96B1A06L-SHO2

ARIANA THREAT GUIDE

INTRODUCTION The world has changed dramatically since the end of the Cold War. Up to that time, most states were aligned and generally patterned their diplomaticpolitical, economic, informational, and military (doctrine and forces) initiatives after those of the West or the Soviet Union. Consequently, political and military patterns were consistent and relatively predictable. Now this bipolar world order has given way to a multipolar one. What was once a monolithic, predictable, echeloned threat is gone, replaced by a host of threats across the spectrum of conflict. Some nations that were once enemies are now friends or friendly; some that were once allies may be pulling away. As the world moves away from the traditional long-term, fixed alliances of the past, regional and global relationships are much more fluid and unpredictable. Nation-states continue to dominate world affairs, but non-state actors will also play an important role in any conflict either as combatants or noncombatants. The Army must adapt to the new world in which we find ourselves. As the Army entered the 21st century, it embraced the concept of the contemporary operational environment (COE). The COE concept gives us a framework for analyzing and understanding the nature of any operational environment (OE) in the real world and for preparing the Army for such situations by replicating similar conditions in training environments. The COE encompasses the BLUFOR, OPFOR and every other aspect of battlefield dynamics. Joint Pub 1-02 defines operational environment as “a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander.” The FM 7-100 series of OPFOR doctrinal manuals defines the contemporary operational environment (COE) as “the operational environment that exists today and for the clearly foreseeable future.” It is “contemporary” in the sense that it does not represent conditions that existed only in the past or that might exist only in the distant, hardly envisionable future, but rather those conditions that exist today and in the clearly foreseeable, near future. It is what people in the Army today are likely to encounter during their military careers. In training environments, the COE is the OE created to approximate the demands of the real-world COE. The FM 7-100 series states that any OE, in the real world or in the training environment, can be characterized in terms of 11 critical variables: · Nature and stability of the state. · Regional and global relationships. · Economics. · Sociological demographics. · Information. · Physical environment. · Technology. · External organizations.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 · National will. · Time. · Military capabilities. Some of these variables can overlap with one another. Different combinations of these variables and their interaction provide a robust, complex environment and the context for OPFOR operations. Each of these variables needs to be considered in the COE as represented in training environments. During the period covered by the COE, the Army might face a variety of different OEs, because the exact nature of the “conditions, circumstances, and influences” and their possible combinations will vary according to the specific situation in a training scenario or in actual operations we conduct in different parts of the world, involving different actors. This Threat Guide serves as a supplement guide for use in training. This guide supports the OPFOR FM 7-100 series for the Contemporary Operational Environment (COE), and the COE Administrative Force Structure documentation. Most of the systems in this update are keyed directly to baseline equipment contained in the COE force structure. Other systems are added to offer flexibility for tailoring the force systems mix. The guide is broken down in to three sections; Doctrine, Modern Table of Organization and Equipment, and Equipment. Arianan is a fictions country, however their doctrine, MTOE, and the equipment used by them is based of real threats For meanings of acronyms and terms, see the Glossary. Please note that although most terms are the same as U.S. terminology, some reflect non-U.S. concepts and are not comparable or measurable against U.S. standards. For example, if an OPFOR armor penetration figure does not say RHA (rolled homogeneous armor), do not assume that is the standard for the figure. Please consult the Glossary often. Due to the proliferation of weapons through sales and resale, wartime capture, and licensed or unlicensed production of major end items, distinctions between equipment as friendly or OPFOR have blurred. Sales of upgrade equipment and kits for application to weapon systems have further blurred distinctions between old or obsolete systems and modern systems. This EG describes base models listed in the FMs or upgrades of those base models, which reflect current capabilities. Many less common variants and upgrades are also addressed. System names refer back to the field manuals. However, they also reflect intelligence community changes in naming methods. Alternative designations include the manufacturer’s name, as well as U.S./NATO designators. Note also that the EG focuses on the complete weapon system iii

(e.g., AT-4/5/5B antitank guided missile launcher complex or 9P148 ATGM launcher vehicle), versus a component or munitions (9P135 launcher or AT-4/5 ATGM).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
DOCTRINE PURPOSE OF THE OFFENSE
Attack To Destroy Attack to Seize Attack to Expel Planning Offensive Operations Planned Offense Situational offense 9 9 9 10 10 11

ORGANIZING THE BATTLEFIELD FOR THE OFFENSE
Areas of Responsibility Disruption Zone Battle Zone Support Zone Attack Zone Kill Zone Objectives and Axes 11 13 15 16 16 16 16

ORGANIZING FORCES FOR THE OFFENSE
Disruption Force Fixing Force Assault Force Exploitation Force Reserves Deception Force 16 17 17 18 18 18

PREPARING FOR THE OFFENSE
Establish Contact Make Through Logistics Arrangements Modify the Plan When Necessary Rehearse Critical Actions in Priority Executing the Offense Maintain Contact Modify the Plan When Necessary Seize Opportunities Dominate the Tempo of Operations 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20

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TYPES OF OFFENSIVE ACTION
Attack Integrated Attack Organizing Forces for an Integrated Attack Dispersed Attack Organizing Forces for a Dispersed Attack 20 21 23 24 26

LIMITED OBJECTIVE ATTACK
Sophisticated Ambush Raid Spoiling Attack Counterattack Organizing Forces for a Counterattack Strike Organizing Forces for a Strike 28 29 30 32 33 34 36

PURPOSE OF THE DEFENSE
Defense to Destroy Defense to Preserve Defense to Deny Planning Defensive Operations Planned Defense Situational Defense 37 37 37 38 38 38

ORGANIZING THE BATTLEFIELD FOR THE DEFENSE
Area of Responsibility Disruption Zone Battle Zone Support Zone Attack Zone Kill Zone 40 40 42 43 43 43

ORGANIZING FORCES FOR THE DEFENSE
Disruption Force Main Defense Force Protected Force Security Force Counterattack Forces Types of Reserves Deception Forces 43 45 45 45 45 45 47 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREPARING FOR THE DEFENSE
Deny Enemy Intelligence Make Through Countermobility and Survivability Preparations Make Use of Complex Terrain Make Through Logistics Arrangements Modify the Plan when Necessary Rehearse Everything Possible in Priority 47 48 48 48 49 49

EXECUTING THE DEFENSE
Maintain Contact Modify the Plan when Necessary Seize Opportunities 50 50 50

INTEGRATED AND DECENTRALIZED DEFENSES
Integrated Defense Decentralized Defense 50 51

TYPES OF DEFENSIVE ACTION
Manuever Defense Defensive Lines Defensive Manuever Disruption Force Main Defense Force Reserves Area Defense Disruption Force Main Defense Force Reserves 52 53 55 55 56 57 57 60 62 62

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT Line and block Charts
4 Mechanized Infantry Division 41st Mechanized Infantry Brigade 42nd Mechanized Infantry Brigade 43rd Mechanized Infantry Brigade 44th Tank Brigade 45th Self-Propelled Artillery Brigade 46th Air Defense Artillery Brigade 47th Support Brigade 4th Anti-Tank Battalion 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

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96B1A06L-SHO2 4th Reconnaissance Battalion 4th Signal Battalion 4th Chemical Battalion 4th Engineer Battalion 3-383 Aviation Troop 672nd Paramilitary Battalion UI Special Forces Company Insurgent Forces Table of Equipment 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

EQUIPMENT INFANTRY WEAPONS
5.45mm AK-74 and AK-74M Assault Rifle 5.45mm RPK-74 Light Machine Gun 7.62mm PK Machine Gun Dragunov 7.62mm SVD Sniper Rifle Barrett .50 Cal M82A1 Sniper Rifle 40mm GP-25 and GP-40 Rifle Mounted Grenade Launchers Colt 40mm M203 Grenade Launcher CIS 40 AGL 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher Norinco 35mm Type W-87 Automatic Grenade Launcher RPO-A Shmel Rocket Infantry Flame Thrower 115 117 119 121 123 124 126 128 130 131

TANKS
T-64 Main Battle Tank T-72 Main Battle Tank T-80 Main Battle Tank T-90 Main Battle Tank 133 135 137 140

INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE
BMP-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicle BMP-2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle BMD-1 Airborne Combat Vehicle 143 146 148 151

ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER
MTLB Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicle BMP-1KSh Command and Staff Vehicle BTR-70 Armored Personnel Carrier 153 155 156 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS BTR-80 Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-80A Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-90 Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-152 Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-80 M1989/1 Kushetka 158 160 162 164 166

RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE
ENGESA EE-9 Cascavel Armored Car PRP-4 Reconnaissance Vehicle BRM Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle HJ-62C Armored Scout Vehicle BRDM-2 Amphibious Scout Car 167 169 171 173 175

MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS
82mm Vasilyek 2k21 (2B9) Automatic Mortar TDA 120mm MO 120 RT Rifled Mortar 2B11/2S12 120mm Towed Mortar M-240 240mm Mortar 120mm Anona 2S9 SO-120 Self-Propelled Mortar 120mm NONA-SVK 2S23 Self-Propelled Mortar 120mm 2S31 Vena Self-Propelled Mortar 120mm 2B16 (NONA-K) combination gun 122mm D-30 Towed Howitzer 130mm M-46 Towed Field Gun 152mm 2A36 (M1976) Towed Gun 152mm D-20 Towed Gun-Howitzer 152mm 2A65 (M1987) Towed Gun-Howitzer 122mm 2S1 Gvozdika (M1974) Self-Propelled Howitzer 152mm 2S3 Akatsiya (M1973) Self-Propelled Gun-Howitzer 152mm 2S19 MSTA-S Self-Propelled Howitzer 220mm BM-27 BM 9P140 Uragan Multiple Rocket Launcher 122mm BM-21 9K51 Grad Multiple Rocket Launcher 177 179 181 182 183 185 187 189 191 193 194 195 197 198 200 202 204 206

SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES
FROG-7A/FROG-7B SS-21 SCARAB SS-1(SCUD) 208 210 211

ANTI-TANK WEAPONS
RPG-7 Portable Rocket Launcher RPG-27 Tavolga 214 216

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96B1A06L-SHO2 RPG-29 Vampir Anti-Tank Rocket Launcher CAI Armbrust Short-Range Anti-Armor Weapon Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3 Light Anti-Tank Weapon Spike-MR (Gill) and Spike-LR Aerospatiale Eryx Short-Range Anti-Tank Missile Euro Missile MILAN Portable Anti-Tank Weapon Euro Missile HOT-3 9K115 Metis and 9M131 Metis-M Anti-Tank Guide Missile Kornet Anti-Tank Guided Missile 100mm Anti-Tank Gun T-12 (2A19) and MT-12 (2A29) 125mm 2A45M (Sprut-B) Towed Anti-Tank Gun Volsk AT-9 (Ataka)/MT-LB Tank Destroyer (Shturm-C) AMX-10P ICV with HOT-3 Anti-Tank Missile 217 218 219 221 223 224 226 228 230 231 233 235 236

AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS
SA-16 (Gimlet) Low Altitude Surface to Air Missile SA-18 (Grouse) Low Altitude Surface to Air Missile 35mm GDF-003 Anti-Aircraft Gun 57mm S-60 Automatic Anti-Aircraft Gun 2S6M Self-Propelled Air Defense Weapon Aramis/Aspide Area Multiple Intercept System Crotale Low-Altitude Surface to Air Missile System Crotale New Generation Low-Altitude SAM System SA-4 Ganef (3M8/9M8-Krug) Surface to Air Missile System SA-15 Gauntlet (9M330 Tor) Surface to Air Missile System 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256

ENGINEER EQUIPMENT
Soviet MTU-20 Bridgelayer PMM-2 Amphibious Bridging and Ferry System TMM Truck Mounted Treadway Bridge BAT-2 Combat Engineer Vehicle IRM Engineer Reconnaissance Vehicle IRM-2 Combat Engineer Vehicle MTK-2 Armored Mine Clearing Vehicle GMZ-3 Tracked Minelayer PMR-2, PMR-3, and PMZ-4 Towed Minelayer UMZ Mine Dispensing System PZM and PZM-2 Regimental Trench Digging Machines DIM Vehicle Mounted Mine Detector KMT-5 ZRP-2 Mine Clearing Line Charge 258 259 260 262 264 265 267 268 270 272 274 275 276 277

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT
TM-65 Decontamination Apparatus ARS-12 Decontamination Apparatus ARS-14 Decontamination Apparatus DDA-53 Decontamination Apparatus 278 279 280 281

SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
ZIL-131 (6x6) Truck GAZ-66 (4x4) Truck MAZ-535 and MAZ-537 Trucks Ural-375D Truck UAZ-469B Series GAZ-69 (4x4) Light Vehicles ChMZAP-5247G Heavy Load Semi-Trailer 282 284 286 289 291 293 295

RADAR
Flat Face Radar Dog Ear Surveillance Radar Flap Wheel Fire Control Radar Cymbeline Weapon Locating radar 296 297 298 300

HELICOPTERS and UAVs
PAH-1 BO 105 Mi-8 HIP Mi-24 HIND Mi-26 HALO Fox AT 302 303 305 307 309 312

GLOSSARY

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96B1A06L-SHO2

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
PURPOSE OF THE OFFENSE All offensive operations are designed to achieve the goals of a strategic campaign through active measures. However, the purpose of any given offensive operation varies with the situation. The primary distinction among types of offensive operations is their purpose. Thus, the ARIANAN FORCE recognizes three general types of offensive operations according to their purpose: to destroy, seize, or expel. ATTACK TO DESTROY An attack to destroy is designed to eliminate a target entity as a useful fighting force. Operational-level attacks to destroy usually focus on key enemy combat formations or capabilities. Not every soldier or system need be destroyed for such an attack to be successful. Attacks to destroy are often focused on a single component of an enemy’s combat system. For example, it may be enough to remove the enemy force’s ability to sustain itself or exercise effective command and control. Therefore, attacks to destroy are often focused on the logistics and C2 systems of the target entity. Such attacks are most often conducted during regional operations. However, an attack to destroy may also occur during transition or adaptive operations, whenever the ARIANAN FORCE can recognize and exploit a window of opportunity. ATTACK TO SEIZE An attack to seize is designed to gain control of a key terrain feature or man-made facility. The ARIANAN FORCE does not adhere to the idea that seizure may be accomplished simply by placing a feature in weapons range. In the ARIANAN FORCE lexicon, seize means to have ARIANAN soldiers on and/or in the feature in question. Attacks to seize can occur as part of all component operations of the Arianan force strategic campaigns. In regional operations, the seizure may facilitate the movement of an exploitation force. In transition or adaptive operations, the seizure may be part of a campaign to control access into the theater. ATTACK TO EXPEL An attack to expel is used to force the defender to vacate an area. Attacks to expel often have a strong information warfare (IW) component, so that the enemy removes himself from the area largely through a loss of resolve. Attacks to expel typically focus on a key enemy capability or vulnerability. Attacks to expel are primarily conducted within the context of transition or adaptive operations.

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS PLANNING OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS For the ARIANAN FORCE, the key elements of planning offensive operations are • • • • • Determining the level of planning possible (planned versus situational offense). Organizing the battlefield. Organizing forces. Organizing IW activities Determining the objective of the offensive operation.

Offensive actions during transition and adaptive operations will not be able to rely simply on massing combat power at a decisive point. Such actions will typically include increased use of • • • Infiltration. Perception management in support of operations. Affiliated forces in support of operations.

PLANNED OFFENSE A planned (deliberate) offense is an offensive operation or action undertaken when there is sufficient time and knowledge of the situation to prepare and rehearse forces for specific tasks. Typically, the enemy is in prepared defensive positions and in a known location. Key considerations in offensive planning are • • • • • Selecting a clear and appropriate objective. Determining which enemy forces (security, reaction, or reserve) must be fixed. Developing a plan for RISTA that locates and tracks relevant enemy targets and elements. Creating or taking advantage of a window of opportunity to free friendly forces from any enemy advantages in precision standoff and situational awareness. Determining which component or components of an enemy’s combat system to attack.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 SITUATIONAL OFFENSE The ARIANAN FORCE may also conduct a situational (hasty) offense. It recognizes that the modern battlefield is chaotic. Fleeting opportunities to strike at an enemy weakness will continually present them and just as quickly disappear. Although detailed planning and preparation greatly mitigate risk, they are often not achievable if a window of opportunity is to be exploited. The following are examples of conditions that might lead to a situational offense: • • • A key enemy unit, system, or capability is exposed. The ARIANAN FORCE has an opportunity to conduct a spoiling attack to disrupt enemy defensive preparations. An Arianan unit makes contact on favorable terms for subsequent offensive action.

In a situational offense, the commander develops his assessment of the conditions rapidly and without a great deal of staff involvement. He provides a basic course of action to the staff who then quickly turn that course of action into an executable operational directive. The situational offense relies heavily on implementation of battle drills by subordinate tactical units (see FM 7-100.2). Organization of the battlefield in a situational offense will normally be limited to minor changes to existing control measures. Organization of forces in a situational offense will typically require the use of combat detachments (see FM 7-100.2). The nature of situational offense is such that it often involves smaller, independent forces accomplishing discrete missions dispersed from the main body of the operational-strategic command (OSC). ORGANIZING THE BATTLEFIELD FOR THE OFFENSE Areas of Responsibility In his operation plan, the commander specifies the organization of the battlefield from the perspective of his level of command. Within his unit’s area of responsibility (AOR), as defined by the next-higher commander, he designates AORs for his subordinates, along with zones, objectives, and axes related to his own overall mission. An operation plan or directive normally defines AORs and zones by specifying boundary lines in terms of distinct local terrain features through which a line passes, specifying whether each terrain feature is included or excluded from the unit’s AOR or zones within it. Normally, a specified terrain feature is included unless the order identifies it as “excluded.” For example, the left boundary of a unit’s AOR could run from hill 108, to hill 250 (excluded), to junction of roads 52 and 98. 11

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS ARIANAN FORCE AORs consist of three basic zones: the disruption zone, the battle zone, and the support zone. Zones may be linear or nonlinear in nature. These zones have the same basic purposes in all types of offense. In the offense, AORs also may contain one or more attack zones, kill zones, objectives, and/or axes. The depth and width of these zones during offensive operations depend on the size of the Arianan forces, engagement ranges of weapons systems, and the nature of the enemy defense. See Figures 1 and 2 for generalized examples of AORs and zones in linear and nonlinear offensive operations.

Figure 1. Example of an AOR (Linear Offensive Operations) The intent of this method of organizing the battlefield is to preserve as much flexibility as possible for subordinate units within the parameters that define the aim of the senior commander. An important feature of the basic zones in an AOR is the variations in actions that can occur within them in the course of a specific offensive operation. An AOR is not required to have any or all of these zones in any particular situation. A particular command might have a battle zone and no disruption zone. It might not have a battle zone, if it is the disruption force of a higher command. If it is able to forage, it might not have a support zone.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 The overall AOR is bounded by a limit of responsibility (LOR). Within the LOR, the ARIANAN FORCE normally refers to two types of control lines. The battle line is a place where the ARIANAN FORCE expects to fight a close battle; this line separates the battle zone from the disruption zone. The support line separates the support zone from the battle zone. LORs give maximum latitude to the subordinate commander. Within the LOR, the commander has the flexibility to do as he sees fit unless the higher commander also assigns a kill zone, which he proposes to support with additional resources.

Figure 2. Example of AOR (Nonlinear Offensive Operations) Disruption Zone In the offense, the disruption zone is that battlespace in which the ARIANAN FORCE seeks to use direct and indirect fires to destroy the integrity of enemy forces and capabilities without decisive engagement. In general, this zone is the space between the battle line and the LOR. In linear operations, it typically begins at what the ARIANAN FORCE anticipates to be the enemy main line of resistance and extends to the LOR. The dimensions of this zone are based on ARIANAN weapons envelopes and the targets the ARIANAN FORCE wishes to affect. For example, counter reconnaissance activity may draw the attention of

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS enemy forces and cause them to enter the kill zone of a sophisticated ambush executed by long-range precision fires. The OSC disruption zone may be the aggregate of the disruption zones of subordinates, such as division and brigade tactical groups (DTGs and BTGs). However, assets directly controlled by the OSC could also operate throughout the OSC disruption zone. In that case, each subordinate would be responsible for a portion of the OSC disruption zone, and that portion would constitute the subordinate’s disruption zone within its own AOR. In other cases, an OSC disruption zone may extend beyond those of its subordinates, to include an area occupied by forces sent out under direct control of the OSC. OSC-level forces could include Special-Purpose Forces (SPF) and affiliated forces, which could be operating in enemy-held territory even before the beginning of hostilities. There could also be stay-behind forces in areas seized by the enemy. A field group (FG) or theater commander controlling multiple OSCs can have a disruption zone and may assign an OSC to operate in that zone. In the offense, the disruption zone exists to – • • • Disrupt defensive works and preparations. Delay or fix enemy counterattacks or response forces. Attack lucrative targets (key systems or vulnerable troops).

Forces operating in an offensive disruption zone maneuver to fix enemy forces and place long-range fire on key enemy units. Units in this zone also strip away the enemy’s reconnaissance assets (to deceive him of the location and configuration of the attack) while denying him the ability to acquire and engage the ARIANAN FORCE with deep fires. This includes an air defense effort to deny aerial attack and reconnaissance platforms from targeting forces in the zone. Forces in the disruption zone (called the disruption force) seek to conduct highly damaging local attacks. Units selected for missions in the disruption zone ensure that a covered withdrawal route exists to avoid decisive engagement. Typical systems, units, or facilities to be attacked by disruption force are • • • • • • • • C2 systems. RISTA assets. Aviation assets. Precision fire systems. Logistics support areas. Lines of communication (LOCs). Mobility and counter mobility assets. Casualty evacuation routes and means.

The disruption zone is bounded by the battle line and the LOR of the overall AOR. In linear offensive operations, the higher headquarters may move 14

96B1A06L-SHO2 this LOR forward as the force continues successful offensive operations. Thus, the boundaries of the disruption zone will also move forward during the course of an operation. The higher commander can push the disruption zone forward or outward as forces adopt a defensive posture while consolidating gains at the end of a successful offensive operation and/or prepare for a subsequent offensive operation. Battle Zone In the offense, the battle zone is that battlespace in which the ARIANAN FORCE seeks fix and/or destroy enemy forces through simultaneous or sequential application of all elements of combat power. The dimensions of this zone are based on ARIANAN FORCE objectives and the time space relationships for the forces involved. The battle zone is separated from the disruption zone by the battle line and from the support zone by the support line. The commander may adjust the location of these lines in order to accommodate successful offensive operations. In a linear situation, those lines can shift forward during the course of a successful attack. Thus, the battle zone would also shift forward. In the offense, the battle zone exists to • • • Control forces in proximity to the enemy. Define objectives. Support understanding of roles and missions.

Forces operating in the battle zone engage the enemy in close combat to achieve a specific operational objective. This objective is typically one of the following: • • • • • Create a penetration in the enemy defense, through which exploitation forces can pass. Draw enemy attention and resources to the action. Seize terrain. Inflict casualties on a vulnerable enemy unit. Prevent the enemy from moving a part of his force to impact ARIANAN FORCE actions elsewhere on the battlefield.

In the nonlinear attack, multiple battle zones may exist, and within each a certain task would be assigned to the Arianan unit charged to operate in that space. The tasks given to the units that operate in the zone can range from demonstration to attack. The battle zone provides the commander of those units the battlespace in which to frame his operations.

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Support Zone The support zone is that area of the battlespace designed to be free of significant enemy action and to permit the effective logistic and administrative support of forces. Security forces will operate in the support zone in a combat role to defeat enemy special operations forces. Camouflage, concealment, cover, and deception (C3D) measures throughout the support zone will aim to protect the force from standoff RISTA and precision attack. If the battle zone moves during the course of an operation, the support zone would move accordingly. Attack Zone The attack zone is the assigned zone of action for an attacking force. In operation plans and directives, the senior commander assigns attack zones to subordinate units. Kill Zone A kill zone is a designated area on the battlefield where the ARIANAN FORCE plans to destroy a key enemy target. Kill zones are tied to enemy targets and the Arianan weapon systems that will engage them, and not a particular zone of the AOR. They may be designated by a senior commander in order to focus combat power. Objectives and Axes An objective is a geographic location or physical object, the seizing and/or holding of which is a goal of an offensive operation.1 An axis is a control measure showing the location through which a force will move as it proceeds from its starting location to its objective. ORGANIZING FORCES FOR THE OFFENSE Disruption Force In his operation plan, the operational-level commander also specifies the organization of the forces within his level of command. Thus, subordinate forces understand their roles within the overall operation. However, the organization of forces can shift dramatically during the course of an operation, if part of the plan does not work or works better than anticipated. For example, a unit that started out being part of a fixing force might split off and become an exploitation force, if the opportunity presents itself. Each of the forces described below has an identified commander. This will be the senior commander of the largest subordinate unit assigned to that force. For example, if two DTGs are acting as the fixing force, the senior of the two

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96B1A06L-SHO2 DTG commanders is the fixing force commander. Even when tactical-level subordinates of an OSC or FG have responsibility for parts of the disruption zone, there is still an overall OSC or FG disruption force commander. The force commander is responsible to the OSC or FG commander to ensure that combat preparations are made properly and to take charge of the force during the battle. This frees the operational-level commander from decisions specific to the force’s mission. Since each force commander is also a subordinate unit commander, he controls the force from his unit’s command post. In the offense, the disruption force would include the disruption force that already existed in a preceding defensive situation. It is possible that forces assigned for operations in the disruption zone in the defense might not have sufficient mobility to do the same in the offense or that targets may change and require different or additional assets. Thus, the disruption force might require augmentation. Fixing Force Arianan offensive operations are founded on the concept of fixing enemy forces so that they are not free to maneuver. The ARIANAN FORCE recognizes that units and soldiers can be fixed in a variety of ways. For example• • • • They find themselves without effective communication with higher command. Their picture of the battlefield is unclear. They are (or believe they are) decisively engaged in combat. They have lost mobility to complex terrain, obstacles, or weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

In the offense, planners will identify which enemy forces need to be fixed and the method by which they will be fixed. They will then assign this responsibility to a force that has the capability to fix the required enemy forces with the correct method. The fixing force may consist of a number of units separated from each other in time and space, particularly if the enemy forces required to be fixed are likewise separated. The term objective may also refer to the defined aim(s) of a particular operation. It is not always tied to ground or places. It could be a desired effect on a particular enemy formation or capability. Fixing force could consist entirely of affiliated irregular forces. It is possible that a discrete attack on logistics or C2 (or other systems) could fix an enemy without resorting to deploying large fixing forces. Assault Force The assault force is charged with creating the conditions that allow the exploitation force the freedom to operate. In order to create a window of opportunity for the exploitation force to succeed, the assault force may be 17

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS required to operate at a high degree of risk and may sustain substantial casualties. However, an assault force may not even make contact with the enemy, but instead conduct a demonstration. Exploitation Force The exploitation force is assigned the task of achieving the objective of the mission. It typically exploits a window of opportunity created by the assault force. However, effective IW, a mismatch in system capabilities, or even the enemy’s own dispositions may create a situation in which the exploitation force is able to achieve the objective without a formal assault force. An exploitation force could engage the ultimate objective with fires only. Reserves At the commander’s discretion, forces may be held out of initial action so that he may influence unforeseen events or take advantage of developing opportunities. Arianan offensive reserve formations will be given priorities in terms of whether the staff thinks it most likely that they will act as a fixing, assault, or exploitation force. The size and composition of an offensive reserve is entirely situation-dependent. Deception Force When the IW plan requires combat forces to take some action (such as a demonstration or feint), these forces will be designated as deception forces in close-hold executive summaries of the plan. Wide-distribution copies of the plan will refer to these forces according to the designation given them in the deception story. PREPARING FOR THE OFFENSE ESTABLISH CONTACT In the preparation phase, the ARIANAN FORCE focuses on ways of applying all available resources and the full range of actions to place the enemy in the weakest condition and position possible. Commanders prepare their forces for all subsequent phases of the offensive operation. They organize their forces and the battlefield with an eye toward capitalizing on conditions created by successful attacks. The number one priority for all offensive operations is to gain and maintain contact with key enemy forces. As part of the decision-making process, the commander and staff identify which forces must be kept under watch at all times. The ARIANAN FORCE will employ whatever technical sensors it has at its disposal to locate and track enemy forces, but the method of choice is ground

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96B1A06L-SHO2 reconnaissance. It may also receive information on the enemy from the civilian populace, local police, or affiliated irregular forces. MAKE THOROUGH LOGISTICS ARRANGEMENTS The ARIANAN FORCE understands that there is as much chance of an offensive operation being brought to culmination by a lack of sufficient logistics support as by enemy action. Careful consideration will be given to carried days of supply and advanced caches to obviate the need for easily disrupted LOCs. MODIFY THE PLAN WHEN NECESSARY The ARIANAN FORCE takes into account that, while it might consider itself to be in the preparation phase for one operation, it is continuously in the execution phase. Plans are never considered final. Plans are checked throughout the course of their development to ensure they are still valid in light of battlefield events. REHEARSE CRITICAL ACTIONS IN PRIORITY The commander establishes the priority for the critical actions expected to take place during the operation. The force rehearses those actions in as realistic a manner as possible for the remainder of the preparation time. EXECUTING THE OFFENSE The degree of preparation often determines the nature of the attack in the execution phase. Successful execution depends on forces that understand their roles in the operation and can swiftly follow preparatory actions with the maximum possible shock and violence and deny the enemy any opportunity to recover. A successful execution phase often ends with transition to the defense in order to consolidate gains, defeat enemy counterattacks, or avoid culmination. In some cases, the execution phase is followed by continued offensive action to exploit opportunities created by the operation just completed. MAINTAIN CONTACT The ARIANAN FORCE will go to great lengths to ensure that its forces maintain contact with key elements of the enemy force throughout the operation. This includes rapid reconstitution of reconnaissance assets and units and the use of whatever combat power is necessary to ensure success. MODIFY THE PLAN WHEN NECESSARY The ARIANAN FORCE is sensitive to the effects of mission dynamics and realizes that the enemy’s actions may well make an Arianan unit’s original 19

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS mission achievable, but completely irrelevant. As an example, a unit of the fixing force in an attack may be keeping its portion of the enemy force tied down while another portion of the enemy force is maneuvering nearby to stop the exploitation force. In this case, the Arianan unit in question must be ready to transition to a new mission quickly and break contact to fix the maneuvering enemy force. SEIZE OPPORTUNITIES The ARIANAN FORCE places maximum emphasis on decentralized execution, initiative, and adaptation. Subordinate units are expected to take advantage of fleeting opportunities so long as their actions are in concert with the purpose of the operational directive. DOMINATE THE TEMPO OF OPERATIONS Through all actions possible, the ARIANAN FORCE plans to control the tempo of operations. It will use continuous attack, IW, and shifting targets, objectives, and axes to ensure that operational events are taking place at the pace it desires. TYPES OF OFFENSIVE ACTION ATTACK The types of offensive action in ARIANAN doctrine are both tactical methods and guides to the design of operational courses of action. An FG or OSC offensive operation plan may include subordinate units that are executing different offensive and defensive courses of action within the overall offensive mission framework. An attack seeks to achieve operational decision through primarily military means by defeating the enemy’s military power. This defeat does not come through the destruction of armored weapons systems but through the disruption, dislocation, and subsequent paralyzation that occurs when combat forces are rendered irrelevant by the loss of the capability or will to continue the fight. Attack is the method of choice for the Arianan offensive action. There are two types of attack: integrated attack and dispersed attack. The ARIANAN FORCE does not have a separate design for “exploitation” as a distinct offensive course of action. Rather, exploitation is considered a central part of all integrated and dispersed attacks. The ARIANAN FORCE does not have a separate design for “pursuit” as a distinct offensive course of action. A pursuit is conducted using the same basic course-of-action framework as any other integrated or dispersed attack. The

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96B1A06L-SHO2 fixing force gains contact with the fleeing enemy force and slows it or forces it to stop while the assault and exploitation forces create Integrated Attack The conditions for and complete the destruction of the enemy’s C2 and logistics structure or other systems. Integrated attack is an offensive action where the ARIANAN FORCE seeks military decision by destroying the enemy’s will and/or ability to continue fighting through the application of joint and combined arms effects. Integrated attack is often employed when the ARIANAN FORCE enjoys overmatch with respect to its opponent and is able to bring all elements of offensive combat power to bear. It may also be employed against a more sophisticated and capable opponent, if the appropriate window of opportunity is created or available. See Figures 3 through 5 for examples of integrated attacks.

Figure 3. Example of an Integrated Attack (Linear Operations #1) The primary objective of an integrated attack is the enemy’s will and ability to fight. The ARIANAN FORCE recognizes that modern militaries cannot continue without adequate logistics support and no military, modern or otherwise, can function without effective command and control. 21

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Integrated attacks are characterized by • • • • • Not being focused solely on destruction of ground combat power but often on C2 and logistics. Fixing the majority of the enemy’s force in place with the minimum force necessary. Use of complex terrain to force the enemy to fight at a disadvantage. Significant reliance on deception and other components of IW. Use of flank attack and envelopment, particularly of enemy forces that have been fixed.

Figure 4. Example of an Integrated Attack (Linear Operations #2) The ARIANAN FORCE prefers to conduct integrated attacks when most or all of the following conditions exist: • • The ARIANAN FORCE possesses significant overmatch in combat power over enemy forces. It possesses at least air parity over the critical portions of the battlefield.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 • It is sufficiently free of enemy standoff reconnaissance and attack systems to be able to operate without accepting high levels of risk.

Figure 5. Example of an Integrated Attack (Nonlinear Operations) Organizing Forces for an Integrated Attack An integrated attack employs fixing, assault, and exploitation forces. A disruption forces exists, but is not created specifically for this type of offensive action. Fixing Force. The fixing force in an integrated attack is required to prevent enemy defending forces, reserves, and quick-response forces (QRF) from interfering with the actions of the assault and exploitation forces. The battle will develop rapidly, and enemy forces not in the attack zone cannot be allowed to reposition to influence the assault and exploitation forces. Maneuver forces, precision fires, air defense units, long-range antiarmor systems, situational obstacles, chemical weapons, and electronic warfare (EW) are well suited to fix defending forces.

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Assault Force. The assault force in an integrated attack is charged with creating conditions that allow the exploitation force to rapidly penetrate enemy defenses. As it is the exploitation force that is principally required to act within the window of opportunity, the assault force may successfully employ infiltration of infantry to carefully pre-selected points to assist the exploitation force in its penetration. Smoke and suppressive artillery and rocket fires, combat engineer units, and air-delivered weapons are also suited to this mission. Exploitation Force. The exploitation force in an integrated attack must be capable of penetrating or avoiding enemy defensive forces and attacking and destroying the enemy’s support infrastructure before he has time to react. An armored or attack helicopter unit is often best suited to be the core of an exploitation force in an integrated attack due to the combination of mobility, protection, and firepower possessed by such forces. Dispersed Attack Dispersed attack (also known as decentralized attack) is the primary manner in which the ARIANAN FORCE conducts offensive action when threatened by a superior enemy and/or when unable to mass or provide integrated C2 to an attack. This is not to say that the dispersed attack cannot or should not be used against peer forces, but as a rule integrated attack will more completely attain objectives in such situations. Dispersed attack relies on IW and dispersion of forces to permit the ARIANAN FORCE to conduct tactical offensive operations while overmatched by precision standoff weapons and imagery and signals sensors. See Figures 6 and 7 for examples of dispersed attacks. The primary objective of dispersed attack is to take advantage of a window of opportunity to bring enough joint and combined arms force to bear to destroy the enemy’s will and/or capability to continue fighting. To achieve this, the ARIANAN FORCE does not necessarily have to destroy the entire enemy force, but often just a key portion of that force. Selecting the appropriate portion of the enemy to destroy is the first step in planning the dispersed attack. This element is chosen because of its importance to the enemy and varies depending on the force involved and the current military situation. For example, an enemy force dependent on one geographical point for all of his logistics support and reinforcement would be most vulnerable at that point. Disrupting this activity at the right time and to the right extent may bring about operational decision on the current battlefield or it may open further windows of opportunity to attack the enemy’s weakened forces at little cost to the ARIANAN FORCE. In another example, an enemy force preparing to attack may be disrupted by an Arianan attack whose purpose is to destroy long-range missile artillery, creating the opportunity for the ARIANAN FORCE to achieve standoff with its own missile systems. In a final example, the key system chosen may be the personnel of the enemy force. Attacking and causing mass casualties

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96B1A06L-SHO2 among infantrymen may delay an enemy offensive in complex terrain while also being politically unacceptable for the enemy command structure. Dispersed attacks are characterized by • • • • • • Not being focused on complete destruction of ground combat power but rather on destroying a key portion of the enemy force. Use of smaller, independent subordinate elements. Rapid moves from dispersed locations. Massing at the last possible moment. Simultaneous attack at multiple, dispersed locations. Significant reliance on IW.

Figure 6. Example of a Dispersed Attack #1 The window of opportunity needed to establish conditions favorable to the execution of a dispersed attack may be one created by the ARIANAN FORCE or one that develops due to external factors in the operational environment. When this window must be created, the ARIANAN FORCE keys on several tasks that must be accomplished: • • Destroy enemy ground reconnaissance. Deceive enemy imagery and signals sensors.

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS • • • Create an uncertain air defense environment. Selectively deny situational awareness. Maximize use of complex terrain.

Figure 7. Example of a Dispersed Attack #2 Organizing Forces for a Dispersed Attack A dispersed attack employs fixing, assault, and exploitation forces. A disruption force exists, but is not created specifically for this type of offensive action. Deception forces can also play an important situational obstacle, chemical weapons, and EW is well suited to fix these kinds of units and systems. Assault Force. The assault force in a dispersed attack is charged with creating favorable conditions for the exploitation force to rapidly move from dispersed locations and penetrate or infiltrate enemy defenses. Since it is the exploitation force that is principally required to act within the window of opportunity, the assault force may successfully employ infiltration of infantry to carefully pre-selected points to assist the exploitation force in its penetration. Smoke and suppressive artillery and rocket fires, combat engineer units, and airdelivered weapons are also suited to this mission. Dispersed attacks often make

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96B1A06L-SHO2 use of multiple assault forces separated in time and/or space. role in dispersed attack operations. Fixing Force. The fixing force in a dispersed attack is primarily focused on fixing enemy response forces. Enemy reserves, response forces, and precision fire systems that can reorient rapidly will be those elements most capable of disrupting a dispersed attack. Maneuver forces, precision fires, air defense and antiarmor ambushes, Exploitation Force. The exploitation force in a dispersed attack must be capable, through inherent capabilities or positioning relative to the enemy, of destroying the target of the operation. An armored force may be the weapon of choice to maneuver throughout the battlefield as single platoons in order to have one company reach a vulnerable troop concentration or soft C2 node. Alternatively, the exploitation force may be a widely dispersed group of SPF teams set to strike simultaneously at exposed logistics targets. Dispersed attacks often make use of multiple exploitation forces separated in time and/or space, but often oriented on the same objective(s). Limited-Objective Attack A limited-objective attack seeks to achieve results critical to the strategic campaign plan (SCP) by destroying or denying the enemy key capabilities through primarily military means. The results of a limited-objective attack typically fall short of operational decision on the day of battle, but may be vital to the overall success of the SCP. Limited-objective attacks are common during adaptive operations in which the objective is to preserve forces and wear down the enemy, rather than achieving decision. The primary objective of a limited-objective attack is a particular enemy capability. This may or may not be a particular man-made system or group of systems, but may also be the capability to take action at the enemy’s chosen tempo. Limited- objective attacks are characterized by • • • • Not being focused solely on destruction of ground combat power but often on C2 and logistics. Denying the enemy the capability he most needs to execute his plans. Maximal use of the systems approach to combat. Significant reliance on a planned or seized window of opportunity.

There are four types of limited-objective attack: sophisticated ambush, spoiling attack, raid, and counterattack. Two of these types, the sophisticated 27

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS ambush and raid, have much in common; they require conditions similar to those needed for a dispersed attack, but are often executed by autonomous tacticallevel forces with the OSC providing coordination and support. The spoiling attack and counterattack also share some common characteristics, but differ in purpose. Sophisticated Ambush A sophisticated ambush is the linking in time and task of RISTA, strike assets and window of opportunity to destroy key enemy systems or cause politically unacceptable casualties. What makes sophisticated ambushes “sophisticated” is not the actual attack means, but the linking of sensor, ambusher, window of opportunity, and a target that affects an enemy center of gravity. This typically requires sophisticated ambushes to be planned and resourced at the operational level. As opposed to a raid, an ambush is conducted against a moving or temporarily halted target. Like a raid, the IW plan is designed to facilitate infiltration or positioning of the raiding or ambush element and expose the target. A sophisticated ambush is conducted by forces autonomous on the battlefield, but linked by C2 and purpose. It can often involve affiliated forces, particularly when conducted as part of adaptive operations. A sophisticated ambush is not necessarily tied to scheme of maneuver in that the larger part of the Arianan force may be involved in an operation not directly related to the ambush. Sophisticated ambushes are characterized by • • • • A key enemy target that, if destroyed, will significantly degrade the enemy’s will or ability to fight. ARIANAN FORCE sensor(s) with capability and mission to find and track the target. Sensors are often ground reconnaissance, but may include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or satellites. A C2 method to link the ambush element and sensors. Supporting operation(s) usually primarily IW - to create a window of opportunity for the ambush element to act.

A sophisticated ambush requires conditions similar to those needed for a dispersed attack. However, since less combat power is typically at risk in a sophisticated ambush, the window of opportunity does not need to be as extensive. The window of opportunity needed to establish conditions favorable to the execution of a sophisticated ambush may be one created by the ARIANAN FORCE or one that develops due to external factors in the operational environment. When this window must be created, the ARIANAN FORCE keys on several tasks that must be accomplished:

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96B1A06L-SHO2 • • • • • • • Destroy enemy ground reconnaissance in the ambush area. Deceive enemy imagery and signals sensors. Establish effective air defense protection for ambush elements. Selectively deny situational awareness. Maximize use of complex terrain. Locate and track enemy security and response forces that could interfere with the ambush. Locate and track ambush target.

ARIANAN counter reconnaissance activity may draw the attention of enemy forces and cause them to enter the kill zone of a sophisticated ambush. Likewise, ARIANAN reconnaissance elements in the disruption zone can alert the ambush element as the enemy force is approaching the kill zone. Sophisticated ambushes are executed by tactical-level forces, but the OSC will be involved in IW planning and coordination of operational-level assets needed to support the ambush. A detailed discussion of the execution of sophisticated ambushes can be found in FM 7-100.2. Raid A raid is very similar to a sophisticated ambush and conducted under the same conditions. Like a sophisticated ambush, a raid also involves the linking in time and task of RISTA, strike assets, and window of opportunity to attack key enemy targets. However, the differences are as follows: • • • The target of a raid is stationary. In addition to other purposes, a raid may be used to secure information, capture or free prisoners, or destroy installations. The raiding force returns to friendly areas after the completion of the mission.

A raid is conducted by forces autonomous on the battlefield, but linked by C2 and purpose. Although supported with operational assets, raids are primarily conducted by tactical-level forces. For more information, see FM 7-100.2. They can often involve affiliated forces, particularly when conducted as part of adaptive operations. A raid is not necessarily tied to scheme of maneuver, in that the larger part of the force may be involved in an operation not directly related to the raid. Since a raid typically takes place in the disruption zone, the raiding force must coordinate its actions with other forces operating there. Raids are characterized by • Destroying key systems, providing or denying critical information, or securing hostages or prisoners.

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS • • • ARIANAN FORCE sensor(s) with capability and mission to find and track the target. Sensors are often ground reconnaissance, but may include UAVs or satellites. A C2 method to link the raiding force element and sensors. Supporting operation(s) usually primarily IW - to create a window of opportunity for the raiding force to act.

The OSC coordinates the IW effort associated with a raid. The IW plan surrounding a raid is designed to facilitate infiltration or positioning of the raiding force and expose the target. Quite often, a raid will be conducted as a disrupting or misleading component of an IW plan surrounding another operation. Spoiling Attack A spoiling attack is designed to control the tempo of combat by disrupting the timing of enemy operations. This is accomplished by attacking during the planning and preparation for the enemy’s own offensive operations. Spoiling attacks do not have to accomplish a great deal to be successful. Conversely, planners must focus carefully on what effect the attack is trying to achieve and how the attack will achieve that effect. In some cases, the purpose of the attack will be to remove a key component of the enemy’s force array or combat system so it is unavailable for the planned attack and therefore reduces his overall chances of success. More typically, the attack is designed to slow the development of conditions favorable to the enemy’s planned attack. See Figure 8 for an example of a spoiling attack. Quite often, the spoiling attack develops as a situational attack (see above). This occurs when an unclear picture of enemy dispositions suddenly clarifies to some extent and the commander wishes to take advantage of the knowledge he has gained to disrupt enemy timing. This means that spoiling attacks are often conducted by reserve or response forces that can rapidly shift from their current posture to strike at the enemy.

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Figure 8. Example of a Spoiling Attack Spoiling attacks are characterized by • • • • A requirement to have a clear picture of enemy preparations and dispositions. A number of independent subordinate unit actions. Highly focused objectives. The possibility that a spoiling attack may open a window of opportunity for other operations.

The ARIANAN FORCE seeks to have the following conditions met in order to conduct a spoiling attack: • • • • RISTA establishes a picture of enemy attack preparations. Enemy security, reserve, and response forces are located and tracked. Enemy ground reconnaissance in the attack zone is destroyed or rendered ineffective. Organizing Forces for a Spoiling Attack

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DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS Spoiling attacks are actually executed using one of the other types of offensive action as the base method: integrated attack, dispersed attack, sophisticated ambush, or raid. Thus, the forces engaged in a spoiling attack would be organized accordingly. The primary difference between a spoiling attack and the other types of limited-objective attack will be the purpose of the attack. Counterattack A counterattack is designed to cause an enemy offensive operation to culminate and allow the ARIANAN FORCE to return to offensive operations. A counterattack is designed to control the tempo of operations by returning the initiative to the ARIANAN FORCE. See Figure 9 for an example of a counterattack. Quite often, the counterattack develops as a situational attack (see above). This occurs when an unclear picture of enemy dispositions suddenly clarifies to some extent and the commander wishes to take advantage of the knowledge he has gained to disrupt enemy timing. This means that counterattacks are often conducted by reserve or response forces that can rapidly shift from their current posture to strike at the enemy. Counterattacks are characterized by • • • • A shifting in command and support relationships to assume an offensive posture for the counterattacking force. A proper identification that the enemy is at or near culmination. The planned rapid transition of the remainder of the force to offensive operations. The possibility that a counterattack may open a window of opportunity for other operations.

The ARIANAN FORCE seeks to set the following conditions for a counterattack: • • Locate and track enemy reserve forces and cause them to be committed. Destroy enemy reconnaissance forces that could observe counterattack preparations.

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Figure 9. Example of a Counterattack Organizing Forces for a Counterattack A counterattack employs fixing, assault, and exploitation forces. The disruption force was generally part of a previous ARIANAN defensive posture. Fixing Force. The fixing force in a counterattack is that part of the force engaged in defensive action with the enemy. These forces continue to fight from their current positions and seek to account for the key parts of the enemy array and sure they are not able to break contact and reposition. Additionally, the fixing force has the mission of making contact with and destroying enemy reconnaissance forces and any combat forces that may have penetrated the ARIANAN defense. Assault Force. In a counterattack, the assault force (if one is used) is assigned the mission of forcing the enemy to commit his reserve so that the enemy commander has no further mobile forces with which to react. If the fixing force has already forced this commitment, the counterattack design may forego the creation of an assault force. Exploitation Force. The exploitation force in a counterattack maneuvers through or bypasses engaged enemy forces to attack and destroy the enemy’s support infrastructure before he has time or freedom to react. An armored or attack helicopter unit is often best suited to be the core of an exploitation force in 33

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS a counterattack due to the combination of mobility, protection, and firepower possessed by such forces. STRIKE A strike is an offensive course of action that rapidly destroys a key enemy organization through a synergistic combination of massed precision fires and maneuver. Defeat for the enemy does not come through the simple destruction of armored weapon systems or combat soldiers but through the subsequent paralyzation that occurs when a key organization is completely devastated in a small span of time. See Figures 10 and 11 for examples of strikes. The overall objective is to destroy an enemy formation, typically after carefully setting the conditions for its destruction. The strike can be employed in larger operations that are either defensive or offensive in nature.

Figure 10. Strike Example #1 3-116. The primary objective of a strike is the enemy’s will and ability to fight. The ARIANAN FORCE recognizes that modern militaries cannot rapidly reconstitute entire combat formations and that significant destruction is both capable of

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96B1A06L-SHO2 removing all momentum possessed by a combat formation and eliminating support at home for continued combat operations. Strikes are characterized by • • • • • Being focused on the complete destruction of a particular enemy formation. Typically following a period of reconnaissance fire. Requiring effective and integrated C2 and RISTA means. The use of complex terrain to force the enemy to fight at a disadvantage. Significant reliance on deception and other IW measures.

Figure 11. Strike Example #2 The window of opportunity needed to establish conditions favorable to the execution of a strike may be one created by the ARIANAN FORCE or one that develops due to external factors in the operational environment. When this 35

DOCTRINE-OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS window must be created, the ARIANAN FORCE keys on several tasks that must be accomplished: • • • • • • Destroy enemy ground reconnaissance. Deceive enemy imagery and signals sensors. Create an uncertain air defense environment. Selectively deny situational awareness. Maximize use of complex terrain. Reconnaissance Fire

In addition to the above, the ARIANAN FORCE will typically precede a strike with significant reconnaissance fire designed to remove one or more key capabilities from the enemy force. The targeted capabilities could be ground reconnaissance, effective C2, effective logistics, or casualty evacuation. Organizing Forces for a Strike A strike employs fixing, assault, and exploitation forces. The disruption force can play an important role in determining when the target formation will enter the kill zone for the strike. Fixing Force. The fixing force in a strike is primarily focused on fixing enemy forces that might come to the aid of the target formation. The battle will develop rapidly, and enemy forces not in the attack zone cannot be allowed to reposition to influence the assault and exploitation forces. Maneuver forces, precision fires, air defense units, long-range antiarmor systems, situational obstacles, chemical weapons, and EW are well suited to fix defending forces. Assault Force. The assault force in a strike is charged with creating the conditions that allow the exploitation force to complete the destruction of the target formation. As it is the exploitation force that is principally required to act within the window of opportunity, the assault force may successfully employ infiltration of infantry to carefully pre-selected points to assist the exploitation force in its action. Smoke and suppressive artillery and rocket fires, combat engineer units, and air-delivered weapons are also suited to this mission. Exploitation Force. The exploitation force in a strike has the mission of completing the destruction of the target formation. Strike exploitation forces will almost always be combinations of highly lethal ground maneuver formations and precision long-range fire systems. A strike must be capable of eliminating the target enemy force before he has time to react. An armored or attack helicopter unit is often best suited to be the core of an exploitation force in a strike, due to the combination of mobility, protection, and firepower possessed by such forces. However, a strike may be successfully executed without any maneuver forces, and the exploitation force may consist entirely of long-range fire systems.

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DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
PURPOSE OF THE DEFENSE Defensive operations are designed to achieve the goals of the strategic campaign through active measures while preserving combat power. However, the purpose of any given defensive operation depends on the situation. The primary distinction among types of ARIANAN defensive operations is their purpose. Therefore, the ARIANAN FORCE recognizes three general types of defensive operations according to their purpose: to destroy, preserve, or deny DEFENSE TO DESTROY A defense to destroy is designed to eliminate an attacking formation’s ability to continue offensive operations while preserving friendly forces and setting the military conditions for a favorable political settlement. Such a defense may be the entirety of an operation or may be used to defeat a counterattack during a larger ARIANAN offensive action. An operational defense to destroy will often have one or more tactical offensive actions as subcomponents. DEFENSE TO PRESERVE A defense to preserve is designed to protect key elements of the ARIANAN FORCE from destruction by the enemy. Such a defense may occur • • • • To preserve combat power for future operations. Before the outbreak of a war, or in its early stages, to cover the mobilization and deployment of the main forces. When facing numerically or qualitatively superior enemy forces. During an offense, to economize force in one area and achieve superiority in another.

DEFENSE TO DENY A defense to deny is intended to deny the enemy access to a geographic area or use of facilities that could enhance his combat operations or provide him substantial value for information operations. An example of this would be enemy capture of a religious or cultural center. This type of defense is most often used as part of an overall campaign of theater access control. It may also be used to consolidate, retain, and protect critical positions that attacking forces have captured.

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PLANNING DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS For the ARIANAN FORCE, the key elements of planning defensive operations are • • • • Determining the level of planning possible (planned versus situational defense). Organizing the battlefield. Organizing forces. Organizing information warfare (IW) activities in support of the defense

Defensive actions during transition and adaptive operations will not be able to rely simply on attrition-based operations in layered engagement areas. Such actions will typically include increased use of: • • • Infiltration to conduct spoiling attacks and ambushes. Perception management in support of defensive operations. Affiliated forces for reconnaissance, counter reconnaissance, security, and attacks against key enemy systems.

PLANNED DEFENSE A planned (or deliberate) defense is a defensive operation undertaken when there is sufficient time and knowledge of the situation to prepare and rehearse forces for specific tasks. Typically, the enemy is in a staging or assembly area and in a known location and status. Key considerations in defensive planning are • • • • Selecting operationally significant areas in complex terrain from which to dominate surrounding avenues of approach. Determining the method that will deny the enemy his operational objectives. Developing a plan for reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) that locates and tracks major enemy formation and determines enemy patterns of operations and probable objectives. Creating or taking advantage of a window of opportunity that frees friendly forces from any enemy advantages in precision standoff and situational awareness.

SITUATIONAL DEFENSE The ARIANAN FORCE recognizes that the modern battlefield is chaotic, and fleeting opportunities to strike at an enemy weakness will continually present themselves and just as quickly disappear. If the ARIANAN FORCE determines 38

96B1A06L-SHO2 that a fleeting, situational window of opportunity is closing, it may assume a situational (or hasty) defense. It may also do so when an ARIANAN attack culminates prior to achieving the objective. The commander develops his assessment of the conditions leading to a situational defense rapidly and without a great deal of staff involvement. He provides a basic course of action to the staff, which then quickly turn that course of action into an executable operational directive. Organization of the battlefield in a situational defense will normally be limited to minor changes to existing control measures. Organization of forces in a situational defense will typically rely on minor modifications to existing structure. The following are examples of conditions that might lead to a situational defense: • • • The enemy gains or regains air superiority sooner than anticipated. An enemy counterattack was not effectively fixed. An attacking force makes contact with an enemy formation it did not expect.

ORGANIZING THE BATTLEFIELD FOR THE DEFENSE In his operation plan, the commander specifies the organization of the battlefield from the perspective of his level of command. Within his unit’s area of responsibility (AOR), as defined by the next-higher commander, he designates AORs for his subordinates, along with zones related to his own overall mission. An operation plan or directive normally defines AORs and zones by specifying boundary lines in terms of distinct local terrain features through which a line passes, specifying whether each terrain feature is included or excluded from the unit’s AOR or zones within it. Normally, a specified terrain feature is included unless the order identifies it as “excluded.” For example, the left boundary of a unit’s AOR could run from hill 108, to hill 250 (excluded), to junction of roads 52 and 98. In organizing the defensive battlefield, the operational commander organizes forces to begin attack of the combat system of the enemy force as soon as feasible. By attacking subsystems or components of the enemy’s combat system appropriate to the situation, the operational commander can create windows of opportunity for offensive action.

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DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS Areas of Responsibility ARIANAN FORCE AORs consist of three principal zones: disruption, battle, and support zones. Zones may be linear or nonlinear in nature and are designed to facilitate rapid transition between linear and nonlinear operations, as well as between offense and defense. These zones have the same basic purposes in all types of defenses. In addition to the basic zones in an AOR, the operational-level commander may also employ attack zones and kill zones to control subordinate offensive operations conducted in support of the overall defensive scheme. See Figures 12 and 13 for generalized examples of AORs and zones in linear and nonlinear defensive operations. Disruption Zone In the defense, the disruption zone is that battlespace where operational forces begin their attack on the designated component or subsystem of the enemy’s combat system. It is located between the OSCs battle zone and the limit of responsibility (LOR) that defines the extent of the AOR. Within this battlespace, the ARIANAN FORCE seeks to set the conditions for the defeat of the attacking force in the battle zone. For example, the operational-level commander may determine that destruction of the enemy’s mobility assets will create an opportunity to destroy maneuver units in the battle zone. The disruption force would be given the mission of seeking out and destroying enemy mobility assets while avoiding engagement with maneuver forces. The disruption zone is the primary area in which the operational-level commander will employ long-range joint fires and strikes. He may establish kill zones within his disruption zone for the purpose of integrating the actions of longrange fire elements and disruption force elements.

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Figure 12. Example of AOR (Linear Defensive Operations) The operational-level disruption zone may be the aggregate of the disruption zones of subordinates. For example, an FG’s disruption zone could include the disruption zones of one or more OSCs and/or tactical-level commands directly subordinate to the FG. An OSCs disruption zone could include disruption zones of subordinate division and brigade tactical groups (DTGs and BTGs), although assets directly controlled by the OSC could also operate throughout an OSC disruption zone. In such cases, each subordinate would be responsible for a portion of the operational-level disruption zone, and that portion would constitute the subordinate’s disruption zone within its own AOR. In other cases, an operational-level disruption zone may extend beyond those of the FGs or OSCs subordinates, to include an area occupied by forces sent out under direct control of the FG or OSC commander. Operational-level forces in the disruption zone could include specialpurpose forces (SPF) and affiliated forces, which could be operating in enemyheld territory even before the beginning of hostilities. There could also be staybehind forces in areas seized by the enemy.

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Figure 13. Example of AOR (Nonlinear Defensive Operations) Battle Zone The battle zone is that battlespace in which the main defense force uses fires and maneuver to exploit the conditions created by successful disruption zone operations. In the battle zone, the main defense force completes the disaggregation of the enemy’s combat system by destroying the components exposed by the disruption force. By inflicting significant damage or denying the enemy his objectives, the main defense force causes the enemy to culminate and, in the best case, to quit the field entirely. An operational-level battle zone is the aggregate of the battle zones of an FGs or OSCs subordinate units. The battle zone ties all available obstacles into an integrated fire support plan of all available weapons. It denies complex terrain to the enemy. It allows the enemy to enter easily, but to exit only at great cost or ideally not at all. The operational-level commander may establish kill zones within the battle zone for the purpose of integrating long-range fire, attack aviation elements, and main defense forces. Long-range fires from the battle zone may also reach kill zones in the disruption zone, where these fires can be integrated with the actions of disruption forces.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Support Zone The support zone is that area of the battlespace designed to be free of significant enemy action and to permit the effective logistics and administrative support of forces. Security forces (see Organizing Forces for the Defense below) will operate in the support zone in a combat role to defeat enemy special operations forces and other threats. Camouflage, concealment, cover, and deception (C3D) measures will occur throughout the support zone to protect the force from standoff RISTA and precision attack. Attack Zone During an overall defensive operation, an attack zone may be employed to conduct an offensive action inside a larger defensive action. An axis is a control measure showing the location through which a counterattack force, for example, will move as it proceeds from its assembly area to its attack zone. At the operational level, multi-division OSCs may conduct offensive actions as a part of a larger defensive scheme. Kill Zone A kill zone is a designated area on the battlefield where the ARIANAN FORCE plans to destroy a key enemy target, usually by fire. Kill zones may be within any of the zones described above.

ORGANIZING FORCES FOR THE DEFENSE Disruption Force In his operation plan, the operational-level commander also specifies the organization of the forces within his level of command. Thus, subordinate forces understand their roles within the overall operation. However, the organization of forces can shift dramatically during the course of an operation. For example, a unit that initially was part of a disruption force may eventually occupy a battle position within the battle zone and become part of the main defense force or act as a reserve. Each of the forces described below has an identified commander. This will be the senior commander of the largest subordinate unit assigned to that force. Forces that contain units of the same command level will typically be controlled from the next-higher, forward, auxiliary, or airborne command post. During dispersed and decentralized operations, however, control can be delegated to the senior commander of that force’s like units. For example, if two or more OSCs or DTGs are acting as the main defense force, the senior of the two 43

DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS commanders is the main defense force commander. Even when subordinates have responsibility for parts of the FG or OSC disruption zone, there is still an overall FG or OSC disruption force commander. The force commander is responsible to the FG or OSC commander to ensure combat preparations are made properly and to take charge of the force during the battle. This frees the operational-level commander from decisions specific to the force’s mission. Since each force commander is also a subordinate unit commander, he controls the force from his unit’s command post. The size and composition of forces in the disruption zone depends on the level of command involved, the commander’s concept of operations, and the circumstances in which the unit adopts the defense. An operational-level disruption force has no set organization but may be as large as a multi-division OSC or consist only of SPF teams to direct reconnaissance fires and conduct direct action. The operational-level commander will always make maximum use of stay-behind forces and affiliated forces existing within his AOR. Subordinate commanders can employ forces in a disruption zone role independent of the operation plan only with approval of the operational-level commander. A disruption force has no set order of battle, but may contain • • • • • • • • Ambush teams (ground and air defense). SPF teams. RISTA assets and forces. Counter reconnaissance forces. Artillery systems. Target designation teams. Elements of affiliated forces (such as terrorists, insurgents, criminals, or special police). Antilanding reserves.

The purpose of the disruption force is to prevent the enemy from conducting an effective attack. The disruption force does this by initiating the attack on components of the enemy’s combat system. Successful attack of designated components or subsystems begins the disaggregation of the enemy’s combat system and creates vulnerabilities for exploitation in the battle zone. Skillfully conducted disruption operations will effectively deny the enemy the synergy of effects of his combat system. The disruption force may also have a counter reconnaissance mission. It may selectively destroy or render irrelevant the enemy’s RISTA forces. There will be times, however, when the ARIANAN FORCE wants enemy reconnaissance to detect something that is part of the deception plan. In those cases, the disruption force will not seek to destroy all of the enemy’s RISTA assets. 44

96B1A06L-SHO2 Main Defense Force The main defense force is the element of the operational-level command that is charged with execution of the defensive mission. It operates in the battle zone to accomplish the purpose of the operation (destroy, preserve, or deny). Protected Force In a defense to preserve, the protected force is the force being kept from harm by the actions of other forces. At the operational level, this force is critical to future operations and the preservation of the regime. It may be in the battle zone or the support zone. Security Force The security force is charged with protecting the entire AOR from attack by partisans, guerillas, insurgents, terrorists, covert operatives, and special operations forces. It is also charged with mitigating the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The security force commander is often given control over one or more reserve formations, such as the antilanding reserve. Counterattack Forces In a defensive operation with a planned counterattack scheme (typically in a maneuver defense), the operational-level commander will designate one or more counterattack forces. He will also shift his task organization to create a counterattack force when a window of opportunity opens that leaves the enemy vulnerable to such an action. At the operational level, the counterattack force may be a multi-division OSC with the mission to destroy a major enemy formation that is exposed. The operational-level commander uses counterattack forces to complete the defensive mission assigned and regain the initiative for the offense. The counterattack force can have within it fixing, assault, and exploitation forces. Types of Reserves At the commander’s discretion, forces may be held out of initial action so that he may influence unforeseen events or take advantage of developing opportunities. He may employ a number of different types of reserve forces of varying strengths, depending on the situation. Reserve. The size and composition of a reserve force is entirely situationdependent. However, the reserve is normally a force strong enough to respond to unforeseen opportunities and contingencies at the operational level. A reserve may assume the role of counterattack force to deliver the final blow that ensures the enemy can no longer conduct his preferred operation. 45

DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS A reserve force will be given a list of possible missions for rehearsal and planning purposes. The staff assigns to each of these missions a priority, based on likelihood that the reserve will be called upon to execute that mission. Some missions given to the reserve may include • Conducting a counterattack. (The counterattack goal is not limited to destroying enemy forces, but may also include recovering lost positions or capturing positions operationally advantageous for subsequent combat actions.) Conducting counterpenatration (blocking or destroying enemy penetrations). Conducting antilanding operations (eliminating vertical envelopments). Assisting forces heavily engaged on a defended line to break contact and withdraw. Act as a deception force.

• • • •

Antitank Reserve. ARIANAN FORCE commanders faced with significant armored threats may keep an antitank reserve (ATR). It is generally an antitank unit and often operates in conjunction with an obstacle detachment (OD). Based on the availability of antitank and engineer assets, an OSC may form more than one ATR. Antilanding Reserve. Because of the potential threat from enemy airborne or airmobile troops, an operational-level commander may designate an antilanding reserve (ALR). Operational-level ALRs will be resourced for rapid movement to potential drop zones (DZs) and landing zones (LZs). The ALR commander will have immediate access to the operational intelligence system for early warning of potential enemy landing operations. ALRs typically include maneuver forces, air defense assets, and engineer units, but may be allocated any unit capable of disrupting or defeating an airborne or heliborne landing, such as smoke or electronic warfare (EW). While other reserves can perform this mission, the commander may create a dedicated ALR to prevent destabilization of the defense by vertical envelopment of ARIANAN units or seizure of key terrain. ALRs assume positions prepared to engage the enemy primary DZ or LZ as a kill zone. They rehearse and plan for rapid redeployment to other suspected DZs or LZs. Operational-level commanders may direct long-range fires or SPF direct action to prevent enemy forces from mounting air insertions. The destruction of airframes or fuel sources, or the positioning of air defense assets may serve to take this option away from enemy forces. Special Reserves. An operational-level command may form an engineer reserve of earthmoving and obstacle-creating equipment. A commander can deploy this reserve to strengthen defenses on a particularly threatened axis

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96B1A06L-SHO2 during the course of the operation. An FG or OSC threatened by enemy use of WMD may also form a chemical defense reserve. Deception Force When the IW plan requires the creation of nonexistent or partially existing formations, these forces will be designated deception forces in close-hold executive summaries of the operation plan. Wide-distribution copies of the plan will make reference to these forces according to the designation given them in the deception story. The deception force in the defense is typically given its own command structure to both replicate the organization(s) necessary to the deception story and to execute the multidiscipline deception required to replicate an actual military organization. FG commanders can use deception OSC command structures to deny enemy forces information on operation plans for the defense. PREPARING FOR THE DEFENSE DENY ENEMY INTELLIGENCE In the preparation phase, the ARIANAN FORCE focuses on ways of applying all available resources and the full range of actions to conduct defensive operations. Commanders organize their forces and the battlefield with an eye toward capitalizing on conditions created by successful defensive actions, and seizing opportunities for offensive actions wherever possible. The defensive dispositions are based on the application of the systems approach to combat. ARIANAN defensive operations focus on attacking components or subsystems to of the enemy’s combat system to disaggregate the “system of systems.” By denying the enemy the synergy created by an integrated, aggregated system, vulnerabilities are created that defensive forces can exploit. Operational-level commanders realize that enemy operations hinge on an intelligence appreciation of the situation. Defensive preparations will focus on destruction and deception of enemy national and theater sensors. Lethal and nonlethal attack of enemy intelligence satellites and reconnaissance aircraft will limit the ability of enemy forces to understand the ARIANAN defensive plan. The ARIANAN FORCE recognizes that, when conducting operations against an extraregional power, it will often be impossible to destroy the ability of the enemy’s standoff RISTA means to observe its defensive preparations. However, the ARIANAN FORCE also recognizes the reluctance of enemy military commanders to operate without human confirmation of intelligence, as well as the relative ease with which imagery and signals sensors may be deceived. The ARIANAN operational-level commander considers ground reconnaissance by enemy Special Operations Forces as a significant threat in the enemy RISTA suite and will focus significant effort to ensure its removal. While the ARIANAN

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DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS FORCE will execute missions to destroy standoff RISTA means, C3D will be the method of choice for degrading the capability of such systems. MAKE THOROUGH COUNTERMOBILITY AND SURVIVABILITY PREPARATIONS The more time available, the greater the preparation of an AOR for the defense. This is a reflection of engineer effort and time to devote to that effort. The ARIANAN FORCE employs every method to maximize the time available to prepare for the defense. This includes preparation of the State during peacetime and highly detailed plans for transition from regional to adaptive operations to take full advantage of any operational lull as the enemy builds combat power. This might involve an offensive operation with limited objectives that transitions to the defense by design. Operational-level commanders realize that engineer works are vital to the stability of the defense. At the FG level, engineer assets will be used to improve the advantages of complex terrain in protecting friendly forces and exposing enemy forces to engagement. Engineer efforts can contribute to creating windows of opportunity by degrading the effectiveness of the enemy’s combat system in integrating effects of its subsystems. At the lowest operational level, the OSC, engineer units specializing in rapid obstacle construction and minelaying form mission-specific units known as ODs. These ODs normally deploy in conjunction with reserves to block enemy penetrations or to protect the flanks of counterattack forces. In the initial stages of the defense, OSC-level engineer assets concentrate on creating obstacles in the disruption zone, in gaps in the combat formation, and to the flanks, and preparing lines for counter-penetration and counterattack and routes to such lines. The OSC obstacle plan ensures that the effort is coordinated with fires and maneuver to produce the desired effects. In conjunction with other tasks, engineers support the IW plan through activities such as constructing false defensive positions and preparing false routes. MAKE USE OF COMPLEX TERRAIN The ARIANAN FORCE will make maximum use of complex terrain in all defensive operations. Complex terrain provides cover from fires, concealment from standoff RISTA assets, and intelligence and logistics support from the population of urban areas. It plays into the strength of the ARIANAN resolve to win through any means and through protracted conflict if necessary. MAKE THOROUGH LOGISTICS ARRANGEMENTS The overwhelmingly ability of extraregional intervention forces to strike exposed logistics elements makes it difficult to resupply forces. The ARIANAN

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96B1A06L-SHO2 FORCE understands that there is as much chance of a defensive operation being brought to culmination by a lack of sufficient logistics support as there is by enemy action. Careful consideration will be given to carried days of supply and pre-established caches to obviate the need for easily disrupted lines of communication (LOCs). MODIFY THE PLAN WHEN NECESSARY The ARIANAN FORCE takes into account that, while it might consider itself to be in the preparation phase for one operation, it is continuously in the execution phase. Plans are never considered final. Plans are checked throughout the course of their development to ensure they are still valid in light of battlefield events. REHEARSE EVERYTHING POSSIBLE, IN PRIORITY At the operational level, rehearsals are usually confined to map or sand table exercises to ensure understanding by subordinate commanders. The commander establishes the priority for critical parts of the operation, and rehearses those operations with his subordinates. Typical actions to be rehearsed in a defensive operation include • • • • Commitment of a reserve. Initiation of a counterattack. Execution of the fire support plan. EXECUTING THE DEFENSE

Successful execution depends on forces that understand their roles in the operation and can swiftly follow preparatory actions with implementation of the operation plan or rapid modifications to the plan, as the situation requires. A successful execution phase results in the culmination of the enemy’s offensive action. It ideally ends with transition to the offense in order to keep the enemy under pressure and destroy him completely. During adaptive operations against superior enemy force, however, a successful defense may end in a stalemate. A successful operational-level defense sets the military conditions for a return to the offense or a favorable political resolution of the conflict. The ARIANAN FORCE may have to surrender territory to preserve forces. Territory can always be recaptured, but the destruction of the ARIANAN operational formations threatens the survival of the State. Destruction of the protected force is unacceptable. Success criteria for an operational-level commander conducting an area or maneuver defense may include • Major combat formations remain intact. 49

DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS • • The enemy is forced to withdraw or, at a minimum, forego offensive operations due to losses. A stalemate allows theater- and national-level assets time to conduct attacks against enemy strategic centers of gravity.

EXECUTING THE DEFENSE MAINTAIN CONTACT ARIANAN operational-level commanders will go to great lengths to maintain contact with enemy formations and headquarters that may influence theater operations. This includes rapid reconstitution of reconnaissance assets and units. MODIFY THE PLAN WHEN NECESSARY The ARIANAN FORCE is sensitive to the effects of mission dynamics and realizes that the enemy’s actions may well make the original mission of an ARIANAN unit achievable, but completely irrelevant. As an example, an OSC assigned a mission to secure a critical area or facility may find that mission is not viable if the enemy conducts a major air insertion that threatens the overall defensive plan. Elements of that OSC may be called upon to initiate limited offensive action while the air insertion is still vulnerable. SEIZE OPPORTUNITIES The ARIANAN FORCE places maximum emphasis on decentralized execution, initiative, and adaptation. Subordinate units are expected to take advantage of fleeting opportunities so long as their actions are in concert with the purpose of the operational directive. INTEGRATED AND DECENTRALIZED DEFENSES INTEGRATED DEFENSE The ARIANAN FORCE recognizes two general types of defense: integrated and decentralized. The distinction between the two rests on the ability of the ARIANAN FORCE to operate freely in the battlespace with full joint and combined arms synchronization and adequate C2 and logistics support. A defensive operation is integrated if the ARIANAN FORCE has the ability to achieve full joint and combined arms synchronization through all levels of command and throughout the battlespace. This requires a modernized C2 system, a robust logistics capability, and the ability to operate relatively free of enemy influence in the support zone and battle zones prior to the commencement of full-fledged enemy offensive action. The ARIANAN FORCE

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96B1A06L-SHO2 structure possesses the first two of these characteristics, at least in relation to regional opponents. Thus, during regional operations and perhaps transition operations, it will often be operating in an integrated fashion unless the enemy is able to achieve a sufficient level of overmatch in RISTA and standoff attack capability to deny the ARIANAN FORCE freedom of action. Integrated defenses are able to • • • Operate, at least partially, without the requirement for windows of opportunity. Maximize the effects of destructive fire and maneuver. Achieve operational decision through primarily military means.

DECENTRALIZED DEFENSE A defensive operation is decentralized if the ARIANAN C2 and/or logistics capability has been significantly degraded or it does not have the ability to operate freely in the battlespace. This typically occurs when the enemy enjoys significant technological overmatch, particularly in technical RISTA means and standoff precision attack. Decentralized defenses do not achieve decision in and of themselves. Rather they buy time for the execution of strategic operations while preserving combat power. In some cases, an operational-level commander may chose to adopt a decentralized defense to preserve his C2 and logistics, understanding that his ability to synchronize operations will be degraded. Operational-level commanders are constantly estimating the situation to determine risk versus reward for active measures. A decentralized defense relies on initiative of subordinate commanders and the discrete targeting of elements of the enemy’s combat system to reduce combat capability and expose enemy forces to destruction. To be successful, decentralized defenses must • • • • Operate primarily in complex terrain. Maximize the effects of counter mobility and survivability measures. Rely heavily on IW. Make the best possible use of reconnaissance fires

TYPES OF DEFENSIVE ACTION The types of defensive action in ARIANAN doctrine are both tactical methods and guides to the design of operational courses of action. The two basic types are maneuver and area defense. An operational-level defensive plan may include subordinate units that are executing various combinations of maneuver 51

DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS and area defenses, along with some offensive courses of action, within the overall defensive mission framework. MANEUVER DEFENSE In situations where the ARIANAN FORCE is not completely overmatched, it may conduct an operational maneuver defense. This type of defense is designed to achieve operational decision by skillfully using fires and maneuver to deny enemy forces their objective, while preserving the friendly force. Maneuver defenses cause the enemy to continually lose effectiveness until he can no longer achieve his objectives. They can also economize force in less important areas while the ARIANAN FORCE moves additional forces onto the most threatened axes. Maneuver defenses are almost always integrated defenses as part of linear operations. Decentralized maneuver defenses typically occur as part of transition operations. As an extraregional enemy builds combat power to overmatch levels, but before the ARIANAN FORCE is completely overmatched, maneuver defense can buy time for other forces to move into sanctuary areas and prepare for adaptive operations. Even within a maneuver defense, the ARIANAN FORCE may use area defense on some enemy attack axes, especially on those where it can least afford to lose ground. (See Figure 12.) A theater or FG commander may use both forms of defense simultaneously across the theater. OSCs may employ maneuver defense techniques to conduct operations in the disruption zone if it enhances the attack on the enemy’s combat system and an area defense in the battle zone. If this is done as part of a defense to preserve, this is known as a delay. Maneuver defense inflicts losses on the enemy, gains time, and protects friendly forces. It allows the operational defender to choose the place and time for engagements. Each portion of a maneuver defense allows a continuing attack on the enemy’s combat system. As the system begins to disaggregate, more elements are vulnerable to destruction. The maneuver defense accomplishes this through a succession of defensive battles in conjunction with short, violent counterattacks and fires. It allows abandoning some areas of terrain when responding to an unexpected enemy attack or when conducting the battle in the disruption zone. In the course of a maneuver defense, the operational-level commander tries to force the enemy into a situation that exposes enemy formations to destruction. See Figures 13 and 14 for examples of maneuver defense. A maneuver defense trades terrain for the opportunity to destroy portions of the enemy formation and render the enemy’s combat system ineffective. The ARIANAN FORCE might use a maneuver defense when -

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96B1A06L-SHO2 • • • It can afford to surrender territory. It possesses a mobility advantage over enemy forces. Conditions are suitable for canalizing the enemy into areas where the ARIANAN FORCE can destroy him by fire or deliver decisive counterattacks.

Compared to area defense, the maneuver defense involves a higher degree of risk for the ARIANAN FORCE, because it does not rely heavily on the inherent advantages of prepared defensive positions. Units conducting a maneuver defense typically place smaller elements forward in defensive positions and retain much larger reserves than in an area defense.

Figure 13. Maneuver Defense Example #1

Defensive Lines The basis of maneuver defense is for units to conduct maneuver from position to position on a succession of defensive lines. In this case, the “line” defended on is not a continuous line of defenses, but rather a notional line on which one or more units have orders to defend for a certain time at a certain depth within a unit’s AOR. The ARIANAN FORCE accepts large intervals

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DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS between defensive positions on such a line. Part of the line may consist of natural or manmade obstacles or of deception defensive positions. These “lines” are not necessarily linear, in the sense of forming a straight line. Nor are they necessarily at regular intervals from one another. A particular unit’s position on a subsequent line may not be directly behind its previous position. In the spaces between the lines, the defenders can organize reconnaissance fire, raids, and counterattacks. Thus, it is difficult for the enemy to predict where he will encounter resistance. The number of lines and duration of defense on each line depend on the nature of the enemy’s actions, the terrain, and the condition of the defending units. Lines are selected based on the availability of natural obstacles and shielding terrain, with consideration of being able to leave the lines without being observed.

Figure 14. Maneuver Defense Example #2

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Defensive Maneuver Defensive maneuver consists of movement by bounds and the maintenance of continuous fires on enemy forces. A disruption force and/or a main defense force (or part of it) can perform defensive maneuver. In either case, the force must divide its combat power into two smaller elements: a contact force and a shielding force. The contact force is the element occupying the forwardmost defensive line at any point in time. The shielding force is the element occupying the next line immediately to the rear. At each line, the contact force ideally forces the enemy to deploy his maneuver units and perhaps begin his artillery preparation for the attack. Then, before the contact force becomes decisively engaged, it maneuvers to its next preplanned line, behind the line occupied by the shielding force. While the original contact force is moving, the shielding force is able to keep the enemy under continuous fires. When the original contact force passes to the rear of the original shielding force, the latter force becomes the new contact force. When the original contact force occupies its next line, it becomes the shielding force for the new contact force. In this manner, units continue to move by bounds to successive lines, preserving their own forces while delaying and destroying the enemy. Subsequent lines are far enough apart to permit defensive maneuver by friendly units. The distance should also preclude the enemy from engaging one line and then the other without displacing his indirect fire weapons. This means that the enemy, having seized one line, must change the majority of his firing positions and organized his attack all over again in order to get to the next line. However, the lines are close enough to allow the defending units to maintain coordinated, continuous fires on the enemy while moving from one to the other. ARIANAN commanders may require a unit holding a line to continue defending, even if this means it becomes decisively engaged or enveloped, in order to allow the construction of defenses to the rear of the line. Disruption Force An operational-level defense may have an OSC occupying an operational disruption zone if it is important to delay enemy forces to allow theater transition to adaptive operations. The task organization of the OSC will have sufficient mobility to conduct a maneuver defense and a significant allocation of artillery and rocket units. The disruption force initiates the attack on the enemy’s combat system by targeting and destroying subsystems that are critical to the enemy. If successful, the disruption force will cause culmination of the enemy attack before the enemy enters the battle zone. In the worst case, the enemy will enter the battle zone unable to benefit from an integrated combat system and vulnerable to defeat by the main defense force.

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DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS Forces committed to the disruption zone battle for an OSC usually will be a BTG or DTG, along with supporting and affiliated assets from the OSC. The OSC conducts the defense throughout the depth of the disruption zone. Maneuver units conduct the defense from successive battle positions. Intervals between these positions provide space for deployment of mobile attack forces, precision fire systems, and reserves. The distance between successive positions in the disruption zone is such that the enemy will be forced to displace the majority of his supporting weapons to continue the attack on the subsequent positions. This aids the force in breaking contact and permits time to occupy subsequent positions. Long-range fires, ODs, and ambushes to delay pursuing enemy units can assist units in breaking contact and withdrawing. If the disruption force has not succeeded in destroying or halting the attacking enemy, but is not under too great a pressure from a pursuing enemy, it may occupy prepared battle positions in the battle zone and assist in the remainder of the defensive mission as part of the main defense force. A disruption force may have taken losses and might not be at full capability; a heavily damaged disruption force may pass into hide positions. In that case, main defense or reserve forces occupy positions to cover the disruption force’s disengagement. Main Defense Force The mission of the main defense force is complete the defeat of the enemy by attack of those portions of the force exposed by disruption zone operations. In a multi-OSC operation, this may involve resubordination of units and in some cases attacks by fire or maneuver forces across OSC limits of responsibility. The main defense force in a maneuver defense divides its combat power into contact and shielding forces. These forces move in bounds to successive defensive lines. If maneuver defense in the disruption zone has provided sufficient time, the defensive positions on these lines may take on more of the characteristics of prepared battle positions. The basic elements of the battle zone are battle positions, firing lines, and repositioning routes. Battle positions use the terrain to protect forces while providing advantage in engagements. The OSC commander may order a particular unit to stand and fight on a line long enough to repel an attack. He may order this if circumstances are favorable for defeating the enemy at that line. The unit also might have to remain on that line because the next line is still being prepared or a vertical envelopment threatens the next line or the route to it.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Reserves An OSC in the maneuver defense can employ a number of reserve forces of varying strengths. The primary reserve is a force strong enough to respond to unforeseen opportunities and contingencies at the operational level. It is normally strong enough to defeat the enemy’s exploitation force. The OSC positions this reserve in an assembly area using C3D to protect it from observation and attack. From this position, it can transition to a situational defense or conduct a counterattack. The reserve must have sufficient air defense coverage to allow maneuver. If the OSC commander does not commit the reserve from its original assembly area, it maneuvers to another assembly area, possibly on a different axis, where it prepares for other contingencies. (See the Reserves section above for discussion of other types of reserves.)

AREA DEFENSE In situations where the ARIANAN FORCE must deny geographic areas (or the access to them) or where it is overmatched, it may conduct an operational area defense. Area defense is designed to achieve operational decision in one of two ways: • • By forcing the enemy’s offensive operations to culminate before he can achieve his objectives. By denying the enemy his objectives while preserving combat power until decision can be achieved through strategic operations.

See Figures 15 and 16 for examples of area defense. The area defense does not surrender the initiative to the attacking forces, but takes action to create windows of opportunity that permit forces to attack key components of the enemy combat system and cause unacceptable casualties. Extended windows of opportunity permit the action of maneuver forces and facilitate transition to an offensive action. IW is particularly important to the execution of the area defense in adaptive and transition operations. Deception is critical to the creation of complex battle positions, and effective perception management is vital to the creation of the windows of opportunity needed to execute maneuver and fires. Area defense operations may be employed in the disruption zone while the battle zone is configured for a maneuver defense. If this is done as part of a defense to preserve, it is known as a cover.

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DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Figure 15. Area Defense Example #1 Area defense inflicts losses on the enemy, retains ground, and protects friendly forces. It does so by occupying battle positions in complex terrain and dominating the surrounding battlespace with reconnaissance fire. These fires attack designated elements of the enemy’s combat system to destroy components and subsystems that create an advantage for the enemy. The operational design of an area defense is to begin disaggregating the enemy’s combat system in the disruption zone. When enemy forces enter the battle zone, they should be incapable of synchronizing combat operations. Area defense creates windows of opportunity in which to conduct spoiling attacks or counterattacks and destroy key enemy systems. In the course of an area defense, the operational-level commander uses terrain that exposes the enemy to continuing attack.

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Figure 16. Area Defense Example #2 An area defense trades time for the opportunity to attack enemy forces when and where they are vulnerable. The ARIANAN FORCE might use an area defense when • • • It is conducting access-control operations. Enemy forces enjoy a significant RISTA and precision standoff advantage. Conditions are suitable for canalizing the enemy into areas where the ARIANAN FORCE can destroy him by fire and/or maneuver.

A skillfully conducted area defense can allow a significantly weaker force to defeat a stronger enemy force. However, the area defense relies to a significant degree on the availability of complex terrain and decentralized logistics. Units conducting an area defense typically place small strike assets in complex terrain throughout the AOR to force the enemy into continuous operations and steadily drain his combat power and resolve.

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DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS Within an overall operational area defense, the ARIANAN FORCE might use maneuver defense on some portions of the AOR, especially on those where it can afford to lose ground. This occurs most often during transition operations as forces initially occupy the complex terrain positions necessary for the execution of the area defense. Disruption Force In an area defense, the disruption zone is that battlespace surrounding its battle zone(s) where the ARIANAN FORCE may cause continuing harm to the enemy without significantly exposing itself. For example, counter reconnaissance activity may draw the attention of enemy forces and cause them to enter the kill zone of a sophisticated ambush using long-range precision fires. RISTA assets and counter reconnaissance forces occupy the disruption zone, along with affiliated forces. Paramilitary forces may assist other disruption force elements by providing force protection, controlling the civilian population, and executing deception operations as directed. The disruption zone of an area defense is designed to be an area of uninterrupted battle. ARIANAN FORCE RISTA elements maintain contact with enemy forces, and other parts of the disruption force attack them incessantly with ambush and precision fires. The disruption force has many missions. The most important mission at the operational level is the destruction of appropriate elements of the enemy’s combat system, to begin disaggregating it. The following list provides examples of other tasks that the disruption force may perform: • • • • • • • Detect the enemy’s main groupings. Force the enemy to reveal his intentions. Deceive the enemy as to the location and configuration of battle positions. Delay the enemy, allowing time for preparation of defenses and counterattacks. Force the enemy into premature deployment. Attack lucrative targets (key systems, vulnerable troops). Canalize the enemy into situations unfavorable to him.

The disruption force mission also includes maintaining contact with the enemy and setting the conditions for successful reconnaissance fire and strikes. In an area defense, the disruption force often occupies and operates out of battle positions in the disruption zone and seeks to inflict maximum harm on selected enemy units and destroy enemy systems operating throughout the

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96B1A06L-SHO2 AOR. An area defense disruption force permits the enemy no safe haven and continues to inflict damage at all hours and in all weather conditions. Disruption force elements break contact after conducting ambushes and return to battle positions for refit and resupply. Long-range fires, ODs, and ambushes to delay pursuing enemy units can assist units in breaking contact and withdrawing. Even within the overall context on an operational area defense, the disruption force might employ a maneuver defense. In this case, the distance between positions in the disruption zone is such that the enemy will be forced to displace the majority of his supporting weapons to continue the attack on the subsequent positions. This aids the force in breaking contact and permits time to occupy subsequent positions. The disruption zone will often include a significant obstacle effort. Engineer effort in the disruption zone also provides mobility support to disruption force elements requiring maneuver to conduct their attacks or ambushes. Within the overall structure of the area defense, disruption force elements seek to conduct highly damaging local attacks. Units selected for missions in the disruption zone deploy on likely enemy avenues of approach. They choose the best terrain to inflict maximum damage on the attacking enemy and use obstacles and barriers extensively. They defend aggressively by fire and maneuver. When enemy pressure grows too strong, these forces can conduct a maneuver defense, withdrawing from one position to another in order to avoid envelopment or decisive engagement. Since a part of the disruption force mission to attack the enemy’s combat system, the following are typical targets for attack: • • • • • • • • C2 systems. RISTA assets. Aviation assets. Precision fire systems. Logistics support areas. LOCs. Mobility and counter mobility assets. Casualty evacuation routes and means.

In some cases, the disruption force will have a single mission of detecting and destroying a particular set of enemy capabilities. This does not mean that no other targets will be engaged; it means that, given a choice between targets, the disruption force will engage the targets that are the most damaging to the enemy 61

DOCTRINE-DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS combat system. The following are examples of target sets for disruption zone operations. Main Defense Force The units of the main defense force conducting an area defense occupy battle positions in complex terrain within the battle zone. That terrain is reinforced by engineer effort and C3D measures. These complex battle positions are designed to prevent enemy forces from being able to employ precision standoff attack means and force the enemy to choose costly methods in order to affect forces in those positions. They are also arranged in such a manner as to deny the enemy the ability to operate in covered and concealed areas himself. The main defense force in an area defense conducts attacks and employs reconnaissance fire against enemy forces in the disruption zone. Disruption zone forces may also use the complex battle positions occupied by the main defense force as refit and rearm points. A typical battle position contains • • • • • • • • Complex terrain (such as mountains, forest, jungle, or urban areas). A substantial logistics cache. Extensive engineer fortification and obstacle work. C3D effort to confuse enemy picture of strength and disposition. Precision fire capability. Mobile reserves. Air defense systems. Redundant C2 systems.

Reserves An OSC in the area defense can employ a number of reserve forces of varying strengths. In addition to its other functions, the primary OSC reserve in an area defense may have the mission of winning time for the preparation of positions. This reserve is a unit strong enough to respond to unforeseen opportunities and contingencies at the operational level. It is normally strong enough to defeat the enemy’s exploitation force. The OSC positions its reserve in an assembly area within one or more of the battle positions, based on the commander’s concept of the operation. (See the Reserves section above for discussion of other types of reserves.)

62

4 MECH DIV (DTG)
XX 4

x
BMP-2 BMP-2

x
BTR-80A

x
T-72B

x
44 45
PAGE 99

x

41
PAGE 82

42
PAGE 87

43
PAGE 93

PAGE 104

x
46
PAGE 107

x
SPT

II
4

II
4

II
4

47
PAGE 110

PAGE 80

PAGE 80

PAGE 81

96B1A06L-SHO2

II
4
PAGE 81

II
4
PAGE 82

ll
OPCON

ll

l(+)
OPCON

l
SF

672
PAGE 113

511
PAGE 113

3-383
PAGE 114

63

41 MECH BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
x
41

64

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

I

411 412 413

II

II

II
416

II

II

414

415

417

I

I

I

I
SPT

41

41

41

41

42 MECH BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
x
42

I

421 422 423

II

II

II
426

II

II

424

425

427

I

I

I

I
SPT

42

42

42

42 96B1A06L-SHO2

65

43 MECH BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
x
43

66

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

I

431 432 433

II

II

II
436

II

II

434

435

437

I

I

I

I
SPT

43

43

43

43

44 TK BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
x
44

..

441 442 443

II

II

II
445 446

II

444

I

I

I

I
SPT

44

44

44

44 96B1A06L-SHO2

67

68

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

45 SPARTY BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
X

45

..

451 452 453

Il

ll

Il
SPT

454

455

I


45

45

46 ADA BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
x
46

..

461 462 463

Il

l
SPT

I

46

46

96B1A06L-SHO2

69

70

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

47 SPT BDE / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
x
SPT

47

..
SPT

471 472 473 474 475 476

Il
SPT

4 AT BN / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
II

4

..
41

I

I


4

42

96B1A06L-SHO2

71

4 RECON BN / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
II

72

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

4

..
LRR

I

I

I
MI

41

42

43


BTR-80A BRM-3K


MOTORCYCLE


43

41

42

4 SIG BN
II
4

4 CHEM BN 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
II
4

..

410 420 430

I

96B1A06L-SHO2

73

4 ENG BN / 4 MECH DIV (DTG)
II

74

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

4

..
410

I

I


CBT

420

4


4 4


CON


4 4

UI Aviation Troop or Flight
OPCON FROM CMBT AVN BDE (OSC4)

(+)

3-383
108 X Soldiers 8 x MI-8T 4 x MI-24D

96B1A06L-SHO2

75

PARAMILITARY BATTALION
OPCON FROM PARA INF BDE (OSC4)

76

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

ll

672

..
4 X Soldiers 2 X BTR-80A

1-672 2-672 3-672

l


2 X BTR-80A 2 X EE-9 2 X RPG-27


4 X RT-61 6 X SA-16

98 X Soldiers 16 X BTR-80A 26 X RPG-27 2 X MILAN-3 2 X 2B16 2 X GAZ-66

SF Company
OPCON FROM (OSC4)

l

Parachute

SF

SF

X 10

1 X TEAM LEADER 1 X ASSISTANT TEAM LEADER 2 X RADIO OPERATORS 2 X WEAPONS SPECIALISTS 2 X DEMOLITION SPECIALISTS 4 X RECONNAISSANCE SPECIALSTS 2 X PZF 3-T600 2 X SA-16

96B1A06L-SHO2

77

78

Insurgents
Formasi Qan Usyanci (FQU) - The FQU is a group consisting of Azeri nationals who are diametrically opposed to the current dictatorship. Many of the members are former military and the leadership is comprised of both former military and political personalities. The former Minister of Defense, Alexander Cazian, leads them. Cazian reportedly escaped persecution by Majnun only because he was in Minaria discussing a possible peace treaty. The group is steeped in patriotism for the greater future of Atropia. Their name was chosen as a tribute to their comrades who were slaughtered by Majnun, loosely translated it means "spilt blood insurgents". Analyst Comment: Though they may be receptive to US intervention, many members harbor hatred for Minarians for past grievances and they may be prone to ethnic cleansing given the opportunity.

Insurgents
Hikachdut - The Hikachdut (Extinction) are a religiously motivated group of Arabs with reported ties to the Mujahedin. They are believed to have originated from Ariana. Analyst Comment: There are indications that they may be operational in the Nagorno-Karabakh region. They are believed to be carrying out revenge-oriented missions against the NAA.

96B1A06L-SHO2

79

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT TABLE OF EQUIPMENT
DIVISION 4 MECH DIV ** BDE/REGT BN/SQDN CO/BTRY PLT/SEC EQUIPMENT

HQ SEC

3 BTR-80A 6 SA-18 3 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 12 GAZ-69 9 GAZ-66

**

4 AT BN **

HQ SEC

1 HJ-62C 1 KUSHETKA 1 GAZ-69 6 AMX-10 W/HOT-3 9 PZF-3 T600 3 ZIL-131 1 GAZ-710 6 MT-12R 7 MT-LB 3 ZIL-131

**

41 AT BTRY

**

42 AT BTRY

**

4 SAM PLT

6 SA-18 3 BMP-2M 1 GAZ-66

**

4 RECON BN **

HQ SEC

1 BRM-3K 1 RPG-27 10 BRDM-2M 10 HOT-3 2 HJ-62C 6 SENSOR SETS 1 UAV LCHR VEH 4 FOX AT2 6 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66

**

41 LRR CO

**

42 SENSOR CO

**

43 MI CO

**

41 RECON PLT

2 BTR-80A 1 BRDM-2M 1 HOT-3 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 2 PKM (MG) 2 RPG-27 4 BRM-3K 4 RPG-27 9 MOTORCYCLE 9 PKM (MG) 9 RPG-27

**

42 RECON PLT

**

43 RECON PLT

80

96B1A06L-SHO2
** 4 SIG BN ** ** 410 SIG CO

HQ SEC 3 UHF VAN 2 HF VAN 2 VHF VAN 2 SATCOM VAN 2 TACPHONE VAN 3 UHF VAN 2 HF VAN 2 VHF VAN 2 SATCOM VAN 2 TACPHONE VAN 3 UHF VAN 2 HF VAN 2 VHF VAN 2 SATCOM VAN 2 TACPHONE VAN 44 SIG PLT 9 MOTORCYCLES

**

420 SIG CO

**

430 SIG CO

** ** 4 ENG BN ** ** 410 ENG CO

HQ SEC 1 BTR-80A 12 UMZ 3 PMZ-2 2 UR-83P 2 IMR-2M 2 UAZ-469 10 ZRP-2 20 PKM MINE SCAT 1 BTR-80A 8 PMM-2 8 PKT TRAILER 10 SMALL BOAT 4 COMBAT PLT 6 BTR-80A 10 ZRP-2 20 PKM MINE SCAT 3 RPG-27 3 RPO-A 3 BUNKERBUSTER

**

420 ENG CO

**

**

4 RECON PLT

3 BTR-80A 3 PZF-3 T600 1 IRM 2 DITCHER PZM-2 2 PKT 2 CRANE/SHOVEL 1 AVLB 4 TMM-3

**

4 CNSTRCT PLT

** **

4 SPT PLT 4 SIG PLT

3 MINE ROLLER/PLOW 1 BMP-1KSH

81

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE ** 4 CHEM BN 18 ARS-12U 9 BRDM-RKHM 6 DDA-53 4 TMS-65 ** 41 MECH BDE **

HQ SEC

3 BTR-80A 2 BMP-2M 3 PZF-3 T600 3 GAZ-69 9 GAZ-66 2 BMP-2M 2 BRM-3K 4 BRDM-2M 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 5 PKM (MG) 9 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-1KSH 2 SATCOM VAN 3 TACPHONE VAN 3 GAZ-66 3 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-2M 3 GMZ-3 3 PMZ-4 3 UMZ 29 PKM MINE SCAT 1 UR-77 1 IRM 1 IMR-2M 1 BAT-2 4 PZM-2 DITCHER 1 AVLB 4 TMM-3 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 4 POL TRAILER (4200 LITER) 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

41 RECON CO

**

41 SIG CO

**

41 ENG CO

**

41 SPT CO

**

411 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27

82

96B1A06L-SHO2
2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 BTR-152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 411 MECH PLT 3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 411 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

4111 MECH CO

**

4112 MECH CO

**

4113 MECH CO

**

4114 MTR BTRY

**

**

411 SAM PLT

**

411 RECON PLT

**

411 SPT PLT

**

412 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600

83

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 ** 4121 MECH CO 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 BTR-152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 412 MECH PLT 3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 412 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

4122 MECH CO

**

4123 MECH CO

**

4124 MTR BTRY

**

**

412 SAM PLT

**

412 RECON PLT

**

412 SPT PLT

84

96B1A06L-SHO2

**

413 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 BTR-152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66

**

4131 MECH CO

**

4132 MECH CO

**

4133 MECH CO

**

4134 MTR BTRY

**

413 MECH PLT

3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

413 SAM PLT

**

413 RECON PLT

**

413 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131

**

413 SPT PLT

85

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN ** 414 TK BN **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 BMP-2M 1 KUSHETKA 1 RPG-27 1 RPO-A 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74

**

4141 TK CO

**

4142 TK CO

**

4143 TK CO

**

414 SAM PLT

3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 1 GAZ-66 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 3 PKM (MG) 3 RPG-27 2 ARMBRUST 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

414 RECON PLT

**

414 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

414 SPT PLT

**

415 AT BN **

HQ SEC

1 HJ-62C 1 KUSHETKA 1 GAZ-69 6 AMX-10 W/HOT-3 9 PZF-3 T600 3 ZIL-131 1 GAZ-710 6 MT-12R 7 MT-LB 3 ZIL-131

**

4151 AT BTRY

**

4152 AT BTRY

**

415 SAM PLT

6 SA-18 3 BMP-2M

86

96B1A06L-SHO2
1 GAZ-66

**

416 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4161 SPARTY BTRY

**

4162 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4163 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4164 SPT CO

20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

417 ADA BN HQ SEC ** ** ** 4171 AAA BTRY 4172 SAM BTRY 4173 SAM BTRY 2 BMP-2M 6 2S6M 6 CROTALE 9 BMP-2M 18 SA-18

**

42 MECH BDE **

HQ SEC

3 BTR-80A 2 BMP-2M 3 PZF-3 T600 3 GAZ-69 9 GAZ-66 2 BMP-2M 2 BRM-3K

**

42 RECON CO

87

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
4 BRDM-2M 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 5 PKM (MG) 9 MOTORCYCLE ** 42 SIG CO 8 BMP-1KSH 2 SATCOM VAN 3 TACPHONE VAN 3 GAZ-66 3 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-2M 3 GMZ-3 3 ZIL-131 W/PMZ-4 3 UMZ 29 PKM MINE SCAT 1 UR-77 1 IRM 1 IMR-2M 1 BAT-2 4 DITCHER 1 AVLB 4 TMM-3 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

42 ENG CO

**

42 SPT CO

**

421 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD

**

4211 MECH CO

**

4212 MECH CO

88

96B1A06L-SHO2

**

4213 MECH CO

10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 1V152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 421 MECH PLT 3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

4214 MTR BTRY

**

**

421 SAM PLT

**

421 RECON PLT

**

421 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

421 SPT PLT

**

422 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87

**

4221 MECH CO

**

4222 MECH CO

89

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 1V152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 422 MECH PLT 3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 422 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

4223 MECH CO

**

4224 MTR BTRY

**

**

422 SAM PLT

**

422 RECON PLT

**

422 SPT PLT

**

423 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M

**

4231 MECH CO

**

4232 MECH CO

90

96B1A06L-SHO2
3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD ** 4233 MECH CO 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 1V152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 423 MECH PLT 3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 423 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

4234 MTR BTRY

**

**

423 SAM PLT

**

423 RECON PLT

**

423 SPT PLT

**

424 TK BN **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 BMP-2M 1 KUSHETKA 1 RPG-27 1 RPO-A 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74

**

4241 TK CO

**

4242 TK CO

**

4243 TK CO

91

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

**

424 SAM PLT

3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 1 GAZ-66 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 3 PKM (MG) 3 RPG-27 2 ARMBRUST 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

424 RECON PLT

**

424 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

424 SPT PLT

**

425 AT BN **

HQ SEC

1 HJ-62C 1 KUSHETKA 1 GAZ-69 6 AMX-10 W/HOT-3 9 PZF-3 T600 3 ZIL-131 1 GAZ-710 6 MT-12R 7 MT-LB 3 ZIL-131

**

4251 AT BTRY

**

4252 AT BTRY

**

425 SAM PLT

6 SA-18 3 BMP-2M 1 GAZ-66

**

426 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4261 SPARTY BTRY

**

4262 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74

92

96B1A06L-SHO2
6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14 ** 4263 SPARTY BTRY 6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14 ** 4264 SPT CO 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 4 POL TRAILER (4200 LITER) 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

427 ADA BN ** ** ** ** 4271 AAA BTRY 4272 SAM BTRY 4272 SAM BTRY

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 6 2S6M 6 CROTALE 9 BMP-2M 18 SA-18

**

43 MECH BDE **

HQ SEC

3 BTR-80A 2 BMP-2M 3 PZF-3 T600 3 GAZ-69 9 GAZ-66 2 BMP-2M 2 BRM-3K 4 BRDM-2M 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 5 PKM (MG) 9 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-1KSH 2 SATCOM VAN 3 TACPHONE VAN 3 GAZ-66 3 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-2M 3 GMZ-3 3 ZIL-131 W/PMZ-4 3 UMZ 29 PKM MINE SCAT 1 UR-77

**

43 RECON CO

**

43 SIG CO

**

43 ENG CO

93

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
1 IRM 1 IMR-2M 1 BAT-2 4 DITCHER 1 AVLB 4 TMM-3 ** 43 SPT CO 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 4 POL TRAILER (4200 LITER) 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

431 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BTR-80A 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 1V152 6 2S23 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 3 BTR-80A 6 HOT 3

**

4311 MECH CO

**

4312 MECH CO

**

4313 MECH CO

**

4314 MTR BTRY

**

4315 AT BTRY

94

96B1A06L-SHO2
** 431 MECH PLT 3 BTR-80A 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BTR-80A 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 2 BTR-80A 1 BMP-2M 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 431 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

431 SAM PLT

**

431 RECON PLT

**

431 SPT PLT

**

432 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BTR-80A 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 1V152

**

4321 MECH CO

**

4322 MECH CO

**

4323 MECH CO

**

4324 MTR BTRY

95

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
6 2S23 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 ** 432 MECH PLT 3 BTR-80A 3 ERYX 3 M82A1 3 BTR-80A 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 432 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

432 SAM PLT

**

432 RECON PLT

**

432 SPT PLT

**

433 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BTR-80A 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BTR-80A 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29

**

4331 MECH CO

**

4332 MECH CO

**

4333 MECH CO

96

96B1A06L-SHO2
9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD ** 4334 MTR BTRY 1 1V152 6 2S23 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66 433 MECH PLT 3 BTR-80A 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BTR-80A 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 433 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

**

433 SAM PLT

**

433 RECON PLT

**

433 SPT PLT

**

434 TK BN **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 BMP-2M 1 KUSHETKA 1 RPG-27 1 RPO-A 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74

**

4341 TK CO

**

4342 TK CO

**

4343 TK CO

**

434 SAM PLT

3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 1 GAZ-66 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 3 PKM (MG) 3 RPG-27 2 ARMBRUST 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

434 RECON PLT

97

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

**

434 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

434 SPT PLT

**

435 AT BN **

HQ SEC

1 HJ-62C 1 KUSHETKA 1 GAZ-69 6 AMX-10 W/HOT-3 9 PZF-3 T600 3 ZIL-131 1 GAZ-710 6 MT-12R 7 MT-LB 3 ZIL-131

**

4351 AT BTRY

**

4352 AT BTRY

**

435 SAM PLT

6 SA-18 3 BMP-2M 1 GAZ-66

**

436 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4361 SPARTY BTRY

**

4362 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4363 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4364 SPT CO

20 ZIL-131

98

96B1A06L-SHO2
20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER ** 437 ADA BN HQ SEC ** ** ** 4371 AAA BTRY 4372 SAM BTRY 4373 SAM BTRY 2 BMP-2M 6 2S6M 6 CROTALE 9 BMP 2-M 18 SA-18

**

44 TK BDE **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 BMP-2M 3 PZF-3 T600 3 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 2 BMP-2M 2 BRM-3K 4 BRDM-2M 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 5 PKM (MG) 9 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-1KSH 2 SATCOM VAN 3 TACPHONE VAN 3 GAZ-66 3 MOTORCYCLE 8 BMP-2M 3 GMZ-3 3 ZIL-131 W/PMZ-4 3 UMZ 29 PKM MINE SCAT 1 UR-77 1 IRM 1 IMR-2M 1 BAT-2 4 DITCHER 1 AVLB 4 TMM-3 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK

**

44 RECON CO

**

44 SIG CO

**

44 ENG CO

**

44 SPT CO

99

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER ** 441 TK BN **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 KUSHETKA 1 BMP-2M 1 RPG-27 1 RPO-A 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74

**

4411 TK CO

**

4412 TK CO

**

4413 TK CO

**

441 SAM PLT

3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 1 GAZ-66 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 3 PKM (MG) 3 RPG-27 2 ARMBRUST 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

441 RECON PLT

**

441 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

441 SPT PLT

**

442 TK BN **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 KUSHETKA 1 BMP-2M 1 RPG-27 1 RPO-A 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74

**

4421 TK CO

**

4422 TK CO

**

4423 TK CO

100

96B1A06L-SHO2
** 442 SAM PLT 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 1 GAZ-66 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 3 PKM (MG) 3 RPG-27 2 ARMBRUST 3 MOTORCYCLE ** 442 SIG PLT 1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

442 RECON PLT

**

442 SPT PLT

**

443 TK BN **

HQ SEC

1 T-72B 1 KUSHETKA 1 BMP-2M 1 RPG-27 1 RPO-A 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74 10 T-72B 10 AK-74

**

4431 TK CO

**

4432 TK CO

**

4433 TK CO

**

443 SAM PLT

3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 1 GAZ-66 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 2 W-87 3 PKM (MG) 3 RPG-27 2 ARMBRUST 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

443 RECON PLT

**

443 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE 2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131

**

443 SPT PLT

101

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 1 MAINTENANCE VAN ** 444 MECH BN **

HQ SEC

2 BMP-2M 1 PZF-3 T600 3 ZRP-2 LINE CHRG 1 W-87 2 RPG-27 2 RPO-A 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 10 BMP-2M 3 MILAN-3 9 PZF-3 T600 10 W-87 1 RPG-29 9 PKM (MG) 3 SVD 1 BTR-152 6 2S9 1 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-66

4441 MECH CO

4442 MECH CO

4443 MECH CO

4444 MTR BTRY

**

444 MECH PLT

3 BMP-2M 3 ERYX 3 SVD 3 BMP-2M 6 SA-18 3 RPK-74 3 BRM-3K 2 PZF-3 T600 3 RPK-74 3 MOTORCYCLE

**

444 SAM PLT

**

444 RECON PLT

**

444 SIG PLT

1 BMP-1KSH 1 ZIL-131 1 SIGNAL VAN 1 MOTORCYCLE

102

96B1A06L-SHO2

**

444 SPT PLT

2 GAZ-69 6 GAZ-66 6 ZIL-131 2 CRANE TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK 1 MAINTENANCE VAN

**

445 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4451 SPARTY BTRY

**

4452 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4453 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S1 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4454 SPT CO

20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 4 POL TRAILER (4200 LITER) 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

446 ADA BN **

HQ SEC

1 BTR-80A 4 ZIL-131 2 GAZ-710 6 2S6M 6 SA-18 3 BMP-2M 4 ZIL-131 2 GAZ-710 6 CROTALE 6 SA-18

**

4461 AAA BTRY

**

4462 SAM BTRY

103

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
3 BMP-2M 1 BTR-80A 1 GAZ-66 18 SA-18 9 GAZ-66

**

4463 SAM BTRY

**

45 SPARTY BDE **

HQ SEC

1 BTR-80A 2 KUSHETKA 1 HJ-62C 4 PZF-3 T600 3 SA-18 6 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 1 IL-219 2 SORAS 2 GAZ-710 1 KUSHETKA 1 RYS-LYNX 1 IL-219 1 CYMBELINE 1 PZF-3 T600 1 SA-18 2 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 4 ZIL-131

**

45 TGTACQ BTRY

**

45 ENG PLT

2 DITCHING PZM-2 2 PKT 2 CRANE/SHOVEL 1 AVLB 4 TMM-3

**

451 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4511 SPARTY BTRY

**

4512 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4513 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13

104

96B1A06L-SHO2
1 ACRV 1V14 ** 4514 SPT CO 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

452 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4521 SPARTY BTRY

**

4522 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4523 SPARTY BTRY

6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14

**

4524 SPT CO

20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

453 SPARTY BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V15 1 ACRV 1V16 6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131

**

4531 SPARTY BTRY

105

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14 ** 4532 SPARTY BTRY 6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14 ** 4533 SPARTY BTRY 6 2S19 6 PZF-3 T600 6 RPK-74 6 ZIL-131 1 ACRV 1V13 1 ACRV 1V14 ** 4534 SPT CO 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

454 MRL BN **

HQ SEC

1 ACRV 1V19 1 RYS-LYNX 1 ZIL-131 1 GAZ-710 6 BM-21 6 TRANSLOADER 1 ACRV 1V19 1 ACRV 1V18 6 SA-18 2 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-69 3 ZIL-131 2 GAZ-710 6 BM-21 6 TRANSLOADER 1 ACRV 1V19 1 ACRV 1V18 6 SA-18 2 PZF-3 T600 1 GAZ-69 3 ZIL-131 2 GAZ-710 6 BM-21 6 TRANSLOADER 1 ACRV 1V19 1 ACRV 1V18 6 SA-18 2 PZF-3 T600

**

4541 MRL BTRY

**

4542 MRL BTRY

**

4543 MRL BTRY

106

96B1A06L-SHO2
1 GAZ-69 3 ZIL-131 2 GAZ-710 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

4544 SPT CO

**

455 SPT BN ** ** 4551 SPT CO

HQ SEC 2 GAZ-69 1 MAINTENANCE VAN 1 SIGNAL VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 455 SPT PLT 3 GAZ-66 1 CRANE TRUCK 10 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 2 GAZ-710 6 GENERATOR TRAILER 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 POL TRAILER

**

4552 SPT CO

**

4553 SPT CO

**

4554 SPT CO

**

**

46 ADA BDE **

HQ SEC

1 BTR-80A 6 SA-15 6 SA-18 1 GIRAFFE RADAR 1 THIN SKIN 1 LONG TRACK 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66

107

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
** 46 TGTACQ BTRY 1 KUSHETKA 1 RYS-LYNX 1 IL-219 1 CYMBELINE 1 PZF-3 T600 1 SA-18 2 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 4 ZIL-131 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 4 POL TRAILER (4200 LITER) 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

46 SPT CO

**

461 SAM BN **

HQ SEC

1 BTR-80A 1 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 8 CROTALE 8 GAZ-66 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK (5000 LITER) 4 POL TRAILER (4200 LITER) 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK

**

4611 SAM BTRY

**

4612 SAM BTRY

**

4613 SAM BTRY

**

4614 SAM BTRY

**

4615 SPT CO

108

96B1A06L-SHO2
2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER ** 462 SAM BN ** HQ SEC 1 BTR-80A 1 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 8 CROTALE 8 GAZ-66 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

4621 SAM BTRY

**

4622 SAM BTRY

**

4623 SAM BTRY

**

4624 SAM BTRY

**

4625 SPT CO

**

463 SAM BN **

HQ SEC

1 BTR-80A 1 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER

**

4631 SAM BTRY

**

4632 SAM BTRY

109

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
2 GAZ-66 ** 4633 SAM BTRY 1 BTR-80A 4 SA-15 4 DOG EAR 4 SA-18 4 TRANSLOADER 2 GAZ-66 8 CROTALE 8 GAZ-66 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 20 GAZ-710 4 POL TRUCK 4 POL TRAILER 4 GAZ-69 3 GAZ-66 2 CRANE TRUCK 2 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 GENERATOR TRAILER 2 CARGO TRAILER

**

4634 SAM BTRY

**

4635 SPT CO

**

47 SPT BDE ** ** 471 SPT BN ** ** 4711 SPT CO

HQ SECT

HQ SECT 2 GAZ-69 1 MAINTENANCE VAN 1 SIGNAL VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 1 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 471 SPT PLT 3 GAZ-66 1 CRANE TRUCK 10 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 2 GAZ-710 6 GENERATOR TRAILER

**

4712 SPT CO

**

4713 SPT CO

**

4714 SPT CO

**

**

472 SPT BN

110

96B1A06L-SHO2
** HQ SECT

**

4721 SPT CO

2 GAZ-69 1 MAINTENANCE VAN 1 SIGNAL VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 1 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 472 SPT PLT 3 GAZ-66 1 CRANE TRUCK 10 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 2 GAZ-710 6 GENERATOR TRAILER

**

4722 SPT CO

**

4723 SPT CO

**

4724 SPT CO

**

**

473 SPT BN ** ** 4731 SPT CO

HQ SECT 2 GAZ-69 1 MAINTENANCE VAN 1 SIGNAL VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 2 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 1 GAZ-69 20 ZIL-131 40 KRAZ-255B 1 CRANE TRUCK 60 GAZ-710 473 SPT PLT 3 GAZ-66 1 CRANE TRUCK

**

4732 SPT CO

**

4733 SPT CO

**

4734 SPT CO

**

111

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
10 MAINTENANCE VAN 2 CARGO TRAILER 2 GAZ-710 6 GENERATOR TRAILER ** 474 SPT BN ** ** 4741 SPT CO

HQ SECT 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER

**

4742 SPT CO

**

4743 SPT CO

**

4744 SPT CO

**

475 SPT BN ** ** 4751 SPT CO

HQ SECT 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER 60 POL TRUCK 60 POL TRAILER

**

4752 SPT CO

**

4753 SPT CO

**

4754 SPT CO

**

476 SPT BN **

HQ SEC

2 GAZ-69 2 GAZ-66 1 POL TRUCK 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 33 MAZ-537 33 CHMZAP-5247G 2 POL TRUCK 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 33 MAZ-537 33 CHMZAP-5247G 2 POL TRUCK 1 GAZ-69 1 GAZ-66 33 MAZ-537 33 CHMZAP-5247G 2 POL TRUCK

**

4761 SPT CO

**

4762 SPT CO

**

4763 SPT CO

**

511 INF BN **

HQ SECT

1 GAZ-69 1 ZIL-131 1 W-87

112

96B1A06L-SHO2

**

5111 INF CO

46 W-87 10 PZF-3 T600 7 RPG-29 3 M203 1 GAZ-69 3 ZIL-131 46 W-87 10 PZF-3 T600 7 RPG-29 3 M203 1 GAZ-69 3 ZIL-131 46 W-87 10 PZF-3 T600 7 RPG-29 3 M203 1 GAZ-69 3 ZIL-131

**

5112 INF CO

**

5113 INF CO

**

5114 INF CO (WPNS) **

HQ SECT

4 AK-74 4 M203 9 MILAN-3 2 2S23 6 SA-18 6 W-87 2 BTR-80A 16 BTR-80A 26 RPG-27 2 MILAN-3 2 2B16 2 GAZ-66 16 BTR-80A 26 RPG-27 2 MILAN-3 2 2B16 2 GAZ-66 16 BTR-80A 26 RPG-27 2 MILAN-3 2 2B16 2 GAZ-66 9 MILAN-3 4 RT-61

** ** ** ** ** 672 PINF BN ** ** 6721 PINF CO

511 AT PLT 511 SPARTY PLT 511 SAM PLT 511 AGL PLT HQ SECT

**

6722 PINF CO

**

6723 PINF CO

** **

6724 MTR BTRY 672 RECON PLT

2 BTR-80A 2 EE-9

113

MILITARY TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT
2 RPG-27 ** ** 3833 LIFT CO 672 SAM PLT 6 SA-16 8 MI-8MT 4 MI-24D

114

96B1A06L-SHO2

5.45 mm AK-74 and AK-74M Assault Rifle

Description The AK-74 is built around the receiver of the AK-47, and there appears to be no difference, leading to the belief that they come from the same dies. The bolt carrier remains virtually the same, so that it runs in the same guide ways while carrying a smaller bolt. This bolt is lighter than the AK-47 version and so gives a better ratio of bolt to carrier mass, leading to more efficient working. There is a slight modification to the AKM bolt and carrier design: the AK-74 bolt has a small flat catch, and the carrier has nib, which interacts to prevent the bolt from falling free of the carrier during disassembly of the weapon. The AKM extractor is prone to breakage, so, for the AK-74, it was substantially enlarged and strengthened. The 30-round magazine is of laminated construction, a brownish plastic surface concealing an inner shell of steel. It has thick walls and is extremely hard-wearing and strong. The laminated wood closely resembles that of the AKM, the only obvious difference being that the AK-74 has a horizontal finger groove along each side of the stock. This is probably a caliber rapid-recognition feature rather than an aid to holding, and, together with the muzzle brake, it forms the quickest way of picking out an AK-74 from other AK-series rifles. Late production AK-74s have black allplastic furniture. On the early-production folding-stock version, the AKS-74, the folding butt is a tubular skeleton assembly that folds by swinging to the left and lying alongside the receiver. There is also a later folding-butt version with a solid plastic stock. This version, the AK-74M, has the stock folding to the left of the receiver, reducing the overall length (when folded) to 700 mm. All versions of the AK-74 can be used in conjunction with 40 mm GP-15, GP25 Kastyor or GP-30 grenade launchers located beneath the barrel. The AK-74 is one of the very few rifles to have been fitted with a successful muzzle brake. The reason seems to be to allow the user to fire bursts without the muzzle moving away from the line of sight. The brake works by allowing the emerging gases to strike a flat plate at the front of the assembly. This deflects the gas and produces a forward thrust. To counter the upward movement during automatic fire, gases escaping through three small ports on the upper part of the muzzle brake force the muzzle down, compensating for muzzle jump. The 115

EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY WEAPONS difficulty with all muzzle brakes is that the deflected gas comes back towards the firer; the AK-74 overcomes this, to a great extent, by means of narrow slits on the forward end of the muzzle attachment. These deflect gases forward from the muzzle brake instead of allowing them to flow back to the firer. A plan view of the muzzle would show a pattern of gas flowing out from the muzzle in a fan on either side, rather like a pair of butterfly wings. While this protects the firer from the effect of his own shots, it does nothing for anyone on either side of him. An article in the former Soviet military medical press expressed concern at the probable aural damage likely to occur on training ranges where firers are lined up on conventional firing points within a meter or two of each other. Despite the chance of causing deafness, however, the muzzle brake is highly effective, giving the rifle less recoil than is usually the case with a weapon of this caliber. There are defects, however, one being that the muzzle brake does not reduce flash, and the AK-74 has a substantial muzzle flash, of the order of three times the normal. Specifications Cartridge: 5.45 × 39 mm Operation: gas, selective fire Locking: rotating bolt Feed: 30-round plastic box magazine Weight: magazine empty, 3.4 kg; loaded, 3.7 kg Length: overall, 943 mm; stock folded, 705 mm Barrel: 415 mm Rifling: 4 grooves, rh, 1 turn in 196 mm; rifling length, 372 mm Sights: fore, post; rear, U-notch Muzzle velocity: 900 m/s Rate of fire: cyclic, 650 rds/min Max combat range: 440 m Max effective range: 1,000 m

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5.45 mm RPK-74 Light Machine Gun

Description The 5.45 mm RPK-74 receiver is of stamped steel, with bolt rails welded to the interior. Operation is by gas, a piston above the barrel driving a bolt carrier which contains a two-lug rotating bolt. A hammer mechanism is cocked during the rearward stroke and is released either by trigger pressure or by a delay mechanism which allows the bolt to close and lock before releasing the hammer during automatic fire. A three-position selector/safety lever is on the right side of the receiver. The stock is of laminated wood, and the bipod of the RPK is attached to the barrel just below the foresight. A slotted flash hider/compensator is fitted to the muzzle. The standard magazine is a plastic 45-round box, though the 30-round magazine of the AK-74 rifle can also be used; 40-round box magazines also exist. RPK-74 series light machine guns are usually issued together with eight magazines in a special carrying bag and a shoulder sling. Variants RPK-74M The RPK-74M is the light machine gun counterpart to the AK-100 series of assault rifles. The primary difference is the use of glass-fiber furniture on the RPK-74M. 5.56 mm RPK-74M A variant of the RPK-74M chambered for 5.56 × 45 mm NATO ammunition has been reported. On this variant the magazine holds 60 rounds.

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EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY WEAPONS Specifications Cartridge: 5.45 × 39 mm Operation: gas, selective fire Locking: rotating bolt Feed: 45-, 40- or 30-round box magazine Weight, empty: RPK-74, 4.6 kg; RPKS-74, 4.7 kg Length: 1.06 mm Barrel: 616 mm Rifling: 4 grooves, rh, 1 turn in 196 mm Sights: fore, cylindrical post; rear, tangent leaf with U-notch; adjustable to 1,000 m; RPKN3 and RPKSN3, 1LH51 night sight Sight radius: 556 mm Muzzle velocity: ca 960 m/s Rate of fire: cyclic, 600-650 rds/min; practical, 150 rds/min Max effective range: 460 m

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7.62 mm PK Machine Gun

Description The PK family of machine guns are gas operated, rotary bolt locked (Kalashnikov system), open bolt fired, fully automatic, belt-fed machine guns firing the 7.62 × 54R cartridge. The ammunition is fed by non-disintegrating metallic belts; current belts are composed of joined 25-round sections but earlier feed belts were made of one 250-round length. The belts are held either in 250-round ammunition boxes, in special large capacity boxes on tanks (for the PKT) or in a 100-round assault magazine attached to the bottom of the gun's receiver. Variants PK The basic gun with a heavy-fluted barrel, feed cover constructed from both machined and stamped components and a plain stock-plate. The PK weighs about 9 kg. Normally employed as a portable infantry fire support weapon and fired from the bipod. PKS The basic PK mounted on a tripod for the heavy machine gun fire support role. The lightweight tripod (4.75 kg) not only provides a stable mount for long-range ground fire, it can also be opened up quickly to elevate the gun for anti-aircraft fire. PKT The PK as altered for coaxial installation in an armored vehicle. The sights, stock, tripod and trigger mechanism have been removed, and a longer (722 mm) heavy barrel has been installed. The method of connecting the barrel to the receiver has also been altered. A solenoid is fitted to the receiver back-plate for remote triggering. An emergency manual trigger and safety are provided. Muzzle velocity is increased to 855 m/s. The PKD is a variant of this model.

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EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY WEAPONS PKD The coaxial PKT is manufactured by KASPEX of Kazakhstan (among others) and they have converted this model to produce the PKD, mainly by adding a tubular stock stock assembly and a bipod. The main PKT features, such as the heavier barrel, are retained. The stock has a shock absorbing butt plate. The complete PKD weighs 10.9 kg and the overall length is 1.31 m. The 722 mm long heavy barrel imparts a muzzle velocity of 855 m/s. PKM Entering service in 1969, the PKM is a product improved PK with a lighter, unfluted barrel, a feed cover constructed wholly of stampings and a hinged buttrest fitted to the butt-plate. Excess metal is machined away wherever possible to reduce weight to about 8.4 kg. PKMS PKM mounted on a new pattern of tripod designed by L V Stepanov on which the ammunition box can be secured to the right rear tripod leg. This enables one crew member to carry and operate the gun in combat without having to unload the gun for moves. The tripod can also be configured for air defense fire. PKB The PKM with the tripod, butt-stock and trigger mechanism removed and replaced by twin spade grips and a butterfly trigger similar to those on the SGMB. This gun may also be known as the PKMB. Late production models of this weapon, known as the Modernised Kalashnikov, may be fitted with night sight units with a night firing range of 300 m; weight of the sight unit is 2.95 kg. Specifications Cartridge: 7.62 × 54R Operation: gas, automatic Locking: rotating bolt Feed: belt; 100, 200 and 250 rounds Weight: empty, 9 kg; tripod, 7.5 kg; 100-round belt, 2.44 kg Length: 1.173 m; on tripod, 1.267 m Barrel: 658 mm Rifling: length, 550 mm Sights: fore, cylindrical post; rear, vertical leaf and windage scale adjustable to 1,500 m Rate of fire: cyclic, 650-720 rds/min Rate of fire: effective, 250 rds/min Max range: effective, 1,000 m

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ragunov 7.62 mm SVD Sniper Rifle

Description The Dragunov 7.62 mm sniper rifle, or SVD, is a semi-automatic arm with a 10round magazine and is chambered for the rimmed 7.62 × 54 R cartridge. It is gas-operated, with a cylinder above the barrel. There is a two-position gas regulator, which may be adjusted using the rim of a cartridge case as a tool. The first position is employed in the usual operation of the rifle, and the second is for extended use at a rapid rate or when conditions are adverse. The bolt system is, in principle, exactly the same as that used in the AK-47, the AKM and the RPK, but the Dragunov bolt cannot be interchanged with those of the other weapons, which fire the 7.62 × 39 mm rimless round. However, the assault rifle and light machine gun are operated on a long-stroke piston principle which is inappropriate for this rifle, since the movement of the fairly heavy mass with the consequent change in the centre of balance militates against extreme accuracy. Therefore, in the Dragunov, the designer used a short-stroke piston system. The piston, lightweight, is driven back by the impulsive blow delivered by the gas force and transfers energy to the bolt carrier, which moves back. A lug on the bolt, running in a cam path on the carrier, rotates the bolt to unlock it. The carrier and the bolt travel back together, the return spring is compressed and the carrier moves forward to lock the bolt before firing can take place. Mechanical safety is achieved by the continued movement of the carrier after bolting is completed. When the carrier is fully home, a safety sear is released, and this frees the hammer, which, when the trigger is operated, can travel forward to drive the firing pin into the cap. Since the trigger mechanism has to provide only single-shot fire, it is a simple design, using the hammer, the safety sear controlled by the carrier, and a disconnector. The disconnector ensures that the trigger must be released after each shot to reconnect the trigger bar with the sear. The PSO-1 sight is a ×4 telescopic sight with power for graticule illumination supplied by a small battery. It is rather longer than most telescopic sights, at 375 mm, but a rubber eyepiece is included in this length. The firer's eye is in contact with this rubber eyepiece, which automatically gives the correct eye relief

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EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY WEAPONS of 68 mm. The true field of view is 6º, which is comparable with that obtained in most military telescopes of modern design. The coating used on the lenses to reduce light loss on the interchange surfaces is extremely effective, and the depth and uniformity of the deposit compare favorably with any other similar sight in service. The weight of the PSO-1 is 580 g. The latest version of this sight is the PSO-1M2. The sight incorporates a metascope, meaning that it is capable of detecting an infra-red source. It is not sufficiently sensitive to be used as a night-vision sight. When fitted with the PSO-1 optical sight, the SVD has the designation 6V1. When fitted with the NSPU-3 (1PN51) night sight, the designation changes to 6V1-N3 or SVDN3. The NSPU-3 (1PN51) sight weighs 2.1 kg and allows accurate sighting to be carried out to a range of 1,000 m at night or under poor visibility conditions. An unusual feature for a sniper rifle is that the muzzle of the SVD can accommodate a bayonet, the 6X4, which also doubles as a field knife. Specifications Cartridge: 7.62 × 54 R, including 7N14 AP Operation: gas, short-stroke piston, self-loading Locking: rotating-bolt Feed: detachable box mag Mag capacity: 10 rds Weight: with PSO-1 and empty mag: 4.3 kg with PSO-1 and loaded mag: 4.51 kg with NSPU-3 night sight: 6.4 kg Length: without bayonet knife: 1.225 m with bayonet knife: 1.37 m barrel: 620 mm Rifling: 4 grooves, rh, 1 turn in 240 mm Sights: PSO-1 telescope 4 × 24 68 mm eye relief 6º field of view fore: adjustable post rear: U-notch, tangent Sight radius: 587 mm Muzzle velocity: 830 m/s Max effective range: 800 to 1,000 m

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Barrett 0.50 'Light Fifty' Models 82A1 and 82A1M

The Barrett Model 82A1 is a recoil-operated semi-automatic rifle. The Barrett 0.50 Model 82A1 rifle operates on the short-recoil principle and uses a rotating bolt in a carrier for operation. The standard rifle is fitted with a mount for optical sights and with back-up open sights. The standard optical sight is a fixed-power 10x Swarvoski with mil-dot reticle, although this may be eliminated for credit. A folding adjustable bipod is mounted at the forward end of the receiver. Overall length can be reduced by 483mm for airborne operations or administrative movement. The M82A1M differs from the M82A1 model in having a detachable muzzle brake, a new lightweight bolt carrier, a modified rear grip, a quick detachable bipod with spiked feet, quick detachable carrying-handle, adjustable telescope rings, a full-length MIL-STD-1913 rail mount, and a mount for an optional rear monopod.

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40 mm GP-25 and GP-30 Rifle-Mounted Grenade Launchers

Description The 40 mm GP-25 and GP-30 grenade launchers can be mounted under the handguard of virtually any AKM or AK-74 series assault rifle, including the AKS74U sub-machine gun models. A more involved conversion kit including a muzzle extension assembly is required for the latter. The GP-25 launcher is short, being 323 mm long overall (the GP-30 is 276 mm long overall), having a trigger unit with a thumb grip and with the grenade launching sight on the left side of the launcher barrel. On both launchers the sight is graduated to a maximum of 400 m, with intermediate range markings between 100 and 400 m. To load the launchers a grenade is muzzle-loaded into the barrel base first and, after aiming, the self-cocking double action trigger is pulled. This detonates the KVM-3 primer, the nitrocellulose propellant inside the grenade body ignites and the flow of gas from vents in the grenade base propels the grenade from the muzzle. As it travels along the barrel, gas pressure forces the grenade's driving bands outwards to engage in the 12-groove rifling of the barrel to provide spin stabilization. Accuracy at the maximum range of 400 m is 3 m in azimuth and 6 m in range. A practical rate of fire is quoted as 4.5 to 5 rds/min. Service life of the GP-25 is quoted as approximately 400 rounds. Two types of grenade are currently provided for the GP-25 and GP-30, namely the VOG-25 and the VOG-25P, although other types are known to be under development. For details of VOG-25 and the VOG-25P refer to the entry in the Combat Grenades - Spin Stabilized section.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Caliber: 40 mm Weight: unloaded, GP-25, 1.5 kg; GP-30, 1.3 kg Length: GP-25, 323 mm; GP-30, 276 mm Barrel: GP-25, 120 mm Sight radius: 125 mm Muzzle velocity: 76.5 m/s Max range: 400 m Rate of fire: practical, 4.5-5 rds/min

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Colt 40 mm M203 Grenade Launcher

Description The M203 40 mm grenade launcher is a lightweight, single-shot, breech-loaded, sliding-barrel, shoulder-fired weapon designed especially for attachment to M16 series assault rifles. It allows the grenade launcher to fire a wide range of 40 mm low-velocity high-explosive and special-purpose grenades, in addition to permitting normal use of the 5.56 mm M16 rifle. The M203 consists of a receiver assembly made from high-strength forged aluminum alloy, a barrel assembly again constructed using high-strength aluminum alloy, a quadrant sight assembly and a handguard and sight assembly group that replaces the normal M16 handguard. A quadrant sight assembly is mounted on the left side of the carrying handle of the M16 rifle or the M4 carbine. This permits the sight to pivot on the range quadrant to the desired range setting (to 400 m) in 25 m increments. A leaf sight on the receiver is adjustable in 50 m increments to 250 m. To load the M203, the barrel slides forward in the receiver, and a grenade is inserted manually. The barrel then slides back to lock automatically in the closed position, ready to fire. The complete self-cocking firing mechanism is included in the receiver, thus allowing the M203 to be operated as an independent weapon even though it is mounted on the M16 rifle or (eventually) on the M4 carbine. A forward movement of the barrel ejects the spent case after firing. The M203 attaches directly to any standard Colt M16-series rifle, using only two screws and without modification to the parent weapon. The rifle or carbine handguard is removed, and the M203 can then be easily installed in five minutes, with the aid of a standard screwdriver. Pliers are required to install the lockwire that prevents the mounting screws from loosening. The M203 may be installed on an M4 carbine in a manner similar to the rifle once a special kit has been incorporated. Although the maximum range of the M203 is 400 m, the maximum effective range is quoted as 350 m against area targets and as 150 m against point targets. During peacetime training, the minimum safe range for firing the M203 is 130 m. During combat, this minimum safe range is reduced to 31 m.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Colt Launcher System Colt's has proposed a variant of the M203 known as the Colt Launcher System. This allies the basic M203 launcher unit with an M16-series rifle stock, handguard and pistol grip, allowing the M203 to be used as a stand-alone weapon. If required, the launcher unit may be allied with an M4 carbine-pattern telescopic stock, or the stock may be left off altogether, leaving the M203 launcher unit with just the M16 pistol grip and the handguard. A new interface receiver combines all the components. A complete launcher with the rifle stock is 705 mm long and weighs 2.95 kg. If a carbine stock is involved, the length is 711 mm with the stock extended or 628 mm with the stock retracted. The weight is 2.77 kg. Without a stock, the length overall is reduced to 457 mm, and the weight is decreased to 2.5 kg. Specifications Caliber: 40 × 46 mm Operation: single-shot Feed: breech loading, sliding barrel Weight: unloaded M16A1 and M203, 5.484 kg loaded M4 and M203, 4.624 kg Weight of launcher unit: empty, 1.36 kg loaded, 1.63 kg Length: overall: 380 mm barrel: 305 mm Width: 84 mm Rifling: 6 grooves, rh, 1 twist in 1.2192 m Muzzle velocity: with M406 grenade, 74.7 m/s Range: Max: 400 m Max effective: area target, 350 m point target, 150 m

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CIS 40 AGL 40 mm Automatic Grenade Launcher

Description Introduced in 1990, the CIS 40AGL is an air-cooled, direct blowback operated automatic grenade launcher, firing standard US and CIS-produced 40 × 53 mm high-velocity grenades. The weapon is modular in construction, comprising four main assemblies: the barrel and receiver; the bolt and backplate; the feed cover; and the trigger mechanism and rearsight. The 40AGL has an effective range exceeding 1,500 m and the flexibility of being either tripod, turret/cupola or pedestal mounted on tactical platforms such as light vehicles or coastal patrol craft. Available are a softmount cradle and a lock/fire mounting. The 40AGL can also be mounted on a pedestal for mounting on a light vehicle or naval vessel. Also available is a cradle and yoke interface for the M3 tripod. Sighting options include a reflex sight, day optical sight, computerized laser rangefinder and optical sight and a night vision scope. The 40AGL forms part of the CIS 40/50 Cupola weapon system which is cupola mounted on Singapore armed forces M113 APCs. The CIS 40/50 Cupola is a coaxial combination of the 40AGL and the CIS 12.7 mm 50MG heavy machine gun. The full combat weight of the cupola and weapons is 940 kg.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Caliber: 40 mm Operation: direct blowback with advanced primer ignition, selective fire Feed: disintegrating metal link belt Weight: weapon, 33 kg; with softmount, 52 kg; with lock/fire mount, 63 kg Length: weapon, 966 mm; on softmount, 1.025 m; on lock/fire mount, 1.2 m Width: 376 mm Barrel: 350 mm Muzzle velocity: 241 m/s Max range: 2,200 m Rate of fire: min 350 rds/min

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NORINCO 35mm Type W87 Automatic Grenade Launcher

Description The NORINCO 35 mm Type W87 grenade launcher is of Chinese design and manufacture, firing a unique 35 mm round. The Type W87 is smaller and lighter than the 30 mm AGS-17, even though it fires a larger projectile. The mechanism would appear to be simpler and is probably simple blowback. It is noticeable that the feed system is either a box magazine or a helical drum, so that there are no feed pawl complications and the operating system can be kept correspondingly simple. Also noteworthy is the prominent muzzle compensator, intended to keep the barrel climb under control during automatic fire and the bipod folded beneath the barrel, suggesting a one-man light support role as well as the more common tripod-mounted role. Two rounds are provided, a high explosive/fragmentation projectile containing some 400 3 mm steel balls with a lethal radius of 10 m, and a HEAT projectile capable of penetrating 80 mm of steel armor at 0º incidence against targets up to 600 m distant. Ammunition is fed to the weapon from either six- or nine- round vertical box magazines or from a 12-round helical drum magazine. Specifications Caliber: 35 mm Operation: blowback, selective fire Feed: 6- or 9-round box, 12-round helical drum Weight launcher: 12 kg Weight, tripod: 8 kg Weight, projectile: 270 g Muzzle velocity: 170 m/s Rate of fire: 400 rds/min Max range: 1,500 m Max effective range: 600 m

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RPO-A Shmel Rocket Infantry Flame-Thrower

Description The RPO-A Shmel is a single-tube launcher normally issued in pairs joined together to be carried as a back-pack using the two slings. To operate the launcher, the two tubes are separated and a simple optical sight calibrated to 600 m is flipped up. The glass fiber reinforced plastic tube has covers at both ends which are ejected on firing. Launching is from over the shoulder using a folding pistol grip and trigger assembly together with a forward grip under the muzzle. The launcher can be fired from within structures having a volume of over 60 m3. Once fired the launcher tube is discarded. The projectile launched, known as a capsule, has a thin-walled aluminum body with a central tube and tail section. The central tube contains the fuse and the initiating charge. On detonation the body is reduced to a powder as the heat of the explosion raised the local temperature to as much as 800ºC, completely consuming all oxygen in the area. The 93 mm capsule warhead contains 2.1 kg of thermobaric flammable mixture (RPO-A), 2.1 kg of an incendiary substance (RPO-Z) or 2.3 kg of an incendiary-smoke mixture (RPO-D). Initial velocity of the spring-out fin-stabilized rocket-propelled projectile is 125 m/s (±5 m/s). Length overall of the blunt-nosed capsule is estimated to be around 700 mm. The effect of the RPO-A capsule is such, that when detonated inside a structure, its lethal and destructive effects will cover an area of 80 m3, claimed to be similar to an equivalent 122 mm artillery HE projectile. When utilized against personnel in the open the lethal area will cover 50 m2. Maximum range is 1,000 m but the sights are calibrated to only 600 m. Point blank range against a target 3 m high is 200 m. It is possible to utilize the OPO-1 optical sight with this weapon. 131

EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY WEAPONS The 9F700 computer-aided indoor trainer is available to train users in preparing and firing all models of the Shmel. Shelf life of the RPO-A Shmel is 10 years and it can be operated over a temperature range from -50 to +50ºC. Variants RPO-Z infantry jet flame thrower The RPO-Z, also referred to as the RPO-3, differs from the base RPO-A in that it launches a capsule intended primarily to produce on-target incendiary effects. The warhead contains 20 incendiary pellets which are scattered on impact, over an area of up to 300 m². If the capsule operates inside a building the temperatures rises to 1,000ºC for up to 10 seconds. All aspects of handling and deployment are identical to those for the RPO-A. RPO-D infantry jet smoke projector This is again identical to the base RPO-A other than that the capsule contains 2.3 kg of a smoke screen mixture intended to create smoke screens 55 to 90 m long to mask activity within 1 to 2 s of detonation. The smokescreen will last for up to 2 minutes in wind velocity up to 5 m/s. All aspects of handling and deployment are identical to those for the RPO-A. Specifications Caliber: 93 mm Weight: single launcher, 11 kg; pack of two launchers, 22 kg Weight of capsule: ca 6.5 kg Weight of filling: 2.1 kg Length: 920 mm Max range: 1,000 m Max effective range: 600 m Min range: 25 m Initial velocity: 125 ±5 m/s Operational temperature range: RPO-A, -50 to +50ºC RPO-D, RPO-Z, -40 to +50ºC

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T-64 Main Battle Tank

Description This has a similar layout to the T-72 but is armed with a 125 mm 2A26 smoothbore gun with a vertical ammunition stowage system, whereas the T-72 and T-80 are armed with a 125 mm 2A46 gun with a horizontal ammunition feed system. It has the same NBC system, but narrower tracks, a five-cylinder opposed diesel engine and a slightly different turret. The suspension consists of six small dual roadwheels with the drive sprocket at the rear, idler at the front and four track-return rollers which support the inside of the double-pin track only. The first, second, fifth and sixth roadwheel stations are provided with a hydraulic shock-absorber. Over the top of the suspension, which slopes downward towards the rear, is a rail on which panels of additional armor can be attached. The infrared searchlight is mounted on the left rather than the right of the main armament. There are either two or three boxes of 12.7 mm ammunition mounted on the left side of the turret, a snorkel is carried on the top of the turret at the rear and at the very rear of the turret is a detachable stowage box. The T-64 has two snorkels for deep fording, one fitted to the turret and the other over the engine compartment. The 125 mm gun is stabilized in both elevation and traverse with the ordnance being fitted with a thermal sleeve and fume extractor. The commander's sight is designated the TKN-3V. The 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun has electric elevation from -5 to +70º with manual controls being provided for emergency use. The anti-aircraft sight is designated the PZU-5. Unlike the T-72's, the 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun of the T-64 can be aimed and fired from within the tank. The main armament can be laid and fired while the T-64 is moving across country and the commander can override the gunner if required. Standard equipment includes an NBC system, infrared night vision equipment for the commander, gunner and driver, ability to be fitted with snorkels for deep fording and a laser warning device of a similar type to that fitted on the T-80 MBT.

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EQUIPMENT- TANKS

Specifications Crew: 3 Combat weight: 39,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 17.7 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.86 kg/cm2 Length: (gun forward) 9.9 m (hull) 7.4 m Width: (without skirts) 3.38 m (with skirts) 4.64 m Height: (without AA MG) 2.2 m Ground clearance: 0.377 m Track width: 580 mm Length of track on ground: 4.4 m Max road speed: 75 km/h Range: (road, without long-range fuel tanks) 400 km (road, with long-range fuel tanks) 550 km Fuel capacity: 1,000 liters Fording: (without preparation) 1.8 m (with preparation) 5.0 m Gradient: 60% Side slope: 40% Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Trench: 2.28 m Armament: (main) 1 x 125 mm 2A26M2 gun (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG (anti-aircraft) 1 x 12.7 mm NSVT MG Ammunition: (main) 36* (coaxial) 1,250 (anti-aircraft) 300 Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual Turret traverse: 360º Gun elevation/depression: +14º/-6º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) yes (horizontal) yes NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes *+6 ATGW

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T-72 Main Battle Tank

DESCRIPTION: The T-72 medium tank is similar in general appearance to the T-64. The T-72 has six large, die-cast, rubber-coated road wheels and three track return rollers. It has a 14-tooth drive sprocket and a single-pin track with rubber-bushed pins. The gunner's IR searchlight is mounted to the right of the main gun. The 12.7mm NSV anti-aircraft machine gun has a rotating mount, and there is no provision for firing it from within the tank. There are normally only a few small stowage boxes on the outside of the turret, and a single short snorkel is stowed on the left side of the turret. The T-72 has a larger engine compartment than the T-64, and the radiator grill is near the rear of the hull. The T-72 has greater mobility than the T-62. The V-12 diesel engine has an output of 780 hp. This engine appears to be remarkably smoke-free and smooth-running, having eliminated the excessive vibration which was said to cause high crew fatigue in the T-62. Although the engine is larger than that of the T-64, the heavier (41 mt) T-72 is believed to have approximately the same road speed as the T-64. The T72B1 is powered by a multi-fuel V-12 piston air-cooled 840 hp engine that will run on three fuels: Diesel, Benzene or Kerosene. Two 200-liter auxiliary fuel drums can be fitted on the rear of the hull. The T-72 can be fitted with a snorkel for deep fording, and takes about 20 minutes to prepare for amphibious use. The T-72 has better armor protection than the T-62, due to the use of layered armor and other features discussed above under T-64 capabilities. The advanced passive armor package of the T-72M and T-72M1 can sustain direct hits from the 105mm gun equipped M1 Abrams at up to 2,000 meter range. The later T-72Ms and T72M1s are equipped with laser rangefinders ensuring high hit probabilities at ranges of 2,000 meters and below. The turret has conventional cast armor with a maximum thickness of 280-mm, the nose is about 80-mm thick and the glacis is 200-mm thick laminate armor. Besides the PAZ radiation detection system, the 135

EQUIPMENT- TANKS T-72 has an antiradiation liner (except on export models) and a collective NBC filtration and overpressure system. The T-72 has the same integral smoke generating capability as earlier T-54/55/62, tanks, and variants have been observed with smoke grenade projectors mounted on the front of the turret. The T-72 employs the same armament, ammunition, and integrated fire control as the T-64. The low, rounded turret mounts a 125mm smooth bore gun with a carousel automatic loader mounted on the floor and rear wall of the turret. The 125mm gun common to all the T-72 models is capable of penetrating the M1 Abrams armor at a range of up to 1,000 meters. The more recent BK-27 HEAT round offers a triple-shaped charge warhead and increased penetration against conventional armors and ERA. The BK-29 round, with a hard penetrator in the nose is designed for use against reactive armor, and as an MP round has fragmentation effects. If the BK-29 HEAT-MP is used, it may substitute for FragHE (as with NATO countries) or complement Frag-HE. With three round natures (APFSDS-T, HEAT-MP, ATGMs) in the autoloader vs four, more antitank rounds would available for the higher rate of fire. The infra-red searchlight on the T-72 is mounted on the right side of the main armament, versus on the left on the earlier T-64. The 1K13-49 sight is both night sight and ATGM launch sight. However, it cannot be used for both functions simultaneously. Specifications Crew: 3 Combat weight: 44,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 18.9 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.90 kg/cm2 Length: (gun forward) 9.53 m (hull) 6.95 m Width: (without skirts) 3.37 m (over skirts) 3.59 m Height: (without AA MG): 2.222 m Ground clearance: 0.49 m Length of track on ground: 4.278 m Max road speed: 60 km/h Range: (road, without long-range fuel tanks) 480 km (road, with long-range fuel tanks) 550 km Fuel capacity: 1,000 liters Fording: (without preparation) 1.8 m (with preparation) 5.0 m Gradient: 60% Side slope: 40% Vertical obstacle: 0.85 m Trench: 2.8 m Electrical system: 24 V Armament: (main) 1 x 125 mm 2A46 gun (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG (anti-aircraft) 1 x 12.7 mm NSVT MG Ammunition: (main) 45 (including 6 ATGW) (coaxial) 2,000 (anti-aircraft) 300 Smoke grenade launchers: 8 Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual Turret traverse: 360º Gun elevation/depression: +14º/-6º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) yes (horizontal) yes NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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T-80 Main Battle Tank

Description The overall layout of the T-80 is similar to that of the T-64 series with the driver's compartment at the front, two-man turret in the centre and engine and transmission at the rear. There are, however, many detailed differences. The glacis plate is of the laminate type for improved protection against kinetic energy and HEAT attack and there is a dozer blade under the nose of the vehicle. The turret is steel with an inner layer of special armor; the gunner sits on the left and the tank commander on the right. The T-80's rear hull top is different from the T64's in that it has a distinct oblong exhaust outlet in the hull rear. The T-80 has the same 125 mm 2A46 smoothbore gun as the T-72 with a horizontal ammunition stowage system. This can fire either the AT-8 `Songster' ATGW or 125 mm ammunition of the separate loading type. With the latter, the projectile is loaded first, followed by the semi-combustible cartridge case; all that remains after firing is the stub base which is ejected. This 125 mm ammunition is common to the T-64, T-72, T-80, T-84 and T-90 MBTs and known types are shown in the table. The 125 mm smoothbore gun is stabilized in both elevation and traverse. A 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted coaxially to the right of the main armament and a 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun is mounted on the commander's cupola. Full details of the 125 mm gun/missile launcher are given in the entry for the T-64B. The 125 mm gun/missile launcher tube is fitted with a thermal sleeve and a fume extractor. Banks of electrically operated smoke grenade dischargers are mounted either side of the 125 mm gun/missile launcher, normally five on the left and four on the right. A total of four AT-8 `Songster' ATGWs is carried and these are identical to those launched by the T-64B MBT deployed some years ago. The missile guidance box is mounted on the right side of the turret roof in front of the commander's cupola and can be removed and stowed inside the vehicle if required. Standard equipment includes snorkels for 137

EQUIPMENT- TANKS deep fording operations, which are carried on the turret rear when not required, an overpressure-type NBC protection system, night vision equipment for all three crew members, unditching beam carried across the hull rear and a laser warning device activated by laser rangefinders, laser designators or precision-guided munitions fitted with a laser guidance device. Mounted on the turret rear is a large circular container which carries two snorkels. The larger one is the snorkel for the gas turbine, with another one being fitted onto the radiator grille by means of two adaptors. This provides an air intake for the gas turbine.

Model Crew Combat weight Length (gun forward) (hull) Width Height (without AA MG) Max road speed Cross-country speed Road range (without long-range fuel tanks)

T-80B 3 42,500 kg 9.9 m 7.4 m 3.4 m 2.202 m 70 km/h 48 km/h

T-80U 3 46,000 kg 9.656 m 7.00 m 3.589 m 2.202 m 70 km/h 48 km/h

335 km

335 km

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96B1A06L-SHO2 (with long-range fuel tanks) Fuel capacity (internal) (external) Fording (without preparation) (with preparation) Gradient Side slope Vertical obstacle Trench Armament (main) 1 x 125 mm gun/ missile launcher (coaxial) (anti-aircraft) 1 x 12.7 mm NSVT MG 1 x 125 mm 2A46M-1 gun/ missile launcher 1.8 m 5m 63% 46% 1m 2.85 m 1.2 m 5m 63% 46% 1m 2.85 m 1,100 liters 740 liters 1,090 liters 680 liters 440 km 440 km

1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG 1 x 12.7 mm NSVT MG 8 45 (28 in automatic loader) 1,250 500 6 360º +14º/-5º yes yes laser yes

Smoke grenade dischargers 8-12 Ammunition (main) (coaxial) (anti-aircraft) ATGW Gun control equipment Turret traverse Gun elevation/depression Gun stabilizers (vertical) (horizontal) Rangefinder NBC system Night vision equipment yes yes yes yes laser yes 360º +14º/-5º 36 1,250 500 4

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T-90 Main Battle Tank

Description The layout of the T-90 MBT is almost identical to that of the T-72 MBT, with the driver's compartment at the front, two-person turret in the centre and power pack compartment at the rear. The hull and turret of the T-90 over the forward arc is fitted with the latest generation Kontakt-5 ERA, which provides protection against APFSDS and HEAT-type projectiles. In addition to being fitted to the hull and turret, ERA panels are also fitted either side of the hull front to provide lateral protection to each side of the driver's compartment. The driver is seated at the front of the hull in the centre and has a single TNPO-168 day periscope that gives observation through the frontal arc and a single-piece hatch cover that lifts and opens to the right. For driving at night the day periscope can be replaced by a TVN-5 night vision device. The other two members are seated in the turret with the gunner on the left and the commander on the right. The commander's sighting and observation device is used to control fire from the 125 mm smoothbore gun and the 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun. It also conducts battlefield surveillance and designating targets to the gunner. The gunner's hatch opens forwards and has a circular opening for mounting the snorkel for deep fording operations. In front of the gunner's hatch is the TNPA-65 day vision block while a TNPA-65 day vision block is fitted in the hatch cover itself. The gunner of the T-90 is provided with a day and thermal sighting system with the tank commander being provided with a screen to monitor the thermal view seen by the gunner. Main armament comprises a 125 mm 2A46M4 (or D-81TM) smoothbore gun fitted with a fume extractor and a thermal sleeve. This weapon is stabilized by the 2E42-4 system in both planes and fed by an automatic loader. The 125 mm gun fires ammunition of the separate loading type and details are given in a separate entry for the T-80 MBT. In addition it can also fire a special 140

96B1A06L-SHO2 high-explosive fragmentation projectile that can be detonated over the target using the tank's fire-control system. Russian sources state that the T-90 has a maximum rate of fire of 7 rds/min. In addition; the 125 mm gun can also fire the 9M119 Refleks laser-guided projectile out to a range of 5,000 m. This has the US/NATO designation of the AT-11 `Sniper'. The T-90 normally carries six AT-11 `Sniper' missiles. In addition to being used against ground targets, the manufacturer has stated that the 125 mm laser-guided projectile can also be used against low-flying aerial targets, such as helicopters. The AT-11 `Sniper' weighs 17.2 kg at launch and has four wraparound fins at the rear for stability when the missile leaves the launch tube, and two towards the front for steering. A 7.62 mm PKTM machine gun is mounted coaxially to the right of the main armament and a 12.7 mm NVST machine gun is mounted on the commander's cupola. The latter can be aimed and fired under complete armor protection; on the T72 the commander has to expose the upper part of his body to fire this weapon. The 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun has a PZU-7 optical sight and is fitted with a 1ETs29 vertical stabilization system. Mounted either side of the turret is a bank of six electrically operated 81 mm smoke grenade launchers which are in a new low-angle configuration compared to those fitted to earlier Russian MBTs. The quick forming aerosol screening system comprises the four laser radiation sensors (two coarse and two fine receiving heads), Type 902A Aerosol Forming Grenade Launch System dispensing 81 mm 3D17 aerosol grenades and associated controls. The aerosol screening system detects laser illumination, determines its direction and type (laser range-finder or designator), generates warning signals, both audio and visual, and lays in automatic or semi-automatic modes, quick forming aerosol screens within 3 seconds at a distance of 50 to 80 m from the tank. In addition, the T-90 can also lay its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlet located on the left side of the hull. Standard equipment includes NBC protection, fire detection and suppression system, nose-mounted dozer blade and a deep fording kit. To increase the operational range of the T-90, two diesel fuel drums can be carried under the hull rear.

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Specifications Crew: 3 Combat weight: 46,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 18.06 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.91 kg/cm2 Length: (gun forward) 9.53 m (hull) 6.86 m Width: (without skirts) 3.37 m (over skirts) 3.78 m Height: (without AA MG): 2.226 m Ground clearance: 0.47 m Track width: 580 mm Length of track on ground: 4.278 m Max road speed: 60 km/h Range: (road) 550 km (dirt road) 450 km Fuel capacity: (main) 1,200 liters (auxiliary) 400 liters Fording: (without preparation) 1.8 m (with preparation) 5.0 m Gradient: 60% Side slope: 40% Vertical obstacle: 0.85 m Trench: 2.8 m Electrical system: 24 V Armament: (main) 1 × 125 mm smoothbore 2A46M4 gun (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKTM (or PKT) MG (anti-aircraft) 1 × 12.7 mm NSVT (or KORD) MG Ammunition: (main) 43 (22 ready use) (coaxial) 2,000 (anti-aircraft) 300 Smoke grenade launchers: 8 × 81 mm Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual Turret traverse: 360º Gun elevation/depression: +14/-6º Gun stabilizer: (horizontal) yes (vertical) yes Range setting device: yes (laser) NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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BMP-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicle

The BMP is a fully armored amphibious infantry combat vehicle (AICV). Its low silhouette hull has a sharp sloping front with a conspicuously ridged surface. A centrally located, extremely flat, truncated cone turret mounts a 73-mm smoothbore gun and a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun. A launching rail for SAGGER missiles is attached above the gun. The 290 hp, water-cooled, 6cylinder diesel engine is located at the right front, while the driver's hatch is at the left front, directly in front of the commander's hatch which mounts an IR searchlight. The gunner's hatch is on the left side of the low turret roof. To the rear of the turret there are four large hatches in the roof of the troop compartment, as well as two large exit doors in the rear. There are four firing ports in each side of the troop compartment and one in the left rear door. The suspension has six unevenly spaced road wheels of the PT-76 type, with three track support rollers and a front drive sprocket. A combination of effective antitank firepower, high mobility, and adequate protection made the BMP a formidable addition to the inventory of Soviet motorized rifle units. Designed to suit the demands of high-speed offensive in a nuclear war, it carries a 73mm, 2A20 gun with maximum rounds of 40 and maximum range of over 7,000 ft. Its 73-mm main gun fires a rocket-assisted, fin- stabilized HEAT projectile with an effective range of 800 meters medium (capable of successfully engaging tanks at ranges up to 1,300 meters) and is equipped with an automatic loader. The main armament of the BMP1 is unusual, in that it fires the same ammunition as the RPG-7 infantry rocket propelled grenade launcher. A launching rail for the AT-3 Sagger antitank guided missile is located above the gun for longer range antitank capability (up to 3,000 meters). The BMP is amphibious, propelled through water by its tracks rather than using the waterjet propulsion of the PT-76, and has the range and speed necessary to keep up with the fast-moving tanks it normally follows in offensive formations. The BMP has a three-man crew, including the vehicle commander, who becomes the squad leader when the infantry passengers dismount through the rear exit doors. However, vision blocks and firing ports in the sides and rear of the troop compartment allow the infantrymen 143

EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE to fire assault rifles (AKM or AK-74) and light machine guns (PKM or RPK-74) from inside the vehicle on the move. The troops also carry the RPG-7 or RPG-16 AT grenade launcher and the SA-7/ GRAIL or SA-14 SAM, either of which can be fired by a passenger standing in a rear hatch. When buttoned up, crew and passengers have NBC protection in the pressurized and filtered hull, which allows them to operate regardless of the outside environment. The BMP is equipped with an infrared searchlight, periscopes, and sights for night operations and has a capability to make its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust manifold. Because of the extreme vulnerability demonstrated by the BMP in the 1973 Middle East war, there has been extensive debate in the Soviet Army as to how this vehicle should be used in battle. The BMP has relatively thin armor (maximum thickness 19 mm in the hull, 23 mm in the turret) which provides protection against .50 caliber armor-piercing rounds only over the 60° frontal arc, and the vehicle is extremely vulnerable to ATGM and tank fire. Due to the compactness of the vehicle, critical areas such as the engine compartment and ammunition storage area (on the right side), fuel cells (in the rear doors), and the troop compartment are located in such a manner that penetration anywhere on the vehicle normally will result in a mobility, firepower, or personnel kill. Because of limited capability to depress the main gun, the BMP is unable to engage tanks and APCs from good hull-down positions, and so is very vulnerable to enemy fire when it exposes itself to engage targets. Although the turret can traverse 360 degrees, the main gun and coaxial machine gun must be elevated to clear the IR searchlight on the commander's cupola, creating a dead space for both weapons between 10:00 and 11:00 o'clock. This limitation could be a serious problem during an engagement since an automatic cutoff on the electrically operated turret halts movement until the gun is elevated. The BMP can maintain its top speed (70 km/h) for only short periods of time because of the high amount of vibration and the possibility of transmission failure. Due to the complicated loading mechanism and the lack of stabilization, it is not possible to accurately fire the 73-mm gun or the coaxial machine gun while on the move over rough terrain. The BMP must be stationary when firing and tracking the SAGGER ATGM. The SAGGER is difficult to reload and cannot be reloaded at all under NBC conditions. The land navigation system must be zeroed every 30 minutes.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Crew: 3 + 8 Combat weight: 13,500 kg Unloaded weight: 12,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 22.22 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.6 kg/cm2 Length: 6.74 m Width: 2.94 m Height: (over searchlight) 2.15 m Ground clearance: 0.39 m Track: 2.75 m Track width: 300 mm Length of track on ground: 3.53 m Max speed: (road) 65 km/h (water) 7 km/h Fuel capacity: 460 liters Max range: 550-600 km Fuel consumption: 1 liter/km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Trench: 2.2 m

Armament: (main) 1 × 73 mm 2A28 gun (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKT MG (other) 1 launcher rail for `Sagger' ATGW Smoke-laying equipment: diesel fuel injected into exhaust Ammunition: (main) 40 (coaxial) 2,000 (other) 4 + 1 `Sagger' Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual (by commander) no (by gunner) yes Gun elevation/depression: +33 to -4º Turret traverse: 360º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no Turret rear: 13 mm at 30º Turret top: 6 mm Turret mantlet: 26-33 mm NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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BMP-2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle

Description The BMP-2 [BMP = Boyevaya Mashina Pyekhota - Infantry Fighting Vehicle] infantry combat vehicle, fielded in the early 1980's [initially designated BMP 1981], is an improved version of the BMP-1 incorporating major armament changes. The new two-man turret mounts a 30-mm automatic gun with a long thin tube and double-baffle muzzle brake that can be used against aircraft and helicopters. The ATGM launcher on top of the turret can employ either AT-4 SPIGOT or AT-5 SPANDREL missiles, though the AT-5 Spandrel canister is normally mounted. Given the enlarged turret, there are two roof hatches in the rear fighting compartment, rather than the four of the BMP-1, and the BMP-2 accommodates one less passenger. Each side of the troop compartment has three firing ports with associated roof-mounted periscopes. The BMP-2 is fully amphibious, and the upper part of the track has a sheet metal cover deeper than that of the BMP-1 which is filled with a buoyancy aid. A French SNPE explosive reactive armor (ERA) kit and others are available for use on the BMP-2. However, during dismounted troop movement, ERA would be a hazard. Thus, passive armor is more likely and ERA application is doubtful. For amphibious use, additional armor application is unlikely. Other options are spall liners, air conditioning, and a more powerful engine. Russian AG-17 30-mm automatic grenade launcher modification is offered for BMP-2. Russian KBP offers a drop-in one-man turret, called Kliver, with a stabilized 2A72 30-mm gun, a 4 Kornet ATGM launcher, thermal sights, a coaxial 7.62-mm MG and improved fire control system. ATGM load consists of one ready on the launcher and four stowed. They are readily accessible, but require hand loading from an open hatch. The AT-5 and AT-5B are more likely than AT-4 and -4B. French-German Flame-V adaptor kit permits the BMP-2 system to launch Milan, Milan-2, and Milan-3 ATGMs. 146

96B1A06L-SHO2 Thermal sights are available, and the Russian SANOET-1 thermal gunner's sight is available. The Russian Trakt/1PN65 thermal imaging (TI) ATGM night sight is optional. Acquisition range is 2,500 m (NFI). For the launcher in dismount configuration, the Slovenian TS-F ATGM night sight is available and has a detection range of 4,500 m and recognition range of 2,000 m. The Russian Mulat/1PN86 lightweight TI ATGM thermal sight has 3,600 m detection range and 2,000 m identification range. Specifications Crew: 3 + 7 Combat weight: 14,300 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 20.30 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.65 kg/cm2 Length: (gun forward) 6.735 m (hull) 6.735 m (gun rear) 7.295 m Width: (overall) 3.15 m (over tracks) 2.85 m Height: (to commander's sight) 2.45 m (for air transport) 2.25 m Ground clearance: 0.42 m Track: 2.55 m Track width: 300 mm Length of track on ground: 3.60 m Max road speed: (5th gear) 65 km/h (4th gear) 43.3 km/h (3rd gear) 29.1 km/h (2nd gear) 19.6 km/h (1st gear) 10.6 km/h (reverse) 10.6 km/h Max water speed: 7 km/h Fuel capacity: 462 liters Max road range: 550-600 km Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.7 m Trench: 2.5 m Engine: Model UTD-20 6-cylinder, 4stroke direct injection diesel developing 300 hp at 2,600 rpm Transmission: manual, 5 forward and 1 reverse gears Clutch: multiplate, dry, constant engagement Suspension: torsion bar, hydraulic shock-absorbers on 1st, 2nd and 6th roadwheels Electrical system: 22-29 V Batteries: 2, 140 Ah Armament: (main) 1 × 30 mm 2A42 cannon (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKT MG (other) 1 launcher for AT-5 `Spandrel' or AT-4 `Spigot' ATGW Smoke-laying equipment: 2 × 3 81 mm smoke grenade dischargers, diesel fuel injected into exhaust Ammunition: (main) 500 (coaxial) 2,000 (ATGW) 4 Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual (by commander) yes (by gunner) yes Gun elevation/depression: +75/-5º Turret traverse: 360º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) yes (horizontal) yes NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle

Description The hull and turret of the BMP-3 ICV are of all-welded aluminum amour construction providing the crew with protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. The glacis plate is well sloped and the hull sides vertical. One 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted either side of the hull, firing forwards and these are operated by one of the front three crew members. The turret is in the center of the vehicle with the commander seated on the right and the gunner on the left. The commander has a single-piece hatch cover that opens forwards with integral day periscopes for observation purposes, day/night sights and a searchlight mounted on the forward part of his cupola. In the roof of the vehicle, forward of the commander's hatch, is a large rectangular hatch that opens to the left which may be used for ammunition/missile resupply purposes. In addition, there is a rectangular hatch in the turret roof towards the rear that opens forwards, which may be used for ejecting spent cartridge cases. Over the frontal arc the turret is provided with a layer of spaced armor and mounted on either side of this is a bank of three 81 mm electrically operated smoke grenade launchers. The complete weapon system of the BMP-3 is known as the 2K23 and consists of a 100 mm 2A70 gun, a 30 mm 2A72 coaxial cannon and a 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun, all in a common mount. The 100 mm missile launched from the 100 mm 2A70 gun has the US designator of the AT-10 and the NATO codename of `Stabber'. The complete round weighs 24.5 kg with the missile itself weighing 17.6 kg for the BMP-3 version, muzzle velocity of 370 m/s and maximum range of 5,500 m, although earlier sources quoted a range of 4,000 m. There are 30 rounds of high-explosive fragmentation ammunition carried for the 100 mm gun, 22 of which are for ready use in the automatic loader. A total of eight 9M117 anti-tank guided missiles is carried. The 9M117 is a semi-automatic laser beam guided missile and all the gunner has to do to ensure a hit is to keep his sight on

148

96B1A06L-SHO2 the target. The dual-feed 30 mm 2A72 cannon can engage armored vehicles at ranges of 1,500 to 2,000 m and helicopters out to 4,000 m. Cyclic rate of fire is 330 rds/min and three types of 30 mm ammunition are fired, AP-I, HE-I and HET. The AP-I and the HE-I both have a muzzle velocity of 960 to 980 m/s. The APT projectile will penetrate 25 mm of steel at an angle of 60º at a range of 1,500 m. A total of 500 rounds of 30 mm ammunition is normally carried, 305 of which are HE-I and 195 AP-I. The 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun has a practical rate of fire of 250 rds/min and an effective range of 1,500 m. The basic crew consists of commander, gunner and driver. A total of seven infantrymen can be carried, one either side of the driver with the remainder being seated to the sides and rear of the turret. Normally, five infantrymen are carried at the rear, two either side, one behind the other and one in the centre although, if required, a further two infantrymen can be carried bringing the total to seven in the rear. The troop compartment is at the rear of the hull with entry via two doors in the hull rear opening left and right, with the left door having a firing port. As these doors are opened steps automatically fold down. Over the top of the troop compartment are large rectangular roof hatches, each of which has an integral hatch that opens to the outside of the vehicle. In either side of the troop compartment, to the immediate rear of the turret, are two small firing ports of a different design from those fitted to the BMP-1/BMP-2/BMD-1/2/3 vehicles. When the BMP-3 is used in an amphibious capacity, a short snorkel is extended above the right side of the hull at the rear. The BMP-3 is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by two water-jets mounted on either side low down at the rear of the hull. These water-jets are run from a power take off to the hydromechanical transmission. Before entering the water the bilge pumps are switched on, a snorkel is erected at the rear and a trim vane is erected at the front of the vehicle. When the trim vane is not required it folds back under the nose of the BMP-3. Standard equipment includes the capability to lay a smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlet, an NBC system and a dozer/entrenching blade fitted at the front of the vehicle.

149

EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE

Crew: 3 + 7 Weight: 18,700 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 26.73 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.61 kg/cm2 Length: (overall) 7.14 m (hull) 6.715 m Width: (over tracks) 3.15 m (overall) 3.23 m Height: (over turret roof) 2.30 m (overall) 2.65 m Firing height: 2.02 m Ground clearance: adjustable between 190-510 mm Track: 2.76 m Track width: 380 mm Length of track on ground: 4.06 m Max road speed: (forwards) 70 km/h (reverse) 20 km/h Max speed afloat: 10 km/h Range: (cruising road) 600 km Trench: 2.5 m Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30%

Armament: (main) 1 × 100 mm 2A70 gun (coaxial) 1 × 30 mm dual-feed 2A72 cannon (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKT MG (bow) 2 × 7.62 mm PKT MG (smoke grenade dischargers) 2 × 3 81 mm Ammunition: (100 mm) 40 (22 in automatic loader) (ATGW) 8 (30 mm) 500 (7.62 mm) 6,000 Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual (by commander) yes (by gunner) yes (ballistic computer) yes (laser range-finder) yes Gun elevation/depression: +60/-6º Turret traverse: 360º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) yes (horizontal) yes NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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96B1A06L-SHO2

BMD-1 (Boevaya Mashina Desantnaya) Airborne Combat Vehicle

Description The hull of the BMD-1 is welded aluminum. The driver sits at the front of the vehicle in the centre just forward of the turret and has a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the right. Three periscopes are mounted forward of his hatch, the centre one of which can be replaced by an infrared periscope for night driving. The vehicle commander sits to the left of the driver/mechanic and alongside the commander's seat are the radio and gyrocompass. The bow machine gunner sits to the driver's right and aims the two bow-mounted 7.62 mm PKT machine guns using a TNPP-220 periscope sight to which the machine guns are connected by parallelogram drives. The two machine guns are mounted one either side of the vehicle's front firing forwards. A single semicircular hatch cover is positioned either side of the forward part of the turret. The turret is identical to the one fitted to the BMP-1 ICV and has a single-piece forward-opening hatch cover to the left of the turret. The gunner has four periscopes, one mounted each side and two forward of the hatch. The personnel compartment at the rear of the vehicle has a concertina-type cover that opens towards the front. The only means of entry and exit to this compartment is via this hatch. The senior gunner, grenade launcher and assistant are seated here. In the rear part of this hatch is a normal BMP-1 type firing port with an observation device to enable one of the crew to use a weapon from within the vehicle. The BMD-1 is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water-jets at the rear of the hull. Before entering the water a trim vane, which is stowed on the glacis plate when not in use, is erected at the front of the hull. Main armament of the BMD-1 is a 73 mm 2A28 smoothbore, low-pressure, short-recoil gun which weighs 115 kg. This is fed from an automatic 40-round magazine to the right rear of the gunner. After each round is fired the gun is 151

EQUIPMENT- INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE returned to an elevation of 3º 30' for reloading. The weapon fires a fixed finstabilized HEAT round with an initial muzzle velocity of 400 m/s, which increases to 665 m/s once the projectile has left the barrel and a rocket motor cuts in. The projectile is the same as that used in the SPG-9 infantry weapon and has a maximum effective range of 1,300 m. According to a number of reports the weapon is not accurate in high wind. A 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted coaxially to the right of the main armament and is fed from a continuous belt of 2,000 rounds, honeycombed in an ammunition box mounted below the weapon. Mounted over the 73 mm main armament is a launcher rail for an AT-3 `Sagger' ATGW. There are two missiles carried inside the turret which are loaded via a rail through a hatch in the forward part of the turret roof. The controls for the `Sagger' are normally kept under the gunner's seat and when required are released by pulling a handle. The controls are then locked in position between the legs of the gunner who controls the missile by using the joystick in the conventional manner. The `Sagger' has a minimum range of 500 m and a maximum range of 3,000 m. Specifications Crew: 3 + 4 Combat weight: 7,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 32 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.57 kg/cm2 Length: 5.4 m Width: 2.63 m Height: 1.62-1.97 m Ground clearance: 0.1-0.45 m Track width: 230 mm Length of track on ground: 2.84 m Max speed: (road) 70 km/h (water) 10 km/h Fuel capacity: 300 liters Range: 320 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Trench: 1.6 m Armament: (main) 1 x 73 mm 2A28 gun (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG (forward firing) 2 single 7.62 mm PKT MGs (other) 1 launcher rail for `Sagger' ATGW or roof-mounted AT-4 `Spigot' on turret Ammunition: (main) 40 (coaxial) 2,000 (`Sagger') 3 Turret traverse: 360º Gun elevation/depression: +30/-4º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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96B1A06L-SHO2

MT-LB Multipurpose Tracked Vehicle

Description The hull of the MT-LB is all-welded steel armor with the crew compartment at the front, engine immediately behind the crew compartment on the left side and the troop compartment at the rear of the hull. The driver sits at the front of the hull on the left side and has a single-piece hatch cover in front of which are three periscopes. The commander sits to the right of the driver in the centre and has a single-piece rear-opening hatch cover and two periscopes. In action, the commander also mans the turret. The machine gun turret is mounted to the right of the commander's position and is armed with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun. Like the turrets fitted to the BRDM-2 (4 x 4) and BTR-60PB (8 x 8) vehicle, it does not have a hatch cover. Both the driver and machine gunner have a windscreen in front of their positions which, when in action, is covered by a flap hinged at the top. There is a vision block in each side of the hull, to the left of the driver's and the right of the machine gunner's position. An aisle provides access from the crew compartment at the front of the vehicle to the personnel compartment at the rear. This has inward-facing folding canvas seats for the 10 infantrymen. The two hatches over the top of the troop compartment open forwards. The infantry enters and leaves the vehicle by two doors in the rear of the hull, both of which are provided with a firing port. There is an additional firing port and vision block in each side of the troop compartment. An unditching beam is often carried on the roof or side of the vehicle. The torsion bar suspension consists of six road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear with hydraulic shock-absorbers on swing arms on the first and last road wheel stations. There are no track-return rollers as the top of the track rests on the top of the road wheels. The MT-LB is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by its tracks. 153

EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER Before entering the water a trim vane is erected at the front of the vehicle and the bilge pumps, which have a capacity of 450 liters/min, are switched on. Standard equipment on all vehicles includes an NBC system. The MT-LB has air-actuated brakes which can be connected to a trailer. Night vision equipment includes an OU-3GK white/infrared searchlight with a range of 400 m for the commander and a TVN-2 infrared periscope for the driver with a range of 40 m. It can also tow a trailer or weapon weighing up to 6,500 kg or carry up to 2,000 kg of cargo or stores. Specifications Crew: 2 + 11 Combat weight: 11,900 kg Unloaded weight: 9,700 kg Max payload: 2,000 kg Max towed load: 6,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 20.16 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.46 kg/cm2* Length: 6.454 m Width: 2.86 m Height: (to turret top) 1.865 m Ground clearance: 0.4 m Track width: 350 mm* Length of track on ground: 3.7 m Max speed: (road) 61.5 km/h (water) 4.5 km/h Fuel capacity: 450 liters Max range: 500 km Fuel consumption: 0.9-1.2 liters/km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.61 m Trench: 2.41 m Engine: YaMZ 238 V, V-8 cylinder diesel developing 240 hp at 2,100 rpm Transmission: manual with 6 forward and 1 reverse gears Steering: clutch and brake Suspension: torsion bar Electrical system: 24 V Armament: 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG Ammunition: (7.62 mm) 2,500 Gun control equipment Turret traverse: manual, 360º Gun elevation/depression: +30º/-5º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no Armor: 3.19-9.87 mm NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes *The MT-LB can also be fitted with 565 mm wide tracks which reduce ground pressure to 0.27 or 0.28 kg/cm2

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96B1A06L-SHO2

BMP-1KSh Command and Staff Vehicle

The BMP-1KSh is an unarmed BMP-1 used as a forward command vehicle and mobile observation post. Instead of weapons, in the turret are enhanced night vision gear and observation gear, a laser designator and rangefinder, and a video camera system. Instead of passengers, the hull carries extensive communications gear (at least two long-range and two medium-range), a battle management computer with wireless modem, and inertial navigation gear. The firing ports are retained and can be used for the crew's personal weapons. This was originally designated the BMP M1978 and mounts a larger telescopic antenna called HAWK EYE and a radio set (R-137, R-140M or R-145BM, each with four or five radios).

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EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

BTR-70 Armored Personnel Carrier

Description The hull of the BTR-70 is of all-welded steel armor construction with improved protection over its frontal arc compared to the original BTR-60 series. The nose is also wider and the front of the vehicle provides added protection to the front wheels. The bow section of the BTR-70 may incorporate special layered armor for increased protection. The commander sits at the front of the hull on the right with the driver to his left. The commander has a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the front. The driver also has a single-piece hatch cover that opens at a 45º angle towards the centre of the vehicle. Both the commander and driver have a window to their front which is covered in combat by an armored hatch cover hinged at the top. Each also has three forward- and one side-facing day periscopes, with a single firing port under the commander's last periscope only. To the rear of the commander and driver are two infantrymen facing the front. Over the second axle is the one-person turret, armed with a 14.5 KPVT and a 7.62 mm PKVT machine gun. This turret is identical to that fitted to the BTR60PB (8 × 8) armored personnel carrier and the BRDM-2 (4 × 4) armored car. Some BTR-70 (8 × 8) APCs have been observed fitted with the complete turret of the more recent BTR-80 (8 × 8) APC described in the previous entry. The troop compartment is to the rear of the turret with three firing ports and one vision block in each side of the hull. Over the top of the troop compartment are two square roof hatches each with a circular firing port, opening to the front and rear respectively. Between the second and third axles is a small door that opens to the front. The six infantrymen sit on a bench seat down the centre, back-to-back, enabling them to use the firing ports. The engine compartment is at the rear of the hull and is fitted with a fire

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96B1A06L-SHO2 extinguishing system. The air inlets are in the top of the engine compartment and the air outlets at the rear. The exhaust pipes run from the top of the engine compartment down either side towards the rear. The original two GAZ-49B sixcylinder in-line water-cooled petrol engines have been replaced by two ZMZ4905 8-cylinder petrol engines developing 120 hp each compared to the 90 hp each of the BTR-60. Each engine has its own transmission with the right engine providing power for the first and third axles, the left for the second and fourth axles. If one engine is damaged or disabled then the vehicle can still travel on the other, although at a reduced speed. The BTR-70 is fully amphibious and propelled in the water by a single water-jet at the rear of the hull. On the BTR-60 this had a two-part cover but on the BTR70 a one-part cover is fitted, hinged at the top left. Before entering the water the trim vane is erected at the front of the hull. When traveling, this is stowed on top of the hull front whereas on the BTR-60 series it is under the nose of the vehicle. Specifications Crew: 2 + 9 Configuration: 8 × 8 Combat weight: 11,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 20.86 hp/t Length: 7.535 m Width: 2.8 m Height: (to top of sight) 2.32 m (to top of turret) 2.235 m Ground clearance: 0.475 m Track: 2.38 m Wheelbase: 4.4 m Max speed: (road) 80 km/h (water) 10 km/h Fuel capacity: 350 liters (est.) Max range: 600 km (with external fuel tanks) Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 40% Vertical obstacle: 0.5 m Trench: 2 m Engines: 2 × ZMZ-4905 8-cylinder petrol developing 120 hp each Transmissions: manual with 4 forward and 1 reverse gears Transfer case: 2 speed Steering: power assisted Turning radius: 6.3 m Suspension: torsion bar with hydraulic shock-absorbers Electrical system: 12 V Armament: (main) 1 × 14.5 mm KPVT MG (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKVT MG Ammunition: (main) 500 (coaxial) 2,000 Gun control equipment Turret power control: manual Gun elevation/depression: +30/-5º Turret traverse: 360º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

BTR-80 Armored Personnel Carrier

Description Like the BTR-70 and BTR-60, the BTR-80 has a hull of all-welded steel armor construction. Its layout is similar to the earlier vehicles except that the two petrol engines have been replaced by a single V-8 diesel developing 260 hp, which gives a significant increase in the power-to-weight ratio. Over the frontal arc the welded steel armor provides protection against attack from 12.7 mm AP rounds at a distance of 100 m, the upper part of the hull provides protection against 7.62 mm AP rounds at a range of 100 m while the lower part of the hull provides protection against 7.62 mm AP rounds fired from a range of 750 m. The one-man manually operated BPU-1 turret is similar to that fitted to the BTR-70 and BTR-60PB but the 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun can be elevated to +60º compared to the +30º of earlier vehicles, increasing its effectiveness against low-flying aircraft and helicopters. The standard 7.62 mm PKVT coaxial machine gun is retained. Mounted on the rear of the turret is a bank of six 81 mm Model 902V forward-firing electrically operated smoke grenade dischargers. This is operated from within the turret and each smoke grenade can create a smoke screen up to 30 m wide and 10 m high depending on the strength and direction of the wind. A new hatch arrangement has been provided between the second and third axles, the upper part of which opens to the front while the lower part folds down to form a step. This allows the infantry to dismount from the BTR-80 much more quickly and with less exposure to enemy fire than with earlier vehicles. The BTR80 has a crew of three, commander, gunner and driver and carries seven fully 158

96B1A06L-SHO2 equipped infantry. The BTR-70 has three firing ports in either side of the troop compartment, whereas the BTR-80 has three firing ports in the side of the hull angled to fire obliquely forward, so helping to cover the previously dead ground towards the front of the vehicle. There is also a single firing port to the right of the commander's bow position, which also appears on the BTR-70, and an additional firing port in each of the two roof hatches. The two forward-firing ports are designed for the 7.62 mm PK general purpose machine guns while the three firing ports either side allow the AKMS/AK-74 weapons to be fired from under cover. Small arms carried by the crew are two 7.62 mm PK general purpose machine guns (with 3,000 rounds), eight 7.62 mm AKMS or 5.56 mm AK-74 assault rifles and nine Type F1 hand grenades. In addition, the BTR-80 normally carries two SA-14/SA-16/SA-18 man-portable fire-and-forget surface-to-air missiles and a grenade launcher. The commander and driver each have a total of four day vision devices while the gunner has three. The BTR-80 is fully amphibious, and an overpressure NBC system, night vision equipment and a central tire-pressure regulation system are fitted. The BTR-80 is fully air portable in transport aircraft such as the An-22 and IL76. Specifications Crew: 3 + 7 Configuration: 8 × 8 Combat weight: 13,600 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 19.1 hp/t Length: 7.65 m Width: 2.90 m Height: (loaded) 2.35 m (unloaded) 2.46 m Ground clearance: 0.475 m Track: 2.41 m Wheelbase: 4.4 m Max road speed: 90 km/h Max water speed: 9.5 km/h Fuel capacity: 300 liters Max road range: 600 km Cross-country range: 223-480 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 42% Vertical obstacle: 0.5 m Trench: 2 m Armament: (main) 1 × 14.5 mm KPVT MG (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKVT MG (smoke grenade launchers) 6 × 81 mm Ammunition: (main) 500 (coaxial) 2,000 Gun control equipment Turret traverse: manual, 360º Gun elevation: +60/-4º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

BTR-80A Armored Personnel Carrier

Description The BTR-80A is virtually the same as the BTR-80 but has a new turret armed with a 30 mm 2A72 cannon (also installed in the tracked BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle) with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun being mounted coaxially to the right. Either side of the 30 mm cannon is a bank of three forward-firing electrically operated 81 mm smoke grenade launchers. According to Russian sources, the 30 mm cannon has an effective range of 2,000 m when firing armor-piercing tracer projectiles and 4,000 m when firing high explosive incendiary projectiles. Maximum range of aimed 7.62 mm machine gun fire is quoted as 1,500 m. The power-operated turret is mounted on the roof of the vehicle above the front two axles with the armament being mounted on the upper part of the turret which pivots for elevation/depression. The sighting system is mounted coaxially with the weapons and a searchlight is mounted coaxially above the armament. The day sight is designated the 1PZ-9 and has magnifications of x1.2 and x4 while the night sight is designated the TPN-3 and has a magnification of x5.5. The commander and driver are seated at the front, as in the BTR-80, with the troop compartment in the centre. The troops are seated back-to-back and enter and leave the vehicle via a door in either side of the hull between the second and third axles. The lower part of the door folds down to form a step while the upper part, which contains a firing port and associated vision device, opens forwards. There are an additional two firing ports/vision devices either side of the troop compartment plus roof-mounted periscopes. There are also two roof hatches that

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96B1A06L-SHO2 hinge upwards and each of these has a firing port. The engine compartment is at the rear of the vehicle. Until 1993 the vehicle was powered by a V-8 KamAZ-7403 turbocharged diesel developing 260 hp but the vehicle is now offered with a YaMZ-238M2 diesel which develops 240 hp. Standard equipment on the BTR-80A includes power steering on the front four roadwheels, central tire-pressure regulation system that allows the driver to adjust the tire pressure to suit the type of ground being crossed and an NBC system. It is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by a single water-jet mounted at the rear of the hull. Before entering the water a trim vane is erected at the front of the hull and the bilge pumps are switched on. Improvements to the hull include increased rigidity, removal of one firing port, different seating arrangements and revised hull stowage. Specifications Crew: 2 + 8 Configuration: 8 x 8 Combat weight: 14,550 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 17.9 hp/t Length: 7.65 m Width: 2.90 m Height: (overall) 2.80 m Ground clearance: 0.475 m Track: 2.41 m Wheelbase: 4.40 m (1st to 4th axle) Max road speed: 90 km/h Max water speed: 10 km/h Range: 600-800 km Fuel capacity: 300 liters Vertical obstacle: 0.5 m Trench: 2.0 m Gradient: 60% Side slope: 42% Fording: amphibious Engine: V-8 KamAZ-7403 V-8 turbocharged diesel developing 260 hp or, from 1993, YaMZ-238M2 V-8 turbocharged diesel developing 240 hp Transfer case: 2-speed Steering: power-assisted Tires: 11.50 x 400 - 457 Suspension: torsion bar with hydraulic shock-absorbers Brakes: hydraulic Electrical system: 24 V Armament: (main) 1 x 30 mm 2A72 cannon (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT machine gun Ammunition: (30 mm) 300 (7.62 mm) 2,000 Weapon elevation/depression: +70º/5º Turret traverse: 360º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

161

EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

BTR-90 (GAZ-5923) Armored Personnel Carrier

Description The hull is of all-welded steel armor construction that provides protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. It is believed that over the frontal arc protection is provided against penetration from 14.5 mm projectiles. The layout is very similar to the BTR-80, with the driver and one person at the front, turret in the centre and engine compartment at the rear. As with the BTR-80, the only means of entry and exit is via the roof hatches or the two-part door between the second and third roadwheels, the lower part of which folds downwards to form a ramp while the upper part, with an integral firing port, hinges upwards. Additional firing ports are provided to the front and rear of the side door. The driver and one passenger are seated at the front with each being provided with a single-piece hatch cover and periscopes for forward observation. Mounted on top of the hull is the complete turret of the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicle, which is described in detail in the entry for this vehicle. The turret is armed with a stabilized 30 mm 2A42 cannon, a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun and a roof-mounted AT-5 `Spandrel' ATGW system which has a maximum range of 4,000 m. The troop compartment is at the rear with two small rectangular roof hatches being located to the rear of the turret, both of which are hinged on the inside and can be locked in the vertical position. The rear troop compartment is provided with four roof-mounted periscopes, two either side. Standard equipment includes power-assisted steering on the front four wheels, a central tire-pressure regulation system that allows the driver to adjust the tire pressure to suit the terrain being crossed, an NBC system and passive night vision equipment for the commander, gunner and driver.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 The BTR-90 is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water-jets mounted at the rear of the hull. Before entering the water a trim vane is erected at the front of the vehicle (when this is not required it lies back on the glacis plate) and the bilge pumps are switched on. Specifications Crew: 3 + 7 Configuration: 8 x 8 Combat weight: 17,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 29 hp/t Length: 7.64 m Width: 3.20 m Height: 2.975 m Ground clearance: 0.525 m Max road speed: 90 km/h Max water speed: 10 km/h Range: 500-600 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Trench: 2 m Engine: 500 hp diesel Transmission: manual Suspension: torsion bar suspended from A-frame mounts, dual-hydraulic shock-absorbers on first and last roadwheel stations and single hydraulic shock-absorbers on second and third wheel stations Steering: power assisted, front four wheels Tires: 14.00 x 20 Armament: (main) 1 x 30 mm 2A42 cannon (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT machine gun (ATGW) 1 x AT-5 Spandrel Ammunition: (main) 500 (coaxial) 2,000 (ATGW) 4 Grenade launchers: 2 x 3 81 mm Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual (by commander) yes (by gunner) yes Gun elevation/depression: +75º/-5º Turret traverse: 360º Gun stabilizers: (vertical) yes (horizontal) yes NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

BTR-152 Armored Personnel Carrier

Description The hull of the BTR-152 is made of all-welded armored steel with the engine at the front, commander and driver immediately behind the engine and the troop compartment at the rear. Armored shutters, controlled from inside the driver's compartment, protect the radiator from damage by small arms fire. Power is transmitted from the engine to the transmission and then by a propeller shaft to the transfer box in the centre of the vehicle. Power is then transmitted by a propeller shaft to the front axle and each of the rear axles. The driver sits on the left of the vehicle with the commander to his right, both have a windscreen which can be covered by an armored shutter hinged at the top. This shutter has a vision block for observation when the shutter is closed. Both the commander and driver have a door in the side of the hull and the upper part, which has a small vision slit, folds down on the outside for increased visibility. The roof over the commander's and driver's position is armored. The 17 infantrymen are seated in the open-topped troop compartment at the back of the vehicle, the top of which can be covered by a tarpaulin which is normally carried in the vehicle. The seating arrangements depend on the model: in some there are bench seats across the vehicle and others have them down either side. The infantrymen enter and leave the vehicle by twin doors in the rear of the hull which open outwards, with the left door carrying the spare wheel. There are three firing ports in each side of the hull and another two in the rear, one each side of the doors. The BTR-152 has no NBC system, no night vision equipment and no amphibious capability. There are three sockets for mounting machine guns, one

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96B1A06L-SHO2 on the top of the armor cover over the commander's and driver's position and the other two either side of the troop compartment. The forward mounting normally has a 7.62 mm SGMB machine gun, which can be elevated from -6 to +23.5º and has a traverse of 45º left and right, or a 12.7 mm DShKM heavy machine gun. The side mountings normally have 7.62 mm SGMB machine guns. Specifications Crew: 2 + 17 Configuration: 6 × 6 Combat weight: 8,950 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 12.29 hp/t Length: 6.55 m Width: 2.32 m Height: (hull top) 2.36 m Ground clearance: 0.295 m Track: (front) 1.742 m (rear) 1.72 m Wheelbase: 3.3 + 1.13 m Max road speed: 75 km/h Fuel capacity: 300 liters Max road range: 600 km Fuel consumption: (road) 0.46 liters/km Fording: 0.8 m Gradient: 55% Vertical obstacle: 0.6 m Trench: 0.69 m Engine: ZIL-123 6-cylinder in-line water-cooled petrol developing 110 hp at 3,000 rpm Transmission: manual with 5 forward and 1 reverse gears (5th is overdrive) Transfer box: 2 speed Clutch: dry, 2-plate Suspension: (front) 2 leaf springs and 2 dualaction hydraulic shock-absorbers (rear) equalizing type with 2 leaf springs working in conjunction with torsion bars Tires: 12.00 × 18 (with central tire pressure regulation system) Electrical system: 12 V Batteries: 1 × 12 V Armament: 1 × 7.62 mm SGMB MG Ammunition: (7.62 mm) 1,250 rds Gun elevation/depression: +23.5/-6º Gun traverse: 90º Armor Hull front: 13.5 mm at 35º Hull sides: 9 mm at 7º Hull top: 6 mm Hull rear: 9 mm at 0º Belly: 4 mm NBC system: no Night vision equipment: no

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EQUIPMENT- ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER

BTR-80 M1989/1 KUSHETKA-B (COMMAND VEHICLE)

A command version of the BTR-80 is in service under the designation BTR-80 M1989/1 (Command Variant), this has additional communications equipment and antennas. The Russian designation for this vehicle is the Kushetka-B command/staff armored vehicle, although it is also referred to as R-149BMR. Externally, it is recognizable by its redesigned and much higher roof line, the five radio antennas (one on the left side of the turret, one either side of the hull at the front and one either side at the very rear) and the turret is not fitted with a machine gun. In the forward part of the turret is an observation window with an armored shutter hinged at the top. Communications equipment fitted includes Berkut-M, R-171M, R-163-50V and R-163-10 transceivers, an intercom switching system and a secure communications capability.

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96B1A06L-SHO2

ENGESA EE-9 Cascavel Armored car

Description The all-welded hull of the EE-9 has dual-hardness armor, which consists of an outer layer of hard steel and an inner layer of softer steel roll-bonded and heattreated to give maximum ballistic protection. Increased protection is given over the frontal arc and special emphasis has been given to protecting the vehicle against attack from booby traps, grenades and Molotov cocktails. The driver is seated at the front of the hull on the left side and is provided with a hatch cover opening to the right. There are three day periscopes in the top part of the glacis plate giving the driver a 120º view. The driver is also provided with a small windscreen and wiper, which folds forward onto the glacis plate when not in use. The driver's seat and steering wheel are both adjustable. Initial production vehicles were fitted with a French Hispano-Suiza H 90 turret armed with a French Giat Industries 90 mm D 921 gun but final production vehicles have an ENGESA ET-90 turret armed with a 90 mm ENGESA EC-90 gun, which is essentially a locally built Cockerill gun. The commander is seated on the left side of the turret and the gunner on the right, both with a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the rear and four day periscopes. The gunner has a day telescopic sight linked to the main armament with a magnification of ×5.9. EE-9s have electric-powered traverse and elevation as an option for the turret. It is believed that the EE-9s supplied to Tunisia were fitted with an OIP fire-control system, probably the LRS-5. The 90 mm gun is called the EC-90-III and is mounted in an ET-90 turret. The rifled gun fires the following types of ammunition: HE, HEAT, HESH, Smoke White Phosphorus (Smoke WP-T) and HEAT Target Practice. A 90 mm ArmorPiercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) round was also developed and placed in production in Brazil. Of the 44 90 mm rounds carried, 24 are in the turret and 20 in the hull. ENGESA also developed a commander's cupola for the EE-9 which can be traversed through 360º, has day vision blocks for all-round 167

EQUIPMENT- RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE observation and a 12.7 mm (0.50) M2 machine gun mounted externally on a bracket forward of the commander's single-piece hatch cover that opens to the rear. A 7.62 mm machine gun is mounted to the left of the 90 mm main armament and a similar weapon, or a 12.7 mm (0.50) Browning M2 HB machine gun, can be mounted on the turret roof for anti-aircraft defense. Three smoke grenade dischargers are mounted either side of the turret and are electrically fired from within the vehicle. Late production vehicles for Iraq had a traverse indicator, a clinometer, improved seating, a laser range-finder integrated into the sight which is protected by a shutter when the main armament is fired, and a 12.7 mm M2 HB machine gun on an anti-aircraft mount similar in design to that used by the former Soviet Union with its 12.7 mm DShKM machine guns. Specifications Crew: 3 Configuration: 6 × 6 Combat weight: 13,400 kg Unloaded weight: 10,900 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 15.82 hp/t Length: (gun forward) 6.2 m (hull) 5.2 m Width: 2.64 m Height: (top of commander's cupola) 2.68 m (to turret roof) 2.28 m (to hull top) 1.75 m Ground clearance: (rear axle) 0.34 m (hull centre) 0.5 m Track: 2.1 m Wheelbase: 2.343 m + 1.414 m Angle of approach/departure: 72º/80º Max road speed: 100 km/h Fuel capacity: 390 liters Max cruising range: 880 km Fording: 1 m Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.6 m Armament: (main) 1 × 90 mm rifled gun (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm MG (anti-aircraft) 1 × 7.62 mm or 12.7 mm MG (optional) Smoke-laying equipment: 3 smoke grenade dischargers either side of turret Ammunition: (main) 44 (coaxial) 2,200 Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual (by gunner) yes Max rate of traverse: 360º in 15 s (with power traverse) Gun elevation/depression: +15º to -8º Gun stabilizer: (vertical) no (horizontal) no Armor: 8.5-16 mm NBC system: no Night vision equipment: optional

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PRP-4 Reconnaissance Vehicle

Description The hull of the PRP-4 is virtually identical to the BMP-1 although, as it has a different mission, the layout of the vehicle and roof hatches is very different. The driver is seated front left with the power pack to his right and another crew member seated to his rear. Both have single-piece hatch covers and associated observation devices. The two-man power-operated turret is in the centre of the vehicle and is provided with two roof hatches, sensors and a single 7.62 mm PKT machine gun. Optical devices are mounted on the forward part of the roof and in pods on either side of the turret. Mounted in the rear of the turret is the IRL-133-1 radar with a flat antenna that folds forwards when not operational. This radar can detect and track MBT-size targets out to a range of 8 to 10 km. The 1PN71 thermal night vision system is mounted on the left side of the turret and has a target detection range of at least 3,000 m or 1,300 m and a target recognition range of at least 2,000 m. Mounted on the right side of the turret is the 1PN61 infrared night vision device with a detection range in the active mode of 2,500 to 3,000 m and 1,500 m in the passive mode. To determine the range to targets, a 1D11M-1 periscope laser binocular rangefinder is also fitted in the right side of the turret. An ID13 laser rangefinder is carried inside the vehicle and deployed away from the vehicle when required. Navigation equipment fitted includes course plotter KP-4, gyro course indicator 1G13 and gyrocompass 1G25-1. Information processing and communications equipment fitted includes a 1V250 electronic calculator, an R-173 radio system and a 1A30M automatic command receiver. 169

EQUIPMENT- RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE The fifth crew member is seated in the rear and has a circular roof hatch that opens to the rear. The twin doors in the hull are retained but the vehicle does not have any firing ports. As the PRP-4 has extensive communications equipment and other systems that need additional power, an auxiliary power unit is fitted as standard. The PRP-4 retains the amphibious characteristics of the BMP-1 and is fitted with an NBC system as standard; it can also lay its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlet which is located on the right side of the hull. Specifications Crew: 5 Combat weight: 13,200 kg Ground pressure: 0.60 kg/cm2 Length: 6.735 m Width: 2.94 m Height: 2.146 m Ground clearance: 370 mm Max speed: (road) 65 km/h (water) 7 km/h Range: (road) 550-600 km Fording: amphibious Engine: UTD-20 4-stroke diesel developing 300 hp NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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BRM Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle

Description Externally the BRM reconnaissance vehicle is very similar to the standard BMP-3 ICV which entered service with the Russian Army and Associated States (CIS) some years ago and is now also used by Cyprus, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi The main external differences include only two firing ports in the rear troop compartment, deletion of the two (one either side) bow-mounted 7.62 mm PKT machine guns and removal of the 100 mm 2A70 rifled gun which fires conventional ammunition as well as the 100 mm 9M117 Bastion laser-guided missile. The new reconnaissance vehicle retains the three crew seats and hatches at the front of the vehicle with the centre one being for the driver. There appear to be additional observation devices over the frontal arc in the forward part of the hull and a stowage box on the left side of the hull just above the track guard. The commander and gunner, who also operate the turret-mounted electrooptical devices, are seated in the turret, with the sixth crew member probably being seated to the rear of the turret in the troop compartment to operate the battlefield surveillance radar. The six-man crew consists of the reconnaissance group commander, vehicle commander, gunner, driver/mechanic, navigator/computer operator and wireless operator. Main armament of the BRM is the dual-feed 30 mm 2A72 cannon which can engage armored targets at a range of 1,500 to 2,000 m and helicopters out to a range of 4,000 m and is fully stabilized. Mounted coaxially to the left of the 30 mm cannon is the standard 7.62 mm PKT machine gun with a practical rate of fire of 250 rds/min and a maximum effective range of 1,500 m. Turret traverse is probably the same as the standard BMP-3 - through a full 360º, 171

EQUIPMENT- RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE with weapon elevation from -5 to +60º. Turret traverse and weapon elevation are all-electric with manual controls for emergency use. Equipment installed to enable the vehicle to carry out its specialized reconnaissance role includes the mast-mounted 1RL-133-1 battlefield surveillance radar, which can be retracted into the vehicle when not operating; the 1PN71 thermal night observation device; the 1PN61 night observation device; and the ID14 periscope laser rangefinder. The 1RL-133-1 radar detects vehicles out to a range of 8,000 to 10,000 m and people out to a range of 4,000 m, with the actual ranges depending on the terrain. The radar can be elevated to a height of 1 m and traversed 240º left and right regardless of the turret position. Standard equipment includes a fire detection and suppression system and an NBC system. The vehicle is also fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water-jets mounted one either side at the rear. Before entering the water the trim vane is erected at the front of the vehicle and the bilge pumps activated. Weapons carried for use by the crew of the BRM include six assault rifles and 15 hand grenades. An ATGW system for dismounted use can be carried. Specifications Crew: 6 Combat weight: 19,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 26.31 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.6 kg/cm2 Length: 7 m Width: 3.15 m Height: 2.37 m Ground clearance: 450 mm Track: 2.76 m Track width: 380 mm Length of track on ground: 4.06 m Max road speed: (forwards) 70 km/h (reverse) 20 km Max water speed: 10 km/h Road range: 600 km Trench: 2.5 m Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Engine: Model UTD-29 10-cylinder 4stroke diesel developing 500 hp Electrical system: 27 V Armament: (main) 1 x 30 mm 2A72 cannon (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT machine gun (smoke grenade dischargers) 3 x 81 mm Ammunition: (30 mm) 600 (7.62 mm) 2,000 NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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HJ-62C Armored Scout Vehicle

Description The HJ-62C is based on the Chinese Type 85 Armored Personnel Carrier, also known as YW 531H and the M-1967 APC, is the successor to the YW 531 with 5 roadwheels rather than 4. With a hull of all-welded steel construction, the HJ62C is fully amphibious, propelled in the water by its track. The turret from the Type 85 is removed and in its place an elevated arm on top of which is mounted a battlefield surveillance radar with a detection range of 25 KM for vehicle and 10 Km for personnel. TYPE 85 APC

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EQUIPMENT- RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE Specifications Type YW 531 H Crew: 2 + 13 Combat weight: 13,600 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 23.5 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.546 kg/cm2 Length: 6.125 m Width: (overall) 3.06 m Height (hull top) 1.914 m (including MG) 2.586 m Ground clearance: 0.46 m Angle of approach: 20º Angle of departure: 25º Track: 2.526 m Track width: 360 mm Length of track on ground: 3.275 m Max speed (road) 65 km/h (water) 6 km/h Max range: 500 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 40% Vertical obstacle: 0.6 m Trench: 2.2 m Engine: Deutz BF8L413F 4-cycle air-cooled diesel developing 320 hp at 2,500 rpm Transmission: manual, 4 forward and 1 reverse gears Steering: clutch and brake Suspension: torsion bar Electrical system: 24 V Armament (main) 1 × 12.7 mm Type 54 MG (coaxial) nil (ATGW) nil Ammunition (main): 1,120 Gun stabilizer (vertical) no (horizontal) no NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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BRDM-2 Amphibious Scout Car

Description The all-welded steel armor hull of the BRDM-2 provides the crew with protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. The driver is seated at the front of the hull on the left with the vehicle commander to his right. Both are provided with a bulletproof windscreen to their front, which is covered by an armored shutter, hinged at the top, when the vehicle is in combat areas. When the shutters are in position the driver and commander observe the terrain through day periscopes around the front and sides of their positions, mounted level with the roof of the vehicle. The only means of entry to the BRDM-2 is by two circular roof hatches immediately behind the commander and driver, hinged towards the centre of the vehicle and opening only as far as the vertical. The turret is mounted in the centre of the vehicle and is the same as that mounted on the Russian BTR-60PB (8 × 8) and Czech OT-64 SKOT-2A (8 × 8) armored personnel carriers. There is a single firing port in each side of the hull and immediately behind it are three vision blocks which protrude from the outside of the hull to give some vision to the front and rear of the vehicle. The engine compartment is at the rear of the hull and there are two air-inlet louvres in the forward part of the engine compartment roof and four smaller airinlet louvres to the rear. The exhaust pipes are on either side of the hull. The engine compartment is separated from the crew compartment by a bulkhead. On each side of the vehicle, between the front and rear wheels are two chaindriven belly wheels, which are lowered by the driver and give the BRDM-2 improved cross-country performance and also allow it to cross ditches. A central tire-pressure regulation system allows the driver to adjust the tire pressure to suit the type of ground being crossed. The BRDM-2 is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by a single water-jet at the rear of the hull. Before entering the water a trim vane, which is stowed under the nose of the hull when traveling, is erected at the front of the hull. When not in use, the water-jet outlet is covered 175

EQUIPMENT- RECONNAISSANCE VEHICLE by a triangular plate pivoted at the top. The hydraulic control that activates both the hydro jet drive and the trim vane is located to the front of the driver. When afloat, the driver uses the steering wheel as on land with the water rudders being connected to the steering wheel. At a speed of 6 to 7 km/h, its turning radius is about 10 m. The vehicle is fitted with an overpressure NBC system and its air inlet is on the top of the hull to the left rear of the turret. Standard equipment includes infra-red driving lights; an infra-red searchlight mounted over the commander's position which can be operated from within the vehicle; a winch mounted internally at the front of the hull; a radio; and a TNA-2 land navigation system. It also has a DP3B roentgen meter chemical detector, a VPKhR troop reconnaissance device that warns the crew of chemical agents and a heater that provides hot air to the driver's windows so that they do not become frozen in very cold weather. The winch is provided with 30 m of cable and has a maximum load of 4,000 kg. Armament consists of a 14.5 mm KPVT machine gun with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun mounted coaxially to the right. A telescopic sight is mounted to the left of the main armament. The day only sight is provided with a wiper. The turret has manual traverse and is provided with an adjustable seat for the gunner. Specifications Crew: 4 Configuration: 4 × 4 Combat weight: 7,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 20 hp/t Length: 5.75 m Width: 2.35 m Height (overall) 2.31 m Firing height: 2.13 m Ground clearance: 0.43 m Track: 1.84 m Wheelbase:3.1 m Max speed (road) 100 km/h (water) 10 km/h Fuel capacity: 290 liters Max road range:750 km Road fuel consumption: 0.35-0.45 liters/km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Vertical obstacle: 0.4 m Trench: 1.25 m Engine: GAZ-41 V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 140 hp at 3,400 rpm Transmission: manual with 4 forward and 1 reverse gears Suspension: semi-elliptical springs with hydraulic shock-absorbers Tires: 13.00 × 18 Electrical system: 24 V Turning radius: 9 m Armament (main) 1 × 14.5 mm KPVT MG (coaxial) 1 × 7.62 mm PKT MG Ammunition (main) 500 (coaxial) 2,000 Gun control equipment Turret power control: manual Gun elevation/depression: +30º/-5º NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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82 mm Vasilyek 2K21 (2B9) Automatic Mortar

Development/Description The 82 mm Vasilyek (Cornflower) (2B9) automatic mortar was introduced into the former Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was used in Afghanistan. It has now been replaced in front-line service by the 120 mm 2B11 mortar system, but remains in service with RFAS air assault units. The 120 mm 2B11 is normally transported in the rear of a GAZ-66 (6 × 6) truck. The complete system is called the 2K21 and consists of the 82 mm 2B9 automatic mortar and the 2F54 transport vehicle based on the GAZ-66 (4 × 4) truck. Compared to existing mortar systems the 2B9 has the added advantage that it can be used in the direct and indirect fire roles. When firing in the automatic mode the 82 mm mortar bomb has a maximum muzzle velocity of 270 m/s and when being used in the single-shot mode (muzzle loaded) it has a maximum muzzle velocity of 210 m/s. The primary charge weighs 7.5 g while the automatic loading charge weighs 75 g. The HE-FRAG mortar bomb weighs 3.1 kg and is fitted with a direct action or graze fuse which is armed after 10 m. There is also an anti-armor projectile of the High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) type that will penetrate 100 mm of steel armor. Before loading, the moving parts are pulled back by the charger until they come to rest on the automatic sear. The lever of the disconnector mechanism is set at a position corresponding to the selected type of fire, automatic or single shot. The mortar is then loaded and a clip holding four 82 mm mortar bombs inserted into the weapon through a cover on the right trunnion. The weapon is then fired by pressing the trigger lever. As stated, the mortar can be fired singly or automatically and converts the energy of powder gases generated in firing the weapon to operate the charger. 177

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS To enable sustained fire missions to be undertaken, the barrel is water cooled. This consists of a welded structure consisting of a jacket, steam collector and two valves, relief and check. The 82 mm barrel is mounted on a towed, split trail, wheeled carriage and in action the weapon rests on the trail legs, each of which is provided with a spade and a forward extendable leg that is lowered by a handwheel, with the main carriage raised off the ground. The ordnance then rests on a turning plate allowing 30º of traverse but the saddle is not fixed directly to the plate. Instead, it is supported by hydraulic elevators that can extend the ordnance into a high angle for indirect fire. For this the saddle, cradle, ammunition feed tray and ordnance are elevated together and moved forward so that at full elevation the trunnions are above the carriage axle. The weapon can be towed but is normally transported under canvas covers on the cargo area of a modified GAZ-66 (4 × 4) 2,000 kg truck. The vehicle is fitted with two ramps to assist in loading and offloading the 82 mm 2B9 automatic mortar. Specifications Caliber: 82 mm Weight: 645 kg Length: (traveling) 4.115 m Width: (traveling) 1.576 m Height: 1.18 m Ground clearance: 0.26 m Elevation/depression: +85/–1º Traverse: 30º left and right Max range: 4,270 m Min range: 800 m Rate of fire: (maximum) 170 rds/min (practical) up to 120 rds/min Max towed speed: (earth roads) 20 km/h (asphalt roads) 60 km/h Crew: 5 to 6

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TDA 120mm MO 120 RT Rifled Mortar

Description The TDA 120 mm MO 120 RT rifled mortar is probably the most complex of current mortars and in some aspects approaches very closely to the gun. It is rated by many observers to be the most efficient weapon of its type and more than 1,000 units have been produced. These serve with 24 armed forces in 22 countries, excluding license-produced models. This mortar can be fired only off its wheels and can be deployed only in areas where the towing vehicle has access. It is a massive piece of equipment which fires a heavy bomb out to 13,000 m at rates of fire up to 24 rds/min. It has a rifled barrel and is muzzle loading. To overcome the windage problem the ammunition uses a pre-engraved driving band. Main components are the barrel, cradle, undercarriage and the base plate. The barrel is a substantial forging with the towing eye at the muzzle. The outside is radially finned to increase the surface area for heat dissipation. The interior is rifled and, with the pre-engraved driving band, imparts rotation to the shell. The cradle consists of a steel tube connecting the two wheels and carrying the torsion-bar suspension. The traversing gears are totally enclosed to exclude foreign matter. The elevating handwheel rotates a worm and gear assembly which transmits motion, through a multiple disc clutch, to a pinion meshing with the rack formed by the barrel finning. The collar sliding along the barrel produces the necessary change of elevation. The cross-leveling shaft, actuated by the upper left handwheel, tilts the traversing assembly together with the collar to which the sight is attached. The base plate is very heavy with massive webs on the underside. After a prolonged period of firing the base plate can be extricated by using the barrel as a lever and employing the towing vehicle to pull the base plate up. Although the MO 120 RT is a rifled mortar, it will fire smoothbore bombs except those types having spring-loaded tailfin assemblies with straight fins. 179

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS Smoothbore bombs are frequently used for bedding in the base plate (1 round charge 3, 1 charge 5, 1 charge 7) and also for cheaper training. Bombs produced specifically for the MO 120 RT are equipped with a tail tube carrying the primary and secondary cartridges. This tube is ejected just after the bomb has left the mortar and falls about 100 m from the muzzle. Specifications MO 120 RT Caliber: 120 mm Length of barrel: 2.06 m Weight: total, 582 kg Weight of barrel: 131 kg Weight of base plate: 194 kg Weight of carriage: 257 kg Elevation: +30 to +85º Traverse: at 60º elevation, 250 mils Range: min, 1,100 m; max, 13,000 m Rate of fire: normal, 10-12 rds/min; max, 18 rds/min for a very limited period Wheelbase: 1.73 m Overall width: 1.93 m Overall length: 3.01 m Height in traveling order: 1.33 m Ground clearance: 0.32 m Wheel diameter: 0.7 m Time into/out of action: 1.5 min/2 min

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2B11/2S12 120-mm Towed Mortar

The 2B11 is a 120-mm towed mortar (the 2S12 is the same mortar carried portee-style on the back of a truck). The 2B11, which is a conventional, muzzleloading, smoothbore mortar with a large circular base plate, has a number of improvements over its predecessors, the M-1937 and M-1943, primarily of which is the use of modern materials which reduce the overall weight compared to earlier models. The 2B11 is fitted with a special safety device which prevents double-loading. The 2B11 has a crew of five. The 2B11/2S12 has a rate of fire of 10 rounds per minute with 6 seconds required to reload the tube for the next firing. The 2B11 can fire virtually any 120-mm mortar bomb produced in both the East and the West. The maximum range for standard FRAG-HE rounds is 7100 meters, with a minimum range of 480 meters.

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EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

M-240 240-mm Mortar

Description The 240 mm M-240 mortar consists of a barrel with breech and breech-block frame, a frame with shock absorbers, the mount with training and equilibrating mechanisms, a two-wheel traveling carriage with the suspension, a boom for changing from the firing to the traveling configuration, a base plate and a towing bar with a lunette. The sights are carried separately and are mounted on the mortar only when firing. The shock absorbers are used to protect the sights from firing vibrations and also provide the link between the ordnance and mount. It is also used when the mounting returns to the loading position after firing. The boom provides stability when firing and also has two winches to convert the mortar from the firing to the traveling configuration. The M-240 has a minimum range of 800 m and a maximum range of 9700 m with traverse limited to 18°. Elevation limits are from +45 to +65°. The sights, elevation and traverse gears are on the left-hand side of the barrel. The mortar is normally towed, at a maximum speed of 40 km/h, muzzle first by an AT-P, AT-L or AT-S tractor which also carries the crew of 11. Additional vehicles carry the ammunition and emplacing equipment. On arrival at the firing position, which has to be on firm ground, the mortar is uncoupled from the tractor and the towing lunette is removed. The large circular welded base plate is lowered to the ground and packed with earth to provide a stable firing platform. The smoothbore barrel is 5.34 m long and for loading is swung into the horizontal position. At the lower end of the barrel is the breech-block and projectile guide. Bringing the M-240 into action takes at least 25 minutes, slightly less to move it after firing. Weight in action is approximately 4150 kg. The HE bomb weighs 130 kg of which 34 kg is payload. The bomb, which is almost 1.5 m long, is brought to the mortar on a two-wheeled trolley and a team of five is used for loading. Large tongs/gripping pincers are used to lift the bomb from the trolley onto the projectile guide with two men on each handle and the fifth steadying the fins. The bomb is then pushed into the barrel and the breech is closed. The barrel is then raised to the firing position. The rate of fire is about 1 rd/min.

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120 mm Anona 2S9 SO-120 Self-Propelled Mortar

Description The SO-120 (2S9) has a crew of four: commander, driver/mechanic, gunner and loader. The driver/mechanic is seated in the front centre of the hull and is provided with three day periscopes with the centre block replaceable by an infrared night driving device. The driver has a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the right. The commander is located at the front left of the hull. He is provided with three day vision devices and the communication sets, a gyrocompass and land navigation devices. The commander has a single-piece hatch cover that opens towards the rear. The gunner is on the left of the turret. His position has a panoramic day sight fitted to the turret roof and a telescopic sight for direct fire. The loader is to the right of the gun. He is provided with a single vision block and a seat that folds away while he is serving the gun. The SO-120 (2S9)'s aluminum hull is a version of the BTR-D airborne APC. It is divided into three compartments: the command compartment, the fighting compartment and the power pack compartment. The command compartment is in the front of the hull, forward of the turret mount. It accommodates the commander and the driver/mechanic. The fighting compartment has stowage for 25 rounds of ammunition behind the turret and is in the middle of the hull. The two-man turret is of welded aluminum construction with 16 mm thick frontal armor. The turret roof has two hatches, one for the gunner and the other for the loader. Turret traverse is limited to 35º either side. Mounted in either side of the turret rear is a TNPO-170A day observation device. The track is the same as that used on the BMD-1 airborne combat vehicle and the suspension is hydropneumatic with an adjustable ground clearance of between 100 and 450 mm. The ground clearance is adjustable by the

183

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS driver/mechanic from within the vehicle. There are six roadwheels each side and five track-return rollers. The SO-120 (2S9) is amphibious and is powered in the water by two water-jets at the rear. Power can be delivered to the water-jets and the tracks at the same time. When in the water, splash vanes can be erected in front of the driver's position. Electrically operated bilge pumps are activated to expel any water that enters the vehicle during amphibious operations. The SO-120 (2S9) is armed with a 120 mm breech-loaded gun 2A51 with a barrel approximately 1.8 m long. The gun is probably provided with an interrupted-screw breech mechanism and a chamber detent to retain a round in place when the barrel is elevated. Ammunition is fixed and loading is manual, although ramming is automatic. After the loader has selected a round from a ready rack it is placed in a feed tray. After an electrical button has been pressed a rammer automatically seats the round in the chamber and closes the breech. . The SO-120 (2S9) takes 30 seconds to come into action and a similar time to come out of action. When in the firing position the suspension is raised to provide a more stable firing platform. The SO-120 (2S9) has no coaxial machine gun in the turret and there are no bow or turret-mounted machine guns. Standard equipment includes an NBC system, night vision equipment and an electric bilge pump. Specifications Crew: 4 Combat weight: 8,700 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 27.58 hp/ton Ground pressure: 0.5 kg/cm2 Length: 6.02 m Width: 2.63 m Height: (at max ground clearance) 2.3 m (in firing configuration) 1.9 m Ground clearance: (variable) 100 to 450 mm Track: 2.38 m Track width: 250 mm Length of track on ground: 3.23 m Max speed: (road) 60 km/h (water) 9 km/h Range: (road) 500 km (water) 75 to 90 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 33% Engine: 5D20 diesel developing 240 hp Transmission: manual, 5 forward and 1 reverse gears Suspension: hydropneumatic, adjustable Armament: 1 × 120 mm 2A60 gun Ammunition: 25 × 120 mm Gun elevation/depression: +80/-4º Turret traverse: 35º left/35º right NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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120 mm NONA-SVK 2S23 Self-Propelled Mortar System

Description The 2S23 is based on a modified BTR-80 (8 × 8) Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) chassis with the turret-mounted mortar over the forward part of the hull. The hull of the 2S23 is of all-welded steel armor construction that provides protection over the frontal arc from 12.7 mm armor-piercing rounds at a distance of 1,000 m with the remainder of the vehicle providing protection against 7.62 mm armor-piercing rounds. The driver is seated at the front left with the commander to his right, turret and ammunition compartment in the centre and the power pack compartment at the rear. The latter is provided with automatic fire detection and extinguishing system, a preheater, fuel primer, heat exchangers for the radiator and crank case, diesel fuel tanks and a bilge pump. The turret of the 2S23 is of a slightly different design from that of the 2S9 but has a later 120 mm 2A60 rifled gun-mortar and fires the same family of new ammunition. The direct fire sight is to the left of the 120 mm ordnance and the indirect sight is in the turret roof on the left side. The commander has a raised cupola which can be traversed through a full 360º and also has vision devices, a 7.62 mm PKT externally mounted machine gun and a TKN-3A infra-red searchlight which is mounted to the left of the machine gun. The machine gun be aimed and fired from within the turret by remote control as it is connected to the TKN-3A sighting device. A total of 30 120 mm mortar projectiles and their associated charges is carried and the automatic loading system enables a rate of fire of 8 to 10 rds/min to be achieved. New ammunition is loaded into the 2S23 via a small door in the lower part of the hull between the second and third roadwheels. The High-Explosive Fragmentation (HE-FRAG) round is designated the OF-54, with the actual projectile being called the OF-49, and has a maximum range of 8,850 m while the OF-50 High-Explosive Rocket-Assisted Projectile (HE-RAP) 185

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS has a maximum range of 13,000 m and has less explosive content. Both of these mortar bombs have a body of C60 steel and a nose-mounted point-detonated B35 fuse. The fin-stabilized High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) round has a point-blank range of 500 m and will penetrate 650 mm of rolled homogeneous conventional armor. When in flight the fins unfold to provide flight stabilization. This bomb has a point-initiated base-detonated fuse. While this 120 mm HEAT round will not penetrate the latest MBTs over their frontal arc, it will inflict damage to their sides and rear as well as being capable of destroying most light armored fighting vehicles and self-propelled artillery systems likely to be encountered on the battlefield. All of these three 120 mm mortar bombs feature a pre-engraved copper driving band to the rear with the propellant charge being secured to the base. In addition to the Russian types of 120 mm ammunition, the weapon can fire ammunition designed for the French TDA 120 RT-61 towed rifled mortar system which is used by many countries around the world. Like the BTR-80 APC, the 2S23 is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by a single water-jet which is located in the lower part of the hull rear. Before entering the water a trim board is erected at the front of the hull by the driver without leaving his seat and the bilge pumps are activated. Specifications Crew: 4 Configuration: 8 × 8 Combat weight: 14,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 17.93 hp/t Length: 7.40 m Width: 2.90 m Height: 2.495 m Ground clearance: 0.475 m Track: 2.41 m Wheelbase: 4.4 m Max road speed: 80 km/h Max water speed: 10 km/h Fuel capacity: 290 liters Range: 600 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.5 m Trench: 2 m Engine: V-8 water-cooled diesel developing 260 hp Transmission: manual, 5 forward and 1 reverse speeds Transfer case: 2 speed Steering: power-assisted Tires: 13.00 × 18 Brakes: hydraulic on all wheels Electrical system: 24 V Turning radius: 7 m Armament: (main) 1 × 120 mm gun-mortar 2A60 (anti-aircraft) 1 × 7.62 mm PKT MG (smoke grenade launchers) 2 × 3 Ammunition: (main) 30 × 120 mm (anti-aircraft) 500 Gun control equipment Gun elevation/depression: +80/-4º Turret traverse: 35º left/35º right NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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120 mm 2S31 Vena Self-Propelled Mortar System

Description For the 2S31 application, the chassis of the BMP-3 IFV has been modified in a number of areas. The crew position either side of the driver has been removed as have the two bow-mounted forward-firing 7.62 mm PKT machine guns. The existing two-person turret has been removed and replaced by a much larger turret with vertical sides and rear and a curved front. The hull rear of the vehicle has been modified and all roof hatches and rear doors have been removed. A new and much smaller downward-opening hatch is provided in the rear of the hull on the left side. There are two ammunition resupply hatches in the right side, one in the hull and one in the turret. The 2S31 Vena has a four-man crew consisting of driver seated at the front in the centre, commander in the turret on the right, gunner in the turret on the left and the ammunition loader who sits to the rear of the commander when traveling. Turret traverse is powered through a full 360º with weapon elevation from -4 to +80º, manual controls are provided for emergency use. Each vehicle is also fitted with an onboard automatic survey and orientation system. The commander's cupola is mounted on the right side of the turret roof and has a large electro-optical sensor package on the right side which is covered by a door when not required. This cupola can be traversed through a 90º arc. This sensor package includes 1P51 day/image intensification sights and a 1D22S laser range-finder/designator with some components believed to be used in the BMP-3K reconnaissance vehicle. A 7.62 187

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS mm PKT machine gun is mounted on top of the cupola which can be laid and fired under complete armor protection and can be used to engage ground and air targets. The gunner has both direct and indirect fire sights. The 2S31 Vena is fitted with a bank of six 81 mm electrically operated 81 mm smoke/decoy grenade dischargers either side of the turret. A laser detector is mounted on the low part of the turret front, either side of the 120 mm 2A80 ordnance and on either side of the turret roof at the rear which is used in conjunction with the smoke/decoy grenade system. The long 120 mm 2A80 barrel is rifled and like other Russian 120 mm systems is not fitted with a fume extractor or a muzzle brake as it is of the low pressure type. This weapon has a direct and indirect fire capability and fires a new family of 120 mm ammunition. It can also fire the same family of ammunition as the current 120 mm 2S9 (tracked) and 2S23 (8 × 8) selfpropelled gun mortar systems. According to Russian sources the high-explosive projectile has the equivalent destructive power of a 122 mm/152 mm artillery projectile. The high-explosive fragmentation projectile has a minimum range of 2,000 m and a maximum range of 18,000 m with each projectile having a damage area of 2,200 m2. The second is a cargo round which contains 35 high explosive/fragmentation sub-munitions each of which will penetrate about 100 mm of conventional steel armor. This projectile has a minimum range of 1,500 m and a maximum range of 11,000 m. Each projectile has a damage area of about 10,000 m2 and the 2S31 Vena can also fire western natures of 120 mm rifled mortar ammunition. A total of 70 120 mm projectiles is carried of which 22 (11 + 11) are in ready use magazines for rapid loading using a ramming system. Maximum rate of fire is quoted as 8 to 10 rds/min. Also carried are 10 KBP Instrument Design Bureau 120 mm Kitolov-2M laser-guided projectiles which have a maximum range of 13 to 14 km with a 0.8 to 0.9 hit probability. Targets can be designated from the 2S31 Vena or from a normal tripod-mounted designator. The Kitolov-2M laser guided projectiles are loaded manually. The 2S31 has a combat weight of 19,500 kg and a power-to-weight ratio of 26.31 hp/ton, maximum road speed is 70 km/h and cruising range on roads is 600 km. Like other members of the BMP-3 family, Vena is fully amphibious being propelled in the water by two water-jets mounted low down one either side of the hull at the rear. Before entering the water the trim vane is erected at the front of the vehicle by the driver without leaving his seat and the bilge pumps are switched on. Standard equipment for the 2S31 Vena includes an NBC system of the overpressure type, land navigation system, night vision equipment, vehicle washdown capability and a toilet. Although the prototype of the 2S31 Vena is based on the chassis of the BMP-3 infantry combat vehicle, the turret system can be installed on a wide range of other chassis, tracked and wheeled.

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120 mm 2B16 (NONA-K) Combination Gun

Description Within the designation NONA-K the K (or Kolesnaya in Russian) stands for wheeled, with the weapon being mounted on a split trail carriage and each trail being provided with a castor wheel to assist in bringing the weapon quickly into action. When traveling, the trails are closed together and locked and the complete upper part of the weapon is traversed through 180º and locked in position over the closed trails. The 2B16 is normally towed by the GAZ-66 (4 × 4) 2,000 kg light truck which also carries the five-man crew and a quantity of ready to use 120 mm ammunition. Maximum towed speed on a good road is quoted as 80 km/h. For short distances it can be towed by the smaller UAZ-469 (4 × 4) 695 kg light vehicle. When deployed in the firing position, the NONA-K is supported on a small circular base plate that is located under the forward part of the carriage. The rubber-tire road wheels are raised clear of the ground and the equipment rests on the two box-type spread trails, each of which is fitted with a spade. The 120 mm/24.2 caliber ordnance, designated the 2A51, has 40 constant twist rifling grooves and is breech loaded. It can fire both Russian and Western natures of 120 mm rifled ammunition (for example that used by the French TDA 120 RT-61 towed mortar). To reduce recoil forces on the barrel, a large box-type multibaffle muzzle brake is fitted which absorbs about 30 per cent of the recoil. The hydraulic recoil system is mounted above the ordnance and extends about halfway along the barrel with the recuperator being of the hydropneumatic type. The breech mechanism is of the vertical sliding type with plastic gas obturator and a chamber indent device is fitted to retain the round in place when the weapon is fired at high elevation. The thin shield either side of the ordnance provides the crew of the 2B16 with some protection from small arms fire and shell splinters, with the left side of the shield being slightly higher than the right to protect the direct and indirect sighting system. The manual elevation and traverse controls are also on the left side of the weapon.

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EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS Types of 120 mm special projectiles fired by the 2B16 include HE-FRAG (highexplosive fragmentation), HEAT (high-explosive anti-tank) and smoke as well as 120 mm mortar bombs. Specifications 2B16 Caliber: 120 mm Caliber length: 24.2 Recoil: 400 mm Muzzle brake: multibaffle Carriage: split trail Weight: 1,200 kg Length: 5.9 m Width: 1.79 m Elevation/depression: +80/-10º Traverse: 30º left and right Rate of fire: 8-10 rds/min Max range: (HE-FRAG projectile) 8,700 m (HE-FRAG mortar bomb) 7,100 m Crew: 5

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96B1A06L-SHO2

122 mm Howitzer D-30

Development The 122 mm howitzer D-30 entered service with the former Soviet Army in the early 1960s as the replacement for the 122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30). The main improvements over the earlier weapon are increased range and the ability to rapidly traverse the weapon through 360º. This allows the D-30 to engage new targets much quicker than a normal towed artillery system. Late production models of the D-30 are designated the D-30M and have a number of modifications including a new double-baffle muzzle brake, a new central base plate which is square rather than round and a towing lunette assembly. It also features modifications to its cradle, carriage and recoil system. Description The 122 mm howitzer D-30 is towed muzzle first and on arrival at the battery position the crew first unlock the barrel traveling lock which then folds back onto the central trail. The firing jack under the carriage is then lowered, raising the wheels clear of the ground. The two outer trails are each spread through 120º and the firing jack is raised until all three trail ends are on the ground, when they are staked into position. The lunette is mounted either under the muzzle brake or on the barrel just to the rear of the muzzle brake. In either case it is normally swung through 180º so that it lies under the barrel before firing begins. Fire-control instruments include a Type PG-1M panoramic sight, Type OP4M45 telescopic sight and a Type K-1 collimator. An unusual feature of the D-30 is that the recoil system is mounted over the barrel, which is designated the 2A18. Some of the projectiles fired by the D-30 are interchangeable with those fired by the 122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30) but the D-30 also fires a HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) projectile of the nonrotating fin-stabilized type.

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EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS Specifications Caliber: 121.92 mm (with muzzle brake) Barrel length: 4.875 m Muzzle brake: multibaffle Breech mechanism: semi-automatic vertical sliding wedge breech block Shield: yes Weight: (traveling order) 3,210 kg (firing position) 3,150 kg Length: (traveling) 5.4 m Width: (traveling) 1.95 m Height: (traveling) 1.66 m Axis of bore: (at 0º) 0.9 m Ground clearance: 0.325-0.345 m Track: 1.85 m Tires: 9.00 × 20 Elevation/depression: +70/-7º Traverse: 360º Rate of fire: 7-8 rds/min Sustained rate of fire: (first hour) 75 rounds Range: (max) 15,400 m (with RAP) 21,900 m Crew: 7 Towing vehicle: MT-LB multipurpose tracked vehicle, Ural-375D (6 × 6) truck Unit of fire: 80 rounds

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M-46 130-mm Towed Field Gun

Description The 130-mm field gun M-46 has a recognizable long, thin tube with a cylindrical, perforated (pepperpot-type) muzzle brake. It has a hydro-pneumatic recuperator and a recoil cylinder located above and below the tube, respectively. For travel, the crew withdraws the tube from battery to reduce the overall length of the weapon. The rearward- angled, winged shield may then hide the recuperator above the tube from sight. The gun has a manually operated horizontal sliding wedge breech-block. It fires case-type, variable-charge, separate-loading ammunition. It has night direct fire sights (IR and/or passive in nature). The gun is mounted on a two-wheeled split trail carriage with large sponge-filled rubber tires on each of the single wheels. For travel, it has a two-wheeled limber. A truck or armored tractor can tow it at speeds up to 50 kilometers per hour. The trails consist of steel plates welded into box-section construction. When traveling the barrel is withdrawn by a mechanism on the right trail from battery to the rear to reduce the overall length of the weapon. The carriage is of the split trail type and is provided with a two-wheeled limber. When traveling the spades are removed and carried on each of the two trails. The recoil system is mounted under the barrel, and in front of the shield, which has been removed on some models, is an inverted U-shaped collar. The M-46 has direct fire sights including an APN-3 active/passive night sight. The M-46 is an excellent indirect fire weapon with high muzzle velocity and exceptional range (27,490 meters). It is also a formidable antitank weapon with impressive armor penetration capability. Its tactical role usually is counter-battery. It fires case-type, variable-charge, and separateloading ammunition, including: FRAG-HE, APC-T. Other types of projectile include SP-46 illuminating weighing 25.8 kg with an m/v of 687 m/s and smoke target marking with an m/v of 930 m/s. An RAP is known to be in service having been used by Syria in the 1973 Middle East War. At least two chemical projectiles have been fielded for this weapon. The 130 mm Sarin projectile weighs 33.4 kg of which 1.6 kg comprises the Sarin CW agent which is dispersed by a TNT bursting charge. The other is a VX projectile weighing 33.4 kg of which 1.4 kg is the VX CW agent. 193

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

2A36 (M1976) 152mm Towed Gun

This gun has a distinctive four-wheeled carriage, and has an armored shield that slopes to the rear and extends over the wheels. The 49 caliber barrel of the 2A36 is fitted with a multi-slotted muzzle brake weighing 141 kg with the recoil system consisting of a buffer and a recuperator which are mounted above the ordnance towards the rear. The horizontal sliding breech mechanism opens to the right automatically. The ordnance pivots on the cradle which is of cast and welded steel construction. Elevation and traverse is manual with the former being from 2° 30' to +57° with traverse being 25° left and right. The direct and indirect sights are mounted on the left side of the carriage as are the elevation and traverse mechanisms. Mounted below and to the rear of the breech is the load assist system which is referred to as a quick firing loading system by the former Soviets. This includes a hydraulic rammer operated from the hydro-pneumatic accumulator with controls being provided for ramming and return. A fused projectile is placed on the loading tray which is mounted to the right of the breech. When the breech is opened this slides to the left until it lines up with the breech. The projectile is then rammed into the ordnance, the loading tray then slides back to the right. Types of separate loading ammunition fired include high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) and armor-piercing tracer (AP-T). The former weighs 46 kg and has a maximum muzzle velocity, using the top charge, of about 800 m/s. Before loading the projectile the fusing mode is selected either for fragmentation or high explosive action. The cartridge cased charge is then located in a similar manner and when the breech is closed the rammer automatically returns to the side and the weapon is then ready to fire. The former Soviets quote a rate of fire of six rounds a minute for the 2A36 and say that a battery can put almost one ton of ammunition onto a target in one minute. The AP-T round is used in the direct fire mode against tanks and other armored fighting vehicles. The propelling charge, which weighs a maximum of 11 kg, is placed in a conventional cartridge case. The standard HE-FRAG projectile has a maximum range of 27000 m although a rocket-assisted HE-FRAG projectile,

194

96B1A06L-SHO2 called the active-reactive projectile by the former Soviets, can also be fired. This has a maximum range of 40000 m. Other types of projectile that can probably be fired by the 152 mm 2A36 include chemical, smoke, concrete piercing, incendiary and tactical nuclear. The ammunition system used by the 152 mm 2A36 is of a new design and is not inter-operable with that of earlier former Soviet artillery systems, such as the 152 mm 2S3, and may well be of a new streamlined design. The walking beam suspension has a total of four rubber-tired braked road wheels for high speed towing as well as for improved cross-country mobility with the tires having a normal tire pressure of 4.8 kg/cm2. Each of the front road wheels has a hydraulic shock absorber and a manual handbrake. When in firing position, the 152 mm 2A36 is supported on a circular jack that is located under the forward part of the carriage and on each of the box type welded trails which is provided with a spade. The standard spade is the winter spade but when firing from soft terrain much larger summer spades are used. When coming out of action, the jack is raised clear of the ground and secured under the front, spades removed and stowed on the trails, trails brought together and clamped with a tie mechanism. The hinged tow bar is fitted to the right trail and the weapon is then hitched up to the prime mover. Although the 2A36 was first observed being towed by the new KrAZ-260 (6 x 6) truck, it can also be towed by the KrAZ-255B (6 x 6) truck or ATT, ATS or ATS-59 full tracked vehicles.

195

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

D-20 152-mm Towed Gun-Howitzer

Description The D-20 uses the same carriage and recoil system as the 122 mm Field Gun D-74 which was also shown for the first time in 1955. The D-20 can be distinguished from the D-74 by a much shorter and fatter stepped barrel and a larger double-baffle muzzle brake. The shield has an irregular top with a sliding center section and the top of the shield can be folded down to reduce the overall height of the weapon. A circular firing pedestal fitted as standard on all D-20s is inverted and secured just forward of the shield when traveling. In the firing position the firing pedestal is lowered, allowing the weapon to be traversed quickly through a full 360°. On each of the split box-section trails is a castor wheel (on top) and a spade (underneath). It fires the following case-type, variable-charge, separate-loading ammunition: FRAG-HE, CP, AP-T. Other types of ammunition include chemical, HE/RAP (range of 24000 m), HEAT, illuminating (S-540), smoke (D-540) and tactical nuclear (0.2 kT). More recent ammunition types include HEAT-SS (spin-stabilized), flechette, scatterable mines (anti-tank and anti-personnel) and semi-active laser. The latter is called the KRASNOPOL by the former Soviet Union and is claimed to have a maximum range of 18 km. At least two types of chemical projectiles have been identified. One weighs 40 kg of which 2.8 kg comprises the Sarin CW agent which is dispersed by the TNT bursting charge. The 152 mm viscous Lewisite projectile weighs 42.5 kg of which 5.4 kg comprises the CW agent which is dispersed by the explosion of the TNT bursting charge.

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2A65 (M1987) 152mm Towed Gun-Howitzer

The 152 mm 2A36 is also referred to as the MSTA-B by the former Soviet Union with the weapon also forming the main armament of the new 152 mm selfpropelled artillery system the 2S19 which is also referred to as the MSTA-S. The 2A65 has a long slender barrel which is estimated to be about 40 calibers long, and has a double-barrel muzzle brake. The split trail carriage has few features of note other than swiveling castor wheels secured towards the end of each trail leg and the provision of a hydraulically raised and lowered firing platform under the forward carriage. The 2A65 weighs 7000 kg, is manned by a crew of eight and can be brought into action in about two minutes. It is normally towed by a 6 x 6 truck up to a maximum speed of 80 km/h or 20 km/h across country. A ramming mechanism and a semi-automatic breech can produce a maximum rate of fire of seven rounds a minute. The 2A65 can fire most existing 152-mm howitzer projectiles but a new family has been specifically designed for the 2A65 (and 2S19). In his family one of three pre-loaded cartridge cases can be selected to suit a particular fire mission. Firing the latest FRAG-HE projectile the maximum range is 24,000 meters, but a FRAG-HE with a base bleed (BB) unit added can improve this to 29,000 meters. There is a cargo round containing 42 dual purpose (anti-personnel and armor-penetrating) bomblets, each containing 45 grams of explosives. Another novel projectile dispenses small radio transmitters intended to jam enemy communications. The 2A65 can also fire the KRASNOPOL laser-guided anti-armor projectile. A RAP projectile can be fired to ranges as great as 40,000 meters.

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EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

122 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 2S1 Gvozdika (M1974)

Description The all-welded steel hull of the 2S1 is divided into three compartments: driver's at the front on the left, engine behind the driver and the turret at the rear. The all-welded steel armor fully enclosed turret, which does not overhang the sides of the hull, has a well-sloped front and sides with the commander seated on the left, the gunner in front of and below the commander and the loader on the right. The commander has a cupola that can be traversed through a full 360º and a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the front. The loader's hatch opens forward, and in front of it is a swivel-type day periscope. A long stowage box is often mounted on the left side of the turret and there is a large door in the rear of the hull, hinged on the left side. The rear door has a single firing port in the centre. The 2S1's main armament designated the 2A31, is a modified version of that fitted to the widely deployed 122 mm D-30 towed howitzer. The 122 mm ordnance is fitted with a fume extractor and muzzle brake and is held in position, when traveling, by a lock on the hull glacis plate which is operated by remote control by the driver. A maximum sustained rate of fire of 5 to 8 rds/min can be obtained with a sustained rate of fire of 70 rounds for the first hour. Of the 40 122 mm projectiles normally carried, 32 are HE, six smoke and two HEAT-FS. Of these, 16 are in standby stowage on the left and right of the sidewalls. When in action, ammunition would normally be used from outside the 2S1 system and fed to the crew inside via a ramp. One of the two ammunition members outside the vehicle is connected to the R-124 vehicle intercom and would fuse the projectiles before they are passed into the vehicle. The remaining 24 projectiles and charges are stowed near the loader's position with the empty cartridge cases being ejected outside the turret. 198

96B1A06L-SHO2 The HE projectile has a maximum range of 15,300 m and, in addition to the ammunition listed in the table, leaflet, HE/RAP (range of 21,900 m), armorpiercing high-explosive, flechette, and chemical (no longer used) projectiles are also available. The 122 mm 2S1 can also fire the KBP Kitolov-2 laser-guided artillery projectile which operates in a similar manner to that of the 152 mm Krasnopol laser-guided artillery projectile covered in the entry for the 152 mm 2S19 selfpropelled artillery system. The Kitolov-2 has a maximum range of 12,000 m, with the complete projectile weighing 25 kg. The 2S1 is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by its tracks. Before entering the water the bilge pump is switched on, the trim vane is erected at the front of the hull, shrouds are fitted to the hull above the drive sprocket and front roadwheels and water deflectors on the rear track covers are lowered. Any water that enters the hull during amphibious operations is removed via the exhaust outlet using the bilge pump. While afloat only 30 rounds (projectiles and charges) are carried. Covers are also fitted around the engine air intakes to prevent water ingestion into the engine compartment. Specifications Crew: 4 + 2 in ammunition carrier vehicle Combat weight: 15,700 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 19.1 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.49 kg/cm2 Length: 7.26 m Width: 2.85 m Height: (turret roof) 2.287 m (overall) 2.732 m Ground clearance: 0.40 m (+15/-5 mm) Track width: 400 or 670 mm Max speed: (road) 61.5 km/h (water) 4.5 km/h (some sources state 6 km/h) Fuel capacity: 550 liters Max road range: 500 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 77% Side slope: 55% Vertical obstacle: 0.7 m Trench: 2.2 m Armament: (main) 1 × 122 mm (actual caliber is 121.92 mm) 2A31 howitzer Ammunition: (main) 40 (normally 35 high explosive and 5 HEAT) Unit of fire: 80 rounds Gun control equipment Turret power control: electric/manual Gun elevation/depression: +70/-3º Turret traverse: 360º Armor: (hull) 15 mm (turret) 20 mm NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

152mm Self-Propelled Gun-Howitzer 2S3 Akatsiya (M1973)

Description The all-welded steel hull of the 2S3 is divided into three compartments: driver's at the front on the left, engine to the right of the driver and the fully enclosed turret at the rear. The driver has a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the rear. In front of this are two day periscopes, the left one of which can be replaced by an infra-red device (or, more recently, a passive device) for driving at night. The driver has an adjustable seat and under this is an emergency hatch. On the forward part of the glacis is a splashboard to stop water rushing up the glacis plate when the vehicle is fording a stream. The air-inlet and air-outlet louvers are on the top of the hull, with the exhaust outlet on the right side of the hull, just above the track guard. The large all-welded turret has a sloped front and well-sloped sides with a vision block in each side. The commander is seated on the left of the turret with the gunner forward and below him and the loader on the right. The commander has a cupola that can be traversed through a full 360º and a single-piece hatch cover opening to the rear. Mounted on the forward part of the hatch is a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun which can be aimed and fired from inside the turret. There is an OU-3K infra-red/white light searchlight mounted to the left of the 7.62 mm PKT machine gun. Turret traverse and weapon elevation/depression are powered, with manual controls for emergency use. The loader feeds the projectiles and charges to the ordnance via a loading tray with a chain-driven rammer used to seat the projectile and then the charge in the chamber. The loading mechanism is lowered when the gun is fired. The breech opens automatically. In the rear half of the hull are 33 projectiles, complete with fuses, which are stowed in three horizontal layers. On the 2S3M/2S3M1 is a projectile carousel that holds an additional 12 projectiles in the vertical position. Stowed below the projectiles are 16 charges in two layers of eight with an additional eight being stowed near the loader's position and more being stowed in brackets in the vehicle. An ammunition resupply hatch is provided in the right side of the turret and there is an oval hatch at the rear of the hull that opens downwards.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Main armament comprises a 152 mm weapon, designated the 2A33, which is based on the towed 152 mm D-20 gun-howitzer but with a bore evacuator added behind the muzzle brake. The barrel has a double-baffle muzzle brake, fume extractor and a gun barrel traveling lock. This is operated by the driver, from the driving position, without leaving the vehicle. The normal projectile fired by the 2S3 is the HE-FRAG OF-540, which is fitted with an RGM-2 fuse, weighs 43.5 kg, contains 5.76 kg of TNT, has a maximum muzzle velocity of 655 m/s and a maximum range of 18,500 m. Other types of projectile fired include BP-540 HEAT-FS (also referred to as HEAT-SS, for spin-stabilized), HE/RAP (HighExplosive Rocket-Assisted Projectile) with a range of 24,000 m, AP-T, illuminating, smoke, incendiary, flechette, scatterable mines (anti-tank and antipersonnel) and the Krasnopol laser-designated projectile covered in the entry for the 152 mm 2S19. The 2S3 has infra-red night vision equipment and an NBC system. According to Russian sources, the NBC system also keeps the turret clear of fumes when the gun is fired. An OV-65G heating unit is also fitted. It has no amphibious capability and normally carries an unditching beam at the rear of the hull. Most 2S3 systems have an entrenching blade mounted at the front of the hull to enable the system to prepare its own fire position without engineer support. This enables the 2S3 to prepare its own firing position in between 20 and 40 minutes depending on the type of terrain. Specifications Crew: 4 + 2 in ammunition carrier Combat weight: 27,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 17.33 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.59 kg/cm2 Length: (gun forwards) 8.4 m (hull) 7.765 m Width: 3.250 m Height: 3.05 m Ground clearance: 0.45 m Track width: 480 mm Length of track on ground: 4.94 m Max road speed: 60 km/h Fuel capacity: 830 liters Max range: (road) 500 km (cross-country) 270 km Fording: 1.0 m

Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 0.7 m Trench: 3.0 m Armament: (main) 1 × 152.4 mm 2A33 gun (anti-aircraft) 1 × 7.62 mm PKT MG Rate of fire: (max) 4 rds/min (sustained) 60 rds/min (first hour) Unit of fire: 60 rounds Ammunition: (main) 46 (42 HE, 4 HEAT) (7.62 mm) 1,500 Armor: (turret) 15 mm (max) (hull) 20 mm (max) NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

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EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

152mm Self-Propelled Artillery System 2S19 (MSTA-S)

Description The chassis of the 2S19 is based on MBT assemblies, with the suspension and running gear from the T-80 MBT and the power pack from the T-72 MBT. The 2S19 has the driver's compartment at the front, turret in the centre and power pack at the rear. On the glacis plate is a V-shaped splashboard to stop water rushing up the glacis plate and into the driver's compartment when the vehicle is fording. The hull and turret is of all-welded steel armor construction which provides protection from small arms fire, shell splinters and mines. Mounted under the nose of the vehicle, similar to the T-72/T-80 MBTs, is a dozer blade that can be used to prepare fire positions or clear obstacles without special engineer support. The suspension is of the torsion bar type with either side having six roadwheels, idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and five track-return rollers, with the upper part of the track being covered by a skirt. The roadwheels, idler wheels and drive sprocket are the same as those of the T-80 MBT. The torsion bar suspension is from the T-80, the first, second and sixth roadwheels have a telescopic shock-absorber and these are locked when the weapon is fired. The track is the same as that used on the T-80 and 2S7. The gunner is seated in the left side of the turret and operates the roofmounted panoramic sight and the direct aiming sight, which is mounted in the front left side of the turret. The vehicle commander is seated on the right and operates the roof-mounted 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun (which can be remotely controlled) and the searchlight (which can be remotely controlled from under full armor protection). The 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun can be used to engage both ground and air targets. Mounted externally on the right side of the turret are boxes of 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun ammunition for ready use. This weapon can be elevated to +70º with a traverse of 9º left and 255º right. 202

96B1A06L-SHO2 There are three roof hatches, one for each member of the turret crew. Main armament comprises a long-barreled 152 mm gun, the 2A64, fitted with a fume extractor and a muzzle brake. When the 2S19 is traveling, the ordnance is held in position by a traveling lock mounted on the glacis plate. The 152 mm 2A64 gun fires an HE-FRAG (high-explosive fragmentation) round designated OF-45 to a maximum range of 24.7 km. Other types of projectile include OF-61 base bleed high-explosive with a maximum range of 28.90 km, 30-23 cargo containing 42 HEAT bomblets, 3NS30 jammer projectile with a maximum range of 20 km, smoke, and the Krasnopol laser-guided projectile covered later. Empty brass plastic cartridge cases are automatically ejected forwards out of the turret just below the 152 mm ordnance. When using onboard ammunition, the 2S19 has a rate of fire of 7 to 8 rds/min. The fuzzed projectile is loaded automatically and the charge semi-automatically. While the system is firing, the 2S19 can be reloaded by transporters through the turret rear with the help of special mechanisms of feeding from the ground. This enables the system to move off to its next fire position with a full load of ammunition on board. Specifications Crew: 5 Weight: 42,000 kg Power-to-weight ratio: (with 780 hp engine) 18.57 hp/t (with 840 hp engine) 20 hp/t Length: (overall) 11.917 m Width: (over tracks) 3.38 m (over skirts) 3.584 m Height: (turret roof) 2.985 m Ground clearance: 0.435 m Track width: 580 mm Track: 2.80 m Length of track on ground: 4.704 m Max road speed: 60 km/h Range: 500 km Fording: (without preparation) 1.5 m (with preparation) 5 m Gradient: 47% Side slope: 36% Vertical obstacle: 0.5 m Trench: 2.8 m Engine: V-12 model V-84A multifuel developing 780 hp (or 840 hp diesel) Transmission: mechanical, 7 forward and 1 reverse gears Suspension: torsion bar Armament: (main) 1 × 152 mm 2A64 gun (anti-aircraft) 1 × 12.7 mm NSVT MG Smoke grenade dischargers: 2 × 3 81 mm, can also lay smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into exhaust outlet which is situated on the left side of the hull, towards the rear Ammunition: (152 mm) 50 (12.7 mm) 300 Gun control equipment Turret traverse: 360º NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes

203

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

Splav 220 mm BM-27 BM 9P140 Uragan (Hurricane) Multiple Rocket System

The system is based on a modified ZIL-135LM 8 × 8 truck chassis, which has excellent cross-country mobility and is used for a wide range of other battlefield missions. These include TEL (Transporter, Erector, Launcher) for the FROG-7 surface-to-surface rocket system (and its associated reload vehicle), Sepal cruise missile carrier, cargo truck and tractor truck, to name but a few. The fully enclosed unarmored crew compartment is at the front with the two diesel engines to the rear. The turntable-mounted rocket launcher is mounted at the very rear of the chassis and is traversed to the front for traveling. The rocket launcher pod consists of an upper layer of four tubes and two lower layers of six tubes so giving a total of 16 launch tubes. The sighting system is mounted on the left side of the launcher and access to this is via a folding ladder. The crew compartment accommodates the launch preparation and firing equipment and the operator can select single rockets or salvo firing. It is not fitted with an NBC system and as far as it is known does not have a land navigation system. Steering is power assisted on the front and rear axles and a central tirepressure system is fitted as standard. This allows the driver to adjust the tire pressure to suit the terrain being crossed without leaving his seat. The 8 × 8 vehicle is powered by two diesel engines each of which drive the four wheels on one side of the vehicle. When deployed in the firing position, steel shutters are normally raised over the front windscreens and two stabilizers are lowered at the very rear to provide a more stable firing platform. The launcher is mounted on a turntable at the rear with powered elevation from 0 to +55º and powered traverse of 30º left and right. According to RFAS sources, each salvo has a destructive area of 20,000 to 460,000 m2. If the rockets are launched singly then one rocket is launched every 204

8.8 seconds. A complete salvo of 16 rockets takes 20 seconds to launch. Maximum time quoted for the system to be prepared for action from the traveling configuration to ready to fire is 3 minutes with a similar time to come out of action. Each BM 9P140 launcher is normally accompanied by at least one and sometimes two, 9T452 transloader vehicles based on the same ZIL-135LM 8 × 8 chassis. The transloader vehicle carries 16 reload rounds arranged in two stacks positioned one either side of the vehicle. Mounted to the immediate rear of the cab is a hydraulic crane operated by one person, which is used to resupply the rocket launcher. This crane has a maximum lifting weight of 300 kg with the operator being seated to the rear. For reloading, the launcher has to be in the horizontal position and traversed to one side. The new rocket is then loaded into the tube via the crane and rammed home by the rammer. Specifications Designation: 9P140 Caliber: 220 mm Number of tubes: 16 Elevation: 0-55º Traverse: ±30º Range: 10,000-35,000 m Rate of fire (full salvo of 16 rounds): (constant) 8.8 s per rocket (variable) 20 s for salvo Time into action: 3 min Time out of action: 3 min Crew: 4 Configuration: 8 × 8 Weight: (fully loaded) 20,000 kg (empty) 15,100 kg Length: (traveling) 9.63 m (firing) 10.83 m Width: (traveling) 2.8 m (firing) 5.34 m Height: (traveling) 3.225 m (firing, max elevation) 5.24 m Ground clearance: 0.58 m (axles) Track: 2.3 m Wheelbase: 2.41 +1.5 +2.4 m Engines: 2 × 8-cylinder 4-stroke petrol developing 177 hp at 3,200 rpm (each) Max speed: (road) 65 km/h Max range: 570 km Fuel capacity: 768 liters Fording: 1.2 m Gradient: 57% Vertical obstacle: 0.6 m Trench: 2.00 m

9

6

B

205

EQUIPMENT- MORTAR, ARTILLERY, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

Splav 122 mm BM-21 9k51Grad (Hail) Multiple Rocket Launcher

Description The 122mm 40-tube multiple launch rocket system Grad (Hail), with a firing range of up to 20 km, was introduced into operational service with the Russian Army in 1963 [and initially designated in the West as the M1964]. The BM-21 is unquestionably the world’s most widely used MRL. The successful use of the Grad system in local conflicts of various intensity for three decades led many countries to develop similar systems. The launcher with supporting equipment is referred to as the complex 9K51. This 40-round launcher has four tiers of ten tubes mounted on the chassis of a truck. The BM-21 can be distinguished from other multiple rocket launchers by the square-cornered, 40-tube launching apparatus (4 banks of 10 tubes), which is often covered by a protective canvas. It is mounted on the Ural-375D 6х6 truck chassis, which has a distinctive fender design and a spare tire on the rear side of the cab. The BM-21 also is the only known Soviet rocket launcher without blast shields on the driver's cab. However, the material used in the cab windows and windscreen is strong enough to withstand the overpressures and other effects associated with the firing of 122-mm rockets. The BM-21 can be operated and fired from the cab, or it can be fired remotely at a distance of up to 60 meters, using a cable set. The launcher is traversed forward towards the cab for traveling and for firing uses two stabilizing jacks at the rear of the vehicle. A special electric generator powers the launcher. The 9V170 firing device is cab mounted, but the rockets can be fired using a remote-firing device that has a 64-meter-long cable. This MRL can fire all rockets in 6 seconds or fire each singly, and can reload in 5 minutes. It can fire the 40 rockets or any part thereof at a fixed 0.5-second interval. Single rockets can be

206

96B1A06L-SHO2 fired manually at any desired interval. The five-man crew can reload the launcher in 8 minutes. The BM-21 fires a "9-ft rocket" with a range of 20,380 meters. Each launch tube is grooved to impart a slow rotary motion to the rocket. However, the rocket is primarily fin-stabilized. This combination of spin- and fin-stabilization ensures closely grouped fire at ranges of up to 16 kilometers. The BM-21 and other 122mm rocket launchers can fire all 122mm rockets designed to fit in Sovietderived 122mm launchers (including those that can achieve ranges of 30,000 to 36,000 meters). The 122-mm fin-stabilized rockets can deliver Frag-HE, chemical, or incendiary warheads to a range of over 20 kilometers, or the newer HE and cargo rockets out to 30 kilometers. On explosion, the warhead produces a great fragmentation effect and shock wave. Because of its high volume of fire and large area coverage, the BM-21 is well suited for use against troops in the open, for use in artillery preparations, and for delivery of chemical concentrations. One volley from a BM-21 battalion is 720 rounds. Because these weapons have a large circular area probable (CEP), they are not suited for attacks against point targets. Specifications Grad Ural-375D chassis Caliber: 122.4 mm Number of tubes: 40 Rate of fire: 40 rds/20 s Reload time: 7 min Elevation: 0-55º Traverse: 120º left, 60º right Time into action: 2.5 min Time out of action: 0.5 min Crew: 6 Configuration: 6 × 6 Weight: (fully loaded) 13,700 kg Length: (traveling) 7.35 m Width: (traveling) 2.69 m Height: (traveling) 2.85 m Engine: ZIL-375 7 liter V-8 watercooled petrol developing 180 hp at 3,200 rpm Gearbox: manual with 5 forward and 1 reverse gears Clutch: twin dry disc Transfer box: 2-speed Steering: double-thread worm, hydraulic booster Turning radius 10.5 m Suspension: (front) longitudinal semi-elliptical springs with hydraulic shock absorbers (rear) bogie with longitudinal semielliptical springs Tires: 14.00 × 20 Brakes: (main) air/hydraulic (parking) mechanical Electrical system: 12 V Max speed: (road) 80 km/h Max range: 1,000 km Fuel capacity: 360 liters Fording: 1.5 m Gradient: 60% Vertical obstacle: 0.65 m Trench: 0.875 m

207

EQUIPMENT- SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES

FROG-7A (3R-11, 9K21, 9M21, R-65) FROG-7B (9K52, 9M52, R-70), Luna-M

The FROG-7 is the latest addition to the "Free Rocket Over Ground" family of unguided, pin-stabilized, short-range (battlefield support) artillery rockets. The rocket is of conventional single-stage design, with a cylindrical warhead of the same diameter as the rocket body, giving it a cleaner, more modern appearance than its predecessors. The FROG-7 has a range of 70 km and a 550 kg warhead, and an impact area of approximately 2.8 km long by 1.8 km wide. The FROG-7 is capable of delivering HE, nuclear, or chemical warheads. The FROG-7 gave the Soviet division commander a deep interdiction/penetration nuclear threat. The FROG-7A was first introduced in 1965 as a replacement for earlier FROG variants, some of which had been in service since the mid-1950s. The FROG-1 and -2 are obsolete. The FROG-3, -4, and -5 variants, mounted on a nonamphibious version of the PT-76 light tank chassis, are obsolete in the USSR, but were still found in other Warsaw Pact armies at the end of the Cold War. The FROG-5 is still used as a training rocket, and the FROG-6 is a dummy rocket used for training purposes only. The FROG-7B, introduced in 1968, is essentially the same rocket as the FROG-7A but with a longer warhead section. The FROG-7 was replaced by the SS-21 tactical ballistic missile which has greater range (120 km) as well as probable improvements in reaction time, missile reliability, accuracy, and handling characteristics. Since the SS-21 is mounted on a six-wheeled TEL similar to the SA-8/GECKO SAM system, it has improved cross-country capability and is probably amphibious. Like the SA-8, it 208

96B1A06L-SHO2 probably has an air filtration and overpressure system for-collective chemical and biological protection. The SS-21 was first deployed in 1976 in the USSR and was reported in GSFG in 1981. During the Cold War the most prominent short-range nuclear force [SNF] system at at the division level was the unguided free-rocket-over-ground (FROG), which in the Soviet Army was deployed in a battalion of four launchers. As of 1987 the Soviets were replacing FROGs with the more accurate, longer range SS-21s in some divisions opposite NATO. About 500 FROG and SS-21 launchers were opposite NATO. Another 215 FROG launchers were opposite China and in the Far East; some 100 were opposite Southwest Asia and eastern Turkey; and about 75 were in strategic reserve. Non-nuclear versions of the FROG-7 have been exported to both Warsaw Pact and some non-Warsaw Pact nations. The FROG-7 is deployed by Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, North Korea, Syria, and Yemen. Laith, an Iraqi improved version of the FROG-7, has a 90 km range. The FROG-7 (9K52 Luna), the final version of the FROG family, is an unguided, spin-stabilized, short-range, battlefield support artillery rocket. The range of the FROG-7A rocket is 70 km with a CEP of 500 to 700 meters. It is fitted with either a 450 kg HE, 450 kg nuclear, or 36 kg chemical warheads. The improved FROG7B carries a cargo warhead for delivering bomblets or mines. In addition to improvements in the rocket which give it greater range, a new transport-launch vehicle using a wheeled chassis has been developed based on the ZIL-135 [BAZ-135] 8x8 truck. This wheeled transporter erector launcher (TEL) carries one rocket and a crane. It incorporates a number of improvements in rocket handling such as the on-board crane. Reload missiles are placed on the TEL by that vehicle’s own hydraulically operated crane on the right side of the launcher rail. A very similar vehicle is also used with the FROG-7 system to transport the reserve rockets. The earlier FROG'S used semitrailers towed by ZIL-157V tractor trucks, and needed crane trucks for reloading of the transportlaunch vehicles. Preparation for firing can take 15 to 30 minutes depending on the situation. A typical FROG-7 battalion is equipped with two firing batteries each with two TELs and a D-band RMS (END TRAY) long-range meteorological radar. The cruising range of the transporter-erector-launcher vehicle is 400 km. The FROG-7 TEL vehicle provides no NBC protection for the crew. The singlerail launcher has limited traverse.

209

EQUIPMENT- SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES

SS-21 SCARAB (9K79 Tochka)

The SS-21 SCARAB (9K79 Tochka) single-stage, short-range, tactical-ballistic missile is transported and fired from the 9P129 6x6 wheeled transporter erector launcher. It is supported by a tactical transloader (9T218) and a 9T238 missile transporter trailer towed by a ZIL-131 truck. The 9P129 TEL crew compartment is in the forward section and the missile compartment behind. During transport, the missile is enclosed with the warhead in a temperature-controlled casing. The SS-21 SCARAB missile (9M79) has a maximum range of 70 km and a CEP of 160 meters, while the improved composite propellant 9M79-1 (Tochka-U) has a maximum range of 120 km. The basic warhead is the 9N123F HE-Frag warhead which has 120 kg of high explosives. The 9N123K submunition warhead can probably carry either bomblets or mines. The SS-21 can also carry the AA60 tactical nuclear warhead. Other warheads are believed to include chemical, terminally guided warhead, and a smart-munitions bomblet warhead. In 1981, the SS-21, a guided missile (providing improvement in both range and accuracy), began replacing the FROG in forward-deployed divisions, and 140 are were deployed as of 1988. Division-level SS-21 battalions were being consolidated into brigades in Soviet armies in East Germany. On 21 October 1999 US satellites [reportedly the Defense Support Program] tracked two Russian short-range ballistic missile launched from the Russian city of Mozdok some 60 miles northeast of Grozny. The missiles slammed into a crowded Grozny marketplace and a maternity ward, killing at least 143 persons, according to reports from the region. The missiles are believed by intelligence analysts to have been SS-21s.

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96B1A06L-SHO2

R-11 / SS-1B SCUD-A R-300 9K72 Elbrus / SS-1C SCUD-B

DESCRIPTION The SS-1 SCUD is a single stage, short range tactical ballistic missile, using storable liquid propellants. It is transported and fired from a TEL based on the MAZ-543 wheeled chassis. The SCUD was designed for targets such as marshalling areas, major storage dumps, and airfields CAPABILITIES The SCUD which has a maximum range of 300km, has been deployed in three variants: SS-1b (SCUD-A), SS-1c (SCUD-B) and SCUD-D. The primary difference between each of these variansts is their guidance systems and resulting CEP. The SCUD A and SCUD B have a rudimentary interial guidance system using three gyroscopes and a CEP of 450 meters. The SCUD D has an active radar terminal seeker to refine the aim point as the warhead approaches the targert and a CEP of 50 meters. The warhead separates from the motor and fuel tank assesmbly following motor burn out to increase warhead stability and accuracy. Allof the SCUD variants are capable of delivering the same warheads: HE, chemical, and nuclear.

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EQUIPMENT- SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILES REMARKS The Scud is derived from the World War II-era German V-2 rocket. Unlike the FROG series of unguided missiles, the SCUDs have movable fins. Warheads can be HE, chemical, or nuclear, and the missile, launched vertically from a small platform, has a range of 300 km. Unsophisticated gyroscopes guided the missile only during powered flight - which lasts about 80 seconds. Once the rocket motor shut down, the entire missile with the warhead attached coasted unguided to the target area. Consequently, Scuds had notoriously poor accuracy, and the farther they flew, the more inaccurate they became. SCUD missiles are found in SSM (SCUD) brigades at front/army level. The SCUD series of missiles gave the Soviet front and army commanders an integral nuclear weapons capability. Nonnuclear variants of the SCUD missiles have been exported to both Warsaw Pact and non-Warsaw Pact nations.
• •

The SCUD-A is also known as SS-1b. The SCUD-B replaced the JS-3mounted SCUD-A, which had been in service since the mid-1950s. The longer range SCUD B, also known as SS-1c, can be distinguished by the one meter greater length of the missile and the presence of two air bottles on the side of the superstructure in place of the single bottle used for the "SCUD A" missile. The SCUD B used unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), a more powerful (and toxic) fuel than the kerosene used on the SCUD A, which required an engine redesign. They were transported originally on a heavy-tracked vehicle based on the JS heavy-tank chassis. This vehicle serves also as an erector and launcher for the missiles. The SCUD-B was introduced on the JS-3 tracked chassis in 1961 and appeared on the MAZ-543 wheeled chassis in 1965. The "SCUD B" missile has appeared on a new transporter-erector-launcher based on the MAZ-543 (8x8) truck. The introduction of this new powerful cross-country wheeled vehicle gave this missile system greater road mobility, reduces the number of support vehicles required, and still preserves a great choice in selecting off-road firing positions. The same basic chassis also has been used for the transporter-erector-launcher for the "SCALEBOARD" surface-to-surface guided missile. In the early 1980s, the SCUD-B was replaced by the SS-23, which has greatly improved range (500 km), increased accuracy, and reduced reaction and refire times. The SCUD-C SS-1d achieved an initial operational capability with Soviet forces around 1965. It had a longer range, though lower accuracy, than the SCUD B, and was deployed in smaller numbers. As of the late 1990s some remained in service in Russian ground forces. The SCUD-D SS-1e featured an improved guidance system, possibly incorporating active radar terminal homing, and a wider choice of warheads than its predecessors. This missile has a range of about 700 km. Initially operational in the 1980s, it may not have been deployed by former Soviet ground forces.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 At launch, a basic Scud contains about 3,500 kilograms (7,700 pounds) of IRFNA and about 1,000 kilograms (2,200 pounds) of fuel. Most of the IRFNA and fuel is used within the first 80 seconds of flight when the missile is gaining enough speed to reach its target. When this speed is reached, the Scud is designed to shut off its engine by shutting off the propellant tanks (a fuel tank and an oxidizer tank). The unused propellants—roughly 150 kilograms (330 pounds) of RFNA and 50 kilograms (110 pounds) of fuel—remain on board for the remainder of the flight. In the early 1970s, the Soviet Army sought a replacement for the 9K72 Elbrus (SS-1C `Scud B') system, which had a very slow reaction time [around 90 minutes to prepare and fire] and its poor accuracy when using conventional warheads. The replacement system, codename 9K714 Oka [SS-23 Spider], was developed by KB Mashinostroyenia (Machine Industry Design Bureau) in Kolomna. This system was phased out in compliance with the INF Treaty in the late 1980s. Russia’s TBM inventory is limited to thousands of SS-1c/Scud B and SS-21/Scarab SRBMs as a result of the Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty, which required the elimination of the FSU’s extensive stocks of MRBMs.

213

EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS

RPG-7 Portable Rocket Launchers

Description The RPG-7 remains the standard man-portable short-range anti-tank weapon of the former Warsaw Pact countries and their allies. It has had wide operational use since it was introduced in 1962 and it remains an effective and efficient weapon. The name Knut (Knout) has been used in association with this launcher system. The RPG-7 is similar to the RPG-2 in having a tube caliber of 40 mm but the maximum diameter of the basic PG-7 grenade is 85 mm. The RPG-7 has a stadia line, subtension type, range finding optical sight for day use and can accommodate an image intensifier sight for night firing. It is percussion fired with a positively indexed round. The gases emerge from the convergent/divergent nozzle at high velocity and the weapon rests on the firer's shoulder. The grenade has large knife-like fins which spring out when the projectile emerges from the tube. At the rear end of the missile are small offset fins which give a slow rate of roll to improve stability. After a travel of 10 m the rocket motor fires. This gives a small increase to the velocity then sustains it out to 500 m. The point at which the rocket assistance cuts in is consistent and is a major factor in obtaining round-to-round matching of trajectory. The PG-7 grenade fuse is a VP-7M Point-Initiating, Base-Detonating (PIBD) type using a piezoelectric head connected to the actual fuse in the base of the shaped charge. Early versions of this fuse were prone to malfunction if the fuse was short-circuited by external contact, so screening a target with wire mesh gave a high probability of shorting-out the piezoelectric unit and thus rendering the fuse and warhead inert. Later versions of the fuse corrected this defect. For firing, the user screws the cardboard cylinder containing the propellant to the missile. The grenade is then inserted into the launcher muzzle with the small projection mating with a notch in the muzzle to line up the ignition cap with the percussion hammer. The nose cap is then removed and the safety pin extracted. The cocked hammer is released when the trigger is fired and the missile is launched.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 In 1968 a folding version of the RPG-7V was observed. This was initially taken to be a new launcher and was tentatively named the RPG-8. It was later realized that the revised design was a variant of the RPG-7V and was named the RPG7D1. Originally used by airborne troops, the RPG-7D1 was gradually generally distributed throughout Warsaw Pact forces. Length of the RPG-7D1 is 945 mm; weight is 7.4 kg with the optical sight. The PGO-7 and PGO-7V optical sights are marked with ranges from 200 to 500 m at intervals of 100 m. They have a 13º field of view with a ×2.5 magnification and a range finding stadia type sight. The NSP-2 infrared night sight can also be used.

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EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS

RPG-27 Tavolga

Description The RPG-27 Tavolga (`meadow grass') fires a 105 mm folding fin-stabilized rocket which carries a tandem shaped charge warhead. The main warhead is of 105 mm caliber, in front of which a tubular nose extension carries a smaller shaped charge warhead intended to detonate explosive reactive armor. It is claimed that the combination is sufficient to defeat the armor of `all types of current tanks'. For example, the warhead can defeat 750 mm of armor after penetrating explosive reactive armor. In the general support role, the round will defeat at least 1.5 m of reinforced concrete or brick and 3.7 m of logs and earth. Preparing the weapon for operation from the transport condition requires only three actions. The complete weapon, in firing order, weighs 8 kg. The effective anti-armor range is 200 m. Specifications Caliber: 105 mm Weight: 8 kg Length: 1.1 m Range: combat, 200 m Armor penetration: after ERA, 750 mm Operational temperature range: -50 to +50ºC

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96B1A06L-SHO2

RPG-29 Vampir Anti-Tank Rocket Launcher

Description The RPG-29 Vampir (`vampire') anti-tank rocket launcher is a "portable anti-tank rocket launcher". It resembles several other types of shoulder-fired rocket launcher in that it is a long tube folding into two halves for carrying. It is electrically fired, employing an integral generator, and is provided with iron, optical and night sights. A monopod assumes some of the rocket weight and steadies the launcher before launch. The main innovation on this weapon is the round launched, the PG-29V. This has tandem shaped charge warheads, the smaller being on a boom extension to defeat explosive reactive armor before the larger 105 mm diameter shaped charge can defeat the main target armor. It is claimed that the rocket warheads will defeat the armor of `all current and other armored vehicles at any target angles at a distance of up to 500 m' although the normal maximum combat range is given as 450 m. Other references mention an armor penetration (behind explosive reactive armor) of over 750 mm at a normal angle of incidence. It has been suggested that this warhead is essentially similar to that used on the PG7VR grenade fired by the RPG-7 portable rocket launcher series. In the general support role the round will defeat at least 1.5 m of reinforced concrete or brick and 3.7 m of logs and earth. Service life of the launcher is over 300 rounds. There is a ground mounting for the RPG-29. Provided with laser-based sights and a fire-control unit weighing 3 kg, this launcher/mounting combination can be used to engage armored targets out to a range of 800 m. The complete launcher weight, with the mounting and fire control unit, is 20 kg. Specifications Caliber: 105.2 mm Length: launcher, carrying, 1 m; firing, 18.2 m Weight: launcher, 11.5 kg; round, 6.7 kg; projectile, 6.2 kg Muzzle velocity: 280 m/s Range: combat, 450-500 m Operational temperature range: -50 to +50ºC

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EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS

CAI Armbrust Short-Range Anti-Armor Weapon

Description The Armbrust short-range anti-armor weapon has unique features which set it apart from most other similar weapons. It has no firing signature, emits neither smoke nor blast from the muzzle nor flash from the rear, is quieter than a pistol shot, can be fired from small enclosures or roofed foxholes without danger or discomfort to the firer, has no recoil, requires no maintenance and weighs only 6.3 kg. The Armbrust's 67 mm diameter HEAT warhead can penetrate 300 mm of rolled homogeneous armor at 0º. In addition it will penetrate materials such as masonry, reinforced concrete and so on. The Armbrust is a man-portable, shoulder-fired weapon with a maximum range of about 1,500 m and an operational range against armored vehicles of up to 300 m. Time of flight to 300 m is 1.6 seconds; muzzle velocity is 210 m/s. The fuse will function at an impact angle of up to 78º. Once the weapon has been fired, the launcher is discarded. Specifications Caliber: launcher, 75 mm; missile, 67 mm Length: weapon, 850 mm; missile, 405 mm Weight: weapon, 6.3 kg; missile, 1 kg Muzzle velocity: 210 m/s Time of flight: 1.6 s to 300 m Range: operational, 300 m; max, 1,500 m Armor penetration: 300 mm at 0º Fuse impact angle: up to 78º Operational temperature range: -40 to +52ºC

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Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3 Light Anti-Tank Weapon System

Description The Panzerfaust 3 is based on the Davis countermass principle, with the countermass comprising iron powder. The adoption of this principle permits the firing of the weapon in enclosed spaces while allowing potential design growth, since it is possible to modify the warhead shape and the caliber to meet different tactical requirements without affecting the launch tube. Once the weapon is fired, the launch tube is discarded; only the firing device and the optical or computerized sight unit are retained. To emphasize the versatility of the system, the development of HEAT, multipurpose fragmentation, smoke and illuminating warheads has formed part of the programmed, although not all of these options have been adopted. The range of available models is as follows:

The Panzerfaust 3 is the standard model with a unitary DM 12A1 HEAT warhead. As with all Panzerfaust 3 projectiles, the projectile is stabilized in flight by pop-out forward-folding fins. The Panzerfaust 3-T has a 110 mm diameter tandem warhead capable of defeating reactive armor; the projectile weight is 4.3 kg. The warhead can penetrate up to 700 mm of amour plus the reactive armor.

To enable targets to be engaged at longer ranges, the Panzerfaust 3-T 600 has been developed. This consists of a Simrad IS2000 laser sight claimed to give a hit probability of over 90 per cent against stationary and moving targets out to a range of 600 m. With this version, the computerized sight with its eye-safe laser range-finder measures the distance to the target, indicating to the user the calculated aiming point, taking into account range, wind and ballistic data. Trials have demonstrated that the time taken from target acquisition to firing is between 3 and 4 seconds. The Simrad IS2000 sight can be reprogrammed by the user to compensate for changes in local conditions. It can be used with Simrad GN1 night-vision goggles or fitted with a Simrad KN205F image intensifier for use at night. The Panzerfaust HL Pat 95 is a tandem warhead produced by RUAG 219

EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS Ammotec of Switzerland for use with Panzerfaust 3 launchers by the Swiss Army. The projectile, with a warhead caliber of 124 mm, weighs 3.9 kg and can penetrate 650 to 750 mm of armor; the complete weapon weighs 12.9 kg. RUAG Ammotec produces the complete Panzerfaust HL Pat 95 under license. The Panzerfaust 3 LW is a lightweight version for rapid deployment and special forces. This has a 90 mm diameter warhead capable of penetrating more than 500 mm of armor. Weight ready to fire is reduced to 9.8 kg, and the projectile weighs 2.6 kg. All other aspects of the Panzerfaust 3 series remain as before. Panzerfaust 3 LW HESH has a HESH warhead that reduces the overall weight to 9.8 kg and converts the Panzerfaust 3 into a multipurpose weapon. The projectile weighs 2.6 kg. The Panzerfaust 3 off-route weapon is allied with an electronic sensor and fuse unit capable of detecting armored targets via a break-wire sensor. The battery-powered electronics can provide a programmable operating time variable from 5 minutes to 40 days, with a self-destruct or self-neutralizing mode at the end of that time. The total weight of the Panzerfaust 3 off-route weapon with its adjustable tripod mount is 19.5 kg. Maximum attack distance is 65 m, and minimum attack distance is 15 m. The standard firing device and the optical sight are reusable; their combined weight is 2.3 kg. A lightweight version of the firing device and the optical sight has a combined weight of 1.6 kg. Specifications Caliber: launcher, 60 mm; projectile, 110 mm Weight: ready to fire, 12.9 kg; projectile, 3.9 kg; firing device and optical sight, 2.3 kg Length: transport, 1.23 m; ready to fire, 1.35 m Range: moving targets, 300 m; stationary targets, 400 m Minimum range: 15 m Velocity: initial, 160 m/s; max, 243 m/s Vertex: 300 m range, 2.1 m Time of flight: 1.8 s to 400 m Armor penetration: >800 mm RHA Operational temperature range: -46 to +71ºC

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Spike-MR (Gill) and Spike-LR Portable Multi-Purpose Weapon Systems

. Description The basic Spike-MR system is a portable fire-and-forget anti-tank weapon system with a range of 2,500 m. A complete system includes a round in a sealed container, a tripod and a Command Launch Unit (CLU) accommodating the clipon sight unit. The Spike-MR CLU can have either day-seeker (Camouflage Concealment and Deception, or CCD) or day-and-night-seeker (Infra-Red Imaging, or IIR) capabilities. For use, a round is clipped to the tripod, and the CLU is then added. Once a target has been acquired, the missile is switched on so that its nose-mounted tracker can lock on to the target. The missile is then fired. Once fired, the rocket can assume a high-lofted trajectory so that the missile still locked on to its target; will top-attack the upper surfaces of a tank target, thereby avoiding thick frontal armor. If required, the missile can be launched in a low, direct trajectory. Once the fire-and-forget missile has been launched, the operator can then place another missile on the tripod ready for the next engagement. The CLU day sight has ×10 magnification and a field of view of 5º. The thermal sight has wide and narrow field-of-view options. The CLU has a built-in test programmer. In its daysight form, the weight is 5 kg; this increases to 9 kg when the thermal sight is added. A sealed round weighs 13 kg and is 1.2 m long. The missile has a tandem warhead, with the forward warhead located just behind the homing head in the missile nose. The head contains the missile-seeker optical system, sensors, gimbals, rate gyro and the associated electronics. The main rocket motor is 221

EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS located behind the forward warhead, with the following compartment occupied by a thermal battery, a roll gyro and further electronics. Then comes the rear warhead, with the tail occupied by the servo section and the launch motor. The four tailfins provide in-flight guidance, while four wings at the centre of the body provide stabilization and lift. The Spike-LR system is optimized for special-operations or rapid-deployment forces and has a maximum range of 4,000 m. It can be launched in either a fireand-forget mode or in a fire-observe-and-update mode using a fiber-optic twoway link. The fiber-optic link provides visual communication between the missile seeker and the launcher. The link enables the gunner to maintain an image of the missile's flight up until impact, allowing the gunner to correct the aim regardless of range, to change the target during missile flight or to abort the missile in the case of a friendly target. The foregoing capabilities and Spike's extended range which maximize operator survivability are seen by Rafael as `fire and forget...plus benefits'. The Spike-MR/Spike-LR systems can be carried by a team of three, using backpacks. Two members can each carry two rounds, while the third member of the team carries the launcher. Provisional Warhead diameter: (not confirmed) 115 mm Weights: complete system: 26 kg sealed round: 13 kg tripod: 3 kg CLU: day mode: 5 kg night mode: 9 kg battery: 1 kg Length: sealed round, 1.2 m Range: Spike-MR: min: 200 m max: 2,500 m~ Spike-LR: min: 200 m max: 4,000 m

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Aerospatiale Eryx Short-Range Anti-Tank Missile

Description The Eryx system consists of a missile prepacked in a container tube in which it is transported and stored and from which it is launched, plus a compact firing unit containing the ignition, detection and timing systems, together with a remote control. The missile can be emplaced and made ready to fire in less than 5 seconds. During flight (4.2 seconds to 600 m) the firer is required only to keep the sight on the target. The missile carries an infra-red beacon which is detected by the sight unit, inside which corrections are derived, producing steering commands sent to the missile via a wire link which is unspooled as the missile proceeds. The application of a new concept, the direct thrust flight control, efficient even at low speed, allows launching to be achieved using a small propulsion unit. The missile can thus be used in confined spaces. After launch, the rocket motor accelerates to the flight speed of 300 m/s. A MIRABEL thermal imager can be added to the Eryx launcher for firing at night or under poor visibility conditions. MIRABEL was developed as a joint venture between Thomson-CSF Optronique of France and Allied Signal Aerospace Canada. Weight is 3.4 kg. Specifications Diameter: 160 mm Length: 925 mm Weight: 12 kg; firing post, 4.5 kg Range: 50-600 m Time of flight: 4.2 s to 600 m Max velocity: 245 m/s Armor penetration: 900 mm

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Euro missile MILAN Portable Anti-Tank Weapon System

Description The complete MILAN weapon system is made up of two units: a round of ammunition, consisting of a missile, factory loaded into a sealed launcher/container tube; a combined launching and guidance unit, consisting of a launcher combined with a periscope optical sight and an infra-red tracking and guidance system, the whole being mounted on a tripod. The round of ammunition comprises an assembled missile, factory loaded, with wings folded, into a sealed tube which serves the dual purpose of storage/transport container and launching tube. The container/launcher tube is fitted with mechanical and electrical quickconnection fittings and a self-activating battery is mounted on the outside providing electrical power for the firing installation. MILAN has a night-firing capability through the addition of the MIRA thermal imaging device adopted by the French, German, UK and other armies, or the later Mitis infra-red thermal device. MIRA consists of a case weighing 9 kg which can be mounted on the standard firing post. Target detection is possible at a range of over 4,000 m and firing at 2,000 m. The missile is an assembly of the following main components: an ogival head containing a shaped charge and fuse, a two-stage solid propellant motor discharging through an exhaust tube to a central nozzle located at the rear of the missile, a rear part containing the jet spoiler control system and guidance components. The guidance components include: a gas-driven, turbine-operated gyro; an infra-red flare or beacon; a spool carrying the two guidance wires in one cable; a decoder unit; and a self-activating battery for internal power supply. The missile is launched from its tube by a booster charge gas generator which is contained in the tube and burns for 45 ms. Initial velocity is 75 m/s. The recoil effect is compensated but part of it is used to eject the tube to the rear of the gunner to a distance of 2 to 3 m. The two-stage propulsion motor burns for 12.5 seconds and increases the velocity of the missile, at first rapidly, then more slowly to 210 m/s. The operator must keep his sight cross-hairs on the target throughout the engagement. 224

96B1A06L-SHO2 Guidance is achieved by means of a single jet spoiler operating in the sustainer motor exhaust jet. The jet spoiler operates on guidance command signals generated automatically by the launcher/sight unit (by measurement of the angular departure of the missile from the reference directions of the infra-red tracker in the sight unit) and transmitted to the missile via the guidance wires which unwind from the missile. Specifications Type Munitions in Tactical Pack Weight in carrying mode Weight in firing mode Length in carrying mode Length in firing mode Diameter Missile Weight Length Diameter, wings folded Wing span Warhead Weight Diameter Explosive filling Cone diameter M2 12.23 kg 11.52 kg 1.26 m 1.2 m 133 mm 6.73 kg 918 mm 125 mm 267 mm 2.7 kg 115 mm 1.79 kg 112.9 mm M3 12.62 kg 11.91 kg 1.26 m 1.2 m 133 mm 7.12 kg 918 mm 125 mm 267 mm 3.12 kg 117 mm 1.83 kg 112.9 mm

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Euromissile HOT-3

Development/Description The Euromissile HOT system (Haut subsonique Optiquement teleguide tire d'un Tube) was jointly developed by Aerospatiale (now consumed within MBDA) and the then Messerschmidt-Bölkow-Blohm from 1964 onwards and entered operational service in 1974. It is a heavyweight spin-stabilized wire-guided tube-launched Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (ATGW) with a 150 mm caliber single HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) warhead (HOT-2) for use from ground, vehicle or helicopter mounts. The guidance used is of the Semi-Automatic Command to Line Of Sight (SACLOS) type with an infra-red tracking system. All the gunner has to do is to keep his optical sight cross-hairs on the target to ensure a hit. The HOT-3 has a tandem HEAT charge system for use against reactive armor packages. When launched from helicopters the HOT-3 maximum range can reach 4,300 m. At a constant speed of 240 m/s the HOT-3 flight times are 9 seconds to 2,000 m; 13 seconds to 3,000 m; and 17.3 seconds to 4,000 m. HOT has seen combat service with the French Army in Chad, the Cameroon Air Force during the 1984 coup attempt in that country, the Syrian Air Force in Lebanon during the 1982 Peace for Galilee War, the Moroccan Air Force in the Sahara conflict, with the Iraqi Army and Air Force in its war with Iran and in the 1991 Gulf War (used by Kuwait, Iraq, France, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). The HOT/ATM system can be fitted onto a wide range of tracked and wheeled vehicles such as the Austrian Steyr-Daimler-Puch Pandur (6 × 6), French Panhard VBL (4 × 4), German Wiesel light air-portable armored vehicle and the US AM General HMMWV (4 × 4).

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Model Type Length Diameter (missile) (warhead) Wing span Weight (munitions) (missile) (warhead) Range Speed Time of flight to 4,000 m Armor penetration* * conventional armor Note: Range is 4,300 m when launched from a helicopter 32 kg 24 kg 6 kg 75 - 4,000 m 240 m/s 17.3 s 1,300 mm 32.6 kg 24.5 kg 6.5 kg 75 - 4,000 m 240 m/s 17.3 s 1,300 mm 0.175 m 0.150 m 0.33 m 0.175 m 0.150 m 0.33 m HOT 2 HOT 3

both are wire guided SACLOS 1,300 mm 1,300 mm

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EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS

9K115 Metis and 9M131 Metis-M Anti-Tank Guided Missile System

Description In principle, Metis is similar to Fagot and Konkurs but smaller and with revised SACLOS electronics and a simpler design. It is normally fired from a 9P151 tripod ground mounting but there are also reports of a 9P152 wheeled carriage. The guidance system is the 9S816, powered by a thermal battery attached to the front of the launch tube prior to launch. The 9M115 Metis missile is roll-stabilized in flight using three wraparound tail fins and the tracking flare is mounted eccentrically so that it traces a circle as the missile rolls. The infra-red tracking system derives deviation from the centre of this circle and steering sense from the movement of the flare. This is necessary because there are only two steering surfaces and thus their position must be accurately known for the correct instructions to be determined and transmitted. The 9M115 missile is ejected from its launch container by a booster motor stage, after which the main rocket motor ignites. This allows the weapon to be fired from a confined space, though a clear area of at least 2 m behind the launch tube is necessary. The 9M115 is carried in two backpacks. One pack weighs 10 kg while the other, including two rockets, weighs 26.6 kg. There is an updated missile known as the 9M131 Metis-M. This missile has a larger diameter warhead (130 mm as compared to 94 mm on the original Metis missile) and may have either a tandem HEAT warhead weighing 4.6 kg capable of penetrating 800 to 900 mm of main armor once explosive reactive armor has been defeated by a precursor charge, or a 4.95 kg thermobaric warhead for attacking bunkers and similar targets. The 9M151 launcher can be elevated ±5º and traversed 20º either side of a fixed arc, although full traverse through 360º is possible. A x6 optical sight is used for target tracking. For transport, the Metis-M is carried in two backpacks. One weighing 25.1 kg, contains the launcher and one missile. The other pack contains two missiles and weighs 28.6 kg.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Maximum range of the Metis-M is 1,500 m although the missile guidance is effective only to 1,000 m; time of flight to 1,500 m is 9 seconds. On target the 9M115 warhead can defeat up to 460 mm of armor Specifications Data for Metis, where Metis-M differs, shown in parentheses Operation: SACLOS, wire guided Warhead diameter: 94 mm (130 mm) Length, complete round: 768 mm (910 mm) Weight, launcher: 10 kg Weight, complete round: 6.3 kg (13.8 kg) Range: 40-1,000 m (80-1,500 m) Velocity: 223 m/s (200 m/s) Armor penetration: 460 mm (up to 900 mm) Operational temperature range: -50 to +50ºC

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Kornet Anti-Tank Guided Missile System

Description The Kornet anti-tank guided missile system uses a laser beam-riding missile with SACLOS guidance; the missile appears to be a scaled-up 9M115 Metis derivative although Kornet has four tail fins in place of the three on the Metis. In operation all the operator has to do is keep his optical sight on the target and the system ensures the missile stays on track. Missile velocity has not been released but is understood to be of the order of 240 m/s; maximum range is 5,500 m. Two types of warhead are available for the Kornet missile. For anti-armor use there is a 152 mm HEAT warhead which is claimed to be able to penetrate up to 1.2 m of armor protected by explosive reactive armor. The second warhead is a thermobaric explosive blast warhead for use against structures, soft-skin vehicles and troops in the open; it can also be effective against some types of armored vehicle. The Kornet missile weighs 27 kg in its sealed launch container. At launch it is boosted from the container before the main motor cuts in a short distance in front of the launcher. Four wraparound fins spring out as the missile leaves the container. The Kornet 9P163 launcher, an adjustable tripod, weighs 19 kg and is arranged with the launch tube/container over the main sight unit. The basic system has a day-only sight but a thermal night sight has been developed for use against targets at ranges up to 3,500 m. Specifications Operation: SACLOS, laser-guided Warhead diameter: 152 mm Length: complete round, 1.2 m Weight: launcher, 19 kg; complete round, 27 kg Max range: 5,000 to 5,500 m Velocity: ca 250 m/s (not confirmed) Armor penetration: up to 1.2 m

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100 mm Anti-Tank Gun T-12 (2A19) and MT-12 (2A29)

Description The T-12/MT-12 is operated by a six-man crew consisting of detachment commander, driver of the towing vehicle, gun layer on the left, loader on the right and two ammunition numbers. The weapon comprises four main components, barrel and breech ring, semiautomatic breech, top carriage with sight and lower carriage. The actual mount used in the T-12 is the same as that used in the 85 mm D-48 rifled anti-tank gun. The 100 mm smoothbore barrel is 6.30 m long with the front part strengthened and fitted with a perforated muzzle brake. When in the traveling position, the barrel is clamped tightly to the trails with a lug on the breech ring. The breech ring contains the vertical breech block and some parts of the semiautomatic loading system. The breech block is manually opened and closed by the loader. Manually opening the breech is only required before the first round is fired and after that the semi-automatic loading system to the right of the breech ring on the upper carriage opens and closes the breech block. Consequently, the loader only has to reload. The sights, elevating and traverse system are on the left. The aiming system consists of the S71-40 mount with the PG-1M panoramic sight for indirect aiming, the OP4M-4OU direct sight and the APN-6-40 (or older APN-5-40) for direct aiming at night. A range drum is fitted as standard. The OP4M-4OU direct sight has a magnification of ×5.5 and an 11º field of view. The image intensification night sight has a magnification of ×6.8 and a 7º field of view. The hydraulic buffer and the hydropneumatic recuperator are mounted on top 231

EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS of the ordnance forward of the vertical breech mechanism. Recoil is between 680 and 760 mm and the equilibrator of the MT-12 is mounted parallel and to the right of the recoil system. The carriage of the MT-12 is of the split trail type with a castor wheel mounted on the left trail to assist bringing the weapon into action. The carriage is provided with a small shield with sides that slope to the rear. This provides protection for some of the crew from small arms fire and shell splinters. The wheels of the T-12 can be removed and replaced by LO-7 type skis, which allow the weapon to be fired on ice or snow at elevations of up to 16º. The main difference between the T-12 and the MT-12 is the new carriage. The former was normally towed by a truck whereas the MT-12 is towed by a MT-LB tracked armored vehicle. Production of the MT-LB was completed some time ago. The original T-12 often turned over when being towed causing the MT-12 with the improved carriage to be introduced. The wheels are the same as those on the ZIL-150 (6 × 6) truck and have sponge rubber-filled tires. The suspension of the MT-12 consists of one torsion bar and one shock-absorber per wheel. When the weapon is deployed in the firing position, the suspension system is disengaged to increase gun stability. Specifications Model Caliber Muzzle brake Carriage Shield Weight Length (traveling) Width (traveling) Height (traveling) Max rate of fire Crew Towing speed (road) (cross-country) Towing vehicle

MT-12 100 mm pepperpot split trail yes 3,050 kg 9.65 m 9.65 m 2.31 m 2.31 m 1.60 m 1.60 m 14 rds/min 6 70 km/h 25 km/h MT-LB

T-12 100 mm pepperpot split trail yes 2,750 kg 9.48 m 9.48 m 1.795 m 1.795 m 1.565 m 1.565 m 14 rds/min 6 60 km/h 15 km/h Ural-375D (6 × 6)

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125 mm 2A45M (Sprut-B) Towed Anti-Tank Gun

Development/Description The 125 mm 2A45M (Sprut-B) auxiliary-propelled towed anti-tank gun is also known as the Sprut-B (Russian for Octopus) and is the replacement for the 100 mm MT-12/T-12 towed anti-tank gun which entered service in 1955. The 2A45M shares similar ordnance to that of the T-72/T-80 MBTs. The 2A45M is mounted on a three trail carriage similar to that of the 122-mm D-30M towed howitzer, which enables it to be quickly traversed and laid onto a new target. The ordnance is fitted with a distinctive single baffle muzzle brake. The gun crew is protected by a shield which slopes to the rear and axis of fire 0.925 m. The 2A45M weighs 6300 kg when deployed in firing position and maximum range in the direct fire mode is quoted as 2100 meters. While maximum range of the conventional artillery mode firing a high explosive fragmentation round is 12,200 meters, this is limited by the maximum elevation of the ordnance. The 2A45M fires the same family of ammunition as the T-72/T-80 MBTs. This ammunition is of the separate-loading type (for example projectile and charge), but a dedicated round for the 2A45M may have been developed. The 2A45M is believed to be capable of firing the AT-11 SNIPER (Svir) laser beam riding, antitank guided missile which has a maximum range of 4000 meters. The 2A45M is fitted with an 20 kW auxiliary propulsion unit which provides it with limited battlefield mobility. It has two small wheels on the closed trails for steering purposes. It can be towed by a truck up to a maximum road speed of 80 km/h. Maximum range in the indirect fire role is 12,200 m compared to the 15,400 m (without using a rocket-assisted projectile) of the D-30, as the latter has a maximum elevation of +70º. The HEAT projectile has a V15 nose-mounted base activated fuse and contains 1.76 kg of A-IX-1 or OCFOL explosive which will penetrate firstgeneration MBTs such as the M60, M48 and Leopard 1 unless they are fitted with explosive reactive armor. All projectiles use the same propelling charge which is 408 mm long and all that remains after firing is the stub case. Basic details of the key 125 mm ammunition types are given in the accompanying table.

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EQUIPMENT- ANTI-TANK WEAPONS The 125 mm 2A54M anti-tank gun system can fire the 125 mm laser-guided projectiles fired by the latest RFAS MBTs, the 9K120 Refleks or Sniper. Both these projectiles have a range of 5,000 m and a single HEAT warhead which will penetrate 700 mm of steel armor. More recent versions have a tandem HEAT warhead to defeat explosive reactive armor (ERA). In order to fire these 125 mm laser guided projectiles a 9S53 laser fire-control system has to be used. Specifications Caliber: 125 mm Muzzle brake: double `T' type Breech mechanism: semi-automatic, vertical wedge Shield: yes Weight: (towing) 6,500 kg (self-propelled) 6,800 kg (firing) 6,575 kg Length: (towing) 7.120 m (self-propelled) 6.790 m Height: (towing) 2.09 m (self-propelled) 2.35 m Width: (towing) 2.66 m (self-propelled) 2.66 m Axis of bore: 0.925 m Track: 2.20 m Ground clearance: 0.36 m Elevation/depression: +25/-6º Range (APFSDS) 2,000 m (missile) 5,000 m (HE) 12,200 m Traverse: 360º Rate of fire: 6-8 rds/min Fording: 0.9 m Speed: (in APU mode) 14 km/h Range: (in APU mode) 50 km Crew: 7 Towing vehicle: Ural-4320 (6 × 6) truck, MT-LB multipurpose tracked vehicle Towing speed: 80 km/h

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Volsk AT-9 ` Ataka '/MT-LB Tank Destroyer (Shturm-C)

Description Externally, the MT-LB with the AT-9 is virtually identical to the standard MT-LB, but has a gunner's sight mounted at the front of the hull and a single rail launcher mounted at the rear. This retracts under armor protection when not required and for reloading purposes. This sight is called the Pyl (Dust) and, according to the manufacturer, allows the gunner to acquire and track targets under limited vision conditions such as those encountered in the desert. All the gunner has to do is to keep the day/night sight cross-hairs on the target until the missile impacts. Airborne targets with crossing/approach speeds of 60 m/s and altitudes from ground level up to 3,000 m can be engaged. Rate of fire of the system aboard the 9P149 is 3 to 4 rds/min with a total of 12 missile container/launchers carried. Time of flight of missile to maximum range of 5,000 m is quoted as 17.6 seconds. Crossing targets traveling at a speed of up to 60 km/h can be engaged by the system as can head-on targets traveling at a speed of up to 80 km/h. The target engagement arc is 85º left and right with elevation arc from -5 to +15º. Like the standard MT-LB, the AT-9 MT-LB is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by its tracks. It has a two-man crew and a combat weight of 12.3 tones. Caliber: 130 mm Length: 1,830 mm Weight: 50 kg Range: (min) 1,000 m (max) 5,800 m Max flight speed: 550 m/s Max flight speed: 550 m/s Ammunition load: (Mi-24V helicopter) 8 (Mi-28 helicopter) 16 (9P149 combat vehicle) 12

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Giat Industries AMX-10P Infantry Combat Vehicle with HOT-3 Anti-Tank Missile System

Description The hull of the AMX-10P is made of all-welded aluminum armor with the driver's compartment at the front of the vehicle on the left, engine compartment to his right and the troop compartment at the rear of the hull. The driver has a singlepiece hatch cover that opens to the rear, in front of which are three day periscopes, the centre one of which can be replaced by a passive periscope for driving at night. The engine compartment is provided with a fire extinguishing system and the complete power pack can be replaced in two hours. The air inlet and outlet louvres are in the top of the hull and the exhaust outlet is in the right side of the hull. The transmission consists of a torque converter with an electromagnetically operated clutch and a steer/drive unit comprising a gearbox, a steering mechanism and a Power Take Off (PTO) for the water-jets. This is the basic AMX-10P, with the Toucan II turret replaced by a new two-man Lancelot turret based on the TH 20, with four ready to launch 4,000 m range Euromissile HOT missiles and a further 14 missiles carried in the rear of the hull. The crew of five consists of the commander and gunner in the turret, two missile loaders and the driver. The turret has powered traverse through 360º at a speed of 50º/s and manual traverse at a speed of 10º/s. The missiles can be elevated from -12 to +18º at a speed of 18º/s (powered) and 22º/s (manual). The missiles are launched by the gunner who is seated on the left side of the turret and has an M509 sight with a magnification of ×3 and ×12, while the commander operates the M427 laser range-finder which has a maximum range of 8,000 m and a magnification of ×8 (day), and ×3.5 (night). In addition, the turret has six 236

96B1A06L-SHO2 day periscopes and two vision blocks. The AMX-10 HOT has a combat weight of 14,100 kg and an unloaded weight of 12,400 kg. Specifications AMX-10P Crew: 5 Combat weight: 14,500 kg Unloaded weight: 12,700 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 17.93 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.53 kg/cm2 Length: 5.90 m Width: 2.83 m Height: (overall) 2.83 m (to hull top) 1.95 m Ground clearance: 0.45 m Track width: 425 mm Length of track on ground: 2.93 m Max road speed: (4th gear) 65 km/h (3rd gear) 34.5 km/h (2nd gear) 15.4 km/h (1st gear) 9.4 km/h Max water speed: (water-jets) 7 km/h Fuel capacity: 528 liters Max road range: 500 km Fording: amphibious Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: (forwards) 0.7 m (reverse) 0.6 m Trench: 2.1 m Engine: Hispano-Suiza (built in France by RVI) HS 115 V-8 water-cooled supercharged diesel developing 260 hp at 3,000 rpm Transmission: preselective with 4 forward and 1 reverse gears Suspension: torsion bar Electrical system: 24 V Batteries: 4 × 12 V

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Igla-1 (SA-16 `Gimlet') Low-Altitude Surface-to-Air Missile System

Description The 9K310-1 version of the Igla-1 missile has a single-channel cooled passive infrared seeker operating in the 3.5 to 5 µm waveband. The seeker is currently produced by Lomo plc of St Petersburg. Just before impact the seeker logic system shifts the aiming point from the engine exhaust region towards the central fuselage area at the junction with the wings. An aerodynamic spike is fitted to improve the speed and range of the missile. The warhead is a 1 kg HE chemical energy fragmentation warhead (plus up to 0.6 to 1.3 kg of remaining solid propellant fuel that is detonated by the warhead) and a detonating system. The latter comprises a remote arming device, contact and grazing fusing circuits and a self-destruct mechanism which operates after 14 to 17.5 seconds of flight if the missile has not hit the target. A launch booster provides the missile with its initial velocity to drive it out of the launch tube. Several meters into the flight and a safe distance from the gunner, the solid propellant rocket motor sustainer ignites and accelerates the missile up to its maximum flight speed. Further propellant is used to sustain the velocity.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Type: 2 stage, low altitude Length Missile (fins folded): 1.673 m Launch tube: 1.70 m Diameter Missile: 72 mm Weight Total launch assembly in march condition: 18.7 kg Total launch assembly in firing position: 16.65 kg Launch tube (without missile): 3 kg Grip-stock: 1.7 kg Battery/coolant unit: 1.3 kg Missile (at launch): 10.8 kg Warhead: 1 kg HE chemical energy fragmentation with contact and grazing fusing circuits Propulsion: solid fuel booster and 2grain solid fuel sustainer rocket motor Guidance: single-channel 3.5-5 µm wavelength passive infrared homing Seeker head bearing angle limits: ±40º Average missile speed: 570 m/s Max firing range slope: 5 km Min firing range slope: 500 m Max firing range Approaching target (jets): 2 km Approaching target (helicopters and piston-engined aircraft): 2.50 km Receding target (jets): 2.50 km Receding target (helicopter and piston-engined aircraft): 3 km Max target engagement speed Approaching target: 360 m/s Receding target: 320 m/s Max effective target altitude Approaching target (jets): 2 km Approaching target (helicopters and piston-engined aircraft): 3 km Receding target (jets): 2.50 km Receding target (helicopters and piston-engined aircraft): 3.50 km Min effective target altitude: 10 m Missile self-destruct time: 14-17.5 s System deployment time: 13 s Missile preparation time: 5 s Battery/bottle unit lifetime after activation: usually 30 s Launcher: portable single-round disposable with grip-stock and battery/bottle unit

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Igla 9K38 (SA-18 `Grouse') Low-altitude Surface-to-Air Missile System

Description (basic 9K38 version) The SA-18 GROUSE (Igla 9K38) is an improved variant in the SA-7 & SA14 series of manportable SAMs. As with the earlier SA-14, the SA-18 uses of a similar thermal battery/gas bottle, and the SA-18 has the same 2 kilogram highexplosive warhead fitted with a contact and grazing fuse. But the missile of entirely new design with substantially improved range and speed,. The new seeker and aerodynamic improvements extend its effective range, and its higher speed enables it to be used against faster targets. The SA-18 has a maximum range of 5200 meters and a maximum altitude of 3500 meters. The 9M39 missile SA-18 employs an IR guidance system using proportional convergence logic. The new seeker offers better protection against electro-optical jammers; the probability of kill against an unprotected fighter is estimated at 30-48%, and the use of IRCM jammers only degrades this to 24-30%. The Igla-M [SA-N-10 ] is the naval version of the SA-18.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Missile, 9K38 system Type: 2 stage, low altitude Length: (launch tube) 1.708 m (missile) 1.7 m Diameter: (missile) 0.0722 m Weight: (total launch assembly in firing position with IFF interrogator) 18 kg (total launch assembly in firing position without IFF interrogator) 17 kg (missile (at launch)) 10.6 kg Warhead: 1.15 kg HE chemical energy fragmentation (with additional unused solid propellant rocket fuel) with contact and delay action fusing circuits Propulsion: solid fuel booster and dual-thrust solid fuel sustainer rocket motor Guidance: 2-channel passive infrared homing Max firing range: (approaching target) 4,500 m (receding target) 5,200 m Min firing range: (approaching target) 500 m (receding target) 800 m Max target engagement speed: (approaching target) 360-400 m/s (receding target) 320 m/s Max effective target altitude: (head-on jet target) 2,000 m (head-on piston engined aircraft or helicopter) 3,000 m (receding jet target) 2,500 m (receding piston engined aircraft or helicopter) 3,500 m Min effective target altitude: 10 m System deployment time: 13 s Missile preparation time: 5 s Evaluation of launch envelope limits: automatic in nearer area and visual at envelope boundaries Input of lead and super elevation angles: automatic Disabling of launcher against friendly targets: yes Launcher: man-portable single-round disposable with grip-stock and power supply unit

241

EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Oerlikon Contraves Skyguard twin 35 mm GDF-003 anti-aircraft gun system

Description The Oerlikon Contraves twin 35 mm GDF-003 automatic anti-aircraft gun consists of the following main components: two KDB (former designation 353 MK) cannon, cradle, two automatic ammunition feed mechanisms, upper mount, lower mount and the sighting system. The 35 mm Twin Gun GDF-003 is used as an air defense weapon against manned aerial targets such as fighter aircraft, fighter-bombers, and helicopters. During a regular mission the 35 mm Guns are controlled by a Fire Control Unit, but they also can be operated in local mode by the gunner and the two gun loaders, where the gunner is using a joystick for control and a sight for aiming.

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Specifications Caliber: 35 mm Number of barrels: 2 Barrel length: 3.15 m Carriage: 4-wheeled with outriggers Weight: (traveling order with ammunition and accessories) 6,700 kg (traveling order without ammunition and accessories) 6,300 kg Swept radius: (at 0º elevation) 4.63 m Length: (traveling) 7.8 m (firing) 8.83 m Width: (traveling) 2.26 m (firing) 4.49 m Height: (traveling) 2.6 m (firing) 1.72 m Axis of bore: (firing) 1.28 m Ground clearance: 0.33 m Track: 1.9 m Wheelbase: 3.8 m Elevation/depression: +92º/-5º Traverse: 360º Rate of fire per barrel: (cyclic) 550 rds/min Feed: (ready use) 112 (reserve) 126 (total on gun) 238 Max effective range: (vertical) 4,000m Crew: 3 (local mode) Towing vehicle: 5 t (6 × 6) truck

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

57-mm Automatic Anti-aircraft Gun S-60

Description In the firing position the wheels are raised off the ground and the carriage is supported on four screw jacks, one at the front and one at the rear of the carriage and one either side of the carriage on outriggers. The gun can be fired from its wheels in an emergency. Fire-control equipment consists of a reflex sight for antiaircraft use and a telescope sight for ground use. When originally introduced it was used in conjunction with the PUAZO-5 director and the SON-9 radar. Today it is used in conjunction with the PUAZO6/60 director and the SON-9 or SON-9A A/B-band radar, but in recent years improved director and radar combinations have entered service. Russian sources have also mentioned that the S-60 could be used in conjunction with the Vaza RPK-1 radar fire-control system that laid the guns onto the target by remote control. Photographs of Soviet-built `Flap Wheel' I-band anti-aircraft radars associated with the 57-mm S-60 anti-aircraft gun in Iraqi service show that the radar has been modernized. A low-light television camera, similar to that seen on the `Land Roll' radar on SA-8 vehicles and some `Low Blow' radars associated with the Neva system, has been mounted on top of the `Flap Wheel' antenna. `Flap Wheels' with long cables have also been observed, enabling them to be placed 200 m away from the firing position. These modifications will increase the effectiveness of the S-60, especially when confronted by chaff or electronic jamming. The top of each side of the shield folds forward through 180º. The ammunition, which is fed to the gun in four-round clips, is not interchangeable with that used by the 57-mm ASU-57 self-propelled anti-tank gun or the 57-mm towed anti-tank guns due to a different configuration. A horizontal feed tray on the left side of the mounting holds one clip of four 57 mm rounds and a second clip can be placed on an upright stand that rotates with the mounting. 244

96B1A06L-SHO2 Effective slant range using onboard optical sights is 3,993m, this is increases to 6,005m with radar. Effective altitude limit with an elevation of +45º is 2,835 m with onboard optical sights and 3,627 m with radar, effective altitude limit with an elevation of +65º is 4,237 m with onboard optical sights and 5,425 m with radar. Self-destruct range of the FRAG-T projectile is quoted as 7,224-m. Caliber: 57 mm Number of barrels: 1 Barrel length: (with muzzle brake) 4,390 mm (without muzzle brake) 4,110 mm Muzzle brake: multi-perforated Operation: recoil, full automatic Recoil: (normal) 315-360 mm (maximum) 370 mm Carriage: 4-wheeled Shield: yes Weight: (traveling order) 4,875 kg (firing position) 4,775 kg Length: (traveling) 8.6 m Width: (traveling) 2.054 m Height: (traveling) 2.46 m Axis of bore: (firing) 1.3 m Ground clearance: (traveling) 0.38 m Track: 1.71-1.77 m Tires: 34.00 × 7 Elevation/depression: +87º/-2º Traverse: 360º Rate of fire: (cyclic) 105-120-rds/min (practical) 70-rds/min Feed: 4-round clip Max range: (horizontal) 12,000 m (vertical) 8,800 m Effective vertical range: (with off-carriage fire control) 6,000 m (with on-carriage fire control) 4,000 m Unit of fire: 200 rounds Crew: 7 Towing vehicles: ZIL-151 (6 × 6) truck; Ural-375D (6 × 6) truck Towing speed: (hard roads) up to 60 km/h (gravel roads) up to 35 km/h (dirt roads) up to 25 km/h (cross-country) up to 15 km/h

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

2S6M Quad 30 mm/SA-19 Self-propelled Air Defenses System “Tunguska”

Description (2S6M) In overall layout, the 2S6M is very similar to the German Gepard twin 35 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun system, with the cannon mounted externally of the turret. The 2S6M is based on the chassis of the GM-352M which is also used as the platform for the SA-11 Buk-1M (NATO reporting name `Gadfly') and SA-15 `Tor' SAM systems covered later in this book. The hull and turret are of all-welded steel armor construction that provides protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. Mounted either side of the power-operated turret are twin 30 mm (2A38M) cannon which have an effective range of up to 3,000 m in altitude and 4,000 m in slant range. The cannon have a total cyclic rate of fire of 4,000 to 5,000 rds/min with the empty cartridge cases and links being ejected externally of the turret The 30 mm (2A38M) cannon are water-cooled, gas-operated, electrically fired weapons and each barrel has an automatic muzzle velocity measuring device that feeds data to the fire-control computer. Mounted outwards and below the 30 mm cannon is a bank of four SA-19 `Grison' (NATO designation) 9M311 SAMs in two blocks of two, which can elevate vertically independently of each other. Typically, two missiles would be fired at each target. Just before launch, the turret is turned slightly off axis so that the smoke of the missiles being launched does not obstruct the gunner's sight. Once the missiles have been 246

96B1A06L-SHO2 launched, the launcher is lowered into the -6º position and locked. The SA-19 SAM can engage aerial targets with altitudes between 15 and 3,500 m and from 2,400 to 8,000 m in slant range with the target having a maximum speed of 500 m/s. Specifications Complete 2S6M system Crew: 4 Combat weight: 34,000 kg Length: 7.93 m Width: 3.236 m Height: (radar up) 4.021 m (radar down) 3.356 m Max road speed: 65 km/h Range: 500 km Fording: 0.8 m Gradient: 60% Side slope: 30% Vertical obstacle: 1 m Trench: 2 m Engine: V-12 turbocharged, 4-cycle, water-cooled turbocharged diesel Model V-46-4 developing 780 hp at 2,000 rpm Armament: 2 × 2 30 mm 2A38M cannon; 2 × 4 SA-19 SAMs Ammunition: (gun) 1,904 × 30 mm (missiles) 8 × SA-19 Gun control equipment: (turret power control) hydraulic/manual (gun elevation/depression) +87º/-10º (turret traverse) 360º NBC system: yes Night vision equipment: yes Missile, 9M311 Weight of missile: (in container) 57 kg Weight of missile warhead: 9 kg Length of missile: (in container) 2.562 m Width of missile: (in container) 170 mm Height of missile: (in container) 225 mm Max speed: 900 m/s Average speed: 600 m/s

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Alenia Marconi Systems Aramis/Aspide Area Multiple Intercept System

Description The two rows of three ready to fire missiles are carried in their container-launcher boxes on an elevatable frame assembly with the target illumination radar fitted directly below them on the frame's front edge. Upon receiving the target designation data the LU autonomously performs the acquisition and tracking of the target and all engagement functions until the target is destroyed. Each LU can perform its own engagement under the control of the BCP so that up to four separate targets can be engaged simultaneously by the battery. The system takes about 8 minutes to deploy. The Aramis/Aspide system can use either the Aspide Mk1 or the Aspide 2000 missile. The latter has a new single-stage solid propellant rocket motor, improved ECCM features, higher velocity, higher lateral acceleration and a 30 to 40 per cent range increase.

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Specifications Aspide Mk 1 missile Type: single-stage, low- to mediumaltitude Length: 3.7 m Diameter: 0.203 m Wing span: 0.68 m Launch weight: 220 kg Propulsion: single-stage solid propellant rocket motor Guidance: semi-active radar homing Warhead: HE-fragmentation with contact and proximity fusing Speed: approx. M2.0 Max range: >15,000 m Max altitude: >6,000 m Min altitude: approx. 10 m Launcher: towed unmanned 6-round trainable Aspide 2000 missile Type: single-stage, low- to mediumaltitude Length: 3.7 m Diameter: 0.203 m (body) 0.234 m (motor) Wing span: 0.68 m Launch weight: 241 kg Propulsion: single-stage solid propellant rocket motor Guidance: semi-active radar homing Warhead: HE-fragmentation with contact and proximity fusing Speed: M2.5+ Max range: 24,000 m Max altitude: >8,000 m Min altitude: approx. 10 m Launcher: towed unmanned 6-round trainable

249

EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Thales Defense Systems Crotale Low-Altitude Surface-to-Air Missile System (Rattlesnake)

Description The Crotale is a mobile, all-weather, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system. It is designed to combat targets flying at a speed of M1.2 at an altitude of 50 to 3,000 m. Crotale, developed by Thomson CSF Matra, has a boost/glide trajectory and can be launched from mobile launcher. Fired against targets such as aircraft and missiles, the maximum range of the missile is 8km up to 5000m altitude at the a speed of Mach 2.3. This is an all-weather, low altitude mobile air defense missile weapon system designed to counter air saturation attacks. It is equipped with digital radio command missile line of sight to target line of sight. Crotale has a single stage solid propelled rocket motor [designated R.440], and a 15 kg high explosive focused fragmentation warhead. A typical platoon consists of one Acquisition and Co-ordination Unit (ACU) and two to three firing units, with a battery having two platoons. The system cannot operate on the move, but takes less than 5 minutes to become operational once it has stopped. The missile can be launched within about 6.5 seconds after the target is detected.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications-Missile Launch weight: 84 kg Propulsion: solid propellant rocket motor Guidance: command control Warhead: 15 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fusing Max speed: 750 m/s Max effective altitude: 5,000-5,500 m (depending on target velocity) Min effective altitude: 15 m Reload time: 2 min (full 4-round load)

Specifications Type Acquisition vehicle 2 Crew 12,620 kg Combat weight 6.22 m Length 2.72 m Width Height (reduced for air transport) 3.05 m (max) Ground clearance (traveling) 0.45 m (action) 0.156-0.656 m 3.6 m Wheelbase 70 km/h Max road speed 600 km Max range 0.68 m Fording 40% at 2 km/h; 10% at 25 Gradient km/h 0.3 m Vertical obstacle 3-5 mm Armor Launch vehicle 2 14,950 kg 6.22 m 2.72 m 3.41 m (max) 0.45 m 0.156-0.656 m 3.6 m 70 km/h 600 km 0.68 m 40% at 2 km/h; 10% at 25 km/h 0.3 m 3-5 mm

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Thomson-CSF Airsys Crotale NG Low-Altitude Surface-to-Air Missile System

Description The Crotale NG electrically driven turret weighs around 4,800 kg and includes a surveillance radar with associated IFF subsystem, a cupola housing a tracking radar, electrical optical equipment including a day and night Forward-Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) camera, a daylight only TV camera, video tracking, an IR localizer and eight ready to fire missiles in two packs of four container-launcher tubes. The standard option surveillance radar is the Thomson-CSF TRS 2630 S-band frequency-agile pulse compression Doppler model with a 40 rpm planar antenna, improved ECCM features (including strobe-on-jam, low side lobes, wideband frequency agility and constant false alarm rate) and search-on-the-move capability. Detection range against high-performance aircraft is 20,000 m and around 11,000 m on a hovering helicopter. Altitude coverage is from ground level to 5,000 m. An automatic track-while-scan capability provides track details on up to eight targets while simultaneously evaluating the threat. The VT-1 missile itself weighs 75 kg at launch (with its container-launcher tube the total weight is raised to 95 kg) and is 2.29 m long and 0.165 m in diameter. Four folding steel fins open out after launch to stabilize it. A TDA 13 kg focused fragmentation HE warhead is carried which uses the Thomson-CSF FPNG (Fusee de Proximity Nouvelle Generation) pseudo-randomly pulsemodulated I/J-band broadband electromagnetic proximity fuse. This is activated by the missile's onboard firing circuit processor using a time delay set to operate at a time between 0.2 and 0.5 seconds before the projected target interception point is reached. Lethal radius of the warhead is 8 m. 252

96B1A06L-SHO2 The missile has a maximum range of 11,000 m, a minimum range of around 500 m and an altitude engagement limit of very low to more than 6,000 m. Maximum missile speed is M3.5, which is achieved by using an improved TX883 reduced smoke version of the Sidewinder air-to-air missile solid propellant rocket motor, with HTPB propellant encased in a graphite epoxy canister, developed by Thiokol specifically for the VT-1 project. The weapon has a flight time of 10.3 seconds to 8,000 m range and is capable of maneuvering under load factors of up to 35 g at this distance. The airframe can withstand up to 50 g. The motor weighs 37.9 kg and contains 31.4 kg of propellant. Missile guidance is by an IR deviation measurement system or narrow radar beam using the multisensor guidance principle which Thomson-CSF has incorporated into its naval Crotale system. This principle involves using all the sensors to send their data to the onboard computer which then processes it, after filtering out such interferences as clutter, decoys or jamming in a few milliseconds, to determine the guidance control commands to be uplinked to the missile. In a normal engagement mode, both the tracking radar and the electro-optical systems operate together and constantly check each other. Any control orders to the missiles are passed through the narrowbeam, frequency-agile remote-control guidance radio uplink channel of the radar system. The target engagement cycle from detection to interception is entirely automatic with the gunner only pressing buttons twice to ensure the safety of friendly aircraft. Reaction time is very short at 5 seconds or less with the total engagement time for target detection and final interception at 8,000 m range being estimated at approximately 15 seconds. Re-engagement time is 1-2 seconds depending upon whether the target is isolated or in a group. It is theoretically possible for a single firing unit to engage successively two separate groups of four aircraft each and destroy all of them at a distance of between 500 to 11,000 m. Reloading the two missile packs takes around 10 minutes. Specifications VT-1 Missile Length: 2.29 m Diameter: 0.165 m Wing span: n/avail Launch weight: 75 kg Propulsion: solid propellant rocket motor Guidance: command control Warhead: 13 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fusing Max speed: approx 1,250 m/s Max effective range: 11,000 m Min effective range: 500 m Max effective altitude: 6,000 m Min effective altitude: very low Reload time: 10 min

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

SA-4 `Ganef' (3M8/9M8 - Krug)

Description SA-4 GANEF is a medium to high altitude surface-to-air missile system. Over the years at least four variants of the missile have been produced, designated 9M8, 9M8M, 9M8M1 and 9M8M2, though external differences are minimal. The 9M8M1 and 9M8M2 variants are the primary types in service. The 9M8M1, introduced in 1967, is a 8.8 meter long-nosed version (the SA-4a) with effective range limits of 8 to 55 km and effective altitude limits of 100 to 27000 m. The 9M8M2, introduced in 1973, is the short-nosed 8.3 m version (SA-4b or GANEF Mod 1). It has improved close-range performance to reduce the dead zone above the TEL at the expense of losing some 3000 m in altitude and 5-10 km in maximum range capabilities. Both versions have a fuselage diameter of 0.86 m, a wing span of 2.3 m and a tail span of 2.73 m. The HE warhead weighs 135 kg and is detonated by a proximity fuse. The missile is launched by four solid booster rockets mounted externally on the body. The missile is armed 300 meters from the launcher. After launch the boosters burn for about 15 seconds and then fall away when the fueled ramjet kerosene sustainer motor ignition speed of over Mach 1 is attained at about 9 km from the TEL. The four fins are fixed and the four wings, in two pairs, are hydraulically operated. A battery typically has one TEL fitted with the 9M8M2 and two TELs with the 9M8M1 missile, although some TELs may carry one missile of each type. An electro-optical fire control system is fitted for use in a heavy ECM environment. Targets are initially detected by the long range LONG TRACK early warning E-band radar, which has a 150 km range and 30 km maximum altitude coverage. LONG TRACK is mounted on a lengthened version of the AT-T heavy artillery tractor with a large van body added, and is also used for the SA-6 SAM. This system passes data to the SA-4 GANEF battery where the H-band PAT HAND continuous wave fire control and command guidance radar takes over. The PAT HAND radar is mounted on the same chassis as the GANEF launcher, with the whole assembly collapsed flat and a grill raised in front of the

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96B1A06L-SHO2 radar for road transit. This radar acquires the target at about 120-130 km and when it is within the 80-90 km tracking range a single missile is launched and guided to the target by the guidance beam with a semi-active terminal homing phase for the final stage. The missile is tracked in flight by a continuous wave radar transponder beacon attached to one of the tail fins. If required the PAT HAND can handle two missiles per target in order to increase the kill probability. Target altitude information is also provided by the 240 km range THIN SKIN truck- or trailer-mounted height-finder H-band radar. The SA-4 TEL (Industrial Index designation 2P24) consists of a tracked armored chassis on top of which is mounted a hydraulically operated turntable carrying two missiles. The launcher can be traversed by 360º with the missiles being elevated up to an angle of 45º on their launcher arms for launching. The vehicle's engine is to the right of the driver with the remainder of the space in the vehicle taken up by the crew and electronics. Hatches for the other crew members are on either side of the missile turntable. The torsion bar suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear, and four track return rollers. The vehicle has an air filtration and overpressure NBC system and an IR night vision system for the commander and driver but no amphibious capability. Reserve missiles are carried on Ural-375 (6 x 6) trucks, and reloading the TEL takes between 10 and 15 minutes. Specifications SA-4 Length: 8.8 m Body diameter: 0.86 m Launch weight: 2,500 kg Warhead: 135 kg HE fragmentation Guidance: Command plus semi-active radar homing Propulsion: Ramjet with 4 solid boosters Range: 55 km Associated radars Surveillance radar: `Long Track' (IS12) Frequency: 2-3 GHz (E-band) Peak power: n/k Range: 150 km Height-finding radar: `Thin Skin' Frequency: 6-8 GHz (H-band) Peak power: n/k Range: 240 km Engagement radar: `Pat Hand' CW (IS-32) Frequency: 6.44-6.88 GHz (H-band) Peak power: n/k Range: 85 km

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

SA-15 `Gauntlet' (9M330 Tor/9M331 Tor-M1)

Type Short-range, ground-based, solid propellant, theatre defense missile. Description The vertically launched SA-15 missile has four folding clipped delta control fins at the nose and four folding in-line clipped delta-wings at the rear. The missile is 2.9 m long, has a body diameter of 0.24 m and a launch weight of 167 kg. It carries a 15 kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead which is activated by RF proximity or contact fuse, and is capable of being directed at the target by the proximity fuse. A solid propellant motor gives the missile a maximum speed of 850 m/s, a probable range against low-level missile targets of 5 km, and of 12 km against aircraft targets. The minimum engagement range is 1.5 km. Altitude limits are reported to be 10 to 6,000 m. The missile is ejected from its launch canister to a height of 18 to 20 m before the two-stage solid propellant motor is ignited, with the `turn-over' of the missile controlled by lateral thrust motors in the nose of the missile. The solid propellant motor can have two separate burning periods if required, to shape the trajectory and increase terminal velocity. The normal boost stage lasts 4 seconds, and the sustain stage 12 seconds; giving the missile powered flight out to about 8 km range depending on the trajectory shape. The lateral thrust motors are also used in the terminal engagement phase to improve missile maneuverability. The missile is advertised as having command-guidance, which operates with a coded datalink, but in order to intercept missile targets it would require an active radar terminal seeker and it is believed that a later modification has an active radar seeker. The Tor TELAR vehicle, a modified GM256

96B1A06L-SHO2 355 tracked vehicle (Russian designator 9A331) also used with SA-11 `Gadfly', carries eight SA-15 missiles mounted vertically in two groups of four, each group in a sealed container that is reported not to require maintenance for 10 years (reloads are carried by another vehicle equipped with a crane). The threedimension rotating pulse Doppler surveillance radar mounted on the rear of the turret, has elevation from 0 to 32º. It operates at 4 to 6 GHz (G-band) and provides range, azimuth, elevation and automatic threat evaluation for up to 48 targets to a maximum range of 25 km, initiating the tracking of up to 10 targets. The early Tor TELAR had an open mesh antenna for the engagement radar, but by 1992 a phased-array radar was being displayed and reported as being designated as the Tor-M1 system. Additional long-range surveillance is sometimes provided by a `Dog Ear' radar, which operates in F/G-band, has an acquisition range of 80 km and is used with SA-13 `Gopher'. A phased-array, monopulse Doppler engagement radar is mounted on the front of the turret. This operates in the K-band at 20 to 40 GHz, has a maximum range of 25 km and is capable of simultaneously tracking and initiating attacks on two targets. A small dome-type antenna on the top left of the tracking radar may well `gather' the missile as it is launched and hand it over to the tracking radar. An autonomous TV system complementary to the radar, enables the system to operate in battlefield clutter and ECM environments. This has a range of 20 km. Target surveillance is executed on the move, while the vehicle would have to come to a halt for missile launching. Two missiles can be fired in salvo at 3 second intervals, at each target, and a single launch vehicle can fire at four targets simultaneously provided the targets are within a 60 x 60º sector. The Tor SA-15 is air-transportable and has a datalink enabling it to be used in conjunction with other air defense control systems, as part of a larger overall network. A reload vehicle (Russian designator 9T224) carries eight missiles in canisters and has a crane attached, enabling the complete reload of a Tor TELAR vehicle in 18 minutes; a reload transporter (Russian designator 9T245) carries a further 28 missiles. A command and control vehicle, known as Rangir (Russian designator 9S737), controls a typical SA-15 battery comprising four TELAR vehicles, a reload vehicle, a reload transporter, a maintenance vehicle and a test system vehicle. A truck-mounted simulator and training vehicle (Russian designation 9F678) has also been deployed with some batteries. Specifications Length: 2.9 m Body diameter: 0.24 m Launch weight: 167 kg Warhead: 15 kg HE fragmentation Guidance: Command Propulsion: Solid propellant Range: 12 km

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EQUIPMENT- AIR DEFENSE WEAPONS

Soviet MTU-20 Bridgelayer

The MTU-20 was developed in the late 1960s as the replacement for the older MTU and is launched in a similar manner except that, when traveling, the ends of the bridge are folded on top to reduce the overall length of the equipment. When opened out the bridge is 20 m long and will span a gap of up to 18 m; maximum capacity is 60,000 kg. The MTU-20 weighs 37,000 kg and has a crew of two.

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PMM-2 Amphibious Bridging and Ferry System

The PMM-2, or Paromno-Mostovaya Maschina-2, floating bridging and ferry system was originally known in the West as the Amphibious Bridging System (Tracked), or ABS(T). The PMM-2 is the replacement vehicle for the GSP heavy amphibious ferry. It uses a similar chassis and float layout, but with the PMM-2 the float units unfold for use and can be folded back for road transport. The PMM-2 is able to ferry loads up to around 42.5 tones. PMM-2 units can be connected together to form floating bridges by using latching mechanisms on the outer edges of the float units. Bridges up to 10 units wide have been reported and no bridging boats are apparently involved in the formation of such bridges. The PMM-2 system can operate in rivers with a flow velocity up to 2 m/s. Individual PMM-2 units can also be used to bridge small water gaps. The overall width of the PMM-2 on the road is 3.36 m, so once the side floats are lowered the overall width is 10 m. The loading ramps each have a usable length of at least 5 m so a single PMM-2 can probably be used to bridge water gaps almost 20 m wide. In practice this width is probably reduced to around 17 m. PMM-2M Length, overall: 13.35 m Width, overall: 3.36 m Height, overall: 3.65 m Max speed: (road) 55 km/h (water) 10 km/h Engine power: 710 hp Max load: 42,500 kg

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EQUIPMENT- ENGINEER EQUIPMENT

TMM Truck-Mounted Treadway Bridge

Description The TMM (heavy mechanized bridge) consists of four 10.5 m spans, each of which is carried and launched from the rear of a modified KrAZ-214 (6 × 6) 7,000 kg truck or the more recent KrAZ-255B (6 × 6) 7,500 kg truck. The latter model has improvements in the bridge laying mechanism and is recognizable by the replacement wheel and tire, carried on the roof of the cab rather than at the cab rear as on the KrAZ-214. The model carried on the KrAZ-255B (6 × 6) truck is designated the TMM-3. Three of the spans have integrally mounted adjustable trestle legs; the fourth (or far-shore) span does not, as it is the link between the third span and the far bank. The system operates as follows: before launching the treadway, the trestle legs must be adjusted to the correct height so the roadway is level when the bridge has been positioned. During transit, the legs are folded and stored beneath the folded scissors span. The treadways are then spread to the full roadway width of 3.8 m. The truck backs up to the river and the hydraulic launching girder raises the folded span to the vertical position, the span is straightened by a cable and winch system and then lowered. As it is lowered into position, the integral trestle legs swing into place. Once it is in position the cables are disconnected, the launching girder is brought back into the traveling position and the truck moves off. This procedure is repeated until the bridge is complete. If required, the bridge can be extended past the basic four spans by further additions. The launched spans can be recovered from either end and recovery takes about the same time as launching. A complete TMM with four spans can cross a gap up to 40 m in 45 to 60 minutes in daylight, or 60 to 80 minutes at night. These times are for an average crew and can be halved by a well-trained crew.

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To reduce the possibility of detection, the TMM can also be laid under the surface of the water, which takes 50 per cent longer than the normal method. Log and metal plate supports can be used to support the trestle legs when obstacles up to 5 m deep are encountered or when the slope is too great. Specifications Vehicle with bridge Cab seating: 1 + 2 Configuration: 6 × 6 Weight: 19,500 kg Length: 9.3 m Width: 3.2 m Height: 3.15 m Ground clearance: 0.36 m Track: 2.03 m Wheelbase: 4.6 m + 1.4 m Max speed: (road) 55 km/h Range: 530 km Fuel capacity: 450 liters Fording: 1 m Engine: YaMZ M206B 6-cylinder water-cooled diesel developing 205 bhp at 2,000 rpm Transmission: manual with 5 forward and 1 reverse gears and 2-speed transfer box Tires: 15.00 × 20 Bridge Weight: 7,000 kg Length: 10.5 m Width: 3.8 m Trestle leg length: adjustable between 1.7-3.2 m Capacity: 60,000 kg

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BAT-2 Combat Engineer Vehicle

Description The BAT-2 (Bul'dozer na Artilleriyskom Tygache 2) combat engineer vehicle is intended to supplement the BAT-M high-speed tractor-mounted bulldozers and similar vehicles but is more readily described as a combat engineer vehicle. The reason for this is that the BAT-2 is armored and can undertake a wider range of roles and missions than the BAT-M type vehicle. In addition to the large dozer blade normally fitted, the BAT-2 has carrying capacity for combat engineer stores behind the forward control cab and also has a crane mounted at the rear of the cab to handle them. The crane can be fitted with pincer-type grabs for clearing obstacles, has a maximum boom outreach of 7.3 m and a load-lifting capacity of 2,000 kg. Mounted on the same platform as the crane is a 25 ton capacity winch provided with 100 m of cable. The armored cab has seating for a crew of two and a compartment for a combat engineer squad of eight. A NBC system is provided for the cab. The operating temperature range may be from -45 to +45ºC. The BAT-2 is based on the chassis of the MT-T tracked carrier (see entry in Tracked prime movers section) which uses suspension and running gear components from the T-64 tank, which was also designed and built in the Ukraine, and is powered by a V-64-4 V-12 multifuel diesel engine developing 700 hp. Some transmission components are also `taken from a tank'. The BAT-2 has the large dozer blade of the earlier BAT-M vehicles mounted at the front but the hydraulic cylinder actuation system is more powerful and uses a different operating layout. There is also a different system to raise the blade vertically when not in use. The blade widths can be varied to suit the task. As a bulldozer the blade is 4.5 m wide, for road or track clearing it is 4.2 m wide, when grading it may have a width variable between 4.1 and 4.35 m. The blade may also be tilted through 10º for some operations, while a blade-mounted skid allows the blade to follow terrain contours. The BAT-2 can be employed to drive graded tracks across `ordinary' terrain at a speed up to 6.8 km/h; across snow the speed is 8.15 km/h. Scrubby terrain with trees up to 300 mm in diameter can be cleared at a rate of 2.3 km/h. When 262

96B1A06L-SHO2 route-clearing or creating earth barriers the dozer blade has a clearing capacity from 350 to 450 m3/h. When digging ditches it is 200 to 250 m3/h. Solid or frozen ground can be loosened down to a depth of 500 mm. Specifications Crew: 2 + 8 Weight, combat: 39,700 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 17.63 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.81 kg/cm2 Length: 9.64 m Width: 4.2 m Height: 3.69 m Ground clearance: 0.425 m Max speed: (roads) 60 km/h Range: 500 km Fording: 1.3 m Engine: V-64-4 V-12 multifuel diesel developing 700 hp

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IRM Engineer Reconnaissance Vehicle

Description The IRM is designed as a means of conducting reconnaissance on ground, troop movement routes, water and mine obstacles. It is an armored tracked amphibious vehicle based on units and assemblies from the infantry fighting vehicle BMP-1. Fixed and portable reconnaissance equipment carried by the vehicle make it possible to obtain information about water barriers, terrain trafficability, presence of explosive ordnance in the soil and at ford sites and also conduct reconnaissance in areas contaminated with toxic and radioactive agents. To conduct visual reconnaissance and orientation the vehicle is equipped with a periscope, artificial gyroscopic horizon, navigation instruments and surveillance devices. For the reconnaissance of mine obstacles, the vehicle is equipped with a wide-span mine detector (RshM-2) allowing mines with ferromagnetic cases or fuse elements to be detected to a depth of 0.3 m at a speed of 3 to 5 km/h. The crew of the engineer reconnaissance vehicle can also conduct ground reconnaissance outside using portable equipment including RVM-2M and IMP-2 mine detectors, engineer reconnaissance periscope, range finder, aiming circle, two radio sets and an ice axe complete with an ice measuring rule. In addition the vehicle is equipped with a regenerator; fire fighting system; water drainage facility; chemical, biological and radiological protection system, temperature control and smoke removing equipment. Specifications Detection width (metallic anti-tank mines): 3.6 m Detection depth (metallic anti-tank mines): 0.3 m Vehicle weight: 17 t Max speed (on ground): 52 km/h Max speed (in water): 12 km/h Length: 8.22 m Width: 3.15 m Height: 2.4 m Crew: 6

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IMR-2 Combat Engineer Vehicle

Development The IMR-2 series of combat engineer vehicles is based on the chassis of the T72 MBT and is the replacement for the original IMR based on the T- 54/T-55 MBT chassis. The original IMR-2 underwent several production changes, the final model carrying extended mine clearing charges in addition to mine clearing ploughs and combat engineer equipment. This was replaced in 1982 by the IMR-2M1 on which the extended mine clearing charges were removed and extra protection for the hydraulic system was introduced. This model remained in production from March 1987 until July 1990 when a slightly revised model, the IMR-2M2, was introduced. The latest version of the IMR-2 is designated the TMR-2MA and is similar to the IMR-2M, but has a combat weight of 49.5 tones, has a length of 9.39 m and is 3.50 m wide and 3.42 m high. Description The layout of the IMR-2 series of combat engineer vehicles is the same as the T72 MBT with driver's compartment at the front, crew compartment in the centre and power pack (engine, transmission and cooling system) compartment at the rear. The chassis of the IMR-2M is known as the Objekt 637. To carry out its combat engineer role, the turret of the T-72 MBT has been removed and a new all-welded steel superstructure has been fitted with bulletproof windows for the commander/operator. Mounted on this is the telescopic arm which can be fitted with various attachments. To enable it to carry out its combat engineer role on the battlefield, the IMR-2M has the following equipment:

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EQUIPMENT- ENGINEER EQUIPMENT 1. Front-mounted hydraulically operated dozer blade which is 1 m high and 3.38 m wide when being used in the V-blade configuration, 3.925 m wide when being used in the straight dozing position and 3.212 m wide when being used in the grading position. Maximum digging depth of dozer blade is 450 mm. When not required the blade is folded upwards. The clearing rate of the dozer blade depends on the type of terrain, for example stone barriers can be cleared at the rate of 280 to 350 meters an hour while trenches and ditches can be filled in at the rate of 350 to 360 cu m/h. Digging gun pits and fire positions is accomplished at the rate of 200 to 250 cu m/h. 2. Multipurpose operating element which can have a bucket with a maximum capacity of 0.35 m3 and a pull and push shovel capacity of 0.17 m3 3. The above uses a telescopic arm which can also be fitted with a manipulator and can be traversed through a full 360º. With a reach of 8.15 m it can lift 2,000 kg. When traveling this is normally traversed to the rear. On the IMR-2M2 the gripper-type manipulator tool normally used with this arm is replaced by a more versatile attachment. The telescopic arm can be operated by remote control as well as from within the vehicle 4. A KMT-R type plough type mine clearing system complete with an electromagnetic device to activate anti-tank mines before they come into contact with the vehicle. Standard equipment includes night vision equipment for the commander and driver, NBC system of the overpressure type, fire detection and suppression system and an engine starting pre-heater. The vehicle can lay its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlet on the left side of the hull. Specifications IMR-2M2 Crew: 2 Weight: 44,300 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 18.87 hp/t Ground pressure: 0.98 kg/cm2 Length: 9.55 m Width: (hull) 3.735 m (overall) 4.35 m Height: 3.68 m Ground clearance: 0.46 m Max road speed: 50 km/h Road range: 500 km Max gradient: 25º Fording: 1.2 m Armament: 1 × 12.7 mm NSVT MG

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MTK-2 Armored Mine Clearing Vehicle

Description This armored mine clearing vehicle, based on the chassis of the amphibious 122mm 2S1 self-propelled howitzer, was originally known in the West as the M1979 but is now known to be the MTK-2. It has a low turret-like superstructure containing two UR-77 rockets on launch rails. These, together with the upper part of the superstructure, are hydraulically elevated for firing. The rockets are connected, via a towing line, to two lengths of UZR-77 mine clearance hose stowed folded in the uncovered base of the turret on the vehicle roof. The explosive-filled hoses are connected by a cable to the vehicle. By using guide rails and reversing the vehicle, the two-man vehicle crew is able to position the hoses in the optimum breaching position once the launching has been carried out. The hoses are then electrically command detonated to breach a path up to 90 m long and 6 m wide through fields of pressure-operated, blast-susceptible mines. An entire breaching operation can be carried out in 3 to 5 minutes. The UR-77 launching equipment may be used at least 75 times before maintenance is required. MTK-2 is capable of operating in an NBC environment, is amphibious, and has a good cross-country performance; maximum speed is 61.5 km/h (30 km/h crosscountry) and road range 500 km. It has a crew of two, weighs approximately 15,500 kg and is 8.435 m long; the width is 2.86 m and height overall 3.91 m. Specifications Weight of mine clearing equipment: 2,400 kg Length of line charge: 93 m Range: 500 m Explosive weight: 8 kg per m Type of explosive: PVV-7 (plastic)

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GMZ-3 Tracked Minelayer

Description The GMZ-3 (Gusenichniy Minniy Zagraditel-3) tracked minelayer is designed to lay anti-tank mines on the surface or buried beneath soil or snow. Mines are automatically delivered to the dispersing mechanism and then through ports in the rear plate of the vehicle hull to the conveyor, which arms the moving mines. When the mines are to be surface laid they are dispersed directly from the conveyor; when they are to be buried they are dispersed through a plough assembly and laid in a furrow made by the plough. Mines laid in loose soil or snow are concealed by back dumps. Arming takes place after a short delay. Based on the chassis of the SA-4 (Ganef) surface-to-air missile system, the driver is seated at the front of the vehicle on the left side with the engine to his right. This leaves the rear of the vehicle clear for the mounting of the minelaying equipment and the stowage of mines. The suspension of the GMZ-3 consists of seven roadwheels with the drive sprocket mounted at the front and the idler at the rear. There are four track-return rollers. The minelayer is of the plough type, with mines fed into the minelayer via two chutes, one either side. The GMZ-3 can carry 208 anti-tank mines which are loaded into the rear armored compartment through two large roof hatches. The laying system spaces the mines at intervals between 5 and 10 m at a speed of up to 6 km/h (buried) or 16 km/h (surface). Mines can be laid under either manual or automatic control and buried in up to 120 mm of soil, or up to 500 mm of snow. The system can handle mines weighing up to 12 kg. During minelaying operations the system operator is seated at the right rear, facing to the rear from under a small raised superstructure on the right of the hull. Provision is made to fix minefield co-ordinates on to a tactical map, and to register the number of mines laid. The GMZ-3 is equipped with a land navigation system and infra-red vision equipment which enables it to carry out minelaying operations during darkness. A platoon of three GMZ-3s is attached to the 268

96B1A06L-SHO2 engineer battalion of each motorized rifle or tank division, replacing the earlier PMR-3. GMZ-3 is armed with a single 14.5 mm KPVT machine gun on a mounting over the commander's position. Smoke grenade launchers are provided, and there is also a smoke production system incorporated into the vehicle's exhaust system. Specifications Crew: 3 Weight: 28,500 kg Power-to-weight ratio: 18.42 hp/t Length: (traveling) 8.62 m Width: 3.25 m Height: (traveling) 2.7 m Ground clearance: 430-470 mm Max speed road: 60 km/h road, cruising: 40-45 km/h dirt roads: 25-30 km/h Range: (road) 500 km Fording: 1 m Gradient: 30º Side slope: 46.7% Vertical step: 0.7 m Trench: 2.5 m Engine: KaMAZ-7482 water-cooled diesel developing 525 hp Armament: 14.5 mm KPVT MG Mine capacity: 208 Work speed: surface laying: up to16 km/h burying: up to 6 km/h Minelaying rate: surface laying: 8 mines/min burying: 4 mines/min Mine spacing: 5 or 10 m Reload time: 15 - 20 min

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PMR-2, PMR-3 and PMZ-4 Towed Minelayers

Description The PMR-2 (Pritsepniy Minniy Zagraditel-2) is a two-wheeled trailer with two chutes. The upper part of the chute has a wide mouth into which the anti-tank mines are loaded. These then slide down a double roller conveyor into the distributing mechanism, which spaces them at intervals of 2 or 4 m. The chain drive distribution mechanism is controlled by a three-position lever mounted on the control box. The mines are laid on the surface and buried manually by a follow-up team if required. The trailer is normally towed by a 6 × 6 truck or armored personnel carrier carrying 120 mines. The normal working speed of the PMR-2 is 3 to 5 km/h. The PMR-3 (Pritsepniy Minniy Zagraditel-3) has a single chute with an operator, seated on the two-wheeled trailer, who can select either surface or buried laying, to 300 or 400 mm depth, and also controls the spacing of the mines. The PMR-3 is normally towed by a specially modified BTR-152 (6 × 6) armored personnel carrier which carries 120 TM-46 or similar anti-tank mines. A fully loaded BTR-152, carrying 120 mines, can lay a minefield 500 m long (when the mines are spaced at 4 m intervals) in 5 minutes. Other towing vehicles have the following capacities: ZIL-157, 200; BTR-60, 100 to 130; Ural-375, 350. The PMZ-4 towed minelayer is similar to the PMR-3 but with a 200-mine capacity.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications PMR-3 Crew: 4 or 5 Length: 3 m Width: 2 m Height: 2.5 m Tires: 7.50 × 20 Mine spacing: 4-5.5 m Burial depth: (soft soil) 300-400 mm Work speed: (surface laying) 4-10 km/h (burying) 2-3 km/h Laying rate: 10-12 mines/min Reload time: 10-12 min

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UMZ Mine Dispensing System

Description The UMZ mine dispensing system is described as a multipurpose mine laying system and has been observed configured in differing ways for wheeled and tracked vehicles. One system is based on the chassis and armored hull of the MT-LB general purpose tracked carrier and command vehicle and features two arrays of mine dispensing tubes carried over the rear half of the hull. The arrangement of launch tubes involved may vary according to the type of mine involved, but is normally around 90 in each array. The weight of a complete loaded launcher is approximately 1,600 kg. The vehicle can dispense mines while traveling at speeds of 10 to 40 km/h, creating one or two belts of minefield in a single pass. The banks of launchers can be traversed through 360º and elevated to an angle of +50º. To prepare a fully loaded vehicle for mine dispensing from the traveling state takes less than 5 minutes. The crew of two can reload the launchers in 120 minutes, although a sapper squad will take only 20 minutes. On a wheeled vehicle, such as the ZIL-131 6 × 6 truck, the UMZ is arranged in six-sided dispenser containers (or clusters), each holding 30 mine dispenser tubes. A ZIL-131 can hold six dispenser containers and thus has a capacity for 180 dispenser tubes. The dispenser containers can be aimed to the sides or rear so that one-, two- or three-lane minefields can be laid. Mine laying vehicle speeds can be up to 40 km/hour to form minefields from 15 to 240 m deep. Mine types dispensed from the UMZ system include the PFM-1, PFM-1s and POM-2 anti-personnel mines and the POM-1, POM-2, PTM-1 and PTM-3 antitank mines, including various mixes of all those types. As an example, the ZIL131 UMZ system can carry in a single load 11,520 PFM-1 or PFM-1s antipersonnel mines, 720 POM-2 anti-personnel mines and 180 PTM-3 anti-tank mines.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications Tracked version Crew: 2 Length: 7.21 m Width: (traveling) 2.85 m (firing) 3.45 m Height: (traveling) 2.2 m (firing) 3.3 m Max speed: (road, loaded) 61.5 km/h Speed, mine dispensing: 10-40 km/h Range: (road) 500 km Max dispensing gradient: 15º Operational temperature range: -45 to +45º

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PZM and PZM-2 Regimental Trench-Digging Machines

Description The PZM regimental trench-digging machine is built on the basis of the T-150K wheeled tractor. The more recent PZM-2 is based on the T-155 or T-151K wheeled tractor powered by a 165 hp diesel engine. Steering is by articulation. The PZM-2 has a roller chain with digging buckets driven mechanically from the main tractor engine. A front-mounted winch can be used to propel the machine when digging, as the transmission can be disconnected when the excavator is in use. The winch is driven hydro mechanically and exerts a 5,000 kg pull at a rate of 60 m/s. The digger is raised and lowered by hand. A front-mounted dozer blade is provided. Specifications Crew: 2 Weight: 12.800 kg Length: (traveling) 6.99 m (operating) 9.75 m Width: 2.55 m Height: (traveling) 3.8 m (operating) 2.82 m Speed: 44 km/h Range: 500 km Engine: diesel developing 165 hp Trench digging speed: (normal soils) 180 m/h (frozen soils) 35 m/h Trench dimensions, normal soils: (width, top) 0.9 m (width, bottom) 0.65 m (depth) up to 1.2 m Trench dimensions, frozen soils: (width, top and bottom) 0.65 m (depth) up to 1.2 m Winch pull capacity: 5,000 kg

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DIM Vehicle-Mounted Mine Detector

Description The DIM vehicle-mounted pulse-induction mine detector consists of a UAZ-69 or UAZ-469 (4 × 4) light vehicle modified to carry a frame attached to the front bumper, on which a non-magnetic sensing head is mounted. When traveling, the equipment is swung upwards through 180º and rests on top of the cab. When required for use, the equipment is swung forward and rests on two rubber-tire wheels which roll along the surface of the road. The sensing head is mounted in front of the two road wheels and is provided with three pairs of supporting wheels. The DIM system will detect mines to a maximum depth of 250mm, or when fording, to a depth of 700 mm with a sweep width of 2.2 m. The vehicle is normally driven at a maximum speed of 10 km/h during mine-detection operations. Once a mine or metallic object has been detected an audio alarm sounds and the vehicle stops automatically. The full-width detection head, located 2.6 m from the vehicle's front wheels to provide stopping distance, is divided into six components to pinpoint mine location. The electronic system also displays which component of the detector head the mine is under. When the vehicle comes to a halt, the operator can adjust the search coils to pinpoint the exact location of the metal object. No provision is made for remote control of the vehicle. As the equipment lacks cross-country mobility, it is normally used only for clearing roads and airfields. The system was seen mounted on T-62 MBTs in Afghanistan.

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EQUIPMENT- ENGINEER EQUIPMENT

KMT-5

The KMT-5 was introduced into service to combine the plough and roller mine clearing equipment. The plough system used is the KMT-4 but the roller design is new, lighter, and has only three rollers per section. Each KMT-5 roller sweeps approximately 800 mm. When not in use the system is carried on a KrAZ-214 (6 x 6) truck fitted with a special KM-61 auxiliary crane. The roller and plough cannot be used simultaneously other than on good, flat ground. The choice of using the rollers or ploughs depends on the type of terrain, soil or minefield to be breached. The system is fitted with a quick-release disconnect unit to allow the tank driver to release both systems rapidly. The KMT-5 system can survive eight to ten 5 to 6 kg explosions, but cannot be used in snow thicker than 200 mm or over loose, ploughed land. Weight is approximately 7,300 kg.

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ZRP-2 Mine Clearing Line Charge

Description The ZRP-2 mineclearing line charge is carried packed in a webbing satchel and unpacked for deployment close to the edge of the anti-personnel minefield to be breached. The main line charge is a flexible hose 60 m long carried by a small rocket (designated UP-60) to a range of between 140 and 160 m. When detonated, the charge will clear anti-personnel mines from a path 400 mm wide and 54 m long. The ZRP-2 mineclearing line charge weighs 50 kg complete and 34 kg when emplaced ready to fire. The system can be assembled by one or two engineers in 5 minutes, and can be dropped in the GK-30 cargo container or PGS cargo platform when packed in its wooden box.

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EQUIPMENT- NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT

Decontamination apparatus, truck-mounted, Models TMS-65 and TMS-65M

Description The decontamination apparatus, truck-mounted, model TMS-65 is intended for the rapid decontamination of vehicles and towed weapons and equipment. It is mounted on a Ural-375 (6 x 6) 4,000 kg truck chassis and the main operating component is a Model VK-1F modified gas-turbine aircraft engine mounted on a turntable with the operator's cabin. A hydraulic system moves the turntable to either side of the vehicle and the operator's cabin is equipped with floodlights and a screen wiper. Fuel for the engine is contained in a 1,500 liter cylindrical tank between the turntable and the right rear of the cab. A tank on the left contains 1,500 liters of decontaminant solution with another 4,000 litters of water carried on a twin-axle trailer towed behind the vehicle. Normally the Model TMS-65 is employed in pairs. Two equipments are placed about 50 m apart and the engines are started. Decontamination solution is directed into the engine exhaust and wherever the operator directs the hot gas stream; the engine can be elevated or depressed as well as traversed. The vehicles to be decontaminated are driven between the two equipments and are cleansed for between 30 seconds and 3 minutes, depending on the nature and degree of contamination. For nuclear cleansing, water may be used. If space allows, the two Model TMS-65 equipments are driven along a static column, a method claimed to be particularly effective under cold conditions. The latest version of this equipment, which is still in production, is the TMS65M. It uses the Ural-4320 (6 x 6) 4,500 kg truck chassis powered by a diesel engine and differs in detail from the earlier TMS-65. It tows a PTs-5.6-817 trailer to carry water for the system.

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Decontamination apparatus, truck-mounted, Models ARS-12D, ARS-12U and ARS-12M

Description Apart from use as decontamination equipment, the Models ARS-12D, ARS-12U and ARS-12M can be used as water carriers, for firefighting and to provide cold showers for various purposes. The three models are basically similar but the Model ARS-12D is mounted on a ZIL-151 (6 × 6) 2,500 kg truck chassis and the Model ARS-12U on a ZIL-157 (6 × 6) 2,500 kg truck chassis. The Model ARS12M appears to have been produced for the Czech and Slovak armed forces only, as it is based on the chassis of the Praga V3S (6 × 6) 3,000 kg truck. Each consists of a 2,500 liter tank divided by two baffles with a large manhole for access and filling. Also provided is a depth gauge, self-priming pump driven from the vehicle engine, hand pump, piping system, hoses, nozzles and other spares and accessories. The main pump drive shaft turns at 1,400 to 1,600 rpm and can turn the pump to deliver 300 to 400 liters/min. The hand pump, operated at 45 strokes/min, can deliver 4.5 to 5.5 liters/min. Decontaminants are mixed in the tank as water is poured in and a thorough mixture is made by internally recycling the solution through the pump, otherwise the vehicle motion and the filling mixing is all that is necessary. Many different decontaminants may be used but the standard solutions are numbers 1 and 2. There are several administration methods. To clear roads or terrain a wide-spreading nozzle (the DN-3) can be fitted directly to the main discharge pipe and the vehicle is then driven over the affected road or terrain. A full tank can then clear a strip 500 m long and 5 m wide. For decontaminating vehicles and other equipment, up to eight 18 m long hoses can be fitted, each with spray pipes, nozzles and nozzle brushes. Up to four vehicles can be cleansed at one time and there is sufficient solution in a full tank to cleanse 12 MBTs, 13 APCs, 15 trucks or 45 artillery pieces. To decontaminate buildings (or for firefighting) four 25 mm diameter hoses can be used. Racks on top of the tank hold drums of decontaminant and several RDP4V backpack equipments can be carried for remote use. The Model ARS-12D can be used to emit smoke screens by discharging chlorosulphonic acid.

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EQUIPMENT- NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT

Decontamination apparatus, truck-mounted, Model ARS-14

Description This equipment is a development of the earlier Model ARS-12U. The main change is the use of a ZIL-131 (6 × 6) 3,500 kg truck chassis, but the full extra tank capacity this provides (2,700 liters, weighing 2,500 kg when filled with a normal decontaminant load) cannot be used because extra drums of decontaminant are carried on specially fitted racks. However, the extra drums enable the equipment to be used over a longer period without reloading. Some changes were made to the piping system in that the previously fixed outlet pipes are carried separately and fitted to the equipment by hoses. The wide-spreading DN-3 nozzle is fitted at the vehicle front as well as the rear, and the eight hoses are wound onto four drums instead of the former eight; these drums are at the left rear. Other changes were made to the general `plumbing', but an innovation is an extra rubber hose which can be fitted to the vehicle exhaust in winter to thaw out any frozen parts of the equipment. Filling pistols can also be fitted to the system for loading or reloading decontamination kits. A loaded ARS-14 weighs 10,185 kg. It is 6.856 m long, 2.47 m wide and 2.48 m high.

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Decontamination apparatus, truck-mounted, Models DDA-53, DDA-53A, DDA-53B and DDA-66

Description These equipments are used by decontamination units and medical units for sterilization, disinfecting and disinfestations. With chemical units the Model DDA53 series is used for steam-decontamination of chemically and biologically contaminated clothing and small items of equipment, the apparatus can also provide hot water for showers. Each equipment consists of a vehicle borne system with two steam chambers, vertical boiler (the RI-3), fuel oil tank, water pump, formaldehyde tank, 12-head shower unit and all the associated hoses and fittings. The system does not have its own water tank, so water has to be provided by another tanker vehicle or a stand tank if no natural source is available. The water boiler, which produces steam or hot water, contains 250 liters and is normally fired by fuel oil, although wood may be used with a loss in heating efficiency. The fuel oil tank holds 55 liters which is enough for 8 to 10 hours operation. Pipes connect the boiler output to steam chambers, each of which can contain 25 to 30 summer uniforms, 20 winter uniforms or 12 sheepskin jackets. Decontaminants can be added to the steam if necessary. The system can thus decontaminate up to 80 uniforms/h in summer and up to 48 in winter. When used for showers, the system is normally used in conjunction with tents which are carried on other cargo trucks; enough water can be provided for up to 100 showers/h in summer and 70 to 72 in winter. There were four models of the DDA-53 (sometimes known as the ADA), some of the oldest of which have now been withdrawn. The Model DDA-53 was mounted on the GAZ-51 (4 × 2) truck chassis, the Model DDA-53A on the GAZ63 (4 × 4) chassis and the Model DDA-53B on a ZIL-130 (4 × 2) 4,000 kg truck chassis. The DDA-53B differs also in having the boiler and steam chambers enclosed in a metal body. The Model DDA-66 is mounted on a GAZ-66 (4 × 4) 2,000 kg truck chassis.

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EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

ZIL-131 (6 × 6) 3,500 kg truck

Description The ZIL-131 (6 × 6) truck entered production in December 1966 as the replacement for the earlier ZIL-157 (6 × 6) 2,500 kg truck and uses many components of the ZIL-133 (6 × 4) truck. Main improvements over the ZIL-157 can be summarized as increased load-carrying capacity, more powerful engine, power steering, shorter wheelbase, waterproof ignition and the central tire pressure regulation system. The front axle is engaged automatically when the driver selects first gear and the driver can also engage the front axle manually when in second gear. The vehicle is used for transporting cargo or personnel and as a prime mover for towing artillery such as the 122 mm D-30 howitzer. The layout of the vehicle is conventional, with the engine at the front, fully enclosed two-door all-steel cab in the centre and the cargo area at the rear, consisting of a wooden platform with metal fittings and a hinged tailgate. The platform has recesses for the bows and hinged bench seats are provided down either side of the platform. The ZIL-131 has a central tire pressure regulation system and a 4,500 kg capacity winch. Standard equipment includes a cab heater and an engine preheater.

Specifications Cab seating: 1 + 2 Configuration: 6 × 6 Weight: (empty, with winch) 6,700 kg (loaded, cross-country) 10,425 kg Weight on front axle, loaded: 3,360 kg Weight on rear axles, loaded: 7,065 kg Max load: (road) 5,000 kg (cross-country) 3,500 kg 282

96B1A06L-SHO2 Towed load: (road) 6,500 kg (dirt road) 4,000 kg Load area: 3.6 × 2.32 m Length: (without winch) 6.9 m (with winch) 7.04 m Width: 2.5 m Height: (cab) 2.48 m (tarpaulin) 2.975 m (load area) 1.43 m Ground clearance: 0.33 m Track: (front and rear) 1.82 m Wheelbase: 3.35 m + 1.25 m Angle of approach/departure: 36º/40º Max speed: (road) 80 km/h Range: 645 km Fuel capacity: 340 liters Max gradient: 58% Fording: 1.4 m Engine: ZIL-131 6 liter V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 150 hp at 3,200 rpm Gearbox: manual with 5 forward and 1 reverse gears Clutch: single dry plate Transfer box: 2 speed Steering: screw and nut with hydraulic booster Turning radius: 10.1 m Suspension: (front) longitudinal semi-elliptical springs with double-acting hydraulic shockabsorbers (rear) equalizer arm on longitudinal semi-elliptical springs Tires: 12.00 × 20 ND Brakes: (main) air (parking) mechanical Electrical system: 12 V Battery: 1 × 6 ST 78

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EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

GAZ-66 (4 × 4) 2,000 kg trucks

Development The GAZ-66 (4 × 4) 2,000 kg truck was the replacement for the GAZ-63 and entered production at the Gorky Automobile Plant in 1964. All vehicles built since 1968 have a central tire pressure regulation system fitted as standard. The GAZ66 is widely used by the RFAS armed forces and is also used for a variety of civilian roles. The latest production model is the turbo diesel GAZ-66-40, sometimes written as GAZ-6640, described as a multipurpose army truck. This model has a central tire inflation system and is designed to operate at altitudes of up to 4,500 m above sea level. Description The two-door all-steel forward control cab hinges forward to allow access to the engine for maintenance. The all-steel rear cargo body has fixed sides and a drop tailgate. The vehicle can be fitted with five bows and a tarpaulin cover if required. Standard equipment includes a cab heater and an engine preheater as the vehicle is intended for use over a temperature range of -50 to +50ºC. Many vehicles have a winch.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Specifications GAZ-66-40 Cab seating: 1 + 1 (up to 21 in rear) Configuration: 4 × 4 Weight: (empty) 4,090 kg (loaded) 6,810 kg Max load: 2,300 kg Towed load: 2,000 kg Load area: 3.313 × 2.05 m Length: 5.92 m Width: 2.525 m Height: (cab) 2.49 m (tarpaulin) 2.52 m Ground clearance: (axles) 0.315 m Track: 1.8 m Wheelbase: 3.3 m Angle of approach/departure: 42º/32º Max speed: (road) 90 km/h Range: 1,400 km Fuel capacity: 210 liters (2 × 105 liters tanks) Max gradient: 67% Side slope: 20º Fording: 1.2 m Engine: GAZ-5441 air-cooled 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel developing 123 hp Gearbox: manual with 5 forward and 1 reverse gears Clutch: single dry plate, hydraulic assist Transfer box: 2 speed, with PTO Steering: globoid worm with 3-collar roller and hydraulic booster Turning radius: 9.5 m Suspension: longitudinal semi-elliptical springs and hydraulic double-acting shock-absorbers Tires: 12.00 R 18 Kl-115 Brakes: (main) hydraulic (parking) mechanical operating on transmission Electrical system: 24 V

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EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

MAZ-535 and MAZ-537 (8 × 8) series

Description These 8 × 8 vehicles entered series production in 1958 and were seen for the first time in public during a parade held in Moscow in 1964. They are used for a wide variety of roles by the RFAS armed forces as well as civil use and are closely related to the MAZ-543 (8 × 8) series of trucks. They all have full 8 × 8 drive with powered steering on the front two pairs of wheels, a central tire pressure regulation system, cab heater and an engine preheater. They are all powered by the same V-12 diesel used in some RFAS tanks. In the case of the MAZ-535 the engine has been derated to deliver 375 hp instead of 525 hp in the MAZ-537. The MAZ-535A, MAZ-537A and MAZ-537K (which has a small crane) are cargo trucks but are also used to tow trailers or heavy artillery. The other models are used to tow semi-trailers carrying missiles or armored fighting vehicles. The tractor trucks are normally used with the ChMZAP-5247, ChMZAP-5247G and ChMZAP-9990 semi-trailers.

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Specifications Designation Type Configuration Weight (empty) (loaded) Weight on front axles (loaded) Weight on rear axles (loaded) Max load (road and cross-country) Towed load (road) (dirt road) Load area Length Width Height (cab) (load area) Ground clearance Track Wheelbase Angle of approach/departure Max speed (road) Range Fuel capacity Fuel consumption Max gradient Fording Engine model Engine type MAZ-535A truck 8×8 18,975 kg 25,975 kg n/a n/a 6,000 kg 50,000 kg 15,000 kg 4.5 × 2.595 m 8.78 m 2.805 m 2.915 m 1.4 m 0.475 m 2.15 m 1.7 m + 2.35 m + 1.7 m 38º/60º 60 km/h 650 km 760 liters 110 litres/100 km 30º 1.3 m D12A-375 V-12 water-cooled diesel developing 375 hp at 1,650 rpm MAZ-537A truck 8×8 22,500 kg 37,500 kg 14,890 kg 22,610 kg 15,000 kg 75,000 kg 30,000 kg 4.562 × 2.53 m 9.13 m 2.885 m 2.8 m 1.875 m 0.5 m 2.2 m 1.7 m + 2.65 m + 1.7 m 38º/52º 60 km/h 650 km 840 liters 125 litres/100 km 8º (laden) 1.3 m D12A-525 V-12 water-cooled diesel developing 525 hp at 2,100 rpm MAZ-537 tractor truck 8×8 21,600 kg n/app 17,375 kg 29,425 kg n/app 65,000 kg 25,000 kg n/app 8.96 m 2.885 m 3.1 m n/app 0.5 m 2.2 m 1.8 m + 2.65 m + 1.7 m 38º/52º 55-60 km/h 600 km 840 liters 125 litres/100 km 8º (laden) 1.3 m D12A-525 V-12 water-cooled diesel developing 525 hp at 2,100 rpm

287

EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT planetary, 3 speeds forward and 1 speed reverse, with smooth start device on low gear and reverse manual, 2 speed, with direct drive and reduction gears, Transfer case pneumatic and manual back-up control Auxiliary reduction manual, with inter-axle self-locking differential, consisting of spur gear transmission gear pair single stage single stage Torque converter single stage single-row 3-shaft reduction gear with spur skew gears Overdrive hydraulic, screw with nut on moving balls and rack engaged with Steering gear quadrant MAZ-535A, independent, individual, lever torsion bar (rear suspension equalizer, springless on MAZ-537), with hydraulic shock-absorbers on all wheels. MAZ-537A, independent, Suspension individual, lever torsion bar, with hydraulic shock-absorbers on both sides of front axle; rear: springless equalizer 18.00 × 24 18.00 × 24 18.00 × 24 Tires air/hydraulic air/hydraulic air/hydraulic Brakes 24 V 24 V 24 V Electrical system 4 × 12-ST-70 4 × 12-ST-70 4 × 12-ST-70 Batteries 1,500 W 1,500 W 1,500 W Generator Gearbox

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Ural-375D (6 × 6) 4,000 kg Truck

Description The first model of the Ural-375 entered production in 1961. It had an open cab with a canvas top and a stake-type rear cargo body. The second model was the Ural-375A, which had a number of automotive improvements as well as a fully enclosed all-steel cab. The Ural-375A was standardized as the Ural-375D; those with a winch (capacity of 7,000 kg) are designated Ural-375T. The Ural-377 (6 × 4) truck, full details of which can be found elsewhere in this section, uses many components of the Ural-375. The layout of the vehicle is conventional, with the engine at the front, fully enclosed two-door all-steel three-person cab in the centre and the cargo area at the rear with hinged bench-type seats, removable bows and a tarpaulin cover and a drop tailgate. Standard equipment includes a cab heater, an engine preheater and central tire inflation (CTI) system. Specifications Cab seating: 1 + 2 Configuration: 6 × 6 Weight: (empty, with winch) 8,400 kg (loaded, road) 13,200 kg Weight on front axle, loaded: 3,900 kg Weight on rear axles, loaded: (each) 4,650 kg Max load: (road) 4,800 kg (cross-country) 4,000 kg Towed load: 289

EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (road) 10,000 kg (dirt road) 5,000 kg Load area: 3.9 × 2.43 m Length: 7.35 m Width: 2.69 m Height: (cab) 2.68 m (tarpaulin) 2.98 m (load area) 1.42 m Ground clearance: 0.4 m Track: 2 m Wheelbase: 3.5 m + 1.4 m Angle of approach/departure: 44º/40º Max speed: (road) 75 km/h Range: 570 km Fuel capacity: 360 liters Max gradient: 65% Vertical obstacle: 0.8 m Trench: 0.7 m Fording: (without preparation) 1 m (with preparation) 1.5 m Engine: ZIL-375 7 liter V-8 water-cooled petrol developing 180 hp at 3,200 rpm Gearbox: manual with 5 forward and 1 reverse gears Clutch: twin dry discs Transfer box: 2 speed Steering: double-thread worm, hydraulic booster Turning radius: 10.5 m Suspension: (front) longitudinal semi-elliptic springs with hydraulic shock absorbers (all interchangeable with same units on the MAZ-500) (rear) bogie with longitudinal semi-elliptic springs Tires: 14.00 × 20 Brakes: (main) air/hydraulic (parking) mechanical Electrical system: 12 V Battery: 1 × 6-STEN-140M Generator: G51

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UAZ-469B and 3151 series of (4 × 4) Light Vehicles

Description The basic vehicle has an all-steel body with the engine at the front and the fourdoor crew compartment towards the rear, with a removable canvas top and windscreen that can be folded down flat against the bonnet. The tops of the doors can also be removed. There are two individual seats at the front, a seat for three people in the centre and two people can sit facing each other at the rear. Normal load (UAZ-469B) is two people plus 600 kg of cargo or seven people and 100 kg of cargo. A hardtop can be fitted if required. Compared to the UAZ-469B the main improvements found in the UAZ-3151 are an uprated engine, new suspension and improved ergonomics. The specifications table provides data for the UAZ-469B and the UAZ-31512. Variants Numerous variants of the UAZ-469B/3151 series of vehicles have been produced since production began in 1972, many of these being local adaptations by the wide variety of users of the type. Most recently a variety of armed variants (usually local adaptations) have been seen. Typical armaments include heavy machine guns, AGS-17 grenade launchers, and assorted anti-tank missiles. Iraqi Army UAZ-469s have been observed carrying four RPG-7 anti-tank rocket launchers on a post-type mounting in the rear area. The UAZ 3151 series continues to be available commercially, and current model designations are: UAZ-31512, passenger soft top, 2.38 m wheelbase; UAZ-31514, passenger hardtop, 2.38 m wheelbase (engine options available for this model); passenger enlarged wheelbase, 2.76 m wheelbase (hardtop); UAZ3159, 2.76 m enlarged wheelbase with wide track (four-door hardtop, 1.6 m track width).

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EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT

Specifications Model Seating Configuration Weight (unladen) (laden) Payload Front axle load (laden) Rear axle load (laden) Towed load (braked) (unbraked) Max GCW Length Width Height Ground clearance Track Wheelbase Angle of approach/departure Max speed Range 2,000 kg 600 kg 4,290 kg 4.125 m 1.785 m 2.015 m 0.22 m 1.422 m 2.38 m 52º/42º 100 km/h 620 km n/avail n/avail n/avail 4.025 m 1.785 m 1.99 m 0.22 m 1.455 m 2.38 m 48º/37º 110 km/h n/avail 1,650 kg* 2,290 kg 695 kg 960 kg 1,330 kg 1,600 kg 2,350 kg 750 kg n/avail n/avail UAZ-469B 1+6 4×4 UAZ-31512 1+6 4×4

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GAZ-69AM and GAZ-69M (4 x 4) Light Vehicles

Description The GAZ-69 series of light 4 x 4 vehicles entered production at the Gor'kiy Plant in 1952 and stayed in production there until 1956 when production was transferred to the Ul'yanovsk Plant. They were then also known as the UAZ-69 and UAZ-69A and production continued until the UAZ-469B was introduced. These vehicles used many components of the UAZ-450 range of civilian vehicles. There were two basic models in service, the GAZ-69AM and the GAZ-69M. The former has two doors and has been designed to carry 500 kg of cargo. Bench seats down each side in the rear hold two personnel on each side facing each other. The spare wheel is mounted externally on the left side of the body. This model is widely used as a command/radio vehicle and for towing recoilless rifles and light anti-aircraft guns such as the 23 mm ZU-23. The second model is the GAZ-69M, which has four doors and can carry five personnel plus 100 kg of cargo. The spare wheel is carried under the rear of the vehicle. Both models have a removable top, a windscreen that can be folded forward on to the bonnet and removable door tops. Late production models of the UAZ-69 were the UAZ-69M which has a 65 hp M-21 engine and the UAZ-69-68. Late production models of the UAZ-69A were the UAZ-69AM, which also has a 65 hp engine and the UAZ-69A-68. Anti-tank (recoilless rifle) Some countries in the Middle East have mounted a recoilless rifle on the rear of the vehicle. Aircraft starter This is the GAZ-69AM with a modified rear on which is mounted an aircraft starting unit. Mine detector vehicle The GAZ-69AM can be fitted with the DIM mine detection system 293

EQUIPMENT- SUPPORT EQUIPMENT Specifications Model Configuration Weight (empty) (loaded) Weight on front axle (loaded) Weight on rear axle (loaded) Max load Towed load Length Width Height Ground clearance Track Wheelbase Angle of approach/ departure Max speed Range Fuel capacity Fuel consumption Max gradient Fording GAZ-69AM 4x4 1,535 kg 1,960 kg 925 kg 1,035 kg 425 kg 750 kg 3.85 m 1.75 m 1.92 m 0.21 m 1.44 m 2.3 m GAZ-69M 4x4 1,525 kg 2,175 kg 940 kg 1,235 kg 650 kg 850 kg 3.85 m 1.85 m 2.03 m 0.21 m 1.44 m 2.3 m

45º/35º 45º/35º 96 km/h 96 km/h 525 km 600 km 60 liters 75 liters 19 litres/100 km at 40 km/h 57% 55% 0.55 m 0.55 m

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96B1A06L-SHO2

ChMZAP-5247G 50 ton heavy load semi-trailer

Description The ChMZAP-5247G 50 ton semi-trailer is widely used for transporting MBTs such as the T-72 and is towed by the MAZ-537 (8 × 8) tractor truck. All eight wheels have air operated drum brakes with a mechanical parking brake. Standard equipment includes powered loading ramps, guide bars and load securing gear. The ChMZAP-5247B is a 45 ton semi-trailer 14.68 m long and 2.64 m wide. The rear section is not provided with loading ramps and has no incline. Specifications Weight: (loaded) 68,000 kg (empty) 18,000 kg Max load: 50,000 kg Length: (overall) 15.23 m (of platform) 5.69 m Width: (overall) 3.38 m (of platform) 3.23 m Height: (overall) 2.78 m (of platform) 1.16 m Ground clearance: 0.35 m Track: 2.09 m Max towing speed: 50 km/h Tires: 15.00 × 20 Electrical system: 24 V

295

EQUIPMENT- RADAR

P-15/P-19 (FLAT FACE) series Early Warning Radars

Type Family of C-band (500 MHz to 1 GHz) early warning radars. Known NATO reporting names include 'Flat Face A' (P-15) and 'Flat Face B' (P-19). Description Known details of the `Flat Face' early warning radar series are as follows: P-15 (alternative designation 1LR13) Information describes the P-15 `Flat Face A' radar as being a C-band, mobile, 2D early warning radar that, over time, has been associated with a range of air defense weapons that has included the 57 mm SA-60 anti-aircraft gun, the Almaz S-75 Dvina (NATO reporting name SA-2 `Guideline) and the S-125 Neva/Pechora (NATO reporting name SA-3 `Goa') Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) systems. Functionally, P-15 utilizes two elliptical 6 × 2.15 m antenna arrays (arranged one above the other) that are mounted on a box-bodied ZIL-157 truck. An extension mast with which to elevate the antenna assembly by an additional 2 m is understood to be available and is carried on a trailer that is towed by the antenna vehicle. Baseline P-15 is further reported as making use of the 1L22 Parol Identification Friend-or-Foe (IFF) system that operates in the Ultra High Frequency (UHF - 300 MHz to 3 GHz) band, has a pulse-width of > 12 µs and a maximum range of 600 km. In terms of P-15 upgrades, early 2001 saw Jane's

296

96B1A06L-SHO2 sources reporting that the then Yugoslav air defense network was (or had been in the recent past) making use of an `Adapted Radar' variant of `Flat Face A' (designated as the APR-15?). Here, the `Adaptive Radar' P-15 was described as incorporating a new antenna array, digital moving target indication and plan position indicator displays. Capabilities are said to have included the ability to track up to 20 targets flying at altitudes and ranges of between 200 and 6,000 m and up to 120 km respectively. Interestingly, the same period saw the US military describing the P-15 as one of the `primary threat radars' that had faced NATO during its March-June 1999 `Allied Force' air campaign against the then Yugoslavia and Serbia. P-19 (alternative designation 1RL134) Given the NATO reporting name `Flat Face B' (and known (according to unconfirmed sources) in Poland and the former German Democratic Republic as the `Renata' and `Dunai' system respectively), the C-band (?) P-19 mobile early warning radar is understood to have been developed from P-15 equipment. Like `Flat Face A', `Flat Face B' is truck-mounted (using a 6 × 6 wheeled chassis) and makes use of an antenna array that comprises two elliptical reflectors mounted one above the other. Again like P-15, baseline P-19 makes use of 1L22 Parol IFF equipment and according to Czech sources, the overall system exhibits `outstanding mechanical parameters, simple maintenance, overall reliability and [multifunctionality]'. This view appears to chime well with French evaluation of a `Flat Face' radar that French forces captured in Chad during 1987. Here, the evaluation characterized the system as being `sturdy', `very good' at detecting targets `down to low altitudes' and as having a `high level' of resistance to countermeasures. In this latter context, Jane's sources suggest that countercountermeasures proofing within the `Flat Face' range includes frequency selectability to counteractive jamming and Doppler filtering to eliminate chaff returns. In terms of system updating, both the Czech contractor RETIA and the Ukrainian contractor ELSYS are known to have developed P-19 upgrade kits. In the first instance, the RETIA package includes a new digital signal/data processor, a Mk XII IFF interrogator, a Global Positioning System-based navigation system and a new radar data display. For its part, ELSYS is offering its MSHB-19 low-noise microwave amplifier as a replacement for the P-19's existing ESU-5 unit. Here, the MSHB-19 is noted as featuring a limiter, as having an operating frequency of 840 to 900 MHz, a gain of 26 to 32 dB and a 3 dB noise figure. Aside from the already cited S-75, S-125 and SA-60 weapon systems, `Flat Face' radars have also been associated with the Tikhomirov Instrument Research Institute 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 `Gainful') and the Almaz/Antei 9K33 Osa (NATO reporting name SA-8 `Geko') SAM systems.

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EQUIPMENT- RADAR

Dog Ear Surveillance Radar

Type F/G-band (3 to 6 GHz) surveillance and target acquisition radar. Description Dog Ear is the NATO reporting name for an early warning surveillance and target acquisition radar which is used to provide target information for the 9K35 Strela 10 low-altitude Surface-to-Air missile system. The 9K35 makes use of the 9M37 (NATO reporting name SA-13 `Gopher') missile. Dog Ear is normally mounted on an MT-LB tracked chassis and is allocated on the basis of one system per air defense battery. Frequency is probably in the F/G-band. Acquisition range is 80 km and the tracking range 35 km.

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Flap Wheel Fire-Control Radar

Type I/J-band (8 to 20 GHz) anti-aircraft gun fire-control radar. Description Flap Wheel is the NATO reporting name for a conical scan radar which operates in J-band. The system's antenna is made up of a horizontally polarized parabolic dish and a Yagi array. Flap Wheel is used to provide fire-control data for 57 mm S-60 and 130 mm KS-30 anti-aircraft guns and has been observed in remote positions some 200 m away from the weapon it is supporting. Most recently, the system has been augmented by the installation of a coincident low-light TV tracker.

299

EQUIPMENT- RADAR

Cymbeline weapon locating radar

Type I-/low J-band (8 to 12 GHz sub-band). Description Cymbeline is a lightweight, mobile, self-contained radar (including power supply) with a detachable display unit. The radar is mounted on a four-legged structure supported on screw jacks that are fitted with hydraulic absorbers. It is produced in three versions, of which the Mks 1 and 3 are towed on two-wheel trailers and the Mk 2 is mounted on any suitable armored fighting vehicle or soft-skinned vehicle. The Mk 3 can also be vehicle mounted. The antenna feed used in the Mks 1 and 2 systems is a mechanical Foster scanner, while that for the Mk 3 is an electronically scanned phased-array. Both illuminate a parabolic cylinder reflector and produce a pencil beam scanning in azimuth. The complete radar head can be rotated to cover any required sector, for example 3,200 mils rotation in 15 seconds. In transit the reflector folds down and the antenna assembly is mounted on top of an equipment box that houses the main electronics unit, the power unit and the display unit during transit. Of these, the main electronics unit contains the transmitter/receiver and the radar timing and computer modules while the radar's display and co-ordinate indicator units can be removed from the equipment box for remote operation for distances of up to 15 m. The display unit consists of a short-persistence `B' scope and also incorporates all the controls necessary for the operation of the radar. Target location is displayed on the co-ordinate indicator which can be used at distances up to 2 m from the display.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 The radar enables the operator to plot two points in the trajectory of the projectile and to measure the slant range and bearing to each of these positions. The time taken for the projectile to travel between the two points is also measured and the computer uses this information to extrapolate the firing position. This entire process takes place in about half a minute. Additional facilities have been provided that are claimed to ensure the maximum accuracy of location and ease of operation over a wide range of operational conditions. For maximum range performance, a switched single beam is used and an additional beam position is available to alert the operator for making the first interception. For short-range work a double-beam mode of operation may be selected to reduce operator reaction time errors. This facility also improves the multiple target capability. Provision has also been made for the internal fitting of an optional digital data storage module. This enables the radar returns to be stored to provide a long-persistence display so that operator concentration can be reduced while improving the marking accuracy. Data storage also improves multiple handling capability. Specifications Frequency: I-/low J-band (8-12 GHz sub-band) Display range: 20 km Measurable range: 500 m (min) Detection range: 10 km (81 mm finned mortar with better than 40 m CEP location accuracy) First-time location: 80% probability Location time: 15 s Peak transmitter power: 100 kW Antenna type: triple cone Foster scanner with movable beam switching Polarization: circular Azimuth scan sector: 720 mils Elevation coverage: -90 to +360 mils Display: B-scope Target simulator: incorporated Power supply: Wankel engine driven 400 Hz 3-phase alternator, full-wave rectified to 28 V DC Power consumption: 1,200 W (mean); 1,350 W (peak) Temperature: -32 to +52ºC (operating); -36 to +71ºC (storage) Windspeed: 90 km/h (without tethering) Altitude: 250 m (operating); 1,300 m (storage) Weight: 390 kg (radar - incl power supply); 980 kg (fully equipped trailer)

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EQUIPMENT- HELICOPTERS AND UAV

PAH-1 BO 105

The BO 105 CBS-5 Army or Navy is a lightweight twin-engine multi-role military helicopter. The military versions of the BO 105 include the antitank version with weapon-carrying outriggers and the scout version which has a mast-mounted sight above the main rotor. Missions include: direct air support, antitank, reconnaissance, search and rescue, and transport. In addition to reconnaissance, observation and surveillance missions, this helicopter is particularly suitable for carrying task forces and casualties, thanks to its unpartitioned cabin/cargo area. The helicopter is powered by two Allison 250-C 20B turbine engines and can easily be reconfigured for different armed duties, and particularly to support the following specific weapon systems: anti-tank missiles, rocket launchers, pod-mounted gun, gun turret, side-firing machine gun. The four-blade main rotor is mounted above center of cabin. External stores are mounted on weapons "outriggers" or racks on each side of the fuselage. Each rack has one hardpoint. The antitank version has short, stubby, weapon-carrying outriggers on lower midsection. Two turboshaft engines are mounted on the top of the fuselage, which is short, thick, oval-shaped, and rounded at nose and rear with a glassed-in cockpit and landing skids. Clamshell doors at rear of cabin area open to access cargo area. The cargo floor has tiedown rings throughout. The tail features a swept-back and tapered fin with small rectangular fins mounted at the tips of the rectangular flats and the rotor on the left.

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Mi-8 HIP

The MI-8 HIP is a multi-role transport helicopter capable of carrying troops or supplies as well as conducting armed attacks with rockets and guns. It is often used to resupply guerrillas, insert detachments or provide close air support to attacking units. Designed as a transport helicopter, the Mi-8 proved a multipurpose machine. The cable external suspension, equipped with the weightmeasuring device, makes it possible to carry large size cargoes weighing up to three tons. If required, it became both combat, rescue and artillery observation helicopter. The large, five-blade main rotor is mounted over the engine at the body midsection, while a weapon-carrying platform is mounted at the lower body midsection. External stores are mounted on weapons racks on each side of the fuselage. The HIP C has four external hardpoints; the HIP E, HIP H, have six; other variants have none. Not all available munitions are employed at one time, mission dictates weapon configuration. Twin turbo shaft engines are mounted on top of the fuselage with two round air intakes just above the cockpit and rounded exhaust ports aft. The Mi-8 is capable of single-engine flight in the event of loss of power by one engine (depending on aircraft mission weight) because of an engine load sharing system. If one engine fails, the other engine’s output is automatically increased to allow continued flight. The fuselage consists of a long, bus-like body with a rounded nose and glassed-in cockpit. Interior seats are removable for cargo carrying. The rear clamshell doors open, an internal winch facilitates loading of heavy freight. Floor has tie down rings throughout. The aircraft carries a rescue hoist capable to 150 kg, and a cargo sling system capable to 3,000 kg. Two fuel pods are offset and mounted low on the body, which features an upswept rear section and tricycle landing gear. The tail boom tapers to the small, swept-back, and tapered fin with rotor on top right or left, with small flats mounted forward of the fin.

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EQUIPMENT- HELICOPTERS AND UAV Role Length Height Width Armed assault-transport Length (rotors turning): 25.2 m Length (fuselage): 18.2m [61 ft] 18 ft 6 in ( 5.65 m) 2.5 m

Floor Length: 5.3 m Cargo Compartment Width: 2.3 m Height: 1.8 m Weight Maximum Gross: 12,000 kg Normal Takeoff: 11,100 kg Empty: 6,990 kg HIP C: 24 troops, or 3,000 kg internal or external loads on 4x hardpoints. HIP E: 24 troops, or 4,000 kg internal or 3,000 kg external on 6x hardpoints. HIP J/K: antennas on aft section of fuselage. HIP E mounts a flexible 12.7-mm machinegun in the nose 2 - 7.62-mm or 1x 12.7-mm MG 4-6 - AT-2C Swatter or AT-3 Sagger ATGMs 4-6 - 57-mm rocket pods (16 each) 2 - 80-mm rocket pods (20 each) 4 - 250-kg bombs 2 - 500-kg bombs 2 - 12.7-mm MG pod 2 - Twin 23-mm gun pods 1,830 liters Additional fuel tanks Loaded combat troops can fire personal weapons through windows from inside cabin. 3 (2x pilots, 1x flight engineer)

Standard Payload

Armament

Crew

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96B1A06L-SHO2

MI-24 HIND

The Mi-24, the first helicopter to enter service with the Russian Air Force as an assault transport and gunship, was developed on the basis of the Mi-8's propulsion system. Additional missions include direct air support, antitank, armed escort, and air to air combat. The helicopter was used extensively in the Afghanistan War, becoming the "signature" weapon of the conflict. The Mi-24 is a close counterpart to the American AH-64 Apache, but unlike this and other Western assault helicopters it is also capable of transporting up to eight troops. The Russians have deployed significant numbers of HINDs in Europe and have exported the HIND to many third world countries. The five-blade main rotor is mounted on top of fuselage midsection, while short, stubby, weapon-carrying wings are mounted at the fuselage midsection. Two turboshaft engines are mounted above body midsection with two round air intakes located just above the cockpit and exhaust ports on the sides of engines. The Hind A fuselage consists of a large, oval-shaped body with a glassed-in cockpit, tapering at the rear to the tail boom. The Hind D fuselage features nose modification with tandem bubble canopies, and a chin-mounted turret. The swept-back tapered tail fin features a rotor on the right on some models, with tapered flats on a boom just forward of the fin. External stores are mounted on underwing external stores points. Each wing has three hardpoints for a total of six stations. A representative mix when targeting armor formations would be eight AT-6 ATGMs, 750x 30-mm rounds, and two 57mm rocket pods. The aircraft can store an additional ammunition basic load in the cargo compartment in lieu of carrying troops. Armored cockpits and titanium rotor head able to withstand 20-mm cannon hits. Every aircraft has an over pressurization system for operation in a NBC environment.

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EQUIPMENT- HELICOPTERS AND UAV Role Wing span Length Height Cargo Compartment Dimensions Assault, gunship, antitank 6.5 meters Length : 21.6 m (rotors turning) Length : 17.5 m (fuselage) 13 ft., 11 in. 6.5 meters (gear extended) Floor Length: 2.5 meters Width: 1.5 meters Height: 1.2 meters

Internal load: 8 combat troops or 4 litters Standard Payload External weapons load: 1,500 kg External load (no weapons): 2,500 kg Armament 12.7-mm 4x Barrel Machinegun, YaKB-12.7: Range (m): (practical) 1,500 Elevation/Traverse: 20° up to 60° down/ 120° Ammo Type: HEFI, APT, Duplex, DuplexT Rate of Fire (rpm): up to 4,500 (pilot selectable) 30-mm Twin Barrel Cannon, GSh-30K: Range (m): (practical) 4,000 Elevation/Traverse: None (rigidly mounted) Ammo Type: HEFI, HEI, APT, APE, CC Rate of Fire (rpm): 300, or 2,000 to 2,600 750 - 1x twin 30-mm gun, or 1,470 - 12.7-mm 4 barrel turret gun 2-12 - AT-2C or AT-6C Spiral ATGMs 2-4 - 80-mm S-8 rocket pods (20 ea.) 2-4 - 57-mm S-5 rocket pods (32 ea.) 940 - GSh-23L twin 23-mm MG pods 4 - 250-kg bombs FAB-250 2 - 500-kg bombs 500 liters External fuel tanks Most Probable Armament HIND D: Turret-mounted 4-barrel 12.7-mm Gatling type machinegun, 57-mm rockets, AT-2C/ SWATTER ATGMs. HIND E: Turret-mounted 4-barrel 12.7-mm Gatling type machinegun or twin barrel 23-mm turret gun, 57-mm rockets, AT-6C/ SPIRAL ATGMs. HIND F: Fixed 30-mm twin gun on the right fuselage side, 57-mm rockets, AT-6C/ SPIRAL ATGMs. Loaded combat troops can fire personal weapons through cabin windows.

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96B1A06L-SHO2

Mi-26 HALO

The Mi-26 helicopter, the heaviest and most powerful helicopter in the world, was designed for carrying large-size cargoes weighing up to 20 tons. It is the result of an early 1970s specification for a transport helicopter whose empty weight, without fuel, was not to exceed half of its maximum take-off weight. It can be used for construction projects ranging from bridges to power transmission lines. The combination of high load-carrying capacity and high cruise speed makes the use of the helicopter economically efficient. The helicopter is loaded through the cargo hatch in the tail of the fuselage with lowered ladder and subladders. The cargo cabin is equipped with two electric hoists and lifting and loading devices ensuring loading and carrying along the cabin of cargoes weighing up to 5 tons. The Mi-26 is the first helicopter with an eight-blade main rotor, which is mounted above the fuselage midsection on a hump. Two turboshaft engines are mounted on top of the cabin with round air intakes above and behind the cockpit and exhaust ports at the sides of the engines. The long, bus-like body with fixed tricycle landing gear tapers to the nose and rear, with an upswept rear section and rounded nose and stepped-up cockpit. The tail is swept-back with a slightly tapered fin with large rotor on right side. The flats are forward-tapered and low-mounted on leading edge of the fin. The HALO A has no armament. The load and lift capabilities of the aircraft are comparable to the US C-130 Hercules transport aircraft. The length of the landing gear struts can be hydraulically adjusted to facilitate loading through the rear doors. The tailskid is retractable to allow unrestricted approach to the rear clamshell doors and loading ramp. The cargo compartment has two electric winches (each with 2,500 kg capacity) on overhead rails can move loads along the length of the cabin. The cabin floor has rollers and tie-down rings throughout. The HALO has a closed-circuit television system to observe positioning over a sling load, and load operations. The Mi-26 is capable of single-engine flight in the event of loss of power by one engine (depending on aircraft mission weight) because of an engine load sharing system. If one engine fails, the other engine’s output is automatically increased to allow continued flight.

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EQUIPMENT- HELICOPTERS AND UAV Role Rotor diameter Length Length (rotors turning) Length (fuselage) Width Height Cargo Compartment Dimensions Heavy cargo-transport 105 ft (32 m) 111 ft (33.8 m) 40 meters 33.5 meters 8.2 meters 26 ft., 5 in. / 8.1 meters 12 meters - Floor Length 3.3 meters - Width Height variable from 2.9 to 3.2 meters 49500 kg - Normal takeoff weight 56000 kg - Maximum takeoff weight 28200 kg - empty weight 20000 kg - Load-lifting capacity (100+ equipped troops, armored vehicles) 295 km/h 183 mph / 255 km/h 1200 km with Aux Fuel 800 km with maximum fuel reserve 475-800 km with maximum loading 20,000 kg Internal or external load over 80 troops, 60 litters, or 2x BRDM-2 scout cars, or 2x BMDs, or 1x BMP or, 1x BTR-60/70/80 or, 1x MT-LB Usually none

Weight

Maximum speed Cruising speed Range

Standard Payload

Armament

Main and tail rotor blades electrically deiced. Infrared signature suppressors on Survivability/Countermeasures engines. Infrared jammers and decoys; flares. Self-sealing fuel tanks. Crew 5 (2x pilots, 1x navigator, 1x flight engineer, 1x loadmaster)

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96B1A06L-SHO2

CAC Systèmes Fox AT

Type Reconnaissance and surveillance UAV. Development Known until 1991 as Aspic, this UAV appeared in 1988 and was designed in cooperation with 10 other French aerospace companies to meet the requirements of the French Army and potential export customers. It has both civil and military applications. Development began in 1986, and the same basic air vehicle is available in various mission applications: Fox AT for battlefield reconnaissance/surveillance, Fox TX for electronic warfare, and Fox TS1 and TS3 or Mini Fox as aerial target systems (which see). More than 800 of all versions have been produced. Variants Fox AT1: Meets the requirements for low-cost, close-range (21.6 n miles; 40 km; 24.8 miles) observation missions, and is based on the Fox TS1 aerial target. Fox AT2: Short-range reconnaissance system, with a 5 hour endurance and 30 kg (66.1 lb) payload capacity. Its more advanced avionics and telemetry permit 100 per cent preprogrammed flights of up to 150 km under severe operational conditions. Fox AT2-LCI (low-cost intelligence): Combined with a Matra mission planning and exploitation system. Introduced 1996. 309

EQUIPMENT- HELICOPTERS AND UAV Fox AT2-MLCS (mobile launching and control system): Mounted on a single vehicle (6 × 6 Unimog or similar) and compatible with a wide range of artillery systems, including the Giat Caesar 155 mm, to provide target location information. Three-man crew. Introduced early 1995. Airframe High-wing monoplane with pod and boom fuselage, pusher engine and T tail. Constructed of duralumin, glass/carbon fibers and styrofoam; wing and tail surfaces attached by single bolts. No landing gear. Mission payloads Sensors can include fixed or gyrostabilizer CCD cameras, FLIR (3 to 5 or 8 to 12 µm), thermal analyzers, Linescan 4000, VHF or radar jammers, and NBC detectors. A recent option includes meteorological sondes, up to four of which can be carried underwing and dropped by parachute to gauge temperature, air pressure and wind speed to aid fire correction for long-range artillery. Onboard power is supplied by two Ni/Cd batteries and (on AT2) a 900 VA generator. Guidance and control A real-time data uplink/downlink is fitted; a boarded rotodome is optional. Missions can be preprogrammed (98 waypoints) or remotely piloted. Navigation is by CAC Systèmes flight computer, plus inertial and differential GPS. System composition Four air vehicles and their payloads; one GCS; one transportation/launch trailer. (Single ground vehicle only for AT2-MLCS). The GCS is housed in a conventional shelter mounted on a four-wheel drive truck, and has a crew of three: pilot, observer and technician. Transportation Complete MLCS system air-transportable in Transall C.160 or Lockheed Martin C-130. Launch By ground-, trailer- or ship-based bungee catapult or pneumatic launcher. Recovery Normal recovery is by commanded or automatically deployed parachute.

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96B1A06L-SHO2 Dimensions Wing span Length overall Height overall Weights Weight empty: AT1 AT2 Max payload: AT1 AT2 Max launching weight: AT1 AT2 Performance Max level speed: AT1, AT2 Cruising speed: AT1 AT2 Loiter speed: AT1, AT2 Operating height range: lower (AT1, AT2) upper (AT1, AT2) Max datalink range: AT1 AT2 Max range (automatic): AT1 AT2 Endurance: AT1 AT2 108 kt (200 km/h; 124 mph) 70 kt (130 km/h; 81 mph) 78 kt (145 km/h; 90 mph) 49 kt (90 km/h; 56 mph) 100 m (330 ft) 3,500 m (11,480 ft) 30 n miles (55 km; 34 miles) 81 n miles (150 km; 93 miles) n/a 162 n miles (300 km; 186 miles) 1 h 30 min 5h 60 kg (132.3 lb) 65 kg (143.3 lb) 15 kg (33.1 lb) 30 kg (66.1 lb) 85 kg (187.4 lb) 120 kg (264.6 lb) 3.60 m (11 ft 9.7 in) 2.75 m (9 ft 0.3 in) 0.70 m (2 ft 3.6 in)

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EQUIPMENT- GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY
AA - antiaircraft acquisition range - sensor range against a category of targets. Targets are usually categorized as infantry, armored vehicles, or aircraft. Acquisition includes four types (or levels of clarity, in ascending order of clarity): detection, classification, recognition, and identification. Where the type of acquisition is not specified, the acquisition range will be regarded as sufficient for accurate targeting. This range is comparable to the former Soviet term sighting range. AAM - air-to-air missile AD - antihandling device (mines) ADHPM - artillery-delivered high-precision munition. This term can be used to describe various artillery precision munitions, including guided, terminally homing, SAL-homing, and course-corrected mortar and cannon rounds and rockets. AGL - automatic grenade launcher AIFV- airborne infantry fighting vehicle aka - also known as ALCM - air-launched cruise missile AL/RDX - aluminized RDX (ammunition) is an enhanced blast filler with aluminum added to the RDX high explosive, often used in Russian Frag-HE munitions with increased lethality. AM - amplitude modulated (communications) antitank - functional area and class of weapons characterized by destruction of tanks. In the modern context used in this guide, the role has expanded to fit the term "antiarmor" (which includes systems and munitions which can be employed against light armored vehicles) AP - antipersonnel APAM - antipersonnel - anti-materiel (ammunition) APE - armor-piercing explosive (ammunition) APERS-T - antipersonnel - tracer (ammunition) APC - armored personnel carrier APC-T - armor-piercing capped tracer (ammunition) AP HE - armor-piercing high explosive (ammunition) API-T - armor-piercing incendiary tracer (ammunition) APERS-T - antipersonnel tracer (ammunition) APT - armor-piercing tracer (ammunition) APU - auxiliary power unit; auxiliary propulsion unit ARM - anti-radiation missile. The missile homes in on the radar pulse to kill a radar system. ASM - air-to-surface missile AT - antitank ATGL - antitank grenade launcher

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96B1A06L-SHO2 ATGM - antitank guided missile aux - auxiliary average cross-country (speed) - vehicle speed (km/hr) on unimproved terrain without a road AVLB - armored vehicle-launched bridge burst (rate of fire) - artillery term: the greatest number of rounds that can be fired in 1 minute BW - biological warfare, including ammunition type. cal - caliber caliber - barrel length to gun bore ratio (for all gun systems), and used as a measure of gun barrel size or as a component of ammunition/gun size; in the case of US-made infantry weapons, diameter of ammunition/gun bore only, measured in inches, and used to describe ammunition/gun size canister - close-range direct-fire ammunition which dispenses a fan of flechettes forward C - centigrade CC - cargo-carrying (ammunition) CCD - cover, concealment, and deception; also charged-coupled device, an imaging sensor which operates in the visual and near-IR bands, with day and limited night capability. CCM - counter-countermeasure CE - chemical energy: the class of ammunition which employs a shaped charge for the lethal mechanism. Ammunition types which employ CE include HEAT and HESH (see below). Chem - chemical (ammunition type) CM - countermeasure coax - coaxial CRV - combat reconnaissance vehicle CW - continuous wave (communications) cyclic (rate of fire) - maximum rate of fire for an automatic weapon (in rd/min) decon - decontamination direct-fire range - maximum range of a weapon, operated in the direct-fire mode, at which the bullet's trajectory will not rise above the height of the intended point of impact on the target. At this range, the gunner is not required to adjust for range in order to aim the weapon. The comparable Russian term is point blank range. DPICM - dual-purpose improved conventional munitions (ammunition) DPICM-BB - dual-purpose improved conventional munitions, base-bleed (ammunition) DU - depleted uranium (ammunition) DVO - direct-view optics

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EQUIPMENT- GLOSSARY ECM - electronic countermeasure EFP - explosively-formed penetrator (ammunition); kinetic-energy penetrator which is created by a plate, shaped into a slug by an explosive charge, then propelled by it to a target EIOC - estimated IOC EMD - engineering, manufacture and development. Fielding phase between prototype and IOC. EMP - electro-magnetic pulse, including ammunition type. The pulse can kill electronic microcircuits in a target area. EO - electro-optic, electro-optical ERA - explosive reactive armor ERFB - extended range full-bore (ammunition) ERFB-BB - extended range full-bore, base-bleed (ammunition) est - estimate ET - electronic timing (ammunition fuse type) European - from a consortium of firms located or headquartered in several European countries EW -electronic warfare FCS - fire control system FFAR - folding-fin aerial rockets FAE - fuel-air explosive (ammunition). This munition technology is employed in aerial bombs and artillery munitions, and uses a dispersing explosive fill to produce intense heat, a long-duration high-pressure wave, and increased HE blast area flechette – small steel darts (much like nails) used to fill artillery rounds (and some bombs). Generally thousands of these darts are fired (similar to a shotgun in an anti-personnel role) dispensing the flechettes forward over a wide area. Unlike canister rounds, FSU artillery rounds use a time fuze, permitting close-in direct fire, long-range direct fire, and indirect fire. FH - frequency-hopper (radio, communications) FLIR - forward-looking infrared (thermal sensor) FLOT - forward line of own troops FM - frequency modulated (communications) FOV - field of view frag-HE - fragmentation-high explosive (ammunition) FSU - former Soviet Union GCS - ground control station gen - generation. Equipment such as APS and (thermal and II) night sights are often categorized in terms of 1st, 2nd or 3rd generation of development, with different capabilities for each. GP MG - general purpose machinegun GPS - global positioning system

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96B1A06L-SHO2 HE - high explosive (ammunition) HEAT - high-explosive antitank (also referred to as shaped-charge ammunition) HEAT-FS - high-explosive antitank, fin-stabilized (ammunition) HEAT-MP - high-explosive antitank, multi-purpose HEFI - high-explosive fragmentation incendiary (ammunition) HEI - high-explosive incendiary (ammunition) HEP-T - high explosive plastic-tracer (ammunition) HESH - high-explosive squash head (ammunition) HF- high frequency (communications) hps - hops per second (communications) HUD - head-up display HVAP-T - hypervelocity, armor-piercing tracer (ammunition) ICM - improved conventional munition (ammunition, round containing submunitions/grenades) IFF - identification friend-or-foe IFV - infantry fighting vehicle - improved conventional munition; frag-He bomblet submunition II - image intensification (night sighting system) ILS - instrument landing system INA - information not available incend - incendiary IOC - interim operational capability IR - infrared IRBM - intermediate-range ballistic missile (3,001-5,500 km) I-T - incendiary - tracer (ammunition) K-kill - catastrophic kill (simulation lethality data) kbits - kilobites per second (communications) KE - kinetic energy: class of ammunition which transfers energy to the target for the lethal mechanism. Ammunition types which employ KE include AP, APFSDS-T, and HVAP-T. LAFV - light armored fighting vehicle LLLTV - low-light-level television LMG - light machinegun LRF - laser rangefinder mach - speed of sound, based on atmospheric conditions (1160 km/h at sea level) max - maximum maximum aimed range - maximum range of a weapon (based on firing system, mount, and sights) for a given round of ammunition, while aiming at a ground target or target set with sights in the direct-fire mode. The range is not based on single-shot hit probability on a point target, rather on tactical guidance for firing multiple rounds if necessary to achieve a desired lethality effect. One writer referred to this as range with the direct laying sight. Even greater

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EQUIPMENT- GLOSSARY ranges were cited for salvo fire, wherein multiple weapons (e.g., tank platoon) will fire a salvo against a point target. max effective range - maximum range at which a weapon may be expected to achieve a high single-shot probability of hit (50%) and a required level of destruction against assigned targets. This figure may vary for each specific munition and by type of target (such as infantry, armored vehicles, or aircraft). max off-road (speed) - vehicle speed (km/hr) on dirt roads MCLOS - manual command-to-line-of-sight MG - machinegun Mk - Mark MRBM - medium-range ballistic missile (1,001-3,000 km) MRL - multiple rocket launcher MMW - millimeter wave (sensor mode, band in the electromagnetic spectrum) MVV - muzzle velocity variation (RF tracker for monitoring round-to-round variations in muzzle velocity variations due to tube wear, or for tracking artillery course-corrected rounds for command course adjustment) N/A - not applicable NBC - nuclear, biological, and chemical Nd - neodymium, type of laser rangefinder NFI - no further information normal (rate of fire) - artillery term: rate (in rd/min) for fires over a 5-minute period Nuc - nuclear (ammunition type ) NVG - night-vision goggle NVS - night-vision system PD - point-detonating (ammunition fuze type) penaid - Penetration aid, countermeasure system in the warhead to counter air defense weapons effectiveness. Ph - probability of hit (simulation lethality data) PIBD - point-initiating base-detonating (ammunition fuze type) pintel - post attached to a firing point or vehicle, used to replace the base for a weapon mount Pk - probability of kill (simulation lethality data) Poss - possible practical (rate of fire) - maximum rate of fire for sustained aimed weapon fire against point targets. The rate includes reload time and reduced rate to avoid damage from overuse. Former Soviet writings also refer to this as the technical rate of fire. RAP - rocket-assisted projectile (ammunition type) ready - rapid detectability under normal mobility conditions (mines) mirecon - reconnaissance 316

96B1A06L-SHO2 rd - round ready rounds - rounds available for use on a weapon, whether in autoloader or in nearby stowage, which can be loaded within the weapon's stated rate of fire RF - radio frequency RHA - rolled homogeneous armor, often used as a standard armor hardness for measuring penetration of anti-tank munitions RHAe - RHA equivalent, a standard used for measuring penetrations against various type armors rpm - rounds per minute (aircraft) RV - reentry vehicle. That portion of a TBM separating (or multiple separating) warhead which reenters the atmosphere and maneuvers to the target. SACLOS - semiautomatic command-to-line-of-sight SAL - semi-active laser; guidance method used in precision munitions, such as ADHPM, and ATGMs. SAM - surface-to-air missile SHF - super high-frequency (sensors) SFM- sensor-fuzed munition (artillery ammunition) shp - shaft horsepower (aircraft) SLAP - saboted light armor penetrator (ammunition). Small arms/machinegun round with a sub-caliber penetrator guided down a gun bore by sabots, designed to defeat light armor. SP - self-propelled SOF - special operations forces SRBM - short-range ballistic missile (0-1,000 km) SSM - surface-to-surface missile (can include IRBM, MRBM, or SRBM, or cruise missile) stadiametric - in this guide, a method of range-finding using stadia line intervals in sights and target size within those lines to estimate target range stowed rounds - rounds available for use on a weapon, but stowed and requiring a delay greater than that for ready rounds (and cannot be loaded within the weapon's stated rate of fire) sustained (rate of fire) - artillery term: rate (in rd/min) for fires over the duration of an hour tactical AA range - maximum targeting range against aerial targets, aka: slant range TAR - target acquisition radar TBM - theater ballistic missile TEL - transporter-erector-launcher. Vehicle which carries, raises, and launches TBMs. TELAR - transporter-erector-launcher and radar thermobaric - HEI volumetric (blast effect) explosive technology similar to fuelair explosive and used in shoulder-fired infantry weapons and ATGMs TLAR - transporter-launcher and radar TOF - time of flight (seconds)

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EQUIPMENT- GLOSSARY TTP - tactics, techniques, and procedures TTR - target tracking radar TV - television (sensor mode) UAV - unmanned aerial vehicle, class of unmanned aerodynamic systems which include remotely piloted vehicles and preprogrammed (drone) aircraft UHF - ultra-high frequency (communications) UI - unidentified VEESS - vehicle engine exhaust smoke system VHF - very high frequency (communications) volumetric - class of explosive ammunition fill which produces high long-duration blast and heat (includes thermobaric and FAE) vs - versus w/ - with (followed by associated object) WMD - weapons of mass destruction (ammunition type). These generally consist of nuclear, bacteriological, and chemical munitions. WP - white phosphorus (ammunition)

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