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Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume IV
COURSE ON ELECTRICAL MACHINES
FOR TECHNICAL COLLEGE
By
JeanPaul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
2
To JesusChrist,
My Lord and Saviour.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
3
FOREWORD
This is the second chapter of a Course on Electrical Machines for Technical College
that I am writing. The concern of this chapter is the study of AC power systems and
AC induction motors. We start by studying three phase AC systems, followed by a
brief discussion on single phase induction motor. The largest part of the chapter is
consecrated to the study of principle and characteristics of AC three phase induction
motor. Power factor correction is introduced and discussed. Electrical model for AC
induction motor is also presented. Many examples are treated in order to enable the
reader to assimilate easily the course.
My aim is to bring my humble contribution for the improvement of Technical
Education in my country (Cameroon, Central Africa) and to help anyone to whom this
document may be useful.
This Document and many other pedagogical resources produced by me are available
and freely downloadable at the following link: www.scribd.com/jngoune. Any
suggestion or critic is warmly received; send me a mail at the following address:
jngoune@yahoo.fr.
Stay blessed.
NGOUNE JeanPaul,
27 January 2013, 20:20
Kumbo, Cameroon.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
4
CONTENTS
2.0 Specific objectives…………………………………………………………. 06
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 06
2.2 Three phase AC system…………………………………………………... 07
2.2.1 Definition and presentation……………………………………………….. 07
2.2.2 Connections in three phase system….................................................. 09
2.2.3 Powers in three phase system…………………………………………… 13
2.2.4 Power factor improvement…………………………………………...…… 17
2.3 Review on single phase AC system……………………………………... 26
2.3.1 Power in single phase single phase system……………………………. 27
2.3.2 Boucherot’s theorem………………………………………………………. 27
2.3.3 Power for some combination of elements in AC……………………….. 28
2.4 AC induction motors……………………………………………………….. 33
2.4.1 Structure and principle…………………………………………………….. 33
2.4.2 Slip and synchronous speed……………………………………………… 37
2.4.3 Single phase induction motor…………………………………………….. 43
2.4.4 Losses and power flow……………………………………………………. 45
2.4.5 Induction motor characteristics…………………………………………… 49
2.5 Equivalent model of an induction motor…………………………………. 64
2.5.1 Equivalent model for noload test………………………………………... 64
2.5.2 Equivalent model for load test……………………………………………. 66
2.6 Measurement of power in three phase system…………………………. 67
2.6.1 General method……………………………………………………………. 67
2.6.2 Two wattmeter method……………………………………………………. 67
2.7 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….. 68
Review questions………………………………………………………….. 68
References………………………………………………………………….. 73
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………… 73
About the author……………………………………………………………. 74
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
5
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume IV
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
CHAPTER TWO: AC POWER SYSTEMS;
AC INDUCTION MOTORS
By
JeanPaul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
6
Chapter Two
AC POWER SYSTEMS
AC INDUCTION MOTORS
2.0 Specific objectives:
At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to:
Define a three phase AC system and state its advantages with respect to a
single phase system;
Describe the principle of generation of three phase power;
Calculate power in AC system and master the principle of power factor
correction;
Describe the principle and the structure of an AC induction motor;
Describe various starting methods for single phase induction motor;
Calculate powers and losses in AC induction motors.
2.1 Introduction:
AC induction motors are the most common motors used in industrial motion
control systems as well as in main powered home appliances. Simple and rugged
design, low cost, low maintenance and direct connection to an AC power source are
the main advantages of AC induction motors. Induction motors are generally
categorized based on the number of stator windings. There are two main types:
Single phase induction motor and three phase induction motor. These two types of
motors are powered by two different types of supplies. That is three phase AC
system for three phase induction motor and single phase AC system for single phase
induction motor. This chapter discusses the principle and characteristics of three
phase and single phase induction motors. A brief study of AC systems is done at the
beginning of the chapter.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
7
2.2 Three phase AC system:
2.2.1 Definition and representation:
For many household appliances, single phase AC system is used. But this
system is not suitable in two fields of electrical engineering: the power transmission
and the machines applications. The disadvantages of a single phase system are
overcome by using a polyphase system especially a three phase system. The
electrical system in Cameroon and in many other countries in the world is a three
phase system.
Typically, a three phase supply board comprises four conductors: three phase
conductors, and one neutral conductor as shown in the figure below.
1
2
3
N
v1
v2
v3
P
h
a
s
e
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
o
r
s
T
h
r
e
e
p
h
a
s
e
s
u
p
p
l
y
Neutral conductor
Figure 2.1: Structure of a three phase supply board.
Advantages of three phase system are many:
Three phase machines are significantly smaller than single phase machines
for a given output.
For a given amount of power transmitted, the quantity and therefore the cost
of the conductor used for a three phase system is less than that for a single
phase system (three conductors instead of six conductors used in a single
phase system.)
A three phase system offer two levels of voltage to the consumer: a “phase”
voltage (typically 230V between one phase and the neutral) and a “line”
voltage (typically 400V between two phases).
A three phase system also produces a revolving magnetic field that permit the
operation of three phase induction motors.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
8
A three phase balanced system is a system of three equal voltages and/or
currents which are 120° out of phase with each other. In practice however, a three
phase system may become unbalanced under loading or fault conditions. The
properties of a three phase balanced system are the following:
The phase voltages v1, v2 and v3 are three sinusoidal voltages:
Having the same frequency (That is 50Hz in Cameroon)
Having the same effective value ( 230V in Cameroon)
120°out of phase with each other.
v1
v2
v3
Ref 0
2pi/3
4pi/3
Figure 2.2: Three phase AC system: a) Phasor diagram;
b) Waveforms
v1 v2 v3
a)
b)
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
9
The analytical expression of the voltages v1, v2 and v3 is given as follows:
( )
( )
( ) 
.

\

+ = 
.

\

÷ =

.

\

÷ =
=
3
2
sin 2
3
4
sin 2
3
2
sin 2
sin 2
3
2
1
t V t V t v
t V t v
t V t v
They can also be represented in polar form:
° Z = ° ÷ Z =
° ÷ Z =
° Z =
120 240
120
0
3
2
1
V V V
V V
V V
Three phase voltage is generated by a three phase alternator which is economical
and more effective than a single phase alternator.
2.2.2 Connections in three phase system:
The three windings of a three phase alternator are generally connected
together either in star (Y) or in delta (D).
a) Star connection:
With a star connection, one end of each of the three windings of the three phase
machine is joined together with the other ends.
N
A
B
C
V
V
V
U
U
IL
IL
IL
Ip
Ip
Ip
Figure 2.3: Star connection.
N: Neutral point; V: Phase voltage; U: Line voltage; IL: Line current; Ip: Phase
current.
3 V U = L p
I I =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
10
In low voltage generation, the neutral point N is extended out in order to have
a neutral conductor. When this is done, we have a three phase four conductors
system. Low voltage distribution results inevitably in unbalanced networks which
causes non symmetrical circulating current (Due to the fact that the three phases of
the supply are not equally loaded, the sum of currents circulating through the lines is
not equal to zero). Hence, the neutral conductor is introduced in order to take the out
ofbalance current.
N
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
I1
I2
IN
I3
N
v1
v2
v3
Figure 2.4: Three phase unbalanced load supplied with a three phase four
conductors system.
0
3 2 1
3 2 1
= + + =
= =
I I I I
I I I
N
b) Delta connection:
For delta connection, the end of each winding is connected to the beginning of the
next one.
I p
V V
V
I p
I p
I L
I L
I L
U
U
Figure 2.5: Delta connection.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
11
c) Connection of three phase generators and loads
N
A
B
C
V
V
V
U
U
IL
IL
IL
Ip
Ip
Ip
Ip
V V
V
Ip
Ip
IL
IL
IL
U
U
1
2
3
N
Z1
Z2
Z3
1
2
3
Z12
Z23
Z31
I1
I2
I3
IN
I1
I2
I3
J12
J23
J31
Star (Y)
Delta (D)
Star (Y)
Delta (D)
Possible
connections
Figure 2.6: Connection of three phase generators and loads.
For balanced star connected loads (impedances in the three phases are
equal), the resultant current in the neutral conductor is zero and the neutral
conductor can therefore be removed. There no neutral point a balanced three phase
delta connected load; the line current are equal in magnitude and differ in phase by
120°.
d) Delta – star conversion:
A three phase load connected in delta can be viewed as if it is connected in star
and viceversa. That is, any star connected load can be transformed into its
corresponding delta load as presented below.
3
p L
I I
U V
=
=
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
12
Za
Zb Zc
Z2 Z3
Z1
A
B C
For the two systems to be electrically equivalent, the impedances between the
corresponding pairs of terminals must be the same, that is:
By solving the system of equations above, we obtain:
But also,
a
c b
c b
Z
Z Z
Z Z Z + + =
1
c
b a
b a
Z
Z Z
Z Z Z + + =
2
b
c a
c a
Z
Z Z
Z Z Z + + =
3
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 1 3
2 1 3
2 1 3
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 1 2
3 1 2
3 1 2
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Za Zc
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Zc Zb
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z Zb Za
+ +
+
= + = +
+ +
+
= + = +
+ +
+
= + = +
3 2 1
3 1
3 2 1
2 1
3 2 1
3 2
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
c
b
a
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
13
2.2.3 Powers in three phase systems
Let:
P = Active power;
Q = Reactive power;
S = Apparent power;
U = Line voltage;
V = phase voltage;
I
L
= Line current;
I
p
= Line current.
k = power factor
Powers for three phase balanced load are expressed as follows.
Star connected loads
1
2
3
N
Z1
Z2
Z3
IL
IL
IL
IN
cos
. . 3 . . 3
sin . . . 3 sin . . . 3
cos . . . 3 cos . .
3
. 3 cos . . . 3
2 2
= =
= = + =
= =
= = =
S
P
k
I U I V Q P S
I U I V Q
I U I
U
I V P
L L
L L
L L L
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
14
Delta connected loads
1
2
3
Z12
Z23
Z31
IL
IL
IL
J
J
J
U
cos
. . 3 . . 3
sin . . . 3 sin . . . 3 sin . . . 3
cos . . . 3 cos . . . 3 cos .
3
. . 3 cos . . . 3
2 2
= =
= = + =
= = =
= = = =
S
P
k
I V I U Q P S
I V I U J U Q
I V I U
I
U J U P
L L
L L
L L
L
The study above shows that the formulas for the calculation of powers are the
same whether the load is star connected or delta connected, when we are using line
voltage and line current.
However, the power of a three phase load can be modified if its mode of
connection changes when the line voltage U is remaining unchanged. For example, if
a three phase balanced load is made up of three equal impedances Z, the current
consumed in each phase can be expressed as follows:
For star connection:
3
3
Z
U
Z
U
Z
V
I
Y
= = =
For delta connection:
Y D
I
Z
V
Z
V
Z
U
J I . 3 3
. 3
. 3 . 3 . 3 = 
.

\

=


.

\

= 
.

\

= =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
15
We can then notice that, by passing from a star connection to a delta
connection, the current and therefore the power have been multiplied by three. The
conclusion is that:
If the connection for the normal functioning of the load is star, the passage
from star to delta can lead to the destruction of the load due to overheat.
If the connection for the normal functioning of the load is delta, the passage
from delta to star will cause the load not to be well supplied (the current will
not be enough).
Exercise 2.1:
Let a 380V/Hz, three phase balanced supply with neutral conductor. The three phase
line is supplying a workshop made up of the following elements:
180 lamps of 100W each connected between the phases and the neutral such
as to balance the three phases of the supply;
A motor M1 running at 1450rpm, with a shaft torque of 150N.m, an efficiency
of 0.95 and a power factor of 0.85 lagging;
A motor M2 having an output of 20kW with an efficiency of 0.85 and a power
factor of 0.8 lagging.
1. Determine the current in each line and the power factor of the workshop.
2. In order to improve the power factor of the installation, three capacitors are
connected in delta between the three lines.
2.1 Determine the value of the capacitor C to be used in order to bring the power
factor of the workshop to 0.95 lagging.
2.2 What is therefore the value of current flowing in the lines?
Solution of exercise 2.1:
1. Determination of the current in each line and the power factor; let us first
determine the total power of the workshop:
The lamps:
Var Q
W P P
L
i L
0
18000 100 180 180
=
= × = × =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
16
Motor M1:
Var P Q
W
T N T n P
P
o
15690 62 . 0 25310 tan
25310
9 . 0 60
150 1450 2
60
2 2
1 1
1
= × = × =
=
×
× ×
=
×
×
=
×
= =
Motor M2:
Var P Q
P
P
o
17650 75 . 0 23530 tan
23530
85 . 0
20000
2 2
2
= × = =
= = =
Finally,
VA Q P S
Var Q Q Q Q
W P P P P
L
L
74690
. 33340 17650 15690 0
. 66840 23530 25310 18000
2 2
2 1
2 1
= + =
= + + = + + =
= + + = + + =
Then the line current and the power factor can be determined:
895 . 0
74690
66840
5 . 113
3 380
74690
3
= = =
= = =
S
P
Cos
A
U
S
I
Another method can be used by transforming the three phase circuit into a single
phase circuit. If we take one line as reference, the current in that line due to each of
the three loads can be determined as follows:
The lamps:
A
V
P
I
L
3 . 27
220
100 60
=
×
= = (each line is taking 60 lamps).
Motor M1:
( ) ( ) j j I I
A
U
P
I I U P
M M
M M
53 . 0 85 . 0 2 . 45 sin cos
2 . 45
85 . 0 380 3
25310
cos . . 3
cos . . 3
1 1
1
1 1 1
÷ = ÷ = ·
=
× ×
= = ¬ =
Motor M2:
( ) j I
A
U
P
I
M
M
6 . 0 8 . 0 7 . 44
7 . 44
8 . 0 380 3
23530
cos . . 3
2
2
2
÷ = ·
=
× ×
= =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
17
So the total current in each line can be deduced:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
A I
j j I
I I j I I I I
M M M M L
5 . 113 8 . 50 5 . 101
8 . 50 5 . 101 6 . 0 7 . 44 53 . 0 2 . 45 8 . 0 7 . 44 85 . 0 2 . 45 3 . 27
sin sin cos cos
2 2
2 1 2 2 1 1
2 1
= + =
÷ = × + × ÷ × + × + =
+ ÷ + + =
And the power factor also:
895 . 0
5 . 113
5 . 101
cos = =
Ia=101.5A
Ir=50.8A
I=113.5A
phi
0
2. Three capacitors are connected in delta between the lines:
2.1 Value of the capacitors to be used to raise the power factor to 0.95 lagging.
33 . 0 ' tan 95 . 0 ' cos = ¬ =
The new reactive power of the workshop when capacitors are connected is the
following:
Var P Q 22060 33 . 0 66840 ' tan ' = × = =
Hence, the reactive power produced by the three capacitors is:
Var P P P
fin ini C
11280 = ÷ =
The capacity C of each capacitor can therefore be deduced:
F
U
P
C P U C
C
C
83
380 100 3
11280
3
3
2 2
2
=
× ×
= = ¬ =
2.2 New value of current in the lines:
A
U
P
I 107
95 . 0 380 3
66840
' cos . . 3
'
=
× ×
= =
2.2.4 Power factor improvement:
a) Influence of the power factor on the current absorbed:
An electrical installation (house, workshop, factory…) has certain number of
loads (lamps, heater, oven, motors…). It therefore require from the network a given
quantity of active power P in order to transform it into mechanical power, calorific
power, luminous power etc…
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
18
However, we know that the distribution of electricity is always done under
sinusoidal voltage having a constant effective value U. Therefore, for a given power
P, the current I absorbed is inversely proportional to the power factor.
When the power factor increases, the current absorbed reduces and when it
reduces, the current absorbed increases. For example, in order to supply 1kW under
220V, the network should produce:
A current I = 5A, if 9 . 0 cos =
A current I = 7.5A, if 6 . 0 cos =
b) Consequences of a “bad” power factor:
For the electrical company:
i) The less the power factor, the more the current in the conductors. This
leads to:
 The increasing of Joule losses;
 The increasing of voltage drop in the conductors that can provoke
perturbations in the electrical network.
ii) The power lines require conductors of greater cross sectional area in order
to reduce the electrical resistance of the lines. On the other hand, pylons
should be more resistant. This cause the cost for the construction of the
electrical lines to increase.
The goal for an electricity distribution company should be to increase at its
maximal possible value the power factor of the network such as to improve the
efficiency of the distribution of the electricity.
For the consumers:
i) In order to compel their subscribers to have a good power factor (nearest
to 1), electricity distribution companies penalize those whose power factor
is bellow a given value (generally 0.8). That is, the cost for 1kWH is
increased when the power factor of the subscriber is below 0.8.
cos U
P
I =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
19
ii) On the other hand, for important installations (workshops, factories…), a
bad power factor leads also to the increasing of the current absorbed and
therefore to that of the cross sectional area of the conductors to be used.
The joule losses are also increased.
Remark:
In reality, not only active power but also reactive power is necessary for the
functioning of inductive loads like motors, fluorescent lamps etc. Therefore, the aim
while improving power factor is not to annihilate reactive power from the network, but
to reduce it at a level that permits an effective transportation and distribution of
energy. In fact, capacitors that are used to ameliorate the power factor produce the
reactive power that was supposed to be drawn from the network if they did not exist.
So, Inductive loads consume reactive power, and capacitors (or capacitive loads)
produce reactive power.
c) Power factor correction:
, where Q is the reactive power.
Reactive power is a function of sin ; and we know that, the less the sin , the
more the cos , where is the angle between current and voltage vectors. So, to
improve the power factor of an electrical installation, its consumption of reactive
energy should be reduced. That reduction of the consumption of reactive energy is
achieved by producing it at the level of the load instead of taking it from the electrical
network. The simplest component that can be used for that issue is a capacitor.
So, to improve the power factor of an electrical installation, capacitors should
be connected at the input of that installation.
Calculation of the value of the capacitor for power factor
correction.
Let us consider an electrical installation with an active power P, a reactive power, Q.
The power triangle for that installation can be drawn as follows:
sin UI Q =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
20
S
P
Q
U
I
L
o
a
d
0
phi
2 2
sin sin
cos cos
Q P S
S UI Q
S UI P
+ =
= =
= =
By connecting a capacitor in parallel with the load, part of the reactive energy
formally consumed by the load is compensated by that produced by the capacitor,
and the power triangle is as follows.
S
P
U
L
o
a
d
0
phi
Q'
Qc
S'
phi'
I I'
C
Ic
' I = Current drawn from the network after correction;
I = Current drawn from the network before correction.
The active power remains unchanged before and after correction:
' cos
cos
. '
' cos ' cos
I I
UI UI P
= ¬
= =
But the reactive power is reduced from Q to Q’:
' tan . '
tan .
P Q
P Q
=
=
The reactive power produced by the capacitor can be expressed as follows:
( ) ' tan tan
'
÷ = ÷ = P Q Q Q
C
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
21
We also know that it can be expressed as follows:
2
2
2
2
2
1
.
U C Q
c
U
X
U
X
U
X
I X Q
C
c
c
C
C C C
=
=
=


.

\

=
=
From the two previous results, we can write:
Where U is the phase voltage
For a three phase network, we have:
When capacitors are connected in delta
, Where U is the line voltage
When capacitor are connected in star
, Where V is the phase voltage.
Exercise 2.2:
An inductive load is connected to a sinusoidal supply 220V50Hz.
1. Assuming that the current and the power absorbed are respectively 45A and
7.5kW, determine:
1.1 The apparent power;
1.2 The reactive power;
( )
( )
2
2
' tan tan
' tan tan
U
P
C
P U C
÷
= ¬
÷ =
( )
( )
2 2 2
2
3
' tan
3
' tan tan
. . 3
3 ' tan tan
U
P Q
U
P
U
P
C
U C P P
C
C
÷
=
÷
= = ¬
= ÷ =
( )
2 2 2
. . 3
' tan
. . 3
' tan tan
. . 3 V
P Q
V
P
V
P
C
C
÷
=
÷
= =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
22
1.3 The power factor.
2. With the help of a capacitor, the power factor is raised to 0.95. Determine:
2.1 The value of C;
2.2 The new value of the current absorbed.
3. The load is connected to the supply through a line having a resistance of 0.9Ω and
an inductance of 5mH. For the load to be effectively supplied under a voltage of
220V, what should be the voltage of the supply: a) in the absence of the capacitor?
b) In the presence of the capacitor.
Solution of exercise 2.2:
1. The current and the power absorbed are respectively 45A and 7.5kW.
1.1 Apparent power:
VA UI S 9900 45 220 = × = =
1.2 Reactive power:
Var P S Q 6462 10 5 . 7 10 9 . 9
6 2 6 2 2 2
= × ÷ × = ÷ =
1.3 Power factor:
756 . 0
9 . 9
5 . 7
cos = = =
S
P
2. The power factor is raised to 0.95 by the help of a capacitor C.
2.1 Value of C
F C
C
U
Q Q
C
Q Q U C
263
220 100
' tan 7500 6462
'
'
2
2
2
= ¬
×
× ÷
= ¬
÷
= ¬
÷ =
2.2 New value of current absorbed:
A
U
P
I UI P 9 . 35
95 . 0 220
7500
' cos
' ' cos ' =
×
= = ¬ =
3. Determination of the supply voltage:
In the absence of the capacitor:
 Total active power:
W RI P P
ini
9322 45 9 . 0 7500
2 2
= × + = + =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
23
 Total reactive power:
Var I L Q Q
ini
9643 45 100 10 . 5 6462
2 3 2
= × × + = + =
÷
Then,
V
I
S
U 298
45
9643 9322
2 2
=
+
= =
In the presence of a capacitor:
 Total active power:
W RI P P
ini
8660 9 . 35 9 . 0 7500 '
2 2
= × + = + =
 Total reactive power:
Var I L P Q 4490 9 . 35 100 10 . 5 tan . 7500 ' ' tan .
2 3 2
= × × + = + =
÷
Then,
V
I
S
U 272
9 . 35
4490 8660
'
'
2 2
=
+
= =
Exercise 2.3:
A workshop functioning under a sinusoidal voltage of 220V50Hz comprises
connected in parallel the following devices:
60 lamps of 100W each;
A motor M1 that outputs 7.5W ( Efficiency: 0.80; Power factor: 0.74);
A motor M2 that outputs 12kW (Efficiency: 0.82; Power factor: 0.76).
Determine:
1. The total current absorbed;
2. The power factor of the workshop;
3. Calculate the value of the capacitor that will be necessary to raise to 0.80 the
power factor of: a) the motor M1; b) the motor M2.
4. Assuming that the two capacitors are working, determine: a) The new value of the
total current absorbed; b) The new power factor of the workshop.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
24
Solution of exercise 2.3:
1and 2). Let us first estimate in the following table the powers of the workshop:
Elements
cos
P(Watts) Q(Vars)
lamps 1 6000 0
Motor M1 0.74 7500/0.8 = 9375 9375tan = 8521
Motor M2 0.76 12000/0.82 = 14634 14634tan = 12514
30009 21035
VA Q P S 36647 21035 30009
2 2 2 2
= + = + =
Then, the total current and power factor can be determined.
82 . 0
36647
30009
cos
167
220
36647
= = =
= = =
S
P
A
U
S
I
3. Value of the capacitor necessary to raise to 0.80 the power factor of:
a) Motor M1:
F C
U
P Q
C
P Q U C
Q Q Q
C
98
220 100
' tan 9375 8521 ' tan .
' tan .
'
1
2 2
1 1
1
1 1
2
1
1 1 1
=
×
÷
=
÷
= ¬
÷ = ¬
÷ =
Where ' is the angle whose 08 ' cos = , that is 75 . 0 tan =
b) Motor M2:
F
U
P Q
C
101
220 100
' tan . 14634 12514 ' tan
2 2
2 2
2
=
×
÷
=
÷
=
4. The two capacitors are working, let us determine:
a) The total current absorbed:
The new reactive power is the following:
( ) ( ) Vars P P Q 18007 75 . 0 14634 9375 ' tan
2 1
= + = + =
The active power remaining unchanged, have:
A
U
Q P
U
S
I 159
220
18007 30009
2 2 2 2
=
+
=
+
= =
b) The power factor:
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
25
857 . 0
18007 30009
30009
cos
2 2
=
+
= =
S
P
Exercise 2.4:
A three phase load is taking from a three phase supply 230V/400V, a power of 25kW
with a power factor of 0.7 lagging.
1. Determine the value of the capacities C, connected in star that will permit to raise
the power factor to 0.92 lagging.
2. Determine the value of the capacities C’, connected in delta that will permit to raise
the power factor to 0.92 lagging.
3. Calculate the values of the capacities C”, connected in delta that will permit to
raise the power factor to 0.92 leading.
4. Which of the three previous solutions is preferable?
Solution of exercise 2.4:
1. The load is consuming the power of 25kW with a power factor of 0.7 lagging. The
fact that the power factor is lagging shows that the load is inductive. That is, it is
consuming reactive power.
kVar P Q 5 . 25 02 . 1 10 . 25 tan .
3
= × = =
The capacitors being connected in star, they are under the phase voltage V = 230V.
Then, the reactive power produced by them is determined as follows:
( )
( ) ( )
2
1
2
2
' 2
. . 3
92 . 0 cos tan .
. . 3
' tan .
' tan . . 3
. 3
V
P Q
V
P Q
C
P Q V C
Q Q V C Q
C
÷
÷
=
÷
= ¬
÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
(The negative sign in the relationship
2
. 3 V C Q
C
÷ = is just showing the capacitors are
producing reactive power)
( ) ( )
F C
290
230 100 3
10 64 . 10 10 5 . 25
230 100 3
92 . 0 cos tan 10 25 10 5 . 25
2
3 3
2
1 3 3
=
× ×
× ÷ ×
=
× ×
× ÷ ×
=
÷
2. In the case where the capacitors are connected in delta, the calculations are the
same except that the capacitors are under the phase voltage U = 400V.
( )
2
2
2
'
'. . 9 3 '. . 3 ' . 3 V C V C U C Q
C
= = =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
26
( ) ( )
F
V
P Q
C
P Q V C
Q Q Q
C
4 . 99
230 100 9
10 64 . 10 10 5 . 25
9
92 . 0 cos tan .
'
' tan . . '. . 9
'
2
3 3
2
1
2
=
× ×
× ÷ ×
=
÷
= ¬
÷ = ¬
÷ =
÷
3. For this case, the calculations are similar to those of the previous case. The
only difference is that the power factor is leading. That is, the angle between
the line current and the phase voltage is negative. Then, we have:
( ) ( ) kVar P Q 64 . 10 92 . 0 cos tan . '
1
÷ = ÷ =
÷
Then, as previously, we have:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
F C
V
P Q
C
P Q V C
Q Q Q
C
240
230 100 9
10 64 . 10 10 5 . 25
' '
9
92 . 0 cos tan .
' '
92 . 0 cos tan . ' ' 9
'
2
3 3
2
2
' ' '
=
× ×
× + ×
= ¬
÷ ÷
= ¬
÷ ÷ = ¬
÷ =
4. It is obvious from the results above that the second solution is the best one. By
connecting the capacities in delta, the value of capacities needed is almost
divided by three as compared to the case where capacitors are connected in
star. On the other hand, with a power factor leading, the value of capacitors
needed is unnecessarily too great, for the achievement of the same task.
2.3 Review on single phase AC system:
Many household appliances are supplied under single phase AC system. That
is their supply is taken between the neutral and one of the three phases of the three
phase system, which is the phase voltage. Typically, the phase voltage V is equal
230V in Cameroon and in many other countries of the world.
, Where U is the line voltage.
3
U
V =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
27
Let us consider a single phase load
Phi >0
V
I
0
Im
Re
v
I
L
o
a
d
Figure 2.7: Single phase load and phasor diagram
2.3.1. Power in single phase systems:
The powers in single phase system are expressed as follows:
Active power cos .I V P = (W)
Reactive power sin . .I V Q = (Var)
Apparent power I V S . = (VA)
Effective current and voltage
2
max
I
I
eff
= ;
2
max
V
V
eff
=
Relationship between powers
2 2 2
Q P S + =
Power factor
cos = =
S
P
k
Relation between Q and P tan . P Q =
2.3.2. BOUCHEROT’s theorem:
The Boucherot’s theorem states that the overall active power of a system
made up of many elements is the sum of the active powers of each of these
elements; so is also the case for the reactive power. However, this is not true for
apparent power. Let us consider an AC system made up of n loads:
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
28
P1 ; Q1 P2 ; Q2 Pn ; Qn
V
I
...
2.3.3 Powers for some combination of elements in AC:
Resistance:
R
V
I
Inductance:
L
I
V
Capacitor:
V
I
C
I V S
S S S S
Q Q Q Q
P P P P
n
n
n
.
...
...
...
2 1
2 1
2 1
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
0
.
2
2
2
=
= 
.

\

= =
Q
R
V
R
V
R RI P
L
V
I L XI Q
P
2
2 2
.
0
= = =
=
2
2
2
0
V C
C
I
XI Q
P
= = =
=
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
29
Series RL:
V
I R
L
Parallel RL:
L
I
V
R
Series RC:
V
R
C
I
Parallel RC:
V
I
R
C
Series RLC:
R L
C
V
I
2 2
2
I L XI Q
RI P
= =
=
L
V
X
V
Q
R
V
P
2 2
2
= =
=
C
I
XI Q
RI P
2
2
2
= =
=
2
2
2
V C
X
V
Q
R
V
P
= =
=
2
2
1
I
C
L Q
RI P

.

\

÷ =
=
2
2
1

.

\

+ +
=
C
L R
V
I
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
30
Parallel RLC
R L C
V
I
Exercise 2.5
A workshop supplied under single phase voltage is made up of three groups of loads
(load 1, load 2 and load 3). They are connected in parallel under the same sinusoidal
voltage 230V50Hz. The table below gives the characteristics of the three loads:
Load 1 Load 2 Load 3
kVar Q
kW P
15
20
1
1
=
=
lag
kVA S
6 . 0 cos
45
2
2
=
=
kVar Q
kVA S
5
10
3
3
÷ =
=
1. Determine for each load the following quantities: Current absorbed, active, reactive
and apparent power, power factor. Those quantities will be denoted I
1
, I
2
, P
1
, P
2
, etc.
2. Deduce then the total active power P, the total reactive power Q, the total apparent
power S, the overall power factor and the total current I absorbed by the workshop.
3. Draw a phasor diagram where the currents
1
I ,
2
I ,
3
I , and I will be represented,
taking as reference the voltage V .
4. Draw the power triangle of the loads.
5. Determine the value of the capacitor C that will permit to raise the power factor of
the installation to 0.9 lagging.
6. Determine the value of the capacitor C’ that will permit to obtain a power factor of
0.9 leading.
7. Which of the two previous methods of power factor improvement is preferable?
2
2
2
V C
L
V
Q
R
V
P
÷ =
=
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
31
Solution of exercise 2.5:
1. The following table gives the quantities characterising each of the three loads.
Load 1 Load 2 Load 3
° =
= =
= =
= + =
=
=
86 . 36
0
, 8 . 0 cos
7 . 108
25
15
20
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
1
becauseQ
lag
S
P
A
V
S
I
kVA Q P S
kVar Q
kW P
° =
= =
= =
= =
=
=
13 . 53
7 . 195
36 sin .
27 cos .
6 . 0 cos
45
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
A
V
S
I
kVar S Q
kW S P
lag
kVA S
° ÷ =
= =
= =
= ÷ =
÷ =
=
68 . 30
0
, 86 . 0 cos
5 . 43
66 . 8
5
10
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
3 3
3
3
becauseQ
lead
S
P
A
V
S
I
kW Q S P
kVar Q
kVA S
2. Total active power, reactive power, apparent power, power factor and current.
° =
= =
= =
= + =
= + + =
= + + =
64 . 39
314
77 . 0 cos
2 . 72
46
66 . 55
2 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
A
V
S
I
lag
S
P
kVA Q P S
kVar Q Q Q Q
kW P P P P
3. Phasor diagram of the currents:
0
Im
Re
V: 230V/0° phi 3
phi 1
phi 2
I3: 43.5A/30.68°
I1:108.7A/36.86°
I2: 195.7A/53.13°
I2
I1
I3
I = I1 + I2 + I3
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
32
4. Power triangle of the loads:
P1
Q1
P2
Q2
P3
Q3
phi
S Q
P
5. Value of the capacitor that will raise the power factor to 0.9 lagging:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
F C
C
V
P
C
P P P V C
P Q Q Q Q
C
1200
230 100
90 . 0 cos tan 77 . 0 cos tan 10 66 . 55
' tan tan
' tan tan ' tan tan
' tan . '
2
1 1 3
2
2
=
×
÷ ×
= ¬
÷
= ¬
÷ = ÷ = ¬
÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷
6. Value of the capacitor C’ to be used in order to obtain a power factor of 0.9
leading.
For a power factor leading, the overall reactive power of the workshop will be
negative after power factor correction (That is, the installation will start producing
reactive power, with the active power unchanged).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
F C
C
V
P
C
P P P Q Q Q
V C Q
P P P Q
C
C
4200
230 100
9 . 0 cos tan 77 . 0 cos tan 10 66 . 55
9 . 0 cos tan 77 . 0 cos tan
9 . 0 cos tan 77 . 0 cos tan ' tan . tan . '
9 . 0 cos tan . 9 . 0 cos tan . ' tan . '
2
1 1 3
2
1 1
1 1
'
2
'
1 1
= ¬
×
+ ×
= ¬
+
= ¬
+ = ÷ = ÷ =
=
÷ = ÷ = =
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
7. Obviously, the first case with the lowest value of capacitor will be preferable as
compared to the second case.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
33
2.4 AC induction motors:
Induction motors are often described as the “workhorse of the industry”. This
description reflects the qualities of these machines. They are cheap to manufacture,
rugged and reliable and they find their way in most possible applications. This section
studies the principles and the characteristics of inductions machines.
2.4.1 Structure and principle:
a) Structure:
Like many other motors, an AC induction motor is made up of two main parts:
a fixed portion called stator and a revolving part called rotor that spins inside a
carefully engineered air gap between the two.
Figure 2.8: Cutaway view of an AC induction motor.
Stator:
The stator is made up of several thin laminations of aluminium or cast iron.
They are bolted together with slots provided in the inner periphery to receive the
stator windings. Stator laminations stacked together form a hallow cylinder which is
also called stator core.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
34
Figure 2.9: a) Stator core with windings inserted inside; b) Completed stator.
Each grouping of stator coils, together with the core it surrounds, form an
electromagnet (a pair of poles) on the application of AC supply. The number of poles
of an AC induction motor depends on the internal connection of the stator windings.
The stator windings are connected directly to the power source. Internally, they are
connected in such a way that, when AC supply is applied, a rotating magnetic field is
created.
The following diagram shows the electrical configuration of stator windings. In
this example, six windings are used, two for each of the three phases. When current
is applied, each winding becomes an electromagnet, with the two windings for each
phase operating as the opposite ends of one magnet.
Figure 2.10: Electrical configuration of the stator
of a three phase AC induction motor.
a) b)
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
35
Rotor:
The rotor is the rotating part of the motor’s electromagnetic circuit. The most
common type of rotor used in a three phase induction motor is a squirrel cage rotor;
almost 90% of induction motors have squirrel cage rotors. The other type of rotor is
the wound type: it is wound in a fashion similar to that of the stator with the terminals
led to slip rings on the shaft.
Figure 2.11: Squirrel cage rotor.
Figure 1.12: Woundtype rotor.
The rotor is made up of several thin steel lamination bolted together to form a
cylinder which is the rotor core. The rotor is provided with axially placed parallel slots
for carrying the conductors. In squirrel cage rotor type, each slot carries aluminium,
copper or alloy bars which are permanently short circuited at both ends by means of
the end rings. In woundtype rotor, windings are connected to slip rings on the shaft.
These are helpful in adding external resistors and contactors.
Also in squirrel cage rotor, the slots are not exactly parallel to the shaft.
Instead, they are given a skew for two main reasons. The first reason is to make the
motor run quietly by reducing magnetic hum and to decrease slot harmonics. The
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
36
second reason is to help reduce the locking tendency of the rotor. The rotor teeth
tend to remain locked under the stator teeth due to direct magnetic attraction
between the two. This happens when the number of stator teeth is equal to the
number of rotor teeth.
The rotor is mounted on the shaft using bearings on each end; one end of the
shaft is normally kept longer than the other for driving the load.
Figure 1.13: Typical squirrel cage rotor.
Enclosure:
The enclosure consists of a frame (or yoke) and two end brackets (or bearing
housings). The stator is mounted inside the frame. The enclosure protects the
internal parts of the motor from water and other environmental elements.
Bearings
Bearings are mounted on the shaft; they support the rotor and allow it to turn.
Some motor use fan, also mounted on the rotor shaft, to cool the motor when the
shaft is rotating.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
37
b) Principle:
Two sets of electromagnets are formed inside any motor. In an AC induction
motor, one set of electromagnets is formed in the stator because of the AC supply
connected to the stator windings. The alternating nature of the supply voltage
induces electromotive force in the rotor as per Lenz’s law, thus generating another
set of electromagnets. This is why the motor is called induction motor.
The interaction between the magnetic fields of these electromagnets
generates a twisting force called torque. As a result, the motor rotates in the direction
of the resultant torque.
2.4.2 Slip and synchronous speed:
a) Slip:
The rotor does not run at the speed of the stator field. For this reason, there
will be a relative speed between the two. If Ns is the synchronous speed (speed of
the stator field), and Nr the speed of the rotor (also called base speed), the slip is
defined as the difference between Ns and Nr. The slip is expressed as a percentage
and can be determined by the following formula:
Where:
Ns = the synchronous speed in rpm
Nr = the rotor or base speed in rpm
S = slip.
From the expression above, we deduce:
Also,
Where:
r
f = frequency of rotor current;
= f frequency of the supply.
100 % ×
÷
=
÷
=
S
r S
S
r S
N
N N
s
N
N N
s
( ) s N Nr
S
÷ = 1
f s f
f
f
s
r
r
. = · =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
38
The slip varies with the load. An increase in load will cause the rotor to slow down or
increase the slip. A decrease in load will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease the
slip.
b) Synchronous speed:
The synchronous speed Ns is the speed at which rotates the magnetic field
created in the stator of the machine. It is determined using the following formula.
Where:
N
S
= synchronous speed in rps;
f = frequency of the supply;
p = number of pairs of poles.
Then, if Ns is the synchronous peed in rpm, we will have:
If
0
P is the number of poles, we have:
It should be noticed that:
¬ · f N
S
The higher the frequency, the higher the speed;
¬ ·
p
N
S
1
the more the poles, the less the synchronous speed.
Exercise 2.6:
For 50Hz supply frequency, determine the synchronous speed for 2 poles, 4
poles, 6 poles and 8 poles induction motor.
p
f
n
S
=
P
f
N
p
f N
S
S
× = ¬ = 60
60
0
0
120
2
60
p
f
P
f
N
S
= =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
39
Solution of exercise 2.6:
0
120
P
f
f =
Ns = 3000rpm for 2 poles;
Ns = 1500rpm for 4 poles;
Ns = 1000rpm for 6 poles;
Ns = 750rpm for 8 poles.
We can clearly notice that, the more the poles, the less the synchronous speed.
Exercise 2.7:
A slip ring induction motor runs at 290rpm at full load, when connected to a 50Hz
supply. Determine the number of poles and the slip.
Solution of exercise 2.7:
Number of poles:
S
S
N
f
P
P
f
N
120 120
0
0
= ¬ =
The synchronous speed should be a multiple of the frequency f, which is nearest to
the rotor speed and maximal than that rotor speed. The synchronous speed should
obviously be a multiple of 2.
Using this principle, we can easily deduce that the synchronous speed is
Ns = 300rpm. Hence,
poles P 20
300
50 120
0
=
×
=
Slip:
% 33 . 3 %
0333 . 0
300
290 300
=
=
÷
=
÷
=
S
N
N N
S
S
r S
Exercise 2.8:
The stator of a three phase induction motor has 3 slots per poles per phase, and two
poles per phase. If the supply frequency is 50Hz, calculate: a) The total number of
stator poles produced and the total number of slots on the stator; b) The speed of the
rotating stator flux.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
40
Solution of exercise 2.8:
a) Number of poles and slots:
It should be noticed that the number of poles per phase should be a multiple of two.
For a three phase motor, we have three phases. So, the machine has:
poles n P 6 3 2 2
0
= × = × =
n = number of phases
Number of slots:
slots poles phase pole slots Z 18 6 / / 3 = × =
b) Speed of the rotating stator field:
rpm
P
f
N
S
1000
6
50 120 120
0
=
×
= =
Exercise 2.9:
A four pole, three phase induction motor operates from a supply whose frequency is
50Hz. Calculates: a) The speed at which the magnetic field of the stator is rotating; b)
The speed of the rotor when the slip is 0.04. c) The frequency of the rotor currents
when slip is 0.03; d) The frequency of the rotor current at standstill.
Solution of exercise 2.9:
a) The magnetic field of the stator is rotating at synchronous speed given by:
rpm
P
f
N
S
1500
4
50 120 120
0
=
×
= =
b) Rotor speed when slip is 0.04.
( ) ( ) rpm S N N
N
N N
S
S r
S
r S
1440 04 . 0 1 1500 1 = ÷ = ÷ = ¬
÷
=
c) Frequency of the rotor currents when slip is 0.03.
Hz f s f
r
5 . 1 50 03 . 0 = × = × =
d) Frequency of the rotor at standstill.
At standstill, the rotor speed is equal to zero; therefore, the slip is equal to 1. We then
have:
Hz f f s f
r
50 1 = × = × =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
41
Exercise 2.10:
A three phase induction motor is wound for four poles and is supplied from a 50Hz
AC system. Calculate: a) the synchronous speed; b) The rotor speed when slip is
4%; c) the rotor frequency when rotor runs at 600rpm.
Solution of exercise 2.10:
a) Synchronous speed:
rpm
P
f
N
S
1500
4
50 120 120
0
=
×
= =
b) Rotor speed when slip is 4%:
( ) ( ) rpm s N N
S r
1440 04 . 0 1 1500 1 = ÷ = ÷ =
c) Rotor frequency
z
S
r S
r
H f
N
N N
f s f 30 50
1500
600 1500
= × 
.

\
 ÷
= ×


.

\
 ÷
= × =
Exercise 2.11:
The rotor speed of a 6pole induction motor is 16rps. Determine the slip assuming
that the frequency of the supply is 50Hz.
Solution of exercise 2.11:
We should first determine the synchronous speed.
rpm
P
f
N
S
1000
6
50 120
6
50 120 120
0
=
×
=
×
= =
We the deduce the slip
( )
04 . 0
1000
960 1000
1000
60 16 1000
=
÷
=
× ÷
=
÷
=
S
r S
N
N N
s
Exercise 2.12:
An induction motor supplied under a frequency of 60Hz is rotating at no load with a
speed approximately equal to 1800rpm. What is the number of poles of the motor?
Solution of exercise 2.12:
poles
N
f
P
P
f
N
S
S
4
1800
60 120 120 120
0
0
=
×
= = ¬ =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
42
Exercise 2.13:
The name plate of a three phase induction motor carries the following information
220/380V. On which type of network can we start this motor using stardelta starting
method?
Solution of exercise 2.13:
For a stardelta starting to be achieved all the terminals of the motor should be
accessible (6 terminals) and the delta coupling should correspond to the line voltage
of the network. So, for a motor carrying the information 220/380V, the suitable
network is 127/220V. In the same manner, for a motor carrying the information
380/660V, the suitable network is 220/380V; and for a 127/220V motor, the suitable
network is V 127 /
3
127
Exercise 2.14:
A three phase induction motor is rotating with a speed of 480rpm under a frequency
of 50Hz. Calculate the frequency of the rotor currents knowing that the slip of the
motor is less than 10%.
Solution of exercise 2.14:
Let us first determine the synchronous speed of the motor. We know that the
synchronous speed is a multiple of the network frequency, directly superior to the
motor speed. Obviously it is a multiple of 2 also ( f
P
N
S
×


.

\

× =
0
60
2 )
From this, we deduce that Ns = 500rpm. The frequency of rotor currents can
therefore be deduced:
Hz f
N
N N
f s f
S
r S
r
2 50
500
480 500
= × 
.

\
 ÷
= ×


.

\
 ÷
= × =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
43
2.4.3 Single phase induction motor:
a) Principle:
There are probably more single phase AC induction motors in use today than
the total of all the other types put together. That is because they are the least
expensive type of motor and they require the lowest maintenance. As the name
suggests, this type of motor has only one stator winding (main winding) and operates
with a single phase power supply. In all single phase induction motors, the rotor is the
squirrel cage type.
The single phase induction motor is not selfstarting. When the motor is
connected to a single phase power supply, the main winding carries an alternating
current. This current produces a pulsating magnetic field. Due to induction, the rotor
is energized. As the main magnetic field is pulsating, the torque necessary for the
motor rotation is not generated. This will cause the rotor to vibrate, but not to rotate.
Hence, the single phase induction motor is required to have a starting mechanism
that can provide the starting kick for the motor to rotate.
Figure 2.14: Single phase AC induction motor without starting mechanism
b) Starting principle of single phase induction motor:
The starting mechanism of the single phase induction motor is mainly an
additional stator winding called start or auxiliary winding. The start winding can have
a series capacitor and/or a centrifugal switch. When the supplied voltage is applied,
current in the main winding lags the supply voltage due to the main winding
impedance. At the same time, current in the start winding leads/lags the supply
voltage depending on the starting mechanism impedance. Interaction between
magnetic fields generated by the main winding and the starting mechanism
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
44
generates a resultant magnetic field rotating in one direction. The motor starts
rotating in the direction of the resultant magnetic field.
Figure 2.15: Single phase AC induction motor with start mechanism.
Once the motor reaches about 75% of its speed, a centrifugal switch
disconnects the start winding. From this point on, the single phase motor can
maintain sufficient torque to operate on its own.
Except for some few special types, all singlephase motors are generally used
for applications up to 3/4hp only.
Exercise 2.15:
With the aid of a diagram, illustrate how a three phase induction motor can be
transformed into a single phase induction motor.
Solution of exercise 2.15:
V V
1 3 5
4 6 2
a) Series connection.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
45
V
b) Parallel connection.
2.4.4 Losses and power flow:
a) Losses:
Losses in AC induction motor can be classified into three groups:
Copper losses (stator and rotor copper losses);
Iron losses (hysteresis and Eddy current losses);
Mechanical losses (Friction and windage losses).
Rotor iron losses are negligible as compared to stator iron losses. This is due to the
fact that iron losses are function of the frequency and we all know that frequency for
rotor current is very small (usually less than 5Hz).
b) Power flow
The power flow in AC induction motor can be sketched by the following chart:
Pi
PJs
PJr
Pc
Pout Pin
Pinr Pm
Figure 2.16: Power flow chart for AC induction motor.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
46
Pin: Input power (Stator input, Electrical power);
PJs: Stator copper loss;
Pi: Iron losses;
Pinr: Power transmitted to the rotor (Power input to the rotor, power across air gap);
PJr: Rotor copper losses;
Pm: Mechanical power developed in the rotor.
Pc: Constant losses, mechanical losses (friction and windage losses);
Po: Motor output.
Motor input:
Where:
U
L
: Line voltage in volts (V);
I
L
: Line current in amperes (A);
cos : Power factor.
Stator copper loss
Let us first assume that stator winding are connected in star.
Ri
Ri
Ri
X
Y
Z
IL
Ii
i L
I I =
i i
R I Pjs
2
3 =
Where
i
I is the current in each stator winding, for star connection this current is
equal to line current.
i
R is the resistance of each stator winding.
cos 3
L L in
I U P =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
47
Then,
2
3
L i
I R Pjs =
Let us assume that R is the resistance measured between any two terminals of the
stator. We can notice that:
i
R R 2 =
Hence,
( )
2 2
2
3
2
2
3
L L i
RI I R Pjs = =
Where R=2Ri .
Let us assume now that stator windings are delta connected.
IL
Ii
Ri
Ri
Ri
R being the resistance measured between any two terminals of the stator, we have:
( )
( )
i
i
i i
i i
R
R
R R
R R R
3
2
3
2
2 =
×
= =
But
2 2 2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
L L i L i
L
i
L
i
i i
RI I R I R
I
R Pjs
I
I
I R Pjs
= 
.

\

= = 
.

\

= ¬
=
=
Where
i
R R
3
2
=
2
2
3
L
RI Pjs =
2
2
3
L
RI Pjs =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
48
Iron losses
P
i
is a constant loss which depends on the frequency of the supply and the flux
density in the stator iron core.
Rotor input:
Where
m
T is the total torque developed in the armature (also called gross torque). Ns
is the synchronous speed.
Also,
Rotor copper loss:
Where R
r
is the resistance of each rotor winding (wound rotor). But the following
method of calculation is also used.
inr
S
m
S m S
S
r S
m
r S
m
P S
N
T S Pjr
N S T N
N
N N
T
N N
T Pjr
× = × =
× × × = ×


.

\
 ÷
× × = 
.

\
 ÷
× =
60
2 .
60
2
60
2
60
2
Mechanical power developed in the armature:
( ) S P P S P P P P
inr inr inr jr inr m
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = 1 .
60
2 .
S
m m inr
N
T T P = =
( ) Pi Pjs P P
in inr
+ ÷ =
r r
R I Pjr
2
3 =
inr
P S Pjr × =
( ) S P P
inr m
÷ = 1
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
49
Also,
Where Nr is the rotor speed.
Friction and windage losses:
Where T
L
is the loss torque (T
L
= T
m
– T); T being the shaft torque.
Motor output:
Rotor efficiency:
( )
S
P
S P
P
P
inr
inr
inr
m
r
÷ =
÷
= = 1
1
Also,
S
r
S
m
r
m
inr
m
r
N
N
N
T
N
T
P
P
=
×
×
= =
60
2
60
2
2.4.5 Induction motor characteristics:
Motors characteristics are intended to inform the user of the machine on how it
behaves when it is subjected to a load. They are many characteristics for induction
motor:
Torque in function of speed ( ) f T =
60
2
r
m m
N
T P × =
60
2
r
L C
N
T P × =
C m o
r
o
P P P
N
T P
÷ =
× =
60
2
S
r
÷ = 1
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
50
Torque in function of slip ( ) s f T =
Efficiency in function of power ( ) Pu f =
Power factor in function of power ( ) Pu f = cos
Slip in function of power ( ) Pu f s =
Current in function of power ( ) Pu f I =
a) ( ) N f T = and ( ) s f T = characteristics
Speed
Slip
0 Ns
1 0
T
No load Sandstill
Ts
Pn
P
Po
Tsl
Tl
A
B
C
D
Figure 2.17: ( ) N f T = and ( ) s f T = characteristics for induction motor.
The supply voltage is assumed to be constant . const U =
Po is the functioning point at no load;
Pn is the nominal functioning point;
PnPo is the zone for the normal functioning of the motor;
A is the starting torque(Ts);
B is the pull up torque;
C is the breakdown torque;
D is the full load torque ( it may be located anywhere on the segment PnPo).
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
51
Tl is the load torque. at starting, Tl = Tsl. The point P is the functioning point
between the machine and a given load whose characteristic is Tl.
From the characteristics above, the following properties can be deduced:
 The torque at starting under nominal voltage has an important value;
 During normal functioning (the functioning point of the machine is located in
the segment PnPo), the speed of the machine is close to the synchronous
speed. On this segment, the torque is almost proportional to the slip.
Where is a constant.
b) ( ) Pu f = cos , ( ) Pu f = , ( ) Pu f s = characteristics.
Cos phi
Efficincy
Slip
Pu
Pn
cos phi
Efficiency
slip
0
Figure 2.18: ( ) Pu f = cos , ( ) Pu f = , ( ) Pu f s = characteristics.
s T . =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
52
c) ( ) Pu f I = Characteristic:
Pu
0
I
In
Io
Pn Pu
Figure 2.19: ( ) Pu f I = characteristics.
For all the characteristics above, voltage and frequency are assumed to be constant.
Exercise 2.16:
An induction motor has the following characteristics:
Supply voltage: 220/380V; 50Hz; star connected.
Useful power: 15kW. Line voltage: 33A; power factor: 0.85; speed: 720rpm.
According to the above indications, determine:
1. The number of pairs of poles of the motor.
2. The slip of the motor.
3. The useful torque.
4. The efficiency of the motor.
Solution of exercise 2.16:
1. Number of pairs of poles of the motor:
We know that:
p p
Ns
Ns
f
p
p
f
Ns
3000 50 60
60
60
=
×
=
= ¬ =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
53
Let us determine he synchronous speed of the motor. We know that the synchronous
speed of the motor should be slightly above the speed of the motor. the following
table gives us possible synchronous speeds for the motor.
p 1 2 3 4 5 6
Ns (rpm) 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500
From this table, possible synchronous speed should be 750rpm. Hence,
4
750
3000
750
50 60
= =
×
= p
Then motor has 4 pairs of poles, that is 8 poles.
2. Slip of the motor.
% 4
04 . 0
750
720 750
=
=
÷
=
÷
=
s
Ns
N Ns
s
3. Useful torque of the motor.
m N T
m N T
N
P
T T
N
P
u
u
u
u u u
. 199
. 199
720 14 . 3 2
15000 60
2
60
60
2
=
=
× ×
×
=
= ¬ =
4. Efficiency of the motor.
% 3 . 81
85 . 0 33 380 3
15000
cos 3
= ¬
× × ×
= = =
UI
P
P
P
u
in
u
Exercise 2.17:
Tests were carried out on a 6pole three phase induction motor, and the following
results were obtained:
Test on load: U = 220V, 50Hz; I = 50A; P
in
= 15.2kW; N = 960rpm.
Noload test: U
0
= 220V; I
o
= 20A; Po = 660W.
Measurement in DC: Resistance between two stator terminals: R = 0.10Ω .
Determine:
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
54
1. The slip of the motor.
2. The power factor of the motor on load.
3. Stator iron losses Pi and mechanical losses Pc if the two losses are assumed to be
equal.
4. Stator copper loss Pjs and rotor copper loss Pjr on load.
5. The useful power Pu and the efficiency.
6. The gross torque T
em
and the useful torque T
u
.
Solution of exercise 2.17:
1. Slip of the motor.
Ns
N Ns
s
÷
=
But the synchronous speed Ns is found as follows: rpm
p
f
Ns 1000
3
50 60
60 =
×
= =
Hence,
% 4
04 . 0
1000
960 1000
=
=
÷
=
s
s
2. Power factor on load.
798 . 0 cos
50 220 3
15200
3
cos cos 3 = ¬
× ×
= = ¬ =
UI
P
UI P
in
in
3. Stator iron losses and mechanical losses:
Let P
js0
be stator copper losses at no load. We can say that the power P
0
consumed
by the motor at no load is equal to:
Pjso P P P
c i
+ + =
0
with
c i
P P =
2
0
2
3
RI Pjso =
Hence,
( )
( )
W P P
W P P
I R P Pjso P P P
c i
c i
o c i
300
300 20 1 . 0
2
3
660
2
1
.
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
2
0 0
= =
=
(
¸
(
¸
× × ÷ = =
(
¸
(
¸
÷ = ÷ = =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
55
4. Stator copper loss on load
( )
W Pjs
Pjs
RI Pjs
375
50 1 . 0
2
3
2
3
2
2
=
× × =
=
Rotor copper loss on load
inr
P s Pjr × =
Let us determine P
inr
.
( ) ( )
W P
W Pjs Pi Pin s Pjr
Pjs Pi Pin P
inr
inr
581
581 375 300 15200 04 . 0
=
= ÷ ÷ × = ÷ ÷ × = ¬
÷ ÷ =
5. Useful power
( )
( )
W P
P
P P P P P P P P P
u
u
c jr js i a c jr inr u
13644
300 581 375 300 15200
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
Efficiency on load.
% 8 . 89
15200
13644
= ¬ = =
in
u
P
P
6. Gross torque.
s
inr
em em inr
N
P
T T
Ns
P
2
60
60
2 ×
= ¬ = with W P P P P
js i in inr
14525 375 300 15200 = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
m N T T
em em
. 139
1000 14 . 3 2
14525 60
= ¬
× ×
×
=
Useful toque.
m N T
N
P
T
u
u
u
. 136
960 14 . 3 2
13644 60
2
60
= ¬
× ×
×
=
×
=
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
56
Exercise 2.18:
A test was carried out on a 4pole three phase asynchronous motor on load, the
windings being supplied under 220V at 50Hz. The following results were obtained.
Supply: 120/227V50Hz. I = 12A; Pin = 3750W; N = 1440rpm. Total losses are
estimated at 790W.
1. How should the stator windings be coupled for the test on load?
2. For the load test, calculate:
a) The slip;
b) The power factor;
c) The useful power and the efficiency
d) The useful torque.
Solution of exercise 2.18:
1. Coupling of stator windings:
Since each stator winding should be supplied with 220V, and we are having a
127/220V supply, we can deduce that stator winding should be coupled in delta.
2.a. Slip:
The rotor speed being 1440rpm, we deduce that the synchronous speed should be
1500rpm (the synchronous speed is the multiple of the supply frequency directly
greater than the rotor speed). We then deduce the slip:
% 4
04 . 0
1500
1440 1500
=
=
÷
=
÷
=
s
Ns
N Ns
s
2.b. Power factor:
82 . 0
12 220 3
3750
3
=
× ×
= =
UI
P
Cos
in
2.c. Useful power:
W P
P
losses P P
u
u
in u
2960
790 3750
=
÷ =
÷ =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
57
We can deduce the efficiency:
% 93 . 78
3750
2960
= ¬ = =
in
u
P
P
2.d. Useful torque
Nm
N
P
T
u
u
6 . 19
1440 14 . 3 2
60 2960
2
60
=
× ×
×
=
×
=
Exercise 2.19: (Probatoire F3, 2012 session).
A three phase squirrel cage induction motor is supplied under 380V, Its name plate
carries the following indications:
IP55; 220V/380V; 50Hz; 11kW1430rev/min; % 85 = ; 84 . 0 cos = . The
manufacturer gives the following data for this type of motor:
Id/In = 5; Td/Tn = 2, where Id is the starting current and Td the starting torque.
1. Calculate the number of poles.
2. Calculate the rated current and the starting current.
3. Determine the useful torque.
4. Can this motor be stardelta started? Justify your answer.
5. During a noload test under rated voltage, the resistance between two startor
terminals was measured at hot temperature: Rs = 0.52Ω ; Io = 3A; P10 = 40W.
The noload power was measured using the method of two wattmeters.
a) Draw the noload test connection diagram;
b) Calculate the noload power factor of the motor;
c) Determine the reactive power at no load;
d) Determine the indication of each wattmeter.
Exercise 2.20: (Probatoire F3, 2011 session)
A three phase asynchronous motor, with stator coupled in delta, is supplied by a
network supply of 380V, 50Hz. Each phase of the stator has a resistance of 0.4Ω . At
no load, the rotor rotates at 1500rpm and absorbs a power of 1150W; the current in a
line is 3.2A. A test, at a nominal load, under the same voltage of 380V, 50Hz has
given the following results:
Slip: g = 4%;
Absorbed power Pa = 18.1kW.
Line current I = 32A.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
58
1. For the noload, calculate:
a) The stator copper losses when the motor rotates at noload.
b) The stator iron losses knowing that the mechanical losses are 510W.
2. For the nominal load test, determine:
a) The power factor;
b) The rotor speed;
c) The frequency of rotor currents;
d) The stator copper losses;
e) The rotor copper losses;
f) The useful power;
g) The efficiency of the motor;
h) The useful torque.
Exercise 2.21: (Probatoire F3, 2010 session).
A three phase asynchronous winding motor is supplied under a voltage of 380V
50Hz. The stator coupled in star and the rotor in triangle have the same number of
turns per phase. The resistance between two phases of the motor is 0.2Ω . At full load
test, the absorbed power is measured with the help of two wattmeters W1 and W2.
The current in the line is I = 45A, the rotor speed is N = 1425rpm. P1 = 16850W,
P2 = 6250W. The stator iron losses are equal to 372.5W. The mechanical losses are
equal to 400W. Calculate:
1. The number of poles and the synchronous speed;
2. The total stator losses;
3. The power transmitted to the rotor;
4. The slip and the rotor copper losses;
5. The useful power and the useful torque of the motor;
6. The reactive power absorbed using the indications of the two wattmeters.
Exercise 2.22: (Probatoire F3, 2009 session)
A three phase asynchronous motor with the stator coupled in star is supplied from a
380V, 50Hz, 3phase supply. Each winding of the stator has a resistance R = 0.4Ω . A
noload test is realised: the motor rotates practically at 1500rpm. The power
absorbed is P
0
= 1150W; the line current is I
0
= 11.2A. When the motor is nominal
loaded at the same voltage of 380V, 50Hz; the following results are obtained:
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
59
The slip: 4%
The power absorbed: 18kW
The line current: 32A
Calculate:
1. The joule losses in the stator at no load.
2. The iron losses knowing that the mechanical losses are 510W.
3. The nominal power factor and the speed.
4. The frequency of rotor current when the slip is 4%
5. The joule losses in the stator and in the rotor at the rated load of the motor.
6. The useful power and the efficiency of the motor at its rated load.
7. The useful torque.
Exercise 2.23: (Probatoire F3, 2007 session).
The name plate of a 3phase induction motor has the following information:
220V380V; 116.4A; 1455rpm; 8 . 0 cos = . The motor is supplied by 380V, 50Hz, 3
phase network.
1. How should the motor be connected?
2. Deduce the line current in these conditions.
3. Determine the number of poles of the motor.
4. Calculate the slip at the rated operation.
5. The useful torque of the motor when operating on rated conditions is
T = 19.5Nm. Determine the efficiency of the motor.
Exercise 2.24: (GCE/A Level, 2011 session)
The characteristics of a wound rotor tetrapolar three phase induction motor are as
follows:
Normal voltage of a winding: 380V;
Resistance between two stator terminals: r = 0.2Ω ;
Both the stator and the rotor are delta connected. Rotor losses are neglected.
The supply network is three phase 380V, 50Hz.
A normal load test carried out on this motor yielded the following results. Current
absorbed I = 40A, stator iron losses = 0.5kW. Nominal speed N = 1450rpm,
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
60
mechanical losses = 400W. Power measured with the two wattmeter method gave
P1 = 15kW; P2 = 6kW; rotor iron losses are negligible.
1. Draw the circuit for the load test described above showing clearly the apparatus for
measuring current and power.
2. Determine the synchronous speed and deduce the slip.
3. Calculate the power absorbed and deduce the power factor of the motor.
4. Calculate the resistance of one stator winding and deduce the stator joule losses.
5. Calculate the power transmitted to the rotor joule losses.
6. Calculate the efficiency of the motor.
Solution of exercise 2.19: (Probatoire F3, 2012 session).
1. Determination of the number of poles:
p
f N
s
=
60
, where p is the number of pairs of poles. Hence
4 2
2
1500
50 60
60
= = ¬
=
×
= =
p Po
N
f
p
s
The machine has 4 poles.
2. Rated current.
A
U
P
I
u
n
407 . 23
84 . 0 380 3 85 . 0
11000
cos 3
=
× × ×
=
×
=
The starting current can then be deduced.
A I I
I
I
n d
n
d
035 . 117 407 . 23 5 5 5 = × = = ¬ =
3. Useful torque.
m N T
N
Pu
T
u
r
u
. 46 . 73
1430 2
60 11000
2
60
=
×
×
=
×
=
4. The motor cannot be stardelta started because each winding cannot
support the supply voltage (line voltage).
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
61
5. a) Noload test connection diagram
W1
W2
M
3ph
1
2
3
5.b) Noload power factor.
02 . 0
3 3 380
40
3
cos
0
10
0
=
× ×
= =
UI
P
5.c). Reactive power at no load.
Var UI Q 1974 999 . 0 3 3 380 sin 3
0 0 0
= × × × = =
5.d) Indication of the wattmetters
The two following relationship are true.
( )
0 02 01
02 01
3
40
Q P P
P P
= +
= +
By solving the equations, we have:
P
10
= 589.89W
P
02
= 549.89W
Solution of exercise 2.20: (Probatoire F3, 2011 session)
1.a) Noload copper losses.
( )
W Psc
I
R RJ Psc
096 . 4
3
2 . 3
4 . 0 3
3
3 3
2
0
2
0 2
0 0
= × × =

.

\

= =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
62
1.b) Stator iron losses.
W Psi
P P P Psi
sc m
9 . 635 096 . 4 510 1150
0 10
= ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
2.a) Power factor.
86 . 0
3 32 380
18100
3
cos =
× ×
= =
UI
Pa
2.b) Rotative speed
( ) ( ) rpm S N N
s
1440 04 . 0 1 1500 1 = ÷ = ÷ =
2.c) Frequency of rotor currents
Hz fs S fr 2 50 04 . 0 . = × = =
2.d) stator copper losses.
W
I
I
Psc Psc 6 . 409
2 . 3
32
096 . 4
2
2
0
0
= 
.

\

=


.

\

=
2.e) Rotor copper losses
( )
( ) 18 . 682 9 . 635 6 . 409 18100 04 . 0 Pr
. . Pr
= ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ = =
c
Psi Psc Pa S Ptr S c
2.f) The useful power.
W losses P Pu
a
3 . 15862 510 18 . 682 6 . 409 9 . 635 18100 = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
¿
2.g) Efficiency of the motor.
% 6 . 87
18100
3 . 15862
= = =
Pa
P
u
2.h) the useful torque.
Nm
N
Pu
Tu 2 . 105
2 1440
3 . 1582 60
2
60
=
×
×
=
×
=
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
63
Solution of exercise 2.21: (Probatoire F3, 2010 session).
1. Number of poles and synchronous speed.
s
S S
N
f P
P
f N
P
f N
60
2
2
60
2
60
0
0
0
=
= ¬ =
Where P
0
is the number of poles and N
s
the synchronous speed. The synchronous
speed is a multiple of the frequency which is greater that the rotor speed. We can
deduce that Ns = 1500rpm, since N = 1425rpm.
poles P 4
1500
6000
1500
60 50 2
0
= =
× ×
=
2. Total stator losses.
W Ps
RI Pi Pj Pi Ps
T
T
980 45 2 . 0
2
3
5 . 372
2
3
2
2
= × × + =
+ = + =
3. Power transmitted to the rotor.
( ) W Ps P P Ptr
T
22120 980 6250 16850
2 1
= ÷ + = ÷ + =
4. Slip and rotor copper losses.
W Ptr s Pjr
N
N N
s
S
S
1106 22120 05 . 0 .
05 . 0
1500
1425 1500
= × = =
=
÷
=
÷
=
5. Useful power and useful torque of the motor.
W losses Pa Pu 20614 1106 400 980 23100 = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
¿
N
N
P
T
u
u
14 . 138
1425 2
20614 60
2
60
=
×
×
= =
6. Reactive power absorbed using the readings of the two wattmeters.
( ) ( ) Vars P P Q 74 . 18359 6250 16850 3 3
2 1
= ÷ = ÷ =
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
64
Solution of exercise 2.22: (Probatoire F3, 2009 session)
1. Joule losses in the stator at no load.
( ) W RI Pjs 53 . 150 2 . 11 4 . 0 3 3
2 2
0
= × × = =
2. Iron losses.
( ) ( ) W P Pjs P Pi
m
47 . 489 510 53 . 150 1150
0
= + ÷ = + ÷ =
3. Nominal power factor and speed.
855 . 0
32 380 3
18000
3
cos =
× ×
= =
UI
P
a
( ) ( ) rpm s N N
S
1440 04 . 0 1 1500 1 = ÷ = ÷ =
4. Frequency of rotor current when slip is 4%.
Hz f s f
s r
2 50 04 . 0 . = × = =
5. Joule losses in the stator and in the rotor at the rated load of the motor.
W RI Pjs 8 . 1228 32 4 . 0 3 3
2 2
= × × = =
( ) ( ) W Pi Pjs P s Pinr s Pjr
a
27 . 651 47 . 489 8 . 1228 18000 04 . 0 . . = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
6. Useful power and efficiency at rated load.
. 46 . 15120 510 27 . 651 47 . 489 8 . 1228 18000 W Pm Pjr Pi Pjs P Pu
a
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
% 84
18000
46 . 15120
= =
7. Useful torque.
Nm
N
P
T
u
u
27 . 100
1440 14 . 3 2
46 . 15120 60
2
60
=
× ×
×
=
×
=
2.5 Equivalent model of an induction motor.
The equivalent model of induction motor can be established for noload test and for
load test.
2.5.1 Equivalent model of induction motor for noload test:
For a noload test, the power P
0
absorbed by the motor is totally converted into
stator iron losses and stator Joule losses. However, by neglecting stator Joule losses
we can write:
0 0 0
cos 3 VI P Pi = ~
Where P
i
= stator iron losses; I
0
= total current absorbed by the motor at noload;
V = Phase voltage.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
65
The equivalent model per phase on the motor is made up of resistance Rm and a
reactance Xm. The resistance Rm represents iron and friction losses at no load. Xm
is the magnetisation reactance; its represents the reactive energy consumed by the
motor for its magnetisation. It is assume that the active power consumed per phase is
3
0
P
. Then the equivalent model per phase at noload of induction motor can be given
as follows:
Xm Rm
V
Io
Ioa Ior
Ioa
Ior
V
Io
phi0
The following relationships are deduced:
Ior Xm Ioa Rm V * * = =
With
0
0
sin
cos
Io Ior
Io Ioa
=
=
0
2 2
2
2 0
3
. .
3 P
V
R
R
V
R
V
R I R
P
m
m m
m oa m
= ¬ =


.

\

= =
0
2 2
2
2
0
0
3
. .
3 Q
V
X
X
V
X
V
X I X
Q
m
m m
m r m
= ¬ =


.

\

= =
m
m
m
m
X
R
R
V
X
V
Ioa
Ior
= = = tan
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
66
2.5.2 Equivalent model of induction motor for load test:
The motor absorbs a total power P
1
which is the sum of power transmitted to the
rotor P
tr
and power losses in the stator. If Joule losses in stator are neglected, and it
is assumed that iron losses in stator are the same on load and on noload, we can
therefore write the following relationship:
0
P P P
tr
+ ~
For one phase of the motor, the relationship is written as follows:
3 3 3
0
P P P
tr
+ ~
This relationship leads to an electrical model made up of two elements:
A block Ds that renders account of stator phenomena and absorbs a power of
3
0
P
per phase.
A block Dr that renders account of rotor phenomena and absorbs a power of
3
tr
P
per phase.
The machine equivalent model per phase can be drawn as follows:
i1
i0
i2
r=R/s
lw
v
Rm Xm
Ds
Dr
V
Io
I1
I2
phi1
phi0
phi2
0
V
The current i2 is lagging with respect to v, reason why the block Dr comprises
also an inductor l. The elements of the block Dr are determined using a short circuit
test.
The motor is supplied with reduced voltage (10 to 20% of the rated voltage),
so that the current absorbed is almost equal to the rated current. The current per
phase I1 is measured. Active power P1 and reactive power Q1 per phase are
measured. Because the motor is supplied under reduced power, iron losses can be
neglected; that is, the current io is neglected. In these conditions we have:
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
67
2
1 1
2
1 1
3
3
I l Q
RI P
=
=
The elements l and R of the block Dr can therefore be easily determined.
2.6 Measurement of power in three phase systems:
Power in three phase systems can be measured using either general method or two
wattmeter method.
2.6.1 General method:
When the circuit is unbalanced, the powers on each of the three phases of the
system can be measured, and added in order to determine the total power. When the
circuit is balanced, we can just measure the power on one phase and multiply the
value obtained by three in order to determine the total power of the system.
2.6.2 Two wattmeter method:
The imperative condition for this method to be used is that there should not be
neutral conductor, irrespective of the fact that the system may be star or delta
connected, balanced or unbalanced. That is:
0
3 2 1
= + + = I I I I
N
The connection diagram is done as follows:
A
B
L
O
A
D
1
2
3
From the readings of the ammeters A and B, we can deduce the total active and
reactive powers of the machine, as shown by the relationships below:
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
68
( )
( )
2
tan 1
1
cos
3
tan
sin 3 3
cos 3
+
=
+
÷
= =
= = ÷ =
= = + =
B A
B A
total B A
total B A
P P
P P
P
Q
Q UI P P Q
P UI P P P
2.7 Conclusion.
Various materials have been treated in this chapter. We started by studying
three phase AC systems, followed by a brief discussion on single phase induction
motor. The largest part of the chapter was consecrated to the study of principle and
characteristics of AC three phase induction motor. Power factor correction was
introduced and discussed. All these studies were backed by many examples and
exercises. The aim of the following chapter will be the study of AC synchronous
machines.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Exercise 1:
The name plate of a three phase asynchronous motor carries the following
information: 220/380V; 13.9/8.0A; 1450rpm; 50Hz; 8 . 0 cos = . The stator of the
machine can be connected either in star or in delta.
1. Indicate the nominal voltage across each stator winding.
2. Determine:
a) The number of poles at the stator;
b) The nominal slip;
c) The frequency of rotor currents;
d) The efficiency of the motor.
Exercise 2:
A three phase induction motor is supplied at 60Hz through a network whose line
voltage is 220V. The stator windings are delta connected. When this motor is at
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
69
nominal load, its speed is 570rpm and the motor output is 2.5kW. Its efficiency is
75% and its power factor is 0.8. Determine:
1. The line current and the current through each stator winding;
2. The slip;
3. The useful torque at nominal load.
Exercise 3:
A three phase induction motor is supplied under a line voltage of 380V50Hz. When
loaded, the rotor speed is 940rpm. The useful power is therefore equal to 4500W.
The loss torque due to friction and windage losses is equal to 1.4Nm. Determine:
1. The number of poles;
2. The slip;
3. The gross torque;
4. The rotor input (power transmitted to the rotor);
5. The rotor Joule losses.
Exercise 4:
A load test carried on a three phase induction motor has given the following results:
Nr = 1455rpm; the line current I = 15A; the line voltage U = 380V; power absorbed:
Pa = 8kW; efficiency: 90%. Determine:
1. The power factor of the motor;
2. The slip;
3. The useful power;
4. The useful torque.
Exercise 5:
A three phase induction motor is supplied with a 220/380V, 50Hz network. It has 8
poles. The resistance measured between two stator terminals is 0.47Ω . Iron losses in
the stator amount to 500W. Friction and windage losses are equal to 500W. When
functioning at full load, the motor absorbs a power of 23.6kW, with a power factor of
0.855 and a slip of 4%. Determine:
1. The stator Joule losses;
2. The rotor Joule losses;
3. The motor efficiency;
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
70
4. The useful torque.
Exercise 6:
The condition of functioning of a three phase induction motor is given as follows:
Supply: 220/380V50Hz;
Number of poles: 4;
Useful power: 40kW;
Efficiency: 0.90;
Power factor: 0.91;
Resistance between two stator terminals: 0.14Ω ;
Iron losses in the stator: 900W;
Mechanical losses: 900W;
Iron losses in rotor are negligible.
Determine:
1. The gross torque;
2. The useful torque;
3. The slip.
Exercise 7:
A test on a three phase tetrapolar induction motor has given the following results:
Load test:
U = 380V; Pa = 18.1kW; I = 32A; Nr = 1440rpm.
Noload test:
Uo = 380V, 50Hz; Po = 1.15kW; Io = 11.2A.
DC test:
The resistance between two stator terminals is 0.80Ω .
Determine:
1. The power factor on load and the slip;
2. The mechanical losses assuming that thy are equal to stator iron losses;
3. The stator copper loss and the rotor copper loss on load;
4. The useful power and the efficiency;
5. The electromagnetic torque and the useful torque.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
71
Exercise 8:
A 6 pole three phase induction motor functions under a line voltage of 220V, 50Hz. It
runs at 970rpm and the line current is 25A. On load, the power factor is 0.83; the
resistance between two stator terminals is R = 0.24Ω ; iron losses: 220W; mechanical
losses 230W. Determine:
1. The slip;
2. The power absorbed by the motor;
3. The power transmitted to the rotor;
4. The rotor copper losses;
5. The useful power;
6. The useful torque.
Exercise 9:
A three phase induction motor is supplied under 380V – 50Hz. The line current that it
draws is 7A and the power factor is 0.8. The rotor has 4 poles and runs at 1410rpm.
Determine:
1. The power absorbed;
2. The slip;
3. The rotor input, assuming that the resistance measured between two stator
terminals is R = 0.34Ω , and the iron losses in the stator amount to 200W;
4. Copper losses in the rotor;
5. The efficiency assuming that friction and windage losses amount to 100W.
Exercise 10:
An 8pole, 220V/380V50Hz three phase induction motor is tested on noload and on
load (nominal functioning). Its stator is star connected. The following values are
recorded:
Noload test:
Line current: Io = 10A; Power absorbed: Po = 875W.
Load test:
Line current: I = 35A; Power absorbed: Pa = 18.2kW; Slip: s = 2.7%. The resistance
of one stator winding is r = 0.5Ω . Determine for the nominal functioning of the motor:
1. The synchronous speed and the rotor speed;
2. The power factor;
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
72
3. Copper losses in the stator;
4. Mechanical losses and iron losses assuming that these two losses are equal;
5. The motor efficiency;
6. The useful torque.
Exercise 11:
Tests are carried out for a three phase induction motor under a line voltage of 220V
50Hz. The results are as follows:
Noload test:
Io = 2A; P1 = 319W; P3 = 103W (twowattmeter method deviation in opposite
directions); rpm N N
s r
1000 = ~ ;
Load test:
P1 = 1730W; P2 = 690W (deviation in the same direction), Slip: s = 4%.
1. From noload test, determine iron losses and mechanical losses assuming that
the two losses are equal. The resistance measured between two stator
windings is equal to 0.2Ω .
2. For load test, determine:
2.1 the rotor speed;
2.2 The active power P;
2.3 The reactive power Q ( remember that ( )
2 1
3 P P Q ÷ = );
2.4 The power factor;
2.5 The line current;
2.6 Stator copper losses;
2.7 Rotor copper losses;
2.8 The useful power Pu;
2.9 The efficiency;
2.10 The useful torque.
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
73
References:
1. R. MERAT et al., Physique appliqué, Electrotechnique  Electronique de
puissance, Editions Nathan, Paris, 1994.
2. T.F. FOFANG, Electrical Principles for Technical Colleges, Volume three,
Technician series, 2006.
3. M. ANYANGWE, Principles of Electrotechnology for Technical Schools,
Volume2, 2000.
4. L. LASNE, Exercices et problèmes d’électrotechnique : Notions de base et
machines électriques, Dunod, Paris, 2005.
5. F. LUCAS, Electricité – 3, DELAGRAVE, Paris, 1979.
6. R. PAREKH, AC Induction Motor Fundamentals, AN887, Microchip
Technology Inc., 2003.
7. Siemens STEP 2000 Courses, AC motors, www.eandm.com
Acknowledgements:
Many exercises treated in this course are taken from Probatoire Technique past
questions proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education Board
(GCEB).
Electrical Machines_JeanPaul NGOUNE
74
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
NGOUNE JeanPaul was born in ForekéDschang,
Republic of Cameroon in 1984. He is a holder of a
Master Degree in electrical engineering, obtained in
2010 in the Doctorate School of the University of Douala
(UFDPSI). He is also a holder of a DIPET II and a
DIPET I respectively obtained in 2009 and 2007 in the
Advanced Teacher Training College for Technical
Education (ENSET de Douala).
He is currently a permanent teacher of Electrical
Engineering at the Government Technical High School
of Kumbo, NorthWest region, Cameroon. His domain of
research concerns the improvement of energy
conversion techniques for an efficient generation of
electrical energy from renewable sources (especially
wind and solar energy, small and medium scale
hydropower) and digital designing using FPDs.
NGOUNE JeanPaul, M.Sc., PLET.
P.O. Box: 102 NSO, Kumbo, Cameroon.
Phone: (+237) 7506 2458.
Email : jngoune@yahoo.fr
Web site: www.scribd.com/jngoune
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