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z and Laplace|Views: 21|Likes: 0

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PAST EXAM QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

—DRAFT—

PAGE 1 of 190

EEM 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam EEM 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam

May 11, 2002 Sami Arıca

QUESTIONS 1. Fourier series coefﬁcients of a periodic signal x [n] is given as k ak Find signal x [n] .

May 11, 2002

−1 0 1 2 √ √ √ √ −1.5 − j1.5 3 3 − j3 3 3 3 + j3 3 −1.5 + j1.5 3

−2

2. Find convolution sum of the following signals.

3. Find z-Transform of x [n] = (n + 1) an · u [n]. Hint:

DR A FT

3n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4 h [n] = 0, elsewhere , x [n] = 2, n = −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 elsewhere

∞

0

.

∞

nbn−1 =

n=0

d db

bn .

n=0

4. Poles of system response of a causal and stable system are inside the unit circle. Prove this property. Hint: Remember that impulse response of a stable system is absolutely summable. You should also remember that ROC of a right-sided sequence is outside region of a circle. 5. Find z-Transform of y [n] = x [2n] in terms of z-Transform of x [n]. Hint: Obtain y [n] in

1 two spets; I. y1 [n] = 2 x [n] + 1 (−1)n x [n], II. y [n] = y1 [2n]. First ﬁnd z-Transform o 2

y1 [n] and later y [n]. (This question was not included in the exam questions)

Sami Arıca

—DRAFT—

PAGE 2 of 190

EEM 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam

May 11, 2002 Good Luck

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

—DRAFT— PAGE 3 of 190

|a| < |z| < |b| . X (z) = 1 − az−1 1 − bz−1 4. −a < Re {s} < b . 1. Find inverse Laplace transforms of the following Laplace transform. . 1 1 X (s) = + . x1 [n] = 4 (n − 2) . elsewhere 2. elsewhere Good Luck.5)n . 2 . 5 0. 4. a) x [n] = an u [n] n b) h [n] = u [n] ∗ x [n] = x [k] . n = 0.EEM 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam EEM 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam June 11. s−b s+a —DRAFT— PAGE 4 of 190 . 2 x [n] = 0. n = 0. 1. QUESTIONS 1. Find inverse z-transform of the following z-transform. elsewhere (0. Response of an LTI system to input signal is Find response of the system for input signal n + 1. k=0 3. −a < b . 2 y [n] = 0. n = 3. |a| < |b| . Find z-transforms of the follwing signals. n = 0. 1 1 + . 2002 Sami Arıca June 11. 2002 Instructions. Answer all questions. Sami Arıca DR A FT n + 1. 1.

2002 1. a) X (z) = . 3. 4. 1 − az−1 June 11. 0. n = 3. b) H (z) = 1 1 · . elsewhere Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 5 of 190 . x [n] = an u [n] − bn u [−n − 1] .EEM 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam ANSWERS 1 .5)n . 4. 1. n = 0.(|z| > |a|)∩(|z| > 1) 1 − z−1 1 − az−1 2.5)n . x (t) = e−at u (t) − bebt u (−t) . (0. |z| > |a| . 2 y1 [n] = y [n] + 4y [n − 3] = 32 (0. x1 [n] = x [n] + 4x [n − 3] . 5 .

Answer all questions. output of an LTI system is given as y [n] = 2 1 − (1/2)n+1 u [n]. 2002 Sami Arıca June 24. 2002 Instructions.EEM 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam EEM 314 Signals and Systems Reset Exam June 11. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 6 of 190 . For input x [n] = u [n]. Find impulse response of the system. QUESTIONS 1.

2 l∈Z x (n + l · 5) . 2003 April 04.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I . n = −2. n = −2. . 3 3 x (n) = 0.April 04. −1. ( ∗ is the convolution operator ) Q3) 1 2 |n| Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of the signal. ∞ Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 1 − |n| . 0. 2 Find output signal x (n) . 1. 0. φk (n) = φ (n − k) . . ±3. 1. —DRAFT— PAGE 7 of 190 . . Q2) Find y (n) = x (n) ∗ x (n). 1 y (n) − y (n − 1) = x (n) . x (n) = k=−∞ ak φk (n) . ±1. 2003 QUESTIONS Q1) x (n) = u (n + 1) − u (n − 1) is input to an LTI system described by difference equation. 2 elsewhere x (n) = . . Q4) Consider the following set of signals: Show that an arbitrary signal can be expressed in the form. ±2. φ (n) = 1 2 |n| u (n) k = 0. −1.

( Hint: what is the representation for δ (n) ? ) ( This question is quoted from the textbook: Oppenheim and Willsky. Signals and Systems. Inc.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I April 04. Prentice/Hall International. 2003 by determining an explicit expression for the coefﬁcient ak in terms of the values of the signal x (n). ) Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 8 of 190 .

2003 A1) Linear and causal systems can be described by constant coefﬁcient difference equations. —DRAFT— PAGE 9 of 190 . . = 2 n = 1 y (1) = 1 y (0) + x (1) 2 1 3 · +0 = 2 2 3 = 4 . n ≤ −2 y (n) = 0 .EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I ANSWERS April 04. because x (n) = 0 for n ≤ −2. The output samples for n > −2 are Sami Arıca DR A FT n = −1 y (−1) = 1 y (−2) + x (−1) 2 = 1 . . Then. n = 0 y (0) = 1 y (−1) + x (0) 2 1 = ·1+1 2 3 . etc.

y (n) should be calculated for −4 ≥ n ≤ 4. —DRAFT— PAGE 10 of 190 . Because x (n) = x (−n). x (k) x (n − k) −2 ≥ n − k ≤ 2 −2 ≥ k ≤ 2 . 1 2 n+1 April 04. . 2003 y (n) = u (n + 1) + 1 2 n u (n) . y (n) = y (−n). x (n) = u (n + 1) − u (n − 1) = δ (n + 1) + δ (n) 1 2 A2) n y (n) = k=−2 = x (−2) x (n + 2) + x (−1) x (n + 1) + x (0) x (n) + x (1) x (n − 1) + x (2) x (n + 2) .EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I The general form of the output is. Sami Arıca DR A FT 2 u (n) is response to δ (n) . 4 will be sufﬁcient. . y (n) is zero if arguments of x (n − k) and x (k) are outside of the ranges. Finding y (n) for n = 0 . Then.

x (n) is N = 5. ak = a−k .EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I April 04. ak 2π 2 −j n · k 1 x (n) e 5 · = 5 n=−2 = 1 10 2 + 2 cos Sami Arıca DR A FT y (−3) = y (3) = y (−4) = y (4) = 1 · 1 = 1 .18 a−2 = a2 = 0. 2003 y (0) = 1 · 1 + = 3 .5 a−1 = a1 = 0. = 3 —DRAFT— PAGE 11 of 190 . = 9 1 y (−2) = y (2) = ·1+ 3 y (−1) = y (1) = = 2 . 2π k + cos 5 4π k 5 .07 . 2 2 1 1 2 2 · + · + · +1·1 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 2 · + · +1· 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 · +1· 3 3 3 A3) The period of signal. 2 2 ·1+1· 3 3 4 . 2 ·1+ 3 16 . a0 = 0. Because x (n) ∈ R and x (n) = x (−n).

Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 x (k + 1) φ (n − k) x (k) φ (n − k) − = 2 k=−∞ k=−∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1 x (k) φ (n − k − 1) = x (k) φ (n − k) − 2 k=−∞ k=−∞ = k=−∞ 1 x (k) − x (k + 1) φ (n − k) 2 1 ak = x (k) − x (k + 1) . 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 12 of 190 . 2 April 04.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam I A4) The representation of δ (n) in terms of φ (n) is. 1 δ (n) = φ (n) − φ (n − 1) . 2003 First signal x (n) is represented by impulses and next equivalent of impulse is replaced. ∞ x (n) = k=−∞ ∞ x (k) δ (n − k) 1 x (k) φ (n − k) − φ (n − k − 1) 2 k=−∞ ∞ ∞ = The coefﬁcient ak in terms of the values of x (n) is.

Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 13 of 190 . y (n) = nx (n). ﬁnd the inverse z-transform of. 1 < |z| < 3 . 2 + 2z−1 X (z) = . y (n) = x (n). (1 + 3z−1 ) (1 − z−1 ) Q2) Find the Fourier transform of the following signals in terms of. 2. 1. 2003 May 2.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam II EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam II .May 2. 2003 QUESTIONS Q1) Using the known z-transforms. X (Ω) = F [x (n)].

Then. 1 − z−1 The inverse z-transforms of the parts are.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam II ANSWERS May 2. |z| < 3 . 1 + 3z−1 1 . −1 1 + 3z 1 − z−1 X (z) = The parts of the z-transform are. —DRAFT— PAGE 14 of 190 . 2003 A1) X (z) is partitioned by using partial fraction expansion. F−1 [X (z)] = (−3)n u (−n − 1) + u (n) . A2) Sami Arıca DR A FT X2 (z) = |z| > 1 . F−1 [X2 (z)] = u (n) . 1 1 + . F−1 [X1 (z)] = (−3)n u (−n − 1) . X1 (z) = 1 .

EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam II 1) ∞ May 2. dΩ —DRAFT— PAGE 15 of 190 . 2003 Y (Ω) = n=−∞ ∞ y (n) e−jΩn x∗ (n) e−jΩn n=−∞ ∞ = = n=−∞ ∞ x (n) ejΩn x (n) e n=−∞ ∞ jΩn ∗ ∗ = ∗ 2) Or Sami Arıca DR A FT = X (−Ω) . n=−∞ ∗ ∞ = x (n) e−j(−Ω)n Y (Ω) = = y (n) e−jΩn n=−∞ ∞ nx (n) e−jΩn n=−∞ ∞ = x (n) ne−jΩn x (n) j n=−∞ ∞ = n=−∞ ∞ d e−jΩn dΩ = n=−∞ j d x (n) e−jΩn dΩ ∞ d = j dΩ = j x (n) e−jΩn n=−∞ d X (Ω) .

EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam II May 2. —DRAFT— PAGE 16 of 190 . 2003 ∞ X (Ω) = n=−∞ x (n) e−jΩn ∞ d d X (Ω) = dΩ dΩ ∞ x (n) e−jΩn n=−∞ = = d x (n) e−jΩn dΩ n=−∞ ∞ x (n) n=−∞ ∞ d e−jΩn dΩ Sami Arıca DR A FT n=−∞ ∞ = x (n) −jne−jΩn nx (n) e−jΩn = −j n=−∞ = −jY (Ω) .

2003 1 2πj zn−1 dz = δ (n) Γ Sami Arıca DR A FT = δ (n − k) · x (k) 1 x (k) z−k zn−1 dz 2πj Γ 1 x (k) zn−k−1 dz = 2πj Γ —DRAFT— PAGE 17 of 190 .EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Midterm Exam II Inverse z-Transform May 2.

—DRAFT— PAGE 18 of 190 . |z| > 2 . 0. Q2) Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of the signal. 2 Find output signal. X (z) = 2 − 5z−1 + 2z−2 Q4) Find Laplace transform of.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Final Exam EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Final Exam . Q3) Using the known z-transforms. ﬁnd the inverse z-transform of. n = −1. y (n) for input signal. 1. x (n) . . Sami Arıca DR A FT x (n) = n 2 . 3z−1 . 2003 June 13. 2 l∈Z x (n + l · 4) . 1 y (n) − y (n − 1) = 3 · x (n) . 2003 QUESTIONS Q1) x (n) = −2 · δ (n + 2) + δ (n − 1) is input to an LTI system described by difference equation.June 13. x (t) = 6−(2+3j)t u (t) .

N = 4.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Final Exam ANSWERS A1) Input Output 1 2 n June 13. 2003 δ (n) → 3 · u (n) 1 2 n+2 δ (n + 2) → −2 · 3 δ (n − 1) → 1 2 n+2 · u (n + 2) y (n) = −2 · 3 A2) Period of the signal. Sami Arıca DR A FT · u (n + 2) + δ (n − 1) + 1 2 n−1 1 2 n−1 · u (n − 1) · u (n − 1) ak π π −j k 1 1 j k = e 2 + 1 + 2e 2 + 4e−jπk 4 2 1 1 k (j) + 1 + 2 (−j)k + 4 (−1)k 4 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 19 of 190 .

79(2+3j)t · u (t) —DRAFT— PAGE 20 of 190 . s + 3.58 + 5. Re [s] > −3. x (t) Sami Arıca DR A FT X (s) = 1 . 1 −1 1− z 2 1 2 n June 13. 2003 (|z| > 2) |z| > 1 2 x (n) = (2)n u (n) − A4) 6 = e1.58 .79 u (n) .37j = e−1.EEM 314 Signals and Systems II Final Exam A3) X (z) = 1 − 1 − 2z−1 1 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam QUESTIONS March 26. DR A FT X (s) = 1 (s + 2) (4s + 1) 2 Re{s} > − 1 4 t + 1. Q3) a) Find energy of the signal. 2004 Q1) Find Fourier transform of a) −1 x (t) = 1 0 x (τ) dτ . −1 ≤ t < 0 0≤t<1 elsewhere t b) y (t) = −∞ Q2) Find inverse Laplace transform of using partial fraction expansion method. b) Find and plot y (t) = −2x (2 − 3t) + 2x (3t − 1). Q4) Find trigonometric Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t) = |cos (πt)|. Good Luck Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 21 of 190 . x (t) = 1 0 −1 ≤ t < 0 0≤t<1 elsewhere .

2004 A1) a) 1 -1 1 b) Sami Arıca DR A FT -1 0 1 X (ω) = − e−jωt dt + e−jωt dt 0 1 −1 1 = − ejωt dt + e−jωt dt 0 0 1 = −2j sin (ωt) dt 0 1 1 = 2j cos (ωt) ω 0 1 = 2j (cos (ω) − 1) ω —DRAFT— PAGE 22 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam ANSWERS March 26.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam March 26. 2004 Y (ω) = 1 X (ω) + πX (0) δ (ω) jω 2 (cos (ω) − 1) = ω2 Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 23 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam A2) March 26. 2004 X (s) = 1/16 (s + 2) (s + 1/4)2 B C A + + = (s + 2) (s + 1/4) (s + 1/4)2 A = Sami Arıca DR A FT = 1/49 C = s→−1/4 s→−2 lim (s + 2) X (s) lim (s + 1/4)2 X (s) = 1/28 B = d (s + 1/4)2 X (s) s→−1/4 ds 1/16 = lim − s→−1/4 (s + 2)2 = −1/49 lim —DRAFT— PAGE 24 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam March 26. 2004 dY (s) ↔ −ty (t) ds 1 − ↔ −e−t/4 u (t) (s + 1/4) 1 ↔ te−t/4u (t) 2 (s + 1/4) x (t) = 1/49 e−2t u (t) − 1/49 e−t/4 u (t) + 1/28 te−t/4 u (t) Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 25 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam A3) a) March 26. 2004 0 0 (t + 1) dt + −1 1 −1 2 (1)2 dt = 0 (u)2 du + 1 1 = b) DR A FT x (t) x (2 − 3t) 1 1 1 t 1/3 2/3 x (3t − 1) −2x (2 − 3t) + 2x (3t − 1) 2 1 2/3 t 1/3 2/3 -2 1/3 1 3 u +1 3 0 4 = 3 t 1 -1 1 t Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 26 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam A4) March 26. 2004 1/2 a0 1 = 1 −1/2 cos (πt) dt 1/2 1 sin (πt) = π −1/2 1 = (sin (π/2) + sin (π/2)) π 2 = π Sami Arıca DR A FT 1/2 ak 2 = 1 cos (πt) · cos (2πkt) dt −1/2 1/2 = 2 1 [cos ((1 + 2k) πt) + cos ((1 − 2k) πt)] dt 2 −1/2 = 2 π π 2 sin (1 + 2k) + sin (1 − 2k) π (1 + 2k) 2 π (1 − 2k) 2 1/2 bk 2 = 1 −1/2 1/2 cos (πt) · sin (2πkt) dt 1/2 = −1/2 sin ((1 + 2k) πt) dt + −1/2 sin ((−1 + 2k) πt) dt = 0 —DRAFT— PAGE 27 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 1 Exam March 26. 2004 ∞ x (t) = a0 + k=1 ak cos (2πkt) Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 28 of 190 .

−9 mod 5 = 1. Q3) Find Fourier series coefﬁcients of Here. 13 mod 5 = 3. ( Q2) X (s) x (0.5t − 2) .5t − 2) ↔ ? a) Find system response H (s) of the system. 2004 Q1) Fourier transform of signal x (t) is given as. Q4) X (z) = −21 z . Sami Arıca DR A FT 1/s 1/s Y (s) −4 −5 x [n] = (n − 2) mod 5 . 2 (1 − cos (ω)) . —DRAFT— PAGE 29 of 190 . 5 2 Find inverse z-transform using partial fraction expansion method.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam QUESTIONS April 30. (5z − 2) (2z − 5) 2 5 < |z| < . b) Find differential equation which describes the input-output relationship of the system. x mod y is the reminder of integer division and is always positive. ω2 x (t) ↔ X (ω) ) X (ω) = Find Fourier transform of x (0.

a) Find and plot y1 [n] and y2 [n]. s (t). . Fint unit step t=0 δ (x) = lim a→0 −∞ ej2πx(y−a|y|) dy . Q8) There is many deﬁnitions of Dirac delta function. Sami Arıca DR A FT . and response . 6 ) . . Q7) An LTI system is described by the following differential equation. b) Find and plot y [n] = 3y1 [−n] − 2y2 [n] . dy (t) dt = 0. t) = ej2πωt is basis function of Fourier transform pairs . 2004 . 2. n = 0. ∞ Let φ (w. . of the system. 6. One of these is. . The following questions are given as exercises. otherwise 1 2 3 n April 30. 4. d2 y (t) dy (t) +4 + 5y (t) = x (t) 2 dt dt Initial conditions for x (t) = u (t) are given as. y1 [n] = x [2n] and y2 [n] = 0. (Take plot range as n = −6 . . y (0) = 0. —DRAFT— PAGE 30 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam Q5) x [n] 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 x [n/2] . Q6) Find Laplace transform of x (t) = e−2|t| .

2004 ∞ X (ω) = −∞ x (t) φ (w. prove that x (t) can be reconstructed from X (ω) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam April 30. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 31 of 190 . t) dt ∞ 1 x (t) = 2π −∞ X (ω) φ∗ (w. Using deﬁnition of Dirac delta given above. t) dω .

5t − 2. ω2 A (s) 1/s B (s) 1/s −4 Y (s) C (s) −5 —DRAFT— PAGE 32 of 190 .5t − 2) e−jωt dt . ∞ dt = 2du Y (ω) = 2 x (u) e−jω(2u+4) du ∞ −∞ = 2e −j4ω x (u) e−j2ωu du −∞ = 2e −j4ω X (2ω) = e−j4ω (1 − cos (2ω)) . 2004 A1) ∞ Y (ω) = −∞ x (0. t = 2u + 4 Y (ω) becomes. A2) X (s) Sami Arıca DR A FT t = −∞ ⇒ u = −∞ t=∞⇒u=∞ .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam ANSWERS April 30. changing integral variable t with u = 0.

2004 A (s) = X (s) + C (s) C (s) = −5Y (s) − 4B (s) A (s) = s2 Y (s) B (s) = sY (s) . —DRAFT— PAGE 33 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam April 30. The system response is. Sami Arıca DR A FT s2 Y (s) = X (s) − 5Y (s) − 4sY (s) s2 Y (s) + 4sY (s) + 5Y (s) = X (s) . n 0 1 2 3 4 x [n] 3 4 0 1 2 . A3) Period of x [n] is N = 5. H (s) = = Y (s) X (s) s2 1 . Time domain equivalent of the system is. Combining the equations we obtain. + 4s + 5 dy (t) d2 y (t) +4 + 5y (t) = x (t) 2 dt dt .

31 − 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam April 30.43j −0.43j 0. 2004 ak 1 = 5 = 4 x [n] e−j n=0 2πk 5 2π 6π 8πk 1 3 + 4e−j 5 + e−j 5 + 2e−j 5 5 4π 2πk 2π 1 = 3 + 4e−j 5 + ej 5 + 2ej 5 5 The Fourier series coefﬁcients.26j −0.31 + 0. A4) Sami Arıca DR A FT 0 1 2 3 4 X (z) 21 = − z (5z − 2) (2z − 5) 5 2 = − . 5z − 2 2z − 2 X (z) = 2z 5z − 5z − 2 2z − 2 1 1 = − 2 5 1 − z−1 1 − z−1 5 2 = A (z) + B (z) .81 − 0.81 + 0.26j . k ak 2 0. —DRAFT— PAGE 34 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam April 30. 2 |z| < a [n] = b [n] = A5) Sami Arıca DR A FT u [−n − 1] . 5 1 − z−1 2 |z| > 2 5 5 . 2 1 − z−1 5 −1 B (z) = . 2004 A (z) = 1 . —DRAFT— PAGE 35 of 190 . x [n] = a [n] + b [n] = 2 5 n 2 5 5 2 n u [n] . n u [n] + 5 2 n u [−n − 1] .

2004 2 −1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n DR A FT y2 [n] 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 −1 y1 [−n] 2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 1 2 3 4 5 6 n −6 −5 −6 n Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 36 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam y1 [n] April 30.

s+2 Re {s} > −2 —DRAFT— PAGE 37 of 190 . s−2 Re {s} < 2 e−(s+2)t dt = 0 1 . 2004 2 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 2 1 −1 0 2 3 4 5 6 n −3 A6) Sami Arıca DR A FT −6 ∞ X (s) = e−2|t| e−st dt −∞ 0 ∞ = e2t e−st dt + e−2t e−st dt −∞ ∞ 0 ∞ = e−2t est dt + e−2t e−st dt 0 0 ∞ e(s−2)t dt = − 0 ∞ 1 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam y [n] April 30.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm 2 Exam April 30. −2 < Re {s} < 2 4 − s2 Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 38 of 190 . 2004 X (s) = − 1 1 + s−2 s+2 4 = .

25−j0. 0. Find the transfer function and frequency response of the system. 0. Q3) Poles of transfer function of a discrete-time LTI system is given as.5 and zeros of the transfer function are 1.5. s (t).25.25+j0. ﬁnd discrete time equivalent (H (z)) of the system T 1 + z−1 function and write difference equation of the discrete-time system (the sampling period T = 2). 0.5 − j0. 0.5+j0.5 + j0. Sami Arıca DR A FT H (s) = 2 1 · s + 1 2s + 1 —DRAFT— PAGE 39 of 190 .25.5−j0. Q4) Plot cascade form realization of continuous-time system with system function H (s) given in Q2.25 and 1. d2 y (t) dy (t) +4 + 5y (t) = x (t) 2 dt dt Find unit step response . Q2) System function of a continuous-time LTI system is given as. 2004 Q1) An LTI system is described by the following differential equation. of the system. Using the bilinear transform. H (0) = 1.25. s = 2 1 − z−1 · . . Q5) Find trigonometric Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t) = 3 · |cos (πt − π/4)|.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam QUESTIONS May 31.

The complete solution is. Then the homogenous solution is. The roots are −2 + j and −2 − j. y (0) = 0 and b. They lead to following equations. The inition conditions. 2004 A1) Since this differential equation represents an LTI system y (t) = 0 for t < 0. —DRAFT— PAGE 40 of 190 . Sami Arıca DR A FT yp (t) = 1/5 . dy (t) dt = 0 are used to ﬁnd unknown constants. a and t=0 yh (t) = a e(−2+j)t + b e(−2−j)t . a + b = −1/5 (−2 + j) a + (−2 − j) b = 0 . Because input is a constant. Then a solution for t ≥ 0 should be looked for. s2 + 4 s + 5 = 0 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam ANSWERS May 31. the particular solution is a zero degree polynomial. The characteristic equation of the differential equation is. y (t) = yh (t) + yp (t) = a e(−2+j)t + b e(−2−j)t + 1/5 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Solution for these equations is a = −1/10 + 1/5 j and b = −1/10 − 1/5 j. Then,

May 31, 2004

y (t) = (−1/10 + 1/5 j) e(−2+j)t + (−1/10 − 1/5 j) e(−2−j)t + 1/5 = 1/5 − 2/5 e−2 t sin(t) − 1/5 e−2 t cos(t) .

As a result the unit step response the LTI sytem;

s (t) = 1/5 − 2/5 e−2 t sin(t) − 1/5 e−2 t cos(t) u (t) .

A2)

The input output relation in z-domain,

The corresponding difference equation;

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

H (z) = H (s)|s=(1−z−1 )/(1+z−1 ) = (z + 1)2 z (3z − 1) 1 + 2 z−1 + z−2 = 3 − z−1 Y (z) = H (z) · X (z) . 3 y (n) − y (n − 1) = x (n) + 2 x (n − 1) + x (n − 2) .

—DRAFT—

PAGE 41 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam

May 31, 2004

A3) The structure of transfer function of an LTI system is a rational polynomial function; 1 + b1 z−1 + b2 z−2 + · · · + bM z−M 1 + a1 z( − 1) + a2 z−2 + · · · + aN z−N 1 − r1 z−1 1 − r2 z−1 · · · 1 − rM z−1 = A , (1 − p1 z−1 ) (1 − p2 z−1 ) · · · (1 − pN z−1 )

H (z) = A

where pk and rk are poles and zeros respectively. N is the order of the LTI system. Hence, for given poles and zeros the transfer function; A · 1 − (1.5 + 0.25 j) z−1 1 − (1.5 − 0.25 j) z−1 . (1 − (0.5 + 0.25 j) z−1 ) (1 − (0.5 − 0.25 j) z−1 ) (1 − (0.25 + 0.5 j) z−1 ) (1 − (0.25 − 0.5 j) z−1 )

H (z) =

Using H (0) = 1, the unknown constant is found as, A = 0.0422. Then the transfer function becomes, 0.0422 − 0.1266 z−1 + 0.1055 z−2 . 1 − 1.5 z−1 + 1.125 z−2 − 0.4688 z−3 + 0.09766 z−4

A4)

I. Realization of H1 (s); Y (s) = H1 (s) X (s) .

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

H (z) = H (s) = H1 (s) H2 (s) .. 1 , s+1 2 H2 (s) = . 2s+1 H1 (s) =

—DRAFT—

PAGE 42 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam

May 31, 2004

Y (s) =

1 X (s) , s+1 1 (X (s) − Y (s)) . s

s Y (s) + Y (s) = X (s) , Y (s) =

x (t)

y (t)

II. Realization of H2 (s);

x (t)

III. Realization of H (s);

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

Y (s) = H2 (s) X (s) .. Y (s) = 2 X (s) , 2s+ 1 2 s Y (s) + Y (s) = 2 X (s) , Y (s) = 1 (X (s) − 0.5 · Y (s)) . s y (t) −0.5

−1

—DRAFT—

PAGE 43 of 190

Then T = 1 sec. π —DRAFT— PAGE 44 of 190 . x (t) y (t) A5) Period of cos (πt − π/4) is 2 sec. Sami Arıca DR A FT −0.5 −1 a0 1 = T 1 1 t0 +T x (t) dt t0 3/4 = cos (πt − π/4) dt −1/4 = 2 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam x (t) y (t) May 31. 2004 −1 −0. Period of the absolute value of the cosine decreases by half and becomes 1 sec.5 or.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 31. π (−1 + 4 k2 ) x (t) = Sami Arıca DR A FT bk 2 = T 2 1 t0 +T x (t) sin 2πkt dt T t0 3/4 = cos (πt − π/4) sin (2 π k t) dt −1/4 = 4 sin(πk/2) . 2004 ak 2 = T 2 1 t0 +T x (t) cos t0 3/4 2πkt dt T = cos (πt − π/4) cos (2 π k t) dt −1/4 = −4 cos(πk/2) . π (−1 + 4 k2 ) —DRAFT— PAGE 45 of 190 . π (−1 + 4 k2 ) 2 −4 π ∞ k=1 cos(πk/2) cos (2 π k t) + 4 π (−1 + 4 k2 ) ∞ k=1 sin(πk/2) sin (2 π k t) .

Find i) unit step response. Q3) A periodic signal is given as. Find and plot y (t) = x (0.5t + 1). of the system and iii) response of the system to an arbitrary input.5)) is given.5) + x (0. dt y [n] − 0.5 ≤ t ≤ 0.5t − 1) − x (0. x (t + l · 2) .2y [n − 1] = x [n] .5)− x (0. Q2b) A discrete-time LTI system is described by the following ﬁrst order difference equation. Find and plot y [n] = x [2n − 2] − 2 x [2n − 4] − x [2n + 2] + x [2n + 4]. −0. of the system and iii) response of the system to an arbitrary input.5t − 0. sin (2πt) . 2005 Q1a) x (t) = (1 − 2 |t|) (u (t + 0. Find i) unit step response.5) − u (t − 0. —DRAFT— PAGE 46 of 190 . x (t) = 0. 1 δ [n + 2] + δ [n] + 2δ [n − 2] is given.5 −1 ≤ t < −0.5 < t ≤ 1 l∈Z Sami Arıca DR A FT d y (t) + 2y (t) = x (t) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam QUESTIONS April 01. ii) impulse response.5t + 0. Q1b) x [n] = Q2a) A continuous-time LTI system is described by the following ﬁrst order differential equation. ii) impulse response.5 and 0.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam

April 01, 2005

Find a) complex Fourier series representation, b) trigonometric Fourier series representation of the signal. d2 d Q4a) Find state-space representation of 2 y (t) + 0.5 y (t) + y (t) = x (t). Choose state varidt dt d y (t). ables as z1 (t) = y (t) and z2 (t) = dt Q4b) Find state-space representation of y [n] + 0.5y [n − 1] + y [n − 2] = x [n]. Choose state variables as z1 [n] = y [n − 2] and z2 [n] = y [n − 1].

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

—DRAFT— PAGE 47 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers ANSWERS

April 20, 2005

A1a)

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

0≤t<1 otherwise 0<t≤1 otherwise 1≤t<2

1 + 2t, x (t) = 1 − 2t, 0, 1 + t, x (0.5t) = 1 − t, 0, t, x (0.5t − 0.5) = 2 − t, 0,

−1/2 < t ≤ 0 0 ≤ t < 1/2 otherwise −1 < t ≤ 0

—DRAFT—

PAGE 48 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers 1 − t, 1 < t ≤ 2 t − 3, 2 ≤ t < 3 0, otherwise −t − 2, −2 < t ≤ −1 t, −1 ≤ t < 0 0, otherwise 3 + t, −3 < t ≤ −2 −1 − t, −2 ≤ t < −1 0, otherwise 3 + t, −3 < t ≤ −2 −3 − 2t, −2 < t ≤ −1 t, −1 < t ≤ 1 3 − 2t, 1<t≤2 t − 3, 2<t≤3 0, otherwise

April 20, 2005

−x (0.5t − 1) =

−x (0.5t + 0.5) =

x (0.5t + 1) =

A1b)

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

y (t) =

—DRAFT—

PAGE 49 of 190

The homogenous solution is yh (t) = A · est and s is found by solving the characteristic equation dk s + 2 = 0. Sami Arıca DR A FT d y(t) + 2y(t) = x(t) . Hence dt yh (t) = A · e−2t .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers April 20. dt —DRAFT— PAGE 50 of 190 . dt d yh (t) + 2yh (t) = 0 . The solution of the differential equation consists of homogenous and particular solutions. The homogenous solution is solution of the differential equation for x (t) = 0. ( k is replaced by sk ). 2005 x [n] = x [2n − 2] = −x [2n − 4] = −x [2n + 2] = x [2n + 4] = 1 δ [n + 2] + δ [n] + 2δ [n − 2] 2 1 δ [2n] + δ [2n − 2] + 2δ [2n − 4] 2 1 − δ [2n − 2] − δ [2n − 4] − 2δ [2n − 6] 2 1 − δ [2n + 4] − δ [2n + 2] − 2δ [2n] 2 1 δ [2n + 6] + δ [2n + 4] + 2δ [2n + 2] 2 1 1 3 3 1 δ [2n + 6] + δ [2n + 4] + δ [2n + 2] − δ [2n] + δ [2n − 2] 2 2 2 2 2 +δ [2n − 4] − 2δ [2n − 6] y [n] = A2a) To ﬁnd impulse response ﬁrst ﬁnd the step response.

t<0. The constant A is found from the initial value. 2 s (t) = y (t) = 1 1 − e−2t u (t) . t ≥ 0 . The complete solution or response to unit step is. 1 1 − e−2t . From the differential equation. 2005 Since the left hand side of the equation is constant the solution should be a constant. Since the systems is linear it should be initially rest. —DRAFT— PAGE 51 of 190 . t ≥ 0 . dt B = 1/2. t ≥ 0 2 y (t) = 1 −2t − e . yp (t) = B.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers The particular solution is solution of the differential equation d yp (t) + 2yp (t) = 1. dt April 20. 2 y (0) = 0. The initial condition Hence. Then the solution is y (t) = yh (t) + yp (t) = A · e−2t + Bu (t). d B + 2B = 1. Sami Arıca DR A FT A + 1/2 = 0 A = −1/2 .

ds (t) dt April 20.2y[n − 1] + 1. n ≥ 0 . The response to an arbitrary input is just convolution between input and the impulse response. —DRAFT— PAGE 52 of 190 . 2005 h (t) = = e−2t u (t) . Sami Arıca DR A FT = x (τ) e−2(t−τ) u (t − τ)dτ t −∞ = e −2t x (τ) e2τ dτ −∞ y[n] = 0. y (t) = x (t) ∗ h (t) ∞ = −∞ ∞ x (τ) h (t − τ)dτ A2b) First solve the difference equation for x [n] = u [n].EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers The impulse response of the system is simply derivative of the unit step response.

2y [0] + 1 = 1 + 0.22 + 0. the step response is The impulse response. The response to an arbitrary input is just convolution between input and the impulse response.2y [2] + 1 = ((1 + 0.2)−k —DRAFT— PAGE 53 of 190 . A3a) Sami Arıca DR A FT s [n] = 1 − (0.2y [−1] + 1 = 1 y [1] = 0.22 )0.2)k = 1 − (0.23 .2)n k=−∞ x [k] (0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers y [−1] = 0 y [0] = 0.2 + 0.2n u(n) . 2005 y [3] = 0.2)n+1 1 − (0.2 + 0..2)n+1 = 1 − 0.2)n+1 u [n] . n y [n] = k=0 (0.22 April 20.8 Hence. 0. y [n] = x [n] ∗ h [n] ∞ = k=−∞ ∞ x [k] h [n − k] x [k] (0..2 + 1 = 1 + 0.2y [1] + 1 = 0.8 h [n] = s [n] − s [n − 1] = 0.2 y [2] = 0.2)n−k u [n − k] k=−∞ n = = (0.2) + 0.2 0.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers April 20. 2005 1/2 ak 1 = 2 −1/2 0 −j sin (2πt) e 2π 2 kt dt 1/2 1 = 2 −1/2 1 sin (2πt) e−jπkt dt + 2 0 1/2 1/2 sin (2πt) e−jπkt dt 1 = − 2 0 1/2 1 sin (2πt) ejπkt dt + 2 0 sin (2πt) e−jπkt dt ak = j typesetting of the following needs to be corrected Sami Arıca DR A FT = −j sin (2πt) sin (πkt) dt 0 1/2 1/2 1 1 sin (2πt) sin (πkt) = − cos (π (2 + k) t) + cos (π (2 − k) t) 2 2 cos (π (2 + k) t) dt − j cos (π (2 − k) t) dt 0 0 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 sin (π (2 + k) t) | −j sin (π (2 + k) t) | 2 π (2 + k) 2 π (2 − k) 0 0 π 1 π 1 sin (2 + k) − sin (2 + k) = 2jπ(2 + k) 2 2jπ(2 − k) 2 = j —DRAFT— PAGE 54 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers April 20. 2005 ak = j 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 sin (π (2 + k) t) | −j sin (π (2 + k) t) | 2 π (2 + k) 2 π (2 − k) 0 0 1 1 π π = sin (2 + k) − sin (2 + k) 2jπ (2 + k) 2 2jπ (2 − k) 2 1 1 1 π π = + sin k sin k 2jπ 2 + k 2 2−k 2 π sin k 2 4 = 2jπ 4 − k2 x (t) = 2 sin k π jπkt 2 e jπ 4 − k2 k=∞ ∞ A3b) A4a) Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ x (t) = a0 + a0 = 0 2 Re ak e −j 2π kt T 0 k=1 Re ak e −j 2π kt T 0 =− 1 π 4 sin k 2π 2 4 − k2 ∞ −1 x (t) = π k=1 4 π sin (kπt) sin k 2 4−k 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 55 of 190 .

5z2 (t) − z1 (t) + x (t) dt dz1 (t) 1 z1 (t) 0 dt 0 + x (t) = dz2 (t) 1 z2 (t) −1 −0.5 dt y (t) = A4b) Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 0 + 0x (t) y [n] + 0.5z1 [n] − z2 [n] z1 [n + 1] = −0.5z1 [n] − z2 [n] + x [n] —DRAFT— PAGE 56 of 190 . 2005 dy (t) d2 y (t) + 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers April 20.5y [n − 1] + y [n − 2] = x [n] z1 [n] = y [n − 1] z2 [n] = y [n − 2] z2 [n] = z1 [n − 1] z2 [n + 1] = z1 [n] y [n] = x [n] − 0.5 = x (t) 2 dt dt z1 (t) = y (t) z2 (t) = dy (t) dt dz1 (t) z2 (t) = dt dz2 (t) = −0.

5 −1 z2 [n] z1 [n] 1 + 0 z2 [n] + 1x [n] Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 57 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answers April 20.5 −1 = 1 0 z2 [n + 1] z1 [n] y [n] = −0. 2005 z1 [n + 1] −0.

cos (πt) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam 2 QUESTIONS April 29. sin2 (ω) X (ω) = 4 . d2 y (t) dy (t) + + 2y (t) = 2x (t) dt2 dt Q3) Find inverse Fourier transform of.5 ≤ t ≤ 0. Q2) Find frequency response of the following system. x (t) = 0. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1 otherwise —DRAFT— PAGE 58 of 190 . And draw block diagram realization of the system. ω2 (Use the convolution property of Fourier transforms.5 otherwise Q2) Find Fourier transform of the following signal. −0. x (t) = 0.) Q4) Find complex and trigonometric Fourier series coefﬁcients of. 2005 Q1) Find Fourier transform of the following signal. a) periodic convolution of Sami Arıca DR A FT cos (πt/2) sin (4πt) .

and b) periodic convolution of 0. 2005 with itself.) Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 59 of 190 . x (t) = 1. (Use the periodic convolution property of Fourier series (ck = T0 ak bk ).EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam 2 sin (2πt) with itself. x (t + l) . −1/2 ≤ t ≤ 0 0 ≤ t ≤ 1/2 l∈Z April 29.

Find and plot y (t) = x (2t − 2) − x (2t − 4) − x (2t + 1) + x (2t + 2). —DRAFT— PAGE 60 of 190 . dt2 dt y [n] − 0. Q3) A periodic signal is given as. 2005 Q1a) x (t) = (1 − |t|) (u (t + 1) − u (t − 1)) is given.1y [n − 2] = 2x [n] − 0. Q2b) A discrete-time LTI system is described by the following ﬁrst order difference equation. 1 δ [n + 2] + δ [n] + 2δ [n − 2] is given. Find i) unit step response. 2 x (t) = x (t + l · 2) . Find and plot y [n] = x [n/2 − 1] − 2 x [n/2 − 2] − x [n/2 + 1] + x [n/2 + 2]. of the system and iii) response of the system to an arbitrary input. Q1b) x [n] = Q2a) A continuous-time LTI system is described by the following ﬁrst order differential equation. of the system and iii) response of the system to an arbitrary input. sin π t .7y [n − 1] + 0. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1 l∈Z Sami Arıca DR A FT d2 d y (t) + 2 y (t) + 2y (t) = 2x (t) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam (Recompense) QUESTIONS April 20. ii) impulse response.7x [n − 1] . ii) impulse response. Find i) unit step response.

Choose state variables as z1 [n] = y [n − 1] and z2 [n] = y [n − 1] − y [n − 2]. Choose state varidt dt d y (t). Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 61 of 190 .5y [n − 1] + y [n − 2] = x [n]. 2005 Find a) complex Fourier series representation.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam (Recompense) April 20.5 y (t) + y (t) = x (t). b) trigonometric Fourier series representation of the signal. ables as z1 (t) = y (t) and z2 (t) = dt Q4b) Find state-space representation of y [n] + 0. d2 d Q4a) Find state-space representation of 2 y (t) + 0.

−1 ≤ t ≤ 1 otherwise Q2) Find frequency response of the following system.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam 2 (Recompense) QUESTIONS May 27. Sami Arıca DR A FT X (ω) = 2πe−2jω (u (ω + 1) − u (ω − 1)) . x (t) = 0. —DRAFT— PAGE 62 of 190 . x (t) y (t) → − l=−∞ al bk−l = ak ∗ bk . Prove that complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t) y (t) is. cos (πt/2) sin (4πt) . system. 2005 Q1) Find Fourier transform of the following signal. ∞ F where ak are bk are Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t) and y (t) respectively. Q4) Let x (t) and y (t) are periodic signals with period of T0 . And draw block diagram realization of the dy (t) d2 x (t) dx (t) d2 y (t) +2 + 2y (t) = +2 + x (t) 2 2 dt dt dt dt Q3) Find inverse Fourier transform of.

dt Find a) unit step response. (Use the time shift and the convolution property of Fourier transforms). d d2 (t) + 0. sin (4πt) + cos (4πt) . h (0+ ) = 2 Sami Arıca DR A FT −0. Q2) A periodic signal is given as. Q4) System function (H (s))of an LTI causal and stable system have poles at s = −1 + j and s = −1 − j and one zero at s = −1. x (t + l · 2) . b) impulse response. h (t) is the impulse response of the system. X (ω) = 4 e ω2 −1 ≤ t < −0.5 and 0. Find trigonometric Fourier series representation (sine and cosine form) of the signal.5 l∈Z 2 −jω sin (ω) .5 y (t) + y (t) = x (t). d y (t) + 2y (t) = 2x (t) . x (t) = 0. 2005 Q1) A continuous-time LTI system is described by the following ﬁrst order differential equation.5 < t ≤ 1 —DRAFT— PAGE 63 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam QUESTIONS May 25. dt Q3) Find state-space representation of Q3) Find inverse Fourier transform of.5 ≤ t ≤ 0. Choose state varidt2 dt d ables as z1 (t) = y (t) and z2 (t) = y (t) + y (t).

a) Find the system function and mark pole-zero locations and dt t=0+ specify the region of convergence on the s-plane. 2005 dh (t) = −2 are given. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 64 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam and May 25. b) Find the impulse response of the system.

−∞ −∞ −∞ Q2) Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t). b) x (t) dt. T ˜ x (t) = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Answer the ﬁrst 4 questions.∞ 0 ak 1 2 − j 3 + 4j 1 − 2j Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 65 of 190 .. Q5. c) x (2t) dt. (To ≥ T ). e) −∞ x2 (2t) dt. Q7 are left to you as exercises. Exam time is 90 minutes. − T T ≤t≤ 2 2 otherwise − To To ≤t≤ 2 2 l∈Z Q3) Fourier series coefﬁcients of a real and periodic signal for k ≥ 0 is given as. Q6. A cos2 π t . x (t) = x (t + l · To ) . April 07. d) x2 (t) dt. ˜ x (t) . a) 3x (−2t + 3) . 2006 QUESTIONS Q1) 6 x (t) 2 −3 −1 DR A FT 1 1 2 - t ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ Find.. k 0 1 2 3 4.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam The period is. Q5) Find Fourier transform of a) δ (t). 2006 Q4) p (t) 6 6 q (t) A A - −T/2 T/2 −A −T/2 T/2 t - t Find and plot convolution of p (t) with q (t). d d) y (t) = (e−at u (t)). Construct signal from its Fourier series. April 07. To = 1 sec. a > 0. b) c) x (t) = e−at u (t). a > 0. dt Hint : Sami Arıca DR A FT db (t) da (t) d (a (t) · b (t)) = a (t) · + · b (t) dt dt dt F [a (t)] = A (ω) F [b (t)] = B (ω) a (t) = e−at b (t) = u (t) —DRAFT— PAGE 66 of 190 .

of a Fourier transform are given. ω ≤ 0 θ (ω) = π/2. Q7) Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t). A (ω) = Ao . l∈Z − T T ≤t≤ 2 2 otherwise ˜ x (t) = where p (t) and q (t) are as in Q4. otherwise x (t) = —DRAFT— PAGE 67 of 190 . 0. −2πB ≤ ω ≤ 2πB 0. (Since x (−t) = x∗ (t). Q8) The magnitude. ˜ x (t) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Q6) Find Fourier transform of 1 . Q9) Find the bilateral Laplace transform of a) δ (t). a) x (t) = e−a|t| u (t) − 2 b) y (t) = lim x (t) a→0 April 07. Find the inverse Fourier transform (X (ω) = A (ω) ejθ (ω) ). 2006 a > 0. and phase. Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t + l · To ) . ω>0 0. p (t) + jq (t) . otherwise −π/2. the Fourier series coefﬁcients are real !).

b) y (t) = dt Reminding : This property can be easily proved by employing partial integration method. d d) y (t) = (e−at u (t)). a > 0. d x (t). Sami Arıca DR A FT a (t) = e−at b (t) = u (t) Y (s) = s X (s) − x (0) —DRAFT— PAGE 68 of 190 . dt Hint : Q10) Find the unilateral Laplace transform of a) x (t) = e−at . a > 0. a > 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam b) db (t) da (t) d (a (t) · b (t)) = a (t) · + · b (t) dt dt dt L [a (t)] = A (s) L [b (t)] = B (s) April 07. 2006 c) x (t) = e−at u (t).

3 3 −9 t + 18. 4 < t ≤ 2 3 y (t) = 3 xb (t − 1) —DRAFT— PAGE 69 of 190 . −1 ≤ −3 t + 3 < 1 3. 3 3 1 2 3. The transformation of independent variable can be done in three steps. 2006 A1) a) x (−3 t + 3) = x (− (3 (t − 1))). 1 ≤ −3 t + 3 ≤ 2 −9 t + 18. ≤t≤ 3 3 4 2 = <t≤ 6. 1≤t≤2 3 (−3 t + 3) + 9. −1 ≤ t < 1 1. ≥t> 3 3 1 2 ≥t≥ 3. Sami Arıca DR A FT t + 3. −3 ≤ t < −1 x (t) = 2. −3 ≤ −3 t + 3 < −1 y (t) = 6. 2 ≥ t > 4 3 4 2 = 6. xa (t) = x (−t) xb (t) = xa (3 t) Alternatively.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam ANSWERS April 07.

2006 x (t) dt = −∞ −3 x (t) dt + −1 x (t) dt + x (t) dt 1 = 1 2·2+2·2+1·1 2 = 7 c) ∞ ∞ d) e) ∞ ∞ A2) Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t) dt −∞ −∞ 1 x (2t) dt = 2 = 7 2 ∞ −1 1 2 x2 (t) dt = x2 (t) dt + x2 (t) dt + x2 (t) dt 1 −∞ −3 −1 = 1 2 · 22 + 2 · 22 + 1 · 12 2 = 13 1 x2 (2t) dt = 2 −∞ −∞ x2 (t) dt = 13 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 70 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam b) ∞ −1 1 2 April 07.

2006 ak 1 = To T 2 A cos2 − 2π −j kt π t e To dt T T 2 T 2 2 π 2π = kt dt A cos2 t cos To T To 0 A3) Sami Arıca DR A FT = A To cos 2π A t dt + T To cos 2π t T cos 0 0 T 2 T 2 2π kt dt To = A To T 2 0 cos T 2 0 A 2π t dt + T 2To T 2 0 cos 2π k 1 − T To t dt + A 2To cos 2π 1 k + T To t dt Tπ k Tπ k AT sin To To = 0− − 4π (−To + kT ) 4π (To + kT ) Tπ k 2 sin AT k To = − 2T 2 − T 2 2π k o AT sin —DRAFT— PAGE 71 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam April 07.

2006 ∞ x (t) = k=−∞ 2π kt ak e To j −j 2π 2π 2π t j t −j 2t = 1 + (2 + j) e To + (2 − j) e To + (3 − 4 j) e To 2π 2π 2π −j 3t j 3t j 2t + (3 + 4 j) e To + (1 + 2 j) e To + (1 − 2 j) e To = 1 + 4 cos (2πt) + 2 sin (2πt) + 6 cos (4πt) −8 sin (4πt) + 2 cos (6πt) + 4 sin (6πt) A4) Suppose that.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam April 07. − T ≤ t ≤ T 2 T 2 2 = 0. otherwise a (t) = g (t) ∗ g (t) A2 T 1 − 2 |t| . otherwise p (t) = g t + T 4 T 4 +g t− T 4 T 4 q (t) = −g t + +g t− —DRAFT— PAGE 72 of 190 . Sami Arıca DR A FT A. − T ≤ t ≤ T 4 4 g (t) = 0. The signals in terms of g (t) are.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam p (t) ∗ q (t) = g t+ T T T +g t− ∗ −g t + +g 4 4 4 T T T t+ ∗g t+ +g t+ ∗g t− 4 4 4 T T T ∗g t+ +g t− ∗g t− t− 4 4 4 T T t+ + a (t) − a (t) + a t − 2 2 T T +a t− t+ 2 2 t− T 4 T 4 April 07. 2006 T 4 = −g −g = −a = −a A6) b) A8) Sami Arıca DR A FT X (ω) = jω (jω)2 − a2 1 jω Y (ω) = x (t) = Ao (cos (2πBt) − 1) πt a) —DRAFT— PAGE 73 of 190 .

Sami Arıca DR A FT sin π t . Q3) A periodic signal is given as. of the system and iii) response of the system to an arbitrary input. dt2 dt Find i) unit step response. 2 x (t) = x (t + l · 2) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam (Recompense) QUESTIONS May 18. 2006 Q1) x (t) = (1 − |t|) (u (t + 1) − u (t − 1)) is given. b) trigonometric Fourier series representation of the signal. Q2) A continuous-time LTI system is described by the following ﬁrst order differential equation. d d2 y (t) + 2 y (t) + 2y (t) = 2x (t) . Q4) Find inverse Fourier transform of. X (ω) = 2πe−2jω (u (ω + 1) − u (ω − 1)) . Find a) complex Fourier series representation. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1 l∈Z —DRAFT— PAGE 74 of 190 . Find and plot y (t) = x (2t − 2)−x (2t − 4)− x (2t + 1) + x (2t + 2). ii) impulse response.

Q2) A second order linear time invariant system is given as Find impulse response of the system (y [−2] = y [−1] = 0). June 09. c [n] = a [n] ∗ b [n]. Q3) Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t). Exam time is 90 minutes.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Answer all questions. 2006 QUESTIONS Q1) Two discrete-time signals are given: n −2 −1 0 1 2 3 a [n] 1 −2 3 b [n] 0 −4 3 3 Find convolution. Sami Arıca DR A FT −1 1 0 0 −1 2 0 elsewhere 3 1 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] + y [n − 2] = x [n − 1] 4 8 4 —DRAFT— PAGE 75 of 190 .

− T T ≤t≤ 2 2 otherwise —DRAFT— PAGE 76 of 190 . Re [s] > −2 p (t) + jq (t) . 0. dt Reminding : Q5) Find inverse Laplace transform of. − x (t + l · To ) . a > 0. 2006 q (t) A A - −T/2 T/2 −A −T/2 T/2 t - t ˜ x (t) = where To > T . d b) y (t) = x (t). Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t) = ˜ x (t) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam p (t) 6 6 June 09. To To ≤t≤ 2 2 l∈Z Y (s) = s X (s) − x (0) X (s) = . 1 (s + 2) (s + 3) 2 using partial fraction expansion. Q4) Find the unilateral Laplace transform of a) x (t) = e−at .

of a Fourier transform are given. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 77 of 190 . Find the inverse Fourier transform (X (ω) = A (ω) ejθ (ω) ). otherwise −π/2. ω ≤ 0 θ (ω) = π/2. otherwise June 09. Ao .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Q6) The magnitude. ω>0 0. 2006 and phase. −2πB ≤ ω ≤ 2πB A (ω) = 0.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam ANSWERS A1) −2 ≤ k ≤ 2 −1 ≤ n − k ≤ 3 −3 ≤ n ≤ 5 2 June 09. 2006 → −1 + k ≤ n ≤ 3 + k c [n] = k=−2 a [k] b [n − k] Sami Arıca DR A FT +a [1] b [n − 1] + a [2] b [n − 2] = a [−2] b [n + 2] + a [−1] b [n + 1] + a [0] b [n] —DRAFT— PAGE 78 of 190 .

n < −3 and n > 5 —DRAFT— PAGE 79 of 190 . 2006 Sami Arıca DR A FT = 6 c [1] = a [−2] b [3] + a [−1] b [2] + a [0] b [1] +a [1] b [0] + a [2] b [−1] = 6 c [2] = a [−1] b [3] + a [0] b [2] + a [1] b [1] +a [2] b [0] = −7 c [3] = a [0] b [3] + a [1] b [2] + a [2] b [1] = 10 c [4] = a [1] b [3] + a [2] b [2] = −3 c [5] = a [2] b [3] = 2 c [n] = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam c [−3] = a [−2] b [−1] = −4 c [−2] = a [−2] b [0] + a [−1] b [−1] = 11 c [−1] = a [−2] b [1] + a [−1] b [0] + a [0] b [−1] = −15 c [0] = a [−2] b [2] + a [−1] b [1] + a [0] b [0] +a [1] b [−1] June 09.

n < 0 h [n] = 0 3 1 1 h [n] = δ [n − 1] + h [n − 1] − h [n − 2] 4 4 8 —DRAFT— PAGE 80 of 190 . . . 2006 n = −1 h [−3] = 2δ [−2] − h [−1] + 6h [−2] = 0 For n ≥ 0. Sami Arıca DR A FT n = −2 h [−4] = 2δ [−3] − h [−2] + 6h [−3] = 0 . h [n − 2] = 2δ [n − 1] − h [n] + 6h [n − 1] June 09.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam A2) 1 1 3 h [n] − h [n − 1] + h [n − 2] = δ [n − 1] 4 8 4 For n < 02.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam n = 0 h [0] = 3 1 1 δ [−1] + h [−1] − h [−2] 4 4 8 June 09. 2006 = 0 n = 1 h [1] = 1 3 1 δ [0] + h [0] − h [−1] 4 4 8 1 = 4 Sami Arıca DR A FT n = 2 h [2] = 3 1 1 δ [1] + h [1] − h [0] 4 4 8 3 = 8 n = 3 h [3] = 3 1 1 δ [2] + h [2] − h [1] 4 4 8 3 3 1 1 = · − · 4 8 8 4 1 = 4 —DRAFT— PAGE 81 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam

June 09, 2006

n = 4 h [4] = 1 3 1 δ [3] + h [3] − h [2] 4 4 8 3 1 1 3 · − · = 4 4 8 8 9 = 64

n = 5

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

h [5] = n ≥ 0 h [n] = 2n − 1 4n 2n − 1 h [n] = u [n] 4n n 1 = u [n] − 2 1 4

n

1 3 1 δ [4] + h [4] − h [3] 4 4 8 1 1 3 9 · − · = 4 64 8 4 19 = 256 . . .

u [n]

—DRAFT—

PAGE 82 of 190

**EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam A3)
**

T/2

June 09, 2006

ak

1 = To

−T/2 T/2

−j p (t) e

2π kt To dt + j 1 To 2 2π k t dt + To To

T/2

−j q (t) e

2π kt To dt

−T/2 T/2

2 = To

0

p (t) cos

T/2

q (t) sin

0

2π k t dt To

T/2

=

2A To

0

cos

2π 2A k t dt + To To

0

sin

2π k t dt To

A4) a)

b) x (0) = 1.

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

ak T/2 2π 2 To − 2 To cos kt sin = To 2π k To To 2π k 0 A πT A πT = 1 − cos sin kt + kt πk To πk To 2π kt To

∞

T/2

0

X (s) =

e−a t e−s t dt

0

∞ 1 − (s + a) t = − e s+a 0 1 1 − (s + a) ∞ e + = s+a s+a 1 , s+a Re [s + a] > 0, Re [s] > −a

=

—DRAFT—

PAGE 83 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Y (s) = s · 1 −1 s+a a , Re [s] > −a = − s+a

June 09, 2006

A5) 1

2

X (s) =

(s + 2) (s + 3) A B C = + + 2 s + 2 (s + 2) s+3

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

B =

s→−2

lim (s + 2)2 X (s)

= 1

C =

s→−3

lim (s + 3) X (s)

= 1

A =

d (s + 2)2 X (s) s→−2 ds d 1 = lim s→−2 ds s + 3 1 = lim − s→−2 (s + 3)2 = −1 lim

L [t y (t)] = − 1 (s + 2)2

d Y (s) ds d 1 = − ds (s + 2)

—DRAFT—

PAGE 84 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam {Re [s] > −2} = {Re [s] > −2} ∩ {Re [s] > −3} 1 . 2006 Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ A6) 1 x (t) = 2π 1 = 2π A (ω) ejθ (ω) ejωt dω −j −∞ 0 Ao e π 1 2 ejωt dω + 2π 2πB π Ao e 2 ejωt dω j −2πB 2πB 0 Ao = 2π π −j −jωt Ao dω + e 2e 2π 2πB π e 2 ejωt dω j j ωt+ 0 2πB 0 Ao = 2π = Ao π π −j ω t + A 2 dω + o e 2π cos ω t + π dω 2 2πB e π 2 dω 0 0 2πB 0 2πB Ao = − π 0 sin (ω t) dω —DRAFT— PAGE 85 of 190 . Re [s] > −3 e−3t u (t) ←→ (s + 3) 1 L . Re [s] > −2 t e−2tu (t) ←→ (s + 2)2 L e−2t u (t) ←→ x (t) = −e−2t u (t) + t e−2t u (t) + e−3t u (t) June 09. Re [s] > −2 (s + 2) 1 L .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam 2πB June 09. 2006 Ao x (t) = − π 0 sin (ω t) dω 2πB Ao 1 = cos (ω t) π t 0 Ao (cos (2πBt) − 1) = πt Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 86 of 190 .

DR A FT n a [n] b [n] −1 −2 3 −4 0 1 2 3 3 −1 1 0 −1 elsewhere 0 cos (πt) + sin 1 πt 2 X (s) = 1 (s + 2) (s + 3)2 . Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 87 of 190 . using partial fraction expansion. Re [s] > −2 2 Q3) Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of x (t) = . Exam time is 90 minutes. . Q4) Find inverse Laplace transform of.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam (Recompense) Answer all questions. Q2) Two discrete-time signals are given: Find convolution. September 06. 2006 QUESTIONS Q1) A ﬁrst order linear time invariant system is given as 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = x [n] − x [n − 1] 4 Find impulse response of the system (y [−1] = 0). c [n] = a [n] ∗ b [n].

September 06. 2006 Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 88 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam (Recompense) Q5) Find the unilateral Laplace transform of x (t) = cos (2t) .

d) e−jωto . Then its trigonometric Fourier series representation is ∞ Find Fourier series representation for in terms of the series coefﬁcients of x (t). 1 Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 89 of 190 . By deﬁnition. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1 x (t) = 0. 0. 2007 Q2) Consider that x (t) is an even periodic signal with fundamental period To and has zero average value. And H (0) = . The system function has one zero located at s = −1. DR A FT x (t) = ak cos k k=1 t 2π t To y (t) = x (τ) dτ −∞ ∞ b) δ (t − to ). Q4) Find inverse Fourier transform of a) 2πδ (ω). Q3) Find Fourier transform of a) δ (t). Q5) System function of an LTI system is given.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam QUESTIONS Q1) Find trigonometric Fourier series of periodic signal 1 . The poles of the system function are s = −5j and 2 s = 5j. Note that b ≥ 0. c) =−∞ δ (t − · To ). or in other way a = b ( mod N ).5 − [ | t | ]2 = x (t − · 2) . d) ejωo t . their difference is exactly divisible by N ((a − b) /N has no reminder).5 − | t | . ∈ Z May 12. b) 2πδ (ω − ωo ). c) 2π To ∞ =−∞ δ (ω − · ωo ). 25 The modulo N is denoted by b = [a]N .

5 1. b) Write the differential equation describing the system. c) Find the impulse response. Q6) s (t) 1 t −1 A periodic signal x (t) is obtained from the aperiodic signal shown in the following ﬁgure.0 —DRAFT— PAGE 90 of 190 . x (t) = ∞ =−∞ s (t − · 2).0 −0. Find period of y (t) = 2x (t/3) − x (t/5). Q7) A block diagram implementation of an LTI system is given below.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam May 12. b) Write state-space equations for the state variables shown Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 s q2 (t) 1 s 2 y (t) 2 −1.5 −1.5 0. x (t) −25 q1 (t) a) Find system function of the system. 2007 a) Write the system function H (s).

δ (t) = lim p (t) . arctan = π a p (t) dt = Show that.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam in the ﬁgure. ∞ a→0 ∞ ∞ lim f (t) d (t) dt = f (t) δ (t) dt = −f (0) . ∞ —DRAFT— PAGE 91 of 190 . = − π a2 + t 2 ∞ a→0 lim f (t) 1 a dt = π a2 + t 2 ∞ ∞ f (t) δ (t) dt = f (0) . ∞ Sami Arıca DR A FT d (t) = d p (t) dt 2 at . 2007 Q8) The delta-dirac function is limit case of. a→0 p (t) = 1 a . May 12. 1 a dt π a2 + t 2 t 1 . π a2 + t 2 a > 0. The integral and derivative of p (t) .

q1 (t) = y (t) and q2 (t) = y (t) and q3 (t) = y (t) ﬁnd state-space equations. a) Find the impulse response (by time domain solution of the differential equation). c) For state variables. Q10) Trigonometric Fourier series representation of periodic signal 1. π (2 k − 1) and 1/4 < t ≤ 1/2 —DRAFT— PAGE 92 of 190 . ∈ Z x (t) = 1 − 2 ∞ is k=1 Plot the ﬁrst 2. ∞ Q9) An LTI system characterized by a differential equation. x (t − ) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam (use partial integration method) and ∞ May 12. −1/4 ≤ t ≤ 1/4 x (t) = −1/2 ≤ t < −1/4 0. 10 terms of the series for −1/2 ≤ t ≤ 1/2. d3 d2 d y (t) + 3 2 y (t) + 12 y (t) + 10y (t) = 9x (t) 3 dt dt dt is given. 5 and. Sami Arıca DR A FT 2 (−1)k cos (2π (2 k − 1) t) . b) Find the ˙ ¨ system response. 2007 a→0 ∞ ∞ lim d (t) dt = δ (t) dt = 0 .

elsewhere Q13) Find inverse Laplace transform of Sami Arıca DR A FT H (s) = s+2 (s + 3) (s2 + 2 s + 5) —DRAFT— PAGE 93 of 190 . May 12. Q12) Find Fourier transform of. 1 − | t | .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Q11) Find trigonometric Fourier series of periodic signal. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1 x (t) = 0. 2007 x (t) = cos2 (π t) .

The trigonometric Fourier series does not contain sin terms. The one period of the signal is a triangle shape. → v = u = 1 − 2t. let Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 · 2 1 1 · − 2 2 ·2+ 1 1 · 1· 2 2 =0. 0 ak employ partial integration method. → du = −2t dt 1 sin (k π t) πk —DRAFT— PAGE 94 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam ANSWERS A1) x (t) 0. a0 = 0. It consists To of three triangles. The area under one period is 2 = · 2 = 2· 2 x (t) cos (k π t) dt + · 2 x (t) cos (k π t) dt −1 1 0 x (t) cos (k π t) dt.5 + t −2 1 0. x (t) is an even function. 1 2π = π rad/sec. bk = 0. x (t) = x (−t). ( x (t) cos (k π t) is an even function) 1 0 1 = 2· 0 1 − t cos (k π t) dt = 2 0 (1 − 2t) cos (k π t) dt dv = cos (k π t) dt.5 − t t −1 To = 2 1 −1 2 May 12. 2007 To = 2 sec and ωo = Then.

2πk —DRAFT— PAGE 95 of 190 . A2) y (t) is an odd function. t y (t) = x (τ) dτ ∞ −∞ t = ak cos k t −∞ k=1 ∞ 2π τ To dτ = ak cos k k=1 ∞ −∞ 2π τ To dτ = k=1 ak To 2π sin k t 2πk To To . πk 2 ( sin (k π) = 0 ) ( 2 sin2 (θ) = 1 − cos (2θ) ) a2k−1 = ∞ 4 π2 (2k − 1)2 4 . bk = ak A3) Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t) = k=1 π2 (2k − 1)2 cos ((2k − 1) π t) . 2007 1 sin (k π t) dt πk 0 1 1 1 1 =− sin (k π) − 2 · · cos (k π t) | πk πk πk 0 2 2 1 sin (k π) − 2 2 cos (k π) + 2 2 =− πk πk πk 2 2 = − 2 2 cos (k π) + 2 2 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam 1 1 sin (k π t) | +2 · ak = (1 − 2t) · πk 0 1 May 12. a2k = 0 . It has only sin terms and the coefﬁcients. πk πk 4 π = 2 2 sin2 k .

2 The Fourier transform sums to zero for ω = k · ∞ Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ b) F [δ (t − to )] = δ (t − to ) e−jωt dt −∞ = δ (0) e−jω·to dt = e−jω·to ∞ ∞ F =−∞ δ (t − · To ) = =−∞ ∞ F [δ (t − · To )] e−jω· ·To = =−∞ 2π = To ∞ =−∞ δ ω− · 2π To 2π 2π and sums to inﬁnity for ω = k · . Using Fourier series. To To ∞ ej =−∞ ∞ θ = =−∞ e−j θ = ∞ 2 =0 cos ( θ) + 1 = =1 2πδ (θ − · 2π) —DRAFT— PAGE 96 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam a) ∞ May 12. 2007 F [δ (t)] = −∞ 0− δ (t) e−jωt dt ∞ = −∞ δ (t) e −jωt dt + δ (0) e −jω·0 dt + 0+ δ (t) e−jωt dt = 0 + δ (0) dt + 0 = 1 c) See the footnote 2 .

2007 F e jωo t = −∞ ∞ ejωo t e−jωt dt = −∞ e−j t(ω−ωo ) dt = 2πδ (ω − ωo ) See the footnote 3 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam d) ∞ May 12. A4) a) b) c) F 3 The integral sums to zero for ω = 0 and sums to inﬁnity for ω = 0. ∞ ∞ Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ F −1 1 [2πδ (ω)] = 2π 2πδ (ω) ejωt dω = 1 −∞ ∞ 1 F −1 [2πδ (ω − ωo )] = 2π 2πδ (ω − ωo ) ejωt dω = ejωo t −∞ −1 2π To 2π δ ω− · To =−∞ ∞ 1 = To 1 = To ∞ =−∞ ∞ F −1 2πδ ω − · jt· · 2π To e =−∞ 2π To e −∞ jαθ dα = −∞ e−j α θ dα = 2πδ (θ) —DRAFT— PAGE 97 of 190 . Using Fourier transform.

2007 F e −jωto 1 = 2π −∞ ∞ e−jωto ejωt dω = 1 2π −∞ ej ω(t−to ) dω = δ (t − to ) A5) a) b) Sami Arıca DR A FT H (s) = A (s + 1) A (s + 1) = 2 (s + 5j) (s − 5j) s + 25 H (0) = A 2 = 25 25 A = 2 Y (s) 2 (s + 1) = X (s) s2 + 25 s2 Y (s) + 25Y (s) = 2sX (s) + 2X (s) d d2 y (t) + 25y (t) = 2 x (t) + 2x (t) 2 dt dt —DRAFT— PAGE 98 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam d) ∞ May 12.

The characteristic polynomial has complex conjugate roots. dt2 for t > 0 The impulse response is the solution of the differential equation for t > 0. 2007 d2 y (t) dt + 25 dt2 0+ 0+ 0+ y (t) dt 0− =2 0− d δ (t) dt dt +2 0− δ (t) dt 0− y (0+ ) − y (0− ) + 0 y (0+ ) =2 · 0 =2 +2 See 4 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ DR A FT D−1 y (t) dt =2 δ (t) dt +2 0− 0− d y (t) dt + 25 dt 0− u (t) dt 0− y (0+ ) − y (0− ) + 0 y (0+ ) =2 +0 =2 d2 y (t) + 25y (t) = 0. y (t) = K∗ e−j5t + Kej5t 4 t τ D −2 y (t) = −∞ −∞ t y (ξ) dξ dτ D −1 y (t) = −∞ y (τ) dτ d y (t) dt d2 y (t) dt2 Dy (t) = D2 y (t) = Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 99 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam c) 0+ May 12.

Sami Arıca DR A FT y (0+ ) = 5B = 2 B = 2 5 y (t) = 2 cos (5t) u (t) + 2 sin (5t) u (t) 5 y (t + To ) = 2x k = 5 3 —DRAFT— PAGE 100 of 190 . The frequencies of x (t/3) and x (t/6) must be integer multiples (harmonics) of frequency of y (t). Consider that To is fundemental period of y (t). 2007 y (t) = A B −j 2 2 e−j5t + ej5t = A cos (5t) + B sin (5t) y (t) = −5A sin (5t) + 5B cos (5t) y (0+ ) = A = 2 A6) Fundamental period of x (t) is 2 sec. t = ·2 3 t = k · 2. t + To t + To −x 3 5 t To t To = 2x −x + + 3 3 5 5 To /3 and To /5 have to be multiple of 2 sec. 5 = 5. k = 3 ⇒ To = 30 sec.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam K= B A +j 2 2 A B +j 2 2 May 12.

1 1 = To 6 1 1 n· = To 10 May 12. To 30 −25 q1 (t) Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 s q2 (t) y (t) 2 1 s 2 25 W (s) = W (s) s2 25 W (s) 1 + 2 = X (s) s s2 X (s) W (s) = 2 s + 25 X (s) − 2 2 W (s) + 2 W (s) = Y (s) s s 2 (s + 1) W (s) = Y (s) s2 2 x (t) W (s) —DRAFT— PAGE 101 of 190 . 2007 m· 5 m = n 3 m = 5.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Then. n = 3 ⇒ A7) 1 1 = Hz.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Y (s) = 2 (s + 1) s2 s2 2 (s + 1) X (s) = 2 X (s) 2 + 25 s s + 25 2 (s + 1) s2 + 25 May 12. 2007 H (s) = b) ˙ q1 (t) = q2 (t) ˙ q2 (t) = −25q1 (t) + x (t) y (t) = 2q1 (t) + 2q2 (t) A8) Sami Arıca DR A FT ˙ q1 (t) 0 1 q1 (t) 0 + · x (t) · = ˙ 1 q2 (t) −25 0 q2 (t) q1 (t) y (t) = 2 2 · q2 (t) ∞ ∞ δ (t) dt = a→0+ lim p (t) dt −∞ −∞ 1 t arctan a→0 π a 1 π π = lim+ − − a→0 π 2 2 = lim+ = 1 ∞ | −∞ —DRAFT— PAGE 102 of 190 .

2007 δ (t) dt = −∞ a→0+ −∞ lim d (t) dt ∞ = = a→0 lim+ p (t) | −∞ a→0+ lim (p (∞) − p (−∞)) = 0 ∞ ∞ f (t) δ (t) dt = −∞ a→0+ −∞ lim f (t) d (t) dt ∞ ∞ A9) a) 0+ DR A FT = a→0+ = a→0+ lim [ f (∞) p (∞) − f (−∞) p (−∞) − f (0) ] lim f (t) p (t) | − −∞ −∞ f (t) δ (t) dt = −f (0) D3 y (t) + 3D2y (t) + 12Dy (t) + 10y (t) = 9x (t) 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ Dy (t) dt + 3 0− y (t) dt + 12 D−1 y (t) dt + 10 − D−2 y (t) dt = 9 D−2 δ (t) dt 0− 0− y (0 ) − y (0 ) + 3 · 0 + 12 · 0 + 10 · 0 = 9 · 0 y (0+ ) = 0 0− + 0− Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 103 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam ∞ ∞ May 12.

y (0+ ) = 9. The characteristics polynomial. The roots are. λ1 = −1. b (t) = a (t) + K · u (t) is discontinuous at t = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam See 5 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ May 12. 2007 D2 y (t) dt + 3 0− + 0− Dy (t) dt + 12 0− − y (t) dt + 10 0− + − D−1 y (t) dt = 9 0− D−1 δ (t) dt y (0 ) − y (0 ) + 3 · (y (0 ) − y (0 )) + 12 · 0 + 10 · 0 = 9 · 0 y (0+ ) = 0 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ D3 y (t) dt + 3 0− + 0− − D2 y (t) dt + 12 0− + − Dy (t) dt + 10 + 0− − y (t) dt = 9 0− δ (t) dt y (0 ) − y (0 ) + 3 · (y (0 ) − y (0 )) + 12 · (y (0 ) − y (0 )) + 10 · 0 = 9 · 1 y (0+ ) = 9 The impulse response is zero input response for. (b (0− ) = a (0− ). t t c (t) = −∞ b (τ) dτ = −∞ c (0− ) = c (0+ ). —DRAFT— PAGE 104 of 190 . The estimated solution for real root. y (0+ ) = 0. λ1 = a is K ea t . Sami Arıca DR A FT D3 y (t) + 3D2 y (t) + 12Dy (t) + 10y (t) = 0. t ≥ 0+ y (0+ ) = 0 λ3 + 3λ2 + 12λ + 10 = (λ + 1) λ2 + 2λ + 10 a (τ) dτ + K t u (t). b (0+ ) = a (0+ ) + K). and λ3 = −1 − 3j. Let a (t) is continuous signal. λ2 = −1 + 3j. The solution for the complex conjugate roots 5 Integral of a signal is continuos if it has only ﬁnite discontinuties.

And from the ﬁrst and the third equations it is easly found that K = 1.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam λ2 = a + jb and λ3 = a − jb is A ea t cos (b t) + B ea t sin (b t). y (t) = K e−t + A e−t cos (3 t) + B e−t sin (3t) May 12. and A = −1. The impulse response is then. s3 Y (s) + 3s2 Y (s) + 12sY (s) + 10Y (s) = 9X (s) H (s) = 9 Y (s) = 3 2 + 12s + 10 X (s) s + 3s Employing the initial conditions we get. Then. B = 0 is obtained. 2007 and y (t) = −Ke−t − Ae−t cos (3 t) − 3 Ae−t sin (3 t) − Be−t sin (3 t) + 3 Be−t cos (3 t) y (t) = Ke−t − 8 Ae−t cos (3 t) + 6 Ae−t sin (3 t) − 8 Be−t sin (3 t) − 6 Be−t cos (3 t) From the ﬁrst and second equations. b) Sami Arıca DR A FT K+A = 0 −K − A + 3B = 0 K − 8A − 6B = 9 y (t) = e−t (1 − cos (3 t)) u (t) . —DRAFT— PAGE 105 of 190 .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam ˙ ¨ c) q1 (t) = y (t) and q2 (t) = y (t) and q3 (t) = y (t).5 Sami Arıca DR A FT ˙ q3 (t) = −3q3 (t) − 12q2 (t) − 10q1 (t) + 9x (t) ˙ 1 0 q1 (t) q1 (t) 0 q (t) = 0 ˙2 0 1 · q2 (t) ˙ q3 (t) −10 −12 −3 q3 (t) q1 (t) y (t) = 1 0 0 · q2 (t) q3 (t) x (t) 1 n=2 n=5 n = 10 t 0. May 12. Then.5 0 + 0 · x (t) 1 —DRAFT— PAGE 106 of 190 . 2007 ˙ q1 (t) = q2 (t) ˙ q2 (t) = q3 (t) From the differential equation. ˙ q3 (t) + 3q3 (t) + 12q2 (t) + 10q1 (t) = 9x (t) A10) −0.

. .0 −0.5 −1 1 −1 −1 −1 x (t) = p (t) ∗ p (t) t p (t) y (t) x (t) t 1 −1. ∞ .5 −1 The signal x (t). . 2 A12) 1 DR A FT 1 1 t t 0. The trigonometric Fourier series coefﬁcients of are a0 = . x (t) = −∞ y (τ) dτ = y (t) ∗ u (t) and y (t) = p (t + 0. and ak = 0 for k = 2. 2007 x (t) = cos2 (π t) = 1 1 + cos (2πt) 2 2 1 The period of x (t) is To = 1sec.5) .5) − p (t − 0. Then. 3. X (ω) = P (ω) · P (ω) Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 107 of 190 . can be derived from p (t) and y (t). 2 1 a1 = .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam A11) May 12. .

3 3 1 1 1 − j e(−1+2j) t u (t) + + j e(−1−2j) t u (t) h (t) = − e−3t u (t) + 8 16 16 16 16 1 1 = − e−3t u (t) + e−t (cos (2t) + 3 sin (2t)) u (t) . 2007 P (ω) = −1/2 1/2 e−jωt dt =2 0 cos (ωt) dt = 2 ω sin ω 2 X (ω) = P2 (ω) = 4 ω sin2 2 ω 2 A13) The inverse Laplace transform. 8 8 Sami Arıca DR A FT H (s) = A = lim (s + 3) H (s) = − s→−3 s+2 s+2 = 2 + 2 s + 5) (s + 3) (s (s + 3) (s + 1 − 2j) (s + 1 + 2j) A B C = + + s + 3 s + 1 − 2j s + 1 + 2j −1/8 1/16 − (3/16) j 1/16 + (3/16) j + + = s+3 s + 1 − 2j s + 1 + 2j 1 8 B= s→−1+2j lim C= s→−1−2j lim 3 1 − j 16 16 1 3 (s + 1 + 2j) H (s) = + j 16 16 (s + 1 − 2j) H (s) = —DRAFT— PAGE 108 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam 1/2 May 12.

−1 ≤ t < 0 y (t) = −t + 2. Q3) Find inverse Laplace transform of a) b) H (s) = s (s + 2) (s2 + 9) Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 1 sin (2πt) . 0. 2007 2. ∈ Z and 1 ≤t<1 2 H (s) = 1 (s + 2) (s2 + 9) 2 t + 2. − ≤t< 2 2 1 y (t) = 0. 0≤t<2 0. 0≤t<2 elsewhere x (t) = b) Q2) Find the trigonometric Fourier series coefﬁcients of. −1 ≤ t < 0 −1. elsewhere —DRAFT— PAGE 109 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam QUESTIONS Q1) Find the Fourier transform of . −1 ≤ t < − 2 y (t + · 2) . a) June 07.

June 07. 2007 x (t) y (t) 1 s a) Find system function of the system. Sami Arıca DR A FT 2 1 s −25 q1 (t) 2 q2 (t) —DRAFT— PAGE 110 of 190 . b) Find the system response. d d2 y (t) + 2 y (t) + 10y (t) = 9x (t) 2 dt dt is given. a) Find the impulse response (by time domain solution of the differential equation). b) Write state-space equations for the state variables shown in the ﬁgure.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Q4) A block diagram implementation of an LTI system is given below. Q5) An LTI system characterized by a differential equation.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam ANSWERS A1) a) 0 2 June 07. Sami Arıca DR A FT t 1 −jωt 2 −jωt + e e =− jω jω −1 0 2 2 jω 1 −2jω 1 =− + e + e − jω jω jω jω 2 1 = ejω/2 ejω/2 − e−jω/2 + e−jω e−jω − ejω jω jω 4 2 = ejω/2 sin (ω/2) − e−jω sin (ω) jω jω sin (ω) sin (ω/2) − 2 e−jω = 2 ejω/2 ω/2 ω y (t) = x (τ) dτ −∞ Y (ω) = 1 X (ω) + π X (0) δ (ω) jω X (0) = 0 Y (ω) = 2 jω/2 sin (ω/2) 2 −jω sin (ω) e − e jω ω/2 jω ω y (t) = −y (−t) —DRAFT— PAGE 111 of 190 . 2007 X (ω) = −1 2 · e−jωt dt + 0 0 (−1) · e−jωt dt 2 b) A2) The period is To = 2 sec and ωo = π rad/sec.

1/2 June 07. 2007 bk = −1/2 sin (2 πt) sin (k πt) dt 1/2 1/2 1 =− 2 −1/2 1 cos ((2 + k) πt) dt + 2 −1/2 1/2 cos ((2 − k) πt) dt 1/2 −1/2 1 1 sin ((2 + k) πt) =− 2 π (2 + k) 1 1 + sin ((2 − k) πt) 2 π (2 − k) −1/2 1 (2 − k) π 2 A3) a) 1 A B C = + + 2 + 9) (s + 2) (s s + 2 s + j3 s − j3 A = lim (s + 2) s→−2 B = lim (s + j3) s→−j3 Sami Arıca DR A FT b2 = 0 −1 1 1 1 sin (2 + k) π + sin =− π (2 + k) 2 π (2 − k) 1 1 kπ kπ = + sin sin π (2 + k) 2 π (2 − k) 2 kπ 4 sin = 2) π (4 − k 2 b2 = 4 (−1)1+ π 4 − (2 − 1)2 ∞ y (t) = 4 (−1)1+ =1 π 4 − (2 − 1)2 sin ((2 − 1) πt) 1 1 = 2 + 9) (s + 2) (s 11 1 1 1 = lim = s→−j3 (s + 2) (s − j3) (s + 2) (s2 + 9) 18 − j12 —DRAFT— PAGE 112 of 190 . The Fourier series does not contain dc and cos terms.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam The signal is an odd function.

t>0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam C = B∗ = 1 18 + j12 June 07. 2007 h (t) = 1 −2 t e + 11 1 −2 t e + = 11 1 −2 t = e + 11 1 −2 t = e + 11 1 1 e−j3 t + ej3 t 18 − j12 18 + j12 1 1 1 1 e−j3 t + ej3 t 6 3 − j2 6 3 + j2 1 1 (3 + j2) e−j3 t + (3 − j2) ej3 t 6 · 11 6 · 11 2 1 cos (3 t) + sin (3 t) . 11 11 b) t>0. 11 3 A4) Sami Arıca DR A FT L−1 1 d s = L−1 (s + 2) (s2 + 9) dt (s + 2) (s2 + 9) h (t) = − 2 −2 t 1 e + (−3 sin (3 t) + 2 cos (3 t)) . —DRAFT— PAGE 113 of 190 .

2007 x (t) A (s) y (t) 1 s q2 (t) a) Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 s −25 q1 (t) 2 A (s) = − A (s) 25 A (s) + X (s) s2 25 1 + 2 = X (s) s Y (s) = A (s) + Y (s) = A (s) 2 2 A (s) + 2 A (s) s s 2 2 1+ + 2 s s Y (s) = s2 + 2s + 2 s2 X (s) s2 s2 + 25 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 114 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam June 07.

2007 ˙ q1 (t) = q2 (t) ˙ q2 (t) = −25 q1 (t) + x (t) y (t) = −25 q1 (t) + x (t) + 2 q2 (t) + 2 q1 (t) = −23 q1 (t) + 2 q2 (t) + x (t) A5) 0+ [D y (t)] dt + 2 0− y (0+ ) − y (0− ) + 2 · 0 + 10 · 0 = 9 · 0 y (0+ ) = 0 Sami Arıca DR A FT D2 y (t) + 2 D y (t) + 10 y (t) = 9 x (t) D y (t) + 2 y (t) + 10 D−1 y (t) = 9 D−1 x (t) 0+ 0+ 0+ y (t) dt + 10 D−1 y (t) dt = 9 D−1 δ (t) dt 0− 0− 0− 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ D2 y (t) dt + 2 0− 0− [D y (t)] dt + 10 0− y (t) dt = 9 0− δ (t) dt y (0+ ) − y (0− ) + 2 · 0 + 10 · 0 = 9 · 1 y (0+ ) = 9 —DRAFT— PAGE 115 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam H (s) = b) s2 + 2s + 2 Y (s) = X (s) s2 + 25 June 07.

June 07. 2 dt dt t>0. t>0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam d2 d y (t) + 2 y (t) + 10y (t) = 0. —DRAFT— PAGE 116 of 190 .2 = −1 ± j3 y (t) = A e(−1+j3) t + B e(−1−j3) t y (t) = A (−1 + j3) e(−1+j3) t + B (−1 − j3) e(−1−j3) t Sami Arıca DR A FT y (0+ ) = A + B = 0 y (0+ ) = A (−1 + j3) + B (−1 − j3) = 9 A+B=0 −A + B = j3 3 A=− j 2 3 B= j 2 3 3 y (t) = − j e(−1+j3) t + j e(−1−j3) t 2 2 = 3 e−t sin (3 t) . 2007 λ2 + 2 λ + 10 = 0 λ1.

........... 2009 ............................ t.....EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam QUESTIONS Q1) Find Fourier transform of the following continuous time signal....... 1 ≤ t ≤ 2......... y (t) = 1.............................. otherwise May 08........... y (t) ... 1 1 at te − 2 eat + C a a Q2) Find complex Fourier series of the following periodic signal derived from the signal given in Q1............ x (t) = x (t + · 2) ........ 0 ≤ t < 1............. 0................. ......... Sami Arıca DR A FT eat dt = 1 at e +C a 1 1 teat dt = teat dt + eat dt = 1 2a 1 1 e − 2 ea + 2 a a a 0 1 1 1 t cos ( at + b) dt = t sin ( at + b) + 2 cos ( at + b) + C a a 0 ≤ t ≤ 2........... ∈Z Y (ω) = F [ y (t) ] —DRAFT— PAGE 117 of 190 ..............

........... otherwise —DRAFT— PAGE 118 of 190 ......... = y (λ) x (t − λ) dλ −∞ ∞ z (t) = e−aλ u (λ) · e−a(t−λ) u (t − λ) dλ ∞ −∞ = e−at u (λ) · u (t − λ) dλ −∞ u (λ) · u (t − λ) = 1...................EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam May 08............ 2009 ak = 2π 1 Y k To To 1 = Y ( πk ) 2 Q3) Find convolution of e−a·t u (t) ..... 0 < λ < t 0............... with itself................... a>0 Sami Arıca DR A FT z (t) = y (t) ∗ x (t) ∞ ....

..... DR A FT A phase (rad..... (1 + jω) (3 + jω) X (ω) = Find inverse Fourier transform of the signal by employing partial fraction expension method...............) freq. Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 119 of 190 .... (Hz) φ Q5) Fourier transform of a continuous time signal is given as 1 − jω ........... Note that F e−a·t u (t) = 1 . (Hz) f f freq.... mag... t>0 = te−at z (t) = te−at u (t) Q4) Plot one sided discrete magnitude and phase spectrum of the following signal (A cos (2π · f · t + φ) represents an oscillation and A is the magnitude and φ is the phase of this oscillation)................ a + jω for a>0................ 2009 t z (t) = e−at 0 dλ .. .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam May 08.......... x (t) = 1 + 2 cos (2π t + π/3) + 3/2 cos (4π t + 2π/3) − 1/2 cos (6π t) .......

....EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam and a−b 1 a−c 1 a+s = + .......................... .......... The following equation is obtained by multiplying Eq.. ( ) by minus : −a − s b−a 1 c−a 1 = + ...... Plot the discrete time signal......... (b + s) (c + s) c−b b+s b−c c+s Comparing this with X (ω) it is seen that : Therefore partial fraction expansion of X (ω) is Q6) Generate a discrete time signal by sampling the following continious time signal....... b = 1................... (b + s) (c + s) c−b b+s b−c c+s May 08. (1 + jω) (3 + jω) 1 + jω 3 + jω 1 − 1 |t| 2 x (t) = x (t + · 4) ..... 1 − jω 1 2 = − .... 2009 ........5 sec..... c=3.... The sampling rate is Ts = 0....................... ∈Z —DRAFT— PAGE 120 of 190 . −2 ≤ t ≤ 2.......................................... Sami Arıca DR A FT a = −1...............

.............25 0 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 May 08...... ..... a) x (t) is input and y (t) is output.............. 2009 n 5 6 7 x [n] = x (n · Ts ) = x (2 · n) ... b) x [n] is input and y [n] is output...........................5 0........75 0... dt y [n − 1] + 1 y [n] = x [n] ...... 2 Q7) Test the linearity and causality of the following systems.. A linear system has to satisfy the following property: Input x1 x2 α x1 + β x2 Output −→ y1 −→ y2 −→ α y1 + β y2 If initials values of an differentiation equation (difference equation in discrete time case) are zero Sami Arıca DR A FT d y (t) + 2 y (t) = x (t) . —DRAFT— PAGE 121 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam x [n] 1 0..........

.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam May 08.... In other case when the differential equation has non-zero initial values causality will be violated...... u (t) = lim+ e−a·t u (t) ..... a→0 ω→0 lim U (ω) = ? —DRAFT— PAGE 122 of 190 .............. Q9) The unit step function can be considered as limit of e−a·t u (t): a) Using this property ﬁnd the Fourier transform (U (ω)) of u (t)............... Q8) Can the following Fourier series representation of a periodic signal converge ? Why ? ∞ x (t) = 1 + n=1 ...... n (n + 1) 1 = n (n + 1) = ∞ n=1 ∞ 1 1 − n n+1 ∞ n=1 ∞ 1 − n 1 − n n=1 ∞ 1 n+1 1 n = n=1 n=2 = 1. So the system described by the differential equation is causal........... Because the differential equation response will be composed of particular solution (a linear time invariant and casual system response to the input x (t)) and homogenous solution... What is Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ n=11 1 cos (2π n t) ............ 2009 the homogenous solution of the differential equation is zero................ This means the response is zero for t < 0.... The linearity will also be failed..

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam b) The following relation u (t) = 1 − u (−t) . a) ∞ Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t) = 1 u (t) 1+t |x (t)| dt −∞ Find A (ω). The above result shows that the Fourier transform of unit step function should be 1 . 2009 U (ω) = A (ω) + Q10) Find a) the Fourier transform of δ (t) and ej(2π/To ) k·t . —DRAFT— PAGE 123 of 190 . jω May 08. b) and the inverse Fourier transform of δ (ω) and δ (ω − (2π/To ) k). Q11) Does Fourier transform of exist ? Find. yields U (ω) + U (−ω) = 2πδ (ω) .

2009 |x (t)|2 dt −∞ Q12) Does Fourier transform of x [n] = exist ? Find. —DRAFT— PAGE 124 of 190 . Sami Arıca DR A FT −∞ ∞ |x [n]| |x [n]|2 −∞ y (t) + 2y (t) + 5y (t) = x (t) . x (t) = 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. x (t + ) . Q14) Find complex Fourier series of the following periodic signal. − cos (π t) . 1 u [n] 1+n a) ∞ b) Q13) Find impulse response of the following system.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam b) ∞ May 08. ∈Z.

........... a) Find the corresponding differential equation of the frequency response.................... (15p) ....... —DRAFT— PAGE 125 of 190 ... (10p) b) Find the impulse response of the system by calculating inverse Fourier transform of the frequency response....EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam QUESTIONS May 25............ a) Sami Arıca DR A FT H (ω) = = Y (ω) X (ω) 2 1 (jω) + 2jω + 5 (jω)2 + 2jω + 5 Y (ω) = X (ω) (jω)2 Y (ω) + 2jωY (ω) + 5Y (ω) = X (ω) y (t) + 2y (t) + 5y (t) = x (t) ................................ 2009 Q1) Frequency response of a linear time invariant and casual continuous-time system is given as follows: H (ω) = 1 (jω) + 2jω + 5 2 .....

25j e−2jt − 0.25j e(−1+2j)t u (t) = e−t 0.25j e2jt u (t) 1 = e−t sin (t) u (t) .25j 0.25j − jω + 1 + 2j jω + 1 − 2j h (t) = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam b) H (ω) is partitioned as follows. are given as Sami Arıca DR A FT jω→−1−2j A= = lim (jω + 1 + 2j) · H (ω) 1 1 =− jω + 1 − 2j 4j jω→−1−2j lim B= = jω→−1+2j lim (jω + 1 − 2j) · H (ω) 1 1 = jω + 1 + 2j 4j jω→−1+2j lim H (ω) = 0. 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 126 of 190 . 2009 H (ω) = (jω) + 2jω + 5 1 = (jω + 1 + 2j) (jω + 1 − 2j) A B = + jω + 1 + 2j jω + 1 − 2j Q2) Complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of a periodic signal with period of 2 sec.25j e(−1−2j)t u (t) − 0. 1 2 May 25.

.......... 2 a) Is the system stable ? Why ? b) Is the system causal ? Why ? .. (20p) ..............................................5j ... (7. System is unstable..... Find the periodic signal..... System is non-causal.. a1 = 1 a2 = −0....... s (t) = et sin (t) · u (t) − for t < 0.5j · e−2π t + 1 · e−π t − 1 + 1 · eπ t − 0.................5p) t→∞ 1 b) Input is zero for t < 0 but output s (t) = − cos (t) = 0 2 (7.5j a−1 = 1 a−2 = 0.....5j · e2π t 2π 2π 2π 2π = −1 + 2 cos (πt) + sin (2πt) .................. a) lim s (t) −→ ∞..........EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam follows: May 25...... 2009 a0 = −1................5p) Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t) = a−2 e To ·(−2) t + a−1 e To ·(−1) t + a0 + a1 e To t + a2 e To ·2·t = 0.. —DRAFT— PAGE 127 of 190 ............................ Q3) Step response of a linear time invariant system is given as follows: 1 cos (t) ........

...... 2009 Q4) Find complex Fourier series coefﬁcients (not the trigonometric Fourier series coefﬁcients) of the following periodic signal: (20p) 1 1..... 0 1/2 ........ 0<t< 2 1 x (t) = −1...EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 25... a2k = 0............ —DRAFT— PAGE 128 of 190 .............. − <t<0 2 x (t + ) ......... Sami Arıca DR A FT −1/2 1/2 0 1/2 ak = − e −j2πkt dt + e−j2πkt dt =− e j2πkt dt + e−j2πkt dt 0 0 1/2 = −ej2πkt + e−j2πkt dt 0 1/2 ak = −2j sin (2πkt) dt 1/2 0 2j = cos (2πkt) 2πk 0 1 = (1 − cos (πk)) jπk a2k−1 = 2 jπ (2k − 1) k∈Z........... ∈Z.........................

. a) Find impulse response of the system by solving the differential equation in time domain..... 2009 Q5) A linear time invariant system is described by the following constant coefﬁcient linear differential equation..... The characteristic equation of the differential equation is (the n th derivative of y (t) : y(n) (t) is replaced by Dn ): D+2=0 Sami Arıca DR A FT 0+ 0+ 0+ ..... Therefore..... y (0− ) = 0 since the system is causal............ (10p) b) Find the response for the input (15p) x (t) = e−t u (t) ......... —DRAFT— PAGE 129 of 190 .................... y (t) + 2y (t) = x (t) ... a) u (0− ) = 0 and.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 25....... y (t) dt + 2 y (t) dt = δ (t) dt 0+ 0− 0− 0+ 0− y (t) 0− + 2 · 0 = u (t) 0− y (0+ ) − y (0− ) = u (0+ ) − u (0− ) y (0+ ) = 1 .........................

y (t) = e−2t u (t) ∗ e−t u (t) t = e−2λ · e−(t−λ) dλ t 0 = e−t e−λ dλ t −λ 0 = −e −t ·e 0 = −e−t · e−t − 1 = e−t − e−2t . y (t) = e−t − e−2t u (t) . t>0. —DRAFT— PAGE 130 of 190 . From the initial condition unknown constant A is found: y (0+ ) = A = 1 . t>0. The homogenous solution of the system is then y (t) = Ae−2t . The impulse response of the system is b) Sami Arıca DR A FT y (t) = e−2t u (t) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 25. 2009 The root of the characteristic equation is D = −2.

what is the interval of a ∈ R where Fourier transform exist ? Where complex number −a−jb falls in the comlex plane for this interval of a. ﬁnd the inverse Fourier transform. For plot Y (ω). Sami Arıca DR A FT ak ej To kt .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 25. Does the signal have Fourier transform for all a ∈ R. 2009 Q6) Find the Fourier transform of e−(a+jb)t u (t) . If not. k=−∞ y (t) = x (t) cos (ωo t) A + X (ω) = A − 0. 2π a) Does inverse Fourier transform of δ (ω − ωo ) exist ? If yes. A t. 0 < t < ω1 ω1 otherwise —DRAFT— PAGE 131 of 190 . Q7) b) Using the result above ﬁnd Fourier transform of ∞ Q8) Find Fourier transform of in terms of X (ω) = F [ x (t) ]. −ω1 < t < 0 ω1 A t.

Q10) Find step response of the following system. ∈Z. You don’t need to calculate y (0+ ). y (t) + a y (t) = y (t) . Sami Arıca DR A FT x (t) = =−∞ ∞ δ (t − · To ) . jω + a + jb a>0 F [ x (t) ] = jωX (ω) —DRAFT— PAGE 132 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam X (ω) May 25. ∞ f (t) δ (t − to ) dt = f (to ) −∞ F e−(a+jb)t u (t) = 1 . 2009 A ω −ω1 ω1 Q9) Find complex Fourier series of the following periodic impulse train. Only an impulse can impose initial values at t = 0+ .

−∞ ejωt dω = 2πδ (t) cos (α) = 1 −jα 1 jα e + e 2 2 1 1 −jα sin (α) = − e + ejα 2j 2j Sami Arıca DR A FT Im b a + jb a Re Complex plane —DRAFT— PAGE 133 of 190 . 2009 ∞ ∞ δ (t) e −∞ −jωt dt = 1.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 25.

F [x (−t)] = X∗ (ω).EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I QUESTIONS Q1) a) Find Fourier transform of the above signal (15 p) . Supplementary: Q2) a) Find inverse Fourier transform of the following Fourier transform by using partial fraction expansion method (10 p) . Therefore Y (ω) = X (ω) + X∗ (ω). teat dt = 1 at 1 te − 2 eat + c a a —DRAFT— PAGE 134 of 190 . b) Find the Fourier transform of z (t) = 2 1 + t2 by using duality property of the Fourier transform (10 p) . 2010 b) A periodic signal y (t) is generated from aperiodic signal x (t). For real signals. Sami Arıca DR A FT y (t) = =−∞ x (t − · 2) . x (t) 1 −1 1 −1 t March 31. Y (ω) = 2 1 + ω2 Hint: Y (ω) ∈ R. ∞ Find the complex Fourier series coefﬁcients of this signal by employing the Fourier transform obtained in Q1a (5 p) .

b) y (t) + 2ay (t) + a2 + b2 y (t) = x (t) (10 p) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I Supplementary: The duality property: F March 31. y (0+ ) = 1 and y (0+ ) = 0. Sami Arıca DR A FT ejθ = cos (θ) + j sin (θ) h (t) 1 −1 1 once in the interval of [0− . 0 ≤ t < 2. t ≥ 2. II. x (t) 1 −1 1 t Hint: Evaluate the convolution integral for the intervals. IV. Integrating both side twice and b > 0. 2010 z (t) = Y (t) ←→ Z (ω) = 2πy (−ω) eat u (t) ←→ F y (t) ←→ Y (ω) F 1 . Q3) Find impulse response of the following causal LTI systems. III. −a + jω a<0. a) y (t) + (a + b) y (t) + aby (t) = x (t) (10 p) . I. Solve the problem in time domain. Supplementary: Euler’s Identity Q4) Find convolution of the above signals (20 p) . t < −2. 0+ ] yields initial conditions. −2 ≤ t < 0. a > 0 and t —DRAFT— PAGE 135 of 190 .

Show poles.................. Q6) The following causal LTI system is given.... 2010 Q5) Transfer function of a causal LTI system is given as following... + X (s) − DR A FT L teat u (t) = (−a + s)2 .... zeros and ROC in the s-plane (10 p) ..... zeros and ROC of H (s).................. −a + s 1 ROC = Re [s] > a Y (s) Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 136 of 190 ..... b) Find the impulse response of the system by using partial fraction expansion method (10 p) ... a) Find Poles.....EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I March 31...... ROC = Re [s] > a A (s) E (s) B (s) L eat u (t) = 1 ...................... s+2 (s + 3) (s + 4)2 H (s) = Supplementary: ......

2010 For a = 1. b) Use partial fraction expansion method to ﬁnd the inverse Laplace transform of the transfer function and consequently impulse response of the system. c) Check the stability. a) ﬁnd the transfer function of the system. b) ﬁnd the impulse response of the system. Q8) A causal LTI system is given as following New variables which are called as state variable can be generated as below Sami Arıca DR A FT 2y (t) + 10y (t) + 12y (t) = 2x (t) + 3x (t) a0 y (t) + a1 y (t) + a2 y (t) = bx (t) z1 (t) = y (t) z2 (t) = y (t) = z1 (t) Q7) A causal LTI system is given as following —DRAFT— PAGE 137 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I A (s) = 1 a s2 B (s) = a March 31. Is system stable ? a) Find the transfer function of the system.

2010 a0 z2 (t) + a1 z2 (t) + a2 z1 (t) = bx (t) z2 (t) = − a1 a2 b z2 (t) − z1 (t) + x (t) a0 a0 a0 These equations leads to the following matrix equation z1 (t) 0 = a2 − z2 (t) a0 1 z1 (t) 0 + b x (t) a1 · − z2 (t) a0 a0 The modest form is This equation is known as state equation and matrix A is called as state-transition matrix. Q8)The following signal Sami Arıca DR A FT z (t) = A · z (t) + bx (t) t z (t) = e A(t−to ) z (to ) + e At e−Aλ bx (λ) dλ to e At = n=0 An n t n! x (t) = cos (2πt) + cos (4πt) + cos (6πt) —DRAFT— PAGE 138 of 190 . eAt is the matrix exponential. a1 = 3. a0 = 1 . The matrix exponential is a matrix function on square matrices: ∞ Find the state variables for the constants. The solution of this vector differential equation is Here. and b = 1.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I The derivative of z2 (t) can be extracted from the differential equation March 31. a2 = 2.

and f = 3 Hz are 1 −jπ/2 ·e 3 1 −j3π/4 ·e H (3) = 5 H (2) = H (1) = 1 · e−jπ/4 b) Find the output y (t) of the ﬁlter by using the convolution property of the Fourier transform. 2010 is input to a ﬁlter with a frequency response of H (f). The values of the frequency response at f = 1. f = 2. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— a) Find the Fourier transform of x (t). PAGE 139 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I March 31.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I ANSWERS A1) a) March 31. Sami Arıca DR A FT t −jωt e = −jω − 1 (−jω) 2 e−jωt −1 −1 = − 1 jω 1 1 1 −jω e − e + 2 e−jω − 2 ejω jω jω ω ω 2j 2j = cos (ω) − 2 sin (ω) ω ω 2j (ω cos (ω) − sin (ω)) = ω2 ak = 1 X To 2π k To To = 2 2π k = πk To —DRAFT— PAGE 140 of 190 . 2010 ∞ X (ω) = −∞ 1 x (t) e−jωt dt = −1 te−jωt dt 1 1 b) Since the periodic signal is generated from the aperiodic signal the complex Fourier series coefﬁcients can be obtained from the Fourier transform of the aperiodic signal.

k=0 A2) a) The Y (ω) can be partitioned into partial fractions as below. Notice that ak = . Applying L’Hospital’s rule we can ﬁnd this. 2010 The above equation gives coefﬁcients for all k ∈ Z. we separate a0 from the simpliﬁed version of ak . when k = 0. k ∈ Z − {0} jπ k ak = 0. 1 − (−1)k .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I ak = 1 X (π k) 2 1 1 cos (π k) + 2 2 sin (π k) = − jπ k jπ k πk cos (π k) − sin (π k) = j π2 k2 March 31. therefore undeﬁned. It can be further simpliﬁed by replacing 0 cos (π k) = (−1)k and sin (π k) = 0. not a a function of a continuous variable. 0 Actually as y (t) is an odd signal we know that a0 = 0. A a result. But be careful. ak is a discrete function of integer k. Sami Arıca DR A FT Y (ω) = 2 1 + ω2 A B = + 1 − jω 1 + jω A = 2 2 = lim = 1 2 jω→1 1 + jω jω→1 1+ω 2 2 B = lim (1 + jω) = lim = 1 2 jω→−1 jω→−1 1 − jω 1+ω lim (1 − jω) Y (ω) = 1 1 + 1 − jω 1 + jω Hence simpliﬁcations is valid for discrete k but limit is deﬁned for continuous variables and we —DRAFT— PAGE 141 of 190 . may not obtain true value of a0 after simpliﬁcations.

Since the system is causal the output (response) is zero for t < 0. 2010 = e−t u (t) t→−t = et u (−t) Therefore.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I F −1 F −1 1 1 + jω 1 1 − jω = e−t u (t) = F −1 1 1 + jω ∗ March 31. t>0 —DRAFT— PAGE 142 of 190 . is response to the impulse at the input. The response for t > 0 need to be computed and can be found by solving the homogenous differential equation (response to zero input). We can utilize the duality property to ﬁnd the Fourier transform of z (t). y (t) = e−t u (t) + et u (−t) = e−| t | b) Here. as it appears in its name. Impulse is exerted at time t = 0 and disappears after (t > 0). A3) The impulse response. a) The characteristic equation is D2 + (a + b) D + ab = 0 Sami Arıca DR A FT z (t) = [ Y (ω) ]ω→t = 2 1 + t2 Z (ω) = 2π [ y (t) ]t→−ω = 2πe−| ω | y (t) + (a + b) y + aby (t) = 0.

2010 (D + a) (D + b) = 0 D1 = −a D2 = −b Then the solution is y (t) = C1 eD1 t + C2 eD2 t = C1 e−at + C2 e−bt The unknown coefﬁcients are found from the initial values imposed by the impulse at t = 0+ . y (t) = 1 1 e−at u (t) + e−bt u (t) −a + b a−b Sami Arıca DR A FT y (t) = C1 e−at + C2 e−bt y (t) = −aC1 e−at − bC2 e−bt y (0+ ) = C1 + C2 = 0 y (0+ ) = −aC1 − bC2 = 1 C1 = C2 1 −a + b 1 = a−b —DRAFT— PAGE 143 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I The roots of the characteristic equation March 31. Finally we get.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I b) The same steps are repeated to ﬁnd the impulse response.

March 31, 2010

y (t) + 2ay + a2 + b2 y (t) = 0,

t>0

The characteristic equation is D2 + 2aD + a2 + b2 = 0 The roots of the characteristic equation

(D + a + jb) (D + a − jb) = 0

Then the solution is

The unknown coefﬁcients are found from the initial values imposed by the impulse at t = 0+ .

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

D1 = −a − jb D2 = −a + jb y (t) = C1 eD1 t + C2 eD2 t = C1 e(−a−jb)t + C2 e(−a+jb)t y (t) = C1 e(−a−jb)t + C2 e(−a+jb)t y (t) = (−a − jb) C1 e(−a−jb)t + (−a + jb) C2 e(−a+jb)t y (0+ ) = C1 + C2 = 0 y (0+ ) = (−a − jb) C1 + (−a + jb) C2 = 1

—DRAFT—

PAGE 144 of 190

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I C1 = − C2 1 2jb 1 = 2jb

March 31, 2010

Replace the coefﬁcients in y (t) 1 (−a+jb)t 1 (−a−jb)t e + e 2jb 2jb 1 −at 1 1 y (t) = − e−jbt + ejbt e b 2j 2j 1 −at e sin (bt) = b

y (t) = −

We obtain

A4) The convolution integral:

The graphical illustration of x (t − λ) and h (λ) are as shown below. As both signals has ﬁnite x (−λ + t) 1 −1 + t 1+t λ −1 1 h (λ)

supports (exist only in ﬁnite interval) the integral should be calculated for speciﬁed time intervals. I. For t < −2, h (λ) · x (t − λ) = 0. Hence, y (t) = 0.

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

y (t) = 1 −at e sin (bt) u (t) b

∞

y (t) =

h (λ) x (t − λ) dλ

−∞

1

λ

—DRAFT—

PAGE 145 of 190

**EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I II. For −2 ≤ t < 0,
**

1+t

March 31, 2010

y (t) =

−1

h (λ) x (t − λ) dλ =

1 1 1 · (2 + t) · (2 + t) = (2 + t)2 2 2 4

III. For 0 ≤ t < 2,

1

y (t) =

−1+t

h (λ) x (t − λ) dλ =

1 · 2

1 1 4 − t2 t + 1 (2 − t) = 2 4

Then the convolution integral is as follows.

A5) a) The transfer function has one zero and two poles. s = −2, is zero

s = −3 and s = −4 are poles. Because the system is causal the ROC is right side of a vertical line which is bearing the rightmost pole.

Sami Arıca

DR A FT

1 (2 + t)2 , −2 ≤ t < 0 4 y (t) = 1 4 − t2 , 0 ≤ t < 2 4 0, otherwise y (t) 1 −2 2 t

IV. For t > 2, h (λ) · x (t − λ) = 0. Therefore, y (t) = 0.

—DRAFT—

PAGE 146 of 190

2010 Im ROC = Re [ s ] > −3 −4 −3 −2 Re b) Therefore.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I March 31. H (s) = − 1 1 2 + + (s + 3) (s + 4) (s + 4)2 Sami Arıca DR A FT H (s) = s+2 (s + 3) (s + 4)2 A B C = + + (s + 3) (s + 4) (s + 4)2 A = lim (s + 3) H (s) = lim s→−3 = −1 (s + 4)2 s+2 C = lim (s + 4)2 H (s) = lim = 2 s→−4 s→−4 (s + 3) d s+2 d (s + 4)2 H (s) = lim B = lim s→−4 ds ds s→−4 (s + 3) s→−3 s+2 = lim s→−4 1 s+2 − (s + 3) (s + 3)2 = 1 —DRAFT— PAGE 147 of 190 .

2010 The inverse Laplace transform of the system function yields the impulse response of the system. F −1 [ H (s) ] = h (t) = −e−3t u (t) + e−4t u (t) + te−4t u (t) Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 148 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam I March 31.

1≤t<2 elsewhere May 06. a) Magnitude and phase of Fourier transform of a continuous time signal is given as (9 p) 1 ω2 + 1 b) Fourier transform of a discrete time signal is given as (8 p) Q3) Find impulse response of the following LTI and causal systems.5δ [n − 1] + δ [n − 2] + 2δ [n − 3] + 0. 0. Find energy of the signal. Find energy of the signal. (8 p) b) Plot x [n] and x [−n + 2]. QUESTIONS Q1) The following signals are given 1 − t − 1. 0≤t<1 −t + 2. Sami Arıca DR A FT M (ω) = √ θ (ω) = − arctan (ω) X (ω) = 3ej3ω + 2ej2ω + ejω − 1 − 2e−jω − 3e−j2ω —DRAFT— PAGE 149 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II Answer all questions. 2010 Exam time : 150 minutes. (9 p) Q2) Find inverse transform of the following Fourier transforms. Use time domain method. x (t) = x [n] = −δ [n + 2] − 2δ [n + 1] − 3δ [n] − 1.5δ [n − 4] a) Plot x (t) and x (−2t + 4). −2 < t < 0 2 2t − 1.

b) (9 p) y [n] − 1 14 y [n − 1] + y [n − 2] = x [n] 15 5 14 . Q5) In particular a system may or may not be 1. 2 2 x [n] = − 5 4 1 3 n u [n] + 9 4 3 5 n u [−1 − n] . Causal Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 1 x (t) = e−t u (t) − e3t u (−t) . Linear 4. —DRAFT— PAGE 150 of 190 . 2010 Initial values of the impulse response are y [0] = 1 and y [1] = Q4) Find a) Bi-lateral Laplace transform of (8 p) Do not forget to specify the ROC.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II a) (8 p) y (t) + 4y (t) + 3y (t) = x (t) Initial values of the impulse response are y (0+ ) = 1 and y (0+ ) = 0. b) z-transform of (9 p) Do not forget to specify the ROC. Memoryless 2. Time-invariant 3. 15 May 06.

Justify your answer. 1 (at + b)3 + c 3a B. (17 p) (a) y (t) = ex(t) (b) y (t) = x (t − 1) − x (1 − t) (c) y (t) = [ sin (6t) ] x (t) (e) y [n] = x [n − 2] − x [n − 17] (f) y [n] = nx [n] Q6) Find convolution of the signals given below (15 p) x (t) 1 −1 A. 2010 Determine which of these properties hold which do not hold for each of the following signals.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II 5. In each example y (t) or y [n] denotes the system output. Stable May 06. Sami Arıca DR A FT h (t) 1 1 t −1 1 t (at + b)2 dt = (d) y [n] = x [n] x [n − 1] —DRAFT— PAGE 151 of 190 . and x (t) or x [n] is the system input.

jω − a 1 F −eat u (−t) ←→ . Z denotes bi-lateral z-transform. L denotes bi-lateral Laplace transform. D. 1 − az−1 Z an u [n] ←→ ROC = |z| > |a| ROC = |z| < |a| y (t) + ay (t) + by (t) = 0 1 . 1 − az−1 1 Z −an u [−1 − n] ←→ . UL denotes uni-lateral Laplace transform. 1 − ae−jω F an u [n] ←→ |a| < 1 |a| > 1 1 . −eat u (−t) ←→ s−a L eat u (t) ←→ Re [s] > a —DRAFT— PAGE 152 of 190 . E. s−a 1 L . UZ denotes uni-lateral z-transform. jω − a F eat u (t) ←→ a<0 a>0 C.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II May 06. 1 − ae−jω 1 F −an u [−1 − n] ←→ . F. 2010 1 . Solution of homogenous differential equation Sami Arıca DR A FT Re [s] < a 1 .

H. Convolution integral ∞ If x (t) and y (t) are time limited functions you should specify integral interval(s) where x (λ) y (t − λ) = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II is y (t) = C1 es1 t + C2 es2 t s1 and s2 are roots of the characteristic equation D2 + aD + b = 0 May 06. Sami Arıca DR A FT y [n] + ay [n − 1] + by [n − 2] = 0 y [n] = C1 αn + C2 αn 1 2 D2 + aD + b = 0 z (t) = −∞ x (λ) y (t − λ) dλ —DRAFT— PAGE 153 of 190 . Solution of homogenous difference equation is α1 and α2 are roots of the characteristic equation and constants C1 and C2 are determined from the initial conditions. 2010 and constants C1 and C2 are determined from the initial conditions. G.

2010 X (ω) = −∞ x (t) e −jωt dt 1 x (t) = 2π −∞ X (ω) ejωt dω J. Fourier transform for continuous-time signals ∞ ∞ May 06. z-transform for discrete-time signals ∞ Sami Arıca DR A FT a+∞ X (s) = x (t) e−st dt 1 x (t) = 2πj X (s) est ds −∞ a−∞ X (z) = x [n] z−n x [n] = n=−∞ 1 2πj X (z) zn−1 dz C —DRAFT— PAGE 154 of 190 . Bi-lateral Laplace transform ∞ L.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II I. Fourier transform for discrete-time signals ∞ π X (ω) = n=−∞ x [n] e−jωn 1 x [n] = 2π −π X (ω) ejωn dω K.

x (ta ) appears at the transformed signal at time t = 2 − ta = tb 2 Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 155 of 190 . Complex Fourier series for continuous-time signals 1 ak = T0 t0 +T0 ∞ May 06.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II M. 2010 x (t) e t0 −j 2π kt T 0 dt x (t) = k=−∞ ak e j 2π kt T 0 N.5 1 x (−2t + 4) 1 3 t −1 The value of x (t) at time t = ta . Complex Fourier series for discrete-time signals 1 N n0 +N k0 +N ak = x [n] e−j N kn n=n0 2π x [n] = k=k0 ak ej N kn 2π A1) a) DR A FT ANSWERS x (t) 1 1 −2 2 t 1 −1 ta -2 0 1 2 tb 3 2 1.

x [na ] appears at the transformed signal at time n = 2 − na = x [n] x [−n + 2] DR A FT 1 2 3 4 n −2 −1 0 n nb na -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 nb 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 156 of 190 . 2010 ∞ 0 x (t) dt = −∞ −2 2 1 − t−1 2 2 3 1 − t−1 2 2 1 2 dt + 0 0 3 (2t − 1) dt + 1 1 2 (−t + 2)2 dt 2 = − 4 3 1 1 + (2t − 1)3 − (−t + 2)3 6 3 −2 0 1 = b) The value of x [n] at time n = na .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II May 06.

This is because impulse appears in the input at time t = 0 and specify the initial values of the system and Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 + jω = 1 + ω2 1/2 ej arctan(ω) (1 + jω)−1 = 1 + ω2 −1/2 e−j arctan(ω) 1 F −1 −t −→ e u (t) jω + 1 = 3e−j(−3)ω + 2e−j(−2)ω + e−j(−1)ω − 1 · e−j 0·ω − 2e−j 1·ω − 3e−j 2·ω 2 = n=−3 x [n] e−jω n —DRAFT— PAGE 157 of 190 .5)2 + 12 + 22 + 0.5 A2) a) b) X (ω) = 3ej3ω + 2ej2ω + ejω − 1 − 2e−jω − 3e−j2ω A3) a) Impulse response is just solution of homogenous differential equation at t > 0. 2010 ∞ 4 x [n] = n=−∞ n=−2 2 x2 [n] = (−1)2 + (−2)2 + (−3)2 + (−1.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II May 06.52 = 21.

1 C1 0 1 · = 1 C2 −3 −1 Sami Arıca DR A FT (D + 3) (D + 1) = 0 ⇒ D1 = −3. D2 = −1 y (t) = C1 e−3t + C2 e−t y (0+ ) = C1 + C2 = 0 y (0+ ) = −3C1 − C2 = 1 C1 1 −1 −1 0 = · 2 C2 1 3 1 C1 1 −1 = 2 C2 1 —DRAFT— PAGE 158 of 190 . 2010 D2 + 4D + 3 = 0 The roots of the characteristic equation Then the impulse response The constants are found from the initial values.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II n x [n] -3 3 -2 2 -1 1 0 -1 1 -2 2 -3 elsewhere 0 disappears after. The characteristic equation of the system is as May 06.

D2 = 5 3 1 3 n May 06. 2010 D2 − D− D− n 1 C1 1 C1 15 1/3 −1 1 C1 1 9 1 =− · = = · 4 −3/5 1 4 −5 C2 14/15 C2 3/5 1/3 C2 14/15 The impulse response is A4) a) Sami Arıca DR A FT y [n] = C1 + C2 y [0] = C1 + C2 = 1 1 14 3 y [1] = C1 + C2 = 5 3 15 y [n] = 9 4 3 5 n u [n] − 5 4 1 3 n u [n] —DRAFT— PAGE 159 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II Finally we get the impulse response 1 1 y (t) = − e−3t u (t) + e−t u (t) 2 2 b) Impulse response can be found by following similar approach to the above. 14 1 D+ = 15 5 3 5 3 5 1 3 3 1 ⇒ D1 = .

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II May 06. 3 −1 5 1− z 5 1 3 Z u [n] −→ n ROC = |z| > 1 3 3 5 ROC = |z| < X (z) = − 9 1 1 − 1 3 4 1 − z−1 1 − z−1 3 5 3 −1 1− z 7 7 . = − 3 −1 1 −1 2 1− z 1− z 3 5 5 4 ROC = 1 3 < |z| < 3 5 —DRAFT— PAGE 160 of 190 . It Sami Arıca DR A FT − 1 . 1 −1 z 1− 3 n 3 1 Z u [−1 − n] −→ . s−3 L e−t u (t) −→ Re [s] > −1 Re [s] < 3 X (s) = 1 1 1 1 + 2s+1 2s−3 s−1 = . 2010 1 . Time-invariance: A system is time invariant if it does not change its characteristics in time. −1 < Re [s] < 3 (s + 1) (s − 3) b) A5) Deﬁnition of system properties Memoryless or system with no memory: A system is said to be memoryless if output depends only present value of the input. s+1 1 L −e3t u (−t) −→ .

Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 161 of 190 Memoryless Time-invariant Linear Causal a + + + + b c + + + d + + e + + + f + + + Stable + + + + + - . Causality: A system is causal if it generates output only after input is applied. Stability: A system is stable if output is bounded for a bounded input.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam II produces the same output to the same input at any time it is applied to the system. It does not depend on the exponential powers of the input. 2010 Linearity: A system is linear if output is linearly dependent on the input. May 06.

Compute energy of x (t). Q2) Find Fourier transform of a) e−t cos (2t) u (t) and te−2t u (t). Compute energy of x [n]. b) Plot x [n] and x [−n/2 + 3/2]. n n 1 1 cos [2n] u [n] and n u [n] b) 2 2 Q3) a) Find convolution integral of the following continuous-time signals Sami Arıca DR A FT e−2t u (t) ∗ e−t u (t) e−t u (t) ∗ e−t u (t) e−2t u (t) ∗ t e−t u (t) —DRAFT— PAGE 162 of 190 . 2010 x (t) = x [n] = −2 δ [n + 3]+3 δ [n + 2]+4 δ [n + 1]−5 δ [n]−4 δ [n − 1]+2 δ [n − 2]−1 δ [n − 3]+2 δ [n − 4] a) Plot x (t) and x (−t/2 + 3/2).EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam QUESTIONS Q1) The following signals are given t + 1. 1≤t<2 1otherwise May 28. −1 ≤ t < 0 1. 0≤t<1 −1. 0.

Sami Arıca DR A FT H (s) = H (z) = —DRAFT— PAGE 163 of 190 . Q5) A continuous-time LTI and causal system is given as in the following. Use a) backward difference approximation. b) bilinear transform. d y (t) + 4 y (t) = x (t) dt Find the corresponding difference equation by approximating the differential equation. b) Transfer (system) function of an LTI and causal discrete-time systems is given as in the following 2 z 12 z2 − 15 z + 4 (2 z − 1)2 (3 z − 1) Find the impulse response. The continuous-time signals are sampled with a sampling interval of T = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam b) Find convolution sum of the following discrete-time signals 1 3 1 2 1 3 n n May 28. 2010 u [n] ∗ n u [n] ∗ u [n] ∗ n 1 2 1 2 1 2 n u [n] n u [n] n u [n] Q4) a) Transfer (system) function of an LTI and causal continuous-time system is given as in the following s+1 (s + 2) (s2 + 4s + 5) Find the impulse response.05 sec.

2. 2010 −1 ≤ t < 0 0≤t<1 otherwise b) c) d) Q7) Block diagram of an LTI and causal system is given as in the following Sami Arıca DR A FT −1. 3.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Q6) Find Fourier transform of the following signals. −3. −1 x [n] = 1. 0. 4 0. n = −4. x (t) = 1. n = 1. elsewhere x [n] = 1 3 n x (t) = e−t cos (2t) u (t) cos [2n] u [n] —DRAFT— PAGE 164 of 190 . May 28. a) −1. −2.

linearity. a ROC = |a| Rx —DRAFT— PAGE 165 of 190 . n ROC ⊆ ( Rx ∩ Ry ) Z x [n] = k=−∞ 1 X (z) . Q8) Prove the following z-transform properties.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam X (z) May 28. a) b) Hint: c) Q9) Determine properties (memoryless. 1 − z−1 n ROC ⊆ [ Rx ∩ ( |z| > 1 ) ] k=−∞ x [n] = u [n] ∗ x [n] Z [ an x [n] ] = X z . Justify your answers clearly. a) d y (t) + ty (t) = x (t) dt Sami Arıca DR A FT Z [ x [n] ∗ y [n] ] = X (z) Y (z) . causality. stability) of the following systems. time-invariance. b) Find the corresponding difference equation of the system. 2010 + K (z) + Y (z) D−1 + 5/6 -7/15 D−1 + -1/6 2/15 a) Find the system function H (z).

2010 Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 166 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam b) d y (t) + 3y (t) + cos (2t) = x (t) dt c) 1 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = x [n] + x [n − 1] 2 2 d) 1 y [n] − y2 [n − 1] = x [n] 2 May 28.

COMPLEX NUMBERS Euler’s Identity 1 1 at te − 2 eat + c a a Cauchy’s integral Consider contour integral where Here. and c are poles of F (z) and c is a multiple pole. and C1 are called as residues of F (z). B.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam I. The contour integral is equal to sum of these residues. A. INTEGRALS 1 (at + b)3 + c 3a May 28. 2010 (at + b)2 dt = teat dt = II. III. FOURIER SERIES Sami Arıca DR A FT ejθ = cos (θ) + j sin (θ) z−1 dz = 1 C zn−1 dz = δ [n] C F (z) dz C F (z) = B C1 C2 Cn A + + + +···+ 2 z − a z − b z − c (z − c) (z − c)n F (z) dz = A + B + C1 C —DRAFT— PAGE 167 of 190 . a. b.

T0 is the period. N is the period. 1 ak = T0 t0 +T0 ∞ May 28. 1 N n0 +N k0 +N ak = x [n] e−j N kn n=n0 2π x [n] = k=k0 ak ej N kn 2π IV. Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ X (ω) = x (t) e −jωt dt 1 x (t) = 2π X (ω) ejωt dω −∞ −∞ π X (ω) = n=−∞ x [n] e−jωn 1 x [n] = 2π −π X (ω) ejωn dω —DRAFT— PAGE 168 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Complex Fourier series for continuous-time signals. FOURIER TRANSFORMS Fourier transform for continuous-time signals ∞ Fourier transform for discrete-time signals ∞ Fourier Transform Pairs. 2010 x (t) e t0 −j 2π kt T 0 dt x (t) = k=−∞ ak e j 2π kt T 0 Complex Fourier series for discrete-time signals.

Bi-lateral Laplace transform ∞ Laplace Transform Pairs. jω − a F eat u (t) ←→ a<0 a>0 The duality property: L denotes bi-lateral Laplace transform.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 28. Sami Arıca DR A FT z (t) = Y (t) ←→ Z (ω) = 2πy (−ω) y (t) ←→ Y (ω) F F a+∞ 1 . jω − a 1 F −eat u (−t) ←→ . 1 − ae−jω F an u [n] ←→ |a| < 1 |a| > 1 X (s) = −∞ x (t) e−st dt 1 x (t) = 2πj X (s) est ds a−∞ —DRAFT— PAGE 169 of 190 . 1 − ae−jω 1 F −an u [−1 − n] ←→ . UL denotes uni-lateral Laplace transform. 2010 1 .

Z-TRANSFORM Re [s] > a Re [s] < a Z denotes bi-lateral z-transform. z-Transform z-Transform Pairs. s−a L eat u (t) ←→ VI.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam May 28. VII. LTI and causal systems Solution of homogenous differential equation Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ X (z) = x [n] z−n x [n] = n=−∞ 1 2πj X (z) zn−1 dz C 1 . UZ denotes uni-lateral z-transform. 1 − az−1 Z an u [n] ←→ ROC = |z| > |a| ROC = |z| < |a| y (t) + ay (t) + by (t) = 0 —DRAFT— PAGE 170 of 190 . s−a 1 L −eat u (−t) ←→ . 1 − az−1 1 Z −an u [−1 − n] ←→ . 2010 1 .

2010 and constants C1 and C2 are determined from the initial conditions. Sami Arıca DR A FT y [n] + ay [n − 1] + by [n − 2] = 0 y [n] = C1 αn + C2 αn 1 2 D2 + aD + b = 0 z (t) = −∞ Solution of homogenous difference equation x (λ) y (t − λ) dλ —DRAFT— PAGE 171 of 190 . Convolution integral ∞ If x (t) and y (t) are time limited functions you should specify integral interval(s) where x (λ) y (t − λ) = 0. is α1 and α2 are roots of the characteristic equation and constants C1 and C2 are determined from the initial conditions.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam is y (t) = C1 es1 t + C2 es2 t s1 and s2 are roots of the characteristic equation D2 + aD + b = 0 May 28.

when. ωn ≈ Tωt . 2010 z [n] = k=−∞ x [k] y [n − k] VIII. ωt 2 T Sami Arıca DR A FT s= 2 1 − z−1 T 1 + z−1 ωt = ωn 2 ωn tan T 2 T = 2 arctan ωt 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 172 of 190 . APPROXIMATION OF CONTINUOUS-TIME SYSTEMS BY DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEMS Backward-difference approximation 1 1 − z−1 T s= Bi-linear transform Frequency warping of bi-linear transform Here. ωt is angular frequency of continuous-time signal and ωn is angular frequency variable of discrete-time signal.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Convolution sum ∞ May 28.

Q4) (15 p) Find the Fourier transform of the following signals. a) x (t) = u (t + 1) − u (t − 1). b) Find the frequency response of the following linear time-invariant and casual system. July 30. x (t) = u (t + 1) − u (t) + u (t − 2) is given. causality. stability) of the following system. Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 7 y [n] − y [n − 1] + y [n − 2] = x [n] . time-invariance. memory. 3 Q3) (20 p) Find (test and describe clearly) the properties (linearity. 2010 a) Find the impulse response of the following linear time-invariant and casual system (by solving the homogenous equation in time domain). 6 3 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = x [n] . 1 3 Q2) (15 p) A continuous time signal. —DRAFT— PAGE 173 of 190 . c) Plot x 1 − . 2 2 t a) Plot the signal. For testing stability and memory use the characteristic equation or ﬁnd the impulse response.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam QUESTIONS Q1) (15 p) SUMMER TERM. Q5) (14 p) Find the following convolutions. D2y (t) + 2Dy (t) + 5y (t) = x (t) . 2 b) x (t) = e−|t| = e−t u (t) + et u (−t). b) Find the energy of the signal.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam a) e−t u (t) ∗ e−2t u (t). Sami Arıca DR A FT eja · ejb = ej(a+b) . A and θ are determined by auxiliary conditions on y (t). H (s) = a) What is the ROC of H (s) ? Give your answers clearly. c) Find polar representations of the following complex numbers. b) 1 2 n SUMMER TERM. d) Show that y (t) = A e−t cos (t + θ) + (1 − t)2 is a solution for the following differential equation. 2010 u [n] ∗ u [n]. Q6) (15 p) Transfer function of an LTI and causal system and its partial fractions are given as s2 + 6 1 2 1 j j = + 2 = + − . s2 − 2 1 2 1 j j = − 2 = + − . Another transfer function: H (s) = Q7) (14 p) a) From multiplication of two unit length complex numbers. 3 − 2s+4 s s + 2 s − 2s + 2 s+2 s−1+j s−1−j b) Is the system stable ? c) Find the impulse response. 1 3 n July 30. D2y (t) + 2Dy (t) + 2y (t) = 2t2 . eja · ejb . 3 + 2s+4 s s + 2 s + 2s + 2 s+2 s+1−j s+1+j —DRAFT— PAGE 174 of 190 . derive the trigonometric identities for cos (a + b) and sin (a + b) by using the Euler’s identity for each complex number.

2 2 0 + j. 2010 cos (2πfo t) + j sin (2πfo t). July 30.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam √ 1 3 +j . 1 + 0j. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— PAGE 175 of 190 . SUMMER TERM.

Integrating the differential equation one and twice and evaluate the integrals in the interval of. The roots of the characteristic equation The impulse response is then. July 30.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam ANSWERS A1) SUMMER TERM. for t < 0. y (t) = C1 es1 t + C2 es2 t . 0− ≤ t ≤ 0+ we obtain Sami Arıca DR A FT (s + 1)2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ (s + 1)2 = −4 (s + 1) = j2 s = −1 j2 . y (t) = 0. s1 = −1 − j2 s2 = −1 + j2 . The constants C1 and C2 should be determined from the initial conditions. 2010 a) The characteristic equation of the differential equation is s2 + 2s + 5 = 0 . for t>0 —DRAFT— PAGE 176 of 190 .

Sami Arıca DR A FT 0+ D y (t) −1 0− 0+ ≈ 0 D y (t) −2 0− ≈ 0. Likewise. 0+ ] 0+ yields y (0+ ) = 1. Then. 2010 Dy (t) + 2y (t) + 5D−1 y (t) = u (t) y (t) + 2D−1y (t) + 5D−2 y (t) = tu (t) Evaluating the deﬁnite integrals in the second equation over [ 0− . 0+ ] 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ y (t) 0− +2D−1 y (t) 0− +5D−2 y (t) 0− = tu (t) 0− we get y (0+ ) = 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam y (0+ ) and y (0+ ). July 30. SUMMER TERM. We assume that the solution (impulse response) does not have any impulse at the origin. 0+ 0+ 0+ Dy (t) 0− +2y (t) 0− +5D−1 y (t) 0− = u (t) 0− C1 + C2 = 0 s1 · C1 + s2 · C2 = 1 —DRAFT— PAGE 177 of 190 . evaluating the ﬁrst equation over [ 0− . We also employ the causality property of the system: y (0− ) = 0 and y (0− ) = 0.

s2 − s1 j4 We replace these coefﬁcients in the solution 1 1 (−1−j2)t e + e(−1+j2)t j4 j4 1 −t 1 1 1 = − e−j2t + ej2t = e−t sin (2t) e 2 j2 j2 2 y (t) = − The solution is then.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam The coefﬁcients are computed as SUMMER TERM. b) We obtain Fourier transform of the both sides of the difference equation. July 30. 2 7 1 Y (Ω) − e−jΩ Y (Ω) + e−2jΩ Y (Ω) = X (Ω) 6 3 7 −jΩ 1 −2jΩ = X (Ω) + e Y (Ω) 1 − e 6 3 Y (Ω) = X (Ω) 1 = H (Ω) . 2010 C1 = C2 1 1 = − s1 − s2 j4 1 1 = = . To do this we employ shifting property of the Fourier transform: F [ x [n − k] ] = e−jΩk X (Ω). A2) a) Sami Arıca DR A FT 1 y (t) = e−t sin (2t) u (t) . 7 −jΩ 1 −2jΩ 1− e + e 6 3 —DRAFT— PAGE 178 of 190 .

2010 b) ∞ 0 2 E= −∞ |x (t)| dt = −1 2 |1| dt + 0 2 − 1 3 1 dt = 1 · 1 + · 2 = 2 4 2 2 J. elsewhere . 0 ≤ 1 − < 2. —DRAFT— PAGE 179 of 190 . elsewhere . Additivity Sami Arıca DR A FT x 1− t 3 x 1− t 3 1. → −3 < t ≤ 3 2 3 0. 2 0. 1 6 t 3 1. 0 ≤ t < 2. −1 ≤ t < 0. c) -3 -1/2 A3) Linearity: I. −1 ≤ 1 − t < 0. x (t) = − 1 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam x (t) 1 -1 2 -1/2 t SUMMER TERM. → 3 < t ≤ 6 3 t 1 = − . July 30.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Input x1 (t) x2 (t) −→ −→ SUMMER TERM. Sami Arıca DR A FT x2 [n] (y1 [n] + y2 [n]) − 1 (y1 [n − 1] + y2 [n − 1]) = 2 Input x (t) Output y (t) −→ α x (t) −→ α y (t) 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = α x [n] 2 1 α y [n] − α y [n − 1] = α x [n] 2 1 (α y [n]) − (α y [n − 1]) = (α x [n]) 2 α (x1 [n] + x2 [n]) —DRAFT— PAGE 180 of 190 . Homogeneity Since both additivity and homogeneity are satisﬁed the system is linear. 2010 x1 (t) + x2 (t) −→ y1 (t) + y2 (t) 1 y1 [n] − y1 [n − 1] = 2 1 y2 [n] − y2 [n − 1] = 2 x1 [n] + II. Output y1 (t) y2 (t) July 30.

2 The system should remember the past value. 0. n ≥ k 1 y [n] = n<k y [n] . 2010 Time-invariance: The coefﬁcients of the difference equitation does not change with time. x [n] = n<k From the deﬁnition of the causality it is seen that if the system is linear (satisﬁes zero output for zero input) the system has to be causal too. n ≥ k 1 PAGE 181 of 190 . 0. y [n − 1] at present time n. Recall the deﬁnition of the causality. output is zero when the system is at rest. A causal system produces an output only when an input is applied. Causality: It is known that output is zero for zero input for a linear linear system. Therefore the system is time-invariant. Sami Arıca DR A FT —DRAFT— x [n] . In other words initial conditions of the difference equation are all zero (y [n] = 0 for all n < k). 1 y [n] = y [n − 1] + x [n] . July 30. Therefore the system is with memory. they are constant. Memory : The system needs present value of the input (x [n]) and past value of the output (y [n − 1]) to generate its output.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam SUMMER TERM.

The system is 3 stable. SUMMER TERM. Here. B > 0.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam BIBO Stability: If |x [n]| < A. the output is also bounded (0 < B ≤ A < ∞). ∞ > A. ω = − 1 −jω 1 jω e + e jω jω −1 = 2 —DRAFT— PAGE 182 of 190 . July 30. 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = |x [n]| 2 1 |y [n]| + |y [n − 1]| ≤ |x [n]| 2 1 B+ B≤A 2 2 B≤ A 3 A4) a) Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ 2 For bounded input (0 < A < ∞). 2010 |y [n]| < B. X (ω) = x (t) e−jωt dt −∞ 1 = 1 · e−jωt dt 1 −1 1 = − e−jωt jω sin (ω) .

SUMMER TERM. July 30.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Or. t ≥ 0 and 0 ≤ λ ≤ t 0. 2010 F [x (t)] = F [u (t + 1) − u (t − 1)] = F [u (t + 1)] − F [u (t − 1)] 1 1 + πδ (ω) ejω − + πδ (ω) e−jω jω jω 1 −jω 1 jω e − e + πδ (ω) ejω − πδ (ω) e−jω = jω jω sin (ω) =2 + πδ (ω) ej0 − πδ (ω) e−j0 ω sin (ω) . t < 0 . =2 ω = b) A5) a) Sami Arıca DR A FT = 1 1 2 + = 1 + jw 1 − jw 1 + ω2 ∞ F [x (t)] = F e−t u (t) + et u (−t) = F e−t u (t) + F et u (−t) e−t u (t) ∗ e−2t u (t) = e−λ u (λ) e−2(t−λ) u (t − λ) dλ −∞ u (λ) u (t − λ) = 1. —DRAFT— PAGE 183 of 190 .

Since the system is causal the n u [n] ∗ 1 3 n u [n] = 3 1 2 n u [n] − 2 1 3 n u [n] . DR A FT 1 2 n b) u [n] ∗ 1 3 n ∞ u [n] = k=−∞ 1 2 k u [k] 1 3 n−k u [n − k] u [k] u [n − k] = 1. n < 0 . 2010 e−λ u (λ) e−2(t−λ) u (t − λ) dλ = −∞ 0 e−λ e−2(t−λ) dλ = e−2t 0 t eλ dλ = e−2t eλ = e−2t et − 1 0 = e−t − e−2t . n ∞ k=−∞ 1 2 k u [k] 1 3 n−k u [n − k] = k=0 1 2 k 1 3 n−k = 1 3 n n k=0 n 3 2 k = 1 3 n 1− 3 2 n+1 1− =3 1 2 n −2 3 2 1 3 = −2 1 3 1− 3 2 n+1 n . Sami Arıca —DRAFT— PAGE 184 of 190 . 1 2 A6) a) The poles of the transfer function are s = 1 − j and s = 1 + j.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam ∞ t SUMMER TERM. For all t. For all n. e−t u (t) ∗ e−2t u (t) = e−t u (t) − e−2t u (t) . n ≥ 0 and 0 ≤ k ≤ n 0. t July 30.

= cos (a) cos (b) − sin (a) sin (b) + j ( sin (a) cos (b) + sin (b) cos (a) ) . Then the ROC is Re [s] > 1. c) h (t) = j e(1−j)t u (t) − j e(1+j)t u (t) = et j e−jt − j ejt u (t) = 2et sin (t) u (t) .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam SUMMER TERM. July 30. A7) a) eja ejb = ( cos (a) + j sin (a) ) ( cos (b) + j sin (b) ) Sami Arıca DR A FT eja ejb = ej(a+b) = cos (a + b) + j sin (a + b) . —DRAFT— PAGE 185 of 190 . This is because the system is unstable. 2010 ROC is right side of the vertical line containing the rightmost pole(s) of the system function. h (t) grows as t increases. the system was stable. b) The system is unstable because the ROC does not contain jω axis. If the poles were located at the left half plane of the complex plane h (t) would be decreasing.

EEE 314 Signals and Systems Midterm Exam Therefore. b) y (t) Dy (t) D2 y (t) = = = A e−t cos (t + θ) + (1 − t)2 −A e−t sin (t + θ) − A e−t cos (t + θ) − 2 (1 − t) 2A e−t sin (t + θ) + 2 D2 y (t) + 2Dy (t) + 2y (t) = c) Sami Arıca DR A FT 2t2 √ 1 3 +j = ejπ/3 2 2 0 + j = ejπ/2 1 + 0j = ej 0 cos (2πfo t) + j sin (2πfot) = ej2πfo t . 2010 cos (a + b) = cos (a) cos (b) − sin (a) sin (b) sin (a + b) = sin (a) cos (b) + sin (b) cos (a) . SUMMER TERM. —DRAFT— PAGE 186 of 190 . July 30.

d X (ω) . others are 15p. dω = 1 2 n Q5) Find the Fourier transform of x [n] = Q6) Find the convolution. Q1) Find the frequency response of the following linear time-invariant and casual system. −1 < t < 1. August 13. 3 n u [n] − Q3) Plot continuous time signal. Recall that: αn = n=−∞ ∞ 1 . 2t e−2t u (t) ∗ e−2t u (t). QUESTIONS SUMMER TERM. α−1 1 . 2 Q2) Output of an LTI and causal system is y [n] = 2 3 n 2 x [n] = u [n]. Q4) Find the Fourier transform of x (t) = te−t u (t). Q7 are 10p. and t > 3). D2y (t) + 5Dy (t) + 6y (t) = x (t) . αn = n=0 —DRAFT— PAGE 187 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Answer all the questions. Sami Arıca DR A FT F [t x (t)] = j 1 2 |n| −1 1 3 n u [n] for input u [n] + (2)n u [−n − 1]. Q6. Exam time : 90 min. Find the impulse response of the system. Use the following Fourier transform property. (Find the behavior of x (t) for each time interval of t < −1. 1 < t < 3. 1−α |α| > 1 |α| < 1 . 2010 Q1. x (t) = (t + 1) u (t + 1) − 4u (t − 1) − (t − 3) u (t − 3).

Re [s] > −a . Remember that N (N + 1) . n 1 2 n SUMMER TERM. H (z) = b) Is the system stable ? Give your answers shortly and clearly. 2010 u [n] ∗ N u [n]. 1 7 2 1 2− z+ z z− z− 6 3 3 2 a) What is the ROC of H (z) ? Give your answers shortly and clearly. 1 2 n August 13. 2 n= n=1 Q8) Transfer function of an LTI and causal system and its partial fractions are given as 1 s 1 1 1 1 = − 2 = − + . + 5s + 2 s + 2 s + 2s + 1 s + 2 s + 1 (s + 1)2 b) Is the system stable ? c) Find the impulse response. H (s) = s3 + 4s2 a) What is the ROC of H (s) ? Q9) Transfer function of an LTI and causal system and its partial fractions are given as 4z 3z z2 = − . —DRAFT— PAGE 188 of 190 .EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Q7) Find the convolution. Sami Arıca DR A FT L te−at u (t) = 1 (s + a)2 . Recall that c) Find the impulse response.

−∞ 0 0 1 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = x [n] + x [n − 1] . lim h (t). 1 −1 1 −1 3 3 1− z 1− z 2 2 u [n] . 2 3 1 1 + z−1 2 5 1 3 H (z) = = − + . —DRAFT— PAGE 189 of 190 . 2010 Q1) Impulse response of an LTI and causal system with a transfer function of s+a (s + a)2 + b2 H (s) = is h (t) = L−1 [ H (s) ] = e−at cos (b) u (t) . August 13.EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam Some other questions SUMMER TERM. |h (t)| dt = e−at |cos (b)| dt ≤ e−at dt . t→∞ Q2) An LTI causal system is given as Transfer function of this system is And the impulse response is 5 2 h [n] = − δ [n] + 3 3 1 2 n Sami Arıca DR A FT ∞ ∞ ∞ absolute integral of the impulse response. Explain shortly and clearly where and why the poles of the transfer should be located in ? Use the and/or.

y (0+ ) = 0 . z2 − 2 F1 (z) = 3 z − 4 z2 + 5 z − 2 and F2 (z) = Q4) Find the following limit. √ √ 2+j 2 n n=0 —DRAFT— PAGE 190 of 190 . Q3) Find the residues of the following functions. Q6) Find the solution of the following difference equation. a) Find difference equation of the inverse system. 2010 The inverse system of this system is G (z) = 1/H (z).EEE 314 Signals and Systems Final Exam SUMMER TERM. 2 3 y [0] = 1 . 1 1 y [n] − y [n − 1] = y [n] u [n] . August 13. z z2 − 3z + 2 Q5) Find the solution of the following differential equation. Q7) Find the the following sum. 3 Sami Arıca DR A FT t→∞ lim e(a+jb) t Dy (t) + 2y (t) = (−2 sin (t) + 2 cos (t)) u (t) . b) Find the impulse response of the inverse system.

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