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Experiment No. Date:
Study of Viscosity with Redwood Viscometer
Introduction:
Redwood viscometer is based on the principle of laminar flow through capillary tube of
standard dimension under falling head. The viscometer consists of a vertical cylinder with an
orifice at the center of the base of inner cylinder. The cylinder is surrounded by a water bath,
which can maintain temperature of the liquid to be tested at required temperature. The water bath
is heated by electric heater. The cylinder, which is filled up to fixed height with liquid whose
viscosity is to be determined is heated by water bath to the desired temperature. Then orifice is
opened and the time required to pass 50 cc of oil is noted. With this arrangement variation of
viscosity with temperature can be studied.
Object:
To study variation of viscosity of given oil with temperature.
Theory:
In case of Redwood Viscometer, the kinematic viscosity (ν) of liquid and the time (t)
required to pass 50cc of liquid are correlated by the expression
ν = 0.0026t – 1.175/t
Where,
ν - Kinematic Viscosity in stokes
t - time in seconds to collect 50 cc of oil.
Equipment:
Redwood viscometer with accessories, Measuring Flask, Thermometer,
Stopwatch etc.
Procedure:
1. Level the instrument with the help of circular bubble and leveling foot screws.
2. Fill the water bath.
3. Close the orifice with the ball valve and fill the cylinder up to the index mark with oil.
4. Record steady temperature of oil.
5. By lifting the ball valve, collect 50cc of the liquid in the measuring flask and measure
the time required for the same.
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Thermometer
Inner Cylinder containing oil
Outer Cylinder containing water
Outlet valve
Ball Valve
Capillary Tube
Stirrer Fins
Stirrer wall
Index Mark
Heating Coil
Conical flask to measure 50 cc of oil
Levelling screws
Redwood Viscometer
Datum Line
k kk kmak k
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6. Repeat the procedure for different temperatures by heating oil with water bath.
Experimental data:
1. Diameter of cylinder = ............... mm.
2. Height of cylinder = ............... mm
3. Diameter of orifice = ............... mm
4. Length of orifice = ............... mm
Observation Table:
Sr. No. Temperature
‘ÿ’
(
0
C)
Time to collect 50cc of oil
‘t’
(s.)
Kinematic viscosity
‘ν νν ν’
(stokes)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sample calculations:
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2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0
0 . 0 0
0 . 0 5
0 . 1 0
0 . 1 5
0 . 2 0
0 . 2 5
0 . 3 0
0 . 3 5
0 . 4 0
K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y ( υ ) v s . t e m p e r a t u r e ( θ )
R e g io n III
R e g io n II R e g io n I
R e g io n I: - V e r y h ig h v is c o s it y , a l s o l a r g e v a r ia t i o n i n
vis c o s it y w it h s m a l l c h a n g e in t e m p e r a t u r e
h e n c e u n s u it a b l e
R e g io n II: - M o d e r a t e V is c o s it y , a l s o m o d e r a t e va r ia t io n
in v is c o s i t y w i t h c h a n g e i n t e m p e r a t u r e
h e n c e s u it a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e f o r t h e o i l
t o b e u s e d a s a l u b r ic a n t .
R e g io n III: - O il p o s s e s s e s ve r y l e s s vi s c o s it y
h e n c e u n s u it a b l e
S c a le
X - a x i s : 1 c m = 5
0
C
Y - a x is : 1 c m = 0 . 0 2 5 s t o k e s
K
i
n
e
m
a
t
i
c
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
υ
(
s
t
o
k
e
s
)
T e m p e r a t u r e
θ (
0
C )
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Graph:
Graph of kinematic viscosity ÿ (stokes) vs. temperature ºC
Conclusion:
1. Kinematic viscosity of given oil at 27 ºC= __________
2. Kinematic viscosity ______________ with increase in temperature.
3. Rate of decrease of kinematic viscosity ____________ with increase in temperature.
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Experiment No. Date:
Study of Flow measuring device - Venturimeter
Introduction
Venturimeter is a device used for measurement of discharge in a pipeline and is
based on Bernoulli’s theorem. The instrument consists of a short pipe which contracts up to a
section called as throat and then enlarges up to a diameter at outlet as shown in Fig. The conical
portions joining the inlets and the throat and the outlet are called as converging cone and
diverging cone respectively.
Object
• To determine the coefficient of discharge (k) of Venturimeter
• To calibrate the Venturimeter.
Theory
By contracting the passage of flow at the throat, the velocity of flow and hence the
velocity head is increased. This increase in the velocity head causes change in pressure head.
The Pressure difference thus created is measured generally by a ‘U’ tube manometer (differential)
and the discharge through the pipe is calculated by the formula.
Q
th.
= h C
Q
a
= k Q
th
Where,
Q
th
=Theoretical discharge through Venturimeter.
Q
a
= Actual discharge through Venturimeter.
k = Co-efficient of discharge of Venturimeter where,
h = Difference of head in terms of water column between inlet and throat.
C = Constant of Venturimeter =
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
a a
g a a

Where,
a
1
= Area of inlet which can be found out from inlet diameter d
1.
=
2
1
4
d
π
a
2
= Area of throat which can be found out from throat diameter d
2.
=
2
2
4
d
π
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Inverted U tube Air-Water Differential Manometer
Air Release Valve
Manometric Fluid - Air
Pipe Fluid - Water
Annular Ring
Holes of annular ring to
measure average pressure
Inlet
Converging Cone Diverging Cone Outlet
Rubber Tubes connecting pipe to manometer
Throat
Qa
@20°
Venturimeter
@6°
d1=5cm
h1=p1/ν
h2=p2/ν
2.5L L
Qa
x=h1-h2
d2=1.6 cm
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Actually, the coefficient of discharge k is never unity and hence it is determined
experimentally.
th
a
Q
Q
k =
The above formula can also be written
Qa = Mh
n
The constants M and n can be found out by plotting the graph of log Qa vs. log h.
Apparatus
1. Venturimeter
2. A Flow table with self circulating system
3. Measuring tank
4. Stopwatch
5. Differential manometer
Experimental Procedure
1. Set up the Venturimeter on the flow table and connect the inlet hose pipe.
2. The inverted U tube differential manometer is then connected to the respective pressure
tapping, making sure that no air bubble is entrapped in the tube.
3. The flow of water is then adjusted for required pressure head difference and the pressure
difference is noted.
4. The flow is then actually measured by collecting it in a measuring tank for known interval
of time.
5. The procedure is repeated for different values of pressure head difference by changing
the discharge.
Experimental Observation
1. Inlet diameter of Venturimeter = d
1
= 2.6 cm.
2. Throat diameter of Venturimeter = d
2
= 1.6 cm.
3. Dimensions of the measuring tank A = 50 cm. X 25 cm
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Observation Table
Manometric readings Actual discharge
measurement Sr. No.
h
1
cm
h
2
cm
h
cm
Q
th
.
= h C
cm
3
/s
I.R.
cm.
F.R.
cm.
Time
Sec.
Q
a.
cm
3
/s
K
=
th
a
Q
Q
a
Q
10
log h
10
log
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Average k =
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1. 48 1. 50 1.52 1.54 1.56 1. 58 1. 60 1.62 1.64 1.66 1. 68
2.64
2.66
2.68
2.70
2.72
2.74
2.76
2.78
2.80
2.82
2.84
Always dr aw t o sam e sc ale
k
gr aph icall y
= M/C
=
M = 10
[ l og
10
Q a- n log
10
h]
=
n = slope of line
= (y
2
-y
1
)/(x
2
-x
1
)
=
l og
10
Qa v s. l og
10
h
Scale
X-axis: 1cm = 0.02 units
Y-aixs: 1cm = 0.02 units
l
o
g
1
0
Q
a
l og
10
h
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0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Calibration curve ( Q
a
vs. h )
For head h = ( ) cm,
actual discharge, Q
a
= ( ) cm
3
/s.
Scale
X-axis: 1cm = 5 cm
Y-axis: 1cm = 50 cm
3
/s.
n =
M =
Q
a
=( )h
( )
cm
3
/s.
A
c
t
u
a
l
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
Q
a
(
c
m
3
/
s
)
Differential head
h (cm )
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6 4 6 6 6 8 7 0 7 2 7 4 7 6 7 8 8 0 8 2 8 4 8 6 8 8 9 0 9 2 9 4
0 . 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1 . 0
1 . 2
1 . 4
C o e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e ( k ) v s . R e y n o l d ' s n u m b e r ( R e ) a t t h r o a t
S cale
X-axis: 1cm = 200 0 units
Y -ax is: 1cm = 0 .1 units
( X 1 0
3
)
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
o
f
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
k
R e y n o l d ' s n u m b e r a t t h r o a t
( R e )
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Sample calculations
1. C =
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
a a
g a a

= _____________________________________ . sec /
5 . 2
cm
2. Q
th.
= h C =_____________________________________ . sec / cc
3. Q
a.
=
[ ]
time
R I R F A . . . . −
= _____________________________________ . sec / cc
4. k =
th
a
Q
Q
= _________________
Graphs
1. Plot graph of log Q
a
Vs log h to determine M and n.
2. Plot Calibration curve: Plot Qa Vs h
3. Plot graph of k vs. Re at throat.
Conclusions
1. The coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter is k=
……………
from calculation.
k=
……………
from graph
2. The law of the Venturimeter is Qa = Mh
n
=
……………………………………
cm
3
/s.
=
…………………………………….
m
3
/s.
3. Practical utility of calibration curve,
For
………
cm pressure head difference across the Venturimeter, the discharge through
the Venturimeter is
…………
cm
3
/s.
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Experiment No. Date:
Study of Flow measuring device - Orificemeter
Introduction
Orificemeter is yet another device used for measurement of discharge through a pipe
based on Bernoulli's theorem. It is different from the venturimeter in the sense that it provides sudden
change in a flow conditions instead of smooth transition provided by the venturimeter. As the liquid
passes through the orificemeter, lot of eddies are formed and there is a loss of energy due to which,
the measured value of discharge (Qa), is far less than the theoretical discharge. ( Q
th
)
Object
• To determine the coefficient of discharge (k) of orificemeter
• To calibrate the Orificemeter.
Theory
Orificemeter consists of a flat circular plate having a sharp edged hole called an orifice. The
plate is fitted in such a way that the orifice is concentric with the pipe. The diameter of the orifice is
about half the diameter of the pipe. The suitable pressure tappings one on each side of the orifice are
provided for measurement of pressure difference across the orifice.
The discharge through an orifice is
Q
th
= Ch
1/2
Q
a
= k Q
th
Where,
Q
th
=Theoretical discharge through 0rifice
Q
a
= Actual discharge through 0rifice
k = Co-efficient of discharge of 0rificemeter where,
h = Difference of head in terms of pipe fluid column across orifice
C = Constant of orificemeter = g 2 a
0
Where,
a
0
= Area of orifice =
2
o
d
4

where do = diameter of orifice opening
Actually, the coefficient of discharge k is never unity and hence it is determined
experimentally.
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Orificemeter
h2=P2/?
h1=p1/?
doVenacontracta
Orificeplate
x=h1-h2
Air Relief
Valve
Rubber tubeconnectingmanometer with
pipe
Separationzone
(eddies)
D
Qa
InvertedU-tubeAir-water differential
manometer
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th
a
Q
Q
k =
The above formula can also be written
Qa = Mh
n
The constants M and n can be found out by plotting the graph of log Qa vs. log h.
Apparatus
1. Orificemeter
2. A Flow table with self circulating system
3. Measuring tank
4. Stopwatch
5. Differential manometer
Experimental Procedure
1. Set up the orificemeter on the flow table and connect the inlet hose pipe.
2. The inverted U tube differential manometer is then connected to the respective pressure
tapping, making sure that no air bubble is entrapped in the tube.
3. The flow of water is then adjusted for required pressure head difference and the pressure
difference is noted.
4. The flow is then actually measured by collecting it in a measuring tank for known interval
of time.
5. The procedure is repeated for different values of pressure head difference by changing
the discharge.
Experimental Observation
1. Diameter of orifice = d
0
= 2.5 cm.
2. Diameter of pipe = d = 5 cm.
3. Dimensions of the measuring tank = 50 cm. X 25 cm.
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Observation Table
Manometric readings Actual discharge
measurement Sr. No.
h
1
cm
h
2
cm
h
cm
Q
th
.
= h C
cm
3
/s
I.R.
cm.
F.R.
cm.
Time
Sec.
Q
a.
cm
3
/s
K
=
th
a
Q
Q
a
Q
10
log h
10
log
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Average k =
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1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.70
2.75
2.80
2.85
Al ways draw to sam e scal e
k
gr aphically
= M/C
=
M = 10
[log
10
Qa-nlog
10
h]
=
n = slope of line
= (y
2
-y
1
)/(x
2
-x
1
)
=
Scale
X-axis: 1 cm = 0.025 units
Y-axis: 1 cm = 0.025 units
log
10
Qa vs. log
10
h
l
o
g
1
0
Q
a
log
10
h
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0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0
0
1 0 0
2 0 0
3 0 0
4 0 0
5 0 0
6 0 0
7 0 0
8 0 0
9 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0
1 2 0 0
C a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e ( Q
a
v s . h )
F o r h e a d h = ( ) c m ,
a c t u a l d i s c h a r g e , Q
a
= ( ) c m
3
/ s .
S c a l e
X- a x i s : 1 c m = 5 c m
Y - a x i s : 1 c m = 1 0 0 c m
3
/ s .
n =
M =
Q
a
= ( ) h
( )
c m
3
/ s .
A
c
t
u
a
l
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
Q
a
(
c
m
3
/
s
)
D i f f e r e n t i a l h e a d
h ( c m )
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Sample calculations
1. C = g 2 a
0
=_____________________________________ . sec /
5 . 2
cm
2. Q
th.
= h C =_____________________________________ . sec / cc
3. Q
a.
=
[ ]
time
R I R F A . . . . −
= _____________________________________ . sec / cc
4. k =
th
a
Q
Q
= ___________
Graphs
1. Plot graph of log Q
a
vs log h to determine M and n.
2. Plot Calibration curve : Plot Qa vs h
Conclusions
1. The coefficient of discharge of the Orificemeter is k=
……………
from calculation.
k=
……………
from graph
2. The law of the Orificemeter is Qa = Mh
n
=
……………………………………
cm
3
/s.
=
…………………………………….
m
3
/s.
3. Practical utility of calibration curve,
For
………
cm pressure head difference across the Orificemeter, the discharge through the Orificemeter
is
…………
cm
3
/s.
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Experiment No. Date:
Study of Flow Through Pipe Fittings
Introduction
In a pipe flow there are different types of losses. The losses due to change of section or obstruction or
change of direction of flow are called minor losses. The major loss is frictional loss of head which is significant
for longer pipes (L/d > 500). For short pipes, (L/d < 500), minor losses become significant.
Coupling
Coupling is a connection between two pipes of either same diameter or of different diameters. In the
present apparatus, the coupling is in the form of gradual expansion and gradual contraction.
Object
• To determine the loss of energy due to gradual expansion and to determine the coupling coefficient (k
1
)
for given area ratio.
• To determine the loss of energy due to gradual contraction and to determine the coupling coefficient (k
2
)
for given area ratio.
Theory
(A) The loss of energy due to gradual expansion
In gradually diverging coupling, the change in the cross sectional area causes the change in the
magnitude of velocity of fluid and large scale turbulance is generated due to formation of eddies. Some
portion of kinetic energy is utilized in this and it is to be considered as loss. The loss of energy due to gradual
expansion is given as
h
La.
= k
1
h
Lth.
Where,
h
La
= Actual loss of energy.
k
1
= Coefficient which depends on angle of divergence and area ratio
h
Lth.
= Theoretical loss of energy.
= (V
1
-V
2
)
2
/2g
Where, V
1
= Velocity of flow at inlet.
V
2
= Velocity of flow at outlet.
(B) The loss of energy due to gradual contraction
In the gradually converging coupling, the pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy and flow gets
accelerated. Gradually accelerated flow has an inherent stability and since it is free from separation,
energy loss is very small. In converging coupling, Vena-contracta is formed in narrower pipe after which
the stream of fluid widens again to fill the pipe completely. In between vena-contracta and the wall of the
pipe, eddies are formed which cause considerable loss of energy. The loss of energy due to gradual
contraction is
h
La.
= k
2
h
Lth.
Where,
h
La
= Actual loss of energy.
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K
2
= Coefficient which depends on area ratio
h
Lth.
= Theoretical loss of energy.
= V
2
2
/2g
Apparatus
1. Coupling forming gradual expanding section and gradually contracting section
2. A Flow table with self circulating system
3. Measuring tank
4. Stopwatch
5. Manometer
Experimental Procedure
1. Obtain the flow with maximum discharge through the pipe.
2. The manometer is then connected to the respective pressure tapping, making sure that no air
bubble is entrapped in the tube.
3. Take the manometric readings.
4. The flow is then actually measured by collecting it in a measuring tank for known interval of time.
5. The procedure is repeated for different values of pressure head difference by changing the discharge.
Experimental Observation
(A) Gradually expanding section
1. Upstream Diameter of pipe = d
1
= 2.5 cm.
2. Downstream diameter of pipe = d
2
= 5 cm.
(B) Gradually contracting section
1. Upstream Diameter of pipe d
1
= 5 cm.
2. Downstream diameter of pipe d
2
= 2.5 cm.
3. Dimensions of the measuring tank A = 50 cm. X 25 cm.
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Observation Table :-
Gradually Expanding Section.
Sr.
No.
Manometric
readings
Actual discharge measurement
h
1
cm
h
2
cm
I.R
cm
F.R
cm
Time
sec.
Q
a.
cm
3
/s
V
1
cm/s
V
2
cm/s
E
1
cm
E
2
cm
h
La
cm
h
Lth
cm
K
1
cm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average k
1
=
Observation Table :-
Gradually Contracting Section.
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Sr.
No.
Manometric
readings
Actual discharge measurement
h
1
cm
h
2
cm
I.R
cm
F.R
cm
Time
sec.
Q
a.
cm
3
/s
V
1
cm/s
V
2
cm/s
E
1
cm
E
2
cm
h
La
cm
h
Lth
cm
K
2
cm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Average k
2
=
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Total Energy line (TEL) and Hydraulic grade line (HGL) in pipe fittings
Expansion
Contraction
datum level
Z
h
1
=
__
P1
?
__
V1
2g
2
E
1
1
Z
h
2
=
__
P2
?
V2
2g
2
E
2
2
Z
h
1
=
__
P1
?
V1
2g
2
E
1
1
Z
h
2
=
__
P2
?
V2
2g
2
E
2
2
__
__
__
Q
a
Q
a
h
la
= E
1
E
2
_
h
la
= E
1
E
2
_
T.E.L. (Ideal fluid)
T.E.L. (Real fluid)
T.E.L. (Ideal fluid)
T.E.L. (Real fluid)
H.G.L.
H.G
.L.
Eddies
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Sample calculations
(A) Gradually expanding section
5.
g 2
) v v (
h
2
2 1
Lth

= =_____________________________________cm
6. = + = g 2 / v h E
2
1 1 1
_____________________________________cm
7. = + = g 2 / v h E
2
2 2 2
_____________________________________cm
8. = − =
2 1
E E h
La
_____________________________________cm
9. = =
Lth
La
h
h
k
1
_________
(B) Gradually contracting section
1.
g 2
v
h
2
2
Lth
= =_____________________________________cm
2. = + = g v h E 2 /
2
1 1 1
_____________________________________cm
3. = + = g v h E 2 /
2
2 2 2
_____________________________________cm
4. = − =
2 1
E E h
La
_____________________________________cm
5. = =
Lth
La
h
h
k
2
__________
Conclusions
3. Average Coefficient
1
K for gradual expanding section is = ______
4. Average Coefficient
2
K for gradual contracting section is =______
5. The loss of energy in gradual contacting section is ______ than that through gradual expanding
section
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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Experiment No. Date:
Study of Laminar and Turbulent Flow Through Pipes
Introduction:
Depending upon the value of Reynolds number, the flow of viscous liquid in the pipe can be laminar or
turbulent. For Reynolds number less than 2000 the flow is laminar while for Reynolds number more than 2500
it is likely to be turbulent. In general, it is definitely turbulent for Reynolds number more than 4000. The friction
factor ‘f’ and hence the loss of head in the pipe varies greatly with the nature of flow.
Object:
1. To study how head loss due to friction ‘h
f
’ varies with the velocity ‘v’ in laminar and turbulent
flow
2. To study variation of friction factor ‘f ’ in laminar and turbulent flow.
Theory:
In general, the frictional loss of head in pipe is give by Darcy weisbach formula.
5
2 2
1 . 12 2 d
flQ
gd
flv
h
f
= = in SI units
With usual notations, for laminar flow,
Re
64
= f where Re is the Reynolds number. In case of laminar flow
‘h
f
’, the loss of head proportional to ‘v’ while it is proportional to v
2
in case of turbulent flow. Thus we can write.
n
f
kv h =
Where,
K=
gd
fl
2
Experimentally the loss of head h
f
for known length of pipe ‘l’ is actually measured. After finding out
the corresponding discharge through the pipe and knowing the diameter of the pipe, the velocity of flow is
found out. With the help of a graph between
f
h and the velocity ‘v’, the nature of relation between the loss of
head and the type of flow can be obtained.
Experimental equipment:
A set of 4 pipes fitted with control valves for varying the flow and provided with pressure tapping,
manometer board, flow collection vessel, and measuring cylinders, stopwatch etc.
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Overflow
Air-water inverted
U-tube differential
manometer
Upstream Flow
Control Valve
Rubber
tube
Constant head supply water tank
1
air
h1
h2
Air relief
Valve
Darcy Weisbach equation
Outlet
hf
2
D=0.32 cm
0
10
20
30
40
50
Water
gD
fLV
h
f
2
2
=
Study of flow through pipes
L = 70 cm
Downstream Flow
Control Valve
Measuring
Cylinder
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Experimental Procedure:
1. Set the experimental device on the flow table and mark the inlet and outlet connection. With the help
of constant head water supply tank ensure steady conditions throughout the experiment.
2. Connect first inverted U tube differential mercury manometer to the pressure tapping on the pipe in
which the loss of head is to be measured.
3. While making the manometer connections, see that no air is locked anywhere in the system.
4. Start the flow through the pipe and adjust it gradually till you are able to measure the loss of about
10mm.
5. Measure the discharge Q in the measuring flask. Note the time for it.
6. Repeat the procedure for different discharges. Note that the variation in the discharge should be done
very gradually so that the differenence between the two consecutive readings is sufficiently small.
7. Measure the distance ‘l’ between the pressure tappings on pipe.
Experimental Data:
1. Nominal diameter of pipe (brass) d = 0.32 cm
2. Length between the pressure tapping l = 70 cm
3. Kinematic viscosity of water at room
Temperature (to be measured) ν =
………….
stokes
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Observation Table:
a) For Increasing flow:
Actual Discharge
measurement
(Q
a
) Log
10
hf Log
10
v Log
10
Re Log
10
f
Sr.No Head
loss (h
f
)
cm of
water Vol.
cm
3
Time
Sec.
Q
a
cm
3
/s
Velocity
V
=
2
4
d
Q
a
π
cm/s
Reynolds
Number
Re
=vd/ν
Friction
factor
f
=
2
2
v l
gd h
f
×
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
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Calculations:--
1. = =
time
Vol
Q ________________________cc/sec
2. = =
A
Q
v __________________________cm/sec.
3. = =
ν
vd
Re ________________
4. = =
l
h
v
gd
f
f
2
2
_____________________________________
Graphs:--
1. Graph of Log
10
Re on X-axis and log
10
f on Y-axis. i.e. Moody diagram.
2. Graph of log
10
v on X-axis and log
10
h
f
on Y-axis.
Conclusions:--
1. Laminar and turbulent are two types of flow having transitional state in between them.
2. In the laminar flow
....
v α
f
h from graph whereas in turbulent flow,
....
v α
f
h from graph.
3. From Moody diagram plotted, it is seen that friction factor ‘f’ varies linearly with Re in the laminar
flow.
4. Practical utility of Moody diagram:---
For a flow rate of
………
cc/sec., the velocity is
……
cm/sec.; hence Re is
……….
For this value of Re=
……..
from the Moody diagram, friction factor f=
………
Assuming the pipe of 3.2 mm diameter, for a flow rate of
……….
cc/sec., the velocity v =
…….
cm/sec.
For a length of say 1 m. of the above pipe head loss due to friction
f
h is estimated using Darcy-
Weisbach equation as
= =
gd
flv
h
f
2
2
_____________________________________
=
………
cm.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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Experiment No. Date:
Trial and Error Solution for a given Flow Problem
Theory
To determine the friction factor ‘f’ for steady incompressible fluid flow through a pipe so as to use it
in Darcy-Weisbach equation to estimate frictional head loss through the pipe.
gD
flV
h
f
2
2
=
Friction factor ‘f’ is not constant, but it varies with the type of flow whether laminar or turbulent and
in turbulent flow, whether the boundary is hydro dynamically smooth or rough or is in transition between
smooth and rough.
In general for the turbulent flow,
ÿ


D
k
f f
s
n
Re,
Where,
k
s
= Nikuradse’s Equivalent sand grain roughness
D = Pipe diameter
Re= Reynold’s Number
To estimate this friction factor ‘f’ Colebrook-White suggested an implicit equation in ‘f’ valid for entire
range of Reynold’s number.

+ − = −
f
k
R
k
R
f
s
s
Re
7 . 18
1 log 2 74 . 1 log 2
1
10 10
This equation being implicit was required to be solved by trial and error. Hence Lewis Moody gave an
approximate Explicit equation as

+ + =
3
1
6
Re
10
20000 1 0055 . 0
D
k
f
s
which gave the result within ± 5% variation of Colebrook-White equation.
Swami-Jain further gave an accurate explicit equation within ± 1% accuracy of Colebrook’s equation.

+ − =
9 . 0
10
Re
25 . 21
log 2 14 . 1
1
D
k
f
s
Aim
1. To solve the Colebrook-White implicit equation in f by trial and error method using a computer
program, for the given flow rate.
2. To determine f from standard Moody diagram, Moody equation and Swami-Jain equation and to
compare the value of f obtained from these equations with the value obtained from Colebrook-
White Equation.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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3. To find head loss due to friction (h
f
) in the pipe using the correct estimated value of f by putting
it in the Darcy-Weisbach equation
Flow Problem
Using Colebrook-White equation, estimate the friction factor f for steady incompressible flow of water
through a galvanized iron pipe of ____ mm diameter when the flow rate through the pipe is ____ lps.
Also compute the value of friction factor f for same flow conditions from the
a. Moody Diagram
b. Moody Equation
c. Swami-Jain Equation
Compare these values of f with the value obtained from Colebrook-White equation.
Estimate the frictional head loss in meter of water for the same flow through the pipe assuming that
the pipe is connected from underground water tank to overhead water tank, traveling a total distance
of 20 m. Write a program to solve the above problem in any programming language.
Given Data
1. Fluid flowing through pipe – Water
a. mass density of water (ρ) = 1000 kg/m
3
b. kinematic viscosity of water at 27
0
C (ν) = 0.0085 cm
2
/s.
2. Pipe diameter (D)= ___ mm= ____ m
3. Pipe length (L)= 20 m.
4. Pipe material = Galvanized iron (G.I.) with equivalent sand grain roughness (k
s
)= 0.15mm
5. Flow rate through pipe (Q) = ____ lps
Calculation Steps
1. Calculate average velocity of flow =
A
Q
V
avg
=
2. Calculate flow
ν
D V
avg
= Re
3. Calculate relative roughness ratio
D
k
s
4. Assume any value of f in between 0.01 to 0.1 and solve Colebrook-White equation to get Re

+ − = −
f
k
R
k
R
f
s
s
Re
7 . 18
1 log 2 74 . 1 log 2
1
10 10
5. To make trial and error easier, select approximate value of ‘f ’ obtained from Moody equation.
For this selected ‘f ’, obtain value of Re by Colebrook-White equation.
6. If calculated flow Re is less than actual flow Re, then increase assumed value of ‘f ’ by
appropriate amount and use it for the next trial.
7. Repeat above steps till calculated value of Re matches with actual flow Re.
8. The friction factor corresponding to this value of Re is the solution of Colebrook-White equation.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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9. Substitute the flow Re computed earlier in Swami-Jain explicit equation to get another value of ‘f
’.
10. Compare the two friction factors ‘f’ from Colebrook-White equation and Swami-Jain equation.
11. Use estimated accurate value of ‘f ’ in Darcy-Weisbach equation to find head loss due to friction
of pipe.
Sample Calculations
1.
A
Q
V
avg
= =__________________________
2.
ν
D V
avg
= Re =_______________________________
3. Substituting f from Moody Equation, Re from Colebrook-White Equation

+ − = −
f
k
R
k
R
f
s
s
Re
7 . 18
1 log 2 74 . 1 log 2
1
10 10
Re
1
=_____________________________________
4. f from Moody equation

+ + =
3
1
6
Re
10
20000 1 0055 . 0
D
k
f
s
m
=____________________________________
5. Accuracy of Moody equation in percentage = 100 ×

m
m
f
f f
=________________________
6. f from Swami-Jain equation

+ − =
9 . 0
10
Re
25 . 21
log 2 14 . 1
1
D
k
f
s
f =_________________________________________
7. Accuracy of Swami-Jain equation in percentage = 100 ×

s
s
f
f f
=_______________________
8. Head loss,
5
2
1 . 12 D
flQ
h
f
= =_____________________________________
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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/*Program for Trial and error solution of a given flow problem*/
#include<math.h>
#define pi 3.1415926535897932384626433832795
void main()
{
long double hf,q,d,l,k,ks,v,nu,r,d1,c1;
long double re,f,fm,fs,a,b,c,m,e,re1,diff;
clrscr();
printf("--------------------------------------------------------------------------------");
printf("\t\t\t\t INPUT DATA FOR FLUID FLOW\n\n");
printf("Enter Discharge flowing through pipe (Q) in lps:");
scanf("%Lf",&q);
printf("Enter kinematic viscosity of water in cm2/sec. :");
scanf("%Lf",&nu);
printf("--------------------------------------------------------------------------------");
printf("\t\t\t\t INPUT DATA FOR PIPE \n\n");
printf("Enter Diameter of pipe (D) in mm:");
scanf("%Lf",&d1);
printf("Enter Length of pipe (L) in m. :");
scanf("%Lf",&l);
printf("Enter Equivalent sand grain roughness (ks) in mm:");
scanf("%Lf",&k);
printf("--------------------------------------------------------------------------------");
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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printf("\t\t\t\t OUTPUT DATA \n");
d=d1/(pow(10,3));
r=d/2;
ks=k*1/(pow(10,3));
v=q/((pow(10,3)*(d*d*pi/4)));
re=v*d/(nu*1/(pow(10,4)));
printf("\n\t Average Velocity of the flow Vavg in m/s= %15.8Lf\n\t\t\t\t Actual Flow Re= %15.8Lf", v, re);
fm=0.0055*(1+pow((20000*(ks/d))+(pow(10,6)/re),1/3));
f=fm;
do
{
a=1/(sqrtl(f));
b=2*log10(r/ks);
c=1.74-(a-b);
c1=c/2;
m=pow(10,c1);
e=m-1;
re1=(18.7*(r/ks))/(e*sqrtl(f));
if ((re-re1)<=1/pow(10,9))
break;
if ((re-re1)<=1/pow(10,9))
break;
if (re1<re)
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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{
diff=((re-re1)/re);
f=f*(1-diff/1000);}
else
{
diff=((re1-re)/re1);
f=f*(1+diff/1000);
}
if (re1<=0)
f=(f+0.05);
}
while(re1!=re);
fs=1/pow(1.14-2*log10((ks/d)+(21.25/pow(re,0.9))),2);
hf=(f*l*pow(v,2))/(2*9.81*d);
printf("\n\t\t Re from Colebrook-White Equation= %15.8Lf\n Friction factor f from Colebrook-White Eq.= %15.8Lf ",re1,f);
printf("\n\t Friction Factor f from Moody Equation= %15.8Lf",fm);
printf("\n\t Friction f from Swami-Jain Equation= %15.8Lf",fs);
printf("\nFrictional Head Loss in given pipe in m. of water= %15.8Lf",hf);
printf("\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------");
getch();
}
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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INPUT DATA
Water::
Discharge flowing through pipe (Q) in lps = 2
Kinematic viscosity of water in cm2/sec. = 0.0085
Pipe::
Diameter of given pipe section (D) in mm =25
Length of given pipe section (L) in m =15
Eq. sand grain roughness coeff.(ks) in mm = 0.15
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OUTPUT DATA
Average Velocity of the flow (Vavg) in m/s= 4.07436654
Re calculated from actual flow conditions = 119834.31009272
Re obtained from Colebrook-White Equation = 119834.31009272
Friction factor f from
Colebrook-White Eq.= 0.03280198
Moody Equation = 0.03324313
Swami-Jain Equation= 0.03300098
Accuracy of Moody Equation in percentage = -1.34488866
Accuracy of Swami-Jain Eq. in percentage = +0.60300172
Frictional Head Loss (hf) in m. of water = 16.65223552
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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INPUT DATA
Water::
Discharge flowing through pipe (Q) in lps = 3
Kinematic viscosity of water in cm2/sec. = 0.0085
Pipe::
Diameter of given pipe section (D) in mm =20
Length of given pipe section (L) in m =18
Eq. sand grain roughness coeff.(ks) in mm = 0.15
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OUTPUT DATA
Average Velocity of the flow (Vavg) in m/s= 9.54929659
Re calculated from actual flow conditions = 224689.33142385
Re obtained from Colebrook-White Equation = 224689.33142385
Friction factor f from
Colebrook-White Eq.= 0.03477678
Moody Equation = 0.03500932
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Swami-Jain Equation= 0.03489697
Accuracy of Moody Equation in percentage = -0.66866007
Accuracy of Swami-Jain Eq. in percentage = +0.34439360
Frictional Head Loss (hf) in m. of water = 145.47074637
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INPUT DATA
Water::
Discharge flowing through pipe (Q) in lps = 4
Kinematic viscosity of water in cm2/sec. = 0.0085
Pipe::
Diameter of given pipe section (D) in mm =15
Length of given pipe section (L) in m =20
Eq. sand grain roughness coeff.(ks) in mm = 0.15
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OUTPUT DATA
Average Velocity of the flow (Vavg) in m/s= 22.63536968
Re calculated from actual flow conditions = 399447.70030907
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Re obtained from Colebrook-White Equation = 399447.70030907
Friction factor f from
Colebrook-White Eq.= 0.03803432
Moody Equation = 0.03779784
Swami-Jain Equation= 0.03809669
Accuracy of Moody Equation in percentage = +0.62173993
Accuracy of Swami-Jain Eq. in percentage = +0.16373547
Frictional Head Loss (hf) in m. of water = 1324.31266246
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INPUT DATA
Water::
Discharge flowing through pipe (Q) in lps = 5
Kinematic viscosity of water in cm2/sec. = 0.0085
Pipe::
Diameter of given pipe section (D) in mm =30
Length of given pipe section (L) in m =10
Eq. sand grain roughness coeff.(ks) in mm = 0.15
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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OUTPUT DATA
Average Velocity of the flow (Vavg) in m/s= 7.07355303
Re calculated from actual flow conditions = 249654.81269317
Re obtained from Colebrook-White Equation = 249654.81269317
Friction factor f from
Colebrook-White Eq.= 0.03073918
Moody Equation = 0.03136514
Swami-Jain Equation= 0.03086229
Accuracy of Moody Equation in percentage = -2.03634316
Accuracy of Swami-Jain Eq. in percentage = +0.39888324
Frictional Head Loss (hf) in m. of water = 26.13047561
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Experiment No. Date:
Flow Through Packed Bed
Aim
1. To estimate void fraction for different packings.
2. To use the void fraction, thus calculated to find packed bed Reynolds number for given data.
3. To use Ergun equation to find the packed bed friction f
p
.
4. To determine the pressure drop across a packed bed for given data.
Theory
In a packed bed. the fluid, liquid or gas flows through solid packings. The solid packings could
be spherical, cylindrical, solids or specially prepared packings such as Raschig ring, Berl Saddle,
Intalox Saddle etc. During chemical reaction, the packings provide a large contact area between the
liquids and gases especially during two phase flow. Sometimes, the packings also act as catalyst in
different reactions. Because of the packings, as the fluid moves through them, a very large pressure
drop across the depth of packed bed which is required to be evaluated.
Common practical applications involving packed bed include:
i) Oil removal from porous rocks
ii) Filtration process.
iii) Catalytic cracking process.
iv) Chemical process such as distillation, humidification etc.
v) Polyester fibre drawn from molten polymers.
Equation
To evaluate the pressure drop, across a packed bed, packed bed friction factor fp is defined
as:
L
p
V
E D
f
p
p


=

) 1 (
2
3
ε ρ
Where,
p
D = Particle diameter
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Case I
Case II Case III
Packings only
Packings + Water Water
Packed Bed
Determining void fraction (e)
1000 cc 1000 cc
700 cc
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E = void fraction =
bed packed of volume Total
Fluid of Volume
p
f depends on the manner of packing whether dumped randomly or stacked properly by
hand. (In this experiment., the packings are randomly dumped).

V = Superficial velocity which is the velocity that would exist in absence of solid particles.
A
Q
V =

where:
A=c/s area of packed bed.
L = depth of bed.
= fluid mass density.
Pressure drop across packed bed can be given as:
3
2
) 1 (
E D
V L f
p
p
p
ε ρ −
= ∆

The packed bed friction factor
p
f can be evaluated by using Ergun equation:
1000 and 10 between Re for 1.75
Re
150
1000 Re for 75 . 1
10 Re for
Re
150
p
+ =
≥ =
≤ =
p
p
p
p
f
f
f
Where,
p
Re = Packed bed Reynolds number
=
µ ε
ρ
) 1 ( −

V D
p
The above equation Indicates that the void fraction is very instrumental in calculations of
pressure drop p ∆ .
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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Experimental Setup
Two measuring cylinders (1000 ml capacity), beakers, water, porcelain packings such as Raschig
Ring, Berl Saddle and Intalox Saddle.
Experimental procedure
1. Select the Raschig rings and pack them randomly in the cylinders to touch the 1000 ml mark.
2. Carefully put the water up to 1000 ml mark to fill all the voids.
3. Take another measuring cylinder and pour the water from the total packed bed into it to
record the volume of water in packed bed ‘v

’.
4. Calculate the void fraction E=v

/V where V=Total volume of packed bed.
5. Change the manner of packing for new random packing and repeat the procedure for two
more readings.
6. Find the average void fraction to estimate void fraction for that packing.
7. Perform the experiment for another packing.
8. Record the total depth of a packed bed ‘L’, the diameter of packed bed D and the individual
particle diameter
p
D .
9. Assume same flow rate through the packed bed Q.
10. Find the superficial velocity.
2
4
D
Q
V
π
=

11. Find the packed bed Reynolds number for different Packings.
12. Find the packed bed friction factor for different Packings.
13. Also find the pressure drop for the packed bed ( p ∆ ) for diff. Packings.
14. Write a program to generate the data and results in tabular format after processing of data.
Experimental Data
1. Dia. of packed bed (D). =______ cm.
2. Depth of packed bed (L). =______ cm=______ m.
3. Mass density of water (ρ). =1000 kg/m
3
4. Kinematic viscosity of water at 27
o
c () =0.0085 cm
2
/s
5.
Dynamic viscosity of water () =
…………
6. Volumetric rates of flow (Q)
i. Q
1
=____ X 10
-7
m
3
/s
ii. Q
2
=____ X 10
-5
m
3
/s
iii. Q
3
=____ X 10
-5
m
3
/s
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7. individual diameter of packing.
i. Raschig Ring D
p1
=_____ cm
ii. Bearl saddle D
p2
=_____ cm
iii. Intalox saddle D
p3
=_____ cm
8. Total volume of packed bed V=1000 ml.
Observation Table
Sr. No. Type of Packing Vol. Of Fluid
(ml)
Void Fraction

Avg.

1
2
1
Raschig Ring
3
1
2
2
Bearl Saddle
3
1
2
3
Intalox Saddle
3
Sample Calculation:
For
---------------------------------------------------
packing
Q= ______________ m
3
/sec.
2
4
D
Q
V
π
=

=________________________________
p
Re =
µ ε
ρ
) 1 ( −

V D
p
=_____________________________
For the
p
Re obtained, using Ergun equation,
p
f = _______________=_____________________________________
3
2
) 1 (
E D
V L f
p
p
p
ε ρ −
= ∆

=_____________________________________
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Conclusion
1. The void fraction changes with the type of packing and manner of packings.
2. From values of packed bed friction factor
p
f , it is clear that with increase in superficial velocity

V , the friction factor decreases.
3. However with increase in superficial velocity though the friction factor decreases, the pressure
drop p ∆ across the packed bed increases as seen from values of p ∆ .
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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#include<math.h>
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{float i,Q1,Q2,Q3,rho,nu,mue,Dp1,Dp2,Dp3,A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,A7,A8,A9;
float v1,v2,v3,v4,v5,v6,v7,v8,v9,Rep1,Rep2,Rep3,Rep4,Rep5,Rep6;
float Rep7,Rep8,Rep9,e1,e2,e3,fp1,fp2,fp3,fp4,fp5,fp6,fp7,fp8,fp9;
float l,p1,p2,p3,p4,p5,p6,p7,p8,p9,temp;
clrscr();
l=0.352;
rho=1000; /* kg/m3 */
nu=0.0085*pow(10,-4); /* m2/sec */
mue=nu*rho;
Q1=2*pow(10,-8); /* m3/sec */
Q2=2.5*pow(10,-6); /* m3/sec */
Q3=5.5*pow(10,-5); /* m3/sec */
printf("\n\t\t\t****Input Data****\n");
printf("\t-------------------------------------------------------------");
printf("\n\tDiameter of Rasching Ring in cm=");
scanf("%f",&Dp1);
printf("\tDiameter of Berl Saddle in cm=");
scanf("%f",&Dp2);
printf("\tDiameter of Intalox Saddle in cm=");
scanf("%f",&Dp3);
Dp1=Dp1*pow(10,-2);
Dp2=Dp2*pow(10,-2);
Dp3=Dp3*pow(10,-2);
A1=Dp1*Dp1*3.142/4;
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 53
A2=Dp2*Dp2*3.142/4;
A3=Dp3*Dp3*3.142/4;
/*For Rasching Ring*/
v1=Q1/A1;
v2=Q2/A1;
v3=Q3/A1;
printf("\n\tVoid Fraction for rasching Ring=");
scanf("%f",&e1);
Rep1=Dp1*v1*rho/((1-e1)*mue);
Rep2=Dp1*v2*rho/((1-e1)*mue);
Rep3=Dp1*v3*rho/((1-e1)*mue);
fp1=150/Rep1;
fp2=1.74+(150/Rep2);
fp3=1.75;
temp=rho*(1-e1)*l/(Dp1*e1*e1*e1);
p1=fp1*v1*v1*temp;
p2=fp2*v2*v2*temp;
p3=fp3*v3*v3*temp;
/*For Berl Saddle*/
v4=Q1/A2;
v5=Q2/A2;
v6=Q3/A2;
printf("\tVoid Fraction For Berl Saddle=");
scanf("%f",&e2);
Rep4=Dp2*v4*rho/((1-e2)*mue);
Rep5=Dp2*v5*rho/((1-e2)*mue);
Rep6=Dp2*v6*rho/((1-e2)*mue);
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 54
fp4=150/Rep4;
fp5=1.74+(150/Rep5);
fp6=1.75;
temp=rho*(1-e2)*l/(Dp2*e2*e2*e2);
p4=fp4*v4*v4*temp;
p5=fp5*v5*v5*temp;
p6=fp6*v6*v6*temp;
/*For Intalox saddle*/
v7=Q1/A3;
v8=Q2/A3;
v9=Q3/A3;
printf("\tVoid fraction For Intalox Saddle=");
scanf("%f",&e3);
Rep7=Dp3*v7*rho/((1-e3)*mue);
Rep8=Dp3*v8*rho/((1-e3)*mue);
Rep9=Dp3*v9*rho/((1-e3)*mue);
fp7=150/Rep7;
fp8=1.74+(150/Rep8);
fp9=1.75;
temp=rho*(1-e3)*l/(Dp3*e3*e3*e3);
p7=fp7*v7*v7*temp;
p8=fp8*v8*v8*temp;
p9=fp9*v9*v9*temp;
printf("\n\n\t\t\t****Output Data****\n");
printf("\n\tReynold`s Number For Packed Beds");
printf("\n\n\tRasching Ring Berl Saddle Intalox Saddle");
printf("\n\tRep1=%f Rep1=%f Rep1=%f",Rep1,Rep4,Rep7);
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 55
printf("\n\tRep2=%f Rep2=%f Rep2=%f",Rep2,Rep5,Rep8);
printf("\n\tRep3=%f Rep3=%f Rep3=%f",Rep3,Rep6,Rep9);
printf("\n\t------------------------------------------------------------");
printf("\n\n\tFriction Factor For Packed Beds");
printf("\n\n\tRasching Ring Berl Saddle Intalox Saddle");
printf("\n\tfp1=%f fp1=%f fp1=%f",fp1,fp4,fp7);
printf("\n\tfp2=%f fp3=%f fp2=%f",fp2,fp5,fp8);
printf("\n\tfp3=%f fp3=%f fp3=%f",fp3,fp6,fp9);
printf("\n\t-----------------------------------------------------------");
printf("\n\n\tPressure Drop Across Packed Beds In Pascals");
printf("\n\n\tRasching Ring Berl Saddle Intalox Saddlle");
printf("\n\tp1=%f p1=%f p1=%f",p1,p4,p7);
printf("\n\tp2=%f p2=%f p2=%f",p2,p5,p8);
printf("\n\tp3=%f p3=%f p3=%f",p3,p6,p9);
getch();}
****Input Data****
-------------------------------------------------------------
Diameter of Rasching Ring in cm=6.4
Diameter of Berl Saddle in cm=1.25
Diameter of Intalox Saddle in cm=2.5
Void Fraction for rasching Ring=0.697
Void Fraction For Berl Saddle=0.763
Void fraction For Intalox Saddle=0.687
****Output Data****
Reynold`s Number For Packed Beds
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 56
Rasching Ring Berl Saddle Intalox Saddle
Rep1=1.544693 Rep1=10.111289 Rep1=3.828075
Rep2=193.086670 Rep2=1263.911133 Rep2=478.509430
Rep3=4247.906738 Rep3=27806.046875 Rep3=10527.208008
------------------------------------------------------------
Friction Factor For Packed Beds
Rasching Ring Berl Saddle Intalox Saddle
fp1=97.106644 fp1=14.834904 fp1=39.184181
fp2=2.516853 fp3=1.858679 fp2=2.053473
fp3=1.750000 fp3=1.750000 fp3=1.750000
-----------------------------------------------------------
Pressure Drop Across Packed Beds In Pascals
Rasching Ring Berl Saddle Intalox Saddlle
p1=0.000018 p1=0.005919 p1=0.000884
p2=0.007479 p2=11.586688 p2=0.723758
p3=2.516854 p3=5280.054199 p3=298.529938
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 57
Experiment No. Date:
Verification of Stoke’s law
Aim of experiment:
1. To find the terminal settling velocity of the sphere in glycerine – U
2. To verify the stoke’s faw.
Theory:
Stoke’s law state that
F
D
=3 UD
P
Where,
F
D
= Drag resistence offered by fluid
= Absolute viscosity of fluid
U = Terminal or uniform settling velocity
D
P
= Diameter of spherical body immersed in fluid
Stoke’s law is applicable only for small spherical freely suspended particle moving at
extremely small velocity in an infinite expanse of a very viscous fluid such that the flow Reynold’s
No. Re 1.
Initially the solid body accelerates downward in the fluid under its weight W, whereas the
fluid offers upward drag resistance F
D
.
Then the body stops accelerating and moves down in the fluid with uniform velocity U called
terminal or settling velocity.
At equilibrium
W =F
D

(
p
-
f
)D
p
3
/6=3 UD
P
Where,
p
=specific weight of the solid particle.

f
=specific weight of the fluid.
Common applications based on Stoke’s law
1. Design of grit chambers and sedimentation tanks in water treatment plants
2. In sewage treatment works
3. In air clarifiers during air pollution control
4. Ground water flow through porous media
5. Determination of fluid viscosity
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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P
Steel ball accelerate under
its own weight
F
D
W
Equillibrium Condition
Steel ball moving with
terminal velocity U
L
Wooden board
Stoke's apparatus
glycerine
D
D
Stoke's cylinder
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
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Experimental setup: Stoke’s law apparatus, steel balls, beakers, stopwatch etc.
Experimental Procedure:
1. Fill the fluid upto the top of vertical transperent glass cylinder. Ensure that there are no air bubbles
and the fluid is static before dropping the ball.
2. Select a particular diameter steel ball and after carefully placing at the center of the tube, lightly drop
it into the fluid.
3. Record the time ‘t’ seconds required to pass the ball in the fluid between the permanent marks made
on the setup covering a distance ‘L’.
4. Take the average of the three readings to accurately record time.
Find U’=L/t
5. Repeat the procedure for another ball of different diameter.
6. Find the terminal velocity U after applying the end correction as

+ + =
2
'
4
9
4
9
1
D
D
D
D
U U
p p
7. Find the submerged unit weight and drag resistance and compare to verify stoke’s law.
Experimental data:
1. Diameter of steel balls
D
p1
=4.7mm; D
p2
=4.0mm; D
p1
=2.3mm
2. Mass of steel balls
m
1
= 0.42g. ;m
2
= 0.25g. ; m
3
= 0.11g.
3. Diameter of stoke’s apparatus cylinder D = 9.6cm
4. Mass density of glycerine
f
= 1266.67 kg/m
3
.
5. Absolute viscosity of glycerine at room temperature =0.77Ns/m
2
.
Observation Table:
Sr.
No.
Dia. Of
steel
ball
Length
L (cm)
Time
T (sec.)
U

=L/T
cm/s.
Avg U

cm/s
Corrected
U
cm/s
F
D
(N)
W
(N)
K
W/F
D
1
2
3
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 60
4
5
6
7
8
9
Calculations:
1. Calculate mass density of steel balls as
P
=m/ (D
3
p/6)=____________________________
2. Calculate Weight of each ball as W= (D
3
p/6)g(
p

f
) =_____________________________
3. Calculate F
D
=3 UD
P
=_________________________
4. Calculate K=W/F
D
=____________________________
5. Calculate Re=
f
U Dp/ =_____________ to check whether Re 1
Conclusion:
As F
D
W at Re <=1, Stoke’s law is Verified.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 61
Experiment No. Date:
Study of Operating Characteristics of centrifugal Pump
Aim:
To study variation of pump characteristics such as Manometeric head (Hm), power input (Pin), Overall
efficiency () with the discharge (Q).
Apparatus:
Centrifugal pump with suction and delivery pipes, control valves. Pressure gauges, energy meter and
90
o
V-notch.
Theory:
A pump is a device which converts any other form of energy into hydraulic ÷energy. Centrifugal pump
is a type of Rotodynamic machinery which is characterised by the rotary motion of the impeller, run at a
constant RPM. This rotary motion of impeller induces an additional centrifugal head on the fluid, thereby
increasing both its kinetic energy and pressure energy. Thus centrifugal pumps are commonly used to lift and
drag fluids.
A centrifugal pump is designed for maximum overall efficiency(
o
), corresponding to the efficiency (
o
), the design discharge (Q
o
), maximum power input required (P
ino
) and maximum design manometric head
(H
mo
). But during actual operation of the pump, it is not necessary that it is always at the design values. In fact,
frequently the centrifugal pump gets operated at different discharges than the design discharge. Hence the
operating curves of a centrifugal pump show graphically behavior and performance of the pump under various
conditions of operation; for a const rpm. of the impeller. These curves in the non-dimensional form help to
predict the pump performance when run at any other discharge, than the design discharge.
Procedure:
1. Prime the pump to remove all the air, gas from the suction pipe, centrifugal pump body and section of
the pipe up to delivery valve, with delivery valve closed.
2. Start the pump to its design speed. Adjust the discharge and speed by controlling the delivery valve
and measure it with the help of triangular notch by measuring the head above the crest of the notch
with the help of piezometer.
3. Record the suction head, delivery head and input power on the electronic device.
4. Repeat the procedure for 8 to 10 observations.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 62
Component parts of a Centrifugal Pump
Suction Head
H
S
Delivery Head
H
D
Foot Valve
Suction pipe
Strainer
Sump
Eye
Impeller
Volute Casing
Delivery Valve
Delivery pipe
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 63
Observation Table :-
Sr.
No.
Suction
Head
Delivary
Head
Manometric
Head H
m
Actual discharge
Measurement
P
in
Kw
P
out
Kw
H/H
o
Q/Q
o
P
in
/P
in0
/
o
Hs in
mm
of Hg
Hs in
m. of
water
Hd in
Kg/cm
2
Hd in
m. of
water
=Hs+Hd
m. of water
h1
cm
h
cm
Q
m
3
/s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 64
Formulae to be used:
1. H
s
(m. of water) =
S
H ×
1000
6 . 13
(mm of mercury)
2. H
d
(m. of water) = H
d
(kg/cm
2
) X 10
3. Zero of the notch = 5 cm.; head over notch, h=h
1
-5
4. Discharge, Q = 1.417(h)
2 .5
cm
3
/s.
5. P
out
=
1000
H Q
m
γ
=9.81QH
m
kW
6. Efficiency = η =
in
out
P
P
Sample Calculations
1. Discharge over 90
0
triangular notch
Q=1.417 X h
2 . 5
m
3
/s.--------------------------------
2. Manometric head= H
m
= H
s
+ H
d-----------------------------------
3. Output power = γ Q H
m
=-----------------------------
4. Efficiency = η = P
0
/P
in
X 100
Graphs:-
On a single graph plot,
H/H
o
, Pin /Pin
(0)
, /o on y axis against Q/Q
o
on x axis.
Conclusion
1. At maximum efficiency o=--------- for the centrifugal pump the design discharge Qo =
-----------
m
3
/sec.
2. Minimum power input P
in(0)
corresponding to design discharge=
---------
kw is necessary to provide
maximum efficiency.
3. The design manometric head is Hm
(0)
=
-------------
m
4. At zero discharge the maximum value of shut off head=
-------------
m.
5. The characteristic curves indicate that with increase in the flow rate Q, the input power P
in
increases, the manometric head decreases and the efficiency increases initially but after the
design discharge, it again decreases.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 65
Experiment No. Date:
Pump and Blower Specification writing in a format routinely used by Process
Industry
Data sheets, consisting of pumps, blower specifications are extremely useful in providing a summary
of information to the bidder and provides the basis for evaluating after comparison, the different bid offered
and provided by various manufactures. For relatively simple or inexpensive pumps, blower or for either
replacement of duplication only, specifications are not written but a direct quotation is asked for generally,
after specifying minimum requirements. For costly machinery, with the involvement of many trade makes and
manufacturers advancements in design, manufacturing technology, legalities involved etc; specifications
become very useful. Also they help the client to include special requirements than normal ones.
The specification may be broadly classified as
i) Construction specifications which gives details about the materials used, methods used during pump
design, construction, installations, maintenance etc.
ii) Performance specifications which establish the performance which the pump, blower must achieve
during its operation (Service requirement).
Sub-classifications include technical, commercial specifications. Specification writing is based on use of
different codes and standards for reference such as say.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute.
ASTM: American Standard for Testing, Manufacture.
ASME: American Society for Mechanical Engineers.
BS: British Standards.
BIS: Bureau of Indian Standards.
API: American Petroleum Institute.
ISO: International Standard Organizations, Standards of the Hydraulic Institute
NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.
FM: Factory Manual for Insurance etc.
The specifications are written to cover the following points. (only a few very important Points are
listed).
i) Duty:- Purpose of use; also consist of the duty cycle and a diagram Indicating lengths, elevation,
gradients, valves etc, necessary for piping.
ii) Fluid:- Type, Physical, Chemical characteristics.
iii) Material of construction (For the main body as well as the parts) In this the materials that are
recommended for use based on particular purpose are specified.
iv) Flow paths, flow rates, pressures, temperatures for various system operating conditions; NSPH for
pumps.
v) Graphic representation by diff. Characteristic curves.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 66
vi) Consideration towards alternate modes of operation such as whether in continuous use or intermittent
use, operations under constant head or varying head, operations under large temperature gradients
or small ones etc.
vii) Assess impact of wear of equipment during use on operating characteristics and allow for permissible
margins over and above the normal rating.
viii) Scope for future system changes.
ix) Driver type:- Whether electric, steam, gas, etc whether variable speed; or constant speed, voltage
fluctuations, etc.
x) Code requirements to be satisfied, tolerances permissible.
xi) Performance testing.
A typical centrifugal pump data sheet may be as shown below:-
Details about plant, location, layout, reference drawing, requisition number, process involved.,
Manufacture job no, data sheet no, data etc. are mentioned on the data sheet
Technical specifications:-
1) Liquid pumped., specific gravity
2) Viscosity— Ns/m2.
Vapour pressure Pa
3) Temperature in F/
0
C/Max/Min
4) P
H
value
5) Solids concentrations, size
6) Flow ratings/Min/Max GPM/cumecs, LPS/Min.
7) Suction pressure. Pa
8) Discharge pressure. Pa
9) Differential pressure rating/shut—off value
10) NPSH(R)
11) Type of pump/model/no of stages.
12) RPM.
13) Efficiency, HP at rating, HP maximum.
14) Impeller diameter: Bid/Min/Mix.
15) Impeller eye: area/Peripheral velocity.
16) Working pressure: Max/Hydro /Test.
17) Clearance: Wear Ring/Bearing/Impeller.
18) Hydro Thrust: Rating/Maximum.
19) Torque: Rating/Max.
20) Suction: Size/Rating.
21) Discharge: Size/Rating.
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 67
22) Base Plate:
23) Coupling: Type/ manufacturer
24) Strainer: Size/diameter.
25) Bearing Lubricant Max. Pressure.
26) Shaft seal: Type.
27) Materials:
for
i) Case
ii) Shaft
iii) Impeller
iv) Wear ring
v) Liners
28) Driver: Type of motor, RPM, HP, furnished by weight,
drawing reference, bearing description.
thrust rating.
29) Drawing No: Outline/Sectional/performance curves.
30) Net.Wt. Rotating elements.
31) Inspection: Std. No. ASMEIII
32) TESTING: Ultrasonic/Eddy current/magnetic Part/
performance field.
33) Quality Assurance Mfr std.
34) Seismic Design Requirements Class I/ClassII.
Data sheet for centrifugal Blowers:
1) Fluid blown, specific gravity
2) Viscosity- NS/M
2
3) Vapour pressure Pa
4) Flow rating Min/Max.
GPM/Cumecs/LPS/Min.
5) Type of Blower/Model no.
6) RPM
7) Efficiency, Hp at Rating, Hp Maximum.
8) Impeller dia area/Bid/Max/Min
Impeller eye area/Peripheral velocity.
9) Compression Ratio (P2?P1)
10) Working Pressures
Inlet P1 Max/Min/Rated
Outlet P2 Max/Min/Rated
MAEER’S MIT, Pune Civil Department
ssnimbalkar@mitpune.com 68
11) temperatures in
0
F/
0
C
Inlet P1 Mix/Min
Outlet P2 Mix/Min
12) Head developed
13) Whether coolant used
14) Whether single/Multiple stages.
15) Inlet size.
16) Discharge size.
17) Coupling Type. MFR.
18) Bearing Lubricant Max. Pressure.
19) Shaft seal type.
20) Materials Case and Size
Shaft
Impeller
Wear ring
Liners.
21) Driver: Type of motor, RPM, HP, furnished by wt, drawing reference, bearing description, thrust rating.
22) Drawing No. Outline/sectional/performance curve.
23) Net wt. Blower/Removable/Rotating parts
24) Inspection STD no. ASME III
25) Testing Ultrasonic/Eddy Current/magnetic
part of performance field
26) Quality assurance MFR Ltd.
27) Seismic design requirements Class I/Class II

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