictable ways. 2004. Simply Unforgettable. The Malloren series. More than sixty titles. convinces Lord Rannulf Bedwyn that she is an actress with worldly experience. Slightly Tempted. Reissued 2002.

Secrets of the Night. (sensuous). 1997. Chase. The Miser of May fair. 2003. Miss Wonderful. 1990. School for Manners series. Reissued with English Witch in 2004. 1990. A House for the Season series. When Isabella. 1986. Animating Maria. 1986. on the shelf. Diana the Huntress. (traditional). Over 600 short. Refining Felicity. She is now writing mysteries. Winner of the Rita Award. they are usually readily available in public libraries. A poor vicar has six daughters to marry off. English Witch. 1987. Something Wicked. • Devilish.288 Chapter 9—Romance Tempting Fortune. Reissued with Isabella in 2004. Isabella's unsuccessful suitor finds love. Chesney. The Taming of Annabelle. simple. 1987. 1995. 1989. 1987. The Wicked Godmother. 2005. Amy and Effie Tribble help young ladies who are deemed unsuitable for marriage by fixing (or at least trying to fix) their problems. 1984. and sweet books to her credit. Reissued 2002. 1999. 2004. 1982. Deirdre and Desire. even titles that were published more than twenty years ago. Minerva. 1988. A Mosf Unsuitable Man. (traditional). Winter Fire. Daphne. The Adventuress. 1989. Rainbird's Revenge. Finessing Clarissa. Plain Jane. Perfecting Fiona. Isabella. 1985. (traditional). Enlightening Delilah. . Marrying Harriet. 1989. Reissued 2005. she finds that to her surprise two gentlemen are out to woo her. 1988. The Six Sisters series. 1983. 1983. 1988. Frederica in Fashion. Loretta. Marion. Rake's Progress. 2000. Barbara. 1987. 1985. Cartland. Because Chesney's series were published in hardcover and well reviewed in standard library selection tools. goes to London to chaperone her young cousins. (traditional).

still may be found in libraries. Darcy. The Intrigue. Miss Hannah Pym's travels always lead her to young people who need to find the perfect match. (traditional). Budley Falls From Grace. Cook. 1994. 1997. 1995. Back in Society. The Banishment. Even though her books were published in the 1970s and 1980s. 1991. 2005. A sextet of sisters try to regain the beloved family home. Penelope Goes to Portsmouth. The Masquerading Heart. Miss Tonks Turns to Crime. Lady Fortescue Steps Out. Caroline. 1992. 1992. 1980. The Deception.Historical Romance 289 The Traveling Matchmaker series. A hot historical set in the Regency. The Romance. 1993. the Marquess of Mandeville. Poor Relations series. The Daughters of Mannerling series. Mrs. The Folly. (traditional). 1993. 1992. 1997. Earl of Westfield. who only agrees to season in London to further her veterinary knowledge and becomes the talk of the ton when she finds friendship and more with Harry Ashton. Unveiled. Belinda Goes to Bath. 2004. 1995. Courtney. 1993. Unlaced. Darcy's traditional regencies. Emily Goes to Exeter. Colonel Sandhurst to the Rescue. 1990. Clare. A group of impoverished aristocrats band together to pool their resources and turn the home they share into a popular novelty hotel. 1994. featuring Lucy Abbington. many remain in the large-print collections of libraries and are good choices for those looking for traditional regencies. and Hay den. Destiny's Duchess. 1996. (sensuous). Deborah Goes to Dover. refuses to love. 1981. Libertine in Love. Like Courtney. Yvonne Goes to York. The Homecoming. 1997. Sir Philip's Folly. \> . (sensuous). 1992. Jane Rosemoor refuses to marry. (traditional). Kristina. though long out of print. 1979.

Once a Dreamer. 2004. Carla. 1996. 1998. (traditional). Reissued 2000. Once a Gentleman. Dunn. 2003. Reissued 2000. Fairchild. Harbaugh. 1961. Laura Lee. The Nonesuch. A Game of Patience. 1976. An Invitation to Seduction. 1965. Reissued 2005. Arabella. 1996. Once trilogy. Adam Deveril returns home from the Napoleonic Wars to find himself so badly in debt that he must forego marrying Julia and instead marries a rich merchant's daughter. A Civil Contract. Frederica. Heath. The Improper Governess. Love With a Scandalous Lord. Regina. 1934. Candice.290 Chapter 9—Romance Allegra. Letty. Kelly. Bath Tangle. Heyer. 1976. (traditional). Heyer published twenty-nine Regency romances not to be missed. 1996. 1980. Cousin Kate. 2004. 1962. Lorraine. . Hern. The Lady's Companion. His Every Kiss. 1950. Guhrke. 2003. Valentine's Change of Heart. Reissued 2000. 2004. 1955. Crossed Quills. The queen of the Regency romance. Georgette. The Reluctant Cavalier. Carola. Her Scandalous Affair. 1949. 2003. 191 A. Elyza. 2003. 1999. The Unknown Ajax. 2002. The Grand Sophy. 2004. Karen. Reissued 2005. 1968. Once a Scoundrel. Miss Carlyle's Curricle. Her witty dialogue and comedy of manners style seems to never go out of style. Elisabeth. The Convenient Marriage.

(sensuous). With This Ring. One Good Turn. The Wedding Journey.Historical Romance 291 Marian's Christmas Wish. The Diamond Key. 2004. (sensuous). 2001. A Debt to Delia. 2002. and more recently. (sensuous). When the Marquis of Westham arrives at his London residence to spend the Season selecting a wife. Paid Companion. Kat. 1998. In addition to Regencies. 2002. contemporary. Kasey. he discovers that in his lengthy absence several houseguests have taken up residence in his home. Quick. Drew Plays Her Hand. She has written dozens of Regencies and is a two-time winner of Romantic Times Career Achievement Award. (sensuous). 2001. 1995. Martin. 1989. Heartless. 2005. Barbara. UMMÉMM . (sensuous). Lynn. has written over twenty sexy Regency-era novels filled with suspense. Putney. 1999. Putney writes other best-selling historical. (sensuous). Mrs. Mary Jo. Dangerous Deceptions. Amanda. paranormal romances. Miss Billings Treads the Boards. The Bargain. 2004. 1997. (sensuous). 2004. . The Diabolical Baron. 1993. 2002. her fiancé cries off. 2003. The Fire Inside. a pseudonym used by Jayne Ann Krentz. Metzger. Miss Grimsley's Oxford Career. 1992. The Bride's Necklace. Lane. Fanning the Flame. 1999. -* . 2004. Quick. Allison. and she is eventually hired to act the part of a jilted earl's new fiancée. The Butler Did It. Michaels. (sensuous). 2002. Kerstan. The Madcap Marriage. My Lady Innkeeper. The Rake. When Elenora Lodge's stepfather dies after losing her entire fortune. 2003.

Patricia. 2001. Vivian. 2001. Elizabeth. Robards. Joan. a poor relation from the country. Princess Charming. Royal Bride. A talented artist agrees to an arranged marriage because it will allow her access to great art. 1981. 2005. Scandalous. 2005. Almost a Princess. 2000. Golden Girl. Twists and turns in an erotic tale of Sylvie Georgiana. Thornton. a misunderstood widow with a reputation for murder. Tales of the Jewelled Men Series. Shady Lady. Imprudent Lady. enlists the help of Artemis Hunt. A Marriage of Convenience. * Wolf." whom she intends to destroy but instead begins to love. 2004. Ross. 2003. in Georgian England. Julia. 1978. Night of Sin. 1999. Joan. * Prudence Mallow. Sanguinet Saga. * Return to Cheyne Spa. who disguises herself as a male to spy on Robert Sinclair Dovenby "Dove. Smith. to help her rescue her abducted maid. 2004. the Countess of Montevrain. Veryan. . Set in the Georgian era. decides while in London to take up writing and meets a handsome rake who has penned a scandalous novel. (sensuous). Daisy. Madeline Deveridge. The Riddle Saga. a strapping member of the ton and a master of Vanza. Lover's Vows. 1986. 1988. The Perfect Princess. 2001. The Golden Chronicles Series. A theater setting. Karen.292 Chapter 9—Romance Wicked Widow. The Wicked Lover. 2001. The Marriage Trap.

The Faithful Lovers. Eighteenth century. or sequels. such as the Poldark series. Norman England. the sheer volume of these books (or series of books) makes them especially attractive to readers who want to immerse themselves in other times. or the central thread may be plantation life in the Deep South. The historical adventure series tends to intermingle with the saga. covers the interrelations of succeeding generations within a family. Others among historical and period romances have a sequel. history from colonial times.Historical Romance 293 Saga The family saga romance has ties to historical romances. the saga label appears in publishers' advertising and on paperback covers for single-volume novels that barely fit the definition. although there are popular examples with contemporary settings. Women ofAshdon. The story of a family. changing through the generations. or generational history. In the United States. the pattern might be an immigrant family rising to wealth and power over several generations. usually with emphasis on a patriarchal or matriarchal figure. the descendants of a Norman knight. so even though many of the following sagas have been around for a long time. Anand. the focus might be landed family history and relations between aristocrats and their servants or a family of any class or period or periods. Because the genre proved so popular in the 1970s. without real similarity to the saga pattern. In addition. Fourteenth century. they are still circulating in libraries. Romantic sagas often do not have a happily-ever-after ending. or the movement westward. Anand also writes mysteries under the name Fiona Buckley. Some novels. The Proud Villeins. achieve the saga label through sheer number of volumes and an extensive cast of characters. Fifteenth century. Most of these romances span several volumes. readers refuse to give up their old favorites and continue to talk about them. 1994. 1994. Several themes and plot patterns are dominant in sagas. 1991. 1992. . Bridges over Time Saga. Readers of romance sagas may also enjoy the titles listed in the "Saga" section of the Westerns chapter (chapter 6). The saga. In Britain. Seventeenth century. Sir Ivon de Clairpont. The presence of this central character permeates the unfolding of future generations and thus is one of the primary appeals of the subgenre. Those series in which the family relationships provide the basic plot elements are firmly in the romance tradition. The Ruthless Yeomen. 1993. Although sagas are no longer published at the rate they once were. Valerie. with an emphasis on master-slave relations. is told through time. The Cherished Wives.

Reissued 2000. Green Calder Grass. Unexpected Blessings. Janet. Listed in the order Dailey recommends they be read. 1970. Knightshill saga. Beulah Land. 1979. Hffl Hold The Dream. Shifting Calder Wind. starting in a Tyneside village.294 Chapter 9—Romance Bradford. 1985. 1989. 1983. F. This Calder Range. Harte Family Saga. Lonnie. A Woman of Substance. Dailey. 1981. a wife. R. Drummond. Barbara Taylor. 2005. Look Away. 1999. The Legacy of Beulah Land. 2004. Emma. 1983. 2004. Coleman. 1973. each volume covers the love that strikes the many Calders over several generations in the West. through life as a mistress. 1977. 1971. A Question of Honour. Calder Promise. Lone Calder Star. 1980. Calder Pride. a move to America. Stands a Calder Man. Tilly Trotter: An Omnibus. Swann family. 1998. * Tilly Trotter's difficult life. (British title: Tilly Trotter Widowed). Beulah Land series. Emma's Secret. * God is an Englishman. 1982. Calder saga. Catherine. Tilly Wed. Give Us This Day. 2003. where she is an outcast. 2002. Set in Britain. Cookson. This Calder Sky. 2005. Calder Born—Calder Bred. as a widow. To Be The Best. Tilly. Delderfield. (British title: Tilly Trotter Wed). EWB1 Beulah Land. 1981. 1992. (British title: Tilly Trotter). 1980. 1982. Theirs Was the Kingdom. . a return home. Tilly Alone. and. 1973.

1988. The Furies. 1992. Set in Cornwall starting when Ross Poldark returns from fighting for the British against the American colonists. 1989. 1983. Gilliane. Robert. 1980. Alinor. * The Bastard. Absolute Truths. Glittering Images. Poldark series. Act of Valour. 1984. 191 A. 1990. The Lawless. John. 1977. The Seekers. 1978. Ultimate Prizes. 1984. . Medieval England. 1980. Elegant. ^ ^ Ten volumes. Roberta. * The Rich Are Different. The Warriors. Winston. 1982. Dynasty. 1977. The Rebels. 1978. Desiree. 1976. The Church of England series. 1987.Historical Romance 295 A Distant Hero. 1975. The Wheel of Fortune. 1994. F M Kent Family chronicles. 1980. The Americans. G r a h a m . Jakes. 1987. 1994. Reissued in 2004. 1982. 1996. Joanna. Gellis. Glamorous Powers. * Heaven and Hell. Love and War. Scandalous Risks. 1983. 1977. Susan. 1978. Sins of the Fathers. Howatch. Rhiannon. Roselynde chronicles. 2005. The Titans. * Roselynde. Mandarin. Mystical Paths. North and South. 1975. 1976. Syfo/fe. 1979.

" changed the face of romance forever in the 1970s. 1977. No Angel. Thane. 2004. 1991. Savannah. 1991. this subgenre. by Kathleen E. Before the Darkness Falls. Storm Winds. insanity. sultans. Woodiwiss). Rosemary Rogers launched the subgenre called "sweet-and-savage" in 1974 with Sweet. 2001. To See Your Face Again. Woodiwiss is credited with starting the trend to sensuous historical romances with Flame and the Flower (1972). Savage Love. Historical detail and authenticity take a back seat to the sensuality and the plot line of sexual consummation. 1985. Lytton Family Saga. and the characters thinner" (referring to The Wolf and the Dove. Colleen. Revolutionary France. Wind Dancer Saga. and harems. prostituted. 1991. 2003. Exotic historical settings were used lavishly. scantily clad couple. sometimes derogatorily called the "bodice ripper. Savannah Quartet. The Wind Dancer. United States. Penny. McCullough. incest. Final Target. married. readers flocked to novels that offered heightened sensory detail of love-making and stories that reflected female sexual fantasy. Williamsburg series. raped. Stranger in Savannah. mistressed.296 Chapter 9—Romance Johansen. 1989. Reap the Wind. Iris. Elswyth. A reviewer succinctly epitomized the subgenre's plot in Sweet. 1987. Vincenzi. Seven volumes. and mur- . with basic ingredients of miscegenation." Another reviewer just as tersely summed up the subgenre's characteristics: "The prose is purple. Something Dangerous. Now scenes of explicitly depicted love-making are requisite for some imprints. Savage Love in one sentence: "The heroine is seduced. Hot Historicals Kathleen E. the plot thin. The Thorn Birds. Australia. Renaissance Italy. particularly those allowing for pirates. Cain versus Abel. 1983. TOW Price. Sweet-and-Savage Characterized by clinch covers featuring a torridly embracing. Eugenia. A variation of the sweet-and-savage romance was the plantation romance. But despite panning by the critics. slave uprisings.

Readers who discovered romance in the sweet-and-savage heyday look for these titles for the nostalgic value. Even though Thea Garrett was wooed and raped by a fortune hunter when she was a teenager. she has enough wealth and power to still be received by society. It features erotic scenes. scholars find the books of interest. 2001. both male and female. but not least. 2002.Historical Romance 297 der. this is no longer a distinct type. Thea. but without the violence of kidnappings and rapes so often found in its predecessor. English pirate Gabriel Lancaster has sworn vengeance on the Delgatos. the characters. Fern Michaels. Spanish Rose. Swear by the Moon. and last. but some were set in the West Indies or in any locale in which the basic plot ingredients could seethe. but passion has many facets when he captures Maria Delgato on a raid. Kathleen E. Janette Radcliffe. Authors who specialized in this subgenre were Jennifer Blake. (a. Susanna Leigh. Today. Kathleen Winsor. . Devine. Others who wrote in the genre. I believe I write love stories with a little spice. Rosemary Rogers." Spicy Historical The spicy historical romance grew out of the sweet-and-savage type. explicit to the extent of justifying the label "soft porn. 2001. mainly as paperback originals. The women are not passive victims of love. Even though her early works in the Velvet series and James River trilogy featured rapes and kidnappings. but lively and strong. (many not exclusively) were Susannah Kells. who has said. an aristocratic young woman is taken hostage. as in the sweet-and-savage type. In South Africa in 1898. Natasha Peters. Beatrice Small. Bliss River.a. the characters were not promiscuous. but not if a blackmailer divulges her secret. Anthony Esler. and Donna Comeaux Zide. Woodiwiss. Seductive. Shirlee. Marriage plays an important role. Patricia Matthews. Marilyn Ross. are monogamous or serially monogamous. Both types were loaded with sex scenes. The women are proactive rather than reactive. Shirlee Busbee. 1986. Laurie McBain. Gimone Hall. Generally. far-flung members of the Montgomery family throughout history evolved from sweet-and-savage to spicy romance. "I'm insulted when my books are called erotic. Busbee. Because the subgenre indicated a sea change in romance fiction and society's view of women. Usually they were set in the post-Civil War South. as the sometimes explicit descriptions of intimate detail have become part of the standard historical romance pattern. Janet Louise Roberts). Jude Deveraux's many novels involving different. Jennifer Wilde.k." These sultry romances had their heyday in the 1970s.

E. Johnson. 2003. who as an adult and sea captain. A ribald tale of a seventeen-year-old orphaned heiress who waits for the Plantagenet king to name the man she will marry. but with the paranormal romance. some unexpected settings and characters have begun to pop up in romances. 1987. or other abilities classified as psionics in science fiction. Kathleen E. a parallel universe. The characters may be human. Marietta Stone is sent to Texas in the care of Cole Heflin. Susan. award. A Victorian-era nude model and a renowned rogue. 2003. Colton Wyndham. Desired. Outlaw's Kiss. The time for a romance can be in the future. angels. With all fiction. Virginia. ghosts. Vampires. The Reluctant Suitor. as well as a couple of . son of the hero and heroine. the new Marquess of Randwulf. readers are able to stretch their imaginations. Undone. and along the way they experience all kinds of Western and sexual adventures. 1998. the reader's imagination is stretched in several directions simultaneously. 2002. and werewolves may be a love interest in today's romance. Paranormal Romance In recent years. or they might just facilitate the human lovers coming together. but may have the powers of telepathy. in the throes of a fever attempts to rape Cerynise Edlyn Kendall. precognition. or in a shadowy place out of time. and the P. Magic may work in the world instead of just in the heart. Woodiwiss. Ryan. 1995.L. Based on an the life of Elizabeth Gunning. but finds erotic adventure. Again and Again. Her storytelling skills have evolved. Nan. Reissued 1997. Seduction in Mind. an orphan who has been thrown out on the streets. A young lady must take a job as a governess. This sequel to The Flame and the Flower (1972) features Beauregard Birmingham.298 Chapter 9—Romance Henley. including the Sapphire Award. 2004.R.A. who though lowborn became a duchess. 2003. 2001. imbuing her later titles with more authentic historical detail and subtlety in the lusty passages. the Prism Award. The Elusive Flame. Insatiable. returns from the Napoleanic wars to find himself enormously attracted to a woman he finds out his family had intended him to marry. or a magical land. This type of story has become so popular that it has its several awards. Naughty Marietta.

1999. has added romantic fantasy to her repertoire. a tradition of accepting the choice of wife found by each generation's bride finder. Susan. A family gifted with magical talents. A vulgar prehistoric stone statue. 2004. Krinard. Fantasy Romance A major trend in the romance genre that began in the 1990s was the combination of fantasy with romance. Reissued in 2005. Reissued 2005. Beverley.com) and Romantic Science Fiction and Fantasy (http://www. 1998. St. The Bride Finder. Science Fiction Romance (http://www. a physicist and an award-winning science fiction author.com/).romanticsf. and other fantasy tropes have been showing up frequently in romance novels. faerie. The Misted Cliffs. the sheelagh-ma-gig. Mel sacrifices herself to marry the heir of a family known for cruelty. 2005. 1995. supernatural beings. Two mages. The combination of the genres is a double delight to those who love both. Asaro. Jo. 2004. Dark Enchantment. Catherine. Léger Saga. and a legacy of ghosts combine in this enchanting series. Cupid's Mistake. The Night Drifter. 1997. Asaro. 2001. The Forest Lord. The Midnight Bride. Cupid's Darts. 1998.Paranormal Romance 299 monthly online newsletters. The Devil's Bargain. Forbidden Magic. both adrift in the intricately crafted world of Aronsdale. Time travel. Harbaugh. In an effort to stave off a war. Susan. Cupid's Kiss. Carroll. 1999. join forces when a neighboring kingdom threatens. Karen. Shield of the Sky. 2002. The Charmed Sphere. . has been used and passed down by generations of women to invoke a dangerous magic and is called into play in this Regency-era tale. 1998. 2004. Cupid Trilogy.sfronline.

male authors are found frequently in this subgenre.300 Chapter 9—Romance Lackey. Epistolary novel set in Regency London. Glenna. 2004. Roberts. The obstacle facing the lovers is not merely one of having different backgrounds or of living in different time zones. The Fairy Godmother. Unlike in most romances. but of living in different centuries. 1988. Patricia. That time has come. 1999. Knight in Shining Armor. Heart of the Sea. 1998. 2000. 1997. Face the Fire. This Magic Moment. Jewels of the Sun. Tears at a crypt bring a medieval knight into the late twentieth century. Readers of this type often also enjoy historical fiction. Heavenly Detour. Mercedes. and Caroline Stevermer. Wrede. Wrede. 2000. The Chalice and the Blade. Dream Stone. Meyer. O'Day-Flannery. Mary Jo. and that at some time descendents of each of them will come together on the island. 1997. 2002. Dance Upon the Air. Jude. . Patricia C. Constance. Prince of Time. Shifting Love. The Magician's Ward. Reissued in 2003. 2004. Nora. Sorcery and Cecelia. Joanne. Putney. 1989. McReynolds. featuring two cousins beset by magic. Tears of the Moon. 2004. Patricia C. Three Sisters Island Trilogy. 2000. Irish Trilogy. 2004. Deveraux. Magic in a Regency setting. This is a very popular theme in paperback but is also found in hardcover. A Kiss of Fate. Legend has it that Three Sisters Island was created by the magic of three witches escaping persecution in seventeenth-century Salem. 2001. Time-Travel Romance The books that fall into this category use time travel as a plot device for the romance. 2003. Rice.

travels through time. Twice a Hero. . Dragonfly in Amber. The Outlandish Companion: In Which Much Is Revealed Regarding Claire and Jamie Fraser. Voyager. another time traveler. Originally published in 1975 as Bid Time Return. 1998. 1999. Laura Lee. My Heart Stood Still. The Outlander series. Linda. 2005. 2003. Son of the Morning. Outlander. Gabaldon. Howard. Chloe Kingsley. 1997. a nurse. 2001. A psychic and a late nineteeth-century Scotland Yard investigator. Krinard. 1997. Adventures. 1997. The series is so popular that the author has come out with a guide to it. Somewhere in Time. Shadows on the Aegean. 1992. Twilight in Babylon. 2002. Kurland. Linda Lael. 1978. Sunrise on the Mediterranean. What Dreams May Come. Antecedents. 1997. A reissue of the novels Here and Then (1992) and There and Now (1992). Their Lives and Times. Reissued 2004. Richard. Lynn. 2001. Companions and Progeny with Learned Commentary (and Many Footnotes) by their Humble Creator (Delacorte Press. à à Miller. 1999. 1999). Fiery Cross. 1994. Drums of Autumn. always somehow meeting up with her husband. Diana. Suzanne.Paranormal Romance 301 Frank. walks between some standing stones and ends up in eighteenth-century Scotland. A Garden in the Rain. After World War II. Susan. a 1990s Texan. 2002. Guhrke. Outlander is the standard against which all time-travel romances are judged. J. Beyond the Threshold. 2002. 1999. 1991. Matheson. Reflections in the Nile. visiting Scotland with her husband. The More I See You. 1998. Not So Innocent. A Breath of Snow and Ashes. The Very Thought of You.

Dark Gold. 2000. 2000. Reissued 1997. The Threshold. 2003. vampire-like beings who fight vampires but turn into them if they do no not find their lifemates in time. 1999. Vampire. Christine. 2001. Midnight Embrace. Derik'sBane. Dark Destiny. 1984. Dark Prince. Paranormal Beings Creatures of the night. Dark Secret. Amanda. Dark Legend. A werewolf falls for Morgan le Fay. 1978. They are the ultimate forbidden heroes. Cresswell. Dark Desire. Alice. Dark Magic. Night of the Wolf. 1995. 2005. 2002. a bride looks into the hideous heirloom mirror that has been passed down through her family and is transported into the past. Borchardt. * On the eve of her wedding. 2004. The Silver Wolf. into the body of her own grandmother on the eve of her wedding in 1900. Features Carpathians. Marlys. The Mirror. Dark Fire. Vampire. like vampires and werewolves.302 Chapter 9—Romance Millhiser. A Whisper of Eternity. Mary Janice. Ashley. 1995. Dark Guardian. Dark Challenge. . Jasmine. 1999. 2000. who would seem more at home in a horror novel. 2005. Dark Series. 1999. 2004. Embrace the Night. 1999. have made huge inroads into romance. Dark Melody. 2002. Davidson. Feehan. 2002. Werewolf duet. 2003. Dark Symphony. Prince of the Night.

Once A Wolf. Blood Debt. Huff. Circus of the Damned. Ghost. Body & Soul. Viscount St. ^ Krinard. will go insane and deteriorate beyond redemption unless he is willingly embraced by a virgin. Prince of Dreams. The most recent titles are found in the horror chapter (chapter 12). Susan. Werewolf. Vampire. Reissued 2004. 1998. Vampire. and other shapeshifters in an increasingly erotic and horror-like series. 1997. Blood Lines. in this Regency romance. 2003. Both titles are published as young adult books. 1995. 1996. Prince of Wolves. 2000. Bloody Bones. Werewolf. Blue Moon. Blood Pact. but adults who find them fall in love with them. The Lunatic Café. The Killing Dance. 1995. 1998. . 1997. 1999. werewolves. 2001. 1990. Prince of Shadows. Klause. a sexy vampire. All titles were reissued in 2004 after originally appearing between 1991 and 1997. Nicholas. Tanya. Laurell K. 1994. Night Fires. Blood Trail. Blood and Chocolate. Secret of the Wolf. 1995. To Catch a Wolf. 1994. Annette Curtis. Blood Price. Karen. 1996. Werewolf. 1998. Werewolf. Touch of the Wolf. BE The Silver Kiss. A vampire killer becomes enmeshed in the lives of vampires. 2003. Vampire. Vire.Paranormal Romance 303 Hamilton. 1995. Harbaugh. Victory Nelson "Blood" series. Guilty Pleasures. Anita Blake series. Burnt Offerings. The Laughing Corpse. 1994. The Vampire Viscount.

Features vampires. 1999. 1997. 2003. (prequel). Maggie. 1999. Asaro. Twilight series. York. after they were kidnapped together. Vampire stories. 2004. Embrace the Twilight. Blood Will Tell. Twilight Hunger. 2003. The Trouble with Angels. 2002. bioengineering. Angel stories. A Season of Angels. This space opera romance appeals equally to fans of both science fiction and romance. Rebecca. Futuristic/Science Fiction Science fiction is often termed "futuristic" in the romance world. 2003. Blue Twilight. Sky fall. and alien races. Ballerina Lucia del Mar married Rashid al-Jazari. Debbie. Linda Lael. Tonight and Always. 2005. Reissue of Born in Twilight with the novella Beyond Twilight. Catherine. Jean. Angels Everywhere. Edge of Twilight. 1993. Schism. A witch and a werewolf. Witching Moon. Twilight Begins. Saga of the Skolian Empire. Includes A Season of Angels and Touched by Angels. The Last Hawk. 1999. 2000. . 2004. including virtual reality. and she ends up in his family's harem where she discovers that the virtual reality and artificial intelligence projects he has been working on pose a danger. 2003. Shayne. 2004.304 Chapter 9—Romance Lorrah. The Veiled Web. Macomber. 1996. Forever and the Night. Miller. 2003. space travel. These tales of love set in far-flung worlds of the future may involve any of the themes often found in science fiction. Love Bites. 2002. Reissue of Twilight Vows with the novella Run from Twilight. Two by Twilight. Lynsay. 2003. Single White Vampire. a high-tech Moroccan inventor/businessman. In Twilight. 2002. Sands.

• Heart Mate.E. Sharon. Shards of Honor. 1995. Robin D. It chronicles the first meeting and early relations ship of Cordelia Niasmith and Aral Vorkosigan. 2001.E. 1996. 2004. Bujold. Shinn. The Moon's Shadow. Listed in the science fiction chapter. Owens. After Glow. Helens Trilogy. Krinard. St. Jenna Starborn. Davidson. Bujold's Vorkosigan Saga is science fiction adventure at its best. Futuristic romantic detective tales.A. 2004. Award. Dara. All titles have futuristic settings on other planets. i. Heart Duel. * Heart Thief. Award. 2002. their son Miles courts his own true love in another science fiction novel that is enjoyed by romance readers. Ritual of Proof. 2003. (pseudomym of Jayne Ann Krentz). Mary Janice. Robb. Gorgeous! 2005. J . Castle. After Dark. D. Spherical Harmonic. readers of the romance particularly enjoy Shards of Honor.L. Jayne. Jane Eyre in space. Heart Choice. Lois McMaster. 2001. Catch the Lightning.Jfar ^ L£^J $p} -r< . The titles in this series are listed in the "Paranormal Romantic Suspense" subsection of this chapter. Hello. Winner of the Rita Award and the P. which takes place first in the chronology of the Vorkosigan family.R. Celta. Winner of the Prism Award and the P. Joy. In A Civil Campaign (1999). 2005. A bionic woman.Paranormal Romance 305 Primary Inversion. Ascendant Sun. (pseudonym of Nora Roberts).A.R. 2000.L. Kinsman's Oath. A planet settled by people with strong psionic powers is the setting for this fantasy-like science fiction series. Susan. Quantum Rose. 2000. 2004. 2003. 1986. 2001. 1999. The Radiant Seas. and although several of the titles in the series feature some elements of romance. 2002.

director of a center that helps abused and addicted women. in her chapter "Romance Fiction. 2004. 2002. but she just can't handle her fear of commitment. Alers. can't support them both on what she makes as a freelance artist. and she bolts from her own wedding reception. raising her orphaned niece. Mary. edited by Alma Dawson and Connie Van Fleet (Libraries Unlimited. Dierdre. It is to be hoped that more ethnic heroes and heroines will be appearing in the future. 2004). a short-lived (1999-2002) romance line from Kensington with Latina interest romances. African American Dana Watson. Jolene Walker. some published in both English and Spanish versions. Hot Tamara. When accountant Natalie discovers that her former boyfriend is going to be the other godparent for her best friend Davinia's baby. 2005. Sandoval. Lucy Olivera may be a tough cop. Beverly Jenkins writes romances with African American characters for Avon. 2004." in African American Literature: A Guide to Reading Interests. Lynda. Unfortunately Encanto. In 2003 Signet published Playing with Matches. like all readers. and Rochelle Alers.306 Chapter 9—Romance Ethnic Romance In recent years African American romances have been published in greater numbers and have done extremely well in terms of sales. did not last long. The BET Arabesque line publishes four each month by successful authors such as Francis Ray. she doesn't expect to fall in love with him again. Savoy. is trying to keep the family legacy solvent. Shirley Hailstock. Rochelle. Harrison. so she takes a job at a magazine. at a glitzy Georgetown party. enjoy books with protagonists with whom they can identify. the very formal Eamon Fitzgerald. Could It Be Magic? 2003. Shirley. an Asian American contemporary romance anthology. No Compromise. who is on leave from the Pentagon. Unsettling. Ethnic readers. a former lawyer. is set up with Captain Michael Blanchard Kirkland. where her new boss. annotates several dozen titles by various authors. Latina Castillo. The Pleasure Principle. . Jake McKenna.

agent on the track of drug dealers. and readers who like the historical perspective should consult the Native American section of "Historical Romance" in this chapter. 2004. Native American Native American characters appear frequently in romance novels set in the West. but he is actually an undercover F.I. Aitken. Alisa.Ethnie Romance 307 Valdes-Rodriguez. Dr. 122 . Claire Colby. working on a Lakota reservation. 2003. Secret Shadows. The Dirty Girls Social Club.B. resists her attraction to Dane White Eagle. who she thinks is a convicted killer released on a technicality. 2004. Judie. Playing with Boys.

Barbara Samuel. Mary Balogh. Tami Hoag. inspirational. Pamela Morsi. Gale. Blue Diamond. An updated and expanded edition of Happily Ever After: A Guide to Reading Interests in Romance Fiction (Libraries Unlimited. Carpan. defines the genre in which "women win. The Romance Readers ' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Love in the Stacks. 1999. Author/title and subject indexes complete the work. Libraries Unlimited. Nora Roberts. Bouricius. It also has an extensive bibliography of resources in the romance genre. Ann. Lorraine Heath. Unfortunately it is now quite out of date. and ethnic/multicultural. publishers. Libraries Unlimited. Judy Cuevas. Information on awards. Ramsdell. and Time Travel Romances. and guidelines for the core collection are some of the other features of the book. Kathleen Gilles Seidel. Kathleen Eagle. Jo Beverley. 1999. Sandra Kitt. Kristin. Susan Johnson. Dara Joy. The definitive guide to the romance genre. Bibliographies and Biographies Bontly. regency. The title says it all. Patricia Gaffney. Alicia Rasley. Susan W. Paula Detmer Riggs. Sheridan. What Romance Do I Read Next: A Reader's Guide to Recent Romance Fiction. Edited by Kay Mussell and Johanna Tunon. alternative reality. gay and lesbian. check out the following resources. Emilie Richards. Scarecrow Press. 1996. Ramsdell also provides history and background notes along with thorough guidelines for readers' advisors for the genre as a whole and each of its subgenres. (Chase) . Bontly and Sheridan have identified romance books that fall into the science fiction. Eileen Dreyer. (Ruth Wind) . fantasy. (Kathleen Korbel) . and Jennifer Crusie. Bouricius. Essays by Judith Arnold. Mary Jo Putney. a librarian and a romance writer herself. Futuristic. . and Carol J. provides booklists. North American Romance Writers. Loretta Chekani. and gives sound readers' advisory advice. and supernatural areas. Justine Davis. 308 . saga. (Laura London) . Supernatural. Lynn Kerstan. 2000. Maggie Osborne.. and research aids. with thousands of titles described and organized in romance subgenres of contemporary. 1997. Rocked by Romance: A Guide to Teen Romance Fiction.Topics To find out more about the romance genre. (Jennifer Greene) . American Library Association. Susan Krinard. Carpan includes an extensive annotated bibliography and author interviews with some of the important authors writing romantic fiction for teens. Sue Civil-Brown. 2004." identifies subgenres. Sharon and Tom Curtis. 1987). Alison Hart. (Rachel Lee). mystery. (Judith Ivory). Jill Marie Landis. Ramsdell's book offers users a thorough treatment of the genre. Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre. historical. Enchanted Journeys Beyond the Imagination: An Annotated Bibliography of Fantasy. Carolyn. a list of young adult romance titles.

Preface by Alison Light. and A Room with a View. but they are not widely available. Janet Dailey. Radway. James Press. The third section covers the history of romance novels from 1740 to 1908. Twentieth-Century Romance and Gothic Writers. University of North Carolina Press. The romance novel is defended and defined in the first two sections. Krentz. Jane Eyre. A Natural History of the Romance Novel. focusing on the impact and influence of Pamela. It is rarely the subject of academic study. It seems that the heyday for study of the genre was the early part of the 1980s.Review Journals 309 Regis. Several resources are listed in Ramsdell' s Romance Fiction: A Guide to the Genre (Libraries Unlimited. University of Pennsylvania Press. Pride and Prejudice. Framley Parsonage. and brief articles. news. Edited by Aruna Vasudevan and Lesley Henderson. Hundreds of authors and their pseudonyms are listed. 1994. when several books were published that are now out of print. Six issues a year. contributed essays on the appeal of their genre. This classic work on genre romance examines why women in the early 1980s read romances and what this readership implied for social attitudes of women and toward women. Janice. Reissued in mass market paperback by Harper Monogram in 1996. Review Journals The following journals are for the devoted readership of the genre and are much more than review journals. 1999). and Nora Roberts. a list of all published works. beloved of romance readers. Jayne Ann. Provides star-rated reviews. ed. and a critical summation." 1981-. It is of interest to scholars for a look at romance fiction in that particular time. There are brief biographical data. 1992. the aspects of fantasy and character in the books they write. . Patriarchy. Many of the essays rebut feminist criticism of the genre. as the annotations indicate. Affaire de Coeur: "The Voice of the Readers and Writers of Romance Fiction. St. Nineteen authors. Jayne Ann Krentz. 1984. Mary Stewart. 2003. Dangerous Men & Adventurous Women: Romance Writers on the Appeal of the Romance. Reading the Romance: Women. University of Pennsylvania Press. Their emergence parallels the genre's recent and amazing publishing activity and growth in reading audience. 3d ed. Pamela. Regis loves the genre and provides a well-executed overview and study of the genre from its earliest days to its current popularity. The fourth section examines the romance novel in the twentieth century through the works of Georgette Heyer. and Popular Literature. and descriptions of their readers. History and Criticism Romance has not received the critical or scholarly interest given to many of the other genres. a statement by the author (if supplied).

in July 2005. The Romance Reader. The twenty-fifth annual convention was scheduled for Reno. annotations. often having runner-up awards and a historical romance award. 1981.com. This publication contains reviews. biographies of romance authors. features reviews written by knowledgeable reviewers and organized by subgenre. It presents an annual award for the best romance. Many of the reviewers.com. http://www. The Internet is also a resource for romance reviews. the Rita.500 members in 2005. http://www.htm.310 Chapter 9—Romance The Literary Times.org/).. 1988.theromancereader. In 1995 it became a Web site.rwanational. This British group was founded in 1960. Awards The most prestigious and well-known romance awards are the "Ritas. was held for the twenty-second time in 2005. The name was recently changed to the Romantic Times Bookclub Magazine and the related convention. so they have formed their own groups. are librarians who have an encyclopedic knowledge of the genre. was established as the association's official prize for published work. Texas. An award. the Annual Booklovers Convention for Readers and Writers of Popular Fiction. All About Romance.000 members. with sensuality ratings that really make sense.com. the site offers a plethora of information and features for romance readers.com Starting as a newsletter." awarded by the Romance Writers of America in several different categories. For a full listing in all of the many categories consult the RWA web site at http://www. Romance Reviews Today.htm) is given for the best science fiction or fantasy romance of the year.com. with more than 9. excerpts from new romances. Some dedicated readers review titles that are never seen by the standard library review journals. In 2005 they had approximately 9. Its members are highly articulate apologists for the genre. it has been very successful. The founding convention was held in Houston. it became a quarterly magazine in 1992. and information for romance writers. http://www. interviews. Romantic Times. . Authors' Associations Romance writers often do not feel comfortable within the standard authors' associations. like Nora Armstrong. is a useful resource. Romance Writers of America (http://www. author profiles. and drew an unexpectedly large attendance of writers and fans. http://www.likesbooks. ranging from "Kisses" to "Burning..org).rna-uk.romantictimes. featuring book reviews. and advertisements. http://www.com/sapphire. publishing and author news.rwanational." In addition to reviews. It rates books using a scale of hearts and movie-like sensuality ratings.tlt. The organization also has local chapters in many communities and chapters devoted to different types of romance writing. The Sapphire Award (http://www. publishes a list of scheduled titles along with numerous reviews.sfronline.romrevtoday. Nevada.org/awards/ awards. Romantic Novelists Association (http://www. Although the Romance Writers of America is some twenty years behind its British counterpart. in June 1981.

(historical—frontier and Western). (paranormal). Landis. Chastain. Literature (http://www.com/ParanormalRomance/PNRpearl. When Elena escapes her wicked stepmother. Of course nothing ever goes as planned. Heartbreak Hotel. (contemporary romantic suspense). She decides to try to make a living with all she has left. This extends the lives of some titles that a few years ago would have quickly become unavailable. even the sex-drenched ones. it isn't to marry a prince but to become a fairy godmother.htm) is given by the Futuristic. A gorgeous school marm decides to marry rather than go to jail and asks her sickly pen pal to come out West to marry her. more are now being published in hardcover and in trade paperback.com/index. The Prism Award (http://www. suspenseful romance between a doctor and an undercover FBI agent set on a Lakota Reservation. but when he is supposed to arrive it is someone else who steps off the train. best known for science fiction and fantasy.htm). The Fairy Godmother.D's Romance Picks 311 Paranoramal Excellence Award for Romantic writerspace. are being published in large print and audio formats.romance-ffp. 2002. 2004. Jill Marie. Secret Shadows. and Paranormal Special Interest Chapter of the Romance Writers of America. The preponderance of genreblending is obvious in new imprints.). {/[/ D's Romance Picks Aitken. Lackey. The Mail Order Groom. A contemporary. . Judie. More romances. Tracy Potter's wheeler-dealer husband was up to no good before he died. Sandra. 2005. Fantasy. 55 percent of all paperbacks sold in the United States are romances. while Tor. (contemporary romance). Mercedes. and he left her with nothing. and where a famous author comes to commit suicide and instead falls in love. Publishers While romances continue to flourish in mass-market paperback (According to the Romance Writers of America. a dilapidated historical hotel with a tragic past that was left to her young son. In 2004 Harlequin ventured into fantasy with its Luna trade paperback line. 2004. started its Tor Romance line in mass-market paperback.

and the strong friendship that develops among three women who each find their own true love in a small island village. Nora. she isn't expecting to find a gorgeous vampire. Roberts. Amanda.312 Chapter 9—Romance Quick. (paranormal). 2004. Sands. Three Sisters Island Trilogy. Single White Vampire. A contemporary setting. goes to Toronto to persuade a reclusive romance writer to make some appearances to promote his books. (paranormal). an editor. The Paid Companion. an ancient spell. . Lynsay. When Kate. (historical—Regency). 2003. This Regency-era engagement of convenience tale is told with verve and style as a previously jilted earl hires a companion whose stepfather squandered her fortune to pose as his fiancée to keep him safe from the marriage-minded.

Chapter 10 Science Fiction Essay JoAnn Palmeri What Is Science Fiction? Definitions of science fiction are as numerous and diverse as the alternate worlds and realities brought to life by writers in this genre. "Science fiction. and because (as Gary K. . These changed worlds are presented in terms "consistent with the language." John Clute suggests in Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia." Mary K. with the future of science and/or its effects on us.1 The resulting competing visions of what science fiction is (or is not) can be a real challenge to those new to the genre. long before literary scholarship and genre theory began attempting to define it. the assumptions. In the late 1920s editor Hugo Gernsback used "scientifiction" and then "science fiction" to describe the kind of fiction published in his magazines Amazing Stories and Science Wonder Stories. or in terms that are consistent with our profound sense that human history is a continuous reality. and the arguments of contemporary science. along with the story's technological and scientific aspects." groups and individuals with a variety of interests and perspectives (writers and fans. Chelton notes."4 Joyce Saricks characterizes science fiction as speculative fiction in which a setting "outside everyday reality" is a crucial component. however. Science fiction is "any story that argues the case for a changed world that has not yet come into being.5 313 . critics and academic scholars) all had a role in defining the scope of the field and articulating its boundaries. publishers and media businesses. As a term "science fiction" came into common usage in the 1930s."2 In terms of reading interests. . some definitions are particularly useful. Wolfe points out) "science fiction gained its identity as a commercial term . and that changes flow from what we know of that reality. "seems to be the most difficult genre to understand for those librarians who are not already fans."3 For Harlan Ellison science fiction includes "anything that deals in even the smallest extrapolative manner with the future of man and his societies.

Debates also continue concerning the boundaries between science fiction and the closely related genres of fantasy and horror. plot. what they emphasize is the importance of liking a book. and futuristic adventure tales. science fiction encompasses an extraordinary diversity of titles and authors."7 Kim G.9 particularly when labels are linked to assumptions about them or their interests. bug-eyed monster stories. the lines remain blurred.314 Chapter 10—Science Fiction All three authors key on science and the creation of alternate worlds. and fantasy an emotional response. "The Ground Rules . Over time many movements. many persist in stereotyping the science fiction fan as a nerdish male adolescent. The History of Science Fiction and SF Subgenres Historical interpretations of the genre also reflect diversity and differing perspectives. "The ground rules of fantasy are generally said to be limited only by internal consistency and not necessarily related to experience. For example. it differs from the others by grounding its imagined alternative worlds in a scientific worldview. especially given authors' efforts to appeal to multiple audiences." Wolfe says. and characterization inherent in the creation of alternate realities. Film and television have represented a limited type of science fiction—accounts of alien invasion. . subgenres. of science fiction are essentially those of the physical universe. a trend that has propelled the crossover marketing trend. while readers are aware of the distinctions and categories of publishers and other authorities. Today fantasy surpasses science fiction in sales and popularity. partly because so much overlaps in these genres. Anne McCaffrey's works are inhabited by beings usually associated with fantasy—dragons—but she insists her stories qualify as science fiction. books are being published that appeal to a broader range of genre audiences—an example is Catherine Asaro's Irresistible Forces. and themes have inhabited the science fiction uni- .8 However." In the final analysis. science fiction an intellectual response. And because of the seeming limitless possibilities of setting. Recent studies of the genre by Kofmel and Robinson show that science fiction readers resist labels. This may explain why some react negatively to the use of "sci-fi" rather than "SF" and why others reject the label "science fiction fan. . not fitting it into a category. Narrow exposure to the genre (through only one medium or through a limited range of authors/subgenres) often leads to characterizations that miss the genre's richness and diversity. Kofmel suggests that the primary response evoked in reading these genres can be used to distinguish them: Horror evokes a visceral response. These subgenres tend to feature plots weak on characterization but strong on gadgets. an edited collection targeted to readers interested in both romance and science fiction. space opera.6 Although the genre's ability to create alternate worlds helps explain why it remains closely linked with fantasy and horror. A Misunderstood Genre But misconceptions and stereotypes about science fiction persist for several reasons. although they may include rules as yet undiscovered. In addition. In addition to misunderstanding the genre. others point to tales of imaginary voyages (Johann Kepler's Somnium) and Utopian visions (Thomas More's Utopia) from earlier centuries as its origins. Some identify Mary Shelley's nineteenth-century gothic fiction Frankenstein as the foundational work of the genre.

with emphasis on the technological. Delany. Many of the motifs and themes that continue to influence science fiction today were evident in the genre's "Golden Age" (late 1930s through the 1940s).g. and cyborgs have been a staple of the genre. In addition. and Frank Herbert) contributing to the field at that time. An exemplar is Joanna Russ's The Female Man.The History of Science Fiction and SF Subgenres 315 verse. The dawn of the space age and the Cold War era brought with it exploration of encounters with beings from other worlds. Harlan Ellison. Nancy Kress's Maximum Light). and Theodore Sturgeon. changes in the status of women and the rise of feminism led women to participate more in the field. and collections. Such stories have continued to be prominent in the literature (not surprisingly. elements of which have been more widely popularized in the Matrix films. Throughout the history of SF. anthologies. They invigorated the field with new directions and perspectives. In part. much of this period literature was written by men and geared toward young male readers. William Gibson's Neuromancer is an archetypical example of this subgenre. . as consumers and contributors. from the rise and fall of subgenre. this was a reaction to a perceived overemphasis on scientific and technological themes. but also concerns about the impact of the machine on society and the significance of evolution for human destiny. including a preoccupation with the theme of alien invasion. It tended to be adventure-oriented. most prevalent in the 1950s and later decades of the Cold War). Some of the best science fiction can be found in short stories published in magazines. And while most of the aforementioned works are novels. and media tie-ins. Even before humans had harnessed the power of the atom. It also reflected a broadening of the voices and backgrounds of authors (e. The emergence of science fiction as a recognizable genre in the twentieth century—and its development over the course of the century—were (and continue to be) influenced by commercial as well as cultural factors.. artificial intelligence. shifting focus from the physical sciences to the sociological and human sciences. Philip K. Beginning in the 1960s. biotechnology. writers envisioned post-apocalyptic futures (H. science fiction has also provided a fascinating window to a near future in which computer networks dominate life in ways that readers may find jarringly realistic. Time Machine). and environmentalism. Wells. continuing series. Samuel R. As in pulp magazines. Changes in the field. it should be noted that science fiction is a genre that encompasses a wide variety of forms—novellas. androids. as does Philip K. Dick in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? From cyberpunk to virtual reality. robots. biological disasters and ecological catastrophes have more recently supplemented the nuclear calamity as a key cause of civilization's collapse and/or transformation (see for example. Reflecting late twentieth-century developments in genetics. Early twentieth-century science fiction reflected wider cultural themes—technological utopianism and a reverence for science. G. perhaps because they provide a rich background for exploring an important question: What defines one's humanity? Shelley explores this in Frankenstein. Dick. the "New Wave" movement broadened the scope of the field by exploring the human condition within the context of the author's created world. are intimately connected to wider historical and cultural developments. Robert Heinlein. in the writings of such authors as Isaac Asimov. to its increasingly broad appeal.

" Since these characteristics also mark fantasy.10 In fact. the need to adhere to present-day realities).g. space travel. the latter focuses on the social sciences (psychology. most studies of science fiction have focused on the genre more broadly. This effect takes the reader to another time and place. and broadening of the audience receptive to the genre. for example. This guide identifies some of the subgenres (or themes and types) that relate specifically to scientific or technological content. it is not surprising many participants read both. defining characteristics of science fiction lies in the way it creates worlds. The results of surveys conducted from a variety of perspectives over the years (general readers' studies."12 The incredible variety of other worlds that can exist in science fiction is a striking feature of this genre. their created worlds are nevertheless expected to possess an "atmosphere of scientific credibility. While an atmosphere of scientific credibility can be created in both. what they are reading. lost worlds. astronomy. Types.316 Chapter 10—Science Fiction The Science Fiction Reader The question of why people read science fiction is intriguing (certainly it has implications for collection development and readers' advisory work). biology). sociology). The former focuses on technology and the physical sciences (physics. Kofmel finds that readers like science fiction because of its "use of created worlds" and its "lack of limits. setting. including increasing female readership. and what they get out of the experience. In contrast. and time travel. studies of science fiction readers. the notion of credibility has also been used as a means to distinguish between these categories. scientific credibility is equated with works that closely follow the established facts of science and technology. unlimited possibilities. and how these factors may have changed over time. decreasing young male reading of science fiction magazines. Since the physical sciences have traditionally been associated with the prestige and plausibility of science. "We would not even recognise a work of science fiction if it did not convey some sense of otherness. "One of the central. Science fiction incorporates science and technology into its narratives in many ways." It is this atmosphere that allows readers to engage in "the willing suspension of disbelief. as in the science fiction subgenres of alternate and parallel worlds. and science and technology. In this context. and Characteristics The traditional means of telling readers about the science and technology content of particular works is to distinguish broadly between hard SF and soft SF. Among the most significant of these themes are other worlds. Most studies of science fiction readers neglect to address the issue. Varying degrees of "otherness" can be invoked by writers through story. From such studies we have learned who is reading science fiction. and it uniquely defines the genre. Kofmel's survey of reading interests explores the questions of why individuals read science fiction. on the phenomenon of science fiction fandom. Although science fiction authors are not constrained by the conventions of other fiction (e." Paul Kincaid notes. what they like about it." For readers." She identifies characteristic genre themes that match reading interest.. characterization and/or language. time warp. science fiction magazine polls) point to a number of trends. some key way in which the world presented differs from the world we recognise as everyday reality. it is not sur- . the presence of science and technology distinguishes the created worlds of science fiction from those of fantasy. Themes.

For example.17 Readers expect science fiction to challenge and intellectually provoke.. A case in point is the unsuccessful attempt by Kristine Rusch (former editor of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction ) to introduce a new reader to the genre using William Gibson's cyberpunk classic Neuromancer. Ultimately it speaks to an enchantment with the universe. Yet the desire to be moved is not absent. things that don't belong in our familiar existence. It is a response that captures scientists' own emotive reaction to. perceptions can be shaped by views of science and technology as well as by views of the genre itself. and these often relate to the scientific and technological elements of the genre. Donna Shirley. stereotypes persist. nature. Kincaid explains: "Our first exposure to science fiction. a potential reader who equates science fiction with spaceships and computers might be surprised to find that a short story revolving around the liberation of women from menses received three major science fiction awards.18 Readers enjoy the dizzying array of challenges to social and cultural concepts and conventions that arise during encounters with alternative realities. Saricks emphasizes. and aesthetic appreciation of. and society. The notion that science fiction evokes a "sense of wonder" in its readers is pervasive within the field. However. this effect can be an obstacle to readers new to the genre. problem solving (mystery).13 While science fiction may not be as stigmatized as it once was."16 He points out that some readers seek that disorientation. The genre is particularly compelling (and disturbing) when cloaking controversial issues and contemporary concerns within the context of other-worldly settings. many could not identify a satisfactory substitute. The genre's emphasis on otherness is closely tied to a sense of disorientation one can experience when reading science fiction.15 Although some tried. interested novices. Themes. There are words we don't know. can be disorienting. Many scientists and engineers claim to have been inspired in their career choice by reading science fiction. With science fiction. and science/technology/discovery (nonfiction). posed too great a challenge to this beginning science fiction reader. and their interrelationships. technology. For example. especially if they want to serve crossover readers. events that don't make sense. The New Wave movement. As a genre driven by "what if?" questions. Readers' advisors should make no assumptions about either. What distinguishes the science fiction reading experience from others is the intellectual challenge grounded in the genre's unique content..Types. a behavior typically acquired in adolescence or young adulthood. or those who express an aversion to the genre. Rusch emphasizes. their substitutes still mirrored characterizations of science fiction: other worlds (historical fiction). Genre labels can repel as well as attract. however. science fiction thrives on new and provocative ideas relating to science.14 When Kofmel asked her readers what they would read if science fiction did not exist. The language. did much to bring soft SF into the mainstream. Yet this response is not purely intellectual. Kofmel's study shows that some readers deliberately seek out variety of titles in the genre to see how a particular scientific or technological idea may be handled differently by different writers. and Characteristics 317 prising that in some quarters these sciences are viewed as better equipped to foster an atmosphere of credibility. Anecdotal accounts abound regarding the transformative experience of becoming a science fiction reader. aero- \> .

21 Contradictions inherent in readers' own views concerning science and technology are often mirrored by contradictions in the literature. Greg Bear and David Brin founded the "Reading for the Future" project to show "teachers and librarians that science fiction inspires young readers. cyberpunk. such encounters may play a significant role in shaping preferences and guiding future reading experiences. The second concerns personal associations.22 In a genre with conventions learned through reading widely.25 "More than in any other fiction. This finding affirms the significance of the act of browsing and has implications for collection building and arrangement. dystopia/utopia. in sf the imaginary setting is a major character in the story."20 Kofmel suggests science fiction also plays a role in affirming one's worldview and interest and views concerning science and technology.23 Often readers express an interest in a particular author (loyalty to authors is a well-known characteristic of science fiction readers) or a particular type of author (scientist/woman/African American). alien beings. and social criticism).g. and those related to external circumstances. Saricks and Kofmel offer supplemental approaches to help match readers' interests with particular works by suggesting strategies for characterizing reading preferences. What actually propels readers to acquire and/or continue the behavior of reading science fiction? Kofmel distinguishes two factors—those related to the texts themselves. For example. For Saricks. which unfolds at a slower pace and allows the reader to more fully absorb the texture and ambience of another time and place. Clarke's The Sands of Mars. frame. and within the genre authors tend to work out the central ideas through action and situations rather than through the characters. and pacing. The first concerns the kinds of preferences already discussed. Selecting SF: Which Work to Recommend? What to do when a readers' advisor identifies a patron seeking assistance as either a regular reader of science fiction or as someone new to the genre. another Jack Finney's Time and Again. themes.318 Chapter 10—Science Fiction space engineer and former manager of the Jet Propulsion Lab's Mars Exploration Program (who in 1997 explained the Soujourner Truth rover to millions of television viewers) says she found her inspiration at the age of twelve in Arthur C. characterization. How to guide him/her through the myriad of titles and authors available? Genreflecting serves as a basic guide for doing this by presenting science fiction works in terms of subgenres. but one may prefer a fast-paced adventure like Michael Crichton's Timeline.. Science fiction is often criticized for weak characterization. Of particular relevance to librarians and readers' advisors is a reader's encounters with collections of texts.19 She later became director of the Science Fiction Museum in Seattle. matching a reader with the perfect book involves identifying the "appeal factors" of story line. and types identifiable to readers (e."26 Indeed. where she instituted educational programs that use science fiction to promote science literacy. A variety of social influences as well as encounters with texts (often influenced by social associations) shape how one interprets the genre and makes selections.24 Two readers may be equally interested in a story about time travel (story line/frame). Nationwide campaigns to use science fiction to promote literacy and reading (more generally) have also involved notable science fiction authors. Using these and other expressed preferences can help identify the type of science fiction book that can best meet readers' needs. setting is crucial to creating the otherworldliness that readers identify as essen- .

idea-centered works (like Mary Doria Russell's The Sparrow) may be appropriate for the more philosophically inclined. functional. the category of "heritage" denotes works in a particular historical tradition or context. as well as the variety of ways in which reading preferences can be expressed. Kofmel's study identifies it as a highly desired element in the reading experience. and the meaning derived from a text is shaped in profound ways by what an individual brings to the experience. While one reader might find Star Trek novels appealing because of the adventure element or because of their treatment of the relationships between characters.g. Furthermore. or they may prefer a work that is challenging and disturbing. While identifying appeal factors is important. These categories resonate with Genreflecting subgenres and themes as well as with some of Saricks's appeal factors. Kofmel's study of readers suggests that this diversity in the ways science fiction is characterized aptly reflects how readers actually view the genre and select titles. galactic empire series (like those of Lois McMaster Bujold) may be suitable to readers who prefer engaging stories. recognizing the individuality of the reading experience is also essential.29 Science fiction readers want to satisfy different tastes at different times. cautionary) and its underlying message (e. a single work can fit several subgenres (e. relational. The difference in response results from the different ways in which readers attach value and subscribe meaning to texts. the categories used to organize science fiction works in this guide are not necessarily comparable—some concern subject or plot elements (bioengineering). like New Wave or classic SF. For example. some a distinct trend or school (New Wave). Serving the Science Fiction Reader While this guide is primarily focused on science fiction literature. Often.30 Kofmel identifies eight categories that reflect readers' perceptions of science fiction: purity.31 In their characterization of science fiction works.28 She contrasts titles with a "storyteller focus" to those with a "philosophical focus.g. For example.. readers also mention two additional aspects related to story line or plot: the purpose of a story (e... readers' advisors must keep in mind the broader nature and appeal of the genre. while more thoughtful. and device. another reader might identify the ideas upon which the Star Trek universe is grounded as most important.27 Saricks emphasizes science fiction's capacity to tell stories and its ability to present challenging ideas as a key to categorizing individual works for reading appeal. Depending on their mood. Different readers may also interpret the same work in different ways. mode.g. heritage. Two points Catherine Sheldrick Ross highlights are relevant: mood effects desired reading experience. and some an overall message/theme (social criticism).Serving the Science Fiction Reader 319 tial to the genre. things-man-was-not-meant-to-know). what all this suggests is that readers' advisors should be particularly sensitive to diversity in the ways science fiction works can be characterized. hybrid. theme. they may prefer the comfort of an established series with its familiarity of characters. Frank Herbert's classic Dune). Works of science fiction do not always fall into neat and convenient categories. Recognizing ." and suggests this as an approach to matching readers with books. Ultimately. But science fiction readers do not overlook characterization.

Kristine Kathryn Rusch. Joyce G." Reference & User Services Quarterly 42. 9. diss. Kim G.. diss. Hopefully. librarians invite interactions with regular readers of science fiction. they continue to identify with science fiction more generally. "Patterns of Science Fiction Readership among Academics. Critical Terms. 2000). 5.g. 110. no.. 2002). By openly appreciating and clearly demonstrating familiarity with the genre. But matching regular science fiction readers as well as novices with books is a continuing challenge for librarians.33 (These categories resonate with Saricks's archetypes of "philosophical focus" and "storyteller focus. even. Chelton. 7.") Such oppositions may serve as a useful first-order approach in exchanges with readers. 263. a beginning reader who enjoyed the film Blade Runner could be introduced to the book and to other works of Philip K. 8. Critical Terms. Ibid." The Magazine of Fan- .D. Fantasy. 6.. University of Western Ontario. given the diversity of offerings and the reality that the science fiction universe remains an alien landscape to many. 269. 108. Diana Tixier Herald. Dick). Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Glossary and Guide to Scholarship (New York: Greenwood Press. "Genre from the Audience Perspective: Science Fiction" (Ph. 7. Wolfe. 1995). 3. Wolfe. Colo. Notes 1. Saricks. 108. Joe DeBolt. "Adult Readers of Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Qualitative Study of Reading Preference and Genre Perception" (Ph. "Editorial.320 Chapter 10—Science Fiction the connection between print and film/video is essential (e. this chapter will help readers' advisors navigate this sometimes daunting but always intriguing landscape. 1986). Allen Lichtenstein's study of science fiction book versus movie audiences suggests that preference for a particular format may serve as a window into reading preferences. Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia (London: Dorling Kindersley. The Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction (Chicago: American Library Association. Gary K. 2000). "Introduction to 'Readers' Advising for the Young SF.2 5 . Science fiction themes and icons have become prominent features of popular culture and interest in the genre has moved well beyond dated stereotypes of the science fiction fan. Even when individuals demonstrate a format preference. Mary K. 5th ed. 2001).: Libraries Unlimited. those who enjoyed science fiction exclusively through television/movies had a preference for adventure-oriented stories.' by David G.D. and Horror Reader. but it is good strategy to allow science fiction fans to define themselves and their interests. Kofmel. those who claim to dislike it. Michael Gerald Robinson. however." Extrapolation 19. 2 (1978): 1 1 2 . no. Science fiction has something for a wide range of reading tastes and sensibilities—perhaps. 2(2002): 133. Genreflecting: A Guide to Reading Interests in Genre Fiction. Hartwell.. 6. John Clute. éd. 10. Wolfe.32 He found that those who enjoyed science fiction exclusively through books had a preference for idea-oriented stories. Bowling Green State University. 2. 4. (Englewood..

Kofmel. 263.. 3 (1995): 5." Extrapolation 24. "Finding Without Seeking: The Information Encounter in the Context of Reading for Pleasure. 1999). 18. "Forging Futures with Teens and Science Fiction: A Conversation with Greg Bear and David Brin. "Editorial. 2 (1995): 5-7 and "Editorial." Paul Kincaid. originally published in Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine." VOYA: Voice of Youth Advocates 26. "Adults Readers of SF and Fantasy. 55." Kristine Kathryn Rusch. 21. 27. "Adults Readers of SF and Fantasy.: National Science Foundation. Connie Willis. Saricks. 29. "Science Fiction Book versus Movie Audiences: Implications for the Teaching of Science Fiction. no. Kofmel. 3 (1995): 5. "Editorial." 31. 30. no. 1 (2003): 15. Ibid." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 87. 22. Catherine Sheldrick Ross. "Adults Readers of SF and Fantasy. ed." Foundation 78 (2000): 80-81. National Science Board. 33. 1 (1983): 47-56. Readers' Advisory Guide.Notes 321 tasy and Science Fiction 88. Ibid. 24. no. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Readers ' Advisory Guide. no." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 89. Kofmel. 11. Managing Martians (New York: Broadway Books. no. 14." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 88. Donna Shirley. 2003. Allen Lichtenstein. Kofmel. 26. "Adults Readers of SF and Fantasy. Gwyneth Jones. Kofmel. Readers' Advisory Guide." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 89.. Ibid. . 17. 183." Sandy Moltz. Saricks. Kofmel. 25. Locus (1993). Kincaid. 13. 23." Saricks. pt. "Adults Readers of SF and Fantasy." Nebula (1992). Va." in The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. 19. "Editorial. 277. 12. 16. "What It Is We Do. no. 163-73. 2 (1995): 5-7. Readers ' Advisory Guide. "Adults Readers of SF and Fantasy. 2 (1994): 5. Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. 20. "The Icons of Science Fiction. 32.." 79. 2002)." Information Processing and Management 35 (1999): 790-96." Ibid. "What It Is We Do When We Read Science Fiction. Saricks. Science and Engineering Indicators—2002 (Arlington. 15. and Hugo (1993) awards. "Even the Queen. 28.

2 (1994): 5.D. London: Dorling Kindersley." Foundation 78 (2000): 72-82. 1 (2003): 15-18. 2000. Allen. Managing Martians. 2 (2002): 133-38. 2 (1995): 5-7. Rusch. and Horror Reader. "Introduction to 'Readers' Advising for the Young SF.. Strictly Science Fiction: A Guide to Reading Interests. no. 1 (1983): 47-56." In The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. 2000. Kofmel. . 14: 2 7 . Gwyneth. Genre. Englewood.. 2002. ed. National Science Board. Lichtenstein. Fantasy. no. Shirley. Colo. Kristine Kathryn.D. "Forging Futures with Teens and Science Fiction: A Conversation with Greg Bear and David Brin. Arlington. 3 (1995): 5. Clute. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sandy. Moltz." Extrapolation 19. New York: Greenwood Press. The Readers' Advisory Guide to Genre Fiction." Ph." Ph. 5th ed." 2004. Herald." Information Processing and Management 35 (1999): 783-99. Chelton. "Science Fiction Book versus Movie Audiences: Implications for the Teaching of Science Fiction. Paul. no.: Libraries Unlimited. Ross. 2(1978): 112-25. no. diss. Colo." Reference & User Services Quarterly 4 2 . 2003. no. John. no. "Editorial." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 88.' by David G. pt. Greenwood Village. 2002. 2000." VOYA: Voice of Youth Advocates 26. Donna. University of Western Ontario. 1999.: National Science Foundation. "Editorial. Joyce G. Subject.: Libraries Unlimited. Jones. diss. Science and Engineering Indicators—2002. Saricks. "Adult Readers of Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Qualitative Study of Reading Preference and Genre Perception. Kincaid. Herald. Diana Tixier. "Patterns of Science Fiction Readership among Academics. and Bonnie Kunzel. DeBolt. Gary K. Wolfe. New York: Broadway Books." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 89. Joe. "The Icons of Science Fiction. 2001. Chicago: American Library Association. Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia. "Editorial.322 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Bibliography "Casting a Wider Spell: SF/Fantasy Players Discuss New and Better Ways of Hooking Readers—Tweaking Format. 163-73. "What It Is We Do When We Read Science Fiction. Robinson. Hartwell. Kim G." Extrapolation 2 4 . Bowling Green State University. Publishers Weekly 2 5 1 . NSB-02-1." The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction 87. Diana Tixier. Mary K. Catherine Sheldrick. "Finding Without Seeking: The Information Encounter in the Context of Reading for Pleasure. Va. 1986. "Genre from the Audience Perspective: Science Fiction. Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Glossary and Guide to Scholarship. Genreflecting: A Guide to Reading Interests in Genre Fiction. Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. 1995. . no. Michael Gerald.3 1 . ed.. .

(psionic powers). Readers interested in New Wave literature should refer to "The Future is Bleak" and "Social Structures" categories. seemingly less cohesive and more thematic. (space opera). (near future). Isaac. such as cyberpunk and New Wave.g. including: Fantastic Voyage. Bradbury. although they are described the preceding essay. nanotechnology) are newer. Many newer stories are built on conventions that grew out of the traditions of the science fiction works that have gone before. cyborgs. Thus. (techno SF—nanotechnology). with titles published in the 1970s and after. and are therefore represented in the following lists. Excluded from this list are precursors of the genre. There are so many science fiction classics that it is impossible to do more than provide a broad sampling here. Martian Chronicles. these categories reflect distinct reading interests and preferences for SF readers. While some of the subgenres. Alfred. (dystopias). Also excluded are more contemporary authors. Robot. Nonetheless. The Demolished Man. Cyberpunk fans should check out the "Techno S F " section.g. (techno SF—robots. 1956. science fiction and romance.. 1950. virtual reality. other categories (e. Still other categories represent blending of more than one genre—e. Terms that describe historical developments in the genre. The Stars My Destination. with classic titles commonly being reissued and re-read. 323 . 1966. are of scholarly interest. 1953. such as space opera. These exceptions are included in the chapter essay and/or the subgenre listings. Ray. Foundation series. and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World. 1953. such as Mary Shelley ' s Frankenstein. they are not used in the following schema. 1950. but do not necessarily reflect today's reading interests. are well-established. Fahrenheit 451. Selected Classics Science fiction is a genre deeply rooted in its backlist. and widely recognized as such. others.Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Science Fiction contains a canon of novels and stories created throughout the history of the genre that avid readers know.. and androids). where they are tagged as classics. Asimov. /. Rester. Numerous titles.

Lest Darkness Fall. Numerous titles. including: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? 1968. S. 1967. The Left Hand of Darkness. Burroughs.324 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Burgess. Huxley. Flowers for Algernon. 2001: A Space Odyssey. (dystopias—religious). Gordon R. Herbert. Brave New World. Anthony. Arthur C. (time travel—distant past). 1932. Numerous titles. (SF adventure). (SF adventure—militaristic and war). Keyes. Riverworld Saga. (techno SF—robots. Le Guin. Babel-17. Dorsai series. L. (alternate history). Dune. Clarke. Dickson. Daniel. Perelandra Trilogy. 1962. including: Childhood's End. (dystopias—social structures). 1962. 1965. and androids). 1958. 1949. (SF adventure—exploration). (New Wave). (time travel). Aldous. Philip K. A Clockwork Orange. Robert A. (aliens). Samuel R. 1954. Dick. Hal. including: Have Space Suit—Will Travel. Philip José. Mars Series. (bioengineering). . cyborgs. (SF adventure). Mission of Gravity. (aliens. C. Sprague. Lewis. Christian SF). 1968. Farmer. Clement. Frank. Edgar Rice. Ursula K. Numerous titles. 1953. De Camp. (dystopias—dark SF). The Man in the High Castle. The movie Blade Runner was based on it. Delany. 1969. (dystopias—dark SF). 1966. Heinlein.

and androids). the military. 1961. 1957. (dystopias—ecological disasters). others. Room to Die. 1949. 1949. E. Jack. (techno SF—robots. The Skylark of Space. A Canticle for Leibowitz. 1963. (SF adventure—exploration). (SF humor). Neville. E. 1949. Stewart. They also involve strong heroes and heroines. E. Simak. George R. Clifford D. The Humanoids. (dystopias—overpopulation and plagues). Jr. (space travel). (with Frederik Pohl) (us and them—near future). van Vogt. 1957. Slaughterhouse Five. and political intrigue along with fast-paced physical action are the hallmarks of science fiction adventure. Walter M. 1952. Sirens of Titan. Rite of Passage. 1965. The Children's Crusade. (SF adventure—militaristic and war). 1968. 1946. Earth Abides. (SF adventure—journeys through time and space—space travel). (dystopias—political).Science Fiction Adventure 325 Miller. Norton. City. 1959. (psionic powers). Science Fiction Adventure Exploration. Vonnegut. Cat's Cradle. George. and androids). (SF adventure—space travel). A. (dystopias—nuclear annihilation). Time Traders Series. Williamson. Slan. Panshin. The Dying Earth. Smith. Andre. Doc. 1968. Jack. cyborgs. (techno SF—robots. On the Beach. Alexei. Shute. Orwell. cyborgs. 1928. Starchild Trilogy. or. Kurt. Exploration provides a venue for looking at what may . wars. The Isle of Peril. Vance. 1950. The Solar Queen Series. 1984.. (dystopias—religious).

The Warlord of Mars. 1957. Two scientists working with quantum physics make choices (including murder) that will eventually lead to space travel. Bova. Hal. Edgar Rice. • Rendezvous with Rama. 2004. Reissued in 2003. Clement. a teen who wins a trip to the moon in a school contest. 1958. is still in print and popular with today's readers—from middle and high school readers to adults. . Reissued 2003. 1918. Harrison. 1955. 1987. Burroughs. 1919. Reissued 2005. John W. * When a cylindrical vessel appears in the solar system. m The Lost World. * A very romantic and unscientific look at John Carter's adventures on the red planet. * A truly alien adventurer on a high gravity world. John. 1954. 1950. and British Science Fiction Awards. Card. Heinlein. A Princess of Mars. Reissued 2003. 1990. A $10 billion reward to find out what happened to the missing son of a multi-billionaire sends his younger.. Jurassic Park. 1997. 1973. one planet sends explorers and another a bomb. * Farmer in the Sky. Mars Series. Michael. The Gods of Mars. 1917. and in unexpected discoveries. M. Locus.326 Chapter 10—Science Fiction be found in previously unexplored places whether distant planets or closer to home. Several teens are marooned on a hostile planet. Arthur C. 2000. Mission of Gravity. The thrill here is in the quest. Wyrms. * The adventurous tale of Kip Russell. disowned son racing to Venus to compete with others vying for the reward in a truly hostile environment. Tunnel in the Sky. Reissued 1987. Ben. Campbell. Crichton. Readers who enjoy the technical side of science fiction adventure and want to explore other genres may also enjoy political espionage novels and technothrillers. * Have Space Suit—Will Travel.. Winner of the Hugo. Light. Orson Scott. Robert A. Reissued 1986. Venus. Nebula. Citizen of the Galaxy. Clarke.

Andre. * A world that is in the shape of a ring circling its sun is discovered. and Sherwood Smith. Lambda. and Locus Awards. 2001. 1993. Norton. The Stone Canal. MacLeod. 1999. and Locus Awards. Reissued 2003 in The Solar Queen. Tiptree. James P. Then a psychologist makes a mysterious offer for a trip to the Outzone. 1997. Larry. The Solar Queen. Griffin. 2000. finds himself in a juvenile labor camp. Redline the Stars: A New Adventure of the Solar Queen. Fifteen-year-old Line Marani. The Star Fraction. Niven. Nebula. Maureen F . Derelict for Trade. Postmarked the Stars. Reissued 1997. 1970. who has gotten into trouble one too many times. The Sky Road. Moonfall. Norton. 1955. # China Mountain Zhang.Science Fiction Adventure 327 Hogan. 1969. \> Preston. M. 1956. Voodoo Planet. 1996. . Omnibus of Sargasso of Space and Plague Ship. In our day and time. The Ice Limit. Outward Bound. 1998. a group of explorers set out to retrieve a meteorite that is buried in the ice of an island off Tierra del Fuego. Jack. China dominates the world. Winner of the Hugo. 2003. and Lincoln Child. Ringworld. Andre. The Solar Queen Series. Plague Ship. The Fall Revolution Series. Mind for Trade. and P. The Cassini Division. McHugh. The adventures of Dane Thorson and the crew of the Solar Queen. Winner of the Hugo. Reissued 2003 in The Solar Queen. 1959. a space freighter. 2000." when humanity once again looks to outer space. Andre. Norton. Life after "the Deliverance. Ken. In the twenty-second century. 2000. Sargasso of Space. 1992. McDevitt. 1999. Douglas.

1992. A refugee ship from Earth colonizes an alien planet. CO A code ties two different generations of two families together in World War II and the present. Convergence. Steele. Michael. Cryptonomicon. In 2094 the creators of the wormholes that have made space travel practical show up. # Blue Mars. Heritage Universe. Winner of the Hugo Award. 1992. Robinson. • Stations of the Tide. Charles. # Green Mars. 2002. 2005. 2000. but now their new home is being overrun by others from Earth who have their own agendas.328 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Reed. Ship of Fools. Jft Red Mars. 1996. The Martians. 2001. Sequel to Marrow. A companion volume to the Mars Trilogy containing stories. 1991. 2004. Mars Trilogy. Sheffield. Allen M. Great Ship series. 1990. . Robert. Transcendence. Winner of the Nebula Award. Russo. Stephenson. Sawyer. Kim Stanley. Robert J . Swanwick. Neal. Summertide. Coyote: A Novel of Interstellar Exploration. 1990. • Starplex. Coyote Rising. 1999. and even the text of the planetary constitution. A world begins to drown under the weight of its own oceans. Richard Paul. Divergence. The colonists on the Alabama had fled the tyranny on Earth. Winner of the Hugo Award. Winner of the Aurora Award. The Well of Stars. 1999. Coyote. 1993. Winner of the Nebula Award. 1997. G Q Marrow. 1996. poems.

2004. 2000. when Jaibriol's empress mother discovers he still lives and abducts him. But the plan is upset ^^^ [*( ~~lpj~ j/Ji . Jax Ironbridge. Saga of the Seven Suns. From the Earth to the Moon. spanning time as well as galaxies and incorporating just about every theme found in science fiction adventure.000 Leagues Under the Sea. 2004. as comparable to "horse opera" (Western) and "soap opera" (the domestic serial). Kevin J . Ascendant Sun. but it is home to many of the great adventure stories. Sauscony Valdoria. including the still-popular Star Wars series. and romance are key characteristics. Soz returns to the Skolian Empire to fight for her family. Horizon Storms. 1999. A Forest of Stars. space opera is still sometimes maligned as simplistic or sophomoric. * Éî 20. crash lands on a restricted matriarchal planet. Verne is considered by many to be the originator of the SF genre. 2000. This is romantic adventure on a grand scale. 2001. find peace on an uninhabited planet until years later. Anderson. Kelric. 2002. Reissued 2005. Interstellar travel. Skyfall. Primary In version. Jules. Saga of the Skolian Empire. Reissued 1995. The term was initially used derogatorily. heroic space battles. Schism. The Radiant Seas. where he lives in the Calanya (harem) of a powerful woman. scions of two warring families. The Last Hawk. Hidden Empire. * The Quantum Rose. To save her people. 1865. Asaro. 1870. discovers that her soulmate may be the Aristo heir to the enemy Trader Empire and a fellow empath. Spherical Harmonic. Many space operas are written in series format. Jaibriol and Soz. 2003. Taking their children to Earth for safekeeping. 2000. Catherine. heir to the Skolian Empire..Science Fiction Adventure 329 Verne. set in the spectacular arena of outer space. Today. * à Space Opera Space opera is probably the most well-defined and widely read type of SF adventure. 1997. a bioengineered fighter pilot and heir to the Skolian Empire. 1995. the beautiful ruler Kamoj Quanta Argali has agreed to marry the ruler of a more prosperous province. Listed in the order events occur in the series.

Vorkosigan Saga. 1991. Winner of the Sapphire Award. and especially of son Miles. Bujold. Merchanter's Luck. Iain. 1996. Heavy Time. the sexiest and most powerful man under five feet tall in this or any galaxy. Winner of the Hugo Award. 1991. Brothers in Arms. 1989. 1994. # The Vor Game. 1994. but that is not enough to stop him. # A Civil Campaign. an exiled prince of the Roca line of Skolian royalty. 1982. Catch the Lightning. Reissued in 2000 in Devil in the Belt. Inversions. a female doctor whom no one trusts except her patients. The Warrior's Apprentice. Set in a world of space travel. Reissued in 2000 in Devil in the Belt. Shards of Honor. 1981. 1986. The adventures of the militaristic Vorkosigan family of Barrayar. * Gully Foyle may be stranded in space. 1980. Winner of the Hugo Award. 1992. Conspiracy and court intrigues in the backward world of Haspidus. Reissued 1996. 1999. Komarr. 1989. Winner of the Nebula Award. Borders of Infinity. The story of Vosill. 1996. Bester. The Moon's Shadow. Merchanter Universe. Banks. # Downbelow Station. It is also known as the Alliance/Union Universe. intergalactic trading. 1956. # Mirror Dance. 2000. Reissued 2001. and DeWar. 1989. Tripoint. Alfred. Serpent's Reach. Winner of the Hugo Award. J. 1990. C. 1998. Lois McMaster. and war between the mighty Earth and Union forces. 1996. shows up and starts showing interest in Kamoj. Hellburner. Memory. Reissued 2002. an assassin who trusts no one but the one he shouldn't. Rimrunners.330 Chapter 10—Science Fiction when Lionstar (Vryl). 2003. Diplomatic Immunity. . Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards. 2002. The Stars My Destination. Cetaganda. 1986. # Barrayar. Cherryh.

politics. 2003. Reynolds is an astronomer. 2002. In a far future world in which pirate-like corporations exact tribute from far-flung locations. The Reality Dysfunction Vol. (space opera). Cosmonaut Keep. Engine City. Fallen Dragon. 2002. 1997. MacLeod. 1 Emergence. Alastair. Anderson. Engines of Light series. Dune: House Corrino. (space opera). 2 Conflict. . 1996. Dune: The Butlerian Jihad. The Naked God: Faith. The Naked God: Flight. M. 2 Expansion. 2004. Dune: House Atreides. Dune: The Machine Crusade. The Neutronium Alchemist No. (space opera). listed in the "Social Structures" section. The Neutronium Alchemist No. The Reality Dysfunction Vol. Rip-roaring space adventure combining battles and politics in prequels to Frank Herbert's popular and acclaimed Dune Chronicles. 2001. Set in the twenty-fourth century. the inhabitants of Thrallspring decide to fight back. 2000. Ken. 2002. 2000. set in the far future and featuring telepathic space dwellers called Edenists. until a pair of stars inside an energy barrier is found. this space opera skewers late twentieth-century U. 2004. John. Harrison. Reynolds. 1997. Space opera on an epic scale. In the twenty-fourth century. Dune: The Battle ofCorrin. humans have utilized wormholes to colonize distant star systems with no trouble from aliens. 2003. 2004. and Kevin J.S. 2000. Herbert. 2004. 1997. 1 Consolidation. Two different timelines and faster-than-light travel.Science Fiction Adventure 331 Hamilton. Homeric Space Opera Sequence. Brian. Dune prequel series. Light. 1999. Peter F. Newton's Wake. Dark Light. Pandora's Star. 2000. Dune: House Harkonnen.

with their emphasis on naval mores and traditions. Skylark Three. Here they take center stage. * Throughout the human worlds. # Ender's Game. 2002. Dorsai. Singularity Sky. Absolution Gap. and battles provide the big attraction to readers. Reissued 2003. 2003. The following books are the titles in Card's saga that share the appeal of fast-paced militaristic adventure science fiction. Charles. and rages. became progressively philosophical and deep. are known for their honor. which also won both major science fiction awards. weapons. Shadow of the Giant. Skylark DuQuesne. Two novellas from a master of noir science fiction set in the Revelations Space universe. where warriors. Doc. Iron Sunrise. 1985. a race of fearsome warriors. Revelation Space. Orson Scott. starting with Speaker for the Dead (1986). . 2004. Shadow of the Hegemon. Dorsai series. Gordon R. the Dorsai. 2001. independence. Smith. Shadow Puppets. Colonel Mansour is an intergalactic weapons inspector in this space opera series. Redemption Ark. 2001. * Ender's Shadow. The Honor Harrington series by David Weber and the Nicholas Seafort series by David Feintuch. 2002. Card. Turquoise Days. 1966. E. Tactics of Mistake. 1949. Diamond Dogs. 1999. Dickson. 2005. Card rocketed to popularity with Ender's Game. Reissued in 2003 with The Spirit of Dorsai as Dorsai Spirit. Reissued 2001. Stross. Skylark of Valeron. 1971. 2005. Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards. a tale that starts with a six-year-old boy who proves to have the determination and ruthlessness necessary to be sent to military training and to lead human forces to victory. Militaristic Military forces and conflicts appear frequently in SF. 1928. 1960. Reissued 2005. In 1999 Card started a new series that dealt with the other child warriors in Ender's Game and what happened to them following the war. moving far into the future and farther from the adventure aspects that made Ender's Game popular. * The Skylark of Space. Rachel Mansour series. 1948. share much the same appeal as historical naval adventure.332 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Revelation Space series. Reissued 2003. 2004. The sequels. E.

Voices of Hope. 2003. The Final Battle. Reissued 2003. i i Hubbard. 1997. L. Reissued 2002. William C. Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards." and information about Dickson's Childe Cycle. 1994. * Heinlein. 4ft The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. the short story "Warrior. Robert A. 1993. Features Bill Booly and his misfit cyborg legion. 1996. Dietz. Nebula. Lost Dorsai: The New Dorsai Companion. 2003. Reissued 2004. J a c k . McDevitt. By Force of Arms. The Spirit of Dorsai. 1959. For More Than Glory. Winner of the Hugo Award. Winner of the Hugo Award. 1980. 2000. Challenger's Hope. Fisherman's Hope. 1974. Patriarch's Hope. Ron. A Talent for War. Legion of the Damned. 1995. of which the Dorsai series is a part. Battlefield Earth: A Saga of the Year 3000. and Locus Awards. 1980. Winner of the Hugo. 1995. 4ft The Forever Peace. 1996. A collection that includes the Hugo award-winning novella Lost Dorsai. 1966. Reissued 1998. This Nicholas Seafort saga has been called "Horatio Hornblower in space. Forever Free. 1982. Haldeman. Feintuch. 1995." Midshipman's Hope. Prisoner's Hope.Science Fiction Adventure 333 Soldier Ask Not. 1989. One-volume publication of Dorsai and The Spirit of Dorsai. 2001. 1967. 4ft The Forever War. Hope series. 4ft Starship Troopers. Reissued 1996. 1999. à . The Legion series. 2000. Children of Hope. Dorsai Spirit. Joe. David.

. John." an alien swarm that will consume everything in its path if not stopped. 1997. Honor Among Enemies. The Honor of the Queen. In much the same way that Horatio Hornblower rose through the ranks in the British navy. Cally'sWar. 2003. 2004. 1997. Williamson. while the U. When the Devil Dances. Moon. 1995. battleship Merrimack fights against "the Hive. Elizabeth. Echoes of Honor. 1998. and Michael Z. 2002. Tour of the Merrimack. 2001. Once a Hero. Ringo.334 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Meluch. 2000. John. Field of Dishonor. The Short Victorious War. 1993. 1998. 2002. Ringo. The Myriad. On Basilisk Station. 2004. David. 2005. Why is it that the Colonial Defense Forces set its minimum age requirement for recruits at age seventy-five? Weber. 1993. Hell's Faire. Flag in Exile. a triad of hitherto unknown populated planets and a series of wormholes are discovered. In Enemy Hands. War of Honor. 1994. 2005. Change of Command. Gust Front. At All Costs. Old Man's War. 2005. 1994. Scalzi. John. 1997. Rules of Engagement.S. 2000. Ringo. M. A Hymn Before Battle. The Hero. Esmay Suiza series. In the twenty-fifth century. and Julie Cochrane. Honor Harrington series. 1999. Ashes of Victory. John. Honor Harrington rises through the ranks of the Royal Manticoran space navy. R.

In any case. 1999. . * Bishop. • No Enemy But Time. 2003. Norton. Crichton. The issue here usually comes down to how time travel and the ability to change the past or future affect the present. Wells). Audrey. Cobra. into the future. Timothy. Zahn. 1961. L. Isaac. 1986. The Shadow ofSaganami. who have been writing on the theme since the nineteenth century (e. Reissued 1990.g. The Time Machine by H. Reissued in 2000. Time Traders Series. The Time Traveler's Wife. 1958. 1988. * Leiber. Reissued 1996. 1950. Cobra series. Winner of the Hugo Award. Orson Scott. Asimov. Reissued 2000. Cobra Strike. the setting plays a dominant role and in this respect. 1949. Michael. Reissued in an omnibus edition as The Cobra Trilogy in 2004. The End of Eternity. 1981. 1996.Time Travel 335 Students of Honor. it is similar to alternate and parallel worlds. Reissued with Galactic Derelict in 2000. 1985. Timeline. Time travel can be into the past. • The Big Time. * Niffeneger. Lest Darkness Fall. Cobra Bargain. 2004. * Pebble in the Sky. meeting his wife when she was a young child. A librarian travels back and forth in time with no control over when or where. Michael. * Card. Andre. Time Travel Time travel is a fascinating concept.. Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus. * The Time Traders. 1955. A follow-up to the Honor Harrington series. and one that provokes seemingly endless speculation on the part of SF writers. The next generation of officers in Star Kingdom. Reissued 2001. Fritz. Winner of the Nebula Award. G. DeCamp. Sprague. or in both directions.

Silverberg. which are edited by the originator of the world. G. The Defiant Agents. Slaughterhouse Five. Reissued in omnibus with The Invisible Man (2003). Winner of the Hugo. Bones of the Earth. 1895. Wells. Nebula. * iii Billy Pilgrim is unstuck in time. sharing a setting or milieu with the forerunner. Firehand. A scholar from the twenty-first century becomes trapped in the time of the plague when a computer operator miscalculates due to a future plague. 1990. M. Key Out of Time. The Children's Crusade. * Willis. How We Found the Bishop's Birdstump at Last. 1962. and inhabitants of the created universe of the shared world are the primary interests here. Paleontologist Richard Leyster is exactly where he wants to be in life. Winner of the Hugo. • Doomsday Book. Others are published as novels. the shared world. we will undoubtedly see more shared world volumes. Swanwick. Michael. Letters from Atlantis. and Locus Awards. As video games proliferate. Reissued with Key Out of Time in 2001. Obviously. 1968. sweeping him up into a paleontological paradise of time travel and paradoxes upon paradoxes. 1994. Locus. 1963. Griffin. or. Kurt. Vonnegut. Robert. when a stranger comes through his door at the Smithsonian and deposits a cooler containing a stegosauraus head on his desk. Connie. a collaboration of authors either working together or building on the work of another author. . 1997. # To Say Nothing of the Dog. Sometimes he is in his future and sometimes in his past. 1992. Or. When a time lagged historian from the future is sent to the Victorian era to escape Lady Schrapnell he finds love and a problem that could rend the fabric of time.336 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Galactic Derelict. H. Often shared world stories are published in anthologies. atmosphere. Reissued 2001. Co-authored by P. Reissued with The Time Traders in 2000. the customs and laws. The Time Machine. à Shared Worlds Although more common in the fantasy genre. 2002. Reissued with The Defiant Agents in 2001. also sometimes appears in SF. These books may be specially packaged and marketed by publishers. and Awards. Those who have read The Time Traveler's Wife by Niffeneger will see the parallels. 1959. Many shared worlds are based on worlds and characters created for film or video games.

The City Who Fought. and Mercedes Lackey. The Ship Errant. Bradley. 1994. . McCaffrey. M. McCaffrey. The Keeper's Price. Foundation's Fear. Jody Lynn. Traitor's Sun. Stirling. The Ship Who Searched. David. Renunciates of Darkover. The sequel to The City Who Fought. 1999. which then shares adventures with a human called a "Brawn. Bradley collaborated with several other authors on novels set on the world and edited several anthologies featuring stories set in Darkover. Anne. 1993. and Mercedes Lackey. Marion Zimmer and Adrienne Martine-Barnes. 1996. Bear. Rediscovery: A Novel of Darkover. Benford. Sterling. 1992. S. McCaffrey. Greg. and Jody Lynn Nye. and Margaret Ball. in which the brain of severely handicapped Helva is implanted in a titanium scout ship. 1993. Some of the inhabitants have developed psionic powers called Laren. Three leading hard science fiction authors cover parts of Seldon's life not chronicled by Asimov.1996. Anne McCaffrey/Brainships Space ships so complex that a human brain is required to run them are the premise of McCaffrey's The Ship Who Sang. 1998. Foundation and Chaos. McCaffrey. 1987. 1980." who accompanies her. 1991. Marion Zimmer. and S. Foundation's Triumph. Leroni of Darkover. McCaffrey. foresees the collapse of society and goes about making plans on how to shorten the Dark Ages he knows are to come. Anne. Anne. Red Sun of Darkover. The Ship Avenged. Partnership. 1993. Snows of Darkover. 1997. 1997. M. The Shadow Matrix. Bradley. McCaffrey collaborated with other authors to tell the stories of other Brainships (and even a city that used the same technology). each with a unique voice. The Ship Who Sang. Marion Zimmer Bradley/Darkover The Darkover series is set on a world settled ages ago by travelers from Earth. 1969. The Ship Who Won. World created by Isaac Asimov in which a psychohistorian.Shared Worlds 337 Foundation Second Foundation Trilogy. Nye. 1997. 1999. Anne. 1994. 1991. Anne. Hari Seldon. Brin. Anthologies edited by Bradley: Towers of Darkover. Gregory.

and others aboard the starship Enterprise. Survivor's Quest. Uhura. Brooks. Spock. Greg. and Han. Anderson. with Gene Roddenberry's original television series featuring the adventures of Captain Kirk. R. Anakin Sky walker. 1996. Readers couldn't get enough of Luke. /. The advent of e-books has been a real boon for fans of written Star Trek stories—virtually all titles are in e-print! Simon and Schuster has a comprehensive Web site for their Star Trek books at http://www. The New Rebellion. The Truce at Bakura. 1994. Hambly. The Courtship of Princess Leia. Tyers. 2000. Bear. Michael. Rusch. 1998. Kevin J. 1997. Lt. Star Trek is still alive and well. Five television series and nine movies later. simonsays. 1995. Children of the Jedi.com/content/index. 1999. not only in the hearts of dedicated Trekkers (sometimes to their chagrin called Trekkies). Kristine Kathryn. Star Wars: Episode 1.338 Chapter 10—Science Fiction George Lucas/Star Wars Lucas's Star Wars films became a cultural icon for the late twentieth century. Kathy. Salvatore. Jedi. 1999. . Scotty. a nine-year-old slave on Tatooine. the Phantom Menace. A. Star Wars: Rogue Planet. Terry. but in the universal consciousness of the world. 1994. Timothy. Planet of Twilight. Dave. Gene Roddenberry/Star Trek It all started in 1966. Zahn. 1995. Currently they have several series going: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. McCoy. 2005). Barbara. wins his freedom through utilization of his extraordinary talents and skills when two Jedi Knights stop on the planet for repairs. Wolverton. Stackpole. Leia. Dr. The caliber of the authors writing in the Star Wars universe is stellar.cfm?sid=44 (accessed February 2 3 . 2004. Vector Prime. Darksaber.

. * Gibson's tale of computer cowboy Case's adventures in cyberspace is considered the novel that began the cyberpunk movement. Winner of the Hugo. 1979. what technologies will tomorrow's SF explore? High Tech Super-sophisticated technology is the focus in the following titles. New Frontier. * Clarke's idea of an elevator that reaches 24. Excession. artificial intelligence. Much of the hard SF published appears in this category. Banks. In the 1980s and 1990s high tech was most visible in cyberpunk. # Neuromancer. Piers Anthony's Juxtaposition (1982). leaving one to wonder. Nebula. The Original Series.000 miles into space has. The Next Generation. Count Zero. (The Culture series). virtual reality. become part of the fabric of the genre. 1996. Reissued 2001. 1988. Techno SF Technology has always been a major theme in SF. like Asimov's Laws of Robotics. Others. and Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash (1992) focused on the power of computers. Diplomat Byr Genar-Hofoen is sent to investigate. Mona Lisa Overdrive. Star gazer. Arthur C. Iain. Neuromancer trilogy. often combining elements of artificial intelligence. self-replicating machines. Now the ideas presented go far beyond what computers and technology can do today. Some of the earliest SF titles revolved around the technology of space and travel. such as John Brunner's classic Shockwave Rider (1975). Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards. and virtual reality. and beyond. Voyager. Reissued 2004. William. nanotechnology. When an ancient sun disappears. then suddenly reappears in space. Starfleet Corps of Engineers.Techno SF 339 Star Trek: Star Trek: Star Trek: Star Trek: Star Trek: Star Trek: Star Trek: Enterprise. Today's popular science fiction more commonly features technology about artificial beings. Scientific extrapolation based on theories not yet proven is often explored. Gibson. and Philip K. 1984. Dick Awards. 1986. Clarke. with stricter adherence to principles of physical and biological science. • The Fountains of Paradise.

Reissued 2000. with its monster put together from various and sundry parts and reanimated by a medical doctor. Cyborgs. or. An android is an artificial human. 1999. collected in one volume. 2004. after /. 2004. Robot. Androids Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. The Company series. /. Air: Or. A robot is a machine. * This vintage collection is the second volume. falls in love with the same man in three different centuries. Reissued 2004. a Young Lady's Illustrated Primer. of Asimov's timeless robot stories. Kage. * à Asimov's famous three laws of robotics and robots powered by positronic brains were introduced in this classic short story collection. Sky Coyote. Geoff. Robot. 1964. Catherine. 1995. There are three major types of artificial beings. Isaac. The 2004 film bears little resemblance to the book. And a cyborg is a human altered with artificial parts to perform certain functions or modified to exist in conditions inimical to human life. Robots. considered by many to be the first science fiction novel. 2000. Mendoza. Life of the World to Come. The Phoenix Code. # The Diamond Age. A copy of an interactive book intended for a wealthy young neo-Victorian girl falls into the hands of a poor girl. . A new direct-into-the-mind communication system using quantum technology is tested on villagers in a remote part of Karzistan and has a bizarre effect on a bright but illiterate young woman. * All of Asimov's robot stories.340 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Ryman. organic in composition. Robot Dreams. 1950. Stephenson. The Rest of the Robots. Winner of the Hugo and Locus Awards. 1982. is a precursor of this subgenre. Have Not Have. Neal. 1986. In the Garden oflden. molding her into a brilliant revolutionary. Robotics expert Megan O'Flannery has her hands full with the self-aware android Aris. usually with a somewhat human form but purely mechanical. Asimov. Asaro. an immortal cyborg botanist. Reissued 2004. 1998. Reissued 1995. Baker. * The Complete Robot.

2000. Schismatrix Plus. Jack. 1949. Williamson. 1997. Light Music. Moonwar. Crescent City Rhapsody. Crichton. Transcension. Kathleen Ann. • Man Plus. Bova. Mississippi Blues. while Mechanists prefer prosthetics. Nanotechnology Quartet. 1952. Moonbase Saga. 2002. The Humanoids. A swarm of microscopic machines escapes from the science lab. Nanotech plagues have decimated the country and turned it into a very different kind of place. Winner of the Nebula Award. * i i Blade Runner Pohl. Moonrise. it is often used in science fiction to describe situations simply involving extreme miniaturization of technology. Shapers go into space with genetic enhancements. Broderick. Sterling. * Dogs who pass their stories down through the generations are aided by robots. 1997. Prey. Reissued 1996. Philip K. but their care of people creates more problems than they solved. * Roger Torraway is adapted to work on Mars. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? 1968. 1994. Damien.Techno SF 341 Dick. Queen City Jazz. Reissued 2004. Reissued 2004. Robots were created to serve people. Bruce. J***** V-*-£. Ben. Clifford D. 2002. LJ . Reissued 1996. 2002. City. Nanotechnology Although nanotechnology has a specific definition pertaining to engineering on the atomic level (atomic constructs are measured in nanometers). Michael. 1996. Goonan. Frederik. Simak. 1996. seemingly intent on killing the scientists who created them. 1975.

Lucia del Mar. William. and mecha. and taste to manifest. Catherine. Bug Park. Wil. Gain's Toys. The defining characteristic of the titles in this category is the setting. 1996. The omnipresent nanotechnology prevents the inhabitants from developing technology beyond a medieval level. She also tries on a virtual reality suit that infuses the body of the wearer with nanotechnology that allows touch. and the rise of strange and tremendously resistant diseases that contribute to a slow disintegration and downward spiral. children learn that there are three life forms: flora. The Future Is Bleak Whether an apocalyptic event strikes in the form of a nuclear bomb or comets. The Veiled Web. Young scientist David Sanger ventures into virtual reality to solve the murder of which he was accused. 1999. Steele. 2000. or because of various events. Asaro. On the planet Ventus. which has been tampered with. all-devouring Mycora showed up. the dwindling of resources. Virtual Reality Virtual reality SF involves a computer-generated world in which people interact with each other and with computer-created constructs. 1997. smell. Wil. 2002. 1996. 1997. Could the new technology that allows people to be linked into ultra-miniaturized robots for recreational adventures be enough to kill for? McCarthy. A King of Infinite Space. asteroids. Allen M. adjusting to life in Rashid al-Jazari's harem. including the erosion of the environment. 1998. 1995. It has elements of both cyberpunk and alternate worlds and often features game playing. Schroeder. Ore. befriends an AI that Rashid created. McCarthy. these novels present a pessimistic view of the future. Ventus. fauna. Bloom. Permanence. Gibson. or unknown life forms from space. Rebecca. becomes . Karl. Earth was evacuated when the atom-sized. James P.342 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Hogan. Sometimes the natural world. Murder in the Solid State. Idoru.

political and social changes create a different type of disaster. 1985. 1989. Make Room! Make Room! 1966. Winner of the Hugo Award. The Plague Tales.and twenty-first-century England. * Harrison. Reissued 2003. 1994. Babylon. 1997. Reissued 2005. Reissued 1997. John. DuBois. Brin. * Pollution spells doom for the world. Reissued 2002. Crichton. Ann. A nuclear blast unleashes a plague of killer hurricanes. Reissued 2003. * m A deadly microbe returns from space on a scientific probe.The Future Is Bleak 343 hazardous and threatens life as we know it. David. 2000. 1969. Andromeda Strain. Michael. 1987. 1959. . A one-volume compilation of all three novels in the Xenogenesis trilogy. 1988. Brendan. Barnes. A parallel tale about the bubonic plague. 1968. Imago. 1999. John. * Overpopulation spells disaster for the world as we know it. Alas. The pacing can be agonizingly slow or heart-stoppingly fast. The Postman. Butler. in fourteenth. Arthur. Herzog. The Sheep Look Up. Adulthood Rites. • Stand on Zanzibar. Frank. 1972. Benson. à Brunner. Lilith's Brood. i l Soylent Green Overpopulation results in a shortage of food and other resources. Pat. The Swarm. Resurrection Day. Harry. 1974. Xenogenesis trilogy. At other times. Mother of Storms. Reissued 2002. Dawn. Octavia E.

Winner of the Hugo and Locus Awards. Fritz. A comet is headed straight for the moon. Heavy Weather. Kate. * McDevitt. 2004. but their machinations trigger actual cataclysmic events. Jack.344 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Jensen. 1998. * Pollution and disease breed sterility. à Dystopias and Utopias Sometimes the very worst of worlds are those that were created by those who thought they were creating perfection. Sterling. Millennium Rising. Kress. Reissued 1998. the Rapture. Nothing Human. 2003. told from the evangelical Christian point of view. LaHaye. Reissued 1998. Reissued as Judgment Day. 1965. Tim. Left Behind Series. and Jerry B. Robinson. . Titles are listed in the "Christian Fiction" chapter (chapter 13). Mass extinctions of insects are the beginning of the end. Zelazny. 1969. Reissued 2004. Charles R. Reissued 2001. Pellegrino. An international conspiracy rigs events to make it look like the end of the world is approaching. Jenkins. See also the following section on "Social Structures" for more nightmarish futures. Lucifer's Hammer. it was merely the first of a series of disasters. • The Wanderer. Dust. Larry. * When a gigantic comet slammed into the earth. Tornadoes and typhoons caused by the greenhouse effect are wreaking havoc with the environment. Wilhelm. Forty Signs of Rain. Global warming is on the verge of wreaking havoc on the world. 1994. Nancy. Leiber. Niven. Jane. Damnation Alley. and Jerry Pournelle. 1976. 1977. 1998. Where Late the Sweet Birds Sang. The last days of Earth have arrived. Roger. 1999. Kim Stanley. Bruce. Winner of the Hugo Award. Moonfall.

and a religious order takes care of those with eating disorders. 1998. Octavia E. or a world that necessitates cannibalism for humans who have made their lives in a place devoid of some necessary nutrients. political. Brin. 1932. Thinner Than Thou. Aldous. the social hierarchy depends on the size and wealth of ones clone clan. 1962. Social interactions between people. Winner of the Nebula Award. 1998. Nalo. * m A future without books and reading. On a world peopled by cloned women. 1998. whether based on a biological. 1993. Parable of the Sower. Earthseed Series. Burgess. 1953. Winner of the Hugo. * à Butler. Reissued 2005. Social Structures Societal evolution and change has vast implications for individual lives. or religious basis. • Parable of the Talents. Huxley. have been a suitable subject for examination in science fiction since the New Wave movement of the 1960s.Social Structures 345 Bradbury. Brave New World. Fahrenheit 451. Glory Season. * ii Mclntyre. A Clockwork Orange. Biological Social structures can be influenced by biology. Kit. 1978. The Alien Years. Nebula. those born of a sexual union. Hopkinson. Silverberg. Ray. A world in which thinness has become a religion. and Locus Awards. Anthony. Vonda. Audio version released 1994. Reed. Robert. whether it is an alien race that switches genders over time. . Reissued 1998. are still necessary for genetic diversity in the event of disaster. jft Dreamsnake. but vars. Brown Girl in the Ring. * In a postapocalyptic world a young healer uses poisonous snakes to heal. 2004. 1993. David. Reissued 2000. Reissued 2000.

Perelandra Trilogy. Margaret. Reissued 1991. Elwin Ransom is abducted by aliens and examines the conflicts between science and ethics. Reissued 1996. * The harshness of a world where cannibalism is essential also leads to a unique form of marriage among six individuals. and Kevin J. * fiii Dune Messiah. Reissued 1996. Reissued 2000. finds the effects of religion on social structures a fertile area. Brian Herbert. Paul and his mother flee to the desert. Le Guin. Anderson. * Gethenians are genderless except for the time each month when they can manifest one gender or the other. # A Case of Conscience. 1981. 1985. Reissued 1994. Reissued 1991. Out of the Silent Planet. 1976. Donald. 1961. This popular series was later extended by Herbert's son. the son of two members of a doomed Mars expedition. Heretics of Dune. with an emphasis on the space opera aspects of the original title. Robert A. Handmaid's Tale. C. Winner of the Hugo Award. Ml Blish. * A priest visiting an alien world questions how a society can seem so perfect and have no concept of sin or God. James. * Linguist Dr. 1982. When Paul leads them to take back their planet. # Stranger in a Strange Land. * Valentine Michael Smith. 1969.346 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Kingsbury. and religious fervor have tremendous impact on society and its inhabitants. Heinlein. Winner of the Hugo Award. 1943. 1965. Children of Dune. 1985. Reissued 1991. When the Atreides family is attacked by the Harkonens. Courtship Rite. Chapter House Dune. he becomes the center of a new religion. Atwood. 1958. Frank. with its ethic of looking at hard questions in an open way. Ursula K. Reissued 1996. The Left Hand of Darkness. Reissued 1994. where he starts a religion. Dune Chronicles. Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards. # Dune. Religious Spiritual beliefs. Lewis. God Emperor of Dune. moral codes. 1984. Herbert. is brought to Earth. . 1969. Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards. S. where they join the Fremen. Science fiction.

The Church of Cosmic Unity is full of violent missionary zeal. The Fall of Hyperion. 2004. # Hyperion. * Lord of Light. Reissued 1996. Ian. Samaria series. Jovah's Angel. who many believe is a god. Reissued 2004. 2004. Calculating God. On the planet Samaria the population depends on genetically engineered angels to intercede with the god Jovah to mitigate the violent weather. 2003. 1989. Stewart. 1996. Mary Doria. Sawyer. 1945. 1943. 1990. 1997. Sharon. The Rise of Endymion. Angelica. Zelazny. Marley. Award. and Jack Cohen. Children of God. 1997. women's roles are clearly delineated by religion. 1999. Simmons. 1996. Heaven. Louise. A band of men who control the technology on a colony planet have made themselves virtually immortal and expect to be treated like Hindu gods." Shinn. Hyperion series. The Alleluia Files. Dan. Angel Seeker. Roger. . Robert J . Winner of the James Tiptree Jr. Russell. That Hideous Strength. A party of pilgrims sets out to find the Shrike.Social Structures 347 Perelandra. 1996. On the planet Irustan. The Archangel. 1967. 1998. Reissued 1996. Endymion. An alien paleontologist comes to Earth looking for information on extinction events because "the primary goal of modern science is to discover why God has behaved as he has and to determine his methods. 1998. Winner of the Hugo Award. 2000. Listed in chronological series order. The Terrorists oflrustan. # The Sparrow. Winner of the Hugo Award.

the alternate world would end up with a different history than ours. 2003. but when anyone travels through. Beneath the Gated Sky. 2000. Reed. Midnight Robber. # Hominids. J. Alternate history explores what may have happened through time in a world that followed a different path than ours. Hopkinson. Robert. he or she is reborn into the body of a member of the dominant species. conceived. In the world Ponter Boddit is from. What if we could travel back and forth between these worlds? Novels set in parallel worlds look at that question. Neanderthal Parallax. Alternate History Alternate history tells the stories of what could have happened if some event in history had diverged from the path we know and as a result caused that time's future to experience events that differ from the events we know. perhaps.g. where Tan Tan feels she is being taken over by the mythical Robber Queen. Nalo. Robert. If the change happened sometime in the past. Winner of the Hugo Award. 2003. Two sets of scientists working in two parallel worlds at the same time on completely different projects have created a temporary passage. 1997. along a spatial fourth dimension. Vladimir Nabokov). 1994. they flee their high-tech planet for its alternate universe twin.) This theme has been used by many science fiction authors in addition to those in the following list. Microscopic wormholes connect billions of worlds. Hybrids. Sawyer's exquisite world building creates a world with complex familial relationships and culture. Parallel Worlds Parallel earths and parallel universes are worlds that exist simultaneously with our Earth. characters can be transported out of one parallel universe and into another. 2002. (In some worlds of fantasy. Neanderthals are the dominant species and have pretty much bred criminal tendencies out of their gene pool. Beyond the Veil of Stars. Sawyer. ..348 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Alternate and Parallel Worlds One question that is asked over and over again in science fiction is "what if?" What if every decision that dictates a different outcome creates a new world where the other path is taken? In this scenario the number of worlds grows exponentially. Cosmic Event Agency series. as well as by authors of the mainstream novel (e. Humans. When Tan Tan's father kills someone in a duel.

Weapons of Choice. where mores about race and gender are very different. * DuBois. 1998. The Great War: American Front. 1962. Robert Charles. Harry. • The Man in the High Castle. Newt. but they are our descendants no matter what new abilities they have acquired or how they have been transformed through science. but with significant differences. 2004. Axis of Time Trilogy. Forstchen. 1996. 1998. and William R. Reissued 1992. 1996. Beings in these stories are recognizable as humans. Worldwar: In the Balance: The Alternate History of Alien Invasion. while at other times tampering with the genome creates disaster. In 2021 a wormhole experiment takes several ships on a UN mission and flings them backward through time to World War II. Turtledove. World War II is interrupted by a fleet of lizard-like beings from outer space. The Great War: Breakthroughs. cloning. Worldwar series. Worldwar: Striking the Balance. The Guns of the South: A Novel of the Civil War. 1992. Earth's Children The children of Earth in future generations may or may not remember their roots. . Darwinia. 2000. John. Brendan. 1994. Resurrection Day. Bioengineering The dynamic field of bioengineering is a particularly rich field for SF writers to explore. genetics. 1999. Grant Comes East. Worldwar: Upsetting the Balance. mapping the human genome.Earth's Children 349 Birmingham. DNA. Winner of the Hugo Award. and anything else one may never have imagined that take biology to another level are fodder for this type of science fiction. The Great War: Walk in Hell. Worldwar: Tilting the Balance. Gingrich. 2004. Dick. Wilson. Philip K. Sometimes the bioengineering imbues the character with extended abilities. 1999. 1995. The Great War.

350 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Atwood. Nothing Human. Bujold. Paul. 1988. McAuley. a bioinformatics specialist who has a gift for pattern analysis and is autistic. Oryx and Crake. • Falling Free. A private investigator in a world where bioengineering runs rampant deals with a trigger-happy kangaroo and other oddities. Winner of the Nebula Award. Runaway Heart. With humanity dying off. 2003. with Occasional Music. Mark. Moon. Private Investigator Jack Wirta. To work in a gravity-free environment. a wealthy patient turns to an in illegal viral treatment that infects everyone he encounters. The Changeling Plague. Looking for a cure for his cystic fibrosis. aliens genetically alter a group of fourteen year olds and take them onto their ship." Winner of the Nebula Award. Biopunk series. Chromosome 6. Nancy. 2003. 2003. some people are selected to colonize an asteroid. Cook. Cannell. White Devils. Lou. Margaret. 2003. Lethem. until the teens rebel. Gun. 2003. Elizabeth. discovers a government project to engineer a creature to replace combat troops. • The Speed of Dark. Clade. Genetic engineering gone hideously wrong in a near future devastated by disease. 2004. Budz. . Quaddies are bioengineered with four arms and no legs. Lois McMaster. Stephen J . After an ecocaust has decimated the world as we know it. Syne. does not like that his employer wants all autistic employees to undergo an experimental process that will make them "normal. Mitchell. Crache. following up leads on some genetically modified corn that will kill off butterflies. 2003. Reissued 2004. ffl A near-future world turned into a bio-wasteland. which works perfectly until artificial gravity is invented. 2004. Jonathan. 1997. Robin. 1994. Kress.

Johnny Baker was meant to be an artist from the very beginning. Rudy. Maximum Ride. 2003. Elizabeth Ann. Patterson. The Lake House. Bruce. and the secret may turn up in the genes of Chena Trust. from the children's point of view. Aliens. Born in 2037. 2004. and strange little people are just a fraction of the inventiveness in this bizarre (in a really good way) book. When the Wind Blows. Frek and the Elixir. The Island of Dr. 1999. Channeling Cleopatra. even someone dead for centuries. allowing the subject access to the personality and thoughts of the donor. when bioengineering is everything. which just happened to be in a test tube. Moreau. Cleopatra series. There is a new kind of slavery in the world. Kingdom of Cages.2. James. Distraction. H. Sarah. Sterling. * m Wilson. 2002. 2001. The subjects of a top secret government project are children who have been genetically engineered to fly. to be implanted in another. G. 2004. The Song of the Earth. 2001. Cleopatra 7. Rucker. a combination of humans and chimpanzees created by the SimGen corporation and bred specifically for that purpose. Flying Children series. 1998. Hugh. A new technology allows DNA from one person. A stand-alone novel published for young adults. 2005. but it doesn't really matter because bioengineering can make just about anything. sims. Wells. patra series. cartoons that jump off the screen. Paul. F. 2003. bad but he is also the result of illegal Columbian bioengineering. Oscar Valparaiso is a political spin doctor in a United States gone. Biodiversity is way down because of the biosphere collapse.Earth's Children 351 Nissenson. 1896. . Sims. This wild and crazy story is set a thousand years in the future. Zettel. Scarborough. The planet Pandora is the only one where humans aren't dying off.

352 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Psionic Powers The powers of precognition. Steven. The Tar-Aiym Krang. 2004. 1992. Davy Rice Duology. Orphan Star. 1977. 1983. John. Sliding Scales. For Love of Mother Not. a former street urchin. Barnes. 2004. 1972. 1977. Foster. Mid-Flinx. telekinesis. A telepathic linkage of humankind. Reflex. Candle. and wander at will. Jumper. Thirteen-year-old Pella Marsh moves with her family to a ruined planet. and teleportation displayed by characters in science fiction make current research in parapsychology seem crude. telepathy. despite creating peace. Lethem. Flinx s Folly. 1995. The End of the Matter. How Like a God. Barbarossa series. . Reissued 2002. 1998. has a flying snake and telepathic abilities. Reunion. Gould. Bloodhype. Alan Dean. 1997. 2000. 1973. 2000. Jonathan. where she is able to telepathically move into the bodies of local indigenous life forms. Rob Lewis has the ability to control minds and make people do what he wants them to do. called household deer. Girl in Landscape. Flinx in Flux. Reissued 2003. may be actually controlling those it is supposed to be serving. Doors of Death and Life. 2003. Flinx. Clough. Davy Rice can teleport away from danger or to wherever he wants to go. 2001. Science fiction authors invented the term psionics (psychic electronics) to describe these powers of the mind. 1988. Pip and Flinx Adventures. clairvoyance. Brenda W.

would burn through anything organic. Dragonlady of Pern. Dragonsblood. Dragonriders of Pern series. An archeologist who can see into the past falls into the world of ancient Mayan magic. Reissued 2004. The Renegades of Pern. Primes use their psi-abilities to teleport people and cargo through space. McCaffrey also wrote this trilogy for teenagers. The White Dragon. buying them out of slavery." Dragon/light. 1966. the settlers discovered that. a neighboring planet periodically came close to Pern. Murphy. Damia. Tower and the Hive series. The Girl Who Heard Dragons. After Pern was colonized. Dragonsdawn." a filament that would fly from the other planet. 2003. 1988. 1994. 1978. 1989. 1991. McCaffrey. Todd. The Witches ofKarres. and Todd McCaffrey. Pat. Anne. 1994. Lyon s Pride. • The Falling Woman. because of irregular orbits. 1999. 1996. Masterharper of Pern. Dragonseye. 1968. 1992. 2005. 1998. Harper Hall Trilogy. 1993. Winner of the Nebula Award. Reissued 1993. Dragonquest. The Rowan. The Tower and the Hive. Moreta. The Dolphins of Pern. The Chronicles of Pern: First Fall. and "Thread. McCaffrey. and while trying to take them to their home planet. James H. Dragon's Kin. Telepathic flame-throwing dragons were bred to fight the "Thread. he discovers that they have powerful psionic powers. 1968.Psionic Powers 353 McCaffrey. Anne. set on Pern. 1983. A captain rescues three little girls. 1990. All the Weyrs of Pern. . Schmitz. 1985. Damia's Children. 1987. 1992.

Telzey Amberdon is not only a talented telepath. 1996. Exactly what alien life looks like is a question often probed. Brightness Reef. and a type that usually appears in no other genre. 2000. enhanced bodies. Brin. * A mutant minority develops psionic abilities. is the type featuring aliens. Includes the novels The Universe Against Her (1964) and The Lion Game (1973). Poul. E . 1995.354 Chapter 10—Science Fiction The Complete Federation of the Hub. Starfarers. 1998. 1978. along with how humans will respond to and interact with aliens. and whether aliens pose a threat to humankind or are benevolent. Shonjir. Anderson. able to communicate with aliens. . but being found a slan is a death sentence. The Hub: Dangerous Territory. 2001. Heaven's Reach. Foreigner Series. Stories featuring Telzey Amberdon and Trigger Argee. Kesrith. Infinity's Shore. Foreigner: A Novel of First Contact. Cherryh is one of today's most popular science fiction/fantasy authors. and super intelligence. 1979. A. 1994. "First contact" is a situation ripe with possibilities for drama. 1946. J . Uplift Storm Trilogy. 2000. van Vogt. David. 1999. The remaining humanoid Mri on Kesrith lose their home when the Regul surrender the planet to the humans. Telzey Amberdon. Cherryh. A new collection of classic Trigger Argee stories. She is renowned for her ability to create truly alien aliens. Invader. Trigger and Friends. 2000. she is also a xenotelepath. Faded Sun Trilogy. Aliens One of the richest areas in science fiction. TNT Telzey & Trigger. 2001. Kutath. C. Reissued in Omnibus edition. Slan. 1995. Reissued 1998. 1978.

After aliens unwittingly bring a devastating plague to New Jersey. Kress. Crossfire. The Star Beast.Aliens 355 Inheritor. 2005. Freedom's Choice. 2004. Defender. After the Blue. and has an unearthly ancestry. 1988. 2001. Literary hard science fiction that revolves around a war between humans and an alien race. Freedom's Landing. Robert A. 1953. Explorer. Heinlein. Freedom's Challenge. 2001. Reissued 2001. Russel. 1999. 1998. is huge. Lummox. * Haldeman. Reissued 2004. Anne. 1954. Probability Sun. a family pet. they try to rectify the wrong. . 1996. Lichtenberg. voracious. 2003. The colonists end up being drawn into a war between alien species. Childhood's End. 2002. 1989. 1998. human colonists go to a distant planet. 2002. where they find primitive humanoid aliens who do not seem to be indigenous to the planet. Cosmic Crossfire series. Precursor. Those of My Blood. Probability Moon. Dreamspy. 2000. Destroyer. With Earth dying. Clarke. Probability Space. 1997. Alien Vampire series. Arthur C. Like. Reissued 2003. Reissued 1987. 1995. 2004. Jacqueline. Crucible. Freedom Trilogy. Joe. Probability series. McCaffrey. in this hilarious parody. Camouflage. Nancy.

1963. The Gateway Trip. 2002. Heechee Rendezvous. McCaffrey. Starplex. Clifford D. Search. 1998. • Way Station. 1998. * Enoch Wallace. 2000. 1971. Remnant Population. 1996. Footfall. Nebula. jft A Time of Changes. Factoring Humanity. Acorna's Acorna's Acorna's Acorna's Acorna's People. McCaffrey. World. Moon. Rebels. Calculating God. a hermit. 1997. and Jerry Pournelle. 1984. Acorna: The Unicorn Girl. Joan. Robert. * # Gateway. Sawyer. The Boy Who Would Live Forever: A Novel of Gateway. 1997. Slonczewski. Anne and Elizabeth Ann Scarborough. Reissued 2004. 1985.356 Chapter 10—Science Fiction McCaffrey. Winner of the Hugo Award. Simak. 2003. Robert J. and Margaret Ball. Reissued 1997. 2004. and Locus Awards. Anne. Aliens attack Earth. Elizabeth Ann Scarborough. Pohl. 1977. The Longest Way Home. Winner of the Hugo. Acorna Series. Winner of the Nebula Award. Elizabeth. Acorna's Quest. The Alien Years. Silverberg. 2000. 2001. The Annals of the Heechee. Triumph. Niven. 1980. Illegal Alien. 1987. Heechee Saga. Anne. 1990. hides a galactic transfer station in his home that is a stopping-off place for traveling aliens. Beyond the Blue Event Horizon. . 1998. 1999. Larry. 2004. Frederik. and Margaret Ball. 1996.

Cavanagh's Star is claimed by three different alien societies. 1992. Code Blue: Emergency. 1999. 2003. James. 1983. A hospital station in space takes care of a huge diversity of aliens. Star Healer. Final Diagnosis. * à White. H. Major Operation. 1997. 1991. 1987. Sector General series. 1979. Pham Numan manages to escape and sets out to find two young children who may hold the key to stopping the Blight before it's too late. Tepper. Vernor. 1898. Karen. a planet heavily laced with arsenic. • A Fire Upon the Deep. 1985. Hospital Station. is spreading throughout the universe. The Galactic Gourmet. On Prokaryon. Winner of the Hugo Award.Aliens 357 The Children Star. G. Mind Changer. The War of the Worlds. Jewel manages to take several condemned dogs to the planet Moss with her. 1971. 1996. * The Blight. where they help unravel a mystery discovered by her late mother on the planet Mars that indicates humans are not the only sentient species with a connection to dogs. Ambulance Ship. City of Pearl 2004. When an alien race blames humanity for the virus and follows through with an attack. 1998. Wells. Star Surgeon. 1962. Traviss. but live at a totally different pace. 1998. . 1999. Winner of the Hugo Award. The Genocidal Healer. The Companions. A A Deepness in the Sky. Sheri S. a mind-destroying virus. a small religious order of both humans and AIs strives to create a colony with orphaned children rescued from a plague-ridden planet. but what could it be? The aliens not only have a totally different biological basis than humans. 1963. Vinge. with triple-strand DNA. The highly structured ecosystem indicates that there must be intelligent life on the planet. Double Contact. Sector General.

Reissued 2002. and Steve Miller. romantic elements add a new dimension of excitement to SF. 2000. Conflict of Honors. but publishers in both genres seem eager to promote the blend. 1988. Although the entire series has a good deal of romance. 1999. this space opera has a strong romantic element. Romances that are most clearly science fiction are the romances referred to as "futuristics" by romance readers. The dystopian future and nonstop action calls to mind classic adventure movies like Mad Max and Tank Girl. Lois McMaster. The books are published as science fiction. 1999. Reissued 2003. Mystery in a science fiction setting is also not new. Romance is also one of the standard elements in space opera. Bujold. 2001. the two listed here in particular have plenty to satisfy even romance fans. Reissued 2002. 2004. Carpe Diem. There have always been combinations putting science fiction and fantasy together. # A Civil Campaign. the rise of female authors and characters in the genre has in recent years added a new emphasis on relationships. action and adventure focusing on male heroes have prevailed. . Sharon. This omnibus edition of Local Custom and Scout's Progress is a prequel to Agent of Change. Plan B. 1988. Also referred to as the Liaden Universe. the characters involved are of human ancestry. They are published as science fiction. 2002. Liz. Agent of Change Sequence. 1989. Romantic Science Fiction The trend toward genreblending marries SF and romance. Published as romance. Maverick. The future offers an exciting backdrop to romance. Agent of Change. Sunrise Alley. Pilots Choice. Winner of the Sapphire Award. 2004. The proportions of science and romance vary greatly from title to title. The Shadow Runners: 2176. Lee. Asaro. 1986. Shards of Honor. and readers who enjoy romantic SF may find additional titles in that section to enjoy. Reissued 2003.358 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Genreblending Genreblending between science fiction and other genres continues to grow. Catherine. I Dare. Vorkosigan Saga. Reissued 2003. The most remarkable trend in genreblending may be science fiction blended with romance. The Phoenix Code. Although throughout the history of SF. Generally.

Inhuman Beings. Heart Mate. Ju Science Fiction Mysteries The combination of science fiction and mystery is an established tradition that produces galactic policemen and private eyes—human. The world building in this series makes Celta come alive in much the same way Pern. A private detective is offered a small fortune by a celebrity psychic to find the aliens she is sure exist on Earth. 2000. Fusion Fire. The planet Celta was settled by Wiccans with psionic powers. 1987. 1953. Heart Choice. 1983. Dietz. Celta Series. 2004. Reissued 1991. Darkover. Firebird. Published as romance. cigar-chomping Sam McCade is an interstellar bounty hunter with a spaceship called Pegasus. Firebird Trilogy. 2000. Isaac. alien. Published as romance. Robin D. The Caves of Steel. Elijah Baley & R. Sam McCade series. Tyers. Jerry Jay. Reissued 1994. Asimov. 1998. Kathy. in which an alien detective comes to Earth and must inhabit a human body to catch a malign entity who has taken over the body of a young boy's father. 2003. 1954. and Witch World have become part of the science fiction fabric. Crown of Fire." Winner of the Hugo Award. The Power of Two: 2176. The very first Hugo award winner features Lincoln Powell. Rester. 2005. Heart Thief. Owens. The Demolished Man.Genreblending 359 O'Shea. Reissued 1996. a telepathic cop-hunting a man who will murder to avoid "psychic demolition. The Robots of Dawn. Alfred. Patti. Detection became popular in science fiction novels in the 1950s following Clements's 1949 novel Needle. Wise-cracking. Carroll. Daneel Olivaw series. Heart Duel 2004. (Christian). This classic series pairs a robot and human detective. Reissued 1999. The Naked Sun. and mechanical. 1957. Reissued 1991. . William C. 2002.

Naked in Death. Alex Benedict and Chase Kolpath series. Reissued 1998. (pseudonym of romance writer. 1994. 2005. 1996. Vengeance in Death.. Seeker. A Talent for War. Originally titled War World. Alien Bounty. 1995. stumbles across a horrifying sight that sends her into hiding as she tries to evade the powerful INS while seeking answers to the mystery she found at the bottom of the ocean. Reissued 2004. 1993. Glory in Death. Mindstar Rising. Sixty years after the crew of the Polaris disappeared B la the Marie Celeste. 1986. 1997. a New York police lieutenant who is married to a billionaire. 1997. 1990. J. Alex is sucked into a mystery involving a long-dead war hero. Jack. in a world menaced by rising sea levels. an adventurous antiquarian and his beautiful brilliant assistant fall into mysteries. Featuring a biologically enhanced psychic detective. Holiday in Death. McCade's Bounty. a hacker on the run from both authorities and assassins must discover what is was she triggered. a busy underwater salvage operator. Rapture in Death. 1995. Patricia Beeman. D. Hamilton. Reissued 2005. 1988.360 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Galactic Bounty. When his archaeologist uncle dies suddenly. their personal belongings start turning up and being sold for profit. Polaris. 1996. A Quantum Murder. and Robert Weinberg. McDevitt. Reissued 2004. 1988. Imperial Bounty. 1990. In the distant future. Reissued 1999. Robb. Eve Dallas series. Ceremony in Death. If she has any hope of surviving. The Termination Node. Set in the twenty-first century. 1998. Immortal in Death. 1999. 2000. Nora Roberts). The star of this series is supercop Eve Dallas. . Gould. Reissued 2004. Reissued 1997. Steven. Reissued 2005. 1995. Gresh. The Nano Flower. Blind Waves. Peter F. Greg Mandel series. 2004. Lois H.

Moreaus are second-class citizens because they are descended from animals. 2003. Her mentor. Andrew. finds himself stuck with a beautiful new client after losing a poker hand. Moreau series. 1998. Witness in Death. 2001. which wouldn't be bad except that he discovers that she is really a jaguar chimera disguised as a real human. 2005. is exposed as one of the infamous Nameday vigilantes and stripped of his badge but not his need for justice. and Specters of the Dawn (1994). Stableford. Imitation in Death. a famous scientist. of genetically altered tiger stock. and she is the prime suspect. 2002. a tough-talking P. Hegemonic Police officer Nyx LaisTree. 1999. Origin in Death. Inherit the Earth. the sole survivor of a massacre in a warehouse. descended from a rabbit. . Divided in Death. Fearful Symmetries: The Return of Nohar Rajasthan. and it is up to Cowen Drake to find and stop the killer.. Max Maxwell. Vinge. Sharon. Wrapt in Crystal. Joan D. Shinn. Purity in Death. 2003. Nohar Rjasthan. 1999. 2004. Survivor in Death. Portrait in Death. 2004. Reunion in Death. 2000. Includes Forests of the Night (1993). Emperors of the Twilight (1994). The priestess of two very different religious orders have been targeted by a serial killer. has been killed. Swann. 1999. 2005. The series features two private investigators.Genreblending 361 Conspiracy in Death. 2003. Will. Visions in Death. Chimera. 1999. and Angelica Lopez. Brian. Nanotechnology and life extension are at the heart of a thriller in which the son of a legendary inventor is targeted by extremists. S. Moreau Omnibus. Betrayal in Death. Shetterly. Tangled Up in Blue. 2002. 2001. 2000. Loyalty in Death. Seduction in Death. 2000.I.

1999. 1980. Robert. 1982. The Silicon Dagger. Martians Go Home. 1955. Reissued 1999. Cowboy Feng's Space Bar and Grille. Life. . Reissued 2004. Reissued 2000. Robert. Steven. Asprin. Free Live Free. Asprin. Reissued 2004. 1985. 1990. with Peter J. No Phule Like an Old Phule. Wolfe. Adams. Reissued 1995. and Thanks for All the Fish. who is an officer in the Galactic Alliance and a filthy rich thrill seeker (and his butler. the Universe and Everything. Brown. So Long. Phule s Paradise. Reissued 1999." Arthur Dent is off on a universe of wacky adventures featuring incredibly odd characters when he finds out at the last minute that Earth is slated for destruction because it is in the path of a construction project. The Ultimate Hitchhiker's Guide (2000) is an omnibus edition of the five titles in the "trilogy. Brust. 2004. Douglas. £Q Humor in Science Fiction Humor is so subjective that there can be no guaranteed funny reads. Jack. m The Restaurant at the End of the Universe. Reissued in 2002 in the omnibus Martians and Madness: The Complete S F Novels of Fredric Brown. and it is up to the sole cop left in the world to find the culprit. but there are some readers who have found the following tales humorous in varying degrees. Fredric. Heck. Vernor. Reissued 2005. 1999. A Phule and His Money. Phule series. 1992. 1982. 2001. 1979. Reissued 2003.362 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Vinge. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Featuring Willard Phule. Williamson. 1984. Phule s Company. Clay Barstow goes in and uncovers a secret high-tech plot. Gene. Phule's Me Twice. When his investigative journalist brother is murdered in a small Kentucky town. Mostly Harmless. 1986. Marooned in Realtime. one of only 300 humans left is murdered. Fifty thousand years in the future. Beeker). Hitchhiker's trilogy. 1990.

Christopher. 1986. 1977. Moore. Reissued 1999. Larry. I Know Why the Winged Whale Sings. Rainbow Mars. 2000. EQ Could it be that one person is unknowingly starting trends and fashion? Uncharted Territory. Robert. Niven. with unexpected results. Truckers. Reissued 2001. Callahan's Lady. Connie. Callahan's Secret. Bill. 2004. Four-inch-tall aliens have made a home on Earth after being stranded here. Pratchett. 1994. Recruiters will go to any lengths to meet their quotas. Science Fantasy The combination of science fiction and fantasy is sometimes called science fantasy. Wings. Bellwether. Reissued 2001.Genreblending 363 Harrison. Callahan's Key. 2003. 2001. living in a polluted and grim thirty-first century and working for the Institute for Temporal Research. 1993. Rankin. 1990. the Galactic Hero. The Callahan Touch. Reissued 2004. Terry. 1965. Winner of the Campbell and Skylark Awards. Reissued 2004. Readers who like both genres will often enjoy the combination of the two . Hanville Svetz. The Hollow Chocolate Bunnies of the Apocalypse. Harry. Time Travelers Strictly Cash. Fluke: Or. Willis. 1996. # Callahan's Crosstime Saloon. Callahan's Legacy. Bromeliad series. Reissued 2000. travels to the past. Reissued 2002. An omnibus edition of the first three titles in the series. Reissued 2004. 1990. Planetary surveyors experience the dark side of political correctness in this satirical novella. 1999. Spider. The Callahan Chronicles. 1997. 1989. 1996. Sophisticated wit appears in all her works. Robinson. Diggers. Callahan Stories Series. 1989.

Ivory. 2003. The Gate of Ivory. Guilt-Edged Ivory. 2001. Omnibus of The Steerswoman and Outskirter' s Secret. and magids. Deep Secret. 2004. Egan. Steerswoman series. 1992.364 Chapter 10—Science Fiction or novels that are SF but have a fantasy "feel" to them because of science or religion that appears to be magic or the presence of mythical creatures. Steerswomen acquire and disseminate knowledge in a medieval fantasy world that is orbited by spacecraft. Kirstein. he is on the run after his father is murdered and his mother commits suicide. . The Language of Power. 2002. Jim. 2003. an anthropology scholar from a technological planet. Chambers. Parallel worlds. SF with fantasy trappings in what has the feel of a medieval world. Rosemary. city Hope. 2001. The Lost Steersman. leaving him a note saying that he is the rightful heir to the throne. Grimsley. The Ordinary. 2000. Doris. 1989. Clarke's Third Law: "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. a science fiction convention. A technologically advanced race wants to establish trade through a gate with the inhabitants of a world where the inhabitants believe in magic. Omnibus of the three following titles. is fascinated by the way magic is used on Ivory. Hope's End. 1992. Vel is targeted by the secret police of the planet Hera. Jones. Stephen. The Complete Ivory. who are supposed to keep it all in order. It has been called a perfect example of Arthur C. Vel Chronicles. Two-Bit Heroes. Theodora. Hope's War. Diana Wynne." The Steerswoman's Road. 2004. As an unregistered child.

2004). 365 . Robert A. Heinlein. Joe Haldeman. Frederik Pohl. Both the theme anthologies and the critical and historical collections may have stories from all periods and often suffer from repetition of much-anthologized pieces. Anthologies An effective way to become acquainted with the characteristics of authors in the science fiction genre. Robert Reed. Greg Egan. William Gibson. Orson Scott. Kim Stanley Robinson. In addition to indexing science fiction. Includes stories by Brian W. Connie Willis. ed. Le Guin. A few suggestions follow. Aldiss. MacLeod. H. 2001. Card. Michael Swanwick. Walter Jon Williams. science fiction has been written about from scholarly as well as writing and publishing perspectives. John Crowley. and horror short stories published in those years. George C. Charles Stross. Ursula K. The short story is a very popular form in both science fiction and fantasy. Greg Bear. Geoffrey A. Aldiss. Although the following listing of anthologies is long. Ursula K. Eric Frank Russell. for those published before 1984. Eileen Gunn. and Gene Wolfe. Dozois. fantasy. Greg Egan. McHugh. 1984). Butler. Kim Stanley Robinson. Le Guin. Peter F. and Connie Willis. Damon Knight. Wallis. Landis. Robert Silverberg. Colin Kapp. Dick. Clifford D. Contento and Charles N.Topics Well-established as a genre. Robert Sheckley. Brian Stableford. John Morressy. William Sander. Simak. Hall. Mike Resnick. Bruce Sterling. Includes stories by Brian W. Nancy Kress. Michael Swanick. Isaac Asimov. Mike Resnick. Gardner. Martin's. Clifford D. Dick. Ian McDonald. Chandler Elliott. Howard Waldrop. Ashley. is through anthologies. Pat Cadigan. Clarke. St. David Marusek. Molly Gloss. Ted Chiang. Tony Daniel. Eric Brown. Robert Silverberg. Best of the Best: 20 Years of the Year's Best Science Fiction. Frank Lillie Pollock. and Roger Zelazny. Hamilton. Carroll & Graf Publishers. Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the Century. Stephen Baxter. Includes stories by Stephen Baxter. it is by no means exhaustive. and particularly with the work of new authors. Mike. Contento's Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections (G. 2005. ed. Ian R. Octavia E. Greg Bear. Terry Bisson. John Varley. Mark Clifton. Philip K. Paul McAuley. K. it also indexes books and magazines. Anne McCaffrey. Robert Reed. Arthur C. Simak. Brown are the authors of The Locus Index to Science Fiction 1984-2003 (Locus Press. Pamela Sargent. Keith Roberts. Geoff Ryman. Ace. Steven Utley. Joe Haldeman. John Kessel. Mike Ashley. Maureen F. 2002. ed. The essential reference tool for contending with the massive number of short stories is William G. William Bigson. Philip K. The Mammoth Book of Science Fiction. There are many sources in which to explore this genre and its rich history. Gregory Benford. Lucius Shepard. James Patrick Kelly.

. Edited by Gardner Dozois. 1999. Number 3 was published in 2001. and other topics. 1995. 1995. edited by Vonda N. DK Publishing. It has 4. and fiftieth anniversary editions published by St. Doubleday. . The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction. 1988.366 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Ellison. Pohl. Edited by Karen Haber and Jonathan Strahan. Dangerous Visions. and much more in narrative and pictures. Clute. consult earlier editions of Genreflecting. Historical and critical. Encyclopedias The following encyclopedias contain extensive bibliographical. ed. The Year's Best Science Fiction. ed. Nebula Awards Showcase 2004. Tor. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. 1972. Number 9 was published in 2004. authors. criticism. Gunn. was published in 2004. Science Fiction: The Best of . The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. John. forty-fifth. Year's Best SF. biography. 1996. with extensive bibliographical material.. James. Nebula Awards. Although not exactly an encyclopedia. The SFWA Grand Masters Volume 2. Number 33 was published in 1999. and 1999. but there were fortieth. books. L. Martin's Press in 1989.360 entries. and they continue to be used. Many of the articles are extended critical essays. topics. 1994. terminology. trends. Biographical listings for many little-known authors. Summaries. titles. Viking-Penguin. In 2000 the title was changed to Nebula Awards Showcase. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future. ed. John. Groundbreaking anthologies that continue to be read. 2001. 1967 and Again. and bibliographical and historical information on people. Starlight. Many libraries still have the old anthology series on their shelves. 2000. Clute. Tor. Edited by David Hartwell. and Peter Nicholls. St. 1965. this lavishly illustrated browsing book does an outstanding job of placing science fiction in a historical context. Doubleday. . . For a more comprehensive listing of anthology series. The essential guide to science fiction lists trends. Alphabetical arrangement of themes. Tor. Dangerous Visions. Mclntyre. Edited by Patrick Nielsen Hay den. Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia. . and The SFWA Grand Masters Volume 3. Science Fiction: The Best of 2004 was published as an electronic book in 2005. Harlan. Frederik. Most of the series have now been discontinued for a number of years. Number 21 was published in 2004. Martin's Press. Number 20 was published in 2004. with many cross-references. and films in science fiction. The SFWA Grand Masters Volume 1. historical. and critical material. Anthology Series For decades the anthology series played an important role in science fiction publishing. The twenty-fourth and last series was published in 1982.

com Published monthly. Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (http://www. They are listed in science fiction magazines and on the Internet.. fantasy.locusmag. and horror paperback originals." Science Fiction Research Association (http://www. http://www. "Con" is usually part of the conference name. fantasy. Associations European Science Fiction Society.. it has a membership of fans from several European countries and meets at an annual convention. The group's motto is "The Future Isn't What It Used to Be. The membership of WorldCon awards the annual Hugo Awards. bibliographies. usually combining science fiction and fantasy. Seven accomplished reviewers discuss not only book-length fiction but also short stories.com/ A bimonthly that reviews books for young adults and has remarkably good coverage of science fiction. The association was founded in 1965.sfra. a few other outstanding sources of reviews.html (accessed February 2 5 . in 2004. http://www. Formed in 1972.sfcanada. the sixty-second was held in Boston. Locus Online at http://www. VOYA: Voice of Youth Advocates. Has an academic and research orientation but is open to all. http://www.locusmag. The first was held in 1939.Conventions 367 Review Journals Most of the magazines and fanzines of science fiction contain reviews.sfwa. 2005) does an exceptionally good job of listing "cons. It sponsors the annual Nebula Awards for several categories of science fiction writing.com/ Edited by David Hartwell and Kathryn Cramer. Locus. 1988. VOYA annually publishes a list of the best science fiction. Author interviews. com/Conventions. New York Review of Science Fiction.org/).org/). 1978. and often adding horror and the supernatural. SF Canada (http://www. news of events and personalities. and horror of the year for young adults. Open to published authors. Conventions Fans and writers form many associations and hold innumerable conventions." World Science Fiction Convention ("WorldCon").ca/).voya. however. and the highly respected Locus Poll also make it very useful. 1968-.nyrsf. There are. Formerly called the Speculative Writers' Association of Canada. . it features essays and articles in addition to reviews. it lists all SF and fantasy published in English.

D's Science Fiction Picks D's Science Fiction Picks Bujold. Clarke Award. Award is "given to the work of science fiction or fantasy published in one year which best explores or expands gender roles. 1999. Aurealis Award. this award is presented for science fiction and fantasy that looks at gender in a different way.awardweb.com/SFAwards/index. A prerequisite of membership is the publication of a work of science fiction. Membership in SFWA is open only to published authors in the field. The winners are selected by a vote of the members of the organization. The following are the best-known major awards for science fiction: Arthur C. Dick Award. Given to the Best SF Romance of the Year. or horror by the candidate. Compton Crook Award. Jr. . (space opera/SF romance). Reginald (Borgo. Given to the best in Canadian science fiction and fantasy. the winner is selected by readers of science fiction.htm). fantasy.html). Award. The James Tiptree. and horror award. Ditmar. Sponsored by the SF Romance Newsletter. it is a reflection of fan opinion. Is awarded as a result of a poll taken among the subscribers to Locus. it is voted on by members of the annual WorldCon. Award Web (http://www. Awarded by the Baltimore Science Fiction Society for the best first novel of science fiction (including fantasy). Hugo. Lois McMaster.locusmag. Sapphire Award (http://members.com/sfreditor/bestsfr. It is administered by the Philadelphia SF Society. J r . 1991). Nebula. in other words. making this prestigious award a writers' award that reflects high literary merit. by Daryl F. Awarded at World Science Fiction Conventions. Both Miles and his clone brother Mark are courting the women of their dreams. . A Civil Campaign. who wrote under this male pseudonym. Awarded by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. Locus Index to Science Fiction Awards (http://www. consult Reginald's Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive Guide to the Awards and Their Winners. Australian science fiction award." Locus. For a comprehensive listing of awards up to 1990. fantasy.368 Chapter 10—Science Fiction Awards Awards are generally reported in the various science fiction magazines soon after the results are announced. Named after Hugo Gernsback. Australian science fiction. Awarded to a science fiction or fantasy book published in paperback.aol. Philip K. as preparations for the royal wedding advance. Mallett and R. Prix Aurora Award. One of the most prestigious awards. James Tiptree. Currently the easiest way to find award information is on the World Wide Web.info). Named for Alice Sheldon. Awarded for the best British science fiction novel from the previous year.

Three disparate cultures comes to life through brilliant characterizations. an accomplished underwater photographer with a saucy school teacher girlfriend. . and a mysteriously pale research intern whose credentials don't check out round out the likeable cast. Reissued 2004. Sawyer. when "two become one. J. Christopher. A dreadlocked rasta white boy from New Jersey. and one can communicate with anybody or anything. Outrageously hilarious tale of whale researcher Nate Quinn. One is precognitive. Robert. It is a combination of Carl Hiaasen-like hilarity and absurd science fiction.Awards 369 Moore. rescues three young sisters. and aliens. living with the same sex partner for the majority of the month and the other sex partner for four days. Maleen. 1999. Together they can instantly transport the Venture to another location. spies. Schmitz. who must be read to be believed. Scientists working in a nickel mine far below the earth are shocked when someone appearing to be a Neanderthal with a high-tech device imbedded in his arm appears within their large globe of heavy water. who discovers a bizarre secret about a humpback whale he is stalking as he tries to puzzle out the meaning of whale song. Individuals can have partners of both sexes. Vernor. I Know Why the Winged Whale Sings. Vinge. and Goth. Neanderthals are the dominant species and have pretty much bred criminal tendencies out of their gene pool. Classic light fun with fast-paced encounters with pirates. a young space trader. (psionic powers). the Leewit. James H. The Witches ofKarres. Two sets of scientists working in two parallel worlds at the same time on completely different projects have created a temporary passage. Sawyer's exquisite world building creates a world with complex familial relationships and culture. Captain Pausert. along with the whaley boys. one can teleport. 2003. In the world Ponter Boddit is from. Fluke: Or. (humor). A Deepness in the Sky. Hominids. (aliens). from slavery to return them to their home and discovers that they have powerful talents. 2002. Men and women live apart. (parallel worlds). 1966. A civilization of spider-like sentients has been found when ships from a trading culture and those from a slaver culture converge on a planet that orbits a bizarre OnOff star that forces the inhabitants into hibernation for years at a time.

.

Allegory tends to have a meaning predetermined by the author. By looking outward. we learn about not just an alternative world but also an entire and parallel world history. Erin Hunter's Warriors Series stretches over six volumes. fantasy authors have drawn a very firm line between their work and allegory. is fantasy understood as allegory. the Unbeliever. Repeatedly. fantasy tends not to jerk us abruptly. But so too do the inhabitants of Guatemala from. Since fantasy has to evoke another world clean and whole—this place the reader lives in for the length of the reading—the books. In fantasy we arrive at a re-created world not altogether different than our own. with a new quartet planned for release. Or those of Watts from those of Beverly Hills. virtues and vices. Nor. are often long. by means of scientific mechanisms.Chapter 11 Fantasy Essay John H. joy and suffering. Wells to Ray Bradbury and Isaac Asimov. evokes a world called simply The Land over six long books. The success of the work lies in whether the reader can decipher 371 . Timmerman Although fantasy is often described as an escapist genre. from our world to the fantasy world. Stephen R. lengthy and compelling. Donaldson's Chronicles of Thomas Covenant. Science fiction uses a means—from a space vehicle to a time warp—to thrust us into a hypothetical world. This is the way of science fiction. we learn to look inward. or series of books. Surely the inhabitants differ. Greenland. we discover that this alternative world is not altogether different from our own. The failures and victories. finally. or what is sometimes called "extrapolative fiction. When the fantasy story opens.G." Different authors come to mind when we think of science fiction—from Jules Verne and H. fantasy literature actually attempts nothing less than to engage our reality in new and startling ways. Furthermore. Anne McCaffrey's notable Dragonriders of Pern includes over a dozen books. villains and heroes. In such works. all somehow correspond to the reality of who we are. say. complete with its myths and values.

simply because fantasy has branched into so many variations. The essential question of this essay is this: Wherein lies fantasy's deep and rich appeal to the readers of our time? The essential roots of fantasy dig way down into the earliest soil of literature itself.372 Chapter 11—Fantasy enough signs and symbols to find that meaning. the genre has emerged in creative diversity as it has in popularity. the heroic quest (Lloyd Alexander. Now. the beast fable (Walter Wangerin Jr. continue to appeal to our age of technological comfort. the creation of an internally consistent secondary world (the "subcreation") and second. In this way the stories explored mysteries. It is very much like the rational solving of an intricate puzzle. Tolkien. The Book of the Dun Cow). One solid. 1966). A Wizard of Earthsea series). gave us the clearest definition of the fantasy genre itself in his "On Fairy-Stories" (In The Tolkien Reader. uncomplicated trunk is necessary to hold them in place. Appeal and Characteristics To speak of people's favorite authors. one has to ask.. Common suborders of fantasy include. perhaps in a hunting lodge. To answer the large question of why fantasy appeals to modern readers. in which mysteries have been largely obliterated. simultaneously. Watership Down). Seventh Son). meaning is appropriated by the reader rather than given by the author. It's as if modern society has an ache in its heart. religious/metaphysical (Orson Scott Card. tabulate the startling sales figures of fantasy literature. how fantasy functions. Those stories told about fears encountered and how they were overcome. J. They were told in order to discover humanity's place in an often mystifying and threatening world. That is why we call them myths. Our question is why the stories. those who conquered and those who died trying. on the other hand. a deep longing for directions and satisfaction. R. the use of Faerie (the use of magic and enchantment). perhaps atop a hill ringed by stones. This question basically defines the genre of fantasy itself and is distinguished by traits that collectively shape the definition. They spoke of heroes. Definition Excluding related kinds of literature helps narrow our definition of the fantasy genre. Ursula LeGuin. R. that our central question merits probing. and recognize its increasing diversity does little to explain just why it appeals to modern readers. R. Tolkien sees two elements at work: First. This world is accessed by the narrative skill of the author and the imaginative willingness of the reader. This definition is brief but serviceable. R. consequently. ever made new. (2) use of common char- . and sword and sorcery (Fritz Leiber. the animal story (Richard Adams. freeing the reader to make individual claims about this "other world. Perhaps around a fire in a cave. These are the ( 1) use of story. wizardry (John Bellaires. is nonrestrictive. they throb like a primitive drum within our spirit. The Chronicles of Prydain. Perhaps the early pioneer of modern fantasy. They told of foreign peoples and divine beings. if they still remain. The Lord of the Rings). J. Tolkien. that fantasy somehow assuages. Clearly. Fantasy. The Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser series). a word with the same etymological root as mystery." In fantasy. Ballantine. These facts only indicate that it does and. people told stories. The Face in the Frost.

to be applicable to the everyday lives of the readers. fantasy works have also grown in popularity with children and young adult readers. and Piers Anthony's popular Xanth Series. hard-bitten. Hilari Bell's Farsala Trilogy. Character Story. In the modern tradition. Furthermore. lies at the heart of fantasy. They might be any one of us in the tale—and that is precisely the point. and those lessons we obtain by the experiences of the characters. S. Fantasy has thereby developed characters generally bearing specific traits. a "make-believe" tale that nonetheless may bear crushing relevance. a plot so urgent. and insights must arise through characters immediately living the story. they may not always be human characters. to open insight as to how one should then live. and (5) use of a quest. applications. we are asked to enter into it so that the story becomes ours. but they are like us. The common character is naïve in the sense of not having become cynical. The essential quality to fantasy story. the willingness to engage adventure. Repeatedly. the common character is often naive. or spoiled by the world about her. We seem tied to the immediate. such works demonstrate the human craving for story. or they may be persons of royalty or wizardry. these relevances. We are not asked to stand on the outside and survey this tale from a detached perspective. (3) evocation of another world. Thus we find characters quite like us. he or she retains a certain innocence and is disinterested in terms of worldly or political allegiances. is to create a world and characters so believable. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia. Often the primary characters of fantasy are children. (4) conflict of good and evil. this phenomenon may be traced to L. . one in which genuine dangers (physical and metaphysical) are encountered and order is restored. Anne McCaffrey's Dragon series (initiated with Dragonflight in 1968). evidenced by J. imprisoned in demands. Granted. The characters of fantasy are largely people or beings of a common nature. It is only because the authors see in children the willingness to wonder. If. then. He or she retains the child-like trait of wonder. nailed to routine. and a conflict so daunting that the reader cannot part with it. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) and C. although this is certainly not a prerequisite for the genre. story is to bear relevance. An entire branch of the genre has responded to this craving. Because of its use of powerful story. that is. Story Story works to free the imagination. K. This is simply because the reader imaginatively lives the story and thereby participates in its making and meaning. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Story offers lessons in experience. Each of these shapes part of fantasy's unique appeal to modern readers. which we adults so often lose. By the end of the twentieth century. Thus. however. allowing it to live for a time in another world.Appeal and Characteristics 373 acters. story is seen as liberation. We would also likely agree that in our postmodern age there is a hunger for story. the industry was in full swing.

In fantasy literature there is usually a keen recognition of forces of good and evil. Nesbit's stories is entitled. But the quality of story and plausibility of character are the requisite precursors to make the other world an apparently real one. Another World One might expect an essay on fantasy to begin with this most immediately associated term. This immediacy is opposed. but first of all to be human. but to find the road more certain. the conflict between good and evil. therefore. Second. fantasy does hold forth as one of its central points the belief that the end of a successful story is joy. that the reader clearly recognizes this in the characters of the story. given a certain groundwork. the world of fantasy is not a dream world. and we have to cross the threshold to it in our minds. One of E. the story is real.374 Chapter 11—Fantasy The point of fantasy is not to provide tidy morals. It is necessary. In fantasy. makes this fictional world apparently "real"? First. Third. to recognize the human situation for what it is. a sense of right and wrong. "Whereyouwanttogo" and ends "Whereyoustartedfrom. Only through such decisions and the actions attendant upon them may the often hazy edges of good and evil be clarified. but a world in which characters confront the same terrors. for example. What. and dilemmas we confront in our world. the same growth experienced by the naïve character. The reason for creating such a world is to confront more openly and daringly a spiritual reality too often ignored in our world of system and fact. Often he or she does not know for certain if the action is correct until he or she has acted. remains essential. an interchange between two worlds. Perhaps it is the case that when these "realities of the human heart" are devalued in our daily life. but a world in which we live. all in one word." Precisely: We leave the road of life for a time not to lose the road. the world of fantasy should not be considered an escapist world. one must look to another world where such realities may be restructured and be given credibility and value. then. defining traits of the genre. but to provide growth by experience. Essential Conflict: Good and Evil Although exceptions are bound to exist in a genre as diverse as fantasy. and the often attendant use of magic and the supernatural. and what possibly can be done about it." or called forth clean and whole. a never-never land. that in the human struggle of the character to act upon choices between good and evil the distinction may become blurred. It is not a joy separate from sorrow. In fantasy we learn not morals but lessons on life's way. But like the fairy tale. this world is "evoked. but a joy distilled from the experience of agonizing choice and painful awareness of the errors in human decision making. Fantasy is keenly aware of the terror of life as well as the joy of life. There is always this reciprocating action in fantasy. It may be the case. The characters may be called to be heroes. Usually we are simply there in this other world from the first line. choices. but also a driving necessity to act upon it. to the nineteenth-century notion of "suspension of disbelief. . It is simply provided for us." with which we enter the work pretending for a time that this might be real. however.

dissatisfaction with things as they are. If the fantasy hero must act. the adventure may be undertaken for any number of reasons—boredom with one's present situation. the threat to the status quo often makes the hero long for the routine. and its end has spiritual significance. The quest provides a basis for such exploration. Tolkien. It may be tested. The author invites the reader to probe an inner nature. the sorrow. since an adventure is often undertaken simply because the status quo has become torpid in its uneventfulness. R. The human spirit may be maligned. Again. The question that this hero pursues is different from an adventure in several significant ways. In the first place. The quest is always toward something. is always a spiritual or religious undertaking. In the quest. The quest hero is appointed or ordained to his or her mission. In an age acutely pessimistic about the human race. to resolve oneself to new directions. wanderlust. of imminent or immediate danger in which the character must call upon all of his or her will and power to push on. marked by a sense of struggle. There may be bad people around us—fantasy never denies that—but somehow even the feeblest of creatures can individually confront them. The qualification is important. an adventure may lead anywhere. In place of the quest. modern literature has often provided an adventure. Fantasy provides not a hiding place but a point from which the reader can begin anew. In ancient literature as well as modern fantasy. It is often life-threatening. the road takes the rider out. Laughed—the Mountains rang with it!" (J. the pain. he or she must often seek long and desperately for a basis for action. but it will endure. Resolution It seems. to grow in experience. that fantasy literature possesses one additional quality that cannot be neatly categorized. Quests are pursued only when grave events threaten the well-being of a society. Jack Kerouac's On the Road is an adventure. serious undertaking. "Leaf by Niggle"). no quest is pursued for the sheer fun of it. but it will be found worthy. but the rider has no precise goal. much of the appeal in modern fantasy resides in its optimism for humankind. however. Third. although exceptions exist. finally. R. and at that end lies joy: "They both laughed. The quest.Appeal and Characteristics 375 The Quest Ancient literature and mythology frequently based the action of a story on a quest. Second. The distinction lies at the heart of fantasy. and the adventurer is motivated by little more than accentuated ennui. \> . In contrast. the adventure may be merely a whimsical frolic. fantasy remains adamant in its belief that all life is worthy. although that something often becomes clear only with the seeking of it. the quest is always a grave. and frequently the quest is pursued in order to recover that state. Fantasy believes the confrontation with evil in any of its multifaceted variations is worth the risk. for the struggle will come to an end.

Matthews. 1980. J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press. The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. Bettelheim." In The Tolkien Reader. Brian. Eric S. New York: Ballantine. The following includes several of the seminal critical studies that have helped define fantasy as we now know it. New York: Ballantine. 1992. T. Modern Fantasy: Five Studies. A. 1997. R. New York: Twayne Publishers. John H.. Atteberry. Manlove. The Fantastic in Literature. Shippey. N. . The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. Strategies of Fantasy. 1966. Timmerman. Other Worlds: The Fantasy Genre." In The Tolkien Reader. Richard. Calif. Rabkin. McGill's Guide to Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature. Pasadena. . 1983. John. Bruno. "Leaf by Niggle. 1966. 4 vols. 1976. Clute. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. "On Fairy Stories. Fantasy: The Liberation of the Imagination. Several leading twentieth-century authors are mentioned in the course of writing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. C. Bowling Green. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature. 1996.376 Chapter 11—Fantasy Bibliography To list the central works in the fantasy tradition is a task far beyond the scope of this brief essay. 1976.: Salem Press. . 1977. 1997. Tolkien. New York: Vintage. Martin's. ed. R. New York: St. and John Grant.

(dark fantasy). Donaldson. Bradley. The Lord of the Rings movies also have played a part. Richard. Because fantasy is currently so popular. (dark fantasy). Selected Classics Adams. The Shannara Series. Le Guin. The Lathe of Heaven. 1900. Bradbury. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. L. Frank. (Arthurian legend). Fritz.Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald Fantasy rocketed to popularity with the Harry Potter phenomenon in the 1990s. Fafhrd and the Grev Mouser series. Katherine. (parallel worlds) The Earthsea series. Fantasy novels are frequently written as series. The Dervni Saga. 1962. (bestiary—uncommon common animals). (epic). Ursula K. the Unbeliever. Titles listed here are representative rather than comprehensive because of the vast numbers. (epic). Terry. 1971. (parallel worlds). Ray. with readers seeking out the books after seeing the movies and wanting more. Many titles that were long out of print have been reissued. (alternate worlds). Leiber. and it is not uncommon to see several series within a series. Brooks. The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant. 1984. Baum. Stephen R. The October Country. The Mists ofAvalon. and science fiction are also common. Titles of subseries are indicated by boldface italic and underscoring. 1972. horror. 377 . Something Wicked This Way Comes. Kurtz. resulting in a boom in fantasy publishing and reading. Watership Down. Marion Zimmer. genreblends with romance. 1955.

sometimes with consecutive series and series within series. Archons of the Stars. 2004. 1937.378 Chapter 11—Fantasy Lewis. the story following a series of adventures or deeds often of a symbolic nature. The Bridge of D'Arnath. The Stone of the Stars. 2001. usually a quest. Terry. peopled by humans. Baird. The Empire of the Stars. The Lord of the Rings trilogy. elves. The order of the books is often important to readers. 2004. R. The Books of the Rai-kirah. so when new titles in the series have been published in the last decade. S. J. and Terry Brooks and his Shannara series fulfilled that need. In the 1970s readers of Tolkien's Lord of the Rings were demanding more great reads along the same lines. 2005. Brooks. 2004. Epic/Sword and Sorcery The best-selling and most widely recognized subgenre of fantasy is the epic. 2002. The Soul Weaver. Transformation. many of which qualify as traditional "sword and sorcery" titles. C. and social systems. The Warrior-Prophet. political. R. R. Guardians of the Keep. Berg. (epic). Many epics take years or even decades to unfold as the authors create fully developed worlds rich with history and religious. Scott. trolls. and the best known of those is Tolkien's Lord of the Rings trilogy. 2004. Revelation. Tolkien. Alison. Restoration. and the story's sweep over time. all titles in a series are listed here. Carol. TheHobbit. Bakker. The Prince of Nothing. Dragon Throne. (epic). has strong heroes who fight great evil. and gnomes. . This epic tale of a land torn by war. The Darkness That Comes Before. 2001. 2004. Son ofAvonar. Series of titles are common. The Chronicles of Narnia. The distinguishing characteristics of the epic are its heroic protagonist(s). 2004. dwarves. Brooks suggests that the best order for reading the books is publication order. 2005.

2000. Tanequil. Enchanter. The Original Shannara Trilogy. Lord of the Isles. 1999. 2003. The Ill-Made Mute. 2005. Shannara Prequel Trilogy. Prequel to the Shannara series. Goddess of the Ice Realm. 1993. Morgawr. Queen of Demons. The Druid of Shannara. Servant of the Dragon. 1985. The Talismans of Shannara. Use Witch. Lord of the Isles. The Battle ofEvernight. Sinner. 2003. The Lady of the Sorrows. Bitterbynde. 2001. Drake. Cecilia. 2002. 1977. 1996. Dart-Thornton. Only one title has been issued to date. Reissued 2002. The Scions of Shannara. 2002. 2002. The Wayfarer Redemption. The Elf stones of Shannara. The First King of Shannara. * The Sword of Shannara. Mistress of the Catacombs. 2001. The Elf Queen of Shannara. S a r a . David. Straken. 1991. 2003. The Wayfarer Redemption. Douglass. Voyage of the Jerle Shannara. Jarka Ruus. 1999. 2002. The Wishsong of Shannara. Starman.Epic/Sword and Sorcery 379 The Shannara series. 2001. 2001. 1982. 1990. 2004. 1997. Heritage of Shannara. High Druid of Shannara. . 2004. 1992. Antrax.

Malloreon series. Wizardborn. 1997. 1992. The Runelords. 1982. Impossible Odds. 2003. King ' s Blades. The Sum of All Men. 1987. The Hidden City. 1988. 1986. Sky of Swords. Reissued 2005 in the omnibus The Malloreon Volume One. 1983. Farland. 2003. Reissued 2002 in the omnibus The Belgariad Volume 1.380 Chapter 11—Fantasy Duncan. Eddings. Paragon Lost. 2002. Magician's Gambit. 1999. The Sapphire Rose. Tales of the King's Blades. Reissued 2005 in the omnibus The Malloreon Volume Two. 1990. Reissued 2002 in the omnibus The Belgariad Volume 2. 1988. . Castle of Wizardry. The Gilded Chain. Reissued 2005 in the omnibus The Malloreon Volume One. 1993. Chronicle of the King's Blades. 2004. Sorceress ofDarshiva. Tamuli Series. Reissued 2002 in the omnibus The Belgariad Volume 1. The Seeress of Kelt. 1993. The Shining Ones. Polgara the Sorceress. Reissued 1997. 2000. (Even though Leigh is not listed as coauthor of the early books. 1999. 1982. The Jaguar Knights. Dave. 1985. Lord of the Fire Lands. Pawn of Prophecy. and Leigh Eddings. Queen of Sorcery. Brotherhood of the Wolf. The Diamond Throne. King of the Murgos. David. 1995. Demon Lord ofKaranda. David. The Lair of Bones. Reissued 2004. Reissued 2005 in the omnibus The Malloreon Volume One. 1991. 1989. Guardians of the West. 1998. 1989. 2001. Belgarath the Sorcerer. The Ruby Knight.) Belgariad Series. it has been reported that she is. 1994. Reissued 2002 in the omnibus The Belgariad Volume 1. Ellenium series. Domes of Fire. Reissued 2005 in the omnibus The Malloreon Volume Two. 1998. Enchanter's End Game.

Serpentwar Series. 1994. 1986. 1985. 1995. Gemmell. Rage of a Demon King. Alan Dean. Conclave of Shadows. Silverthorn. Also published as Against the Horde. Talon of the Silver Hawk. 2004. the Betrayal. 1999. Serpentwar Saga. the Assassins. 1992. Foster. Mistress of the Empire. 2000. 1995. 1992. Exile's Return. Winter Warriors. Dates listed are for the U. 1982. Krondor. Krondor. Krondor Tear of the Gods. Rise of a Merchant Prince. Quest for Lost Heroes. 1998. A Darkness at Sethanon. David. Shards of a Broken Crown. 2001. It has also been issued in two volumes as Magician: Apprentice and Magician: Master. Written with Janny Wurts. Daughter of the Empire. 1990. The Legend of Deathwalker. Shadow of a Dark Queen. 1994. Legend. The King Beyond the Gate. Prince of the Blood. 2001. Hero in the Shadows. Kingdoms of Light. 2003. Servant of the Empire. Reissued 1994. 1987. 1995. Raymond E. Waylander.Epic/Sword and Sorcery 381 Feist. . 1995. Riftwar Saga. Reissued 2003. The King's Buccaneer. Reissued 2004. King of Foxes.S. Reissued 1993. The Empire Sequence. Swords of Night and Day: A Novel ofSkilgannon the Damned. 1997. Gemmell's books were originally published in Great Britain. 2005. The World of Midkemia. 1998. 2004. The First Chronicles of Drus s the Legend. The Riftwar Legacy. 1999. 1989. White Wolf. Magician. 1999. 2000. Drenai series. editions. Waylander II: In the Realm of the Wolf 1998. 2003.

Band of Four Original Series. 2005. 2002. 2000. The Vacant Throne. Riganti Series. Ed. 2000. The Silent House. Temple of the Winds. 2001. The Last Guardian. The Pillars of Creation.382 Chapter 11—Fantasy Sipstrassi series. The Kingless Land. (also called the Stones of Power series). Chainfire. The Sword in the Storm. Terry. 2002. Greenwood. Rhapsody: Child of Blood. Tales of the Otori. Requiem for the Sun. 2004. The Dragon's Doom. Blood of the Fold. 2003. Across the Nightingale Floor. Naked Empire. Rhapsody. Stone of Tears. Haydon. 2003. 2001. 1997. Wolf in Shadow. Symphony of the Ages. 2000. Hearn. Elizabeth. 1996. Faith of the Fallen. 1994. 1997. Last Sword of Power. Bloodstone. . 2001. 1988. Band of Four. Also published as The Jerusalem Man (1988). Soul of the Fire. 2002. Wizard's First Rule. 2001. Elegy for a Lost Star. Stormrider. 2001. 1997. Lian. 2001. Ghost King. I t o i f of Four Chronicle of Aglirta. 2001. 2004. Goodkind. 1995. 1996. A Dragon's Ascension. 1997. Midnight Falcon. Sword of Truth series. 2002. 2002. Ravenheart. Destiny: Child of the Sky. Prophecy: Child of Earth.

The Path of Daggers. 1998. Deverry Original series. 1997. Lord of Chaos. scholars. 2000. Tawny Man. 2004. Assassin's Apprentice. 1986. Robin. 1992. New Spring. 1990. The Bristling Wood. A Time of Omens. The Liveship Traders. Deverry: The Westlands series. 1995. 1987. 1991. Fool's Errand. 1991. The Eye of the World. 1999. 1993. Jordan. Deverry Series. The Dragon Revenant. Ship of Magic. 1989. Robert. 2004. The Great Hunt. The Fires of Heaven. The Shadow Rising. 1996. 2003. The Farseer series. 1990. and warriors when Lord Otori adopts him and names him his heir. Golden Fool. 1996. A Time of Exile. Fool's Fate. Grass for His Pillow. \> . 1990. 2000. Royal Assassin. 1994. Assassin's Quest. Hobb. Winter's Heart. 1992.Epic/Sword and Sorcery 383 Sixteen-year-old Takeo is captured by Lord Otori as he flees from his village of the Hidden after it is annihilated by Lord Iida. 2003. Kerr. He learns the skills of artists. Darkspell. Crown of Swords. The Dragon Reborn. Crossroads of Twilight. 2000. The Wheel of Time series. 2002. Mad Ship. 2004. 2003. Brilliance of the Moon. Katharine. Ship of Destiny. Daggerspell.

1968. 1968. The seasons of undetermined length. The Tombs ofAtuan. Lord of Winterfell. The Earthsea series. Mistress of the Pearl. Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser series. Reissued 2004. 2004. 2002. The Ring of Five Dragons. 2001. Leiber. 2004. Martin. they are connected short stories and novellas detailing the adventures of the massively heroic barbarian Fafhrd and thief. Reissued 2004. 2001. Song of Ice and Fire. Reissued 2004. 1971. 1997. 1995." Swords Against Death. Tales of Earthsea. Reissued 2004 with the subtitle "Books 3 & 4 of the Adventures of Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser. the family is thrust into the political machinations of the evil queen. George R. Reissued 2004. The Swords of Lankhmar. The following are collections. 2001. Fritz. Reissued 2003 with the subtitle "Book 1 of the Adventures of Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser." Swords in the Mist. Kingdoms of Thorn and Bone. 1968. sometimes lasting for ." Swords Against Wizardry. R. 2003. Pearl Saga. • The Other Wind. * A Wizard of Earthsea. Le Guin. Swords and Deviltry. 1970. Winne of the World Fantasy Award. The Red Wyvern. Lustbader. serving as Guardian of the North for the Seven Kingdoms. The Farthest Shore. Reissued 2004. 1968. When Eddard. Tehanu. Reissued 2004. Reissued 1986. 2001. The order they are listed is the order the Gregg Press editions of 1977 used. Keyes. Reissued 2003. Fire Dragon. and swordsman the Gray Mouser. Ursula K. The first story was published in 1939. The Black Raven. 1993. 1972. These are not novels. The Briar King. 1990. 2000. goes to the capital as the King's Hand. Days of Air and Darkness. Eric Van. sorcerer.384 Chapter 11—Fantasy Days of Blood and Fire. 2002. Reissued 2003 with the subtitle "Book 2 of the Adventures of Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser. The Veil of a Thousand Tears. Greg. Deverrv: Dragon Mage series. The Charnel Prince. 1970.

\>I . Reduce series. and a menacing presence beyond a giant frozen wall to the north betide a dire future. 1999. Firethorn.. 1996. 1994. 1995. Newcomb. 2004. The Magic Engineer. 2004. Ordermaster. Scepters. 4ft A Storm of Swords. Reichert. J r . Mickey Zucker. Tielmaran chronicles. 2000. 1993. The Order War. Locus Poll winner. Micklem. The Magic of Reduce. Sarah. rT"~H Reimann. Robert.Epic/Sword and Sorcery 385 years. 2002. Corean Chronicles. The White Order. 2002. 2004. 77ié> Scro/Zs of the Ancients. Katya. 1992. The Towers of the Sunset. 2005. 1999. 2002. The Chronicles of Blood and Stone. Alector's Choice. Scion of Cyador. 1996. A Game of Thrones. 1998. Locus Poll winner. 2004. TTie Fi/f/i Sorceress. Fall of Angels. 2003. E. 1997. Legend of Nightfall. Darkness. 1991. of Nightfall. 4ft A Clash of Kings. 2004. 1995. A Tremor in the Bitter Earth. Wind from a Foreign Sky. Modesitt. 2000. Legacies. 2004. 77ié? Gates of Dawn. MagVi of Cyador. 1996. The Death of Chaos. 2005. L. Colors of Chaos. Wellspring of Chaos. Chaos Balance. 2000. 1998 Prince of Fire and Ashes.

R. * The Lord of the Rings trilogy. 2004. Reissued 2003. The White Dragon. 1998. 2001. The Wizard. Michelle. Russell. In Fire Forged. The Shadow Roads. The Destroyer Goddess. The Sun Sword. Tad. * iii Originally published in 1954 as a three-volume set. 2005. Shadowmarch. 1997. In Legend Born. The Broken Crown. 2004. 1999. The One Kingdom. An elf queen transforms a teenager from our world into a grown man of heroic proportions and sends him on a quest to find a sword. The Isle of Battle. The Uncrowned King. The Shining Court. Wolfe. R. 1998. 1937. Volume 1. Gene. The popularity of the movies has renewed interest in the classic series. The Return of the King. Tolkien. West. 2004. 2003. 1954. Swan's War. 2004. 2003. Reissued 2003. Williams. Shinn. Riven Shield. Sean. Sharon. The Chronicles of Sirkara. 2004. these titles have gone through numerous reissues. Mystic and Rider. The Knight. 2004. 1954. The Sun Sword. 2001. The Fellowship of the Ring. The Hobbit. The Wizard Knight. The Sea of Sorrows. Shadowmarch Trilogy. Reissued 2003. 2003. .386 Chapter 11—Fantasy Resnick. The setting is Sileria. Twelve Houses series. Laura. The Two Towers. 1954. Reissued 2004. J.

Paxson. Many other fascinating cultures have been the basis for fantasy. including Native American. Priestess ofAvalon. 1999. Arthur Penn. Marion Zimmer. and Legend 387 Saga. 2001. 1997. David. and Asian) that are currently popular. The last book in the series that started with The Mists ofAvalon was completed by Paxson after the death of Marion Zimmer Bradley.Saga. A. myth. The Mists ofAvalon. although they do appear occasionally. even if most of the action takes place in a distant land such as the Norse Niflheim or Celtic Summerlands. 2003. . The other three sections deal with three culturally diverse groupings (Celtic. 2003. * Bradley. 1984. however. Warren Murphy is not listed as a coauthor on the final book in the series. Titles in the category of saga. A. and Warren Murphy. Here are the stories that are based on the myths and legends of our ancestors. This section is presented in four parts. Molly. The Serpent and the Grail. Written by Molly Cochran. Attanasio. Myth. Cochran. The amount of magic can vary widely. African. Arthur Blessing series. and Diana L. and Roman. Bradley. Satirical series set in contemporary New York. The Dragon Queen. Arthurian fantasy ranges from magic-filled high fantasy to historical fiction extrapolated from archaeological and anthropological research." which deals with Arthur and Merlin as well as with other figures related or connected to the "once and future king". 2000. and legend are always connected to human cultural traditions. the first being "Arthurian Legend. The Third Magic. Myth. Greek. Marion Zimmer. Borchardt. Our own world is always involved. Nordic. Tales of Guinevere. The Forever King. Arthurian Legend Tales of the heroic King Arthur and those surrounding him abound. Alice. 1992. The Raven Warrior. The Broken Sword. books in these areas have not been published recently in significant numbers. Arthurian legends are steeped in historical and cultural heritage. and Legend Many readers come to fantasy through a love of the tales that are part of the heritage of civilization. Peter. Reissued 2000.

The Lady of the Sea.388 Chapter 11—Fantasy Knight Life. The Tale of Guinevere and King Arthur. Diana L. 2000. 2003. Guardian of the Balance. 1999. the Stone. 2004. The High Queen: The Tale of Guinevere and King Arthur Continues. Robert. 2003. 2003. 2003. 1995. Avalon: The Return of King Arthur. Hallowed Isle. 2003. Prince of Dreams. the Spear. Guardian of the Vision. 2000. One Knight Only. Irene. 2004. 1999. Rosalind. Knight of the Sacred Lake. The Child of the Holy Grail. the Cauldron. Holdstock. A unique blend of the Merlin legend and Greek mythology. The Iron Grail. 1999. Merlin Codex. This feminist take on the legend looks at the clash between the Roman invaders of Britain and the matriarchal society living there. The Maid of the White Hands. Stephen R. Nancy. Isolde. 2002. . 2000. 2001. Guardian of the Trust. 1999. Paxson. 2004. Queen of the Western Isle. The Child Queen: The Tale of Guinevere and King Arthur. Guenevere series. 1999. 1994. 1994. The Tristan and Isolde Novels. Miles. McKenzie. 2001. Queen of Camelot. The Book The Book The Book The Book of of of of the Sword. Lawhead. Celtika. Grail Prince. 1998. Guenevere: Queen of the Summer Country. Merlin ' s Descendants. Radford.

2000. through becoming a warrior. Cornwall. The Saxon Shore. Three heroes go on an epic quest. 1996. Ulster Cycle. 2003. Zettel. 1999. Uther. 2004. In Camelot's Shadow. 1979. Eickhoff. 1983. 1970. Cuchulainn and a cattle raid. Stewart. The Sorcerer: Metamorphosis. The Eagle's Brood. Myth. The lack of magic and the meticulous historical research make this series appealing to fans of historical fiction as well as to fantasy readers. Scotland. 1998. The Wicked Day. Cuchulainn's tale from birth. Whyte. 2000. Sarah. 1997. The Hollow Hills.Saga. 2004. 2005. . 1996. The Sorrows. Celtic Ireland. 2001. The Last Enchantment. The Lance Thrower. Camulod Chronicles. and Legend 389 Guardian of the Promise. Their mythology often deals with the goddess and the fertility of fields and flocks. 2001. and bawdy relationships is retold. The Skystone. The Feast. The Two Ravens Saga. Isle of Man. 1973.C. He Stands Alone. Jack. 2002. 1997. Reissued 2003. The Raid. tricksters. to a battle with underworld spirits. Mary. The Crystal Cave. The classic Irish legend featuring heroes. and Wales were the home of the Celts as far back as the fourth century B. The Singing Sword. Guardian of the Freedom. 2000. Randy Lee. The Fort at River's Bend. The Destruction of the Inn. The Merlin Sequence.

Marillier. I Am oflrelaunde: A Novel of Patrick and Osian. 2000. 1997. 2000. Anderson. the islands. 2002. Wolfskin. Melvin.390 Chapter 11—Fantasy The Red Branch Tales. Child of the Prophecy. Burgess. 2002. Nebula. 2001. berserkers. Winner of the Hugo. Juilene. Nordic Vikings. but with connections to Norse mythology. Osborne-McKnight. War of the Gods. Son of the Shadows. Juliet. Kay. 2004. 4ft American Gods. 2001. Neil. Ey vind. Juliet. 2001. Bloodtide. Poul. At the time when the druidic beliefs of caring for the forest. and their mythology have been a popular setting for fantasy novels of late. A warrior culture and harsh environment make this type of fantasy appealing to readers who enjoy adventure as well as myth and legend. Daughter of Ireland. and Bram Stoker Awards and the Locus Poll. and the spirit of the land are being replaced by Christian beliefs. . Bright Sword of Ireland. Marillier. Post-apocalyptic world based on Norse mythology. Children of the Light Isles. Guy Gavriel. 2003. a Viking warrior in the eighth century and one of the elite Wolfskins. travels to the Light Isles on a raid and is faced with an enormous dilemma between honoring a blood oath and doing what he feels is right. 2001. The Last Light of the Sun. strong young women face epic challenges.. Mother of Kings. A horrific novel set in contemporary times. Gaiman. 2004. Daughter of the Forest. 2003. Seven Waters Trilogy.

the woman who loves him and the daughter of a loving marriage between a Viking warrior and a Celtic woman. Only the first volume has been published in the United States. Asian Exotic lands of the fabled East provide a wealth of little-known myth and legend to create unique and unusual fantasy novels. eight young women are bound by a secret language. 2005. They are often shelved in the nonfiction sections in the children's and adult areas of libraries. A fox becomes a young woman to win the desire of her soul. Armies ofHanuman. Fairy Tales Retelling of fairy tales and traditional folktales. Some of the stories told in the following novels are familiar. Bridge of Rama. Prince of Ayodhya. has stowed away on his ship. 2005. Demons ofChitrakut. When Thorvald sets out on a quest to find his real father. often with a new twist. 2003. The others are from the United Kingdom. 2005. an ancient Hindu saga. Readers who enjoy fantasy with the flavor of fairy tales and folktales may also want to check out collections and compilations of the original stories. Kij. places that fantasy readers may not think to visit without the suggestion of a readers' advisor. 2000. 2004. has been a growing trend for more than a decade.Fairy Tales 391 Foxmask. Johnson. . The Fox Woman. Banker. he does not know that Creidhe. Readers who enjoy the Asian setting may also enjoy Lian Hearn's epic fantasy Tales of the Otori. while others may seem new but give the reader a sense that they have been told before. A woman warrior and philosopher started out as a small tortoise shell cat. Alexander. Alma. In a magical Chinese kingdom. listed in the "Epic/Sword and Sorcery" section of this chapter. Prince Rama is the protagonist in this retelling of the Ramayana. Fudoki. Secrets ofJin-Shei. 2003. Ashok K. Based on a Japanese legend. 2004. Ramayana.

Tanith.392 Chapter 11—Fantasy An overview of the last 150 years of the short form of fairy tale can be found in The Oxford Book of Modern Fairy Tales. In the waning days of the Soviet Union. Elena. As an adult he returns to free her with a kiss and ends up in the tenth century. 1999. but it is used only as a springboard into something entirely different. extended. Gregory. Meredith Ann. In other books. Sometimes the tale is retold from the antagonist's or a minor character's viewpoint. Q2 Based on "East of the Sun. Lackey. A Kiss to Remember. White as Snow. A romance-fantasy blend with a male sleeping beauty. Jean. Orson Scott. Teresa. taking the hero or heroine into a different century or situation. Enchantment. A young woman's metamorphosis makes the seasons change. West of the Moon. Card. Treasure at the Heart of the Tanglewood. Snow White's stepmother. Ferris. Mercedes. a young boy running through a forest sees a beautiful woman sleeping on a pedestal surrounded by a chasm. Sometimes the classic fairy tale is elaborated upon. Lee. edited by Alison Lurie (Oxford University Press. 1993). 2001. East. if you will) and given human backgrounds and motivation. 2001. 1995. Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West. The Fairy Godmother. 2004. E A child found wandering in a forest is raised by a troll and falls in love with a princess living under a curse. . 2003. Medeiros. born in the wrong time to be saved by a Prince Charming. 1999." Maguire. 2002. Mirror. 2003. flees her wicked stepmother and becomes a fairy godmother-in-training. or reworked. familiar fairy tales are used as jumping-off points: The original premise remains. Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister. with the characters developed beyond stereotype (or archetype. Cinderella's stepsister. An adaptation of "Snow White. Mirror. The life story of the wicked witch from The Wizard ofOz. Pattou. battling Baba Yaga and other evils. Edith. Once upon a Marigold. 2000." Pierce.

H. Diana Wynne. 1979. The Unhandsome Prince. The Color of Magic. il J E A seventeen-year-old is turned into a seventy-year-old and becomes housekeeper for a wizard who lives in a wandering castle. Often full of topical "in jokes. series. The Light Fantastic. Robert. and a new one seems to be published every year. The M. 1986. 1979. 1991. Pratchett. 1983. The first three (which are considered by most readers to be the best) are: fft A Spell for Chameleon. Guards! Guards! 1989. Books in this series are full of puns and plays on words. Many of the titles are being reprinted. Howl's Moving Castle. The 29th title. Reaper Man. Castle Roogna. Piers. Xanth series. Pet Peeve. 1988. Baker. This tongue-in-cheek parody of sword-and-sorcery novels is a laugh-out-loud romp. Asprin. 2004. This classic series about a flat world riding on the backs of four elephants perched on the back of a turtle continues to gain adherents. 2003. Anthony. . 2005. Y. John. 1990. 1977. Discworld series. 1986. such books present more humor to the well-read. Heroics for Beginners. 1992.Humorous 393 Humorous Humor plays a major role in fantasy. T. The Anvil of the World. Kage. and parody. There are far too many to list here. Terry. The Source of Magic. Moore. Winner of the August Derleth Fantasy Award. Eric: A Discworld Novel. Small Gods. Jones. It is a great choice for readers of Pratchett and Asprin as well as those who liked the humorous twist Lackey put on fantasy archetypes in The Fairy Godmother. Sourcery. 2005. 1992." occasional satire. Lords and Ladies.

Interesting Times. E A ifctf FM// o/SJfcy. The preponderance of magic workers in fantasy brings with it animal familiars. Locus Poll winner. Fantasy in this category ranges from animal fables in which humans play no role and the characters are sentient beasts. 2003. are often portrayed as telepathic creatures. 2000. Maskerade. whether it is a major character with a speaking role. 1998. 2002. Communication between humans and animals is a frequently occurring theme. ffl Rankin. 1993. Pyramids: The Book of Going Forth. Going Postal. 2000. 1981. 1989. TVie Trwf/i. Dragons In fantasy fiction. 77ie Amazing Maurice and His Educated Rodents. 1998. /i/igo. The Last Continent. 1996. Robert. Nightwatch. Witches Abroad. Almost every fantasy has some kind of nonhuman being in it. or mere window dressing in the form of a cat soaking up some sunshine. 2002. 1987. Hogfather. 1988. which have been depicted in many different ways around the world and throughout history. Strata. Mort. Thief of Time. 1987. T«e Hollow Chocolate Bunnies of the Apocalypse. Feet of Clay. Equal Rites.394 Chapter 11—Fantasy Men at Arms. to books with an emphasis on the relationship between humans and animals. 1998. Soul Music. 2001. 1996. 1994. Monstrous Regiment. 1995. Toys and nursery rhymes come to life. dragons. 1995. Wyrd Sisters. Moving Pictures. A Bestiary Animals and other creatures play a large role in fantasy. who may facilitate the magic of humans or even work magic of their own. • 77ie Wee Free Mew. TVie F(/ta Elephant. 1991. Carpe Jugulum. . 2004. 2004. 2001. 2004. 1990.

Reissued 1987. Redeeming the Lost. 1997. 1992. 2002. that her works are science fiction. Andre. 2003. 1991. Joanne. Lackey. McCaffrey. Pern series. Norton. Joust. 1976. Knight of the Demon King. The Dragon Knight. The titles are listed in the science fiction chapter (chapter 10). Gordon R. the Earl. 1985.A Bestiary 395 Bertin. Dragonshadow. Song in the Silence. 1994. Alta. 1992. Mercedes. 2000. and even presents evidence to prove. The Dragon and the George. Dragonstar. 1995. The Last Dragonlord. 1997. Elvenborn. The Dragon on the Border. 2000. Joust. Although McCaffrey contends. Elvenblood. 2004. and Mercedes Lackey. Halfblood chronicles. Barbara. The Dragon and the Fair Maid of Kent. 1990. and the Troll. Lesser Kindred. Dragonlords series. 2000. The Dragon in Lyonesse. The Dragon at War. 1999. The Dragon. Immortals can shift from human to dragon form. . 2004. Dickson. dragon-loving fantasy fans claim the books set on the planet Pern as their own. Kerner. The Tale of Lanen Kaelar. 1998. The Elvenbane. Anne. 1999. Dragon and Phoenix. Dragonsbane. 2000. 2002. Elizabeth. Hambly. Reissued 1987. Dragon and the Gnarly King. Dragonsbane series. The Dragon and the George series.

Eldest. Uncommon Common Animals Animals from our world—ordinary creatures such as rabbits. Peter. Irene. Watt-Evans. 2003. The Last Battlemage. The Hidden Dragon. 4ft Tooth and Claw. â . A possessed. 1995. 1997. 1999. Mistress of Dragons. The Renegade Dragon. Hunter. Dragonvarld trilogy. The Dragon's Touchstone.396 Chapter 11—Fantasy Paolini. 2001. Lawrence. 2003. The Dragon Nimbus History. Reissued 2001. 2005. 2004. The Perfect Princess. but in these stories they take on special characteristics. Dragon Venom. ants. Obsidian Chronicles. Dragon Weather. 2000. 1996. Watership Down. 2003. and horses—may not seem to fit the fabric of fantasy. * A world of sentient rabbits. Walton. Richard. Glass Dragon. skunks. Stargods. Margaret. Weis. 1994. Eragon. 1999. The Dragon's Son. The animals range from the mundane and ordinary to sentient members of complex societies. TR Clans of warrior cats battle for domination of the forest. Dragon Nimbus. Dance for Emilia. Radford. The Loneliest Magician. dancing cat. Beagle. Adams. Erin. 2003. dogs. cats. 2002. Christopher. The Warriors. Jo. The Dragon Society. Winner of the World Fantasy Award. 1998. 1972.

shtml. Martin the Warrior. Mariel of Redwall. Outcast of Redwall. 1988.A Bestiary 397 Into the Wild. Moonrise. 2003.mercedeslackey. 77ié? Wild Road. 1996. A Dangerous Path. Warriors: The New Prophecy. Fire and Ice. 2003. Shirley Rousseau. Pearls ofLutra. Salamandastron. 2000. 1998. Mossflower. 2005. 77ié? Go&fe/i Co*. Jacques. The Catswold Portal. 1999. Shapeshifting cats. Marlfox. 1997. Lacky has written several series about the magical world of Valemar and the Heralds. Tms. 1992. 2003. who have telepathic contact with their horse-like Companions. The Redwall series. 2004. 1995. 2002. 2003. Loamhedge. . The Taggerung. Gabriel. King. 1989. 1986. Valdemar series. Lackey. The Bellmaker. 2001. Rising Storm. 1993. 2005. 1998. Reissued 2004. Rakkety Tarn. The Long Patrol. Forest of Secrets. 2004. B7^ Small woodland creatures battle evil in this fantasy adventure. Mattimeo. The Darkest Hour. 2004. 1994. Redwall. Reissued 2005. Lord Brocktree. She lists the more than two dozen titles in both chronological and publication order at http://www. 2004. popular with all ages.com/text/lmlchron. Mercedes. Murphy. 1993. Midnight. 77ié> Legem* of Luke. 1999. 1991. Brian.

Cat Detective series. 1984. Neil. Reissued 2004. Barnyard animals. the world of Faerie has influenced much of fantasy. World of Faerie Although not a large subgenre. but rather one where dwells a strange and mysterious race with powers that seem magical to mere humans. Tolkien. who seem to have a proclivity for falling in love with each other. Holdstock. Reissued 2001. transformed into a toy. The Various. Readers fond of this subgenre may also enjoy urban fantasy. Reissued 2005. Steve. Gate of Horn. Mythago Cycle. Datlow. A dog. 2002. the idea being that a place exists side by side with our world that has different rules of nature and where time passes at a different rate. Gaiman. in which the worlds of Faerie and humans collide.398 Chapter 11—Fantasy Joe Grey. Hoyt. Ryhope Wood is an enchanted world in which mythic images come to life. Ellen. R. Roverandom. 2001. eds. a young girl sent to stay with an uncle for the summer finds and frees a winged horse who has been trapped in an outbuilding. Lavondyss: Journey to an Unkown Region. In this book for all ages. R. 1978. Shakespeare series. The Hollowing. Augarde. and Terri Windling. The Book of the Dun Cow. Robert. 1997. Wangerin. Sarah A. 1998. /// Met by Moonlight. Tinkerbell-like creatures. This is not a world inhabited by delicate-winged. 2004. Reissued 2003. The Green Man: Tales from the Mythic Forest. Plots in this subgenre almost always involve the conflict between humans and the elven inhabitants of Faerie. J . 1988. Very un-fantasy-like except for the fact that the cats talk and solve mysteries. . Gate of Ivory. Walter. Stardust. Tales of changelings also abound. 1998. Reissued 2003 Winner of the World Fantasy Award. searches for the wizard who cursed him. 1994. and its conventions frequently pop up in many types of literature and popular media. Short stories dealing with the world of faerie. # Mythago Wood.

^ Windling. Steven. Sharon. /// Met by Moonlight. 2005. Summers at Castle Auburn. H3 Based on Scottish ballads. 1996. ^ . Holly. 2004. 1992. where a rift between our world and the world of Faerie has occurred. Reissued 2005. Midori. the fantasy equivalent of science fiction's cyberpunk. The young Coriel. Hannah's Garden. A faerie detective. Changeling Trilogy. Brust. racism. 1987. Elaine. Reissued 2004. Here magic and technology share a place in gritty. 2002. McNaughton. This Scepter'd Isle.Urban Fantasy 399 All Night Awake. The evil Unseleighe Sidhe try to keep Elizabeth from becoming queen. An Earthly Knight. 2004. War for the Oaks. Readers of urban fantasy should also check the "Shared Worlds" section later in this chapter for the Borderlands series. Shinn. The Gypsy. Any Man So Daring. Mercedes. and Megan Lindholm. and Roberta Gellis. The Scepter'd Isle. finds that things she thought were terrific—hunting for Aliora. Henry VIII. Reissued 2003. a Modern Faerie Tale. illegitimate daughter of a noble and a wise woman. Urban Fantasy Drugs. The Wood Wife. Lackey. Terri. the elven-like fey creatures used as slaves. Snyder. Black. 2001. Bull. and the gorgeous crown prince who is betrothed to her half-sister—are not exactly as great as they seemed. Janet. Shadows in the Darkness. Tithe. and other scourges of modern life are evident in this subgenre. 2002. Cunningham. 2004. gangs. 2003. dangerous cities. Emma. 2002.

whether our own transformed by a difference in history or that can be traveled to from our world. 1997. now transformed into a wolf-boy. Alternate and Parallel Worlds Other fully developed worlds. Reissued 2005. 2001. but many titles fit in the fantasy arena as well as or better than in science fiction. Alternate History Due to a divergence someplace in time. eds. Kristine Kathryn. Elsewhere. 2003. but each titles stands alone quite well. 1997. Trader. 1993. Ron. Rusch. saves an elven lord who is chased into her salvage yard by a pack of wargs. 1998. Tinker. Fantasy Life. Alternate history is an area that is most frequently claimed by science fiction. • Tinker. the worlds presented are very different from the world we know. Neverywhere. . NeverNever. The Onion Girl. comes of age as he discovers what life is really about. Newford Series. an inventor and girl genius. Reissued 2003. The Essential Bordertown. TO3 Gritty London setting. 2004. H3 Gaiman. The Blue Girl. 1991. Both titles reissued in 2004. Alternate and parallel worlds are also found in science fiction. Newford has also been the setting of several of de Lint's short stories. Neil. are featured in this subgenre. 2003. 2003. Many of de Lint's novels are set in the fictional city Newford. Terri. Someplace to Be Flying. Shared-world short stories set in Bordertown. Wen. Sometimes the alternate world is a fully fleshed-out one that has no relation to our own but rather has its own fully developed history and rules. Runaway Ron ends up in Bordertown. Charles. The titles listed here are in chronological order. Spencer. 1998. Will. Windling.400 Chapter 11—Fantasy de Lint. Shetterly. and Delia Sherman. Bordertown. Winner of the Sapphire Award. Spirits in the Wires.

and the states never became a union. A young Irish slave is brought to a North America ruled by those who came from Africa. Seventh Son. 2002. Steven. Heartfire. 2003. Brust. Goa. Bijapur. The Crystal City. Sixteenth century. Alvin Journeyman. Chronicles of Alvin Maker. 2002. Hades'Daughter. 2004. hexes and spells work. 1988. The Troy Game. 1998. Alchemist's Door. 1997. Prentice Alvin. Dalkey. 1998. 2003. Twelfth-century Japan. Genpei. 2003. 1987. Goldstein. In this alternate nineteenth-century North America. the founder of Mormonism. Dinosaur Summer. Gods' Concubine. 2001. and Emma Bull. 1998. . 1995. 1998. Slavery and Freedom. Bear. mysterious romp through mid-nineteenth-century England. Orson Scott. Blood of the Goddess. Zulu Heart. Sara. 1997. 2005. Card. Lisa. 1989. Kara. Bhagavati. Douglass. Steven. Darkwitch Rising. Red Prophet. Freedom and Necessity. It is American history with a twist and echoes of the life of Joseph Smith. Greg. A magical.Alternate and Parallel Worlds 401 Barnes. Lion's Blood. Sixteenth-century India.

Thelllearth War. Reissued 1987. and the evil Lord Carrion pursues her. The Power That Preserves. Stephen R. Reissued 1987. Clive. Guy Gavriel. . Parallel Worlds In the following works. Robinson. The Sarantine Mosaic. Candy Quackenbush finds a lighthouse in the middle of the fields and ends up in the darkly magical land of Abarat. Kay. The Years of Rice and Salt. 1995. First Chronicle. characters travel from one world to another. White Gold Wielder. The Runes of the Earth. and Laura Hickman. Pamela.402 Chapter 11—Fantasy Hickman. Mystic Warrior. Mystic Quest. 1977. Last Chronicle. Reissued 1987. Miserable in Chickentown. Kim Stanley. Abarat. 1977. Harry. Minnesota. The Last Light of the Sun. 1982. Donaldson. The Lions of Al-Rassan. 1983. where each island is in a different time. 2004. The conflict in the story often arises from being a stranger in a strange land. 1977. Lord Foul's Bane. Reissued 1987. 1980. 1999. The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant. The Bronze Canticles. where several of his titles are listed. Reissued 1987. Abarat. Tracy. the Unbeliever. Sargent. 2002. Turtledove. 2004. 2005. 2002. Second Chronicle. The Wounded Land. 2004. 1999. The prolific and most widely known author of alternative histories often has a technological emphasis that places many of his tales in science fiction. 2004. Climb the Wind: A Novel of Another America. Days of Magicy Nights of War. Reissued 1987. The One Tree. Barker.

in this series filled with humor and wit. 2003. Ursula K. The Well of Lost Plots. Inkspell. 2003. Special Operative Thursday Next solves a series of literary mysteries. Cornelia. Reissued 2003. Song of Susannah. King. Wolves of the Calla. two teens from a land called Blest team up with a teen who has traveled from our world to fight a diabolical political plot.. 1987. 1991.Alternate and Parallel Worlds 403 Fforde. Something Rotten. The Dark Tower series. The Drawing of the Three. 2003. Jasper. 2004. The Ordinary. Le Guin. 2005. The Waste Lands. Louise. E In a very complex tale of parallel worlds. Diana Wynne. 1997. L. . Stephen. Reissued 2003. The Merlin Conspiracy. The Glass Harmonica. The Dark Tower. 2004. The Lathe of Heaven. Funke. 1971. 2002. In a world where literature is of major importance. 1999. 1997. Eyre Affair. The Gunslinger. 2004. 1982. Reissued 2003. The Soprano Sorceress. Inkheart. Thursday Next series. but adults will also enjoy the story. Darksong Rising. Modesitt. Marley. was written for young adults. Lost in a Good Book. 2004. E. Jim. Wizard and Glass. E This lengthy book. 2004. J r . The Spellsong War. Jones. Reissued 2003. 1998. QQ Grimsley. A young woman from the future sees one from the past with the help of music. featuring a protagonist who is such a powerful reader that characters step out of the pages for him. 2003. 2000. * m George Orr's dreams become reality. The Spellsong Cycle.

2003. The Fire Duke. her bastard brother. her daemon Pantalaimon. The Traveler. A Sorcerer's Treason A Novel of Isavalta. Sarah. The Heir Apparent. and perhaps because of this. Philip. Keepers of the Hidden Ways series. 1987. The Usurper's Crown. (film in production for release in 2007). The Golden Compass. 2003. The Road Home. All of the following titles feature complex worlds. Not Quite Scaramouche. 1983. His Dark Materials. 1996. The Sword and the Chain. The Warrior Lives. 2001. Joel. and a scheming peasant are caught up in a world at war. Reissued 2004. 1995.404 Chapter 11—Fantasy The Shadow Sorceress. Rosenberg. Not Really the Prisoner ofZenda. they tend to appear in multivolume series. Twelve Hawks. Isavalta. 1998. The Crimson Sky. Guardians of the Flame. 2002. 2004. Three teens. Zettel. Lyra. John. Bell. The Road to Ehvenor. 1985. . 1991. 2001. The Silver Stone. 1998. Hilari. Alternate Worlds Fully realized worlds with distinct political and cultural histories are found throughout the fantasy genre. 1996. The Silver Crown. The Sleeping Dragon. Pullman. The Amber Spyglass. 1995. 1999. and Will have far-ranging adventures as they travel through several different worlds experiencing all kinds of dangers and meeting a myriad of people who affect their lives. a highborn deghass. 2000. 1984. 2005. Not Exactly the Three Musketeers. The Subtle Knife. The Farsala Trilogy. The Firebird's Vengeance. 1988.

Drum Calls. J E Bradley. KushieVs Dart. The Lord of Castle Black. /ssofa. This posthumous conclusion to the Drums of Chaos series was coauthored and finished by Kevin Andrew Murphy. Jacqueline. 1987. 2002. 1993. Clarke. Marion Zimmer. Dragon. Jo. Steven. E Rise of a Hero. 2002. Norrell.. Phoenix Guards. The Phoenix Guards.Alternate and Parallel Worlds 405 Fall of a Kindgdom. Kushiel's Legacy. Atfiyra. The Viscount of Andrilankha. . KushieVs Avatar. 1998. 2001. 2004. Sethra Lavode. 2003. Teckla. Taltos. Orca. 1984. 1996. 1991. Phoenix. 1996. 1990. World of Dragaera. KushieVs Chosen. long in decline. A world filled with eroticism and pain. Carey. is revived by two very different men. Darkover series. 1994. The Paths of the Dead. 2003. Drums of Chaos series. This Hugo Award winner is set in an alternate England where magic. Jhereg. Clayton. Drum into Silence. 1988. 2002. 2001. A*^ " * [jto. Vlad Taltos series. 1997. Brust. Yendi. Five Hundred Years After. Susanna. Drum Warning. 2004. Published as Flame in 2003. 2004. 1983. • Jonathan Strange & Mr. 2005.

The Bishop's Heir. The Old Kingdom. High Deryni. * Encompasses several trilogies. 1984. Saint Camber. Kings Dragon. The Histories of King Kelson series. The Chronicles of the Deryni. Harry Potter series. Crown of Stars series. 1997. Rowling. CQ Elliott. In the King's Service. Prince of Dogs. 1986.406 Chapter 11—Fantasy Dorsey. Deryni Rising. 1997. The Heirs of Saint Camber series. 4} Sabriel. 1985. K. 1976. 1989. Kingjavan's Year. H3 The series that originally started as one for children has developed a life of its own and has had a major impact on the world of fantasy fiction. 2000. Camber the Heretic. The Legends of Camber ofCuldi series. The Deryni Saga. 1978. The King's Justice. Garth. Reissued 2004. 1999. Abhorsen. 1992. 1970. 1995. 1998. 1981. 2000. The Gathering Storm. Deryni Checkmate. Camber of Culdi. Black Wine. The Burning Stone. 1972. J . Katherine. 1994. The Bastard Prince. Nix. . 2003. 2003. The Harrowing of Gwynedd. Kate. 1973. 2003. Candas Jane. King Kelson's Bride. Child of Flame. 522 Lirael 2001. Kurtz. The Quest for Saint Camber. Winner of both the Best Fantasy Novel and Best Young Adult Novel in the 1995 Australian Aurealis Awards.

Melissa. the district just outside the city walls that houses the poor. à Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Winner of the Hugo and Nebula Awards and the Locus Poll. Lindskold. The Hallowed Hunt. 2001. Winner of the Hugo Award. 2002. as well as society as a whole. Jacqueline. Carey. 1999. Bujold. 1998. her uncle. 2005. Jane. and his hieroglyphs teacher are locked into a buried pyramid and escape . a young American. 2001. 2004. Point of Dreams. 2005. Sisters of the Raven. Volsky. Sara. The Curse of Chalion. 2003. The Buried Pyramid. Godslayer. Banewreaker. Barbara. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The Nameless Day. Chalion. Paladin of Souls. • Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Hambly. 2005. Gangsters and a new religious cult have cornered the market on water in the Slaughterhouse. Point of Hopes. and Lisa Barnett. In an Indiana Jones-like adventure turned to fantasy. 2004. 1995. The Sundering. 2000. Lois McMaster. The Wounded Hawk. The Grand Ellipse. 2003. The Crucible. Douglass. 2005. Religion-Based Alternate Worlds The role of religion in shaping an alternate world is a growing theme in fantasy fiction today. Winner of the Whitbread Award and the Locus Poll. J | Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. 2005. Paula. This more recent type delves into how religion affects individual lives. Scott. Originally published in England under the title Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. although mythology has long been popular. 2000. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. 1999.Alternate and Parallel Worlds 407 Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone.

Finder. The Burning Land. The Alleluia Files. Windling. Reissued 2004. 2004. Sometimes they arise organically from a novel or series so beloved that it achieves a life of its own. graphic novels. 1997. Terri. and Delia Sherman. is sent on an expedition into the Burning Lands to discover what happened to the Aratists who were exiled there. The adherents of the sleeping god Arata.408 Chapter 11—Fantasy through passages to the shores of a Nile that shouldn't be there. 1991. 2004. This quintessential shared world series basically created the urban fantasy. author. Gyalo. and even computer games. Will. or group and is then used as a background by several authors. Shared worlds are not necessarily initially conceived in books. 1996. who desecrated and destroyed temples and monasteries. Angel-Seeker. in which an imaginary world is created by an editor. NeverNever. games. Angelica. Shetterly. Emma. 1994. where they help Ra travel the dangers of night so the sun can rise again. 1993. The shared worlds seem to be particularly popular in series based on role-playing games. set in a world conceived and developed by another individual or group. A growing trend in shared world universes has been for the setting and characters to appear in several different venues: novels. Reissued 2004. Sharon. movies. eds. As in any set of works created by committee. but the following series have been popular. and the Internet. 1998. . Bull. television shows. The introduction of shared world stories. Elsewhere. have finally reclaimed Galea and overthrown the Caryaxists. either computerized or not. Reissued 2004. The Essential Bordertown: A Traveller's Guide to the Edge of Faerie. forcing the Aratists into exile or prison over a period of eighty years. such as Norton's Witch World and Bradley's Darkover. Bordertown. Shinn. there is bound to be some variation in quality. 2003. Victoria." This is a world in which our world and that of Faerie meet in a gritty city where runaways from both worlds meet. Shared Worlds Shared world novels are those that are written by various authors. Strauss. The Archangel. Locus called it "the finest of all shared worlds. who has many aspects. They may have their genesis in television or movies or games. has resulted in the publication of several series. Samaria series. a young priest and strongly talented shaper. 1999. Jovah's Angel. comics.

it is obvious that huge changes are taking place in the world. the physical copies are missing. Paxson. Marion Zimmer Bradley. Beyond Wizard-Wall. A list of titles is available at http://www.com/default. Bohnhoff. When all things mechanical or electronic stop working and people start morphing into other creatures. Zicree. Zicree. Soul of the City. Marc Scott. Andrew Offutt. Lynn Abbey. Aftermath. which features stories by Mickey Zucker Reichert. It is a series of fantasy worlds filled with elves. Diana L. Jody Lynn Nye. The series was reborn in this century with Sanctuary (2002) by Lynn Abbey. -. Janet Morris (who has done separate novels on Thieves' World: Beyond Sanctuary. The late Marion Zimmer Bradley's world of Darkover has proven to be popular enough to work its way into a shared world universe. Angelfire. and Raymond E.wizards. this series also continues to thrive. Robin Wayne Bailey. Selina Rosen. C. Jeff Grubb. David Drake. followed by Turning Points (2002). 2001. Shadows of Sanctuary. Christine DeWeese. Robin Wayne Bailey. dragons. van Vogt. Blood Ties. She edited several anthologies of stories set in the world she created. McKiernan. Chris Morris. J. Jeff Grubb. and Cross Currents: Storm Season. The creation of Robert Lynn Asprin and Lynn Abbey in 1978. and Robert Charles Wilson. Diana L Paxson. and all things magical. and Beyond the Veil). Wings of Omen. Diana L. Poul Anderson. . Dennis L. John Brunner. Paxson. Jody Lynn Nye. Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman became best-selling authors with their many series set in the world of Krynn. Marc Scott. Dennis L McKiernan. dwarves. Andrew Offutt. While many shared world series are based on games. Cherryh. Tales from the Vulgar Unicorn. E. The first six volumes (original paperbacks) were gathered into two volumes by Science Fiction Books in Sanctuary: Thieves' World. wizards. Andrew Offutt. Robin Wayne Bailey.Shared Worlds 409 Darkover. Maya Kaathryn. Enemies of Fortune (2004) features stories by C. and A. Lynn Abbey. this series continues to thrive. a game was created based on the Thieves' World series. and Ian Grey. 2002. Those titles are The Dead of Winter. Among the contributing authors were Lynn Abbey. Jane Fancher. Volumes 7-10 in the series are long out of print. Role-playing-game based. This is a world in which some of the descendants of human colonists have developed telepathic powers called laran. all books were published between 1979 and 1990. DragonLance. Joe Haldeman. Selina Rosen. Magic Time. 2004. and Stealer's Sky. Mickey Zucker Reichert. Ghostlands. The Face of Chaos. Philip José Farmer. and Barbara Hambly. Robert Lynn Asprin. Feist. Mclntyre. Thieves' World-Sanctuary Series.. and even though some libraries still list them in their catalogs. Steven Brust.asp?x=books/dl/bibliography. J. Forgotten Realms. A graphic novel series was also created. Or •s. Cherryh.*é*T) Magic Time. Uneasy Alliances. Role-playing-game based. Diane Duane. Vonda N.

2002. Terry. Bellaires. The October Country. Larry Dixon. A Red Heart of Memories. 1955. edited by Mercedes Lackey and John Yezeguielian. Seduced by Moonlight. Past the Size of Dreaming. Sword of Ice: And Other Tales ofValdemar (1999). 1962. Reissued 1999. but in dark fantasy the emphasis is on the magic and often on the conflict between good and evil. Like horror. Merry Gentry series. Winner of the World Fantasy Award. 2001. Many titles included in this section also appear on horror lists. * Brooks. Knight of the Word. The Word and the Void Trilogy. E Hamilton. Laurell K. Wizard Prospero' s strange dreams and glimpses of strange beings out of the corner of his eye may be connected to a mysterious book written in cipher. Both genres scare or terrify. Nina Kiriki. Reissued 2000. while in horror the emphasis is simply on terrifying the reader. dark fantasy tends to be very atmospheric. # Coraline. 1969. 2004. # Ombria in Shadow. McKillip. Patricia A. It is very strongly linked to horror. and readers who enjoy the titles listed here may also want to consult the "dark fantasy" section in the horror chapter (chapter 12). and others. . 2002. The Face in the Frost. Gaiman. includes eighteen stories by Mickey Zucker Reichert. Michelle Sagara. 1997. Tanya Huff. Dark Fantasy Defining dark fantasy is as difficult as defining fantasy itself. Hoffman. Ray. 1999. Running with the Demon. A Kiss of Shadows. which his friend Roger Bacon is seeking. John. * Something Wicked This Way Comes. Many authors who are known for writing horror have been recipients of major fantasy awards for their dark fantasy titles. Bradbury. Neil. Angel Fire East.410 Chapter 11 —Fantasy Valdemar Mercedes Lackey made the world of Valdemar so fully developed and enticing that others wanted to write stories set there. 1998. 1999. 2002. Reissued 1999. Winner of the Hugo and Nebula (Novella) Awards and the Locus Poll for ^ Young Adults.

2003. 2004. 2002. when she has a vision of a diver far away—drowning. high in the Georgia Appalachians. Marc Scott. While time travel romance. a publisher that means romance to many. Romantic Fantasy Fantasy and romance are a match seemingly made in fairyland. Iron Council. Tor. has added a romance line called Tor Romance that features romance with strong fantasy and/or paranormal themes. Voyage of the Shadowmoon. # The Scar. Magic Time. is taking a frigid winter swim in Lake Riley. 2002. D. Deborah. S. so popular in the 1990s. Harlequin. Clarke and British Fantasy Awards. 2001. A shared world series created by Zicree and listed in the "Shared Worlds" section of this chapter. Glass Dragons. an ugly duckling with webbed feet who has not grown into a swan. Tower. Winner of the Locus Poll and the British Fantasy Award. The Assassins ofTamurin. Lale is sent out in the world to earn the skills of an actress in the high theater. Alice at Heart. Meiville. romance blended with fairy tales and paranormal powers is blossoming. where she learns that she looks almost exactly like the Sun Lord's late wife. Moonworlds saga. 2004. Smith. Sean. Readers will find many titles that combine fantasy and romance in the romance chapter (chapter 9). . The Romance Writers of America award the Prism Award. Winner of the Arthur C. Her loyalty cemented by wraiths from the Quiet World who will torture her to death if she betrays the Despotana. has come into the fantasy field in a major way with its Luna line. Zicree. Alice. # Perdido Street Station. a publisher long known for fantasy and science fiction. The early twenty-first century saw many popular and successful combinations of the two genres.Romantic Fantasy 411 McMullen. is waning. China. while the Science Fiction Romance Newsletter (which also includes fantasy) awards the Sapphire Award. 2002.

Short stories about sword-wielding warrior women by Elizabeth Moon." Robert Bloch. Harry Turtledove. White Wolf Publishing. The following is merely a sampling of what is available. Robin Wayne Bailey. Elizabeth Ann. Griffith." Shirley Jackson. Gay and lesbian fantasy by Mark Shepherd. "The Detective of Dreams. and informative commentary on trends and authors. 1999). eds. Elizabeth Moon. offer a sampling of classic fantasy." Avram Davidson. Pocket. Robert. "That Hell-Bound Train. Silverberg. Anthologies Anthologies are of particular importance because they showcase a broad range of styles and types." Harlan Ellison. Don Bassingthwaite. A more extensive list of anthologies is included in Fluent in Fantasy (Libraries Unlimited. 1997. which also lists selected short story collections by individual authors. "The Loom of Darkness. Jody Lynn Nye. Thirty stories first published between 1939 and 1990. Stories by Anne McCaffrey. The collection also includes sixteen runners-up. selected by the membership of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America." Lucius Shepard. The Fantasy Hall of Fame: The Definitive Collection of the Best Modern Fantasy Chosen by the Members of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. Jane Yolen. 1998. ed. Greenberg. 1998. "Come Lady Death. (not included in the anthology). Esther Friesner. HarperPrism. DAW." Gene Wolfe. 1995. "The Drowned Giant." Roger Zelazny. Ballard. and others.Topics The resources listed here are intended to broaden the reader's knowledge of the genre. Le Guin. Friesner. Chicks in Chainmail. Ellen Kushner. 1998." Robert Silverberg. Did You Say Chicks? Baen. "The Golem. and others." Jack Vance. historical information. The fifteen stories receiving the most votes were "The Lottery. Scarborough. A. Warrior Princesses. A wildly popular." Anthony Boucher. Many of the anthologies offer insightful essays." J. . "Her Smoke Rose up Forever." Ursula K. Mark W. and Martin H. and "The Compleat Werewolf. Won't You Come Out Tonight. J. and Stephen Pagel." Peter S. Tanya Huff. Beagle. "Basileus. "Unicorn Variations. Nicola. Margaret Ball. Jr." James Tiptree. Tiedemann. Esther. Holly Wade Matter. Salmonson. "Buffalo Gals. Bending the Landscape: Fantasy. humorous anthology featuring swordswomen and other formidable females. G. Simon Sheppard. and more. "The Jaguar Hunter. Kim Antieau. The voting criteria are explained and the ranking of the stories is listed. "Jeffty Is Five." Terry Bisson. 412 . "Bears Discover Fire. ed.

Joanna Russ. Samuel R. Leonora Carrington. Lloyd Biggie Jr. Shirley Jackson. Fay Weldon. 2000. Raymond E. Le Guin. Suzy McKee Charnas. Jerry Pournelle. Hilary Bailey. Janet Frame. Josephine Saxton. Neil Gaiman. Edited by David G. Angela Carter. eds. Mclntyre. Zoe Fairbairns. Carol Emshwiller. Edited by Jonathan Strahan and Karen Haber. Martin. James Gunn. Christine Brooke-Rose. Gordon R. Ursula K. Robert Silverberg. was published in 2004. Raymond E. Lynda Rajan. The name was changed to Nebula Awards Showcase in 2000. and Terry Brooks. Anna Kavan. and Robert Jordan are a great introduction to current popular fantasy novelists. Joan Aiken. Year's Best Fantasy. Edited by Ellen Datlow and Terri Windling. Anne McCaffrey. Editors have included Connie Willis. Marta Randall. Pamela Sargent. Mary Gentle. 2 0 0 1 . Anthology Series Fantasy: The Best of. Kit Reed. and Lucy Sussex. Feist. Susan. James. and Damon Knight. L. Nebula Awards Showcase 2004. Delany. Tor. # Williams. George R. 2003. DelRey. Candas Jane Dorsey. Tad Williams. 2004Nebula Awards Showcase. R. D. Brian Aldiss. Kate Wilhelm.. James Blish. Hall. George Zebrowski. Frank Herbert. Terry Pratchett. The Penguin Book of Modern Fantasy by Women. Butler. The twelfth annual collection was published in 1999. Orson Scott Card.. Feist.. Jr. Ann Oakley. Ursula K. Martin's Press. Le Guin. Legends: Short Novels by the Masters of Modern Fantasy. Orson Scott Card. Diana Gabaldon. Terry Goodkind. Legends II: Short Novels by the Masters of Modern Fantasy. Jack Dann. Joyce Carol Oates. Leigh Brackett. P. Stories by Robin Hobb. Martin. Zenna Henderson. Octavia E. Clifford D. Nebula Awards: SFWA's Choices for the Best Science Fiction and Fantasy of the Year.Anthologies 413 -. R. Anne McCaffrey. Penguin USA. I Books. This annual anthology included short pieces and excerpts of nominations for the year as well as essays. A. Daphne du Maurier. St.. Margaret Atwood. . and Richard Glyn Jones. Thirty-eight stories written since 1941. . Tad Williams. Kate Wilhelm. Robert Silverberg. Year's Best Fantasy. James Morrow. Joe Haldeman. Anne Mccaffrey. Frederik Pohl. the numbering continuing from the previous title. Isaac Asimov. Michael Bishop. A. Elizabeth Hay don. Roc. Mclntyre. Year's Best Fantasy and Horror. Eos. Suniti Namjoshi. Introduction by Joanna Russ... Vonda N. James Tiptree. Robert Silverberg. 1990-. 1997. Hartwell and Kathryn Cramer. Poul Anderson. Lisa Tuttle. Ursula K. Roger Zelazny. 1998. Dickson. Simak. Authors included are Elizabeth Bowen. Harcourt Brace. Winner of the World Fantasy Award. George R. edited by Vonda N. Muriel Spark. Tanith Lee. Stories by Stephen King. Le Guin. 1966-1999.

material on fantasy can be found in some histories and criticisms of science fiction. More than 21. ALA Editions. Definitive listings of secondary materials. and William G. Herald.g. The Science Fiction and Fantasy Readers' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Cyborgs. Hawk's Enterprises. This is a must-have for every serious fantasy collection. sword and sorcery. Everything you ever wanted to know about fantasy from the dawn of time to 1995 is included. and live performances that are fantasy based. tips for readers' advisors. Over 200 Arthurian novels are annotated. only. it also takes on movies.000 stories by over 7. 1998. and key worlds are indexed. Contento. The first. Hal W. The Supernatural Index: A Listing of Fantasy.. Diana Tixier. humor. and Horror Anthologies. Pat. The title says it all. It has over a million words in 4. Award winners and titles that appeal to teens are noted. Characters. . Neil. as are themes and motifs. it lists books released in the specified time span of 1989-1997. Supernatural. and lists of resources. Noncritical. Occult. Weird. and there are author/title and subject indexes. ed. The Encyclopedia of Fantasy.100 anthologies are indexed. 1999. 1995. dark fantasy). Mediavilla. Scarecrow. and Sorcerers. Buker. Libraries Unlimited. It also includes a historical background of the genre. settings. 1993. What Fantastic Fiction Do I Read Next? A Reader's Guide to Recent Fantasy. History and Criticism In addition to the following works. and definitive encyclopedia of fantasy. . 1992-1995: An International Subject and Author Index to History and Criticism.000 entries. St.414 Chapter 11—Fantasy Bibliographies and Biographies Ashley. with an emphasis on books for young adults. The first readers' advisory tool focusing solely on fantasy. Hawk. Martin's Press. Science Fiction and Fantasy Reference Index. ed. Arthurian Fiction. Barron. Libraries Unlimited. Fluent in Fantasy: A Guide to Reading Interests. art. Definitive listings of secondary materials. this is the definitive guide to the genre. Hawk's Science Fiction. Michael. Aliens. Hall. John. Cindy. a recommended core list for libraries.. Encyclopedias Clute. and John Grant. Fantasy & Horror Series & Sequels.700 authors in more than 2. Libraries Unlimited. Not only covering the written word. 1997. Science Fiction and Fantasy Reference Index. 2002. 2001. shared world. Derek M. 1999. 1997. Horror and Science Fiction. Awards and conventions are listed. Gale. 1985-1991: An International Author and Subject Index to History and Criticism. television. The book describes thousands of fantasy titles and categorizes them into fifteen subgenres (e. Greenwood.

ed. Established in 1971 and sponsors the annual FantasyCon.org. Dream—The Lensman Series. Lest Darkness Fall—So Love Returns. Libraries Unlimited.uk). Discusses what young adults really read and why. Shippey. . Members nominate for the World Fantasy Awards. better reflecting the intertwined relationship of the two genres.html (accessed April 5.tolkiensociety. this is a book for all serious fantasy collections. Twayne.org/). Survey of Modern Fantasy Literature. Software and Wetware— Zotz! Organizations and Conventions The British Fantasy Society (http://www. the name was changed to include fantasy in 1992. Biographies of Terry Brooks. The Tolkien Society (http://www. Volume 1. Cathi Dunn. Originally the Science Fiction Writers of America. Salem Press.org/). R. Jane Yolen. Devoted to the study. FantasyCon 2005 was held from September 30 to October 2. The Web site lists upcoming conventions.. Wisconsin. 1993. The winners are listed in Fluent in Fantasy (Libraries Unlimited. The 305th annual conference was held at the University of Michigan in 2004. 1996. World Fantasy Convention (http://www. but because in fantasy young adults and adults read the same things. 1999). The Absolute at Large—Dragonsbane. ed. 2005). Hal W. The 2005 World Fantasy Convention was scheduled for Madison. Attendance at the convention is limited to 850 people. Membership is open only to writers of published science fiction or fantasy. The Mythopoeic Society (http://www.5 vols. Magill's Guide to Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature.. R. Barbara Hambly.org/). 1985-1991: An International Author and Subject Index to History and Criticism. consisting of novels and anthologies nominated for the British Fantasy Awards. Frank N.worldfantasy. Walsall. MacRae. J.org).. eds. The following is a listing of fantasy awards that continue to be given. Salem Press. Founded in 1965 by Damon Knight. 4 vols. 1983.mythsoc. and T. Volume 4. Presenting Young Adult Fantasy Fiction. Magill. Volume 3. discussion. Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America (http://www.sfwa. but supporting memberships are also available. Tolkien.com/SFAwards/index. as are the winners of now-defunct awards. The society was founded in 1969 to further interest in the works of J. 2005 at the Quality Hotel in Bentley.locusmag. Sobczak. A. but a panel of judges makes the final decisions. who also served as the first president. Science Fiction and Fantasy Reference Index. Volume 2. and enjoyment of myth and fantasy literature. A.britishfantasysociety. 1998. and Meredith Ann Pierce provide more in-depth fantasy analysis.Awards 415 Hall. Awards The most up-to-date and comprehensive information on fantasy awards can be found at the Locus Web site: http://www. BFS also provides a list of recommended books. The Society holds an annual conference called Mythcon.

horror/dark fantasy novel. Crawford Memorial Award (http://wiz. http://ebbs. Mythopoeic Award (http://www. Feminist Science Fiction. Poll results are given in the categories of SF novel. & Utopia. 2005). Readers of Locus are annually given a chance to select their favorites in a magazine poll. Although the poll has been conducted since 1971.html (accessed April 5. "The Sidewise Awards for Alternate History were conceived in late 1995 to honor the best 'genre' publications of the year. magazine. often referred to as the August Derleth Award. The panel also awards the World Fantasy Life Achievement Award to an individual. Locus Awards. novelette. Additional listings of sites that group fantasy with science fiction are listed in the science fiction chapter (chapter 10).home. but the winners are selected by a panel. Several of the books that have received this award are covered in the horror chapter (chapter 12). and horror what Billboard is to music and Variety to acting. In 1992 the society divided the fantasy award into categories of fantasy for children and for adults. The British Fantasy Award. http://www.html). In 1994 and 1990. Reader's Robot Fantasy Page. A panel of judges awards this prize at the International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts annual convention for the best first fantasy published during the previous eighteen months. William L.416 Chapter 11 —Fantasy August Derleth Award (http://www. 2005)."—Sidewise Award Web site. Prior to that.vt.tnrdlib. young adult novel. nonfiction.britishfantasysociety. and results is at http://www. 2005). fantasy novel.ca/fa-menu.edu/iafa/ iafa. An online resource listing nominees. the poll really reflects what serious readers of fantasy like.sff.org. the best fantasy novel category first appeared in 1980.net/sidewise/). collection.org/awards.uchronia.cath.html (accessed April 5. The Mythopoeic Award is given at the annual Mythcon. fantasy was included in the novel category.org/awards/). and results are published in the July or August issue. Fantasy.edu/iafa/iafa.bc.org/femsf (accessed April 5. http://www. book publisher/imprint.awards.vt. Sidewise Awards (http://www. Members of the annual World Fantasy Convention may nominate. winners. anthology.html). Because Locus is to science fiction. is selected by members of the British Fantasy Society and attendees of the annual FantasyCon. World Fantasy Award (http://www. dark fantasy was not listed as a category even though horror was. art book.uk/info/bfsawards. 2005). Online Resources Online resources specific to fantasy are listed here. novella. Fluent in Fantasy. http://www. fantasy. and artist. editor.html (accessed April 5. The close relationship between fantasy and horror is indicated by the number of horror novels awarded this fantasy prize. . International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts.locusmag.mythsoc. Ballots are only accepted from subscribers. short story. The winner is chosen by a committee of Mythopoeic Society members. 2005). first novel. The poll has been taken annually since 1971.feministsf.english. The award takes its name from Murray Leinster's 1934 short story 'Sidewise in Time.net/people/dherald/ (accessed April 5.' in which a strange storm causes portions of Earth to swap places with their analogs from other timelines.com/ SFAwards/Db/Locus.worldfantasy.htm). features hyperlinks to all sites listed in the book of the same title as well as listing new sites of interest to fantasy readers.

2001. along with a friend who was to have been his employer. Becky. Neil. Charles. Unwilling to let a defenseless donkey wander the woods alone. who introduces him to the old gods. Just before his long-anticipated release from prison. Not being a timid stay-at-home miss.htm (accessed April 5. Nix. the Ice Princess. American Gods. 2001. The Onion Girl. she takes him home and puts him to work transforming his life. 9* Gaiman. Newford's favorite artist. "Borrowing" a book titled The Handbook of Practical Heroics from the palace library. 2004. who acts like an ass. are more than dismayed to learn that all Kevin's carefully orchestrated moves to win the approval of the council of Lords have been in vain. she loses her temper at Prince Alexander. disguised as a crone to test three questing princes. Instead of committing suicide on her fourteenth birthday when she doesn't receive the future Seeing ability shared by all adult Clayr. Mercedes. (fairy tales). http://www. who are madly in love. He has been thrust aside in favor of whoever can retrieve the Ancient Artifact before it can be put to use in the Diabolical Device (a weapon of mass destruction). he meets the mysterious. 2005). or dreamlands. is struck down in a hit-and-run accident.Sheldon/ listcont. so she turns him into one. Prince Kevin Timberline and Princess Rebecca. 2001. leaving her in a coma in this world but allowing her to wander in the spirit world. it is Elena's duty to fight to prevent the bad things that come with "Tradition" as well as guiding the folks involved in the better parts along.sff. who are on the verge of war with the new gods. charismatic Wednesday. Lackey. (humorous). decides to follow Kevin and act as his comic sidekick as he faces Lord Voltmeter (He who must be named).D ' s Fantasy Picks 417 Recommended Fantasy Author List. (alternate worlds). Her life takes a curious turn when. Jilly Coppercom. D's Fantasy Picks de Lint. The Fairy Godmother.net/people/Amy. Shadow discovers that his wife has been killed in an automobile accident. Her physical injuries are not the only ones that are keeping her down. armed with a sword and wearing a chainmail bustier. (saga. 2001. Kevin sets out to beat more heroic knights to it. Garth. (urban fantasy). ancient hurts done to her are also playing a role. Heroics for Beginners. As an apprentice fairy godmother. Voltmeter's sexy Evil Assistant. Moore. Lirael. Lirael becomes a librarian in the vast warren of a library that not only houses books but also guards monstrous dangers and arcane magic. Upon his release. John. myth and legend). evil minions. and Valerie. .

adventurous Rose agrees to go with a great white bear to live in a distant land. 2003. but when she makes a horrible mistake she must travel East of the Sun and West of the Moon to rectify her error.418 Chapter 11 —Fantasy Pattou. East. . With her family facing ruin. (fairy tales). Edith.

write horror fiction?" a local National Public Radio host recently asked in the teaser spots for an interview about my novel House of Bones.' Mark Edmundson begins his study of the genre. Nightmare on Main Street. a college professor of English. So when people say. and it wasn't hard to hear the barely suppressed assumption that an interest in horror fiction is somehow abnormal. I think of myself as an upbeat type. and confirmed when I became a horror novelist. . "What makes an otherwise normal husband and father.2 419 . Even the most perceptive writing about the field echoes this idea. In Danse Macabre. like that of most horror readers. Stephen King. and during late-night reruns of The Night Stalker. Even as a child. for people who lived in the cellars of their own minds and never wanted to come out. a 1970s-era television shocker featuring a new supernatural menace every week. . I sensed that there was something faintly sordid about horror as a genre—a suspicion reinforced by the disdain of my teachers when they discovered my secret addiction to paperbacks like They Thirst (in which vampires overrun Los Angeles). Horror films were for misanthropes. . the most successful purveyor of contemporary horror fiction.Chapter 12 Horror Essay Dale Bailey My love of horror fiction. sprang up in secret and was nourished on the sly—in the gaudy paperbacks I secreted inside the sober classics assigned by my high school English teachers.. "Why do you write that stuff? " they are really inviting me to lie down on the couch and explain about the time I was locked in the cellar three weeks. writes: We all have a postulate buried deep in our minds: that an interest in horror is unhealthy and aberrant. with a similar moment of subterranean self-examination: A penchant for horror films didn 'tfit in particularly well with my self-conception.

as a writer of fiction. but a particularly acute one for horror for two reasons. horror tends to erode generic boundaries. its atmosphere of moral gloom and physical decay. Definition Genres of popular fiction are usually understood in terms of content—the romance focuses on matters of the heart. The Horror Reader This interest in disrupting the reader's emotional equilibrium may well account for the fact that an interest in horror is often seen as deviant. of course. Yet in my choices as a teacher and a critic. continue to identify the genre with matters of content. however. its reliance on suspense in plotting. exploiting the materials of other commercial categories to achieve its own effects. even as a consumer looking for a quickie beach read or a Friday-night movie rental. There is nothing supernatural about him at all. Because these emotions are more central to the genre than the means the narrative uses to achieve them. can't be entirely healthy. and the gross-out. a purely psychological variety of fear. In other cases. Finding pleasure and entertainment in terror. and demonic possession. a state of outright physical revulsion. Hamilton's series of vampire romances starring the recurring character of Anita Blake. of course. werewolves. associating it. In Danse Macabre. Surely an interest in horror. First. Such thinking. Norman Bates. or Laurell K. Such cross-genre exercises may employ only a handful of horror's conventional elements—its interest in physical and emotional violence. the logic runs. unlike most other categories of commercial writing. the mystery on the causes and consequence of crime. for example. is a kind of werewolf to be sure—as are Thomas Harris's Hannibal Lecter and the dozens of other less-celebrated serial killers who populate the genre—yet his divided nature is presented in purely psychological terms. its Manichean vision of a world divided between powers of darkness and light—but they share horror's overriding interest in frightening the reader. is at the top. horror is often seen as symptomatic of some personal pathology on the part of its consumers. I find myself constantly gravitating to the genre. followed by horror. Yet horror often omits such elements. Why? This is a crucial question for all popular genres. seeks to inspire a unique emotional state in its reader—fear—it is more properly seen in light of what it does than what it is. And second. King establishes a hierarchy of related emotions that the genre engages. I've found myself entertaining similar doubts. fails to distinguish genuine terror from the illusory fear experienced within the secure frame of a clearly . of Robert Bloch's Psycho. with monsters and the supernatural—with tales of vampires. Falling Angel. its use of ruined and isolated settings. Many readers. more conventional horror elements are integrated with materials from other genres—as in William Hjortsberg's exercise in hard-boiled supernatural noir. hauntings. with its standard fare of graphic slaying and flaying. Because horror fiction. which includes a physical dimension. Terror.420 Chapter 12—Horror After screening films such as Tobe Hooper's 1974 drive-in classic The Texas Chainsaw Massacre. however. and so on. Nor are these unrelated issues. is psychologically aberrant. horror is alone among popular genres in the problems of definition it poses.

for example. in terms of the sweeping physiological changes of adolescence. themselves caught between the categorical conditions of childhood and adulthood. Carol Clover refines this observation. In Danse Macabre. insect/human" and so on. Noël Carroll argues that monsters are "creatures that transgress categorical distinctions such as inside/outside. horror's often reactionary depiction of sexuality—especially the misogynistic fantasies that equate sexual gratification with vio- . teenagers find themselves uniquely situated. In The Philosophy of Horror. In short. adolescents—no longer children. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Western and spy fiction have a similarly exclusive appeal to men. even those populations may split along gender lines in their preference for subcategories such as drawing room mysteries and hard-boiled noir. Adolescence is a time of considerable emotional. and while other publishing categories—science fiction. its restrictions create tremendous frustrations. critic John Cawelti argues that "horror seems especially fascinating to the young and relatively unsophisticated parts of the public. Similarly. and writer. In its misunderstood monsters. perhaps. different genres appeal to different groups of readers. of both conditions. What's more. horror's lowly status in adult culture gives it an additional attraction—the same subversive charge enjoyed by any number of adolescent interests. they see distorted reflections of themselves. find horror fiction so fascinating. However. and sexual upheaval. as Janice Radway makes clear in Reading the Romance? is made up almost entirely of women. from skateboarding to gangster rap. editors. critic. and booksellers—also suggest that horror fiction appeals primarily to men between the ages of twelve and thirty. and in conversations with writers. ranging from near-classics such as King's Carrie (in which Carrie's awakening telekinetic powers are explicitly linked to menstruation and her anxiety about the onset of adult sexuality) to more recent paperback originals like Simon Clark's Blood Crazy (in which British teenagers face an outbreak of homicidal violence among their parents). at book signings."5 My own observations in the genre—gathered over two decades as a reader. and the worst. Horror's perennial popularity may well be rooted in its ability to address that population's specific emotional needs. Caught between the circumscribed freedoms of childhood and the potentially onerous responsibilities of adulthood. and especially mystery fiction—appeal more broadly to both genders. It's easy to read horror's concern with bodily integrity and transformation.The Horror Reader 421 fictional world—a tamer variation of the kind of safe thrill-seeking that makes roller coasters so appealing. even horror novels that don't explicitly address adolescent issues often do so implicitly. however. physical. and Chainsaws that adolescent males "hold pride of place" in such audiences. living/dead. The romance audience. It is also a time of enormous instability in personal identity. Women.4 Though there is little formal research specifically focused on such reading populations. Obviously. It also fails to take into account the unique demographics of horror's primary readership. publishers.6 If so. it's easy to see why teenagers. but not yet fully adults—experience the best. King points out that horror movies typically draw a teenage demographic. This appeal to the issues of adolescence is obvious in many horror novels. at conventions. noting in Men. The freedom of adolescence promises rewarding change and development.

In the 1950s. and inadvertently naming the genre to which his novel would give rise. when the unsettling conditions of adolescence become endemic—during periods when we're all a little unsettled and chafing inside the envelope of our own skins—horror transcends that core audience to achieve more universal appeal. in the 1980s. horror first invokes. Yet Jones's analysis. both personal (especially for its core adolescent audience) and cultural (during those periods when it attracts a larger adult audience). Its core audience—adolescents—is by nature unsettled: ill at ease with their place in the world and uncomfortable in their own skin. in the early 1970s. And so it is that horror stories typically begin with the eruption of chaotic forces into a previously ordered existence. for example. once they wane. political. among them Robert Marasco's Burnt Offerings and Stephen King's The Shining. And many critics have linked the surge of vampire fiction in the 1980s to cultural anxiety about the AIDs epidemic. they rarely regain the energy they enjoyed at their peak (witness the Western's failure to achieve renewed cultural prominence). in keeping with one of its most popular conceits. Walpole subtitled his book "A Gothic Story. horror novels such as Robert Heinlein's The Puppet Masters and Jack Finney's The Body Snatchers reflected contemporary anxiety about the Cold War. a pattern of such cyclical appeal." thus associating it with his interest in the architecture of the Middle Ages. and then resolves. to account for any number of horror texts that resist even the most ingenious psychosexual analysis. as persuasive as it seems. the things that frighten us most. Walpole could . Origins of the Genre A look at the origins of the genre reinforces this model of horror's appeal. In short. Jones argues in On the Nightmare. the horror tale enables us simultaneously to fulfill and repudiate them. While there has always been an interest in horrific material—consider Odysseus's encounter with the Cyclops—most historians agree that horror as a discrete genre finds its beginnings in Horace Walpole's 1764 novel. However. clearly. It fails. and again at the turn of this century—with audiences that extend well beyond its core of adolescent readers. During periods of social. Working inside the fictive—and therefore emotionally unthreatening— framework of popular genre. and economic turmoil. however. first of all.422 Chapter 12—Horror lent punishment—encode the sexual guilt occasioned by a culture that simultaneously exploits and condemns teenage sexuality. The Castle of Otranto. Horror. however. The recession of the 1970s saw a rash of horror novels with a distinctly economic subtext. the cyclical nature of horror fiction's appeal becomes clearer. horror purges us of our most troubling fears. 1940s. and 1950s). Some students of the genre—among them psychoanalyst Ernest Jones7—have gone so far as to argue that horror's appeal lies specifically in its ability to speak to our most deeply repressed sexual desires. It also fails to explain the nature of horror's cyclical appeal to adult readers outside its core adolescent demographic—and there is. By dressing those desires in nightmare imagery. and conclude with the restoration—however tentative—of that order. While other genres enjoy periods of heightened popularity (take the Western's predominance in the 1930s. does not apply universally. has a penchant for rising from the grave to enjoy renewed periods of popularity—in the 1950s. If we expand Jones's thesis to include broader cultural anxieties as well as specifically sexual fears. Horror seeks to unsettle.

continue to echo through contemporary horror fiction. however. and menace (often specifically sexual. Jekyll and Mr. that is to say. that need renovation. a reader versed in gothic fiction but unfamiliar with Walpole's role as progenitor might dismiss his book as a compendium of gothic clichés. the plot—such as it is—revolves around Prince Manfred's attempts. Set in a sprawling medieval castle. Frankenstein. a re-reading of the novels themselves highlights the degree to which each reflects the cultural anxieties of its era. Otranto had spawned a host of successful imitators—some of them.Origins of the Genre 423 hardly have imagined the long-term popularity and influence that his slim book—inspired by a dream and composed in a mere two months—would enjoy. these villain-heroes "figure church and state. Such a synopsis tempts us to attribute the genre's popularity to sensationalism alone. virtuous elements of his own family. they were. By the turn of the nineteenth century. anti-aristocratic."8 In short. through their seemingly endless film adaptations. anti-Catholic. but radical in their politics. including a darkened pursuit through the labyrinthine bowels of the castle. and antinostalgic. Charles Dickens. however. G. and Wilkie Collins. By the end of the Victorian era. Hyde and Bram Stoker's Dracula at its close—have achieved archetypal status."9 A survey of the nineteenth-century icons of British gothic fiction confirms this model of horror fiction's attractions. and the rightful heir to the castle. many of its most memorable set pieces. Wicked priests and malign aristocrats populate the gothic novels of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. An atmosphere of gloom. In its depiction of a respectable middle-class life derailed by atavistic urges. seems to express the anxieties of an increasingly democratic era. Jekyll and Hyde—published less than forty years after Darwin's Origin of Species shook Victorian piety to its foundations—grapples 11 "IT . While many of today's readers come to these texts indirectly. to a growing body of direct antecedents to contemporary horror. "Monk" Lewis. decay. The strangely compelling figure of Manfred—a tortured over-reacher. Jones would note) pervades the tale. Viewed in the context of its revolutionary age. Indeed. so popular that Jane Austen explicitly parodied the new genre in Northanger Abbey. It had also given rise. Otranto's influence had spread well beyond the narrow constraints of explicitly gothic novels to impact writers as diverse as the Brontë sisters. notably Ann Radcliffe and M. railing against fate and monstrous even to himself—provides a template for gothic villain-heroes ranging from the titanic literary archetypes of the romantics (including Shelley's Prometheus and Melville's Ahab) to the mad scientists of Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park and a thousand B movies. to maintain his illegitimate grasp on power. Otranto. establishing tropes that remain at the genre's heart. and Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. as Mark Edmundson writes. with its seminal portrayal of the Faustian scientist. like the imitators that followed. the early gothic novels mounted subversive attacks on the presiding European powers of the day—a conclusion in keeping with Leslie Fiedler's observation that "most gothicists were not only avant-garde in their literary aspirations. the forces that weigh too hard upon society. Arrayed against him are a variety of vengeful supernatural forces. Three of those works—Mary Shelley's Frankenstein at the beginning of the century. in collusion with a corrupt church. distills the fears of an increasingly technological culture on the verge of industrialization.

his fiction echoes the existential crisis of the Lost Generation. Stoker's sexually charged narrative in Dracula reflects a passionate late-Victorian debate over the proper social. a commercial publishing category. During the mid-nineteenth century. horror was suddenly. notably in the work of Nathaniel Hawthorne." remains required reading for every student of the genre. quietly began building a new commercial genre. A similar division is evident in American literature. like his British predecessors of the previous century. the Elder Gods of the Cthulhu Mythos. And his much-imitated fiction—especially the cycle of short stories known as the Cthulhu Mythos—established yet another of the genre's abiding motifs: a "cosmic horror" of the enormous vistas in time and space described by early twentieth-century physicists. Lovecraft's worldview is essentially scientific. highlight the anxieties of the post-Hiroshima nuclear world. In short. most book-length horror fiction—even by established masters of the genre—was published and marketed in the mainstream. he shaped two generations of horror writers. Before King ascended the best-seller lists in the mid-1970s. Perhaps the most significant development of this period. the process begun almost sixty years previously by the founders of Weird Tales finally reached its fruition: No longer merely a fictive mode. this time marked by such milestones as Ira Levin's The Stepford Wives. Following the rise of realism in the aftermath of the Civil War. his heroes impotent pawns at the mercy both of their own atavistic Darwinian histories and an array of ancient extraterrestrial forces. bookstores began to shelve horror in a separate section. on the foundation of Walpole's gothic. In the early 1980s. the American gothic split into two streams. The boom-and-bust cycles of horror fiction in the six decades since Lovecraft's death have also generally conformed to the repression-anxiety model. Despite its limitations. indisputably. Through his editorial services and voluminous correspondence. Many works from the horror boom of the 1950s. It's almost impossible to overestimate Lovecraft's influence on the field. King's own Firestarter—describe vast conspiracies that reflect growing American distrust of the federal government following Watergate. Herman Melville. The unsettled period of the late 1960s and early 1970s produced another surge in popularity. a terrifying depiction of a possessed adolescent that. however. and professional roles of women. expresses the Zeitgeist of an unsettled age: filled with the wasteland imagery that marks the works of his modernist contemporaries. working outside the mainstream in cheaply published pulp magazines. "Supernatural Horror in Literature. Lovecraft. mirrors parental anxieties about the unrest on America's Vietnam-era campuses. in 1980. gothic was the primary mode of American fiction. While gothic overtones continued to infuse the work of early twentieth-century writers working in the realistic mode (especially William Faulkner). however. such as Richard Matheson's The Shrinking Man. however. was the unprecedented expansion—and subsequent collapse—of horror publishing following Stephen King's commercial success. P. and—most crucially for the development of modern horror fiction—Edgar Allan Poe. and William Peter Blatty ' s The Exorcist. This expansion energized the careers of a growing class of . which grapples with the burgeoning feminist movement. horror. his critical survey. Similarly.424 Chapter 12—Horror with the spiritual implications of evolutionary theory. and publishers started channeling newer writers into imprints devoted specifically to the field. In this sense. their central figure a reclusive New Englander named H. Other books from the period—most notably John Farris's The Fury and. Lovecraft. sexual. hoping to capitalize on King's success. as King argues in Danse Macabre. Their chief venue was Weird Tales. another group of writers. Despite a veneer of supernaturalism.

Subgenres Despite this commercial contraction. Brian Lumley's works (especially The Caller of the Black. for example. However. perhaps. created opportunities for other crucial talents who might otherwise have languished in obscurity (among them. but a good place to start is The Best of H. horror fiction continues to thrive. and readers found themselves more and more often unable to discover quality fiction amid the mountains of dreck. perhaps. Beneath the Moors. motif. but do not employ his mythology. As publishers fed an ever-growing number of titles into the pipeline. Others—such as T.Subgenres 425 best-selling horror writers (including Clive Barker. Lovecraft. D. Lovecraft. Unsurprisingly. with a special focus on the various trials survivors face as they work to rebuild civilization. they tend to shift the narrative focus away from the scientific causes and consequences of the disaster in favor of an emphasis on the clash between good and evil in the post-apocalyptic setting. but soon shifts its focus to the clash between two bands of survivors: one associated with the saintly figure of Mother Abigail. Even a cursory survey of contemporary horror will highlight not only the field's breadth of theme. E. Klein's The Ceremonies—reflect Lovecraft's vision of human impotence in the face of an incomprehensible and almost certainly hostile universe. it also had negative long-term consequences. and Peter Straub). McCammon's Swan Song. but its continuing penchant for deploying the materials of other popular genres to achieve its own emotional effects. Other examples of the subgenre include Robert R. splatterplunk. P. horror writers found it increasingly difficult to sustain serious literary careers (as had figures ranging from Sheridan Le Fanu in the mid-1800s to Shirley Jackson a century later). By the mid-1990s. and Tim Lebbon's The Nature of Balance. the boom collapsed. However. Lovecraft's works are available in a variety of inexpensive editions. Anne Rice. and fed the growth of important movements within the genre (most notably. and many of the writers who had clotted the genre during the previous decade had moved on. cosmic horror often employs his pantheon of ancient and malevolent alien beings know as the Old Ones. Dennis Etchison and Thomas Ligotti). Dean Koontz. Cosmic horror: Written in the tradition of H. Robert McCammon. Apocalypse: Apocalyptic stories describe the end of the world. all but a few publishers had canceled their horror imprints. The few horror titles published were once again finding their way back into the general fiction racks at most bookstores. P. Additional works in the cosmic horror tradition include Michael Shea's The Colour Out of Time. Stephen King's The Stand. Horror stories set in such venues often employ tropes associated with science fiction. begins by depicting the ravages of a plausibly extrapolated strain of flu virus. Later additions to the subgenre—such as Fred Chappell's Dagon—often build directly upon Lovecraft's legacy. The Burrower's Be- . which carried the depiction of violence to graphic extremes). Stewart O'Nan's A Prayer for the Dying. and approach. the other with a clearly Satanic figure known as Randall Flagg.

Straub's Ghost Story explicitly reimagines some of the classic ghost stories most central to the American tradition (including "The Turn of the Screw"). Demonic possession/invasion: Tales of demonic possession focus on attempts to repel Satanic powers as they invade everyday reality. and Stephen King's Dark Tower series are examples of the second approach. like Frankenstein's monster. extinct species. The Fallen. R. Robert Marasco's Burnt Offerings. Monsters: Perhaps no other subgenre of horror fiction is so diverse. lost girl. The second exploits the horrific possibilities of intersections between our own reality and the fantastic secondary worlds more often associated with J. Stephen King's The Shining. Danielewski's House of Leaves is an important. Examples of this variety include Ira Levin's Rosemary's Baby and the best-selling Left Behind series. is by far the most important such novel. Ramsey Campbell's Cold Print. Monster stories include tales of animals run amuck (often through the interference of human science. however. dark fantasy typically comes in one of two varieties. Examples include Richard Adams's The Girl in a Swing. Despite the title. R. and the Titus Crow series). Kirsten Bakis's Lives of the Monster Dogs is a literary treatment of deliberate scientific tampering with animals. which describes the possession of a teenage girl by a demonic spirit who may be Satan himself. Mark Z. attempt to reimagine the subgenre. profoundly misunderstood figures intended to arouse the reader's sympathy. Bentley Little's The House. they are also often. Chet Williamson's Soulstorm.426 Chapter 12—Horror neath. Tolkein and his imitators. Chet Williamson's Ash Wednesday. or supernatural beings. and Robert Holdstock's Mythago Wood series. and my own first novel. Neil Gaiman' s American Gods. Sean Stewart's Resurrection Man. ghost stories focus on disembodied spirits that linger after death. The first variety explores the horrific potential of human encounters with surviving remnants of ancient myths and belief systems. Clive Barker's Weaveworld. Alice Sebold's The Lovely Bones. they can usually be distinguished from ghost stories by their emphasis on the house as a locus of supernatural incursion. If You Could See Me Now. Though monsters usually pose a threat to humanity and may be actively maligned. and the incursion into everyday reality of aliens. as signaled by the birth of a Satanic messiah figure. and lost boy. if not wholly successful. James Herbert's Once. Another variety of such tales focuses on the fulfillment of biblical prophecy of the end times. however. Such spirits may be malevolent or benevolent. Anne Rivers Siddons's The House Next Door. Stewart O'Nan's The Night Country. it is not in fact a conventional ghost story. Jenkins. Dark fantasy: Distinguished from mainstream horror by its reduced emphasis on explicit violence. Elizabeth Hand's Mortal Love. animal-human transformation. and ghost stories often range in tone from horrific to nostalgic. Susie Moloney's The Dwelling. Haunted houses: Although haunted house stories often overlap significantly with ghost stories. Ghosts: Almost certainly the most common kind of horror story. Elizabeth Hand's Waking the Moon. Whatever their provenance and intentions. and my own House of Bones. Examples include Shirley Jackson's The Haunting of Hill House. an explicitly evangelical sequence of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B . including Julia. they inevitably provoke dread and fascination in their human observers. Examples of the first approach include Ramsey Campbell's The Darkest Part of the Woods. and a number of Peter Straub's novels. Dean Koontz's Watchers and Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park . William Peter Blatty's The Exorcist.

and lost boy. Brite's Exquisite Corpse.Subgenres 427 treat the question of scientific tampering in thriller terms. splatterpunk draws upon many of horror's subgenres. Whitley Strieber's Wolfen. S. and John Skipp and Craig Spector's The Scream. Schow. lost girl. Somtow's Moon Dance. carnivorous manifestations of their eponymous beasts. Though serial killer novels invariably blur the lines between horror. The Silence of the Lambs. Michael Slade's Ghoul. The Mammoth Book of Werewolves. Poppy Z. Bret Easton Ellis' s American Psycho. and Jack Williamson's Darker Than You Think. Schow's The Shaft. The werewolf myth has provided an especially fertile subject for horror writers interested in monsters. all edited by Stephen Jones. Psychological horror/serial killer: With the possible exception of vampire stories. serial killer novels are probably the single most popular subgenre of horror fiction. Jack Ketchum's The Girl Next Door. Peter's Wolf. and Joyce Carol Oates's Zombie. The Hellfire Club. The Year's Best Fantasy & Horror. Many theme anthologies focus on specific subgenres. edited by Stephen Jones. and Hannibal). and The Mammoth Book of Vampires. Splatterpunk: In the mid-1980s. Bradley Denton's Blackburn. the term splatterpunk was applied to an ideologically unified group of horror writers who sought to bring a newly explicit treatment of violence to the genre. while Richard Laymon's The Beast House attaches a monster story to the protocols of the haunted-house tale. The Relic. Such tales include Michael Cadnum's St. edited by David J. Examples include Clive Barker's The Books of Blood. McCammon's The Wolfs Hour. who tend to be far more graphic than their predecessors in depicting violence. Silver Scream. such as Ellen Datlow's The Dark (ghost stories) and The Mammoth Book of Zombies. McCammon's Stinger borrows the conventions of science fiction to describe the depredations of an extraterrestrial monster in an isolated Texas town. including The Throat. focuses on a mysterious monster lurking in the bowels of the American Museum of Natural History. David Hartwell's The Dark Descent and Foundations of Fear provide a comprehensive introduction to the field's classics. Tom PicciriUi's A Choir of III Children focuses on the monstrous potential of human deformity. Short stories: There is a thriving small-press market for short horror fiction. the splatterpunks profoundly influenced contemporary horror writers. Thomas Harris's Hannibal Lecter series (including Red Dragon. Dennis Cooper's Frisk. while anthologies such as Kirby McCauley's Dark Forces and Al Sarrantonio's 999 provide collected work by some of horror's leading contemporary writers. Joe R. provide solid annual coverage of the field. those variations that fall into the horror genre tend to emphasize violence and gore over police and detective work. along with . Lansdale's Act of Love. and suspense. David J. Though the movement disintegrated fairly quickly. Robert R. Because it has more to do with its treatment of material than with any particular theme or motif. and The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror. edited by Ellen Datlow and Kelly Link and Gavin Grant. P. Thomas Tessier's The Nightwalker. by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child. Serial killers play significant roles in a number of novels by Peter Straub. James Herbert's Rats sequence and Guy N. Smith's series of Killer Crab novels describe giant. Prominent examples include Robert Bloch's Psycho. mystery. Robert R.

Les Daniels also imbeds the vampire tale into strongly realized historical settings. N. and Peter Straub's Shadowland. which includes elements of romance. which begins with 1978's Hotel Transylvania. and Chelsea Quinn Yarbro's long-running series about the vampire Saint-Germain. Fred Saberhagen's The Dracula Tape (the first in a series). and Peter Tremayne' s Dracula Unborn (the first in a trilogy) variously sequel. Paul Wilson's The Keep inserts the vampire motif into the universe of the World War II thriller. vampires. George R. Like Rice's The Vampire Lestât. Readers have a seemingly endless thirst for vampire fiction. both edited by Paul Sammon. Roderick Anscombe's The Secret Life ofLaszlo. Vampires: The vampire has become the most popular subgenre of horror fiction—virtually a publishing category in itself. Laurell K. Richard Matheson's I Am Legend. Bram Stoker's Dracula remains the single most important vampire novel ever written—the defining text from which the whole subgenre springs—and traditional vampire novels in Stoker's manner continue to be written: Michael Cadnum's The Judas Glass. Valentine. Witchcraft: Tales of witchcraft focus on the manipulation of malign supernatural powers by human beings—and vice versa. or otherwise embroider Stoker's narrative. Vampire. complex. and adventure. Jack Butler's Nightshade is a science fiction vampire Western.428 Chapter 12—Horror Splatterpunks: Extreme Horror and Splatterpunks II: Over the Edge. Examples include Graham Joyce's Dark Sister. and fantasy tropes in the Sonja Blue series. R. . Martin's Fevre Dream. lovingly re-creates Victorian London. and Whitley Strieber's The Hunger employ elements of science fiction to offer us rationalized vampires. Fritz Leiber's Conjure Wife. Michael Romkey's /. in Vampire$. P. fantasy. provide concise introductions to the subgenre's short fiction. beginning with Sunglasses After Dark. P. Perhaps the most fertile strain of such cross-genre hybrids finds its roots in the intersection of horror and romance fiction pioneered by Anne Rice in Interview with the Vampire and its sequels. place vampires in the context of the rock music industry. In Bloodlist and its sequels. Brite's Lost Souls. With Guilty Pleasures. and compiles a detailed alternate history of the twentieth century that borrows tropes and techniques from science fiction. Dan Simmons' s Children of the Night. Kim Newman rewrites Stoker's narrative. Elrod synthesizes vampire fiction and hard-boiled noir in the Raymond Chandler mode. John Updike gives the theme a literary treatment in The Witches of Eastwick. and Lucius Shepard's The Golden are crucial examples. And this summary—as long. John Steakley merges the vampire tale with the protocols of the action-adventure novel. a theme later explored in Poppy Z. Anne Rice's The Witching Hour (first in a series). Dozens of other vampire novels—many of them long-running series—draw upon or combine conventions from multiple genres. Other examples of the form include Nancy Kilpatrick's Child of the Night. In The Black Castle and its sequels. In the sequence beginning with Anno-Dracula. and necessarily inexact as it is (many of the novels listed above fit in more than one of the subcategories)—merely scratches the surface. S. Hamilton launched her long-running Anita Blake. Suzy McKee Charnas's The Vampire Tapestry. erotica. Stephen King's 'Salem's Lot. Nancy Collins combines action-adventure. Barbara Hambley's Those Who Hunt the Night gives us a vampire mystery set in the Victorian era. The vampire motif has also proved very receptive to cross-genre influence. reimagine. Count Dracula. Somtow' s Vampire Junction and its sequel. while F. Vampire Hunter series. while writers possess apparently endless ingenuity in transfusing new energy into what should by all rights be an exhausted blood line. Marie Kiraly's Mina.

after a decade of retrenchment and contraction. 89. Dorcester Publishing provides a thriving commercial venue for a variety of newer writers. Carol J. Glen Hirshberg (The Snowman's Children). who began their careers as traditional literary writers—most notably perhaps Stewart O'Nan (A Prayer for the Dying). 1997). Mass. Conclusion As the scope and diversity of subgenres available to the contemporary horror writer suggests. who are reworking many of the traditional tropes of the genre. a variety of short story writers explore Romero's concept. The ongoing viability of both career paths is evidence that horror fiction today continues to speak to us in vital and important ways. 6. the zombie tale now draws almost all of its cultural power from George Romero's 1968 film. and Edward Lee. 2. Women. including Douglas Clegg. 1981). ix-x. and Straub—continue to produce compelling fiction. No doubt it will continue to do so as long as we live in anxious and uncertain times. Notes 1. Knight's Risen. perhaps energized by the specter of international terrorism and the financial pressures of an increasingly global economy. an influx of fresh talent has arisen to blur the margins between horror and the mainstream. which focused on the depredations of a worldwide plague of cannibalistic zombies. and Caitlîn R. Stephen King. Brian Keene. Patriarchy. Tim Lebbon. and Joyce Carol Oates (Haunted: Tales of the Grotesque)—have increasingly worked horror tropes and motifs into fiction published in the mainstream.J. Kiernan (Murder of Angels)—have slowly been expanding their reputations beyond the borders of horror. 1992). J. and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film (Princeton. 4. 3. anthologies edited by John Skipp and Craig Spector. Night of the Living Dead.: Harvard University Press. In Book of the Dead and Still Dead: Book of the Dead II. Michel Faber (Under the Skin). and Phillip Nutman's Wet Work. Danse Macabre (New York: Berkley. Sadomasochism. Indeed. Others.Notes 429 Zombies: Once associated strongly with the voodoo tradition of Caribbean folklore. Mark Edmundson. the field remains vibrant at every level of literary accomplishment. Many of the best-selling writers from the 1980s—including King. Reading the Romance: Women. Men. 1984). A Nightmare on Main Street: Angels. With their Leisure paperback-original imprint. and Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. horror seems to be enjoying a period of renewed popularity. and the Culture of Gothic (Cambridge. A number of new writers who began their careers in traditional genre venues—among them Graham Joyce (The Toothfairy). . Rice. N. And as the barriers erected by category publishing in the 1980s continue to erode.: Princeton University Press. Koontz. Clover. Janice Radway. Further variations on the theme include Brian Keene's The Rising.

On the Nightmare (London: Liveright.J. Janice. Radway. Men. P. . 1981. Ernest. 1971). Supernatural Horror in Literature. Love and Death in the American Novel (New York: Stein and Day. Adventure. 1997. Edmundson. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 9. 1990. and Popular Literature. H. Danse Macabre. Jones. and the Culture of Gothic. Edmundson. 1984. Noël Carroll. New York: Stein and Day. N. Bowling Green. Nightmare on Main Street. 1966). Clover. Dale. John Cawelti. 1976). Noël. Mass. A Nightmare on Main Street: Angels. 1971. Lovecraft. 54. New York: Routledge. Women. Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.: Princeton University Press. New York: Berkley. London: Liveright. Mystery. 1927 [1973]. and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. 1966. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. On the Nightmare. 7.430 Chapter 12—Horror 5. Leslie Fiedler. and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. King. New York: Dover Publications. Love and Death in the American Novel. Neil. Barron. and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. New York: Garland. Mystery. 43. The Philosophy of Horror: Or Paradoxes of the Heart (New York: Routledge. Horror Literature: A Reader's Guide. Princeton. American Nightmares: The Haunted House Formula in American Popular Fiction. ed. 8. Bibliography Bailey. Leslie.: Harvard University Press. Stephen. Ernest Jones. Patriarchy. 1967. 1990). Sadomasochism. Adventure. Cambridge. 1999. Fiedler. Carol J. 6. Cawelti. The Philosophy of Horror: Or Paradoxes of the Heart. 1992. John. 52. 137. Mark. 1990. Reading the Romance: Women. Carroll.

Blatty. Bierce. Something Wicked This Way Comes. Bradbury. 1955. a new trend has placed many fairly bloodless and sometimes comédie romantic capers into the horror camp. The Lurker at the Threshold. plays a vital role. The Exorcist. (occult and supernatural). we cover only classics published before that time." and the like remains the same. werewolves. Farris. (occult and supernatural). and thus. although a number of newer titles have certainly reached cult status and the popularity levels of older classics. Thus. John. (cosmic paranoia). 431 . Dwellers in Darkness. The Fury. 1959. (occult and supernatural). Derleth. Ray. Robert.Themes and Types Diana Tixier Herald In the past decade or two. 1963. (Satanism and demonic possession). (psychological horror). (cosmic paranoia). Selected Classics Horror classics are plentiful and span centuries. Classics are also tagged as such in the following subgenre lists. William Peter. the content of these categories is diverse enough to warrant subcategories to distinguish the "vampire romances" from "vampire sleuths" and "traditional vampires. 1945." "werewolves. or the canvas of world events at the time. Nowhere is the genreblending as pervasive as it is between horror and romance. and ghosts. 1911. August. the horror genre has undergone such transformation that fans from the boom years of the 1980s would have a hard time understanding the appeal of most of the current releases that feature vampires. to keep the list of horror classics manageable. 1976. Numerous short stories. Psycho. 1971. while the overarching categorization of "vampires. The Devil's Dictionary. particularly "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. Bloch. 1976. Although some types of erotica have long been part of horror." and the nonfiction. Ambrose. The most recent boom occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. with the genre's popularity waxing and waning over the years. The October Country." In some the historical setting.

The Haunting of Hill House." "The Pit and the Pendulum. (monsters). The Shining.432 Chapter 12—Horror Jackson. Matheson. others. or animals—abound in horror fiction. (ghosts). or. (vampires). 1978. The Stand. (apocalypse). (cosmic paranoia). Richard. The Turn of the Screw. (cosmic paranoia). The Dunwich Horror. Henry. plants. P. earth. (vampires). Monsters Monstrous creations." and others." 1886. Poe. "The Strange Case of Dr. Ira. Interview with the Vampire. 1897. 1954. Stevenson. 1945. Conjure Wife. the Modern Prometheus. Stephen. Rosemary's Baby. air). King is not only one of the most successful horror writers of all time. At the Mountains of Madness. Shirley. The vampire story that started it all. Rice. (haunted houses). Levin. Stoker. medical horror)." "The Mask of the Red Death. (vampires). The predominant forms are vampires and werewolves. but also one of the most successful writers of our times. Jekyll and Mr. H. 1975. usually of a freakish nature—taking unnatural form from any of the elements (water. (haunted houses). 1953." "The Cask of Amontillado. . 1964. 1976. Hyde. Edgar Allan. King. (vampires). 1977. Anne. I Am Legend. 1897. 'Salem's Lot. Dracula. 1959. Leiber. (Satanism and demonic possession). Shelley. listed after the following books about monsters in general. Robert Louis. Lovecraft. 1818. (monsters. Frankenstein. James. (witches and warlocks). Fritz. Mary Wollstonecraft. Bram. 1967. Short stories include "The Telltale Heart.

Night of the Crabs. and Lincoln Child. Lives of the Monster Dogs. Frankenstein. Crabs series. androids. 1976. Laymon. 1980. Crabs on the Rampage. Relic. The Midnight Tour. Killer Crabs. Domain. 1997) devotes thirty pages to discussion of the 250 editions of this book and to the countless spin-offs. Guy N. Forrest J. * i i Also considered science fiction (e. Douglas. Jurassic Park. 1987. 1997. Dean. McCammon. Reissued 2003. Origin of the Crabs. Crichton. 1984. 1985. The Halloween Man.g. Ackerman's World of Science Fiction (General Publishing Group. from movies to toys. or. the Modern Prometheus. 1988. Rats. I . 1989. Mutant animals in London after a nuclear attack. i i This adventure-filled tale deals with the horror that can be created by reconstituting dinosaurs from DNA. Michael. The Cellar. 1818. Stinger. Crabs'Moon. 2003. Reissued 1997. The Beast House. mad scientist). Watchers. Richard. Koontz. Preston. 1978. James. Reissued 1987. 1979. Piccirilli. 1986. 1996. Douglas. A Choir of III Children. iïi A genetically engineered monster escapes from a secret laboratory. The Human Sacrifice. Smith. Shelley. 1990. 1988. Mary Wollstonecraft.. Herbert. Clegg. 1998. 1981. Robert R. Kirsten. The Beast House Chronicles.Monsters 433 Bakis. Tom. 1986.

2003. 2001. A tale of bloodlust without supernatural elements. and a powerful vampire cabal. Bradbury. The Vampire Huntress Legend Series. Night Prayers. 1980. Roderick. Vampires Ever popular with readers. The Bitten. Cadnum. these blood-sucking denizens of the night are also frequently romantic heroes. From the Dust Returned. Reissued 2003. Hyde. Dark and violent. A. 2001. The Judas Glass. * à Dr. 1998. Lost Souls. with sections for vampire romance and vampires with mystery and suspense following the general vampire novels. Banks. Anscombe. Reissued 2000. The following listing demonstrates the wide variety to be found in vampire novels today. Reissued 2004. Reissued 2002. Cacek. * Collins. . D. 1992. 1886. 1989. her band of sidekicks. Brite. Night Players. A sexy series featuring an African American Buffy-like slayer. 2004. In the Blood. 1996. Robert Louis. Suzy McKee. The Vampire Tapestry. Jekyll and Mr. Michael. Nancy A. Intense homoeroticism. The Strange Case of Dr. Secret Life ofLaszlo Count Dracula. Reissued 1993. A teen named Nothing begins to understand why he feels different from the others when he finds out that his father is a vampire. JekyllandMr. Sonja Blue series. Minion. 1994. 2005. The Hunted. intense violence. Sunglasses after Dark. Charnas. Hyde The drug and psychological aspects of the story were also influential in science fiction. Poppy Z. P.434 Chapter 12—Horror Stevenson. Ray. Awakening. L. 1992. 2004.

The Gentleman vampire. Revised and expanded 2004. 2002. 2000. N. Reissued 2005. A colony of nosferatu living on New York's Lower East Side. Dance of Death. Underland. 1995. A collection of stories featuring Sonjia Blue. Rehnquist is recruited by the Feds to help fight Nazis who escaped Germany and are living in Antarctica. the leader of the vampire group. Set in pre-Revolutionary War America. Fat White Vampire Blues. Nosferatu series. 1994. Jules Duchon series. scheming to take over the world. Revised and expanded 2004. Revised and expanded 2004.Monsters 435 Paint It Black. Someone's been killing the vampires of London. 1994. Victor Rehnquist. Death Masque. A four-year-old boy who strongly resembles Jonathon Barrett puts a new twist into the story. Barbara. 1996. Can vampire Jules Duchon pull himself together from 187 white rats to reclaim the love of his afterlife from the dead? \> Hambly. The vampire clan moves to L. Darkest Heart. Featuring Jonathon Barrett. 1996. Dead Roses for a Blue Lady. 1988. 1994. Farren. Andrew. A Dozen Black Roses. Tory loyalist and vampire. Red Death. 1994. Revised and expanded 2004.A. . 2004. Bride of the Fat White Vampire. Jonathan Barrett series. Jonathon returns to England. a New Orleans vampire. More Than Mortal. 2003. knows only too well. hoping to find Nora Jones. Darklost. is called to England. 2001. Elrod. Fox. Blood can be very fattening—Jules Duchon. Mick. The Time of Feasting. 2000. Death and the Maiden. P. Those Who Hunt the Night. 2002.

Bloodwars. 2004. Kostova. Lumley. Matheson. Invaders. 1996. King. Thief of Lives. Blood Brothers. Reissued 1995. Vamphyri. Billie Sue. Reissued 1999. Richard. C. The Source. 2002. Fevre Dream. 1988. in a medieval setting. 1954. Half-vampires. 2001. Necroscope.436 Chapter 12—Horror Hendee. Hendee. Necroscope: The Lost Years. Deadspawn. Stephen. * Mosiman. Defilers. Sister of the Dead: A Novel of the Noble Dead. Elizabeth. 1993. Barb. 2003. 1982. 2000. three teens sneak into an adults-only vampire show. Daylight. 1996. 1989. 1988. and J. Red Moon Rising. à . I Am Legend. Brian. * Knox. 2003. Martin. 'Salem's Lot. The Vampire Nation Series. The Last Aerie. Elizabeth. 1999. MalachVs Moon. Another sensuous vampire tale. Dhampir. George R . 1975. Deadspeak. 2001. Reissued 2004. In 1963. 2000. Necroscope.R. Richard. 1992. half-elves. 2005. 1991. Avengers. The Historian. Graphic sex and violence. # The Traveling Vampire Show. 2004. Craven Moon. 1990. 2003. Reissued 2003. Winner of the Stoker Award. 1994. Necroscope: Resurgence. Laymon.

Anne. Reissued 1997.Monsters 437 Newman. where humans are raised on farms. 1992. The Dracula Tape. P. 1993. Judgment of Tears. . 1988. Reissued 1998. Reissued 1999. 2004. Vittorio the Vampire. Reissued 1993. The Vampire Armand. an ageless. 1992. In a world dominated by vampires. who made him a vampire. Children of the Night. and of Lestât. 2004. in his own words. New Tales of the Vampires. The Vampire Chronicles. Interview with the Vampire. 1994. Merrick: A Novel. Does vampirism hold the cure for cancer and AIDs? I Somtow. 1992. 2002. 1976. A Coldness in the Blood. The Vampire Lestât. Blood and Gold. Dracula series. Valentine. 1985. S. * i i Louis tells. Séance for a Vampire. Dracula attempts to set the record straight. the Story ofMarius. 1998. Dan. or. David. à Tale of the Body Thief. Fred. Simmons. 1984. 1995. 1990. Blood Canticle. Sosnowski. 1998. 1993. the tale of his life. vampire rock star. 2001. 1998. A Matter of Taste. Queen of the Damned. Martin Kowalski ends up as the foster father of a human child. Vamped. Blackwood Farm. Kim. Vampire Junction. A Question of Time. both living and undead. 1996. A Sharpness on the Neck. Starring Timmy Valentine. Reissued 1997. The Bloody Red Baron. Saberhagen. Pandora. Rice. Memnoch the Devil. Anno-Dracula. Reissued 1993. 1995. 2002. 1999. 2000. 1977.

Saint-Germain series. 1997. Stoker. 1993. 1999. parasitic creatures we all knew and loved" (http://www. Wilson. 1978. 2003. 2002. 2000. one by one. Night Blooming. Midnight Mass. Lilith's Dream: A Tale of the Vampire Life. The adventures of vampire Count Ragoczy Saint-Germain through the centuries and across the world. like its hero. Bram. Blood Games. Reissued 2005. * à Last Vampire. Reissued 2004. stage plays. 2001. Dracula. In the Face of Death. each morning. 1990. 1897. 1979. Come Twilight. Vampire$. Hotel Transylvania. Writ in Blood. and has produced bloodthirsty progeny in novels. 2001. Whitley. Dark of the Sun. Communion Blood. German soldiers are being found dead and bloodless. 1996. F. 1981. The Palace. 2002. 2004. Darker Jewels.com/books/midnight. 2004. The Keep. * m In a remote castle in 1941. Reissued 2002. Reissued 2001. Tempting Fate. Strieber. Blood Roses. Mansions of Darkness.438 Chapter 12—Horror Steakley. * A modern-day pack of manly vampire slayers. 1998. Better in the Dark. 1981. has never died. A Feast in Exile. 2001. * 'm The original novel. and motion pictures.repairmanjack. Paul. Yarbro.html). Chelsea Quinn. Reissued 2002. The Hunger. Midnight Harvest. 1978. Reissued 2000. merciless. . Reissued 2001. 1981. 1981. Wilson describes the vampires in this novel as "soulless. 1993. John. Path of the Eclipse.

Night Pleasures. Dark Destiny. Robin. and is not repulsed by religious articles. Mary Janice. Dark Desire. Dark Symphony. Fantasy Lover. 2001. 1999. Davidson. In these stories. 2003. romantic. 2004. McKinley. 2003. Dark Guardian. 2005. 2003. she discovers that she is now a vampire who doesn't burn in sunlight. 2003. Undeadand Unappreciated. Dark Secret. Dark Magic. but many of today's horror authors push it further. I \> . Dance with the Devil. Night Embrace. 2005. Betsv Tavlor series. 2004. tacky coffin. Dark Series. Seize the Night. Stroke of Midnight. 2000. Night Play. Christine. 2004. Kenyon. Undeadand Unreturnable. When Betsy Taylor wakes up in a cheap. 2003. A Dark-Hunter. can fight the urge to feed. this may make her the prophesied Queen of the Vampires. 2000. Many of the novels are light in tone. 2002. 2004. vampires are attractive. Dark Challenge. 2002. 2000. Dark Gold. 2005. Sunshine. even funny.Monsters 439 Vampire Romance A romantic and sensual undertone has always been a part of vampire literature. 2004. Kiss of the Night. 2002. Sherrilyn. 1999. 2005. Dark Prince. Undead and Unemployed. Feehan. 2004. and oh-so-sexy. Dark Fire. Dark Melody. Undeadand Unwed.

Bloodlist. Shadows Bite. 1999. 2004. Tall. Cold Streets. Single White Vampire. Stephen. 1991. Laws of the Blood. An omnibus of the first three titles in the series. I Hunger for You. Fire in the Blood. 1991. A missing body that turns up headless. The Vampire Files. 1992. P. a sinister cult. 2002. 2000. Love Bites. N. 2005. The Primes Universe. 1993. Deceptions. Hamilton. and Hungry. 2004. 2000. 2003. 1998. 2001. 1990. Lady Crymsyn. Heroes. 2004. Blood on the Water. 1990. Elrod. / Thirst for You. Comédie. Bloodcircle. 2003. Laurell K. Jack Fleming series. with their keen senses and familiarity with the night. and vampires in contemporary Los Angeles thrust Mage Magistrale and Charlie Takumo into an action-packed adventure. fit perfectly into the dark worlds of mystery and suspense. Sizemore. . Anita Blake series. A Chill in the Blood. Dark. 2001. 2003. Susan. Dedman. Vampire Mystery/Suspense Vampires.440 Chapter 12—Horror Sands. Argeneau series. Art in the Blood. The Dark Sleep. Lifeblood. 2003. Guilty Pleasures. Companions. 1990. 1999. Anita Blake is a vampire hunter involved with werewolves and shapeshifters in an increasingly dark and erotic series. The Hunt. I Burn for You. 2003. Partners. Lynsay.

A spin-off of the Blood series. Dead as a Doornail. Dead to the World. 1993. 1997. 1991. Blood Pact. I \> . 2000. detection. Bloody Bones. Smoke and Mirrors. 2001. Wraiths play a deadly nightly game. Blood Price. Henry Fitzroy and Tony Foster series. 1998. 1998. 2004. 2003. A mummy feeds on the unwary. Also called the Victory Nelson series. 1996. Dead until Dark. Vicki's mom's body disappears from a funeral home. Tanya. Lunatic Café. Killing Dance. Huff also writes fantasy and SF. Innocent Canadian werewolves are being killed. Circus of the Damned. Obsidian Butterfly. Blood Trail.Monsters 441 Laughing Corpse. Narcissus in Chains. Burnt Offerings. 1997. Ancient forces of chaos have been loosed on Toronto. Charlaine. 1992. 1996. Blue Moon. A combination of horror. Circus of the Damned. Blood Lines. Cerulean Sins. 2004. shapeshifters. 1994. 2003. 2004. Southern Vampire series. a telepathic waitress. Harris. and romance. and serial killers. 2005. 1995. The Blood series. 2004. 1993. Smoke and Shadows. 2001. Club Dead. Incubus Dreams. becomes involved with mysteries involving not only vampires but also witches. Sookie Stackhouse. 2002. Huff. 2005. Blood Debt. Living Dead in Dallas.

The Wolf King. thoughtful. Adams. Comédie romance involving a werewolf who thinks he is supposed to kill a woman who is the reincarnation of Morgan le Fay. Elena Michaels. Dean. 2005. They run the gamut from clever. Kelley. and romance.. In ancient Rome. Mary Janice. Wisconsin werewolves offer danger. Moon's Web. Titles are listed in the crime chapter (chapter 7). Armstrong. 2000. P. The Silver Wolf 1998. J. born a werewolf. 2004. Michael. Maeniel's desire for the beautiful Imona transforms him from werewolf to human. Further adventures of the sexy Elena Michaels. . 2004. Davidson. Cacek. Night of the Wolf. Borchardt. Werewolves Werewolves are the most common of shapeshifters. Horror combined with romance. C.442 Chapter 12—Horror James. Canyons. 2003. a gay historian and mystery author. his shapeshifter followers. On the brink of Charlemagne's attack on Rome. female shapeshifter and werewolf. and she finds herself in the middle of a conflict between opposing packs of werewolves. 2001. and Cathy Clamp. Like vampires. 1999. 2001. werewolf. Maeniel undertakes a mission that threatens his relationship with Regeane. and essentially good to mindless. slavering beasts. Even though Simon Kirby-Jones. the tales about them are often romantic. in eighth-century Rome. the series is really more cozy mystery than horror. Regeane. suspense. D. A Denver tabloid reporter's life is saved by a werewolf. Derik's Bane. but how long can she resist the call of the wild? Stolen. is also a vampire. Bitten. and all of humanity. Lori. Hunter's Moon. Handeland. Alice. Saint Peter's Wolf 1991. Cadnum. tries to make it as a human journalist in Toronto.

Accompanying a belief in supernatural forces is the belief that these forces intervene to control nature and the universe and that they are above ordinary nature. 1989. Thomas. Jack. Whitley. Wolfen. 2003. The term is also used to describe those sciences. 1989. . sorcerers. 2003. the only female werewolf in the world. is the protagonist of the first two titles in the series. Naked Brunch. What's a girl to do when she is told she has "lycanthropic morphic disorder?" McCammon. Comédie romantic mystery. 2004. Edge of the Moon. A supernatural event cannot be explained by any known force of nature. which are also listed in the werewolf section of this chapter. Werewolves. Reissued 1999. The Wolf s Hour. Moon Dance. Strieber. that involve knowledge and use of the supernatural. and demons. it follows that supernatural beings and powers exist that are active in the ordinary world. 2005. Women of the Otherworld. 2003. Reissued 1989. Naturally. 1948. à Tessier. S. 1978. Rebecca. Armstrong. York. Crimson Moon. Williamson. Killing Moon. then. Stolen. Robert R. often appearing in horror literature. The Nightwalker. Kelley. Hayter. witches. Werewolf romances.The Occult and Supernatural 443 Blue Moon. The Occult and Supernatural The occult embraces all mysterious things beyond human understanding. P. Sparkle. 1981. Hunter's Moon. 2005. Darker Than You Think. Bitten. 2001. Elena Michaels. Somtow. 2003. The supernatural encompasses things existing or occurring outside humanity's normal experience.

Darkly comic tale of a decapitated man. Due. Reissued 1999. and Christa Faust. Winner of the British Fantasy Award. Percival. Ray. Reissued 1999. is the protagonist of the second two titles. Douglas. who had practiced a strange form of mind control growing up. Haunted. Homosexuality. # Hungry Moon. 2004. 2005. Dank darkness overwhelms a chain bookstore in a new mall. American Desert. a middle-class African American family man living in Miami. and a ghost. Poppy Z. 2002. Paige Winterbourne. 1963. Clegg. A trio of siblings. 1983. 1995.. The creeping horror of a species of snow that gluttonously devours people. racism. Hilton James. Tananarive. * Something Wicked This Way Comes. Midnight Sun. The Hour Before Dark. 1997. # Incarnate. My Soul to Keep. Bradbury. Eve Levine finds a bargain she made carries right over into death. Industrial Magic. is beset by terrifying dreams that are either symptoms of a supernatural ability or the early stages of schizophrenia. an apprentice witch. 1986. Campbell. Winner of the British Fantasy Award. Mortal and immortal forces face off when an immortal tells his mortal wife his secret and tries to convert her and his daughter.444 Chapter 12—Horror Dime-Store Magic. 1991. The Wind Caller. and now she must play the role of a bounty hunter in the afterlife. Triads. The Overnight. Ramsey. 1955. D. 2004. Everett. are reunited in the family home on an isolated Massachusetts island after their father is slaughtered. 2004. . The Between. 2004. The October Country. Cacek. You'll never say "it's only the wind" again. 2005. P. * m Brite. reanimated. 2004.

King. * à Two children. The Fury and the Terror. Jimmy Tock's dying grandfather predicts five days that will be terrible for Jimmy. T. Zombies. Life Expectancy. 2003. A psychic is the target of malevolent forces that want to harness her paranormal talents. P. Barnum. 2002. ~^r ^%f \> . who suffers from bizarre birth defects. A Scattering of Jades. John. A haunted car instead of a house. Odd Thomas. James. The Rising. 1976. 2003. Koontz. 2004. Harry Keogh: Necroscope and Other Weird Heroes! 2003. Keene. 2003. Psychic bioengineering. Brian. and an evil First Lady. Lumley. Dean. 2005. Twenty-year-old Odd sees and talks to ghosts. Irvine. The Policy. private investigator Nicholas Dismas. The Fury and the Power. Alexander C. 1999. Reissued 2000. 2002. Brian. Phantom Nights. In 1952. The Fury. Stephen. Those who do not buy unlikely types of insurance from a creepy insurance salesman find themselves in terrible situations. Gillian and Robert. 2004. a Mayan deity. Little. From a Buick 8. Others. Bentley. and can also see the malevolent bodachs who presage imminent violence.The Occult and Supernatural 445 Farris. and the possible end of the world. Herbert. While working on a case. possess powerful psychic talents that make them targets. On the day he is born. finds a diabolical doctor who may have been responsible for his deformities and for the tormented souls he sees in his mirror. 2002. a murdered nurse continues to communicate with a mute boy. a bereaved father. Fury Series. secret government agencies.

this is the tale of an unfulfilled housewife who finds what she thinks is an herbalist's journal when cleaning a chimney. Graham. Winner of the Stoker Award. existing in the present as well as in the past. Reissued 2003. Lee Nez series. Saul. Zombies. Necropolis. Originally published in Great Britain in the early 1990s. 2004. 1981. 2001. Winner of the British Fantasy Award. David.446 Chapter 12—Horror Khai ofKhem. The Earl of Vampires and the Duke of Werewolves stop at a diner and end up helping fend off a zombie attack. In the following books. • The Night Class. A Native American vampire who is also a New Mexico state policeman faces shapeshifting skin walkers and other dangers. Tom. the site of a gruesome multiple murder. they hear menacing voices in their nightmares and find much to arouse their suspicions of the strange inhabitants of the building. an accusing witch. Gil's All Fright Diner. A long-dead writer shapes reality in Maelstrom mansion. Waggoner. and Aimée Thurlo. and a swampy wasteland. and they may be practitioners of either white or black witchcraft. but usually as secondary characters. Martinez. John. 2003. 2004. Thurlo. Blood Retribution. 2000. 1999. in this comédie horror romp. Lee. A Choir of III Children. werewolves. • Dark Sister. When Ryan and Laurie move into their new stepfather's apartment. Tim. Joyce. The Deceased. 2005. the witch and the warlock are presented as real. Piccirilli. Witches and Warlocks Witches often appear in the historical romance. but discovers that she can now perform witchcraft and has unloosed a stalking evil. A. Midnight Voices. A college student experiences stigmata after a murder occurs in his room. 2002. 2002. and a cyber-vampire. Conjoined triplets. * An ancient Egyptian setting. Second Sunrise. .

Updike. D. Peter. 1993." has had an important influence on horror literature. Reissued 2003. Anne. Reissued 2003. Family dynasty of witches. 1976. Ramsey. Lives of the Mavfair Witches. Hand. that when Lovecraft died. 1984. Lovecraft. 1984. August. while allowing other authors to expand upon the mythos. Reissued 1977. Bailey. * Derleth. the mythology created by H. Cold Print. Shadowland."—The New Republic Cosmic Paranoia Sometimes called "weird tales" and categorized as fantasy. The Witches ofEastwick. Omnibus contains The Mask of Cthulhu (1958) and The Trail of Cthulhu (1962). Taltos. nightmares. 2000.The Occult and Supernatural 447 Leiber. * The Lurker at the Threshold. This list includes the works of Lovecraft and some of his followers. Two New England school boys experiment with magic. Fritz. monsters. The Ceremonies. 1990. with its malevolent life force. E. Waking the Moon. Derleth was so enamored of the Cthulhu mythos and such a good friend of Lovecraft. Dwellers in Darkness. 1985. Lasher. Klein. The Fallen. 1994. "A wicked entertainment with lots (and lots) of sex. and "The Great Old Ones. T. P. Rice. 1953. Derleth founded Arkham House for the express purpose of keeping the Cthulhu stories alive. à Three small-town New England witches in the 1960s. Elizabeth. * à Behind every great man may be a witch. 1945. Straub. 1980. Conjure Wife. Campbell. \ Cv . The Witching Hour. 1995. * Quest for Cthulhu. John. 2002. Dale.

" by Michael Shea. i i The Lurkeratthe Threshold. Edited with an introduction and notes by S. Gene Wolfe. 1965. Tales ofH." by Gahan Wilson." by Ramsey Campbell. The Transition of Titus Crow." by Roger Zelazny. 1964. ed. 1999." by Kim Newman. Dean R. 1997." by Harlan Ellison. Titus Crow Volume 2. . Lumley. "H. "Pickman's Modem. Fritz Leiber." by Fred Chappell. 1975. Collins. 1999. Selected and introduced by Joyce Carol Oates.L. P. 2002. Harlan Ellison. Hero of Dreams. 1990. Lovecraft: Major Works. Reissued with other stories in The Dunwich Horror and Others (1984). 1997. 1986. Reissued 1987. P. Eternal Lovecraft: The Persistence ofHPL in Popular Culture." by F. 1997. H. Brian. Eighteen short stories by Stephen King. "The Barrens. Paul Wilson. The Children ofCthulhu: Chilling New Tales Inspired by H. among others. The Caller of the Black. "The Adder. IcedonAran. Reissued 2005. Blaylock. "Lord of the Land. and Benjamin Adams. Includes. Omnibus of: The Burrowers Beneath. 1978. John. 1987. Omnibus of: In the Moons ofBorea. "The Big Fish.P. 1974. Robert Charles Wilson. T. At the Mountains of Madness. Pelan. Phantoms. 1979. The Dunwich Horror. and "Views of Mt. "Fat Face. 2000. Cowritten with August Derleth. Nancy A. Joshi. Titus Crow Volume 3. * à Lovecraft. Elysia: The Coming ofCthulhu. The Call ofCthulhu and Other Weird Stories." by Gene Wolfe. and others. "Shaft Number 247. "On the Slab. Reissued 1995. 1998. Beneath the Moors and Darker Places.." by James P. Turner. Omnibus of: The Clock of Dreams. Reissued 1994. by Hokusai." by Basil Copper. Reissued 1995. Lovecraft. Jim. 1971. 1945. Reissued 2003. Mad Moon of Dreams. Reissued 2002. 1983. Cthulhu 2000: A Lovecraftian Anthology. 1989. Ship of Dreams. Spawn of the Winds. "The Faces at Pine Dunes. Fuji." by Lawrence Watt-Evans. 1945. "The Shadow on the Doorstep. 2002. Titus Crow Volume 1. Dreamlands series. Titus Crow series.448 Chapter 12—Horror Koontz. 1986. P. 1978. The Case of Charles Dexter Ward.

* The Lovely Bones. Clive. Ansa. Lena McPherson. Reissued 2005. a young African American girl. Tina McElroy. Chris. 1980. Coldheart Canyon. B3 A murdered teenager keeps an eye on those she left behind. Straub. 1977. Ghost Story. but some are sad or plaintive. Ammie. Stewart. The Night Country. Barbara. 2004. 1989. The Hand I Fan With. Most ghosts are malevolent. * If You Could See Me Now. Come Home. why can't the dead rest? Adams. M. Lena's psychic abilities may mean that she will never find a living man to love. Reissued 2000. . hand-painted tile was imbued with evil. 2001. Richard. Winner of the Stoker Award. O'Nan. 2003. Alice. Peter. A. Reissued 2000. Reflections a year after three teenagers were killed in an accident by both the living and the dead. often haunting a house or a person. Reissued 1989. 1968.The Occult and Supernatural 449 Wooding. 1975. 1980. * à £Q Michaels. à The House That Would Not Die Romantic suspense. 2005. Barker. * Lena. Baby of the Family. The Year of Past Things: A New Orleans Ghost Story. Harper. 1897. The core of these tales may be the question. Sebold. Reissued 2004. The Turn of the Screw. The Haunting ofAlaizabel Cray. 2002. In the Night Room. A haunted relationship. born in the 1950s. The ghosts of Hollywood greats are held prisoner in a canyon near an evil room where each imported. 1996. Ghosts The ghost. converses with ghosts. 2004. Henry. is a pervasive presence in the horror genre. James. Julia. The Girl in a Swing.

1977. The Amityville Horror. 2004. Nazareth Hill. House of Bones. Haunted. Angela Toussaint wants to sell the home her African American family has lived in for four generations in Sacajawea. What town does not feature a haunted house as a Halloween fund-raising project? The following tales tell of dealings with homes or lodgings that display malevolence. * à In an isolated Rocky Mountain hotel. House of Leaves by Zampano. 2000. the father of a psychic son. Douglas. Bonansinga. a writer. 2004. Nightmare House. The Good House. Herbert. 2003. Stephen. 1987. Mischief. Reissued 2001. Anson. Ramsey. The third in the series is set first in time. An ex-priest is asked to exorcise a malevolent presence from the White House. Reissued 2005. 2001. 2003. Jay. * à Four people and a haunted mansion. Jay. Bailey. Due. King. Campbell. 1959. The Magic Cottage. Tananarive. 1977. 2000. Jackson. Washington. 1988. is being driven insane by forces of evil. Harrow trilogy. Clegg.450 Chapter 12—Horror Haunted Houses A house possessed is only a little less terrifying than a mind possessed. A Hudson Valley mansion converted into a prep school is filled with malevolent energy. Haunted houses have long been a staple in the horror genre. The Infinite. Dale. Oblivion. Danielewski. James. m This nonfiction story is enjoyed by some horror fans. The Shining. Reissued 2000. Shirley. . 1997. The house seems to be a source of evil that seems bent on destroying her life. A haunted apartment complex. Mark Z. The Haunting of Hill House.

362 Belisle Street selects its next victims from those to whom a realtor shows it. The House. Siddons. Dale returns to his boyhood home forty-one years after his best friend was killed there when they were both eleven years old. is listed in the "Ghosts" section of this chapter. A Winter Haunting. . Reissued 1995. Now. The House Next Door. In the Night Room (2004). Soulstorm. William Peter. 2002. deeply depressed. Simmons. The secret to teenaged Mark's disappearance and his mother's suicide may lie in an abandoned house. She meets Carl Streator. ii This is the standard that all other possession stories are judged against.The Occult and Supernatural 451 Little. The sequel. # lost boy lost girl. Dan. Robert. 1971. is a most terrifying theme. 2002. Saul. Blatty. Marasco. 1986. Bentley. Helen Hoover Boyle is a witch who makes her living reselling haunted houses. The Exorcist. or domination by a psychotic person. Belief in possession is widespread. 2004. Susie. Winner of the Stoker Award. 1999. 1978. 2003. Demonic Possession and Exorcism The control of an innocent mind by a demon or ghost. Straub. a song that results in death. Chet. 1973. Chuck. Burnt Offerings. 2003. The Dwelling. Black Creek Crossing. m Moloney. Lullaby. Siddons also writes romances. he hears strange things and finds scary messages on his computer. Palahniuk. Williamson. Anne Rivers. and many religions have rituals for exorcising evil spirits. Peter. John. a man who also knows the culling song.

1989. King. 1985. Thirteen-year-old Jack Sawyer enters into a bizarre realm on a quest to save his mother's life. magicians. John. Rosemary's Baby. Ramsey. they must deal with the consequences. her parents are dead. 1985. Lori. Drawn to the Grave. James. John. Blish. Ira. pacts with the devil. 1969. Obsession. 1967. 1980. raising the devil. and Peter Straub. Some twenty years later. Reissued 2001. Unholy Fire.452 Chapter 12—Horror Bloch. transmigration of souls. Coyne. Demons are released from hell to prey on the world. Campbell. Even though it is twenty years old. this book is still found in libraries and has a fan following. The Talisman. haunting by demons. 1997. * Teens mail a chain letter. An updated telling of the Bluebeard story. Mitchell. Demonology. A college student returns home to discover her house has burned. through the eyes of the next victim. Mary Ann. 1993. The Piercing. and black magic: The diversity of topics in this category is frightening. Strieber. Robert. * à A young woman's dream life turns into a nightmare after she is unknowingly impregnated by Satan. Whitley. 1984. . during which he becomes possessed and then murders his fiancée. Son of the Endless Night. Reissued 2003. Stigmata and sexuality. and Black Magic Worshipping the devil. Black Easter. and she is a dead ringer for a woman in a photo in a yearbook from the year she was born. Are priests being possessed by demons? Satanism. Stephen. Levin. Farris. On a trip to Colorado a young man stumbles across a strange ceremony in the woods. The Searing. 1978.

Domain. The few survivors attempt to negotiate a world where everything seems to be mutating. Charles L. Demon Night. and Jerry B.Apocalypse 453 Straczynski. Listed in the Christian fiction chapter. 2004. Steve. Reissued 2004. . The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse sweep across the planet. Michael. Dean. 2003. 1997. Birth of an Age. 2002. King. Lebbon. The apocalypse is also a popular subgenre in Christian fiction. Symphony. 1998. 2004. The Stand. The world as we know it comes to an end in the glowing fog of fungus-like aliens who reanimate the dead. Domain. Resurrection. Stephen. 1997. BeauSeigneur. 1999. The Taking. LaHaye. 1997. One night the world changes when people dream of falling and end up as bloody pulp. James. • m Koontz. In His Image. Christ Clone Trilogy. Chariot. Tim. The Nature of Balance. Reissued 2001. Tim. Jenkins. Grant. Left Behind Series. J. 1978. 13. Alten. 1998. 2000. Riders in the Sky. A "complete and un-cut" version was published in 1990. Acts of God. In the Mood. Millennium Quartet. Apocalypse A horror is unleashed that is so terrible the world could be destroyed. Reissued 2003. 1999.

Michael. Stewart.454 Chapter 12—Horror Long. Cook's terrifying novels are also considered "medical thrillers" (See "Adventure. Could there be any connection between dead children with mysterious holes in their sculls and a new process to increase the intelligence of developmentally disabled children? Cook. A heart surgeon's daughter is struck by e-coli. A Prayer for the Dying. Year Zero. O'Nan. Winner of the Stoker Award. A plague from year 00 C. diphtheria and fire decimate the population of Friendship. Medical Horror and Evil Science Evil doctors. Dr. sometimes mad. A swarm of microscopic machines has escaped from a top secret facility and is taking the place of people in this science fiction-horror blend. Chromosome 6. is unleashed on the world. Vector. 2002. and hospitals in which unnatural medicine is practiced can be found in this horrifying subgenre. Wisconsin. Prey. Splatterpunk style. and a shapeshifting demon. Coma. Gary. Hell on Earth. Gray Matter. with deadly consequences. Laurie Montgomery and Dr. Reaves. . McCammon Robert R. 1999. Marker. Science run amok. Crichton. 2000. Michael. Reissued 2002. 2002. and violent tale involving an orphan who was raised by sorcerers. Jeff. * Following a nuclear holocaust. Just after the Civil War. Braver. A visceral. • Swan Song. which sends him on a rampage against those responsible. an angel. a group of survivors band together. 1991. Elixer. bloody. 1999. 2000. 1987. 1998.E. 2002. and the only way to halt its progress may be to clone the dead from the first century. à Toxin. Robin." chapter 8). is also a popular theme. 2005. 1977. Jack Stapleton series.

Nazareth Hill. Tess. 1959. 1999. but a sixth mind. Robert. Dean. 2002. Koontz. 2000. 1998. Serial killer stories fall into this category. however deranged the mind from which the horror emanates. Fragments. Bloodstream. Dr. * Campbell. Koontz. Prodigal Son. Shelley. Gravity. Sarah Baldwin suddenly loses several patients who had been taking an herbal supplement she prescribed. Michael. Frankenstein. Bloch. 2005. 2000. 2001. Palmer. Mary Wollstonecraft. 1818. Ramsey. including one who becomes a serial killer in his attempt to assemble a perfect woman from the parts of many whom he has killed. Dean Koontz's Frankenstein. Reissued with Psycho House and Psycho IIin omnibus (1993). joins them and takes over. Fatal. Silent Children. Anderson. à I . the spirit of a woman raped and murdered. the Modern Prometheus. Watchers. 1997. The Count of Eleven. 1997. A psychologist melds together the minds of five idiot-savants. à A genetically engineered monster escapes from a secret laboratory. 1997. The Surgeon. Dean. Fears often do have an explicable cause.Psychological Horror 455 David. James F. * É M Psychological Horror Many of the horror stories currently being published involve terrors of the mind. and Kevin J . Could a vaccination be the cause of several bizarre deaths? Natural Causes. Reissued 2004. but not all of them are perfect. 1987. Ship of the Damned. Gerritsen. Psycho. or. Life Support. 1994. Reissued 2003. A biotech magnate has created a New Race. 1992.

David. Jack. The Chosen Child.456 Chapter 12—Horror Cooper. Graham. 1993. 1991. 2002. à Hannibal. James F. 2003. The Girl Next Door. Dean. Ketchum. Denton. 1995. False Memory. 1993. Joyce Carol. 1987. Krabbé. 1997. Reissued 2000. 2001. The creepiest serial killer ever. Tess. Dennis. à Patrick Bateman is young. in this tale of terror. Winner of the Stoker Award. King. 2000. Tim. 2002. The Vanishing. The Church of Dead Girls. Stephen. Bret Easton. The Apprentice. The Manhattan Hunt Club. Harris. Blackburn. Saul. Bradley. 1989. John. Stephen. A homoerotic horror tale in which death and desire meet in an intensely violent explosion. 1999. à Erudite cannibal Hannibal Lecter goes up against FBI Agent Clarice Starling. prosperous. Frisk. . Gerritsen. Oates. • Koontz. à Masterton. # Zombie. Red Dragon. and a serial killer. 1991. handsome. Winner of the Stoker Award. Reissued 2001. Ellis. Reissued 2000. American Psycho. à • The Silence of the Lambs. # Misery. Winner of the Stoker Award. 1999. EQ A town spins out of control as a series of girls are murdered. Thomas. Dobyns. Before the Cradle Falls. Hannibal Lecter. 1981.

a touch of magic. These are moody. . The Drawing of the Three. Gaiman. Herbert. Reissued 1999. Mortal Love. # lost boy lost girl. 1993. 2003. Stephen. Ramsey. and a dark look at the world combine to create fantasy with a surrealistic feeling that shades into horror. 2001. Neil. Thorn Kindred has paranormal experiences when he goes to Castle Bracken to recuperate from a stroke. I * Once. The Darkest Part of the Woods. Part of the Blue Rose Dark Fantasy A hint of evil. James. 2003. 2004. Three entwined stories from three different times twist and writhe with art and insanity. 1987. Reissued 2003. # American Gods. The Gunslinger. Campbell. 1996. Readers who like dark fantasy should also consult the dark fantasy section of the fantasy chapter. Winner of the Stoker Award. As it turns out. atmospheric tales that pull the reader in like quicksand. The Hellfire Club. Elizabeth. Joyce. The Art of Arrow Cutting. The Art of Arrow Cutting. 1982. Winner of the British Fantasy Award. 2001. Winner of the Stoker Award. the tooth fairy is not very nice. King. Peter. Winner of the Stoker Award. Dedman. • The Tooth Fairy. Dark fantasy is a subgenre that rests evenly between horror and fantasy. Shadows Bite. • The Throat. Graham. 1997. The Dark Tower series. A photographer becomes the target of three supernatural beings out of Japanese mythology when he receives a key from a woman who later is found dead. Hand. Reissued 2003. Stephen. A forest is haunted by an ancient evil and a family has been destroyed in its darkness. 2003.Dark Fantasy 457 Straub. 1998.

A secret government project unleashes a force that stops everything electrical and starts many people mutating into strange and different forms. Zicree. and Barbara Hambly. 2001. Reissued 2003. Winner of the Locus Poll and the British Fantasy Award. 1997. 2002. Sean. Stephen. Last Call. . Wolves of the Calla. Iron Council. 2003. Ghostlands. 2004. 1995. the Fisher King. Marc Scott. 4} Perdido Street Station. 2002. Tim. 2004. and Peter Straub. Magic Time. A shared world series. 1992. Meiville. 2001. Earthquake Weather. Bohnhoff. Scott Crane must face down his father. including a dragon and a young woman who begins to visibly shine with an interior light. 1997. Stewart. Marc Scott. Clarke and the British Fantasy Awards. Wizard and Glass. 1991. 1996. Maya Kaathryn. The Dark Tower. Powers. 2004. Winner of the Arthur C. In a bizarre poker game involving Tarot cards. China. Ifc The Scar. Black House. 2001.458 Chapter 12—Horror The Waste Lands. Angelfire. Resurrection Man. Expiration Date. Song of Susannah. and Robert Charles Wilson. Marc Scott. Zicree. King. Magic Time. Zicree. 2004.

McCammon. Short Stories The short story has been popular in horror from the beginning. Jack Williamson Chelsea Quinn Yarbro Charles L. Other authors whom readers of King often enjoy include Dean Koontz and Robert R. in reverse order beginning with 2004. and he quickly became the name defining the contemporary horror genre. Always best sellers. They have been made into movies and television miniseries. and many of them are also available in audio format. his novels led the rise in popularity of the horror genre in literature. a World Fantasy Lifetime Achievement Award. Grand Masters Selected by the World Horror Convention. and a Horror Writers' Association Lifetime Fantasy Award as well as numerous other awards.Topics To find out more about this genre. He won a well deserved National Book Award Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. these are the "Grand Masters" of this genre. Grant Ray Bradbury Harlan Ellison Ramsey Campbell Brian Lumley Peter Straub Dean Koontz Clive Barker Anne Rice Richard Matheson Stephen King Robert Bloch F. It wasn't until Stephen King roared onto the scene that its popularity in the horror genre was surpassed by the novel form. Paul Wilson Stephen King Stephen King was arguably the best storyteller of the twentieth century. 459 . check out the following resources. King's first novel was published in 1973.

psychological horror. and it was edited by Ellen Datlow and Terri Windling until the seventeenth annual collection. ed. Winner of the Stoker Award. The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror. John. A critical guide to reference sources and research tools. Subterranean Press. Occult. Burgess. technohorror. The first annual collection was published in 1988. Supernatural Index: A Listing of Fantasy. and Lisa R. In addition to collecting outstanding stories. Dark Dreams: A Collection of Horror and Suspense by Black Writers. Massey.. One of the interesting facts about horror anthologies is that libraries seem to hang onto them forever. Richard. published between 1813 and 1994. Fonseca. # Monteleone.. when Kelly Link and Gavin J. Michael. 1995. Win* ner of the International Horror Guild Award. 2001. Dafina Books. Annual Anthologies The Year's Best Fantasy and Horror. There are several inveterate anthologists. ed.700 authors. Borderlands Press.100 anthologies containing more than 21. Reference Guide to Science Fiction. anthologies published long ago can still be found on library shelves. Indexes over 2. the anthologies also offer an overview of the year in the genre. Brandon. 2000. Libraries Unlimited. Martin's Press. Anthony J. October Dreams. # Chizmar. and Robert Morrish. ed. and June Michèle Pulliam. Other horror stories can be found in anthologies listed for science fiction and fantasy. There is also a thorough index to horror short stories. St.000 works into thirty subgenres (e.000 stories by over 7. 2d ed. Grant replaced Windling. Award winners are listed. Bartle. 1999. Fantasy. and conferences important in the genre is included. This ultimate guide to advising the horror reader classifies approximately 1. the listings here are but a selection from their volumes. and a comprehensive guide to bibliographies.460 Chapter 12—Horror Anthologies The large number of horror anthologies indicates both the popularity of such collections and the significance of the short story in the genre. Roc. and William Contento. and some authors from those fields appear in the following anthologies. . Edited by Ellen Datlow and Terri Windling. Libraries Unlimited. Winner of the Interna* tional Horror Guild Award. and Horror.g. eds. Michael. Winner of the Stoker Award. Richard. Cemetery Dance. Greenwood. splatterpunk). # Pelan. The fifteenth annual edition was published in 2004. Borderlands 5. Bibliographies Ashley. Night Visions 10. 2004. Edited by Stephen Jones. Elizabeth. # Chizmar. Supernatural. Horror Anthologies. history. organizations. Even when they are not reprinted. criticism. ^ 2003. eds. 2002. 2002. Carroll & Graf. Hooked on Horror: A Guide to Reading Interests in Horror Fiction. The Darker Side. Weird. and Thomas Monteleone.

"Frankenstein: The Myth". 2003. 1986. Carroll & Graf. Encyclopedias In addition to the following encyclopedia. the following books may be used for background on various aspects of the genre. "Occult Fiction". Devils. Libraries Unlimited. "The Devil. 2 vols. Bleiler. and Science Fiction". film directors) and film titles. All of the theme essays (and. The Horror Readers' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Vampires. with names (authors. Sullivan. Essays on 116 authors. 2 vols. With an introduction by Jacques Barzun. Killer Tomatoes. indeed. television. "Zombies. Horror: The 100 Best Books. 414) covers a great deal of horror. film. F. Bloom.History and Criticism 461 _." a critical roundup of current authors. 2003. and the list of contributors is impressive. Jones." The work is invaluable for readers' advisors as a critical guide to authors. radio. all the entries) are engrossing reading. There are fifty-four theme essays. "Mad Doctors". "Werewolves". and Kim Newman. 1985. E. "Vampires". although the whole work is. Jacques Barzun's introduction. Supernatural. their works. "Detection and Ghosts". composers. "Poltergeists". St. 2d ed. Of particular use is the lengthy essay "Writers of Today. ed. Spratford. All entries are signed. music. artists. eds. The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural. relevant: "Definitions: Horror. Scribner's. American Library Association. Stephen. listed alphabetically. each listed with a cross-reference within the main alphabet. of course. "Horror and Science Fiction". Jack. Hooked on Horror: A Guide to Reading Interests in Horror Fiction. Supernatural Fiction Writers: Fantasy and Horror. in particular dark fantasy. . Brief biography and criticism of 148 authors. Demons". Until they are. ed. The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (see p. 1998. This is really more of a second volume or a supplement to the first edition. ed. 1999. "Possession". Gothic Horror: A Reader's Guide from Poe to King and Beyond. Becky Siegel. History and Criticism The definitive history and criticism of the horror genre are yet to be written. art. and Tammy Hennigh Clausen. and types of fiction within the genre. including analysis and criticism. Charles Scribner's Sons. "Ghosts". A few of the theme essays indicate specific significance to genre fiction. . Martin's Press.. Viking. and Haunted Houses. An exemplary encyclopedia of awesome text and abundant. actors. and illustration." undoubtedly will become a classic in the literature. as it repeats very little of what was in the first edition. "The Art and Appeal of the Ghostly and Ghastly. 2004. Clive. Supernatural Fiction Writers: Contemporary Fantasy and Horror. fearful illustrations that covers literature.

P. Everest House. Necropsy: The Review of Horror Fiction. . Ambrose Bierce. Ambrose Bierce. Stephen." "In the Wake of Dracula. Borgo. subject. In 2005