weight / mass, of, organisms / plants & animals ; productivity rate at which biomass / materials produced / synthesised / energy incorporated / energy transferred (into a trophic level) (could be expressed as per unit time ) ; (b) (i) grazed - (increase of) 150 so rate is 150 / 32 =


4.7 / 4.69 g m–2 day–1 ungrazed - (decrease of) 130 so rate is 130 / 32 = 4.1 / 4.06 g m–2 day–1 (note – allow 31 days, giving 4.8 and – 4.19 ) change for both correctly read (could be 200-50/ 32 and 300-430/32) ; correct rate calculation for grazing ; correct rate for ungrazed with negative sign ; correct units for either ; (allow consequential error if wrong reading but correct maths) (ii) no / lack of, compensatory growth ; competition for light / long leaves shading other leaves / less light penetration ; reduced photosynthesis ; competition for, water / nutrients / minerals ; leaves dying ; grass being grazed by, birds / insects (that can fly in) ; (c) (ii) (i) 0.5 arbitrary units ; max 3 1 4

(large numbers of) animals, trample/crush, grass ; overgrazing / too many grasses/plants eaten/damaged / reference to exceeding carrying capacity ; grasses unable to recover / few leaves so little photosynthesis / takes longer to grow back ; too much excreta / dung / urine /eq ; reference to soil compaction + qualification ; max 3



fewer, grazing animals / named grazers / herbivores killed, so numbers increase ; leads to, overgrazing / more grasses/plants eaten / reduction in numbers of primary producers ; grassland has reduced / less productivity ; leads to, grass shortage/ reduced biomass of grass, fewer / death of grazing animals / grazing animals migrate / reduced reproduction rate ; increase in numbers of other/named carnivores / decrease in scavengers / named scavengers ; max 3


(Converted to) ammonium; by, decomposers / saprophytes / bacteria / fungi / putrefying bacteria ; (ammonium) oxidised to nitrite ; by nitrifying bacteria (allow once) / Nitrosomonas / Nitrococcus ; (nitrites) oxidised to nitrate ; by nitrifying bacteria / Nitrobacter ; Note can use chemical symbols but must be correct max 4


(a) (taken up from atmosphere) 93 + 121 = 214 ; (released into atmosphere) 90 + 120 + 1.6 + 0.1 + 5.5 = 217.2 ; difference = 3.2 Gt (year–1 ) ; [allow consequential error] (b) planting of trees ; reference to photosynthesis ; carbon locked up in trees / reference to lignin or wood or cellulose ; trees live for long time / hundreds of years ; plants / trees die and become buried in swamps / eq ; peat forms ; fossil fuel forms ; reference to shells / exoskeletons / limestone / calcareous rock ; reference to carbon sink (anywhere) ;




reference 93 Gt taken in, 90 Gt released / net of 3 Gt taken up / eq ; some carbon, taken up by marine animals ; forms calcium carbonate / forms shell / exoskeleton ; example of marine animal (diatoms, corals, molluscs etc) ; used in photosynthesis ; of algae / plankton ; marine organisms die and form sediment on seabed / settle on sea bed / eq ; (sediments form) fossils / limestone / calcareous rock / chalk / oil / gas ;



improved fuel efficiency / eq ; increased use of public transport / eq ; burn hydrogen / ethanol / gasohol / biogas (rather than petrol / oil ) ; produce / use (electricity) from nuclear / solar / wind / water / geothermal / wood / energy crop / straw / renewable energy ; burning gas / methane in power station rather than oil / coal ; reference to planting trees / forests / afforestation ; 3

3. (b)


9.4 and 11.4


Women of 15–49 are {fertile / of reproductive age}; {Approximately / eq} half of all women aged 15-49 are infected with HIV; They could give birth to infected children; Die before giving birth / not have children; 2


Overall, population will get smaller; Fewer women surviving to give birth, so fewer children; {1 in 5 adults / eq) will die of AIDS in future; Children dying of AIDS; So population consists of older people;



(a) Remote sensing / satellite (images) / GIS / Global imaging system / OTCS; (b) (Algae supply polyps) with {sugar / carbohydrates / energy / food}; (Algae supply polyps) with oxygen; Any credible suggestion why colour is an advantage to the polyp;





1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Some (species of) coral become less common / other types become more common (and take over); Reference to competition; Existing species {become adapted to change / evolve}; Correct reference to mutation; Improved conservation measures (to alleviate effects of human interference) Increased sea temperature was not the real reason why the reef was in decline suggested credible alternative e.g. {pollution / predation / disease} / whatever the original cause {has now declined / no longer the problem it was};



(a) Access for {pollinators / pests / parasites}; Wind exposure; Light intensity; Light spectral composition; Wavelength / spectral composition of light; Rainfall / snow cover / soil moisture / water availability; Grazing by animals; Humidity / water vapour; {Carbon dioxide / oxygen} concentration; (b) (ii) (i) Increases; Any valid attempt to quantify the increase in growth e.g. more than double, at least × 5 (or more); Sustained for (at least) three years (at a similar rate); (c) Pollen analysis / use of pollen from peat; Layers dated according to the depth / the deeper the {sediment / peat layer} the older the specimen / date the peat layer by radiocarbon method; Identify species in different layers / estimating relative abundance from pollen density / eq; More carbon dioxide turned into wood / more photosynthesis; Therefore more carbon dioxide removed from atmosphere / increased carbon dioxide absorption; Therefore less greenhouse gas (than there otherwise would be); Dendrochronology;

3 1






Increased rate of decay; Due to increased {microbial activity / enzyme activity};



(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (c)


Changes in {tree species / communities / eq} with time;

Seral stages / predictable changes / directional changes / eq; Changes bought about by trees themselves / eq; Reference to climax; Relevant example from the data; None at outset; Biomass increase (with time); Fall after 200 years; Greatest rate of increase between 80 and 120 years; Any other quantitative description; 3 2

1. Soil conditions not suitable / lack of water / lack of minerals / other abiotic factor; 2. 3. 4. 5. Cannot compete with {alder / willow}; Didn’t happen to colonise; Other {climatic / external} factor; Species before (Hemlock spruce) change conditions; 2


(a) Answers must be appropriate to a named organism – maximum two marks if organism not named 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Method for defining samples (eg quadrat); Method for quantifying organisms (eg counting individuals, percentage cover); Method for selecting samples (eg transect, random or systematic sampling); Method for fixing samples (eg random numbers, fixed point above chart datum); Additional detail of equipment used; Additional appropriate practical detail (eg running means, repeats); 4


(ii) 1. In {heat / respiration} of 1° consumers. allow between 5 and 6 times as many. 2 [6] . Hidden from predators. Numerical calculation comparing outside stream with in stream. 7.1 ÷ 0.1 (× 104). Mussels which begin development in sea water don’t survive. Cooling effect from stream. 2 = {0. (b) 2 Some used in plant respiration. 5. Reference to explanation of the one dog whelk at site 3. Reference to greatest number of mussels in middle of stream / eq / converse. Therefore very few present at sites 3. 3. Mussels {cannot tolerate / tolerate less well} {salt water / high salinity} / tolerate fresh water better. Not all parts of plants {eaten / available}.5 %. 2 Dog whelks can only survive in salt water. 3 [11] 2 (c) 1. 4 and 5.8 × 100.(b) (i) Mussels {not found / found less} {outside stream / in sea water} / converse. 2. 4. Cannot tolerate dry period between tides / need to be in water continuously. 6. (ii) (a) (i) 1. 4. 0. Can feed for longer / food {only found / found more} in stream / can open shell to feed in fresh water. Not enough time between tides to eat a mussel. Dog whelks in sea water feed on mussels. Less affected by wave action / better attachment to {substrate / rocks / eq}.8 × 104 / 8000} kJ m-2 yr-1. 5. 3.9 (× 104) – 1. 2. Identify one biotic or abiotic factor in context. Indigestible matter / cellulose / plant cell walls / faeces / excretion. 8. = 12. 6.

Reference to cellulase. (b) (a) 1. Over production of offspring / many {offspring / eggs}.43] 3 2 7 . (Genetic / characteristic / phenotype) differences (between populations) become greater over time. Religious beliefs not compatible. Explanation of incompatibility / reference to creationism. 8.9.30 hours}. Advantageous {alleles / characteristics} are inherited. Different characteristics benefit each population. 12. Reproductive or temporal isolation. Reference to {mutualistic / symbiotic} relationship. Incompatible genomes / chromosomes become different / meiosis fails in hybrid. Impossible to experiment because time scale too big / theory not fact. 7. Some food regurgitated and {chewed again / chewing the cud}. 5. 3. Biological content – maximum Continuous prose 1 1 6 (c) 1. 4. Different selection pressures (in each population). 3. 2. 10. 2. Accumulate in populations / changes of gene frequency / eq. 9.4. 13. 11. 6. Competition (for a resource). Better adapted {survive / reproduce}. Hybrid offspring infertile. (a) {Microorganism / bacteria / protozoa / yeast / fungi} found in the rumen. {Changes / mutations} in {DNA / genes / alleles}. New species when (mating between the two populations) can’t produce fertile offspring. [allow 9. Food {stays / churned} in {rumen / stomach} for {long time / 5 . 2 [10] 10. Lack of evidence / incomplete fossil record. The populations don’t interbreed. (b) 175715 – 160572 ÷ 160572 × 100 OR 15143 ÷ 160572 × 100. 4. = 9. Idea of fermentation / production of acids / production of {glucose / hexose}.

More {car engines / car exhausts / forest fires} leads to (increased) nitrous oxide. 21x. 4. Idea of change in human diet leading to changes in agriculture e. More {livestock / paddy fields / rice production) leads to (increased) methane levels / eq. Reference to manipulated figures / 0. 6. More {fridges / computers / aerosols / fire extinguishers} leads to (increased) CFCs / eq.8% more / eq. Emissions from dairy cattle and sheep have decreased because numbers have decreased. 2 (i) (ii) 1. Idea that greenhouse gases trap {heat / infrared energy}. 3 [19] (g) 1 . 2. 1. Because the others have increased more / eq. Increased use of (nitrogen / nitrate) fertilisers leads to (increased) nitrous oxide. 3 (f) GWP of methane is greater than that of carbon dioxide.(c) 2. Change in (animal) diet has altered the emissions from {cattle / sheep}. More {waste in landfills / gas pipes / mining / biogas ) leads to (increased) methane levels. 2 (e) 2. 3. Both increase. 6. 5. 1. 4. 5. More packaging leads to (increased) CFCs. 4. 3. Which keeps the global temperature at a level that can sustain life / eq Increase in gases causes increase in the {heat / infrared energy) trapped in the atmosphere / eq. Correct reference to short and long wave radiation. 3 (d) (Methane) swamps / peat bogs / {paddy / rice} fields / landfill sites / leaking gas pipes / coal mines / tundra {decomposition of organic material / eq}/ leaking biogas digester. more beef burgers eaten.g. Increased emissions from beef cattle because numbers have increased. (Carbon dioxide) respiration / fermentation / combustion of fossil fuels / combustion of C-containing substances / burning forests. 3.

6. (a) (Speciation) is the formation of a new species. 2. 3. Dendrochronology / study of tree rings. Idea of different selection pressures in different environments / suitable example of geographic barrier. 5. 2 4 [6] 12. Pollen analysis / use of pollen. Allopatric 4. (b) (a) 1. Melting of {polar ice / glaciers}. Coral bleaching. 3. Phenological records. 4. Less {sunlight / solar radiation} / blocks out sun. Less photosynthesis. 1. Populations become isolated / reference to reproductive isolation / idea of being unable to interbreed. 4. 2 Dust cloud. Idea of {physiological / behavioural / reproductive / eq} barrier. 6. Credit suitable example of species formed by sympatric speciation such as {polyploidy / Spartina / wheat / primroses}. (b) 1.11. 5. (Speciation) is the {splitting / divergence} of a population. 5. Sympatric 2. 3. Long term weather datasets / (direct) temperature records. Correct reference to temperature and {enzyme action / ectothermy / sex ratios} 3 9 . Sympatric {within a population / occurs without physical separation} AND allopatric requires some form of geographic barrier. Credit suitable example of a species formed by allopatric speciation such as Darwin’s finches. (i) 2. So less food. Got colder / global cooling.

(c) Become more {common / abundant} / grow in different places / altered distribution / spread further {north / south / to different altitudes} / change in breeding patterns. Competition from {other types of animal / mammals}. An example of a valid consequence of this. the greater the breakdown / leaves in the 5 mm mesh {broken down / eq} more quickly than the other bags. leaves remaining in 5 mm mesh was {half / eq} that remaining in {0. Increased volcanic activity. 3.5 mm / 1 mm} mesh / any other valid comparison. 2 3.05 mm continued to break down over entire period / eq. Disease. The bigger the mesh. Comparison of 0.05 in air and 0. 19% more leaves were broken down in 5 mm mesh compared with 61 % in 1 mm mesh. Reference to all decrease. 4. Leading to {more sulphurous gases released / reflection of solar radiation / more carbon dioxide / change in greenhouse effect}. Methane. Oxides of nitrogen / {NOx / NO2 / N2O / NO / named compound}. {volcanic activity / biological methane production / more water vapour in atmosphere / more use of CFCs} / deforestation. 4 . 6.g. In first six months.(ii) 1. 5.g. Credit for suitable comparative manipulation of data e. In {1 mm / 5 mm mesh} no change after {Nov 1989 / May 1990} but 0. 4.05 in soil. (i) 1. Leaves in the air broke down the least. {Temperature / climatic} changes caused by factors other than meteorite collision / named alternative cause of {temperature / climate}. (ii) Increase in solar radiation / change in earth’s magnetic field / change in earth’s angle of rotation / decrease in snow cover / increase in greenhouse gases from a source other than fossil fuels e. 2. 1 (d) 2 1 [11] 13. (a) 2. {Newly evolved animals / mammals} {are better adapted to / can adapt faster to} changing conditions. CFCs / chlorofluorocarbons. (i) Water vapour. 7.

{Soil animals / microorganisms / decomposers} {more numerous / breed more / grow more} in leaves with higher nitrogen content OR leaves with more nitrogen were more {palatable / nutritious} reference to lignin / eq. 4. 4. 3 (d) 2. worms cannot enter the bags with smaller mesh. 2 (b) The higher the nitrogen content {the greater the breakdown / eq}. Releasing {ammonia / ammonium}. Decomposition affected by {climate / weather}. 3. {Nitrobacter / reference to nitrifying bacteria [allow ONCE]} {converts / oxidise} nitrite to nitrate. 1. 2 (c) {Hot / wet} climate increases rate of decomposition so leaves are broken down quickly. 3. 5. [Maximum 2 marks if any reference to nitrogen fixation or Rhizobium] 3 [14] 14.(ii) 1.g. Reference to {temperature / pH} and enzyme activity. 1. {Soil animals / organisms / microorganisms / decomposers} {responsible for the breakdown of the leaves / feed on the The bigger the mesh. Rainforest leaves may have high nitrogen content so are broken down more. 6. 4. {the more animals / larger animals} are able to enter the bags to feed on the leaves / eq. Credit a specific example. {Nitrosomonas / reference to nitrifying bacteria [allow ONCE]} {converts / oxidise} {ammonia / ammonium) to nitrite. Pine needles {may contain inhibitory chemicals / are thick / are waxy / are fibrous / eq}. 2. leaves}. 2. Bag in the air had least breakdown because {fewer / no} {soil animals / organisms / microorganisms / decomposers} could get at the leaves / reference to {lack of moisture / dry air} / eq. 3. {Bacteria / microorganisms / fungi} in soil {breakdown / putrefy / decompose} leaves / reference to bacterial decomposition. Pine needles {do not break down quickly / harder to break down} (so build up on forest floor). e. (a) B C D A Combustion / combusting / burning Respiration / respire / respiring Respiration / respire / respiring Photosynthesis / photosynthesise / photosynthesising [“breathing” negates B or C once] [1 for each correct pair] 2 11 .

(a) 1. {Water / H2O} vapour. 3. melting ice caps. Ozone / O3. 2 (b) Idea of {DNA fingerprinting / genetic fingerprinting / hybridisation / base sequencing / amino acid sequencing / immunological comparison}. {Close / eq} match between {DNA / protein / eq} (of two species). flooding. Reference to different species having different {features / appearance / characteristics}. 3. CFCs (or related gases such as HFC and HCFC). Nitrous oxide / N20. (ii) 1. 2 . Reference to an {increased / enhanced} greenhouse effect. 4. 2 [8] (c) 15. (Because of) {different mating behaviour / different mating seasons / different mating times of year / genetic incompatibility / eq}. 5. Reference to valid {effect / consequence} e. {Takes up / locks up / stores} {carbon / carbon dioxide} (for a long time) / eq. {peat / coal / limestone / trees / fossil fuel / chalk / shells}. climate change. 2 (i) 2.g.(b) 2. 1. Named example e. 2. (Which) {trap / reflect back} {heat / long wave / infra red} (in the atmosphere).g. Unable to {reproduce with each other / mate with each other / interbreed / eq} / cannot produce fertile offspring. Increase in {temperature of earth’s surface / mean global temperature / eq}. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas / due to an increase in greenhouse gases. 2 Methane / CH4.

Reference to founder effect. LANDSAT. {Distribution / abundance / photosynthetic activity} of phytoplankton. 3. 5 [9] 16.g. 5. 14 The deeper the layer the older the pollen in it / use of C dating to date the layers (the pollen is found in). Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner (OCTS). 4. Distribution of (types of) vegetation cover / eq. {Environmental conditions / eq} differ (on either side of the isthmus). 4. (a) The use of satellites to {obtain information about / collect data about / to monitor the earth’s} {global environment / biological change}. (Leads to) {formation / eq} of different {deme / gene pools} / eq. 7. 4 [9] 13 . The greater the {proportion / relative amount} of pollen that is of a particular species the more common it was. 5.(c) 2. (e. Reference to different selective pressures / different {features / alleles} selected in two populations / each population subjected to natural selection. 6. Sea WIFS. The satellites carry (electron) sensors. Example of sensor systems that might be carried in satellites e. 1. Leads to {change / divergence} in {behavioural / physical} {characteristics / appearance}. Reference to genetic drift. 2 3 Pollen analysis / collect pollen grains preserved in peat bogs. Populations {physically / geographically} separated / idea of {barrier / strip of land} separating populations. Two populations {were unable to interbreed / prevented from breeding}.g. 1. 6. 9. Over very {large / inaccessible} areas / example. Pollen from each species {distinctive / can be identified}. Sample widely. cloud / ice cover) (c) 2. Reference to allopatric speciation. Compare with present day distribution of species and climate. 3. (b) {Sea / land} surface temperature. 8.

OR Less carbon dioxide pollution. For up to three marks (for a full explanation with three elements): Less carbon dioxide pollution because it’s just replacing what has recently been absorbed in photosynthesis / other valid explanation of carbon neutrality.17. 1 3 . (ii) For up to one mark: Any valid reference to {less atmospheric pollution / less greenhouse effect / less acid rain} (with biomass) / can grow some more wood. OR Biomass is renewable. For up to two marks: EITHER Biomass is {renewable / eq}. And going on to explain that fossil fuel (on the other hand) {is getting used up / being used up faster that it’s being formed} / eq. Because it’s just replacing what has recently been absorbed in photosynthesis / other valid explanation of carbon neutrality / contributes less to {global warming / greenhouse effect}. Therefore (use of biomass) contributes less to {global warming / greenhouse effect / climate change} (than fossil fuel). And contributes less to {global warming / greenhouse effect}. two errors = 0 marks] (ii) (Willow) coppice / wood / trees / straw / agricultural waste. Whereas fossil fuel represents carbon being returned to the system after being out of circulation for a long time. [do not credit sunflower oil / peat] (b) (i) Idea that: can be carried on long into the future / we can carry on doing it indefinitely / biomass renewable (unlike fossil fuel) will not get used up /fossil fuel will get used up (unlike biomass). (a) B C (i) A Photosynthesis Combustion / burning Respiration [Write a cross by each error in right hand margin] 2 1 [One error = 1 mark.

More CO2 (in the atmosphere) therefore more {global warming / greenhouse effect}. Example of loss (e. Light / infra red / heat source. 2 1 (d) (i) Increased {enzyme / microbial} activity. [Do not credit increased population] (ii) (Increased enzyme activity / decay) means more CO2 released / CO2 released faster than it’s being used up in photosynthesis. Reference to 10% rule / only about 10% of energy of B in C / small proportion passed.67 / 11. 2 [12] 18. 2.5 = 120 1 AND energy in C = 140 × 0. (ii) (a) (i) Energy in B = 80 × 1. 3 [6] 15 . inedible parts. respiration. 2 Less energy in C than in B or A / converse. 4.(c) Computer / data logger.1 = 14. = {11.g. Energy lost between trophic levels. Percentage = 14 ÷ 120 × 100. heat etc).7} %. (b) 1. 3. Due to increased (microbial) respiration. (Stop) clock / timer.

NPP = GPP . (Secondary consumers lose energy when they) move around . (i) 2. 2 (c) Defined area / quadrat. Unstable substrate. 3. {Rate of /eq }production of (new) {biomass / organic material . to {inedible / undigestable} parts / eq . 3. (b) 1. Few species can tolerate. transect). Method for choosing position (e. 4. Plant cannot use all wavelengths of light / eq.19. 2 [10] 20. (Secondary consumers) respire / loss as heat . (Due to) succession.R / eq . Photosynthesis is not efficient /eq . 6. . Some light passes straight through leaf / light does not fall on {chloroplast /chlorophyll} . 5. Number of species rises. Reference to pioneer species. Increased organic matter suits more species. fewer nutrients. 7. (ii) 1. 3. 2. to decomposition of (secondary consumer) / eq . 4. 3 2 (ii) 1. random. (a) (i) Organic matter increases with distance. 2. Reference to increased competition. Light is reflected(away from the leaf) . Method of estimating cover described. Less organic matter. Dominant species (for climate) most abundant. 2 That is available to next trophic level / eq . Ref. Ref.g. 4 2 (b) (Plant community that) no longer changes (in species) composition / eq. 1. (a) 2. Not all of them are eaten / some die(before being eaten) . Up to {500 m / site 4} / falls {beyond 500 m / site 4 / at 650 m / site 5}. Fewer species where good soil due to climax community established. 5. 4. 3.

mowing / eq} that maintains (the sub climax). 7. Total biomass for primary more than total biomass for secondary / use of figures . (ii) 1. Primary has more leaf litter than secondary / eq. to change in habitats . 3. 2. Idea of sub climax / eq 2 Reference to a {factor / activity e. 4. {Leaves / branches} the same for primary and secondary . 2 Not {grazed / eaten}(by the rabbits). {Plants / eq } cannot get established / eq . 6. Primary has more root(biomass) than secondary / eq . 17 . 5. Fewer roots will lead to more soil erosion /eq . Change in types of plants causes change in the types of animals / change in food {chains / webs} . Increase / eq. grazing. Exposure to wind / loss of shelter from wind . (i) 2. 2. 4.g. 3.g. Exposure to {light / wind } changes plant populations /eq . 1 (d) 3 3 (e) 1. The leaf litter is lower so there will be less {nutrient / recycling} . 8. 1. allows more light in . After 25 years the total biomass has not returned to the original value . Correct ref to movements of animals /e. (b) (a) 1. 1. (i) 2. 4. Fewer roots could lead to less water retention / eq . Ref. May lead to soil {erosion / eq} . 2. migration . 3.(c) Does not include energy from {producers / other food chains } / this shows energy from only one food chain / they obtain energy from all trophic levels . 4 [18] 21.

2 [7] 23. (a) 2. 5.(ii) 1. 3. Implies man not special case (ie in God’s image). 3. Different alleles in different breeds / eq. Water loss similar (for all). 4. 4. No clear correlation (between water loss and zonation). 3. 2. Selection pressures not enough. Reference to removal of grazer / eq. Reference to genetic isolating mechanisms. Chance mutations have not happened. Single case. Description of evolution. Description of creationism. 3. Short time span / converse. 3. 4. 1. 4 [8] 22. Reference to comparative figures. [Reject gene] 3 Reference to random mating / fertilisation / eq. Reference to climatic climax / eq. Reference to {competitive effects / change in soil /eq}. 5. 7. Allows {new / different / eq} {species / plants} to {grow / colonise}. Reference to heterozygousity in the offspring. 4. Lack of evidence for evolution / natural selection. Contrary to teaching of Bible. 4. Reference to succession. 6. 2 . (c) 2. (b) 2. Reference to creationism. 1. (a) 2. 2. Will go through several stages / eq. (i) 1. Change in species composition / different food {web /chains} / eq. Appropriate ref to species. 7. Reference to religion. 5. 1. New combinations of alleles / characteristics in offspring. 6.

Parasites. Rock pool C had {95–99%} Enteromorpha and no Chondrus . Callistoma on lower shore. Competition. 6. 4. 2. 2 2 3 19 . 2 [11] 24.(ii) 1. (a) Producer . 4 (c) 2. 1. change} . Walls are thicker the higher up the shore / converse. Any other on higher shore. Enteromorpha remains {low / none little But in Rock pool B it increases {after 4 months/ between 4 and 10 months} and then levels off . Predators. 4. (ii) 1. 3. 3. Thicker cell walls provide tolerance to drying / reject resistance to drying / converse. 5. Primary consumer /herbivore . 2. Cannot tolerate high temperature / loses water too rapidly. Food (supply). AVP. 3 (b) 2. In Rock pool C it falls {after / from} 2 months (through the rest of the period) . One data point does not fit / eq. Grazing animals. Thick wall aiding recovery / converse. (b) (i) [Allow marking points if describe chondrus in B & C & Enteromorphia in B & C] Rock pool B had {40–45%} Chondrus and no Enteromorpha . Seaweed higher on the shore recover better from drying / more tolerant of drying /converse / eq. 3. 4. In Rock pool A. 3. Tolerates higher temperature / conserves water better (not obtusata). 5. 1.

1. incisors for nibbling meat off bones . (i) 2. 1. 1 (c) 1. {premolars / molars/ carnassials} have {sharp edges / eq} for {shearing/eq} . Number of species increase because periwinkles are eating {particular species / Enteromorpha} / periwinkle grazing stops faster growing algae out competing other species .} (Excess nutrients) {stimulates / increases} {algae growth / eq} . In Rock pool B the removal of the periwinkles has removed the grazing. e. {Bacteria / decomposers} increase in number . Death of {fish / other animals} /increase in {animals/named that are adapted to low oxygen conditions. 2. 5. 3. Reference to eutrophication in correct context(as excess {Algae / plants} die . {Bacteria / decomposers} use up oxygen / oxygen level falls / BOD increases . 3. but if used must be correct] 2 2 . nutrients) . 3. 2 (iv) (No Enteromorph) so periwinkles switch to eating Chondrus/ new consumer / ref to specified environmental change . 3. Fertiliser (s) . (b) 1. Number of species decrease because {periwinkles eat all species / periwinkles eating algae faster than they can grow/inedible ones survive / faster growing ones survive} . Maximum number of algal species at periwinkle density of 150 2 2 periwinkles per m / Up to 150 periwinkles per m the number of algal 2 species increases and above 150 periwinkles per m algal species decrease . {long / pointed} canines for {stabbing prey / holding prey / eq} . 4. Detergents (s) . correct comparison of rodents in the diet . 4 [18] 25. correct comparison of {small pets / human food /berries} in the diet . (a) 2. general comparison of the diet [Note: not essential to use figures.(iii) In Rock pool A the periwinkles eat all of the Enteromorpha . so the Enteromorpha can increase in cover / in Rock pool C the Enteromorpha has decreased because the periwinkles have been added to the rock pool . 6. 2 (d) 2 (ii) 1. 3. 2. (Raw) sewage .g. (i) 2.

correct ref to {allopatry /sympatry} 2 (c) 1. 5. [N. 6. 3. contain food for animals / may have hooks which stick to animals fur. 4. 3.B. 4 [10] 26. A suggestion to include three from: reference to seed (not pollen) dispersal by wind / animals. one squirrel is not going to carry an acorn more than a few 100 metres. 6. long time to reach reproductive age / eq. wings / parachute / eq. difference in physical characteristics / dentition . 3. dispersal limited by low number of animals. 3 2. 7. different environmental conditions either side of barrier . (a) 1. [Reject long to grow unqualified] oak requires warmer conditions than pine / differential response to pine against oak. 2. hazel or oak] (b) A suggestion to include two from: 1. for example. 4. reference to a specific adaptation (of fruits) that aid dispersal by wind for example.(ii) diet would provide more energy . reference to a specific adaptation (of fruits) that aid dispersal by animals for example. 2. suitable reference to slowness of climate change / temperatures would rise more slowly / the ice would take longer to melt in the {north / Scotland}. therefore it will take many generations to cover the distance (750 km). the idea that the seeds of a single tree are only carried a short distance. formation of two different gene pools . 2 21 . less time spend {hunting /eq} . need to eat a smaller quantity of food . different selection pressures / different alleles selected for . 5. candidates are not expected to know about how individual species are dispersed but only about adaptations for dispersal in general therefore examples of methods of dispersal need not refer specifically to pine. Interruption of gene flow between rural and urban foxes / rural and urban populations become separated /no breeding between rural and urban foxes . by a barrier / behavioral differences .

(a) Primary consumer Secondary consumer (b) (i) = 5642. 3. 3 [11] 3. 1 (c) (i) 44.5 out of 44.5 + 25. many factors involved / inadequate computing power. [Accept types of pollen are different] reference to method of identifying pollen 2 2. 6. . 4. 2 1980 + 3600 + 62. 27. 2.(c) (i) 1.seed eating birds / grasshopper / field mice. 14.4. they assume that current trends will continue / we cannot be sure current trends will continue.6%.R)/GPP = NPP + R. (ii) pine (pollen) would be in deeper layers than oak. NPP=(GPP . An explanation to include: need to find a place nearby with peat / take a peat core / look at layers in the peat / the deeper the layer the older the pollen / eq.4 – (12. there is only limited amount of long term data used to produce them /eq / older records may have been made with inadequate equipment.4). . 2 Allow full marks for correct answer with no working shown (ii) Either: subtract respiration / 3600. Or: 2042. correct reference to relative abundance of pine / oak pollen 1 (d) An explanation to include three from: 1. something unforeseeable may happen / not all the relevant factors may have been included in the model / appropriate reference to chaos theory.spider. pine and oak pollen look different. Allow full marks far correct answer with no working shown 3 .

freshly picked leaf has {no damage / is complete} and leaf left on compost {damaged / eq}. / denitrification / eq}. ref. into soluble products /eq. {nitrogen compounds / eq} into nitrogen. 2 1. 4 aerobic respiration not possible / only anaerobic respiration possible. mass {decreases / eq}. Small proportion reaches next level / converse. to metabolic loss / eq. {organic material / eq} {digested / hydrolysed / broken down / decomposed / eq} ref.g. suitable manipulation of figures. 3. 2 (d) An explanation to include two from: 1. 2.(ii) Faeces/ indigestible material. Correct use of figures. to {anaerobic / low oxygen} conditions. evaporation / loss of water / ref. saprobionts {feed / eq} on {dead / non-living / eq} (organic) material. (c) 2. Insufficient energy to support another level. that are {absorbed / taken in /eq} {into saprobionts/soak into compost}. to {denitrifying organisms / named e. 2. proteins to amino acids). to {levelling off / gradient less steep} after 4-6 days / converse. 6.g. (a) 2. 5. time needed for saprobionts to {penetrate leaf tissue / secrete enzymes / increase in number / eq}. 2 [12] 28. 1. 4. 3. leaves are freshly picked so are still alive / eq. 3. (ii) (i) 1. 3. ref. 2 [11] 23 . 3. 1. to specific example (e. (saprobionts) secrete enzymes / named eg. 4. 2 1 (iii) (b) 2. ref. Reject ‘inedible parts’ Nitrogenous waste / eq.

29. [7] 30. detail e. any two from: overgrazing / excessive grazing / too much grazing. 6. to choosing intervals. {water evaporates / evaporation} {from surface of soil} leading to {salinisation /brings salts up / deposits salts on surface / eq}. idea of loss of roots loosens soils / eq. 5.g. climate change / global warming. 4. (a) 1. {trampling / eq} compacts soil / removes plants.. (i) (ii) any one valid e. soil blown away / carried away by water. drought / low rainfall / lack of rain / poor irrigation. poor irrigation leads to {change in water content of soil / eq}. loss of {vegetation / eq} due to {overgrazing / climate change / drought / eq}. 3. (a) 1. detail. 4.g. reference to belt transect /ref. 3 valid example eg predators / herbivores / competitors / human factors / grazing / prey / food / parasites. 2. 3. 2/3. 2 1 1 (c) correct example. (b) 2. 4 2 . soil exposed to {wind / water / heat} (from sun). pH / water / minerals / eq / particle size. (b) A description to include three from: suitable method eg quadrat / point quadrat / pitfall trap. 1. 7. percentage cover / counting / abundance scale.

density / frequency / number / species. 3 (c) difference in range 15 – 25 °C / specified difference. to {proteins / DNA }required for {growth / cell division / specified part of plant}. nitrites converted to nitrates by {Nitrobacter / Nitrobac/llus / nitrifying bacteria}. 2. 4.g. 7.g. 3. ref. 4 [10] 31. 4. so no need to fell trees / ref to sustainability. plant fuel crop / eq. 8. 1. 3. both fluctuate in similar pattern / ref to both show a downward trend / eq. 2 25 . {ammonium / ammonia} converted to nitrites by {Nitrosomonas / Nitrococcus / nitrifying bacteria}. 9. rain water harvesting / irrigation.(c) Any two from the following pairs of answers: 1. 12. to stabilise soil / prevent wind erosion / reduce water loss / retain moisture. put in barrier e. 4. control grazing by e. 2. 11. 6. 1. to supply water to livestock / plants / crops / agriculture / eq. 5. compost heap {warmer / higher temperature} than air. to prevent loss of vegetation cover / eq. (b) 2. (a) 1. laying {straw mats / stones / gravel / eq} over ground / add water-retaining material. 3 by active transport and diffusion. 3. ref. used for {synthesis / eq} of {amino acid / protein / DNA / organic base / chlorophyll / eq}. idea that plants can survive. to oxidation in correct context. planting wind breaks / hedges / trees / shelter belt / stones / walls / fence. 3. to {absorbed / taken in / eq} by root hairs. ref. (i) 2. 10. to reduce wind speed / provide shelter to crops. use {plants that are drought resistant / native species / eq}. {proteins / amino acids / organic nitrogen compounds / eq} {broken down / decomposed / converted} to {ammonium / ammonia} by {bacteria / fungi / putrifiers / microorganisms / decomposers / eq}.

carbon dioxide / methane / CFCs / nitrogen oxides / water vapour.g. 3. NOT ‘air temperature’ / ‘atmosphere’ due to the increase in greenhouse gases. ref. ACCEPT correct formula: CO2 / CH4 / NOx IF ozone / sulphur dioxide mentioned. 2. 2. the rise in the (average) temperature of the Earth’s surface. 3. reference to {enhanced / increased} greenhouse effect. 3 [4] 33. 2 3 . named organism appropriate to habitat. (a) 1. 3. to insulation effect of {compost / container}. (b) 2. appropriate technique for measuring distribution of organism in the habitat e. to {respiration / metabolic activity} of microorganisms. (i) 2. 1. 5. 2 [12] 32.(ii) 1. 3. DO NOT AWARD this marking point 4. peaks and troughs in the abundance for both correspond. generalists always greater than specialists. overall trend generalists increased in abundance and specialists decreased. (b) (which) {trap / reflect back / absorb } {heat / long wave / infra red / radiation}. abiotic are {physical / non-living / chemical / eq}. 2 (iii) ANY TWO FROM: {reduced food / substrate / toxin / inhibitor / more waste product / competition / more anaerobic / less oxygen / cooling effect of rain / change in water / change in pH}. 1. (a) biotic involve {other organisms / living / eq}. 1 specified abiotic factor and means of measuring abiotic factor / named apparatus/eq. (which) releases heat. ref. {belt / transect / systematic / stratified} sampling..

2 1 (c) not enough room to keep planting enough forest to use up all the surplus CO2. 1. 3 comma once found only in the warmer south. (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) (a) (i) photosynthesis. combustion. burning wood releases carbon recently absorbed (by photosynthesis) / burning fossil fuels releases CO2 trapped a long time ago / eq.(ii) 1. carbon dioxide in (roughly) equals carbon dioxide out. 2 [9] 27 . generalists more able to {exploit new habitats / adapt / larger niche}. 3 [11] 34. 2. (global warming) reduces the number of predators (so more commas survive). 3. {climate change / temperature} has favoured generalists. in the end the forest will die and decay / be burnt by humans. 5. 4. specialists have lost their specific habitat. 5. 3. specialists have lost a food source. (global warming has) increased {food supply /egg plants / habitats} of the comma. other butterflies cannot survive so well so comma outcompetes them / moves to avoid intraspecific competition / eq. {weather /predation / common food} has effected both groups of butterflies. 4. respiration. a {mature/fully grown} forest is carbon neutral / only {young / growing} forest is a net absorber / eq. decomposition. (global warming) produces milder winters further north / eq. (c) 2. (ii) burning wood does not add to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere / does not cause a net increase. 4 (i) (coal contains) carbon that has been taken from the atmosphere (in the past) / carbon that has been taken out of circulation (in the carbon cycle).

changes in solar radiation.g.0 °C extrapolated as a straight line) for subtracting to get increase using own figures (e.. 3 3 (iii) .g volcanic eruption / sharper than expected change in fossil fuel consumption / changes in solar radiation. 1.. for correctly reading both points off the candidates own extrapolated graph.5 = 0. greenhouse effect and the possible role of burning fossil fuels): As for two marks but also: widely believed that (some clear implication that it may not be the only explanation) current global warming is due to {enhanced/increased} greenhouse effect due to raised CO2 concentration (of the atmosphere) / global warming may be caused by something other than greenhouse gases e.35.6 °C) including units. ALLOW any reasonable attempt to use figures to make a valid point about predicting future climate from these data.g. (would expect 0. numerical evidence taken from graph to illustrate an occasion when the temperature fell approx 1900 to 1908 or approx 1945 to 1970. line not based on long enough series of data / older data may be less accurate / reliable.2 °C for 2020 if extrapolated as a curve or 1. Three marks (makes the contrast with some detail and which clarifies fact and conjecture and clearly disentangles global warming.1-0..5 °C for 2000 and around 1. 3 (b) (ii) (i) any reasonable attempt at a J shaped curved best fit line. assumes present trend continues. 1 credible attempt at extrapolating the line as a curve. Two marks – As for one mark plus further detail: Global warming is {an increase in global mean surface temperature/ average of measurements made in many different places throughout the world} / current global warming may be due to (anthropogenic) burning of fossil fuel / global warming is a fact whilst greenhouse effect is a theory / two greenhouse gases named. (graph shows) that temperature has fluctuated (over period 1880–2000). some unpredictable event may affect trend e. (a) One mark (an honest attempt to make the contrast): Global warming is a (general) increase in the temperature of the atmosphere / environment whereas greenhouse effect (is a way of explaining) explain why it is happening/the trapping of heat (in the atmosphere) / greenhouse effect is how the sun keeps the Earth warm whereas global warming is an increased greenhouse effect / greenhouse effect causes global warming.

2 [12] 36. (as grows) / eq. more photosynthesis tissue. suitable explanation e. (After 2 days) GPP and NPP diverge/eq. may affect supply of food plants / prey species / predators.(c) enzymes temperature sensitive / damaged by high temperature.g. figures in support. change of sex ratio in reptiles / crocodiles. 2 (b) GPP-NPP=R /eq. figures in support. to herbivores. 2 (ii) more energy is used in metabolism/eq in {older / bigger} plants. protein synthesis/flower initiation/ differentiation / ref. (a) (i) GPP and NPP similar to start with. may give competitor an advantage. may affect water availability. biomass production reduced by respiration / eq. both increase. 2 [6] 29 . damage to enzymes may affect respiration / metabolic activity / photosynthesis / supply of energy.

. A1 Global warming is happening at present/the surface air temperature/sea temperature is getting warmer: B1a B1b Depth: max 8 marks These marks are awarded to candidates for demonstrating an understanding of relevant A level biological detail expanding on the areas of biology introduced in A. Discussion of the natural carbon cycle and how human activity may be changing the natural balance. If a relevant B point is awarded then the corresponding A point should also be awarded. Breadth: max 6 marks These marks are to be awarded to the candidate if they successfully introduce the general area of Biology relevant to the essay title. B1c B1d B1e A2 Climate change may cause sea levels to rise B2a B2b B2c A3 Global warming has happened in the past B3a B3b Plenty of data from direct records going back over >100 years/pollen analysis/dendrochronology/ice cores.37. This list is not exhaustive but is designed to give an idea of the type of response worthy of credit for a (B) mark. Allow a maximum of 4 B marks per corresponding A mark. Explain the possible link between greenhouse gases and global warming. Might be the result of humans burning fossil fuels but could be due to other nonanthropogenic causes/the contribution of CO2 emissions due combustion of fossil fuel to global warming is difficult to evaluate. Key ideas to look for are in bold type – the candidate need only show evidence that he or she realises that key idea is appropriate in the essay to gain a breadth (A) mark. Loss of agricultural land due to sea level rise Increased sea flooding may result in salt contamination of agricultural land Only plants with halophytic adaptations / modifications may be able to survive in many areas There was global warming at the end of Ice Age: Ice Age ended (in UK) about 10 000 BC/12 000 BP/12 thousand years ago [accept +/– 2000y]. Climate change related to global warming includes changes/increased temperature and {changes in rainfall pattern}/some places become drier/wetter.

(In UK) from tundra to forest/species entered UK across land bridge. Some species may grow further north/at higher altitude. Extinction rate currently extremely high. Species lost (from a particular place/example) will be replaced by ones from further South. maize will grow/already growing further north. (tundra to forest in UK) in a few thousand/anything in the range 2000 to 5000 years. (Agricultural) Winners and losers: Some places will no longer be as good for agriculture as they are now/will become deserts/ some places will be better for agriculture/desertification may take place.g. Example to illustrate B4d. B4b B4c B4d B4e B4f A5 Reference to succession as a way ecosystem/vegetation may change. B5 A6 Some species will face extinction/ population decline. Farmers in a particular place will grow different crops /keep different (domestic) animals. sub-Saharan Africa/Spain/Mediterranean area Grow more maize/sunflowers in Scotland Overgrazing/effects of (human) 31 . Ref to animal migration compared to plant dispersal. Example to illustrate e.B3c B3d A4 Some species survive by change in distribution /{growing / living} elsewhere B4a Examples to illustrate the scale of the effect e. B6a B6b B6c A7 Effects on Agriculture B7a B7b B7c B7d Example to illustrate candidates response to B7c e.g. new species arrives and outcompetes indigenous species/{new species/loss of old species} may change/modify the (ecological) conditions/specific example. How habitat fragmentation may make species dispersal/migration/succession harder than in the past. Reference to time scale e.g. Species on mountain tops/northern coast may have nowhere to migrate to.g. Species may lose niche/habitat etc and may not be able to adapt/compete well enough to survive/ effects of disrupted food chains. Example to illustrate how succession works e.g. Appropriate reference to seed dispersal in enabling plant species to grow somewhere else.

g. Disruption of breeding cycles/animals may hatch at a different time to their prey species/{seeds may not germinate/ plants may not flower} without cold stimulus Correct reference to mutations/random change in genes/DNA change. .A8 Pests/animal vectors/weeds may become more numerous/spread north/become more widespread. Behaviour of plants and/or animals may change (Wild species) may change by evolution/natural selection. ‘new’ genes might provide new adaptations that will enable the species to survive /compete better with pre-existing species. Examples of species which might benefit e. Witch weed (in Africa)/mosquitoes carrying malaria (further north) / other suitable examples of specific plants or animals. B8 A9 B9 A10 B10a B10b overpopulation in {marginal areas/eq/the Sahel} made even worse/more severe.

g. Unpacking the question: the focus of this of this question is on the biological effects including agricultural consequences of global warming. Nor is it primarily about whether global warming is taking place or not although observing that it is clearly taking place and mentioning some of the evidence for this could be a good place to start. for example. Qualification e.g. 33 . But it should be possible to identify precisely where each C mark has been awarded by.B10c A11 There will be loss of biodiversity B11a B11b A12 Plant breeding/GM will produce new varieties able to cope with new conditions B12a B12b A13 Reference to computer models to predict climate change B13 (Struggle for survival and survival of the fittest) – the individuals which survive will provide genes for future generations/will reproduce faster than the original variants. To be awarded a mark for each of the points below a candidate must have made the point in bold type and to have qualified it sufficiently to show they know what they mean – the material that is not in emboldened is intended to illustrate how the idea might be qualified rather than a prescriptive mark scheme. writing C1 or C2 on the script. (some models predict) drier in SE England wetter in Scotland. Species will become extinct faster than new ones evolve so there will be fewer species in the world (Why loss of biodiversity matters) means loss of genes/genetic variation limiting {evolutionary change/ability to adapt in the future/source of genes for use in plant breeding/GM in the future Outline description of how plants may be modified through genetic modification and/or details of selective breeding. The C points might be made as discrete points in the introduction and/or conclusion or indirectly as part of the way the factual material has been presented in the body of the essay. Example: produce drought resistant/temperature resistant varieties with heat resistant enzymes/salt tolerance (in context of rising of sea level/similar examples. only make predictions not provide certainty/predictions continually improving/derived from a lot of data/based on extrapolation of current trends/specific example e. Some of the points below might have already have been awarded a mark under B but the C mark is for making connections. It is not primarily about the greenhouse effect nor issues surrounding combustion of fossil fuels although these may gain a mention when discussing uncertainties and difficulties of making predictions.

dispersal and natural selection took care of it bringing change not catastrophe. to education about global warming. The global warming which ended the last Ice Age was much greater than the current global warming predictions Linked to C3: Yet successional processes.C1 C2 Might not be as bad as all that – e.. . C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 Might be a catastrophe for the human race but not for the global ecosystem: Linked to C7: the world is already over-populated/ climate change could result in mass human starvation/war over dwindling resources and dry land/collapse of world economy/much of world’s population lives in places likely to be flooded by rising sea level.. The rate of change may happen too fast for biological processes like dispersal. Linked to C1: because of several possible scenarios e. C12 Linked to C11: A lot of scientists are studying global warming and climate change so we know what needs to be done/GM technology will be used to produce crops able to survive in a warmer climate/we shall adapt our {homes/cities/energy sources/ways of producing food}. the meteor/asteroid which is said to have caused the demise of most of the Dinosaurs when it collided with the earth might well have accelerated the evolution of mammals – including humans. In the past what appears to be catastrophic has led to major evolutionary change/ has been ecologically/biologically creative. Humans have fragmented natural habitats making it more difficult for living organisms to disperse as the climate changes. But the ecosystem. There might be fewer humans but they might be an evolutionary improvement! C11 Science and Technology will cope – it always does. C9 C10 Linked to C9: For example. succession and evolution to keep pace and this may disrupt ecosystems/make it more difficult to feed the world’s human population/lead to greater loss of biodiversity than previous climatic change/Ice Age. unhindered by the negative effects of humans could become more stable/have more biodiversity.g {if Atlantic conveyor/Gulf Stream breaks down UK will be much colder otherwise UK will be warmer}/{future levels of anthropogenic CO2 production from fossil fuel are difficult to predict/if humans reduced CO2 production from fossil fuels may take time to make a difference}/ Ref.g the extent of global warming is difficult to predict.

A collection of information with little or no attempt to link ideas together. max 2 idea of {carbon / carbon dioxide} {locked away / stored} / eq. [20] 38. idea that energy is required. 1 mark: Some relevant information is presented in an intelligible way using correctly formulated simple sentences. for {many years / a long time / eq}. (i) 1. clarity and expression of the answer: maximum of 4 marks This strand will award students for style of their answer and is quite distinct from mentioning the big ideas (C). 2 2 1 (c) 2. which tends to be disjointed. punctuation and grammar. 24 391 ÷ 37. photosynthesis. reference to respiration. but tends to be a collection of information which. for synthesis of {molecules / eq} / movement / active transport}. although relevant. Good spelling. 3 marks: Good logical structure with good spelling. 4 marks: A truly synoptic essay which links together information from different parts of the specification in a coherent and logical style (introduction.2 × 10 ha. 2. 0 marks: The use of English is not adequate to convey scientific information beyond naming a list of examples. (b) (ii) (a) 1.D: Coherence. tends to be disjointed and only partly attempts to synthesise information. 6 642. reference to respiration (of some of the organic material). good use of paragraphs and well illustrated by examples).98. grammar and sound use of technical terminology. 2. A candidate who has scored some marks (particularly in strand A) for mentioning some relevant points may nevertheless fail to score marks in strand D if he or she fails to form simple sentences. punctuation. 2 35 . correct organism. 3. (d) 1. grammar and sound use of technical terminology. punctuation. It isn’t what candidates say but how they say it. Conclusion. bacteria / fungi / saprophyte / saprobiont / decomposer / suitable. 2 marks: A reasonably coherent account that includes satisfactory spelling.

1. (b) 2. 5. (different) {species / types} of {tree / forest}. idea that aerobic respiration involved. 4. temperature. 3. 1. reference to {enhanced / eq} greenhouse effect.(e) 2. 4. 5. 4. 2. (a) (i) {total biomass / eq} produced / {[energy / eq} taken in. {carbon dioxide / carbonate} concentration. 3.. 6. reference to (different) light intensity. (ii) 1. named aquatic pollutant. light duration / eq. max 4 [15] 39. reference to global warming / increase in mean temperature (of Earth’s surface). 6. max 2 idea of less carbon dioxide {fixed / taken up / eq} by photosynthesis. (more) dead material provides more nutrients which leads to an increase in microorganisms / eq. 4. light intensity. pH. (different) tree density / number of trees. max 3 . carbon dioxide builds up in {upper atmosphere / troposphere}. reference to (different) day lengths. 7. 2 by action of {bacteria / microoorganisms / eq}. max 2 (dead plant material) is decomposed / eq. 7. (f) 2. 8. description of the greenhouse effect. (different) {ages / maturity / size / eq} of forests. 5. 1. (different) {climates / rainfall / temperatures / eq}. any two other valid reasons. 6. light wavelength. by {plants / producers / photosynthesis / eq}. 3. 7. (different) carbon dioxide concentration / eq. reference to carbon dioxide as greenhouse gas. 3. {respiration / combustion of {fossil fuels / trees}} continues to release carbon dioxide.

(d) (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 3. 4. use of manipulated data. 3. 1. {algae / eq} may die down in winter. (ii) 1. 4. both show increase as distance (from headwaters) increases. valid comparisons possible. fish population {falls / eq}. 2. easy so can be repeated. 3. 1. 4. (higher CR indicates) more {detritus / eq}. reference to sampling. in winter CR increases {greatly / eq}. max 3 [17] 2.(c) (i) 2. gradient. in summer only {slight increase / eq}. 2 max 3 40. max 2 idea that {more leaves / detritus / eq} added with distance from source / more leaves shed in winter / (more dead material because) algae die down in winter. 2. more algae means more {grazing invertebrates / eq}. far increased {bacterial / eq} activity. 2 37 . fixed / constant area. 5. CR {higher / increases} (in winter). CR in winter {usually greater/eq} than in summer. high GPP indicates {high algal population / eq}. GPP {increases as distance (from headwaters) increases / higher in Motueka River}. (a) 1. (because) algae release oxygen by photosynthesis. reference to {decay / eq} (of detritus and/or algae) uses up oxygen. 1. more food (for fish / trout). sampling along changing conditions / environmental max 2 systematic sampling /random sampling does not show distribution / eq. (ii) 1. (b) 2.

different species present. 1 2. 3.4g more matter. / reproductive isolation /eq. 4. 8. few species near beach. 5. increased water holding. 1. credit figures (e. mineral content). 1. (might be) climax community / mature community. leopards know no boundaries. (c) 2. different communities at different distances. 2. isolation of populations. 6. max 3 1. max 3 (d) 2. max 2 [6] .g. tourism / eq. 3. suited to more species further from beach. few dominant species.(c) 2. 17 more species). 4. requires co-ordination between governments / eq. (government might have) different needs for local populations / different wealth of countries / eq. (b) (a) same genus / reflects close relationship /eq. 9. 1. 3. (government might have) different approaches to conservation / e. 3. 7. 5. 5. 4. different selection pressures / eq. more species in 5 / converse. reference to competition. reference to pioneer species. consequence of increased organic matter (e. (reference to effects of local conditions on) allele frequencies. more organic matter in 5 / converse.g. mutations cannot pass between populations. 3 times more plants. organic matter (increase with distance from beach). more coverage by plants in 5 / converse. max 5 [12] 41. 4.g. genetic drift / founder effect.

2. NOT decay combustion. natural gas / coal / lignite / anthracite. (g) 2. 2 1 NO. B C (b) 2. respiration / decomposition / putrefaction. none of the habitats supported all three species. 6. credit any correct manipulation of data. correct manipulation of data e. (a) A photosynthesis. idea of ensuring future supplies / last a long time / eq. 4. 3 overall trend {increasing / eq}. 5. 4. 3. 2. planting willow allows woodcock to appear / eq. 1. 5. the {peaks and troughs / fluctuations} of the graphs do not match / eq. 3. (e) (f) 2. (energy crops) are a renewable resource / eq. {traps / eq} {heat / infrared / eq} (in the atmosphere) / eq. 1. because: (d) methane / CFC / nitrous oxide / water vapour / eq. 3. idea of meeting present needs. 1. max 2 planting willow {removes / eq} lapwing / eq. there are fluctuations on both graphs / eq. planting willow increases the numbers of snipe /eq.42. increase from 1983 (with some fluctuations). max 3 6 (c) YES. there is an overall increasing trend in both graphs / eq. period of {increase and decrease / fluctuation} between {1973 / 1974} and {1982 / 1983 / 1984 / 1985}.g. max 3 [16] 39 . 3. {steady / linear / eq} increase to {1973 / 1974}. overall 58 × 10 barrels per day. because: 1. decrease between 1979 and 1983. max 2 1.

43. 4. 2. (isolating mechanisms) prevent interbreeding (between species / populations) / barrier to reproduction / eq. during {meiosis / eq}. (postzygotic mechanisms) allow {mating / fertilisation / eq} / eq. 2 [8] max 3 3 (c) . 1. but mule {is sterile / cannot produce offspring}. (a) 1. 3. idea that species is group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring / eq. 3. 1. 63. [max 2 from the following three marking points] cannot form gametes /eq. (b) 2. but prevent production of {viable / fertile} offspring / prevent offspring developing / eq. (because) chromosome pairing not possible / eq. 2.

ESSAY MARK SCHEME Outline scheme for marking essay 11 available for Scientific content (S) 2 available for Balance (B) 2 available for Coherence (C) Scientific content (S) 11 (good) Description The essay demonstrates a sound understanding of the topic and contains a significant amount of material from most areas of the mark scheme. and examples where appropriate. it is very unlikely that a balance mark of more than 1 is appropriate. An above average essay. The essay contains little or no relevant information from the A2 content. The essay includes a good balance of material from several areas of the mark scheme. An essay containing A2 content only can be awarded a max of 7 for scientific content. including A2 content. including A2 content. The candidate links together some facts and principles. An essay containing AS content only can be awarded a max of 3 for scientific content. including A2 content. Suitable examples are included and the candidate has clearly and coherently linked together information from different parts of the specification. The essay includes some generally factually accurate and relevant material.44. No correct or relevant material is included. S = 11 marks 41 . There may be some minor factual errors. or 3 is awarded. The essay includes relevant information from some areas of the mark scheme. The A2 content. 9 (above average) 7 (average) 5 (below average) 3 (poor) 1 (poor) 0 (poor) Note: If a scientific content mark of 0. but the essay lacks depth and accuracy. There are some correct facts. lacks depth and accurate details. 1. in particular. There are very few correct facts. The essay is generally superficial and inaccurate. and there is some attempt to link material from more than one area of the mark scheme. with accurate content. Some examples are included. There may be some minor factual errors.

Some discussion of each of the areas chosen. punctuation and grammar are generally sound Essay style not used Material in note form or numbered points Very poor standard of spelling. Some irrelevant material included.Balance (B) 2 Most of the main topic areas outlined are covered Some discussion of each of the areas chosen. continuous prose used throughout Essay has an introduction and a conclusion. punctuation and grammar are sound Material is presented in an orderly way and some ideas developed Continuous prose used throughout The introduction and conclusion may be present. Some errors Very limited account. possibly only one aspect chosen Material mostly irrelevant No examples of the candidate linking information from different topics Large number of errors B = 2 marks 1. food chains and food webs. Few. There are some examples which link together different areas of the specification. illustrated with suitable examples where appropriate Material included is all relevant to the topic and the candidate has linked information from more than one area of the specification. 0 Coherence (C) 2 Material logically presented. if any. errors Some of the main topic areas outlined are covered. with little or no repetition Essay has coherence. punctuation and grammar C = 2 marks 1 0 Energy flow and succession in ecosystems introduction could include references to producers and consumers. summing up the main points Technical terms have been used correctly Spelling. but brief Technical terms are used and generally in the correct context Spelling. ideas are developed well. succession as changes in community structure over time – AS outline of autotrophic nutrition – roles of producers and consumers – food chains and food webs – how energy is transferred through food chains and food webs – why energy is lost between trophic levels – .

1.A2 ecosystems are dynamic and subject to change – example of succession (grassland or abandoned farmland to woodland) – seral stages – plagio and climatic climax communities – Scientific content 11 marks Balance 2 marks Coherence 2 marks [15] 45. the deeper the layer the older (the layer)/ eq. increased population due to increased food supply / decreased population due to reduced food supply. max 3 [7] max 2 3. 4. 2. 5. (a) 2. the rate of hatching {increases with temperature up to / peaks at} 28 °C. 4. (ii) (i) 1. 46. (b) 2. some enzymes distorted / denatured (above 28 °C). increased population due reduced predation / reduced population due to increased predation. at places where the present temperatures are currently less than 28 °C global warming would increase populations / hatching rate. increased enzyme activity up to 28 °C. alder trees grow well in wet places / eq. (reduced hatching) so reduced population of adults at temperatures over 28 °C. (c) 2. 3. 3. 43 . (a) 1. 1. reference to optimum temperature. disrupting metabolic / physiological processes. max 1 1 use of (radio)carbon dating of the peat. as the temperature increases above 28 °C hatching rate decreases. early hatching means population out of synchronisation with food supply causing decrease / eq. max 2 enzymes have an optimum temperature/ are temperature sensitive.

find out which species of insect live in warm places (today). increased CO2 release further increases global warming. max 2 (b) (ii) 1. 2. 3. max 2 (c) competition from other plants advancing from the south. 1.64 / 92. reference to increased numbers of such insects in upper layers of ( peat). . 2. estimate [insect numbers of each species in each layer. population A exclusively mates within the same population. reference to microsatellites / restriction enzymes cut DNA predictably. (i) 2. 3.6 /92.65 / 93.8 92. (a) 1. inherit DNA from male parent /eq. 1. 5. populations B and/or C will breed with each other. ref to small sample size in population C). (loss of habitat as) cannot migrate/disperse northwards.g. doesn’t change during life / eq. 2. identify the insects.6 + 38. reference to limitations in data (e. male fish have unique DNA. 1. 4. max 3 (i) 2. 47. 4. 3. therefore limiting growth/ increase in biomass / eq. max 1 will use up stored food / starch / sugar (in respiration) faster than it can be replaced (by photosynthesis).(b) 2.2 + 11. 3. 4. 2 all females are more likely to mate with a male from same population / eq. max 2 [7] (ii) 1. 63/68 × 100. share DNA fingerprint characteristics /eq. OR 42.

all mating within population /eq. speech provides better communication / eq. greater reproductive success / converse. reference to better social interactions / eq. 3. natural selection as a mechanism of change since creation less controversial. 4. main food chain: phytoplankton – Calanus . (a) (i) 1. 3. 3. 2. reference to accumulation of differences /changes.sand eel – herring /cod with arrows pointing showing direction of energy flow. inclusion of any two other organisms at correct trophic level with appropriate arrows. (i) 2. 1. 49. 5. evidence for natural selection can be observed / more evidence for natural selection. reference to relationship of man to animals / eq. 3.(c) 2. distinction between microevolution and macroevolution (new taxa) / eq. trophic levels indicated correctly in any comprehensible way. 2. max 4 [11] 48. more likely to become genetically different. reference to definition of a species. evolution is controversial because it contradicts creation story / eq. 6. 45 . 4. max 2 [7] max 3 max 2 (ii) 1. 4. 3 2. 1. reference to (selective) advantage. undermines teaching of bible / ref creation story in Genesis. 3. no gene flow. 4. reference to age of the world / time of evolution. reference to reproductive isolation. reference to influence of religion on politics / legal system. (b) (a) 1.

light intensity or day length. (iii) 1. each cod eats many times its own mass of sandeels (in its life time) / eq. productivity is limited by temperature (in May). . more minerals / eq. (ii) suitable wavelengths. reference to another limiting factor e. 6. 1 (i) grams (organic) carbon per square metre.(ii) 1. max 2 max 3 1 (c) (ii) 1. reference to grazing by {zooplankton / Calanus} (in July). more appropriate temperature. reference to other variables that may affect productivity e. 3. there is a (weak) correlation between temperature and productivity.g. 3. the increase / decrease in productivity starts earlier than the increase in temperature. 2. more light (intensity). depletion of mineral ions. energy loss through respiration / heat / faeces / not all potent/al prey get eaten. 5. appropriate reference to data to illustrate points made. reduced (solubility) of carbon dioxide. max 2 production of ATP / DNA / nucleotides / phospholipids / membranes. more carbon dioxide dissolved in the water.g. (b) (i) 2. 5. max 2 1. fewer zooplankton. photoperiod. 3. 4. 4. 4. when {energy / nutrients / organ/c matter} passes from one trophic level to another only some /s passed on / eq. 2. 3. 2. larger number of sandeels (than cod) / removal of cod by fishing. increase in productivity is more gradual than the increase in temperature.

max 2 (mean) size of (adult) cod will get less /eq. (i) 2. lower oxygen concentration. 4. 1. example of change in behaviour. recovered to over half of the 1963 level in less than ten years. max 2 [20] 5. 47 . 3. low temperature optimum of its enzymes / eq. herring stocks were in (steep) decline prior to {the ban / 1978}. cod may {mature/become sexually mature} earlier/at a smaller size.(d) 2. life cycle out of seasonal synchrony with the species it feeds on / {reproductive / migratory} behaviour / eq.g. 4. use of figures e. but recovered rapidly/eq once fishing was controlled. increased respiration rate may increase food requirement/deplete stored food reserves more quickly. less food available / more predation / eq. 1. 3. meanwhile cod stocks (which were not controlled) remained low. (e) max 2 (ii) 1. 3. genes for smallness/early maturity passed on to the next generation /eq. 4. 2.

2. 3 1 (c) GPP = NPP + R . 3. (ii) {enter / used in} {Photosystem II / PSII}. 5. leads to formation of carbohydrate. 4. 6.50. A granum Accept grana (stack) / thylakoids / thylakoid membrane Reject grain C oil droplet Accept lipid {droplet / drop} Reject fat B stroma Reject stoma (b) (i) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. {GALP / TP/eq} is the carbohydrate. after {excitation by light / absorption of light}. ref to reduction of CO2. 2. 3. after fixation of CO2 by RuBP (to produce GP / G3P/eq). 1. (a) Function Photophosphorylation Stores non-carbohydrate organic material Carbon fixation Label letter A C B Name of structure granum oil droplet stroma Award 1 mark per correct row as in the table above. 4. 1. (reduced NADP / eq) used to reduce {GP / G3P/eq}. which were used in production of reduced NADP. in Calvin cycle. 2 3 Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. replace electrons lost by chlorophyll.

Accept any working that would give correct answer eg (37 800 / 100) × 85 = 32 130 37 800 – 32 130 = or (37 800 / 100) × 15 = (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. less minerals available farther from equator. 3 2. 4. Chondrus increases / Chondrus has low percentage where Ascophyllum has high percentage/eq. Ascophyllum still present in low tidal regions. 1. 49 . {less water available / lower rainfall} farther from equator.. lower temperatures farther from equator. less light available farther from equator. (ii) (a) (i) C 1 Award one mark for each of the following points in context of whether or not statement was chosen to a maximum of three marks. 51. Correct working with incorrect answer = 1. 2 [13] 2 Statements must use comparative terms. 3. 3. as Ascophyllum decreases. Accept converse statements. 1. 2. no data to say how Fucus grows when not covered by water.(d) (i) Correct answer (with or without working) = 2 marks mark Answer: 5 670.

(b) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. ref to pollution. tree types can be identified from their pollen. 4. 3. 4 [10] 52. light intensity. reference to little fluctuation in the pollen data from different ages. 2 (i) (ii) D 1 (b) Award one mark for each of the following points in context. 5. reference to suitable technique for the organism. 1. 2. 1. eg use of quadrat. nature of rock / substratum/eq. aspect/eq. 3. stated measurement. 1. salinity/eq. pollen only produced by {fully-grown / mature/eq} trees. 3. 2 (c) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of four marks. 5. 2. trees need to {grow/eq} for a long time before maturity/eq. transect. reference to a safety procedure. 6. 7. reference to systematic sampling. 8. reference to two abiotic measurements. 2. 6. 2 . slope/eq. 4. 2. detail of method. suitable named organism linked with habitat. (a) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 7. reference to distributed across several climatic zones. 1. temperature.

pine is only found in southern boreal and temperate regions (in present day). (southern boreal and temperate regions) are warmer climates. 8. reference to a change between 8 700 and 6 390 years ago. 1.(c) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of five marks. (larch / spruce) are only found in boreal and northern temperature regions (in present day). pine was not growing but has become established more recently. 7. idea that dendrochronology uses evidence from {tree / annual} rings. 6. 2 [12] 53. climate has become warmer/eq. 5. 3. (boreal and temperate regions) are cold climates. {density / thickness/eq} of rings changes with climatic conditions / thicker ring indicates warmer year. 2. 4. 5 (d) Award one mark for each of the following points. 1. 2. {larch / spruce} were growing but died out/eq. (a) (i) reproductive isolation 1 Accept reproductively isolated (ii) (iii) species allele frequency Accept % allele frequency Reject gene frequency % gene frequency 1 1 51 .

use of example of an adaptation from information. (a) (i) Correct answer (with or without working) = 2 marks Answer: 51. 7. reference to mutation. 3. process of selection continues {in each generation / over many generations}. can be caused by named example of a mutagen. 2 2 .(b) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of five marks. 8. 4. allele frequencies of {favourable/eq} increases. 5 (c) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. idea that as a result of temperature increase (to a max) length of lifecycle decreases. 2. different selective pressures.9% (accept 52% or 51. 3. correct use of term natural selection. 1. different (environmental) conditions in the different areas. 9. 1. some fish better adapted than others (in each population).88%) Correct working with incorrect answer = 1 mark Accept any working that would give correct answer eg 179 / 345 × 100 = 52% (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. idea that length of life cycle is dependant on metabolic rate of blow fly. and pass on their {alleles / genes} (to next generation). 6. 4. 4. these more likely to survive to breed. as temperature increases (up to an optimum) enzyme activity increases. metabolic rate is determined by enzyme activity/eq. 1. 5. 3. 2. change in {base / eq} sequences in DNA. 2. 2 [10] 54. can occur during {DNA replication / cell division}.

5. 2. 1. 6. 3. ref. oxygen. 1. 4.(iii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 4. 2. 3. as each organism feeds it changes the body / environment this allows conditions suitable for colonisation/growth of other species ref to other organisms eg microbes in plant succession many early species are replaced over time in this case most of the early insects remain as others colonise suitable reference to climax community in plants {longer timescale / larger area} in plants 3 [13] 53 . 7. Muscle cells deprived of oxygen Respiration becomes anaerobic/reference to lactic acid Fall in pH Inhibits enzymes ATP no longer produced Bonds between muscle proteins become fixed 3 (c) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 5. 1. to genetic differences. 3. 2. 6. 4. humidity. 2 (b) Award three marks for the following in context. drugs.

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