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P. V. BAPAT, M.A., Ph.D.
of P"Ii, Frrcnsson Poona
ailor, SHI'lfnipat<l (Droaniig4ri dllion)
19) 7
P,inled by
J. C. S .. lr.hd. al.he
Orlcnl.] Pt_ Lid.
9. Panchn. n Chooc Lan".
Calcutt ...
My Friend and Colleague
A Great Lover of Oriental Learning
Professor of Philosophy. Emeritus
Harvard University

r" .
. i "., ~ ' " \ i }
, 'I;I
h ~ '
trfH.,' .....
J.o/ . ?
' ,s"/!:
. , ..
I am submitti ng in the 0 Thwing pages the results of my
Comparative Study of Upatissa's Vimuttimaggn in the ChiuC6C
'l'rauslal.ion with llmldhaghoaa's VisUthlhinmh'll"n. 'l' l!ey re-
present ill the main my Dissertation submitted in 1932 to Ule
Harvard University, Call1britlge, MaS!!. U.S.A., in lJatiia.1 {ulfil-
JIlent of the rcquirclIleni.s for the Docturate of Philosophy, The
five years tllat have elapsed since 1932 have heen utilised ill
M('uring new ma terial on the subject nnd considerable
have been made in the light of this lIew material.
Just about ten days ago when I visited Siirauiillla, Bounre",
I met Bhikkhu Ananda Ka.zuJalyayann in the Mlilagalldho.-
He spoke to me about a translation into English
of the VilUuCtimagga and immediately handel! over to me the
four fo.scicule of a 'draft-.t ranslation' b.V R. Yozai Ehara, Vict-or
Pulle and G. S. Prelis (this JIIst nallie is not (Juile legiule).
This is a cyclo-styled copy of a manuscript wriUen ill a beautiful
hand. It contains a draft of the t ranslation of the ViJU\ltti-
magga from Chapters III-XII wi th the omi86ion of several
passages which are not clcar to UUl Translators.
As the printing of my bwk had sufficiently advanced, r
could not make full use oi the hut I lUust su.y that
in the portion thai stm remained to be printed, at three or four
places, it ena61ed me to revise my interpretation. On PI). 311-314
of this translation, the translators have given the naJUes of
worms in a human body, in their I ndian gll r b, bnt as long as
these names cannot he identified with names actually fouml
ill I ndian the restoration is only problomatic.
In the main part of this book, I have attempted to give n
very detailed synopsis of the Vimuttimagga and have compared it
thrO\lghout with tue corresJlonding passages from the Visuddhi-
lllagga. To facilitate this cOlLparioon, I have tried, wherever
possible, to const rue the Chinese text in Pali. 'Vhere the
Chinese pasSliges were not clear to me, I have either sliid so or
indirll.ted by a questinn-mark that the Pali or the English ren-
dering given by me is merely II suggsted rather than a certain
interpretation. I have occasionnlly used characters
! , ..
where my rendering uncertain or ",here I thought the.v
would be help!ul for the better understanding of the Chinese
Text. In my Introduction to thie book, I have stated the
problem suggested by the comparntive study of Ihe two texts.
have summari sed the available rnattrial on the same and have
.Irawn my conclusions.
fn the printed pages of this book, luislakes have un-
fortunately crept in. The difficuliy of securing in lndia the
right Chinese typu and t he 'still greater difficulty or lIoouring
compositors properl y qualified to handle them, hall been rC!pon-
sible for the wrong use of some Chinese characters. 'fhe
neceS3ary corrections have, as fur as possible, been indicllte(l at
the end in 'Correcti ous and Additions'.
This book is not intended to 5lltidy the need of those aeholanl
who wouhllike to have the Vimuttimagga in i13 entirely, but
the author will consider himself to he amply rewarded if it
SCl"ves the purpose of giving an incentive to some young echolars
for presenting to t he "World the complete work, in the near
future . .
I have to thank Prof. Vidhushekhar Bhattacharya, I)ror.
Beni Madhab Barua snd Dr. Bimala Churn Law for baving
gOlle througb the Introduction of this book and for making
several suggestiona. I have also to thank Mr. J . C. Sa rkhel,
Manager, Calcutta Oriental Pres!, lor having taken great pains
in the printing of thia book.
And lastly, I have to ackuo,dedge my indcbtedne&l to the
University of Bombay for the substl!.ntial financial help !t hall
granted towards the cost of the publication of this book.
November, 1937. r. v. BAI'AT
CIJapter I / Nidaual1y
Chapter II ...sIla-paricchedo /
Chapter III I)hutani/
Clmpter IV Sllllliidhi-pariccheu"i
Chapter V ; li:alyiil).a-miUa-pnriyesanj
Chapter VI Cal'iyii-paricchello ....
Chapter VII
Chapter YIn nnmUlIl.d ... iira(?).
Chapter / IX Paiica Abhii'l.fiii. ..
Chapter ..... x Paniiii-paricehedo
ChllPter XI l>anca Upiiyii/
CIJapter "XII
Pari One
Part One
Part Two
Part CIne
Part Two
Facing iii
xv-l ix
l OB
( "iii)
1. Developmeut of 9. child ill the womb from week
to week.
2. List of the nnmes (in Chineae transliteration) of
worms ill a human body.
3. Porollel passages ill the Vimuttimagga aad
Petakop8des8 133
A comparative table showing the pages of the P.T.S.
tldilioll of the Visllddhimagga with the COrres-
ponding chaplers and paragraphs of the same
book in the H.O. Serin.
OE. ... l-:RAL I NDEX 1:"1
are to the of t he volumes extept in the easea
mentioned specifically otherwise.]
Chin. Dha.
Dh. or Dhp.
E. R. E.
upl .
Anguttaranikiiya, P. T.S. edition.
Abhidharmakoga, transhi.ted iuto French by
Louis de la Valee Poussin. [Reference is to
the chapter and page of the vol. in which the
chapter is included] .
Abhidhamm:lvatlira in Buddhadatta's Manuals
Abhidhammattha-Vibh1i.vini, ed. b.V Rev. Su-
mangaia, Colombo (1898).
Abhidhammatthasangaha, P.T.S. edition.
Aspects of Mahayana Buddhism and its rela_
lion to Hinayima by N. Dutt (1930).
I.e Canon Bouddhique en Chine.
The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit
Literature by Har Dayal.
Der Chinesiche Dharmasangraha von W cller
C'ommentary i added after the abbreviation of a
work means commentary on that work.
CRriyapitaka, "P.T.S. edition.
Corresponds to
DighRnikaya, P.T.S. edition.
Dhammapada [ref. to the verse].
Dhammnsl!.ngal;li-AHhakat.hil. i.e. AHhssalinI.
Dhammasangal,li-Commentary i.e. Atthasa.lini.
Dillerent, differs., edited by Oldenberg.
Encyclopaedia of Rel igion and Ethica.
Generally agrees.
The Original and Devek'ped Doctrines of 1udiun
Buddhism (in charts).
N.C. or n. c,

P .
S.A. or 8. B. .
S.D. or s.d.
S.N., SN, or
S, .
Majjhimo.nikiiya, P .T.S. edition.
Maddhy:unaka-kiirika with Vrt,1.i (Bib. Bud.
dhiea voL IV).
Malalasekara, The Pii. li Literature of Ceylon.
Mahiivll lllsa, Gei ger 's edition.
MalJa.vyutIJatti , Japanese edition in Sanskrit,
Tibetan and Chiuese by Sakal'i.
:\dded after a figllre means llotes Oil that page.
Kothing corresponding.
Partly agrees.
Photographic copy of the Mass. of PetakopadesR
by Hardy, preserved in the State Library ill
Berlin. Burmese edition printed in llLc
Zabu Meit Swe Press, Raugoon (1917).
La legend de l 'empereur
Patisambhidii., P.T.S. edition .
Specimen de9 Pe!akopndesa von Rudolph Fuchs,
Berliu, 1908.
Petthiina, P.T.S. edition.
quite different.
roughly agrees.
roughly corresponds.
substantially agrees.
slightly different.
(Bib. Buddhicp,).
Suttanipiita, reference to the number of stanzas.
Sphutiirtb:i.bhidharmakotavyli-khya. [Bib. Bud-
dhicfl, vol. XXI.}.
Silsanavaqlsa (F .T.S. ed. ).
Taisho edihon of the Vimuttimagga in the
Chinese Tripitaka (voL 32. pp. 399-4Gl )
edited by Takakusu and Watanabe.
Vibhanga, P .T.S. edition.
Vimutt.imagga, popul ar Chinese edition printed
at Bi-ling in the province. of Kiang-Su (1918).
The references are to the number of the book,
polge (t!le reverse side of tee page being indi-
cated by the addi tion of the letter ' a' to the
number) and column.
Visuddhimagga,ediled by Henry Clark Warreu
and Prof. D. :!rosambi, the references being
to the number of chapters and paragraphs.
[To be published in the Harvard Oriental
Geschichte der Il1diechen Zweiter
Note :-The references to the Commentary of the Visuddhi .
magga are to the edition of the 8ll:me published in P. O.
Pitaka. Prees, 1909, unlesi otherwise mentioned. The
rderellces to the 8ynopsis of the VimuUiraagga. are indicated
merely by the number of pages without putting any word before
' p.' That is to say references like ' po 6, p. 27,' indicate that
the refereuce is to the synopsie of the Vimuttimagga. which
forms the maiD part of thie dissertation. Any remarks or com
menu by the writer are put in square bracketa. The Roman
figures in the marginal notes of the synopsis refer to the
chapters of the Visuddhiwagga and the following Arabi c figures
show tbe number of the paragraph. I have not adopted any Euro
peau or American traneliteration'sY8tem of the Chinese sounds,
but I have generally followed Nanjio iu indicatiug the Chineso
sound by its closest equivalent in the Iudillll soundsystem,
escept in the case of 80me names which are more easil y recog
nised in their transliterations used by previons writers. I find
this more cOllveuient, especially when the Chinese sonnd reo
preseuLs an originally Indian sound. The letters a, b, c u8ed
the uumber or pages of the Taisho edition by Takaku8u
and Watanabe iudicate respectively the upper miudle and lOwer
sect ions of the page. The figures alter these letters indicate the
number of columns begiuning from the right.
L Villluttimngga in il8 Chinese Ira ulli nlion Cie-t.'o-tilO- luu.
2. 'l'ranslated into Chinese by Sell g-chiepo-lo.
3. Similarity between the Vimullimngga and the '!isuddhi-
magga and [OUI' possible theories to explain tbe simila rity.
4. Prof. Nagai ' s "jew.
S. Dr. Yalalasekar's comment au the above Dud Ilia sugges-
tion about the aolution or the problem.
6, This question can be decided only on the merita of tho
evidence, internal /Iud external.
7. General account of the Vimuttimagga.
8. Correspondences between the chapters of the Vi multi
magga. Rod the Vi suddhimagga.
9. Similarity between the two books due to the comlDon
SOurCCIi or common material upon which both the authors
draw, such as
(i) Pali Tutll, W) PoriiQ.oa, (iii) Pubbii. cariyas, (iv)
AHhakathiis, (v) Petaka, (vi) A verse ascribed to
Sariputtn by both the authors, and (vii) Some un-
identified wurces.
10. Similes, and ilIustrnti ons.
(i) Common to both the Textll.
(ii) Pl!culiar to Upatissa.
10. Dis-similerity between the two texts.
(A) Dis-siruilari ty il'.. doctrinal points.
(i) (ii ) K8I; iJ.lQ-maJ.lQala, (iii) Exten-
sion of the Bruhmavihiiro-nilllilta, (iv) Cariyii8, (v)
Rupia, (vi) Jhinanga8, (vii ) Indriya8, (viii ) Anulo-
maD.B.J:l8, (il:) NevoMl'lilA-ni'lsai'inayalana-samildhi ,
(x) AsoiiiiI-8amiWhi.
(E) Di"similarity in treatment.
(i) Interpretation of word8 and expre6Sion8.
(ii) Different treatment in whol e sectione.
(iii) One goes into more detaile where the ot.her
does not go.
(h,) Upatissa introduce8 altogether new matter, which
i8 not found in Buddhnghoea.
12. Re!tlrence to other view8 on doctrinal lXIinta:
(A) Those that have been mentioned by both the authors.
(D) 'I'hose that ha\e been rer ... rred to by one autllor and
found to be exactly with the view8 of tho
other. Light tbrown on snch pasaages by Dhamma-
pala's comment.
13. References to proper namee.
(i) Texis, (ii) Places, (iii) Penonages.
14. Trauliterations of Indian words.
15. Rtlferences to a
16. Style of the Viwutlimagga as we na,e it in its Chine&e
""fe nion and the method of the transl ation.
17. Review of all the internal evidence and the uternal e,id-
ence of Dhammapila.
The author of Paramattha-maiijus1i., the Commentary on
the Visuddhimagga, and the author of Hie Commentaries
on the Thera-Theri-Oii.thii, PetO-vatth'l, Vimii.navatthu,
Netti-pakara;ta, etc. is the same. Belonged 10 the same
tradition and school as that or Buddhaghosa and did not
live long after hiw-perhaplI within two centurie&-and
therefore there is no reason to doubt bis testimony.
19. Abhayagiri School-Jta hi story.
Indian monks went to Abhayagirivihiira.
20. "Who was Where and when did he compoae
the book? In what language did he write his booH
What do we know about him from the Vimuttimagg9-?
Discovery 01 a Tibetan version of 9- chapter of tbe
Viwuttimagga. Indian origin 01 the Vimuttimagga.
21. First or the four theories can be accepted.
22. Knlyii':la-mittas.
It is nellrly eighteen years aince Pro. M. Nagai of the Impe-
rial Universi ty, Tokyo, Japan. pointedly brought to the notice 01
Buddlliat scholars the existence, 'in l.he Chinese Buddhist hte-
rature, of a book called Cic-t'o-tiiot un, M!N; m . or Vimutli-
magga as he rendered it in Pali. L This hook is the same as
is numbered 1293 in Bunyh\ Nanjio's catalogue of the Chinese
Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka,' although Nanjio gives
'Vimoksha...nliirga-sast ra' as the Sanskrit readering of the Chinese
title. Nanjio further tell s us that this book WI\8 composed by
the Arhat Upatishya or Siiriputra' und was translated into
Chinese by Seng-chie-po-Io .fft f/Jn i!lf a in 505 in the Liiin
dynasty (A.D. 502-551). This book is divided into twelve
chapters in twelve fasciculi or Chinese books.
Nanjio gives us no information about or Upatissa
1\8 we may say in Piili j but he gives us some information about
Seng-cllie-po-lo." The nanle Seng-chie-po-lo, or, San-chie-pho.lo
us Naujio transliterates it, is explained in the Biography of the
1. J.P.T.s. 1917.19, pp. 69-80. Notice of the .:Ime hlLll heen taken
hy subsequent writera. 8M (p. vi) t'l the trlLnslation of the
ViauddhilOagga by Pa Maung Tir.. (192'2); B. C. Law. The I ,ife and W"rk
of Buddhllghosa (1923) , pp. 7(}on, foot-note.; also Foreword to th" same
book by Mrs. C. F. Rbys Darid3; MalallL&t.kara, P,<Ii Li ter .. ture Ceylon
(19'28}; Vasudoo V. Gokbale, Prstitya' lamutpida-iistrl' des UllalLgha,
(Bonn, 1930), p. 10, foot-note 2; A. P. Buddbadatla, Introcluetion to tho
Saddhammapajjotiki (l9:1O-31), pp. ,ii.viii; Nyuatiloka, Introcuetion to
hi , German 'franilation (p. 6) of the Visuddbimagga (1931); Mrs. O. F.
Rhys Davida, A Manual of Jluddlliam for Advanced Studenta (1932), p. 31.
2. Also ill KatSL!og des Peking ... r Tripit.ah. 'fCn Prof. Alfroc Forke,
Berlin, 1916, p. H, No. 63; Bobogirin, annexe, No. 1648.
3. Nanjio perhaps SO conjectures .. the nalOe 'Upati,ya' wal alS<.
used in connection 'With Si riputra. See M. i. 150.
4. Bagehi (P. 418) gives 519 A.D.
6. Thi, information i. given in the Continued Biography of Worthy
Monks fif tIi {@ 18. ; abo compare Bagchi, pp. 415-418. Przyiuski, gives
in hi. introduction pp. xi"ii to 'La Mgend de I'empereur AtIoka' >lOme
information about biro.
magga and
::': "1
Buddhist worthy monks as Chun-yin *- .. community-nouruh-
ment (Sangha-bhara) or Seng-khai (it m (Sanghavarmall)
community-annonr. These translatinns help us to restore the
name Seng--chie-po-lo to Sangha-bhara or Sanghn-varman, hut
the Chinese po-Io may IIIl10 be rendered as pala and lIO it i.e not
unlikely that the name was Sangha-paJa as Prof. Nagai restores
it. ' Sangha-p:ila was a 8ama!).a froID Fu-nanor Bu-nan (!lI: m)
Siam or Cambodia. He went to China aud there t ranslated some
ten or eleven works. While hewas in Chinn, he becaule the dis-
ciple' of an Indian monk named Ou!).abhadra
tho)/ who himself came to China in 435 A.D. and was work-
ing on t ranslations till 443 A.D. ""e further learn from Dunyiu
Nanjio's catalogue that this Ou!).ahhadra WIU! n noted scholar
of the Mahayiina school. We are also told there (pp. 410-416)
that "he was a jramana of Central India, a Brahman by cute
and ni cknllmed the Mahayana on account 01 being well acquaint-
ed with the doctrine of Mahayana." On his way to China
Gu!).abhadra visited Sihala-dipa (Ceylon).' If we look at the
list of books translated by him, we find along with. several
Mahi-y3na works, two books of the Hinayina 8chool, Sarpyuktii-
gama Sutra and AbhidharmaprakaraJ.lapiida. This shows that
Gur;tabhadra was aleo interested in Hinayina. He worked on
translation& till 443 A.D. and died in 4GS A.D. in his seventy-fifth.
year. 'Ye learn from Kanjio thal Sau-chie-pho-lo or Sangha-pala
worked Oll his translations from 605-520 A.D. and died in the year
620 while he was in his sixly-fifth year.' Tlle Biography of the
Buddhist Worthy Monks referred to above tells us tha.t Sa.ngha-
pila Wal a very hrilliant and i1ighly precocious boy. A. soon
as he came of age t o begin his study, he left the worldly life
and specialil!:ed himself in the study 01 the Abhidhamnta.
Having heard the name of the country of China as famous for
the study of the Dhamma, he took a boat and went to that
1. S. Uvi (J .AI. 191ti, p. 26) doel not tbink t!lis to be correct.
2. D&gcbi, PnylllU i, following P . Pelliot, conaider this ... impo.aible;
.lso _ B.E.F.E.O., ill. p. 285. is InU8l1.6d tbat probably tbere is
oonluaion witb .nother !I&me GUl;I&vrddbi.
3. JJ!I & N&ujill (pp. 416-16) &dda one more ebar.cter 10"
4. T&ilbo, 00. 344&. 18.
5. M. Pelliot {B.E.F.E.O., rn, p. 2S.5) .. ,.. 'Gat une iu.d .. llrt&nce'.
He gi". S'l. A.D. B&gcbi ip. 4111], PrzylUlki [lntrod. p. XU) follow
country. We have here no information u to who brought's Vimuttimasga to Chi na. nut judgi ng from the fa ct
that Sanghapala was quite young when he came to China and
from the fact that on his way to China, visited
;eyloD, it seems not unlikely t hat the ""ork was brought to China
Iy Gugabhadra wIlen he ""ut to that country in 435 A.D.
This book Viluuttim3gga of Upati8sa !rears such a close simi-
larity, a8 will be aeen from the synopsis of the book, with
Buddhaghou's Visuddhimagga that we can not explain it 118
merely a matter of accident. Now, Buddhaghoaa, wbo came to
Ceylon 8nd composed the Yisuddhimagga and lit lellst the Com-
mentaries Oil the Nika.Y38,. WIIS a contemporary of
King Mabiinlimn who Willi crowned in Ceylon in or about
geylonese tradition euign. the arrival of .Buddhaghosa in
Ceylon to the -year 965' after the death of the Buddha. -Ac-
cording to the Ctylonese tradition' the Buddha died in 543 B.C.
That gives us 422 A.D. a! the date of Buddhaghosa'8 arrival
in Cel'lon. was the fi rst work o[ BuddbagbOlJ D.
after bit arrival in Ceylon. I t was this book thlt proved hi.
ability to undertake the Inrger work of ro-tnlllslating t.he Sioha-
lese iuto the Milgad hl language. So it seems very
probable thal by the time callle to Ceylon, Buddha-
ghoss's Vinddbimaggn was abo wel\koown.
Now lIere ia a problem. Upati lllla'. Vimuttimagga, as we
have it now in its Chine" tranalation, bean a very close re-
:emblance to Buddhllghosa's Viauddhimaggs. It cannol be (I
matter of mere coincidence. It will have to be accounted for in
one or' tbe other of the following ways:_
(1) That Buddbghosa berOr)
him, that he took the framewOrK of
and amplified it with his sholaatic erudition. '
1. Mal. pp. 76, 81, !le; Mu: S.B.E., Vol. X, p. 15 gi . ..
A.D. all the period of MaUnlma'. reign; Rhy. David. gi.81
413 A.D., Vol. n, p. 886 o! E.R.E.; Winl-eroitr. (G_hiebt.e def Jndi8Cben
I.itteratur, Vol. II, p. 162) 413 A.D.; Geiler .. A.D ..
tho date of tba roign of King Mahi.n',.,a, p. J:uiJ:, -Intr. to MBhhIlIJl ...
2. Mal. P. 8l. r' 3. Mal. p. 16.
m ....
iUli[ar to
(2) That had Buddhaghosa's book him
and that he abridge<! it by cuttiug down se'Veral ;;;d at
the same time introduced se'Veral modifications in consi8tencl
with the doctrines and 'Views of the 5chool to which he belonge .
(3) That !>ath theee books go to 80me old common 8OU.!C(
like the AHhakatbas upon which both of them draw, each treat-
iug and interpreting the same old material in consistency with
the doctrines and views of the school of each.
Still another possibility is suggested.
(4) 'fhat the main part of Upatissn's VimuUimagga might
have been composed before Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, and
that some portions might haye heen added to this book by
SangJiap5.1a who translated the book illto Chillese under the
in:8uence of the Mnhayiina schooL' -_.
Let U8 see if we can find any justification for any of these
theories or whether we can arri,e at any decisive conclusion
at all.
Prof. M. Nagai seems to hold the 'View given as 4 above!
He identifies Upatil!!:i, the author of the Vimuttimagga, with
one Upatissa who is mcnt:ioned in the list of the great Therae
who handed down the from the time when
Mahinda came to Ceylon! He points out that Fali Samanta-
pasa.dikii., as well as its Chinese translation by Sanghabhadra
in 488 A.D., gives an anecdote of .Upatissa and his two dia_
ciples, Mahasumma and Mahiipaduma, aho';"ing that Upatissa
all a teacher of the Vinaya was held in high esteem. He gives
another anecdote which tells us how Mahii.paduma cured
queen, wife of King Va.sabha. of an illness. This King Vasabha
was crowned, according to 'Vijesinha, in 66 A.D.' So, Prot
Nagai concludes that this Upati!sa, ,who is mentioned in the
list of the Theras that handed down the Vinnya, who was held
in great respect by the Sangha and who was a contemporary
of King Vasabha [who was crowned in 66 A.D.!, is the author
ot the Vimuttimagga, and that Buddhnghosa had probably this
book belore him when he wrote the Visuddhimagga.
1. J.P.T. S.1911-19, p. 79.
-2. J.P.T.S. 1911-19, pp. 71, 78, 79. 3. See Yin. T. 3.
4. J.P.T.S. 1917-19, pp. 73, 74; lIIal. (p. 49) gi .. "" tho potiod of
Vasabha'i reign a. 65-109 A.D. approximately.
Rere, how,,"er, we do not find any otber proof adduced by
Prof. Nagai to identify him with the author of tbe Vimuui-
magga. His main relinnce is on the fact thnt tbere bappens
'to be one Upatiua mentioned in the list of the Therns who
bo.nded down the Vinaya and about whom tbe Snmant&piis5.dikii.
in ita Pali ne well as Chinese version gives 80me anecdotes.
Dr. Malalasekara, having considered tbis opinion of Prof.
Nogai, suggests' that there is no reason to conclude that tbe
Viauddhimagga is a revised version of the VimuUimsgga, as
Prof. Nagai tuggesta. "If we suppose," MY' he, "tbat tbe
Vimnttimagga was t,ha resun of books brougbt by OUl)ahhadra
of Mid-India, from his tra ... els in Ceyion Rnd olher Htnayiina
countries, the sol ution of the problem seeme clear. Both
authors drew their inspiration from the nrne souTce." He
suggests that although Buddhaghosa came to Ceylon to study
t18 Sinhalese which were genuine, there might still
ha ... e been ,,,me Commentaries in I ndia, which were studied in
that country with traditional interpretation handed down
through centuries. "If then it is auumed," concludes Dr.
Malalaaekara, "that the Vimuttimagga found ita way into China'
by way of some of the echooh whicll in India at that
time, and which studied the Canon in the more or leu trad i-
tional method, it would not be difficult to conclude that the
Villuddhimagga and the Vimuttimagga aTe more or leas inde-
pendent works written by men belQnging to much the same
school of thought-tbe Theraviiqa. " This view coincide5 with
the third of the probahle theoriu that we suggested above.
These conflicting views- on the 5ubject of the inter-relation
between Upatissa's Vimuttimagga and Buddhllghosa' s Viauddhi-
magga prompted me to make a comparative study of both theae
texts and I intend in the following pages to submit the results
of my study on thi8 subject.
We shall have to decide this queation of the inter-relation be-
tween these two texb after thoroughly investigating the evid-
ence, internal and uternal, that is a ... ailll.hle to us.
Let us /irst what internal e ... idence we can get from the
comparative study of botb these books which form the main
part of this diuertation. We shall, of coune, go into more
details of the Vimuttimngga than those of the Viluddhimagga,
as the fOrlller is much leu known thnn the laVer.
1. M.l. pp. 86, 87.
<: .. nllnl
a<IlIDt of
thll Vim.
The VimuHimagga is divided into twelve chl>Jlteu jn twelve
{Meiculi or Chinese books. The di ... of the bOOlta eeemlll to
"be based on no other principle bllt the con.enience of the
of each book, while the division of the chspters is wor" ayBte-
matic, being based on the proper divhion of the subject matter .
The fint chapter is merely introductory in which Upatiua,
the nuthor of the Vimuttimagga, takes np the following danu,
SUa,.'" 'amiidhi pmi,id ea vimutti ell anu.ttord
ant/b,.Mlld t11le dharnmd Gotomena. YlUauind.'
[A. ii. 2; D. ii. 123].
as the hasis for his whole work. In the int roductory chapter, he
commenht on this stantll nnd aays ..... hy he must show the Way
to Deli\ erance (vimutti). In the secntid chapter, Upati86a gives
the clauification of SlID, conduct. In the third chapter, he
discusses the various kind, of ot purification (dhutu).
In the fonrth, he gives the cllll. . ification of concentration
(,anuidh,). In the fifth chapter called 'Seareh for the Beat
Friend' Upatissa discu&ee' the qua-
li ties of the bea! friend and tells us the ..... ays and meane to
find ou(, Buch a friend. The sixth chapter is devoted to the
discussion of the different types of character or disposition
The seveuth chapter the various devices
or helpful means (kam7llot!1!cil1dn,) to attain the concentration
and further shOWI how they can be thoroughly understood. The
eigMh chapter is the longest chapter and is divided into five parts.
This whole cbapter showl in a detailed manner how all those
devices (or could be used to induce concentra.-
tion. The ninth chapter treaa of the five miraculous po .. en whict.
one attains as a consequence of mastery the various pract.icell
of concentration. The tenth chapter gives tbe clusifieation ot
insight (pannoi). The ele\entb chapter, divided into t .... o parte,
. gives a detailed treatment of the five means (u.pdyd), insight into
which helps one to be free from darkness of ignorance and helpa
on8 to cut off craving and to attain noble wiadom (anyd panndo).
The t .... eHth chapter, also divided into two parte, treate of pene-
tration into the Truth. by means of Purities (vuu.ddhiyo) and
Insigh1e (iid(UJ), by accomplishing which one reaches the Fruit
of holy lile culminating in Arhatship.
1. P. 1; Conduct, Qon<":<l!ntrat.ion, InsiSht .nd ttnlll rpaHoble Deli"IIT-
IIlce--tbe.!e dblmm .. the mllitrion, Gotama underdood in luoceuion.
Thus it will be seen that all theae chapters contain" sa - ex-
position of the topics mentioned in the introductory slsDla,
namely, conduct (Sila), (,amddh,), insight
(paiifia) und deliverance (1I;11IIItt,). The following tsble .ho .... e
the correspondeuce of the chapten of the Vimutti.magga .... ith
those of th!l Viauddhi-Ul8gga;-
II Sda'f1(Iriccheda
III Dhutdni
Samddhi.pariocheda 1
a.-pariY6sa.nd r

VIII Kamma-dvdra
[or kamma-muklla (?)J
Part One
Part two
Pa:t four
Part five
Nothiug Corresponding
1 Si-lanid&ell)
I I Dhv.tanga.nid.uWl
111 Ka'lVf11aHhana-gaha'Ja-
paragraphs 21-138.
I V. 139-to the eud of
V Se,u.-kasif)aniJde'(J,
paragraph. 1-23.
X II T"1Ippanid4e1(l.
IX BrahmaviMra.-niddelo
IX Pailca IlbhiJliid
XII Jddhi-,;iJ,ka-niddua
XIII Abhififidnwdle,a
of the
ebpte ... of
Vim . .!; Vi .
Vimuttilllagg.a Vi!uddhimngga
X l>u7iiid-poriocheda {
XIV Khandh&-nidxilJta
paragrapbs 1-27.
XI l'aiicaupayu
Part OU!
Part two
XII Socca-pariccheda
Part one
Part two
paragrapbs eud.
X V Ayaul-1la-nidtksa
X VII PaticcolClmuppdda_"iddeJa
paragraph 13-to the end
l (the pan on $acca ollly).
XVIII DiHhivinccld.hi-niddno
j XX MaggdmaggaiW1)a.danana.-
1 Viluddhinidckla (in part).
d],i-niddeIC', paragrapbs
l 128.
29-10 the elld.
XXII !'Vii>l.waml1lo-vinuldhi-nid-
Tbi s i3 only II: rougb correspondence tbe different
cbaptere of the t\ll'O booka, some chaptere, especially the Inst
three or four, of the Vi,uddhimagga being inexlricably mi::&:ed
up in the two paTl6 of the twelfth cbapter of the Vimutti-
Thia brief ruume of the contents of tbe two books at OnC(
reveal. tbe fact that there is more than superficial agreement
between these t .... o books. Let us go into more details.
It is a well -known fact that in the Vi5uddhimagga,
ghosa very often re[en to, or quotes from, 'older authorities which
he specilically names, euch as tbe Vibhanga, the Patisambhidii.,
tbe Niddesa, the the on the Nikii.yu, or
alludes to by lOme general name like Pili, Pori!:las, Pubbii-
or Atthaka.thas. Sometimee, he merely aay' , 'So it has
&aid (VlltWl1l- h.'t;WI1I-)', without giving IIny indication u to
what source he refers to. Now it is remarkable to note thjlt there
are .maoy correspondences between the several passages in the two
books that are due to these common sources of the
. lr from the Poral.las, Pubbiicariyna or from the AHhakathii,s. I\Ve
'lId several passnges which are found in both lhe' lests in
den tical, or idtlntical words aud attention is drawn to
hese, from time to time, in the main part of this dissertat ion.
Ve shall indicate here only a few (Jubtandillg cases.
(i) Passages from theJ> Texb.
Among the Pall texts, the first fonr Nil.:ii.yas, the Vibhanga alld
'atisambhid5magga are the ' texts on which both Upatissa aud
Juddhaghosa mostly draw. The 1lassages, for inBtance, taken as
exts by Upatissa for the exposition of the trances or anussati!
except that or or iddhis, or n;rodha-J/l.17l.:ipatt!,i are
.he same as tl108e given by Buddhaghosa; for they all avowedly
;0 to one and the same common source. The explanation of
icara-gOCGra. in the second chapter of the Vimuttimagga (p. 11)
is the same as that in Buddhaghosa; for, both of them draw upon
the Vibhanga . The explanation of iddhis (P. 86) goes back to the
common 80urce of the The explanation of some
of the que91ions regarding Nirodlu;.-samiioJ]aUi (p. 128) i8 based
on the Cu!avedallasutta (no'. 44 of the Jfaiihimanikayaj. The
passage taken for the exposition of dnapartasGti and its advan-
tages (p. 69) are taken by both the author& from S.v. 322, and
M. iii. 82 respectively. -- -
Tn addition to these, there are scores of passages, too numerous
to be mentioned here, taken from the Pilli texts quoted by both
he authors, as authorities or illustrations of a point under dis_
ussion. In some cases Buddhaghosa merely allude! to a passage
y the introductory warda or by giving the nama a! a
while Upatissa gives the same passage in full. For ins-
tnnce, while explaining the disadva.Dtages or dangers of .'!'Vorldly
pleasures (kamen .. adi.,alla) Buddha-ghosa merely refers to the
passage in the Majjhiman:ikii.y;\, sutta 22, beginning with
appa.wida kama, wlille Upati/I.JD :;ives, in fuJi, the passage (p, 44)
incl uding t he similes of a skeleton of bonet!, a piece of flesh, a
torch of grass or reed, a dream, a fruit, or a thing hegged and
80 on. In another place, Buddhaghosa mer.ely refers, for the
explanation of lIijja and OOTa1;l(l., to th6 a"d th&
1. D. i, 5Utt:>. no. 3.
from th ...
Pili .
e .. "'"

llbayabherava' auttu, "'hile Upatiua givel the full
:11 given ill these ButtaS.'
(ii) .
There are several pauagea quoted by Buddhaghoaa froD"
nnd lOme of theae passages are found ill Upatiua".
Vimuttimngga in aimost simil ar words. For iMtance, anum,
ber of the venea at the eod of chapter XVIII of the Viauddhi
magga, about the in\.er-depeodcoce of 'oame' and "torln' -ar
found io the Vimuttimnggll' in nlmost simihr words, tho
variations being noted in the detailed synopiia of the Vimutti
magga. Li kewise, the lIimiles of Il. lamp (podipo), the IIU]
(,,,riyo) and a boat (fldud) giveo in the Yisuddhimagga XXII
92, 95, 96 Ilre found io the Vimuttimaggn io ideo tical worda, '
(ii.i) Puhbicariyas.
The paUllge explaining the ariaing of the different eonsciollJo
nelses of t11e eye, enr, nose, etc. ascribed by Buddbagbosa
In XV. 39 to Pubbicariyas (Former is found io thf
Vimuttimagga' in a slightly varied but fuller form.
Upatiua refers several ptl5!lages to former teacheIll and some
of these are found with alight variation in Buddhaghosa'a
Viauddhimagga although Buddhagh05:1. does not make mention of
any fonner teachen in that connection. POt instance. Upatiasa
u.yl (7.31..3) that former teachen have mentioned four waya
of cultivating un6p6na.sati, which he give! as gal,Wnd, an"bon-
d/uJn4, thapand, and .allakkhOTJij, while BuddhaghOla in VI II.
189, gives these four waya, and in addition four more without
saying anything about former teachers. While treating of the
Cot"dhat"uouatthcino, U patissa says (8.15.1) thnt former t eacher '
have given ten' ways in which this tlovotthana can be done
w;herea.s Buddhaghosa apeaks in XI. 86 of thirteen ",ay. withou
speaking of any former teachen. In hia treatment of divine
(dibbo10ta), U1?ati11o apeaks of the way, to soma
teachers, of developing the power of divine hear ing and lIay.
that the yog4vot:a#"o beginll first with giving hia attention. to the
soundll of worms residing within hia body.' Buddhaghoaa speake
in XIII. 3, without any mention of former teachers, of the sound,
of the3e WOrms residing within one', body.
1. M. i. IUU .. no.
8. pp. 113, 116.
6. p. 101. e. p. 70. 7.
9:. p. 63.
p. 119.
!!. p. 88.
i:'l'l'lWl>UC'l'ION ...
(iv) AUhakathas.
There are !lOme passages quoted from the AHhakathaa by
Duddhaghosa. For instance, in t he cllapter on the AUlbhani-
'a, he quotes a very long passage (VI. 1922), I!.howing in a
delailed manner how the should go 10 a place where
he can find the alubhanimitta. This whole passage is found
in the Vimuttimag;ra' ( with a slight variation
consisting of the omission of the repeated pllrllses . Similarly,
while speaking of the first four kasU;lllft, the kasiuas of the Earth,
'Vater, Fire and Wind, both the authors seem to be referring to
the same AtthakathWi; Cor we find correspondence in their treat..
ment even to the details. In the quotation given by Buddhaghosll
IV. 22, we have a reference to the size of the uiwitta, luppamat-
ta11l -va -vii, a8 big as 'a winnowing. basket or a waler
bowL' Exactly the same idea, expressed in identical words. ie
found in the Viwuttimagga.' Similarly, in the trentment of tbe
of Wind, Buddhaghosa gives a quotation from the AHha
kathii.s, where we find a mention of the top of a lugar-eane, or of a
bamboo (V.9). We find the same mention in the Vimuttimagga.*
The remarks by both the aUlhors about the natural and artilicial
in. the case of the first four ka8iJ!.!ls agree and we
uplain thie as due to the same common source 01 the
(v) In the Visuddhimagga IV.56, Bnddhaghosa gives a
passage from the Petaka showing how the 6-'"e fn.ctoJ1l of a
trance are the opposites of the Ii,e hindrances (nflltlraJ;lcint). In
the Vimuttimagga (4.17.1), we find e:xactly the same quotation
ascribed by Upatiss8 to a book Sin Tsing' =: .
(vi) In tbe Visuddhilnagga XIV ,48, Duddhaghos8 gives the
following verse ascribea to Siiriputta, where we life told of t he
size of the letw'ti1)e psrt (patiida) of the eye:
Yana cakkhappa..sddet!a rupdni manupcllati
paritta"'Tl- mkhum(l"m *1fIo 1lkdlirlJJam:upallUI"I!1.
Now in the Vimuttimagga" (10.2.1), we have the same verse
in almost identical words. Instead of ukd.lira, Upat.issa, as f'l.f
as can be aeen from thia Chinese t1"8nalltion, uses the word 11M
1. p.60. 2. p. s. p.68.
4. p. <&9: tbe ttl-Ine puuie i , quoted in p. 165 and Dbamma:
plla in bil commentar:o" on the Viouddhimagga ulen to Pej.aka at INn
tbree tim .. (pp. ISS. 194. 514) almost in a limUar conte:rt.
6. p.98.
A quota.
tion from
tbe 1>8\411"
fled fOUI'OI.
tion .
(vii) Over and above tbeae cases, where the common source
of the parallel passages can he definitely ascertained, there are
others where the similarity is di$tinctly seen, although the
common source may not be known.' For instance, in the chapter
on the 'Search for the Beat Friend' (KalYiiJ!a-mitlA-pariyuan4),
Upatisall mentions' the seven qualities of the best friend \'\'bich
are identical with those given by Buddhaghosa in the verse
III.61. Likewise, the comment aD the \\<1)rd sikkhati , as given
by Upatissll,' is tor word the same 08 is found in the
Visuddhimaggn VJIr.113. So also, the comment on the word
anubandlwnli in the Viauddbimagga VIII,196 is the same lIS
Upatissa.'a comment on the same word.' Upatissa also give! a
pauage5 which correspond! to Duddhaghosa'. four naya&,
ekaUanaya, ndtUlUatUll/CI, abydpdranaya, eva"l)"ldhammaliinClya
given by Duddhaghosa in XVII.309-3I3 and XX.I02.
'Ve alw find everal similes and metaphors " .. hieh are com
mon to both of our tuta, either because they are taken from a
common 8Qurce or became one has borrowed from the other.
The parable of a mountain-cow (gavi pabba.teyyd) in the
Visuddhimagga IV.130, taken from an older souree
(A.iv.4I8-I9), is given by Upatissa.
The simile of a young
calf (dhewupaka vaccha) given by Buddhaghosa in IV. 174 is
also given by Upatissa.' The simile of a. saw' ueed for
cutting wood, given by Buddhaghosa in VIII.201203 to illus-
trate how attention i8 to be directed to the wind of breath aa it
comes in and gots out, is found in the Vimuttimagga. The
!imile of the same IS given in the Jiakacupama &uita (No. 21 of
Ma.jjhimanilr:iiya) is given by Upat.issa in another place- to
illustrate how one should see the d,iaadvantagee in
This corresponds to Buddhaghosa's mention of the same in
I X. I &. The similes of a drum and 8Ound
(B.XVIII.(i.), a l ame
lUl\U nnd a blind man" (B.XVIII.35.), 89.8h 01 lightning
and a city of Gandhervas
(B.XX.104.) are found in the Vimulti
magga. '1'he Mah:i.bbfltas arc compared by Ups.tiasa to three sticka
reclining upon one This eorresponda to Buddhaghoaa'a
simile in another conte:s:t where he shows the inter.dependence of
1. Probably it may be lOme oicariJlllmota.
2. p. 32. 3. p. 70. <t. p. 70.
6. p. US. 6. p. 6t.
1. p. 62; 'iii<) ef. PeL Bur. ed. p. lSI: I>ocelio khlro.poko 1>0 maloro'!'.
8. p.10. 9. p. 78. 10. p. 113.
11. p. Ill!. 12. p. 116. 13. p. 9(1.
nama and rupa thus; yaOul hi cL1I i.m na[.kalapisu
niwi.ya in XVIII. 32. Upalissa ill 11.14.10 gives a eimile
'like a man who lakes water from some ODe place ill the oceao,
tastes it with his tongue and koov'\ all the \Yater ill, the ocean
10 be salty'.' This corresponds to Butldhaghosa's cka,-iala-
bindumhi $akala-$amlldda.-iah1.r(JJ(Jlf\ 1Iiya, 'as the taste of all
water in the ocean is in one drop of water from it' (XVI. 60) ,
used in a different context. Even the illustration of deval'l(1)\
de1ldyata1U1m iva, given by Buddhagh05a ill X.24.31 while ex-
plaining t he meaning of the word ayatana, is found ill the
Vimuttimagga. ' The similes of the continuous Harne' of a
lamp, n moth Ialliug into a lamp, or the flame 01 a lamp' in a .
quiet pl ace,' which are very common iii Buddhist literature,
are given by both Buddhaghosa and Upatissa. So also
Upatissa, like Buddhaghosa, gives the similes of the strik-
ing of a bell and the fluttering of wiugs by a bird to illustrate
vitokko., and the similes of the merging sound and the wheeling
round of a bird to illustrate 1!icara.'
There are se .... eral other similes whi ch are peculiar to
Upatissa. He has given some protracted similes. For instance,
there is a beautiful long-protracted simile of a king who is
asleep,' who hears the sound of a knock on the door, wa.kes up,
iDl:ltructs a servant to have the door opened, sees his gardener
coming wi th a mango-fruit, eats tbe mango-fruit which
queen cuts and to him, gil"es hi s judgment about the h'.lit
and goes back to sleep again. This simile is given to illustrate
the ,vhol e proceSli of thought when an object is seen through the
sense-aperture of the eye. " Another protracted simile gi.ven by
Upatissa to illustrate the inter-relation of the difiltent factors
of Dependent Origination (vo-ticca-lamuppada), and to show that
the round of birth .and death, is without 0. beginning and without
an end, is that of a seed and the rice-pIanL'
Upatissa illustrates the distinction between 1tpaciira and
appal/a. by some beautiful similes . UpacfJ.T(J is like a boat on
water full of waves; appana like n. boat on water where there
is no wind. UpacaTQ is like a young boy, appand like a strong
1. p. not qlloted. 2. p. 55. 3. P. 114. 4. p. 115.
5. Vi!. XIV. 139, 'nitl4h dlpaedna>." Ihiti viya cdiuD fhiti'; cf.
p. 119.
6. p. 46.
1. pp. 101 .. for a closely aHied simile, 6ee AHbasil ini pp. 279-80,
8. p. 102. 9. p. 104..
man. Upacara is like a blind man, appalla like one who is not
blind. Upactira is like a man who recites suttns only after a
long time nnd so forgets; appana is like one who recites suttas
constantly nnd so does not forget (4.1.8.-4.7110. 4). This simile
of the recitation of the suttas seems to be a favonrite one with He compares vitakka to a nlan who recites suttas in
his mind. while vicara is compared to one who meditates over
the m(:IIning of a &utta' (4.12110.10-4.13.1).
The distinctioll between got-rabhU-M1J.4 and is
illustrated in this way. The iormer is like a man who has only
one foot outgide the threshold of a burning city, while the latter
is like one who has put both his ieet outside the city.' There
is a most apt simile given by Upatissa to illustrate the
cultivation of equanimity (upekkhrl) after the cultivation of
friendliness (11l.(:tta), compassion (karulJ-d) and rejoicing or delight
(mudita). Just as a man when he sees his relative coming back.
after a long absence in a tar-<:>if country, pays attention to him
for 60me time, but, later on, as time passes by, he becomes in-
different to him'.' There is another very appr.opriai& simil e to
illustrate the behaviour of a yogavacQ#'(l with his master. 'Like
a newly married bride going to wait upon her father-in-l aw and
mother-in-law, the yoga'VQ(;ara should have a sense of conscien_
tiousness (hiM) and fesr (ottappa,), and should receive
tions irom his master." Upatissa shows the appropriateness of
the order of the Four Noble Truths by illustrating them with
the simile of :;. physician who first sees the symptoms of 3.
disease, hears the cause of it and then seeing the possibility of
a cure, prescribes a suitable medicine f01" the cure of the diseaso.'
The impurities of the body oozing out through ita nine openings
are compared to wine placed in a leaking pot" (8.22110.1).
The simile oi an iron ba.ll red-hot with fire, that could
be IIioulded into whatever thing one likes, is given by Upa-
tis61l. (9.Ga.5). With this may be contraated the similes of
a goldsmith and or a potter preparing, respectively, whatel'er
ornaments and pots they like from the red-hot gold and we11-
kneaded earth (B.XII.2). To illustrate the unknown destiny oi
an Arhat, Upatissa gives the simile of red-hot iron beaten and
giving out sparks. When it is dipped into water we do not
know where the sparks disappear;' SO we do not know anything
1. l' 47. 2. p.119. 3. p.81. 4. p. 33. 5. p. 110.
6. p. 8.5; d. p. 75. 7. p. 120; a.lso of. Sn. 1074, 1076.
L\ lit VVUlJl1W',
about the destiny of au Arhat.' The simile of one who is afraid.
of a poisonous- serpent is given by Upalissa in 5.11.7-8. GUG
who wauts to be free from upii.dii.nakkhandhas is compared to a
man who wants to get rid of a poisonous serpcnt whom he has
grasped unawares.' The simile of an elephant and a goad is
often gi,'en by Upatissa. For instance, he says, one must apply
oneself to a 6(lmddhi-1!i1nitta for cont,rolling oneself, just U8 a
goad is applied to an elephant for controlling him.' To express
harmfulness of a thing, Upat issa gives the similes of riding an
elephant without n goad,' or 01 a man who, having a natural
excess of the hU1UOr of phlegm, eats latty things' or one who,
having a natural excess or bile in his humors, takes hot drinks.'
Upatissa gives another very beautiful and most appropriate
simile. The four Oreat Element/! (malWblnlMni) are compared
to three sticks reclining upon on6 another and the Derived Ele
ments' (upada ,.upiini) are compared to the shadows of the three
sticks. Like the three sticks, the Great Elements, depend upon
one another, but the Deri"ed Elements, although they ,ate deri,'eel
from the Great Elements, do not depend upon one another,
like the shadows of the sticks.'
There are also some similes which Upatissa. gives from some
older sources. For instance, to illustrate the fi rst four trnnces'
of the of form, Upatissa gives t.he similes from M.i.276,
277-78. Buddhaghosa does not give these similes. Similarly the
similes of a cart and an army (P_. 48) are quite usual eimiles in
Duddhist liternture. Upatissa uses both of them in 4.16.8-10.
"Just as, because of the different parts 01 the cart'" we can nse the
word cart, or because of the division vf the arillyll we can sa.v an
army, so this trance (jhdna) is so called because of the diffel'ent
factors" (angd!U). " Upatiesa also gives very appropriate similes
to. illustrate the meaning of the clifferent sankha.ras. TOllch
(phassa) is like the light of the Bun that 5t-rikes the wall, eq'lI111i -
wity (upekkltli.) like a man holding a scale of balance, lalse
"View (diHh) like !l. blind mlln touching and fecling an elephant,
shamelessness like a ca1}{fhla.
At another place, 'not to delight
L p. 120 2. p. 118; 11.1$0 $00 P. 115.
S. p. 115; a1$O d. p. 82, 4.1 . . p. ct .
5. p. n. 6. p. 41-
7. p.
6. pp. 47, 79, 52-53.
Miln. po. 26-28 ; VIII. pp. 7-8.
10. Cf. B. XVIII.
11. Cf. B. IV. p. 197.
12. p.4.8. 13. P. 99.
Point. of

in good thing'" is illustrated by the simile of a oo.ry/.dla who
cares not for .. princely throne. I
Ha.ving noticed the points of aimilarity between our two
texts, let us now proceed to eumiM the points of di a-similarity.
The differences bet"-een the two tuts are of two kinds: (A) in
the dodrinal points and (B) in the method of treatment.
(A) At the outset it may be borne in mind that Upatiua
dota not at all differ from Buddhaghosa on any junJamenwl
doctrines of Buddhism. clearly shows tbat both of tbem
accept the same Tberaviida tradition. It is only on comparn-
tively minor pointa that they differ.
(i) For instance. Upatiss8 gives thirty-eight
a, the principal oneil and he mentions two others a.s only
8eCOnda ry.' His whole treatment of the kammaHhinaa is based
on the acceptance of thirty-eight kammatlhiinaa, mentioning
occasionally the other two. In the detailed treatment of these
kammatj.bii.nas, however, be he.! included these two 11.180. This
subject is discussed in a note in the main body of this disserta-
tion' and it will be seen from it that this classification of Upatisea
is based upon an older classification as seen in M.ii. 14-15. and
Pa. i. G. Netti and Abhidharmak04a of Vaaubandhu (VIII. 30a)
al80 give tbe same kaaiJ, as are given here.
(ii) Upati 56a speaks of the as a circular,
triangular or quadrilateral/ although he adds at the same time
that former teacheu com:idered II- circular =-,4al(J, aa the beat.
Buddbaghoa!l. does not make any mention o( the triangular or
quadrilateral kmitItJ..
(iii) In connection with the n.imitttJ. of the Drahmavihitu,
Upatissa. speaks of the e3:tenMon of the nimitw of the Brahma....
vihirl18 as well 118 of the ten kuiJ;HU." Buddhaghosa is definitely
opposed to this view. He speaks against this view and it ia
quito obvious that he has in mind some definite who
held tbis view. Ca.n it not be that Buddh.agbosa has this plUlllage
01 Upatissa or this view of the !!Chaol of Upatissa in mindP
(il') Upatissa speaka of and accepts fourteen canyb, or
typea of disposition, while Buddbaghosa, although he is aware
1. p. 15; .lso d. Sik. lW-30, 160.
2. p. 38.
4. pp. 43-44.
6. p. 34.
3. pp. 3S-39 note.
5. p. 39.
of this fourteen-fol d classification, nccepts only sis: cariylis.
He definitely rejects tite fourteen-told cl"-SllificatiOIl (B. III. 14).
He de" otea a lot of space to the discUABion of these carisus aud
we shall have an occasion to reter to thelll again.'
(v) Upatissa gives thirty kinds of riipas," four beiug the
mahiibhutii5, the great elementa, and twenty-ail: up5.diirupiis,
derived-matter. Duddhaghosa, gives only twenty-eight (XIV.3G).
He is aware of some other kinds of rupas, which are
added by BOllle to his list. He discusses those rupas and rejccts
all of them. In thia connection, among other rupas, he mention
iaJ.irvpa and adds: 'according to SOllle (ek(lcculU.t 1p- ,natena,
XIV.71), middlwrupa' _ Upatis81l 6oem8 to accept these two
rupas. He has a very oonaistent view about this
the material form or quality of sloth. He refen to TlI.iddlta-
rl1pa on three other occasions. In 4.15.4-4. 15a.l and in
1O.3a.2-3, Upatissa says that midJlw-T"dpa is 01 three kinds-that
which is produced by weather (tttuia), produced from mind
(cittaja), and produced from food (ilhriroja). Upatissa tIUlt
it is the cittJlja-middha that is a hindrance aud 1I0t
the other two; for, they can be even in an Arhat. He gi"l'es a
quotation' from Anuruddha to uplain that cittaia middha is to
be ginn up at the time of Arhatship, while the other two cnn
be given up later. In 12,13.10, Upatiss!l. mentions only tAi/1(]
(mental languor) and uddhacca III things that are
given up at the time of entrance into the Path 01 Arhai&hip,'
while Buddhaghosa mentions and ttdhacca in
the lI8Jlle connection (XXII.71) .
This "iew of Upati ull. is supported by the author of tile
llilinda-paiiha. In this book, we fi nd the mention" of ten ki ude
of physical states (kGY&lttgat4 dhammd) over which an Arhat
haa no control. Among these ten, we find middJla.
(vi) Buddhagbosa speaks of the five ango.& or facton of t.he
fil1t trance, three of the leoond, ond two each of tbe third a.ud
fourth (IV.I06,139, 153,183). The factors of eoch trance are 08
1st trance, 5 angas: vitakka, vicara, piti. Ittlcha and ekaggatd.
2nd txance, 3 angas: pIti, ,ukha and ekaggatA.
3rd t-rance, 2 Qngna : Ittkha and ekagg(ltil.
4th trance, .2 angas: upekkhil and ekaggatil.
1. pp. :lZ:lvii, :lxxiI-"i. 2. p. 95.
6. Dem. iii. p. 1021.
8. p. 48. 4. P. 123.
6. Trellckner'a ed. p. 26:3.
Upatissa, in addition to thia kind of classification, giTu
another classification' as followa:-
lst trance, 5 angas: vitakko, viciita, pHi, ,ukha ilnd 8I.:6ggaUi..
2nd trance, 4 angas: 8ampaJcida, pHi, ,ukha. and ekaggo.ta
3rd trance, [) angaa: upekkhil. lati, Jampajaihla, Jukha and
4th trance, 3 angaa: vpekkhii, lati and ekaggatd.
Thia kind 01 classification is abo found in Vibhanga 25761.
Vasubandbu's Abhidharmako'a also (VIIL78) gives thia classi
fication with a alight variation in the aogas of the trance,
where it give!! four instead of three.
(vii) Upatissa mentiona ooly three indriyu,' whicb correa
pond to the lokuttara.indriyas, the last three or the twentytwo
enumerated by Buddhaghosa in XVI.1. He dOe! not even give
any aection on I ndriyoa as Buddllaghosa gives io XVLl12.
(viii) Wbile explaining allu/o71lQ.-1iatla, Upatissa explains
it as equivalent to dhammas' which are the same
as the thirtyseven factors of enlightenment (bodhi-pakkhiya.
dhammd). Buddhaghosa, however, considers these factora or
enlightenment as something higher than anulo11wIUil.l-fJ., ,vhich
he puta between the eight and theae
Cactora or enlightenment.' .
(ix) According to Upatiua, does
not become" a paccllya of vipallaOO (3.7a.1O3.8. 1), while aCCl.lrd
iog 10 Buddhaghosa, all kam11laHhdna.s do become (IILI20).'
(x) Upatissa mentions (UQJhHla7OOdhi' as ooe oot attained
I'itber by aivaku or by the Duddha. BuddhaghoS!l dOH not
make any such mention.
(B) Let U8 now proceed to the other kind of difference, the
in treatment or in tlle method of handling a parti.
cular point. There nre many such cases where t.hese differencee
occur and thcy have beeo pointed out in various pIac$! in the
main body ot this diasertation. Here we shall mention only a
fe'" cases of oulAltanding importance.
(i) It has been observed that Upatissa givea an interpretation
of some terms or e::s:pressioo&, different from tha.t given by
1 ... p. 151-53. 2. p. 122. 3. p. 119 .
.f.. XXI 130. 15. p .f.O.
6. Abo. t:f. B. xvn. 15; Abbm. p. 91. 1'erse SM.
7. p. SO.
Buddhaghosa, alt hough both of them use oue and thc same
tel'w or expression. For iustance, if we compare Upatisaa's
interpretation of Jhuta and Jhutal'ciJ{I' with that gi \'en by
lluddhaghosa in II.Sl-82, we find Upatissn's interpretation ill
quite different. It is simpler aud more natural than that af
lluddhaghosa. Similarly, tnke the lour kinds or paribhogns.'
Upatissa's interpretation differs from that of Buddhaghosa in
1.12527. Iu the saUle tI'ay, take the tI'ol'd PiitilllokkllU. U(1 I1.
lissa's intel'pretation is ahllost identical with the interpretfltioll
of the same word in Vbhflngn. 246, nn(l is q"ite different. froUl
the adificial interpretation of Duddhaghosa in 1.43. The salUo
is the case with Upatissa's comment all vimocayaJ! 1 pit/a.III.'
Upatissa's COlliment is quite different and more natural thau
that of Budilhaghosa (VIII.2J3) which is "ery artincial aud
,highly scholastic. {ipatissa's comment ou the words Blla!Iatii,
bhi1.:k1IU, Jacciilli/ on Ihe passage taken for the el:-
position or ,ilcinllllalj," anti on the words such as, jivluJ,
kiJya, ayalalla' is entirely devoid or Buddhagho...a' s artificialitJ
aud scholasticism. While h'eating of upalamanu.uati,' Upatissa
does not take even the main t utual passage taken by Buddha
gh08a for his eXllositioD.
(ii) Upatissa.'s treatment of Ule sootions' on vedaJ!(i, l alhid,
lank-hiJra and vil11MI.!a is different from that of Buddhagllosa.
His exposit ion of the artificiel Uloka-koJitta\ ' is different from
that of Buddhaghosa in Y.21. While explaining the word
loka-t;itAit., Upatissa refers to only two lokas, latla-loka aud
He does uot speak or oktila-loka o,'er ,,:hicb
Duildhaghos.1 spends some liliragraphs. The whole sections
on kayagaUi-6ati aud ore treated by D\\dd.ha-
ghosa in a manner quite (lift'erent from that of Ullatissa .
The latter docs not go iuto the detailed explanation
of the thirty-two pal:ts of the hody as tIle former
does. But, ou the other ha nd, Upatissa gives a loug li st
of the n3mes at wcrms thnt reside in a buman body. l ' he
D:lIlles used seem to be aU tl'llllslilerntiOD8 of Indiau names,
ODe of which may be restored as (SaD. "tf1wla.
muklla).11 Upatiesa also goes into the details of the develop.
l. Pl'. 2t.2S.
p. IS. S. p. II. .. p. iI.
pp. G3, 11, (;2, 100. . p. 67. 7 . pp. 99, 100.
. p. 71. 9 . pp. 07-100. 10. p. OS.
II. p. 63. 12. pp. 75 fr., 7, fl.
I S. Seo p. 76 Ilnu Appendi" A 2.
went of the foetus week hI week. A comparison with Athana_
veda as well as with some of the old Indian medical works
like Vagbhat's A, tlinga-hrdaya, ' aud CRraka
shows that the unrues of the worms given by Upat.i5lla are
different froln those mentioned in these works. Su!ruta speaks
of the development of foehls month by month and not week by
week." Upatissa's e:.o:position of the Law of Dependent Origina-
tion is quile simple and is illustrated by the simile of the
rice-seed and rice-plaut.'
(iii) We find from the comparisou of these two texts tbat
where UpaHuR is brief, Buddhaghosa is prolix and where
U)Jatissa goes into details Buddhagllos&. does not. For instance,
while clI:plainwg the word aHhU,ta, Upatissa mentions' only
six aHhao38 which correspond to Buddhaghosa's pa!ibodhas
that are given by him as ten (III.log). We have already men-
tioned above' another esse where Buddhagh03u gives eight ways
ot culti-vating mindfulness of breath (VIII.1S9) while Upati5S8
gives only four.' Upatis58 mentions only tour advantages of
cultivating lamadhi.' while Buddhaghosa. mentions five
(XI.120-24). 'Ye have also referred to (p. L-o:iv) another case
where Upntissa mentions only ten ways, given by former teachers,
of catudlu:Uu1ral'atthdtlo," while BuddhagholD gives thirteen.
Upatissa gives only three divis.iona ot lila: duvidha. t;'1)id/w, .
catubbidha (pp. 1-14). He does not speak of the pa:lcavidllo
class which Buddhnghosa gives. Upntissa does- not 8}leak of
the five kinds mastery ("l;o.siyo, p. 51) that Buddhaghosll. gives
in TV.lo!.
On the other hand Upatissa gives n detailed explanation of
Tariou8 kinds of -vlt'eka
and the fivOj kinds of l'imuta, U while
DuddhagLosa does not. U patissa gives six kinds of ptti, n while
Buddhaghoaa gives onl,. five (IV.94.1OO). Upatiua gives five
kinds or lukha," whereas Duddhaghosa does not speak or any-
1. Nidllluthina, U. 42..0/3.
2. Villlllluthin., 7. 9-13.
3. 54tb adhyiy.: Ell&:. Tralll!. by K. L. Bhi.bagratlla, III. pp. 338-11.
4. Thi rd .dbyly .. ; Ellg. Trllnll. by Bbilbagrlltn. , ii, p. HI1 If.

7. p. ni... 8. p. 70.

11. p. <1.6. 12. p. 1.
13. pp . .4.7. l.f.. p. 47.
thing of the kind. In the clauification of dla, lamiidlli and
7)aill1d, Upatissl!. gives several divisions which are not given by
lluddhaghosa and many of them are baaed upon &orne older te:z;t..
like Vibhanga. Upatissa. gives n det-ailed list of the special
distinctions' of the Buddha while Buddhaghosa merely refers to
thenl (IX.l24). Upatissa gives a detailed statement of the
disadvantages of ill-will,' while Bu(ldhaghosa only alludes to
some suttas (IX.2).
(iv) Upatiua sometimes introduces new matter which we
do not find in the corresponding portiolJ of Buddhagbosa. For
instance, Upo.tisso. mentions severo. l gU!las' of each t rance,
twent:r-fi16 of the Erat, twenty-three of Ihe second, twenty-two
of the third and fourth trances and of tJle four fonulesa (arupuva-
cara) samMhis. Buddhaghosa does not so.y anything of the
kiml. Similarly, as a reward for each of these trances an(1
e3.miLdhis, Upatissa names the planes of the different kinds of
gods (together with their life periods) where the yogih'acara i .
born. It is i nteresting to note that the life-perioda a88igned to
these different gods by UpatiSlla do "ot agree in all case8
with those given in Vibhangn (424-20), or Abhidhammatthll-
sangaha (chap. V. para. 6).' The following comparative list
will be interesting: -
Realm of the first trance

Realm of the second trance

Renlm or the third trance
J. pp. d.5-6d.
According to
! kappa
2 kappas

According to
Abba. & Vbh.
! knpplL
2 kappns
2. p. 78. 3. pp. 47-M. 4. pp. 60-66.
6. Nor do thl1,. agree with tbt lile-p01riodi gil'"en by Vuubandhu In
hiS AbbidharlllBkw.
According to
Realm of the fourth trance
V tJhapplw.'W }
50 kappas
A tappa
10,000 kapPls
Realnl of the formless trllnces
Akdl(ilU'-nc6yata1lti"pogll 2,000
Vilbia,:,anc6yatantipagu 4,000
Akiflco.iUl6yato.ni1pago. 6,000
According to
Abhs. &. Vbh.
600 kl\ppas
1,000 kappas
While explaining the annssatis, Upatissa uplains or
defines the subject of eroch of the anussntis. I n his explanaHon
of the word Dho.mlflQ in Dllamm6nuuati, Upatina givea a ,ery
interesting comment.' He explains the word Dllamma. as
Nibbl:lna and the Way to Nibbona. His u:planation of Nibbiina
is the cessation of all activities (,ankhdrd), abandoment of all
ddilementa, cessation of craving, dispassionateness and calmness.
The way to Nibbdna, he explains. in terms of tholle dhamwas
which are known as the Thirty-seven Factors of Enlightenment
(bodhipakkhiya-dhaml1W)." Compare with this Buddhaghosa' it
idea of Nibb.ina in XVI.64-74 ..
Having noticed the pointa of similarity and dissimi larity.
let UB further see whether there i8 ony di rect or veiled reference
in oDO book to the tIther, or whether there is ony other evidence
to make one be-li6"e in tho probability of the author of one book
having kno"l'l"n the other.
It has heen noted that Buddhaghosa, in his Viauddhimagga,
often refers to the "iews of other philosophical systems or schools
or t raditions-to the :views of the Sankhya' and Vaijqika'
1. p. 66. 2. p. 66.
S. XVI. 85, 9l.
4. XVI. 91, XVU. 117.
Bystems, of those wholD he calle Believers in Ood or (Supreme)
Controller,' of the Jainas," as well as to the views or other
schools or traditions (ill Buddhism)." He does not mentiou them
by their specific uame but uses some woni that is peculiiarly
characteristic of each of ihem or simply uses words like 'eke,
ekacce, keei , aiine, alnlre, or yo palla 'radeyya , etc.' leaving it
to tIle reader to imagine whom Ule cap fib. For our purpose,
we are to confine ourseh'es to Bmldhnghosa' s refercllces to olher
schools within the pale of Buddhism. Upatisaa also often gives
the "jews of other schools, ' introducing them simply l\'ith a re-
mark such 'and it is sai(\', 'further it is said. ' Such rererellces
to the views cf other schools made by Buddhaghosn and Upntissa
in their books, we shall classify in the following way:
(A) Those views that hne been referred to y BuddhagJlOsa
as well as by Upatissa.
(B) Those vi ews that bave ooen ascribed to 'some' b.v oue
author and foulld to be exactly tallying with the
held by the other.
It is wellknown that Buddhaghosa belonged to the school
cf the Theraviidins Qu(1 acc('pted til e tradition of the Mahii.vihiira
school in Ceylon. In. his prefatory remarks to the Visuddhi-
magga, Buddhaghosa definitely says that he would giye the ex
position of the Path of Purity, according to the traditioual
interpretation of those. who belong to the Mnhayihara (104).
(A) (i) In the Visllddhimngga, I.l9, while giving the
TariOIlS interpretations of the word Iflo, Buddhaghosa snys thnt
are others l\ho interpret the word lila, alao in the sense or
'head' (,ira). or in the sense of 'cool' (IUala). These snme in
terpretations as well os n few others are given by UpatissIL in
(ii) In the Visuddhimagga III.78,. Budtlhaghosa says that
there fire others who would make three other cariyii&-by way
of craving, egoism (11Ulna) and false belief (dittln).
Upatissa also refel1l to this view as an alternative to his view,
hut he remarks that these three are included in his fourteen, as
1. XVI. 90, 85; x\ro. 22, .50, 111; XIX. 3; XXII. 119.
2. XVI. 86, XVII. 62.
S. 1.19,38; II. 78, . 9; III. 14, i8, 80, 96; XIV. 11; XV. 39 ;
XVI. M; X\'I1. 8, H, 223; XXUI. 4, 1, 11.
4. In addition to of the older 101In:es referred 10 on pp. :ui"-J::lT.
6. p.l5.
they are not dift'erent in meaning from some of those that orc
included in his fourteen. '
:iii) Wliile speaking of the nimitta of the amlpanQ.sQti,
Duddhaghosa saYI in VIIJ.214, "There are some who say that the
nimitta appears to some one, giving a pleasurable contact like
tllat of soft cotton, or cottoll-wool, or like a gentle breeze of
wlnd. " I n the next paragraph, however, Duddhaghosa givcs
the opinion of the Atthakathlis which he apparently accepts.
Upatissn gives a passage in which we can trace the expres-
used by Buddhaghosa to e:l.:press both these views."
(iv) Buddhaghosa refers in IX.1l2 to the "iewa of !lOme
people who believed that all the four appamaniHis can have all
the lour or five trances. Upatissa refers to this same view and
quotes' tbe very passage from A. i\'. 300 given by Buddhaghola.
(v) I n the Visuddhimngga XIV.42, B\lddhaghosa refers to
the ,:jews of Borne regarding the sensitive parts of the five sense-
organa. "There are others who say that the eye is the sensitive
part in which t-he element. of fire is predominant, the ear, the
nose, tongue and the body are the sensitive parts in which the
elements of space, wind, water, earth, respectively, predomi-
nate," This same view is given in a (letailed manner by
Upat issa.- .
(vi) Like BuddhaghoslI, Upatiua also belie't'ed in the simul-
taneous penetration into all the FOllr Truths, UpatissB refers to
the 'dew of thofie who believed in the attainment of Truths in
successive stages (fuhwbhisamaya) and points out in detail the
fl aws in this view of theirs. He gives sevcn flaws, ' at least two
of which can be identified with 80me of the refutations of this
theory, given in the Kathlivatthu 1.213, para. 5 ff., 216 para. 10.
Bucldhaghosa refers to the theorists who held such views and
dismiMes them by saying that an an.swer to them has been given
in the Kathivattht:.
(D) (i) In the Visuddhimagga II. 18, Buddhaghosa refers
to B view of 80me who hold that there is an. akmala dhv.tanga. In
II. 19, he al80 mentioDs those who think that the dll.utanga is
' kmalaUikavinimutta?),)'. Now, Upatissa seeIDS to be holding
1. p. 34.. Z. p. 10. S. p. 81--82.
4. p. 96. 6. p. 120-2l.
6. According to tbe Katbinttbu-Commentary, thi. viII'" ...-.. beld
by tbll Andbaku, Sabbattbaddin. , Sammitiyu and Bhadrayinik .. (1!e6
Pointa of CoutroTlnsy, p. ISO).
a "iew which corresponds to the btter of these views.1 In t.he
(klluuell tary on the Visuddhimagga, commenting
on the word 'those says tust by this word, Buddhagbosu
refers to those who lived in the Abhayagiri (Monastery).
IAbhayagiriwisike soml ltii,!}a ii,l.a, p. 9G, Dunuese edition. ]
(ii) I n tbe Visuddhimagga III.H, Buddbaghosa refers to
the views of those who ll eld the belief ill fourteen cAri yas, in-
stead of six according to his belief. This same view of fourteen
cariyiia is accepted by U pat.issa.
(i ii) There is a very important passage fol' our purpose in
the Visuddhima:rga 111.80, which read with Dhammapala' s
comment, goes a long way to deterlUiue the relation between
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga and Upatissa's Vimuttimagga.
There,' Buddhaghosa says: Ta tro, lJUrim6 lelva tiuo eariyel
pubbdciI;11.wnidii,71ii , dhiitu-dosa-nj(lii ll(l eel ti elacce vadanti.
"There are l ome "I\ho say t hat the first three cariyis of these
Are determined by one' s past actions, by [t he excess or some or]
the four great elements and of the humours." Exactly this .samo
theory is advocated by Upatissa . . iu his ParamllttlJa.maiijilsa., the Commentary
on Buddhaghosa ' s Visuddhimagga, says,' while commenting on
the word ekacce (p. 113 Burmese cd.): "Ekacce ti Upati s-
sattheram 8Gl1dltayUlw. . 1'6na hi Vimuttimagge tathe
"The wo'"rd 'some' is used with reference to the Ehler Upatissa.
He has said so in the Vimuttimagga." This is n very important
comment by Dhsmmsp5. la COl" our purpose.
(iv) I n continuation of the same passage, Buddhaghosa says
in 111.81: '''l'hey explain t hat oue beoomes ruUacGrita wIten
there is excess of the humour ot phlegm aDd ODe becomeg
1nohacarda when there is excess of the humour of wind. Or,
that one becomes 1I!oliOcari(a when there is exCOlSS of
the humour or phlegm and relgGtxlrita when there is exceSll
of the hllmaur of wintl." Buddhllghosa in the llext p.llra-
1. PII. 23-24. 2. p. 34. 3. p. 35.
4. M3' attention was urali'D to tbi. IHwnge by Prof. M. Nllgai. He
himulf "'aII informed of thil hI "Ny.u.tiloka who bll puhHIbed
[1931] tbe fi"t volume of hi. German traDalaHon of the Viauddbimajlia.
In hi s introduction to that book, on p. 6, he baa quoteu thia Chi.llOl6
pauaae fr ... m "ur Cbine&e vemon of the Vimut timagga. See also
'Pratitya-5l1mutpidaUatra' des Ulbngba' 1'011 Vaaudev Gokhle, [Bonn,
1930) p. 10, foot-note 2.
graph, IIL82, points Qut a defect in this argument, that thi:!
c..xviaius only raga and molta (riiua-moha-dVQ.yanu;;;a vutta.??t).
He means that there is no explanation of dosq,. And another
defect that he points out is that in the alternative explanat iun,
the statement goes j ust counter to the statement in the first
altel'llatin. A.nd S0, he brushe3 aside the argument and coo-
cludes 'all this is au indiscriminate statement (sabbameta1/t
apa'ricchinllGvaCGlla71t). '
Now it is cmious to not,e that the argument that Upatissa
offers is the same that is put in tlie mouth of these people by
Buddhaghosa except that his statement explains not onl y 'I'aga
amI moha but dosa. 'f o mal.e this point clear, l et rue re-
produce the Pali renderi ng of the relevant passage' in our
Chinese SemhrJ.dhi!.:o }'(, pittrJ.llhi!.:o dosa-carito,
'viitiidhi ko molla-carita. Aparaii cc '/Jutta7/t; semhii.dhiko mOM-
carita, 1:ilttidhilw 1'" Here we see that i n, the first
part of tllis statement all the three,IJ.oa, ,10SfI, molta are men-
tioned, while i t is oDly in the last part that only two, molta
and raga, are mentioned, and this (;an be explained by saying
that: t.he in the two alternatives is between raga and
molta only, the second t'3rlll ' dosa' is not meut.ioned because it
remai ns unaffected.
If we believe in the authori tative statement of Dhammapiila
that Buddhaghosa allude" to Upatissa and his Vimuttimagga,
does this- statement of Buddhagho;;a imply that he misunderstood
the point of view of his cpponent or is it an example of deli-
berate twisting by Buddhagbosa of bis opponent's statement?
(v) We la\'e already pointed that Bucldhagbos:l, while
lipeaki ng about the of the nimitta of th<:! B;;-ahnun:ihiira
says in 111.113-114 that it should not be extended. He allows
the extension of only the ten kasiJ?8S (111.109). Buddhaghosn
dwells on this point of f: xtension and shows his reasons why the
nimit-fa of tbe BrahmaviM.ra should not be extended. It a}Jpears
obvious, though he does not definitely say so, that Buddhaghosa
has some people in mind, who hold this view. Now, Upatissa
says (3.7f'. 6-7) that the nimitta of the kasiJ?as and Brahma-
viharas may be extended.
(vi) I n Visltddhimagga IV. 114, Buddhaghosa says:
Patipadiivisuddhi nama sa-sambhariko UpaparQ, upekklL{i1lubra-
nama appallii, saonpahfl7{tsantl wimo. ti
1. p. 85. 2. p. ::u:.,.. 8. p. 39.
... . .. .... v .... vv ...
evameke <' There al'e soma who Ill lerpl'et. the
purity of the course as neighhourhood-trallcc together wit h
its accompanying things, the cultivation of equanimity as the
rapt ured state of trance, and gladdening as reflection. "
Buddhaghosa "ejects this interpretation on the authority of a
passage from the oIHI gives his own interpretation.
Now Upatissa accepts exactly this interpretation' or those terllls
and the ,,:hole passage as given by him (4. 17.104.17a.1) is
identical in words with the passage quoted above from Buddha-
ghosa. Dhammapala here agai n comes ' to our rescue. He gives
us "aluable inforwation. He explains t.hi s word eke as AMaya-
oirivu$ino, 'those who lived in the Abhayaoiri l!Jllonastery] .'
(vii) In the detailed enumel'ation of rupas, Buddhagliosa
gives, as we already notell (p. xxxi), twenty-eight ri"lpas
(XIV.ll). He mentions several other riipns, which some others
would like to include, but he rejects them all, giying his
reasons. Among these rupas, Buddhaghosa mentions ;ci tirupa and
middharupa. Regarding the last, he says: matena
middhanipa1f/-. Both t hese rupas Upa. includes in his
list . which according to hiw consists of thirty riipas.
Here also.
DhawmapaIa is of great hel p to us, He comments on the word
d :acctilla1?t as Upatissa and his school hail
n very consistent '\'"iew about 71liJdhartilJU aud we ha'\'"e already
deal t wi th it above.
(v-ii) .While discussing the phalruamciprotti, Buddhaghosa
r efers in XXIII.7 to those wbo believed that the Sotflj>annas
and Sakadagiimis cannot have phalasa71lapaUi. but only those
that occupy a higher stage than these (i .e. the Aniigawis aud
the Al'hat-s) can ba .... e. He also stntes the reason given by them,
that only these last two have reached perfection in samtid./'b.
He I'ejects their point of view on the ground that even au
ordinary man (puthujjana) can attai'.! the state of [per fection i n
a] and further, not wishing to bother himself
with siving nny more reasons, simply says: "Why thi nk of
reason or no reason ? Has it not been said in the Sacred
'l'exts ... ... P" He gives [\ quot.ation frow Fa. i. 68 to support his
own view that all ariyas can havo IJhaltuamdpaUi. Now Upa.
tissa' s position (12.6.6) exactly conesponds to the view of these
}. 1'. 49. 2. p. 95.
3. Burmese edition of Paramo.tthmnanjil sli., Vol. 11. p. 520.
4. p. ::txxi.
xlu VDltiT'l'DlAGGA
refel'1'ed to by Buddhaghosa and he states exactly the
same reason put in the mouth of these theorists by Buddhaghosa.
It is curious to note that, immediately after this, Upp,tissa
aho illukes a reference
to those who held that all Ariyns cuu, ha"6
pJtalasamapatti. and states as their Ruthority the same passage
froUl Ps. i. 68 (which Upatissa merely indicates by giving in-
troductory words) on the strength of which Buddhagbosa.
supports his own view and rejects that of his opponent.
(ix) In the Visuddhimagga XXIII. 11, Buddhaghosa uguin
refers to the views of those '!\ho believed that the SotiipalHla,
slarting penetrative insight with the intention of the attain-
ment of the fruit (phalasamiipatti), becomes the
Sakadii{Jami becomes A7Iaoclmi. Upatissa's position is exactly
the (12.17.5). Here agai n Dhammap51a is helpful' to us
in giving tbe information that this statement is made with
r eference to the Abhayagirivaains.
B"uddhaghosa continuing his argument points out the diffi-
culty if the position of his opponent is accepted . He says that
by accepting the "iew advocated by his opponents, we will be
driven to conclude that an A?lagami becomes an Arhat, an
Arhat a Paccekabuddha and a Pa.ccekabuddh.a a Jjuddha.
Upatissa .seems to ha,te ant.icipated this objection and he
answers (12.17. 5) that an AlIagami, while'tiog his l>enetra-
tive insight for the of the Fruit cannot immediately
reach the Path of Arbatsbip, becausCl be does not produce
l.Iipauallil dauana as it is not the thing aimed ::It by him, ana
because bis reflection ls not powerful enough& [to enable him
to n:nch the path of Alhatshipj .
Hning the internal evidellr.e of our two texl:s in 60
far as the similarity and dis-si!llilarit.y of the ideas and in so far
as reference to philosophical views or doctrinal points is con-
celned, let us now turn our attention to proper names-names,
either of books, places, or personages mentioned ill the
(i) One cannot fail to notice the names of two or three
works referred to by Upalissa. He quotes from San Tsang =.
at three different times' and one of these quotations exactly agrees,
ns we have already noticed (p. X:l.:v), with the f-r Oll the
i. p. 125. p. 12.5. 3. p. !27.
4. Burmese editloll of Paralllatthamauja" Vol. II. p. 896.
IN'l' lWDUOTION xliii
Petaka gi,en by Bnddhaghosa ill, IV. 8G. The other two quota-
tions I could trace in the of Mahii.kacciina,
VIIth Chapter, pp. 151, 158 of Hardy's Manuscript. (in Roman
characters) preserved in the State Library of Berlin, a. photo-,
graphic copy of which I could secure some years ago. There
is an edition of the Petakopadesa,l in Burmese characters printed
in the Zabu Meit Swe Press, Rangoon, 1917 and the passages in
question are found on p. 191 of that edition. At the end of
several chapters (iii,Y,viii) of the Petakopn.desa we read the name
of' the author Mahaknccana residing in Jnmbusana. Prof. Hardy
in, his Introduction (pp. X- XVI) to the Netti-PakarnJ?3. advances
n view on the supposed authority of Dhamm.:lpala's Commentary
Oil. Netti, t.hat Petaka is an abbreviated name of the Petakopadesa.
But this does not seem to me to be correct. I think Prof.
Hardy has misunderstood the commentary. In the Commen-
tary on tJ1e Netti-pakaral,la, mell,tions by nflme
both the works, Petaka and Peta,kopadesa, sep!lrately. In the
Sinhalese edition of this book edited by Widurupola Pi:yatissa-
thera in the Simon Hew8vitaral).a Bequest Fund
vol. IX, Petaka. is mentioned on p. 1, verse 12, and on p. 3 a
quotation is giv'n from the Petaka
Yattha ca $abbe harii $ampatamt.inii '1Iayallfti $tfttattht1lT!l
byalj,janavidki puthuttd 3a bhti1n,: lulra-3ampi'ito 'ti.
On the ot-her hand, we find the following passages: tat hii hi
a.garahitaya Pef,a.kopaduo' viya idam
Netti-1Jakara1J,am aoat.a:l!" (p. 3). Aya1Jl ca atthQ Petako-
padcJena' vibhtlvetabbo (p. 115). And here are reproduced
extracts which can be ip, entified in tho ava.ilable Text or
the But the- quotation ascribed here to Petaka
is not traced. So also, although two of the three quota-
tions referred to a.bove are found in t.he PetJlkopadesa,
the quotation which is ascribed by Buddhaghos8 to Petaka.
I could not 80 far trace. Dhammapalo. i n his Commen-
tary on the Visuddhimagga refers to Petua, almost in a. similar
context, no less than three times (pp. 153,194,874). When he
mentions it for t.he first time, he explains it as Mahtikaccli-
na.tihe-rena de,ita1Jl Pif,a.ldjnaTfl. Therefore, it
seems to be a different work and hence we cannot identify i t with
Pe!akopadesa. The Chinese characters used for Sa.n-Tsang ordi.
Also Specimen des Pet-akopade&l'. vou Rudolf Fncht, Berlin,
2. Netti, pp. X-XI. S. Netti, p. XI. 4. Netti, p. 241.
See NettiCm. (referred to above), Introd. p. 6.
nRrily mean Ti-pit;aka but here they may for some specific
work. Przyluski in his 'Leo CondIe de Rajagrha' p. 109 gives
these characters and suggests that they may staml fllr
SaT[l[yuktaj-pitnka. IIe also mentions Petakopadesa on p. 74
of the book. Yamokami in his 'Systems of Buddhistic Thought'
mentions (p. 175) b\lt in the absence of the original
Chinese characters it would be bazardous to give its Indian
equivalent. Undcr these circumstances, it would not be safe to
identify San-hang with Petakopadesa.. Nor can we identity it
with Petnka until we know more of both of these names, although
the possibility of snch identification is not precluded.
While speaking of the advantages of Buddluinuuati, Upa-
tissa quotes from Shiu-to.Jo-Nieh-ti-li-chu {I} .a i .!Il.{ij.
The quotat.ion says that one who desires to reBect upon the
Buddha is worthy to be respected like n place with the image
of the Buddha.' To this Buddhaghosa has a corresponding
remark in VIII.67: <lEven t.he body of the man, who is given to
the reflection upon the Buddha. becomes worthy to be worshipped
like a temple." At another place, in his treatment. of
Jati, Upatissa. gi"t"es a quotation from Nie-ti-li-po-tho-shiu-tc-
10' n!. Jil: JiI. illt m -k* Ii which purports to say that if a man
wants to reflect upon death, be should reflect upon a dead per-
son and see the cause of his death. Now both these texts appea;
to be the same, the only diffeTence being that in one case the
word chu ,fij seems to be used as a translation of the word pada
and in another case po-tho liE a trans-literation of the same
word 'pada' is used.
Upatissa, like Buddhaghosa, also 1l!fel"S to tbp.
by using the Chinese translation (Yellow-Garment-Sutta)
of that name. Upatissa consf.antly refers to the Abhidharuma, in
whicb he seems to include also Patisambhida., for passages defi-
nitely knOWll to be from that text are given by Upatissa as from
tbe Abhidhamma,'
(ii) Now we come to the names of places. While speaking
of the round Upatissa. says ' as round as Jambud!pa'
( In another place he speaks of the way to the country
of pataliput.ta (Po-li-phu-to
i2t!fO ).
1. p. 62.
2. p. 79; tho;: Sanskrit rendering of thia title "'ould 'Netripadn_
siltra'; Cf. Netripaddistra of Stha.vira. Upnguptn. (Abbidbarmnkob
it 205]. 3. p. 82. 4. 8ee pp. 4, 125. 6. p. 86.
I NTltODUC'l' ION xli-
Upatissa also refers to the Magadha country (6.13.8) and to
t.he river Neranjara (p. (4).
(iii) Let us now take the names of personages. It is interest-
ing to note that in the section on Upa"tissa refers,
amop.g other names, to the names of the hoar.V". sages, Vess5. mitta
(San. Visv5.mitra) and (San. Jamadagni, to which the
Chinese transliteration ( 00 Jti 7.93.8.) corres-
ponds] , while Buddhaghosa refers (VIII . 19) to comparati\'el y
later personages in Hindu mythology, like Bh'i maseun, Yuddhit-
thila (San. Yudhi-'1thira), V5.sudel'n, CUl),ura. ' Ve nlso fiud the
names of gods like Yuma, Tusit1i. (6.20a.13), AkaniHha, etc. lIe
also refers to mythological personages like MahasudassM, Jotika,
Jatila, GboS'ita (9.2a .8), hlahiigovinda, etc. lIe has al so given the
names of (A,liuaj Kalama, Uddaka RamapuUa (5. 12n .8-9). We
find Upatissa mentioning the Mille of Gotama as well as the
names of great B.uddhist "'orthies like Sii.:riputta, Moggallaua,
Ananda, Anuruddhn, Sobhitn, Cl1rapanthakn, Bakkula, SaiijiYa,
etc. Towards the end of the book lvhite speaking about vilJplui1'a-
samiidhi, Upatissa gives a name which seems to be a Chinese
transliteration of the name Moggaliputtatissa.
Most of these
names are the Chinese transliterations of Indian names, except in
a few cases like the names Sai'ijiva, Cu}apanthaka, which Sangha-
pa.ln respectively translates as 1E -dIt Right-Life (Salll-jiva), Ij, m
Small-Road. Quite & few of these Il ames occur in the quotat.ions
from the Piili texts which Upatissa gives.
Like these propel' names which are retained in Chinese
transliterations, it is interesting to note that there are many
otber words transliterated into Chinese by Sanghapala, which
point to the Indian origin of t he words. These word8 may be
classified as follows: -
Words like Ca1.uJiila (10.9n.7), (2.1Oa .8) .
' Vords like Acariya (iiciirya: ii-ca.-li), Upajj lulya,
Veda (Wui-tho).
Names of semi-divine beings like Asura (9.6n.9.), Yakkha,
(9.6a.9) , RakklulSa (13.13.1), Gandhabba (kiiu-t!?-pO 1. 8.4.).
1. See D. i. 184, 239-43; A. il' . 61.
2. p. 127. It is n. point to, be considered why this name is inserted
i n the Vim. In the corresponding Pilli pa$sage from Pa. we find the
names of only Siiriputta and Saiijiva. Can this be an illterpoiationP
For, Mal. (p. 4.2) tells us on the authority of Nikii.ya-Sangrnha th'at the
Vajjiputtakas who joined the Abhayagiri 6el't did !lot accept the authority
of MoggalipuUa-Tissa.
P el'SI
r atior.

Names of the nine d:visions of Buddhist literah:.:-e like Sutta,
Shiu-to-Io), Geyya, etc. (9.160.89).
Technical words in Buddhism, such as DhuUJ, (2. 1.4), Sangha,
Samatha (4.15a.3) Vipauana, (4.15a.4) Ma'l}f/,ala (4. 18.6) Pdti-
mokkha, Parami (8.8. 10 ff), Nibbiina, Panna ( 9.16.10),
Sanghiirdllla (2.6a.l), Aranii4 (1.1a.3), Kha'l}Q (cha-nii. 7.7a.9),
Dillia (thiiJ;l 8.7.10), Samiidhi 6.2a .1-2), RaIala (kyii-lo-
la, Abbuda (a-pbu-tho 7.13a.l0), etc.
Names of offences mentioned in the Vinaya, like Piiriijika
(1.16a.8), Sanghiidisesa (LISa.S).
Names of garments: (12.18.1), Sangha(i (2.28. 7),
Utumlsanga (2.28.8) Anw-rdvusaka (2.28.8) , Kambala
Names of fruita and trees- like, Aruba, (San. amra:
Kovidiira 3.2.6).
Names of scented wood: Ga1!dann, Tagara (7. 13a. 1).
Names of flowers and lotllses, slIch as, Uppala, Pad1lma,
PuryJarika (5.7a.9) K'Umuda. (7.13.6-7), Ka1J-1J.ikara (5 .21.2).
Periods of time, Asankheyya.
Number, Nahuta, (San: nayut.a: Nii-yu-tba).
There are some words which are sometimes translated ond
sometimes transliterated such as sam'Odhi, pafi7id, dndp'ana
7.1.5 fJ). And even the transliteratien is not always the same. For
instance, fer uppala, we have sometimes yu-to-Io. (5.8.2) 01' seme-
times yu-po-l o (5. 70. .3) or even to-Io (1O.20a.3); for Abh.idha1Mna.
we sometimes have pi-ta, or a-pi-tii, 01' somtltimes wo have
ii-pi-ta-mo; for iicariya we have er ca.-Ii (2. 7.10); for
Arhat we have a.-Io-han or Io-han (6.18.4).
Let us note one peculiar fact abeut Upatissa. He seems to
have some kind of contempt for, or a opinion 0[, B. Caf!4iila.
He re[crs to. a Ca1J4.dla ill, three different 'places. In bne place,'
there is a reference to a Ca1J.l!.ala where we are told in a simile
that he has no. desire for a princely threne.
At anether pInce'
(2.7. 10), to see a CSJ;l.Qalajon the way is considered to be a suffi-
cient renson [or the laxity in the bhservance of the practice of
.tapadiina-caMk6 (going from house to house in successien for
begging one's food). Upat.issa says t.hat if a mendicant sees a
C01J?ala on the way, he should cover his begging-bowl and may
1. p. 16.
2. A similar idea ia slao found in A. i. 107, A. iE. 214.
S. p. 28.
INTRODU(''TlON ... \vii
skip over some houses and go further .' In the third place we
find lack of conscientiousness (ahi'rika) is cOlllpareJ to a
This sort of contempt for a is somet hing foreign to
the original teaching of Buddhism, aud in fact , iu the early days
of J3uddhism, we find several people of the lowest class bei ng
even admitted to the Buddhist Sangha.'
Having thus seeu practically everything that is valuable iu
the internal evidence of the Vimuttimagga, as far as the subject-
matter is concerned, let us now turn to the manner of expression,
01' the style of composition of this Vim\lttimagga, as we have it
now in its Chinese translation.
It is admit.tedly a treatise of the Abhidhamma and we find
that i ts style of composition is il:. keeping with the style of the
AbhidhaOlma books. A subject is treated by setting up a
number of questions and then answering them one after another.
He gives the iakkha1.UJ, T(lSa, l}accupatthii.1Ia, aud l}adaHhdna of
almost everything that forms the subject of his exposition.
Occasionally, as in the case of Jiatta
etc., he also gives Sa1ll1Jatti
aod vipatti. He treats the different sections of n particulllr
subject separately, and then makes general remarks 00 all the
different sectiohs taken together. ' Ve see, for iustance, he
.treat8 'mattil, 1ltudita, and UIJekklui, or TUpa, 1Jedanii,
saii.1iil, 8allkhii.ra and separately and then gives, like
Budclhaghosa, general remarks under Unl ike
Buddhaghosa, he gives no stories at all to illustrate his point.
Iiike Buddhnghosa, be makes use or quotations from the Piili
texts, or other sources that are available to him. He also quotes
a number of gii.tbii:ot as well (IS prose t:assages. 'Ve have already
seen above that Upatissa was a skilful master i n the use of
similes. We have also noted that his interpretations arc simple
and quite naturaL They arc free from scholastic artificiality of
I wc! lOQk closely at the mode of translation acce"pted by
Sanghapala, we' find that very ofltm he t.ries to be quite literal,
and naturally thc Chi nese translation would give no idea unless
one knOI"f S the original technical wOi'ds in Puli or Sanshit for
which the Chines", reop.erings stand. Sometimes we find , as in
1. p. 23.
3. See Thera-Githa,
Brethren. p. 233.
4. pp. 7tI-80,
2. p. 99.
480-486 attributed to Sopii,ka; Psalms of the
5. pp. 56, 69, 62
78, 81, 81, 91, ete.

the V
H OIl.
:.:lviii VIMUnUIAGGA
Tibetan translations of Buddhist Sanskrit works, that tlven the
prefixes are tran.slated by corresponding words in Chinese. \Ve
have all-eady seen above how even the prefix in the name
Smlji.1:G is translated by j, the Chinese equivalent. of that
prefix. Similarly, the prefix 2JUti 01' pa!i in the woXd lJut ibluiua
is translated by pi :flit and t be Chinese equivalent for the whole
word l)atiblui.Ua is pi-pban t& :it. Technical words like
bhuuanua, 11popattibhaua are quite literally
translated by :9-, t!e. .4: ;ff respectively.
We have thus considered practically all the aspects of the
internal eYidence bearing on our problem, afforded by our texts,
particularly by the Vimuttimagga. Let us now take a review of all
t.he facts that we have learnt from the internal or external
llW. We have seen that both tile texts often quote from the same
older sources like the Pa}i texts of the Canon, the PoraJ;las, the
Pubbiicariyas, the some specific work like the
Petako or San-Tsang =:: or some othel' common source which
we mayor may not be able to locate. 'Ve have also seen that
although Upatissa uses some similes, which are common to the
Visuddhimaggo, still he has many similes of his own which
show that he is a. skilful mastel' in handling similies or meta-
phors or illustrations. We ha,e noted (p. xxvii) that he has some
protractea similies which we do not find in the Visuddhimngga.
We bave also observed thnt in spite of some correspondences due
to the cowmon material which is drawn upon by ooth of them,
Upatissa has 60me peculiar doctrinal points, which are quite
distinct from those held by Buddhaghosa. In fact , Buddh9--
ghm:a is definitely opposed to several of those poinUi. It bas
been seen that along with these differences in doctrinal points,
there is also a difference ill the. interpreta.tion of SOUle words
and in the treatment of some topics. Upatissa's interpretations
are simpler and more natural than Buddhaghosa's and often
. they agree with the interpretationa given in oidel' works liktl the
Vibhanga. There is a difference ill the general exposition of
even some sections such as those on Dependent Origination
(hef.,u pac(:aya or paticca-3amuPlukla), on Vedanti, Siilinti,
Sank/uira and In the comparative table of contents,
we have noticed that Upatissa. gives the whole of the last chapter
to Sacca-pariccheda, although he has already given n part of the
eleventh chapter for the exposition of the Noble Truths
(Sacetin-i). Further, we bave alllo noticed that there are about
n dozen references in. both the books to same views held
by some other theorists, that there am at least nine references ill
Buddhagbosa's Visuddhima.gga to the views of others, whom h6
merely calls 'others' or 'some', but which exactly tally with the
views advocated or accepted by Upat.i ssa in his Ti muttimagga.
Incidentally, from the c-'(ternal evidence afforded by Dhamma-
pala's Comment.ary on the Visuddhimagga, we ha'-e noted tbat in
at least four of these ellses, the reference is to the Abhayagiri-
viidins. And besides, the most important reference Cor our pur-
pose is the mention that Dhammapala. makes in one case. lIe
definitely refcrs to Upatissa and his book, tlle Villluttimngga, and
says thnt Buddhaghosa has these l'two) in his mind. " -e have
seen that where one goes into a. detailed treatment, the
other is concise, or that where one is concise, the other
goes into detnils. 'We have noted that occasionally Upatissa
introduces quite a new mlltter. We find that Upatissa refers to
a work called Sun Tsiing =- * (a quotation from which tallies
with a passage ascribed by Budd.haghosa to Petaka) and to
another work called Shiu-to-Io-Nieh-ti-}i or Nieh-ti-li-po-tho-
Shiu-tOoIo, which so far we could not identify with any known
Te::d. I n the names of personages mentioned by UpatissD., we
noticed two important names of Visva.mitra arid Jamadagni, the
hoary sages of Brahmanical literature, as contrasted with
BhiUlasena, Vasudeva, personages of
later Hindu mythology. We have also seen how even in the
Chinese translation, Sanghapiila retained many Indian words
in their Chinese t,r::;.nsliterr.tioos. And lastly ",e have also Mted
Upatissa'& attitude towards the CaJ,lQiilas which seems to be
rather inconsistent with the original attitude of the Buddha and
his early followers.
When we consider all these Cucts in the light of the external
evidence afforded by' s comment, what conclusion
shall we be justified in drawing? When we take our stand on's cxplicit testimony in one caae t.hat Buddbaghostl.
alludel; to Upatissa and bis Vimuttimaggn, and that in foUl'
other cases the reference is to AbbayagirivUdins, shall we not be
justified i n drawing conchrsion that Buddbaghosa, whil e writ-
ing several paragraphs in bis book, VisuJdlrimagga, has
Abbayagirivadias and Upatissa's Vimuttimagga in his mind,
altho11gb he does nd refer to them by name? As a natural corol-
lary, Upatissa must be supposed to have advocated the views
which were later accepted by the Abhayagirivadins.
nu t it might be argued what about the other two cases
(p. xlii) that we have also noted above-one in which Upatissn.
refers to a. view that is supported by Buddhaghosa, and the
other in w'Hch Upatissa seelllS to ha\'e anticipated t he objection
raised by Buddhaghosa. to the view held by him?
In view of the overwhelming evidence that we have given
above in favour of the prob!1.bility tbat Upatissa and his school
have bee u at t!le back of the lllind of Duddhaghosa, we can
explain these allusions by Upatissa on the ground that they do
not refer to the views of Buddhaghosa and bis Visuddbim3gga,
but to the views that later came to be identified with those of the
scbool of Mahiivibara.
Here one may raise the question: 'Is the evidence given by
Dhammapala a reliable one?' Let us try to answer this question.
At the end of t be Paramattham:!iijus1i., tbe Conunentnry on
In Buddhaghosa' s Visuddhimagga, we find the colophon: Badara-
ti tthavihiiravasina A,:ariya-Dhammnpalena kaw Paramottha.-
'11Ul1ij'l1Jtl nama Visuddhmaggo.--Tfkii samotta. 'Here ends the
Commentary au the Visuddhimagga, the Commentary composed
by, who resided in Badaratitthavihiira'.
At the end of the commentaries on works li ke Thera- Theri-G5,thU,
Petavatthu,, and Netti-pakaraJ?a we find t}le
same information about Dhammapiila that he Jived in
the Badaratittha.vihiira. So it appears to be evident that
the author of the Paramatthamaiijiisii. and the author of
the commentaries on Thera-Giithii., Thcri-Gath:i., Petavatthu,
Vimiinavatthu nnd Netti-pakaral).a, are one aud the same
person. SiisannVDI!lSa (p. 33) tells us the same fact about
acariya Dhammap:llll, and fuxtber we learn that J;;lhammapiila
also composed the Tikiis on the DIgha, Majjhima and Sa.rp.yutta
Nikayas and Sariputta composed tbe Tikas on the Anguttara
Nifayn. It, further , II tatea that the Hadaratittha is in the
country of Damilas, not far from the island of Ceylon. Gandha-
vrupsa (p. GO) also mentions among fourteen ",ork" ascribt!d to
aca.riya Dhammapala, the Commentary on the Visuddhimagga,
and the At*hakathas on tbe Netti-pakaraJ?8, Thera GMM., Peta-
vatthu, VimiinavaUhu, etc.
This Acnriya Dhammapala is supposed, t h o ~ h ther6 is no
diTect evidence for this, to have livea not long after Buddha-
ghosa himself. There is only an indirect evidence that. we get
from their works. Both belong to the same tradition and seem
to be drawing upon the same old material. At the end (I f the
comment.aries on the Petavatthu, Vim:mnvatthu and Tbcri-Ga.thii,
Dhnmmapala aays that for the composition of his commentari es
he has used t be old AHhakathas So it is
VE'_ry likely that there " 85 not very long time that elapsed be-
tween Bl1ddhaghosa nnd DhammapiUn.
'TIneo the famous
Chinese traveller, Yuan Chuan, speaks of his visit to Kauci pul' ll.
ill South India, in or about 640 A.D., he tells us that Kanei-
t>Ul"a was the birthplace of Dharmapala.
Although there is no
definite proof to show that he was the same as our Dhamma-
paIn, still it is very likel,,,. says Dr. Rhys Davids/ that the
reference is to our Dhammapala.
It will thus be seen that it, who, as we have
noted, may not have H"ed long after lluddhaghosa, (perhaps Dot
later t han two centuries), makes a. definite statement about 3-
certain school such as that of Abhayagirivadins or about Upa.
tissa and his book, we have no reason to doubt it, especially
when it is supported b:y other circumstantial evidence.
Let us see what circumstantial evidence we get from the his
lodcal and religious conditions in Ceylon at the time of Buddha-
gbosa.'s arriv;ll iu that country.
It is common knowledge tha.t Buddhnghosa belonged to the
Mahiivibiira School which bad in bis t.ime a powerful rival in
tho school of the Abhayagirivihara. To understand the 6itua
tion in Ceylon at this time l <!t \IS go into more details about the
history of the Abhayagiri scho(!1.
On the spot wbere the Abhayagiri monastery stood there was Hist.or;
in very p-arly times a TiUhara7ll,a, a place of residence for holy AbhaYI
men who belocged to other religions. S The Abhayogiri monas-
tcry established in Ceylon 218 years after the establishment
of the Maha:vihiir:a monastery" This was' 50 called because it WUIJ
established by King Abhaya (VaUngamal).i) and because it was
established in a place where a by name Giri wag
living. It was given over to Mahatissa, who subsequently was
1. WintOlrnitll, II. 16l.
2. Beal, Records of the Western World, rI. p. 230.
3. E.R.E. IV. pp. 701-i02.
4. This information about the Abhayagiri school has been already
published by me in my article 'VimuHimagga and the School of Abhaya-
gi ri vihira in Ceylon' in the Journal of tho Unh'ersity of Bombay, Vol, V,
part iii, Nov. 1936.
6. M1'. X. pp. nS-l C2j Mal. p. 19.
6. To he exact, 217 years, ten month. a::.d ten daY8; See "fr.
XXXIII. pp. 79-81 ; also compare Dipa. XIX. pp. 14, 16.
expelled from the Sangha of the hara ou a charge of
having too much of worldly contact One of his disciples, bei ug
enraged with the community of the Mabfivihara for the expul-
sion of his teacher, left that vihara with $Orne followers and
established a new sect which subsequently came to be called
by the name of Abhayagirivadins. These people bmuched off
from thc Theravada of the Mahaviha.ra. ' They split. the
Theravida-monks a second time when they broke the COlllUHlIIi ty
of monks at the DakkhiQavihiira.'
This Abhayagiri school which owed ita ori gin purely to a
disciplinary measure again5t an individual, graduall y came to
be a ceittre of Buddhist monks, who did not agree with the
community at the Mahii vihiira on doctrinal pointa.
monb from Pallar(? l)arama in Indin came to Ceylon. They
belonged to the Vaj jiputta-Nikii.ya descended from those who
refu5cd to recognize Moggaliputfa-l'issa's cOllncq. Their
teacher was Acariya Dhammnruci. He, fi nding no favour with the
Mahii viha.rn community, joined the Abhnyagi ri lratcrnity, which
thenceforward came to be known as Dhammaruci-Nikii.ya.
This school continued to disturb the peace of Ceylonese monks
Cor nearly twelve cenhlries and the monks belonging to this 5ect
no doubt produced literar.v worh setting Corth their own point
of view.' Unfortunately, however, religious intolerance led
the persecution of the monks of the Abhayagiri scct and many
of their books were burnt.
The Abhayagi rivadins were on the descent or on the ascent
as the central political power in Ceylon persecuted them 01' sup-
ported them. From the history of Ceylon we learn that King
Gothabhaya banished (about 254 A.D.)- sixty monks from
Abha.yagiri who were called Vetulyayadins and who were sup-
posed to be great 'thorns' in the religion of the
Buddha. At another time, we read. during tbe reign of King
1. !oI l'. XXXIII. p .
2. Ibid. p. 99.
3. Yuan-Ch'inn had heard that tbe Mnhitvibiirnvi\.si ns were
Hinnyinid8, wbereas the Abhyagiriviidinl Itudied both the Rlnayiinn. and
Mahayana. (Kern'. Manual of Buddhism p. 126).
4. S .... p. 24; Mn!. p. 42. Cf. i pp. 175-76: Dhtlmlrlarucik4
ti irne Abhtllftlgiril'4.rino bhikkh1i.
5. Mal. pp. 43, 128-129; 1I'e are told tbat e ... en now IIOme worb of
this soot oxist. ct. Leggo Travels, p. Ill.
6. Reginald Farrer, Old Ceyloll, p. 288. MI'. XXXVI. pp. 111112.
I N1'ltODUCT10N liii
(275-302 A.D.), Mahft vihara was left. by monks 3S
they were being persecuted by the King. Ruins of Lohapasada.
were taken to Abhayagi ri and Abhayagiri prospered.
At the time when lluddhaghosa ca me to Ceylon, Killg MaLrl-
was ruling. Mahanama, beCoro he became the king, was
a member of the Order. He. became infatuated with the wi fe
of Lis brotber Upatill8a, wbo was subsequently killed by her .
Mah511 ama left the Oruer, seized tho throne, and ma rried his
brother' s wife. The Mahavihara community did not look wit.h
favor at the treachery of Mahii nfima. So Mah5. nawn and his
wife were supporting the Abbayagiri School.4
We have another testimony to support our belief that the
Abhayagiri sect WIlS in 0. prosperous condition when B\I(ldhaghosa
visited Ceylon. Fa-hien visited Ceylon. stayed there for two
years and r etul'lled about the year 413 A.D.s He tells \I S tha t
at his time there were five thousand monks in the Abhayagil'i-
He describes the great ceremony of Toot.h-worship
and speaks of t.he Tooth being taken to Abhayagiri. f He fur ther
tells us that there were onl y three thousand monk& in the
Mabavihii-ra establishment.' He also speaks of a King who built.
a new monastery.'
All this evidence goes to show that Abhayagiri w a ~ prosper-
OUl\ when Duddhaghos3 wellt to Ceylon. He found the
girivadins in ascendency. HG may Lave had t-his book Viwutti-
magga before him und it is not unlikely that he wanted t.o
compose auot her book that would far ouUilbine the VimuUi-
magga. ile does not make any direct reference to the Abhara-
girivadins, probably beca use of contempt for his opponeuts and
also because, liS we have stated above, the Abhaya,:ririva<lins at
that time were in great favour of the political power in Ceylon.
Now the questions thnt come next are: "'Vho is Upatissa?
" 'here and when did he compose his book, Vimutlimagga?
In what languago did he write it? What can we know about
hill! from itP"
1. E.n.E. i. p. 18. 2. Mv. XXXVII. pp. I-If)'
3. I dentified with Sirinhiiu. (referred to ill the concluding stanw.
of the Sa.mllnt&piisidiki) by A. P. Buddhadatta in bis lutroduction
(pp. iv-v) to hi' Sinhalese edition of Vis. (1914).
4.. Mv. XXXVII. p. 212.
5. H. Parker, 'Ancient Ceylon', p. SOL
6. Travelt of Fahi(; ll, t ra:ul. by J llmCll Legge, 113eS, ? 102.
7. Ibid., p. 106. 8. I bid., I). 107.
9. 'This King must be Mahiiniima', Legge, p. 108
o,;gin of
'ro these question! unfortunately we cannot ,lfi\'"" very salie-
Cocwry answers. 'Ve con simply certain prohabilitiell.
the ba re mention of Upatissa by Dballlmapiila, we have
no otller external evidence. From DlJammapiila's remarks in his
commentary on the Visllddhimagga t\'e can simply draw an in-
ference that Upatissa's book was later accepted by the monkll
from the Abhayagiri IIchool. 'Ve have already Been above' in tIle
history of the Abhayagiri scct that many monks from India
came and joined that sect. It ill very likely that Vimuttimagga
was ono of the books brought' over from India. From the
internal evidence of the book we mn.v say that there is no refer-
cnce to any name" or place in Ceylon. We find ill this book
many words which are transliterations of Indian words. The
list of worms residing in different parts of the body gives namell
which are transliteratious of Indian names. These uames must
have been taken by Upntissa from some old work or works on
medical science. Besides, the rderences to II which we
have already noticed, also poiot to the origin of the book in
Indin, ' particularly, in South or Dravidian India where tbere is
a very strong prejudice against CaQ.q.1illls.
My discovery of the Tibetan version of the thiJ'd chapter
on 'dhutas' is also important. The original or the Tibetan as
well as the Chinese version seems to be the same. Wherever
the Chinese text differs from the Pali text, tbe Tibetan alllO
differs. It. shows that the book did not dil;appear from India
when itll oopy was taken out or India on way to China but it
Willi studied in Duddhist schools of I ndia at. least till
tile eighth or ninth century A.D. when the B'uddhist
Par.lq.its from India. commenced to visit Tibet. The name
01 Vidynkaraprabha. wbo is mentioned along with a Tibetan
collaborator in the colophon of the Tibetan version is given
by Shri Sarat Chandra Das in his 'Indian P nz:tgif.s in tIle
of Snow' pp. 49-50, among the names of leilrned scholar3
who were invited by King Ral-pa-chan of Tibet in the ninth
ceutury. This Tibetan text provides an additional evidence t.>
Bhow the I ndian origin of the book. It does not appear to be
I. p. Iii .
2. Unless the name Nirada (p. 134) referred to "ny higb P<!cn.onage
from Ceylon, .. hieh _1111 to UB to be very improbablo.
3. Upatiua'. ch.nce of the 'yellow' colour of tbe earth for
(2.1 H id by B.) into 'black' (p. 43) ma1 be considered ... lignificant.. Gan
it 'lIgac.t tbe black soil of the country of origin of UpotiuaP
4. Soc foot-now 1 ou p. 16.
probable that (l. text froID Ceylon WlIS taken over to IntIi" IIlItL
there it was studied in Huddhist 6ehools and that it U88\uued
such importance as to be translated, in part at least, in Tibetan.
As to the .late of the composition of this book, our surmise
is t.bat this work seems 10 belong to a period not far later than
Ule literary period of post-.canonienl PiiJi Li terature, when tiJO
Netti and the Petakopadesa-both o which ure COlll IJUllioll-
volumes by Mahiibcctlna-were composed. For, we fi nd in the
Vimuttimagga a number of passages' whi ch closely agree wit h
passages from the Petnkopadesa nnd they haYe been given or indi-
cated at different places in root-notes. instance, see 1\ pnssage
in the Introductory chapter (p. 2): Dve d'IJc poccaya
kaJla lammadiH?Liya uppadaya ; para/o ca UllolO sacclinu,ondhi
ajjlw.uoii. ca yO/lilo '1IIonasikaro . Compare with this Villlutti-
magga 1. 2.6 tt ill! 1lII ...... 1E Here we find that tho words
fI lE exactly correspond to ojjhattait co yonilO '1IIWlali,hiro.
'I'he text of the Vimuttimagga is more akin to the text. or the
Fetakopadesa than to the passage from M. i.294., A.i.87,
which also we have given in the foot-note on p. 2. liaruy,
editor of Netti , gives as the date of the composition of Netti
'about the begi nni ng of our era, or shortly later."
Our book therefore, may be put somewhere in the first two
centuries after the beginning of the Christiaa era.
There is one more point about which we cannot make nny
uefinite statement, namely the original language of the Vimutti-
ttl:l gga. Whether the text wus ori ginally in Pali or some Budd hi st
Sanskrit, (cl osely to P ali-Prakrit), like that of Di vynvn-
drill a, Lalitavi stara or MahfivllHlu, it is
not possible to say with certainty. }'rom n large number of
Pali books quoted or used by the author, it may be infered t hat
UP!1tissa also wrote his book in Polio We have iudic:lted
in the main part of this book how hi s passages correspond to
passages from Fali literature, particularly the Nikaya8, Vibhll.ngn
and Pati!lUmbhidi. 'fhe Chinese t.ransliterutions also are not
much helpful ia enabling us to decide t,bis point. For i nstance,
although H-motha-li, alP-Io, uii..yuthii correspond respectively
to Sanskrit Jamadagni, nayuta, the word 1-!ppala or utpala
is found to be tran&literated both by n-po-Io, u-to-Io, or to-Io as
ehown above (p, xh>i).
1. For a edlection of these pall:agell, see Appendi,; A 3.
2. Netti, IDtNH.iuction p. :rUIl .
liate of
about UI'Il.
What l'I"e know of Upatissn from this book is very little.
As we have noted above, he seems to be acquainted with I ndian
medical works. I n addition to lhe list of worms in the different
ilarts of the body, we find Upatissa going into the detail s of
the development of the foetus from week to wek. He also gives
(7. lia.5-7) the names of several diseases-those of the eye, eM,
nose, tongue, body, bead, heart, mouth, tectil, asthma, cold and
fever (malaria), epileptic fits, fever leading to delirium, diseases
of the skin like leprosy, boils Qr blisters, llaemorrbage, intestinal
and urinary diseases, etc. We may also recall the simile,
whieh he has given (p. xxix) of Do hot drink as being
not salutary to a man who has the excess of bile in llis
humours . He has also illustrated the appropriateness of
the order of the four Noble Truths h.v the simile of a
physician who s e e ~ the symptoms of a disease, knows the cause
of it and then prescribes an appropriate remedy for it.' Upa.
tisaa appears to be very harsh with an absolutely ignorant man.
He would prescribe no kumnlDotthiin!l for him but he asks him
to stay with his teacher and develop the power ot understand
Several reier(:nces to Sii.riputtn in this text make it clear that
Sii riputta, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, could never be
the author of this book. Also, Prof. Nagai's suggestion that
Uplltissa, who belonged to the line of the Theras in the first
century A.D. in Ceylon, may hn .... e been the author of this
book is not borne out by the internal evidence. 'Ve have alre3.dy
seen that there are no references to places in Ceylon and it may
also be borne in mind that the anthor of this book reveals no
tlpecini mastery of the Vinuya which is claimed by Prof. Nag!!!
{or that Upatissa who lived in the first century A.D. in Ceylon.
So his theory will have to be rejected .
Here, some ' one may still say that Dhamm.apiil a's testimony
may not be considered aa reliable unless it is corroborated by
other e"idj>,nce, lind therefore the correspondence between our
two te::s:ts can as well be explained on the supposition that when
Buddhaghosa's work, the Visuddhimagga, came to be we!l
known, some one with leanings toward the Abhayagiri sect may
JUI well have composed this book, Vimuttimagga.
To this we may reply that the whole of the internal evidence
is againJt anr supposition of that kind. Bl1ddhnghosa's work
1. pp. u..-iii, 110.
2. PI'. 36, 41, 42.
decidedly appears to be nn amlJlification or, aud n great. illl-
l)ro'l"t'mellt upon, the bare old skeleton-like frame of the Vimull i-
magga. For instance, we lIlay here zccnll whllt we hllye filread.v
noted that Duddhaghosa, with the possible e:s:ception of ODe
or two cases, gives n greater Dumber of the ealegoriclll
enumerations of the different technical or doctri nal points than
UplltisSII. Upatis5R gives four categcries of while D. gives
th-e. rpatissa gives four ways of cultivating cindpduMllti,
while Duddhaghosa gins eight. IJpans.stl giycs ten kizHls of
clltl!dh tltut:Q!;atthcil1u, while Duddhaghosa gives thirleel\. III
Upatissn, we fiu(l o.nly si:\": thi ll gs meutioned th::zt COl"l"esl>OlI (l
to Duddhnghosa's plI!ibo(lhas, while ill the Visu(ldhimnggn we
have ten. Upatissa. gives oilly four a.dvllnt ages of Illmtlilhi ,
while Bllddhllghosa gins fi\-e. Upalissa meuHons five kimls of
Mt/ire while Buddh:tghosa gives tell. Aud such
examples could be multiplied.
Similarly we noted that Upatissa.'s interpretations or
some terms like bliikklm, P<itimokklla., Vlia1ll1l!lJ.. rI1lJlUa,17iii,
\i,M,a, 71ibbiilla, etc. are simpler, more natural, de,"oitl of scholas-
tic artifi ciality and agree wit h older interpretations or cp. nouical
books. This clearly showa that lluddhaghosa's work marke n
decidedly later stage than thnt or the Vimuttimnggn.
Tllm to concl ude,
(i) from the internal eddence of tlte book, (0) which ahowa
ablll\naM similarities between the Vimuttimaggn ancl the
Visllddhimagga, (b) "Which eho\\s tllnt many of the \\ntmced
pnssllges in the "\isuddhimagga ascribed by to the
or to the AHhakatbas are found iu the Yi mutt.imagga,
(c) whicb shows tbat the Vimuttimagga belongs to a school differ-
ent from that of D\lddhaghosa, ao(l that it contains as many aa
nine passages giving the viewe that enctly tally with those
Mcribed by Buddhagbos8 to 'some' j
(ii, from the e..."'ite rnnl evidence o.fforded 11Y the direct testi-
mc.ny of Dhammapiilo, who comments that in a particular placa
Butlilhaghosa refers to Upatiss8 and his Vimuttimaggaj aud
(iii) from the general political nnd religious conditions in
Ceylon, at the time of Buddhaghosa'e visit. to that. country ill
the first quarter of the fifth century,
we think it llighllJ probable that Duddhngbosa wrote bis
Visuddhimagga after the Vimultimagga, and that very
bably he had thnt book before wben he wrote his Visuddhi-
magga. \Ve only sny 'highly probable'. BeCAuse before the final
Jv;i; '\0(;.\
decision call be gi"cn Oil this subject, WI" should like Dhnmma-
piila'e statement to be COllfil"lued by sollle other e"i{lencej nlHI
also the follow: . ;J lloints-which cannot be {lecided ill flle
"re8ent state of ollr knowledge of the Buddhist flml nllietl
literatures-will first ha" e to he cleare{\ up:-
(i) the source of the pa!Snges in the Vimuthnaggll such ns
that which gives the nilllies of worms in the humnn bod.y. th:lt
which gives the development of the foetu9 from week 10 wcek j
(ii) whethel" Sflll-'l'S'llig =: jiJ: is the same ns- I1elnkn j
(iii) the identificntion of Nieh-ti-li-po-tho-shiu-to-Io (is!
Ail i!t t$ ;j;. .fl) with nny known 8u tta.
Out of IhE" four Jll'obnble theories, thnt we nt tilt"
lwgi nning of this introduction,' we h:l\'e just shown Ihnl the
-IN'ond ('nnnot. be a(,cented. The third also ill not accepta1!\e be-
1'll.lIl11l of the clear reerl!rnccs in the \isuddllimaggA to the
vi ew8 of other theori sts, which tre Inn'e shown, on the nuthorit.,
of Dhnmmapiila, to be the views of tile Ahhayagiri\'illlins :11111
which exnctly tnlly with the Vie\f"R gi vl!n in the VillHlttilllogp:a.
'l' he fourth nlso cr.nnot be :lccept{!d becnuse we do not fiud nlLy
touches i" Ole Vimutt imllggJt that nrc decicieuly 1l1lrdy M:\ hij-
And so, the only tlll'ory, thnt Ret"llIS to Ull nil tIll'
Illost )lrobnble, is tIle tl leory no. 1: .
That Bu{Mhngllosn h:ll1 Upoti'lSo's book, Vimllttimogga.
before him :Iud thllt he, tnking the frame ,vOlk of Upahssa'Oj
Vimuttilnagga, nmplified il with IIi! scholastic erudition Dud
composcd hill work, Vieuddhimngg!l, which ]IU ('ertainl .v far
outsholle UpalisslI'R Vimutlimnggn._

'rhe leler ences i n the Vimuttimaggll. are given to t he hnnd.y
nnd popular edition of the book, llrinted and publishe(i nt Di-li ng'
II! ill the province of Kiang-sll IT ii< in 1918. I hove nl 80
occasionally ghen references to the Taisho edition of tIle
Duddhillt Chic.ese Tripitaka published under the direction of
Prof. J . Takakusu and I)rof. K. Wautanabe.
The te:s.t of the VimuUimagga is gi ven in volume No. 32
of this series, pp. 399-461 (no. 1648). I bave also consulted,
1. I'P. ",vii.",iii.
2. Tbe tweh-Il dblltaultu, ten PJrarniuu, the Buddbadhamrnlll men-
tioued by U,'a. [see llP. 16, el-561 a,ree witt:. th;-; They
Jo not Rg;ree ",itb the lilta in the :'I"-y. 1128-89, 914-928, l U-Oa ",nd
Chinese XXXIV (pp. 31, 118), V (pp. 24, 121) and
XU (pp. 84, 119).
lor checking up the different rending_, the 'rokio c(lition or the
'l'l'ipitnka. The of the Villlutt illlngga iR rOI(lld ill this 6CIies
ill case 24, Vol. III I =' 1 pp. 22-74 . 'I'he of the Visud(Ihi-
mngga thAI I have used is the one thai has been editeti by He-o ry
Clark 'rarrell lind revised by Prof. Dharm5nnlltl n Kosnmbi. It is
to be sioortly published in tlw lInl"l"anl (hientnl Seri t!s.
I cannot conclude this introduction without acknowledging
my debt. I have to express my ,Ieell gr:ltihulc to l1rof. E. '1'.
1I:ei, 11"110 wnll teacitill g' Chinese in n ar.arci Unil'ersity liming
my stay there (1929..32). He encourage,1 me in un dertakiug"
the st udy of Chinese, and 111lt tor llelll it woul(i ha\"e bl'en
impo!l!ible tor lIle to accomplish onything ill lint.' flf
rl'sen rch. I hnye also 10 m.v debt to Prof. Dhol'l)15na u41n
Kosambi, m:y teaeher, who inilinted me inl o Ihe fi.ld or
Bu(!dhist l'speciolly in Piili for going o,cr
my first drnfl 01111 making Y}lhwblr I ho\"l' olso to
m:r sincere thnn ks 10 11mf. "\\":1111'1" J.:. Clark nlld to Iho
Inte Prot. J. n. , Yoous, of Ilnn:m! l"uivl'rsity-who i . Ull
longer living-who looked onl my 1Y0rk al\tl mnde gome useful
. tions whcn these poges Irer e first. being l ,ellllcil nhol1t
nve or six ago. And l :lst, llut not lenst, I <' .nllnot forget
my rriends, Mr. Hiden Kishimolo' out! )[r. J. R. ,Val-e: who
were oi greot help to me in cheeking references t o Cll inc!IC
:lnd tIle of some knott y pRssage5.
1. No ... of the J:n:;:.eriRJ Uni'e.rsitr. Tokio, Japan.
2. Now of the Chinese DepnrtDlent, Hnrrnrd University, Cambridge.,
Man. U.S ...... .

Namo Talla Bhagavato Arahato Sammchambuddhaua
[Bk. 1.1.4-1.4.5; Tak. 399c-400 b. cl. Vis. 1.1-151
"SHa , SO'ftIildki, Paliliti an(l .-tn-uttara Vimuet i- thesD N.O.
uhammns the illustl"iou9 unuerslood in succession.'"
'Vith tllis introullctory stanza, Upnti9sa (henceforth abbreviat-
e(1 os Upa.) commences his introductory challwr . TIe continues-
"Vhen a. mnn has to reach the othcr shore, the Nib bcJna, bc
has a180 to know tbe \\'ay that would enable him to reach
tbnt state. He must things about the Sueta, Abhidha11l7lUJ,
anu Vinaya. I must tell the way to Deliverance. Listen to me
Upa.. next gives us a brief commcnt Oil the iutrouuetory
slan7.(L given above. SUa means dla.,a"'ll1:ara. Samii.dhi mcau!I
avikkhcpa. Panjiii. meana sambodhilio1}a. Vimutt i mean8
esoaping trom fetten. An-uttarti menns andla"Va. He COIU-
menta also on the other words in that 8tnnza.
In continuation ot the Bame, Upa. classifies iuto
five kinds:
(i) Vikk}"(lmbh(l1!a-vi.mlltli: to check the ntvaral,la.s XIU.12
while practising the first
(ii) Ttulinlgfl-vimlltti:
(i ii) SamuccheJa-vimutti :
to he tree trom diUhis while
cultivati ng the nibbt.dlw-
to remove and dE:stroy all
kiu<l9 of tiee or bonds.
(iv) Pfltippalloodhi-vimutti: to enjoy the cittappauad4hi
o.t thp. time or the attain
(v) Niuarat1a-"Vim"Ueti:
1. See A. ii. 9; D. it 123:
ment ot the truit.
A7I"Upddi,e, a-l1ibbdna.
SUa!)! .wmddhi paliM ell "im"Ui alUdlanl
I.InubuddM ime dhamm(l Gotamena 1I<1Iaui1u'.
'Tli at by which one reaches Delivernnce is the Path of
Deliverance, the Ma!}!}apatilJada. Aud this way to Delivernncc
is accomplished with the help or 4Ua, and palUicl.
And I mnst tell this way.'
U(l n. bere goes on telling us it is necessnry to tell about
thc Path. Because, says he, therc are some men who are 'with
little dust' (apparaiakkha ) an(1 who wish to attai n Deli"erance
but H they do not know of this, tlley nre liko blind IUfil
who ,,-ish to go far off to a distant country without any guide.
These men will only suffer without r eaching their goal. They
wish to attain the Deliverance but they do not know the ways
and meanS by which it could be attained. He gives another
quotation in which the Diessed One is aaid to declare that tl1ere
are two ways in which ono can have IOmmd. diUhi, either by
learning about it from otherll, or by proper reflection.) So, he
says, he must sll eak about the Way to Dilliverance (VimuUi.
I. 10, The is fulfilled with the
help or the three khandhas, .rilakl!handha, mmtJdhikklw:nd./w
and palitiakhandha. He explains the8e terms, the fiut ill('au
ing 'ammd vdcd, . ammd.kammant.a, and . ammii.cljlva and
other things included with thero j the second meaning I(Zmmd,
vllydma, and t ammtl samddlli end other things
incl uded wi th them; and the last meaning sammatlitthi ,
lanl1lld,ankappa and other allied things. ITe gives aho
another alternative el.:plann.tion. One must learn the three
sikkhiis, adhitil,, ,ikkhtJ, adhicitta.,ikkha, and adhipali7i/l .
tikkhd which terms eho are explained, By theso si kkhas, thtl
three visuddhi a of lila, citta and diHhi are accomplished which
nre no more than lila, IQm.adhi and pal111tJ.
I. 11, Thia vikklwmbhtma- vimutti. maggti is ddi-kalydf,la, ma;;he.
kalYdtlll and p.ariyoldna-kal.yd(la in so far as the lIla, t o,1niidhi
and paliiid, whi ch are the Jdi, ma]jha and anta. or this Path,
nre kabyd'f,la. By means of lila, one removes desi res and
ll.tto.chments, and finds delight in faultless pleasure. By
,amcldM, one removes selftor ments and delight! in piti and
1. Cf. M. 294.; A. i. 87(9): Du'me, pamzl/d 10111111(1.
diUhiva vpp4ddlo'O. Katame d.,eP P IIMtO (0 "heno YOII"O ca mallal;.
karo. Also d. tho very openi ng worda of the Dn Itdil du
patwvd uh:raka,1O IOmmMiUhiVCl lI)Jp4d(lya: par% co aho.o
MlndAi, ajjhaUalt. ro mo.lI(1,ikllro.
Cu"I'. I]
,uk/I.(! . Dy pmilia, one Illakes the ,accopori"cclwaa auu allaius
the Middle Path, and is profoul\uly t1elightecl iu S{llnbodhi.
If the JIl-a is more intensely develope(1 nnd the other two
less, then oue becoUles SotOpmma or Sakadcl!Jdmi. If the
lila and .amadhi are more de,'eioped, and paliiio Jess, one
becomes Ant'.igomt. Practising all the three in their pcrfee.
tions, one becomes an Arhat, a?tuttaravilllutta.
Ink. 1.4.6-1.18.3 (end of the Bk.); Tak. 400c-404b. Cr. Vie.
L16-end of the First chapter.]
Upo. . o.t the outset sets up questiolls which he takes Olle aller
another and el:]llnins them himself.
1. 17; diff. 1. Ki7ll dlo1!l-?
1. 140.
1. 20

IC. B.' 1. 17 where we have a
quotation from Ps. i. 44 whi ch
ndlls ceialika-Ifla after the tint
of lhese siIM. The explanation
of these differs except in the Ia!t
J case where only it agrees.)
In nttllmptiug 10 give nno1her altcrnntive expl anation, Up.
says: llahdl1olthel1a IfI1WVara; fobbe kUJald Jhammti,
And in continuation of this he gives 0. long pauage'
from l's. i. 46-47 which iH also quoted in n.L 14.0. The passage
gi ven by Upa. IIAa.3-1.5.7 j l'ak. 4ooc. 8-26.J is only a part or
that given by B. and it is sultantially the SMne from Jl-6kklldm
mell a kdmocclwndCUJO pohdno11l-(si.sth line in that parn.)
to araliattalllaUDenQ 'obbo.hlC-liiI1a1Jt dla1!l,
cctalttJ, .a"!ltlaro, dla7ll (rourth line from the
uottom of that page), c:\cept that Upa. does not give, M
far as can be judged from all the tliree editions of our Chinese
tnt, any warda oorresponding to pati1liJIOU901lup<JJJo'lI:iya
2. Kill'- rilau(/.
T() bave 8C11JtV(lra and to rewove t11011H"ar(l. Upa. goes i nto
the details of what constitutes aso7!l-lIara. He e.1plainn it M
1. Bllddhaghou. II-eferonco. are mado to the chapteT and paragraph
af h:1 (iuortly tc be pllbliibed ill the Harvard Orielltal
2. Aacribod by UpatiW/. t.a Abb..idbamma.
Cru.r. If. 8] SILAP ARlCeH E))A
,'iolating the Pdti11l0Hhadham'1lla, IJaccayadhalnllla,
indrivadham"TIw, which terms again he explaius,
35. Kant

raID, a1!llpdyalo 1JaCClLl'lIt[.hii1ltn!l, and
l"Uca,ituttaYlt . la1lliicdro He also gi vcs anothe r
allernati\'e that ,arnall-alia is the rala, llaccu
paHlulna, and ilwlriya'OlLtti padaHhdllil.
G. Ko silanG iilli8a"Tf'40?
I. 1(.:/2
AvilllJa/,isdlo. And thc SIIIllC passage as is (Iuoted in Vis. 1. 23 I. 23
from A.v. 1 can be traccd ill 0. sIigllll y abridged forlll. He
also givc8 many othcr advantages thnt (Ire included by D. in
nne! iu 1.24. This paragraph is coucludcd with the relllark:
(lvam oflalltanis(I"Tf"(I7{1. dl(l1!I.
7. Ki11lattha11l sU(1)"l?
lIud l\lso:
Cf, B.I. 19. This is much
lUore detailed than D'II.
treatlllcut. This givcs
mony wore aUbas than
those givtln by ll.
Sira.Hhatp. 1 The fi rst t\\'o of these 31e referred
j to by B. ill 1.19 where lI e (lscribes
them to aillle. IDhamlU(lpiila
this word by aiilto
dcanyd.] Upa. expla.lllS these by
J giving "ery appropria.te similes.
When n man works strenuously alld resohca upon dlllltas , it
is :kura oud not &Ita. SUa is 0150 ntullcd iiciir(ll nod .a"'!l"\.lIra
but occcptnnce (of dbut.{ls) is iicura.
1. 19
I . Ig
refers to
t ..
I. 38 9. $llalli?
Kt18atal{l These are cl.:plained as bodi ly and
,' oeal nctivities, respecti\"ely meri -
torious, demeritori oU8 aod free
from depravities (iiso..vns); good,
bad Bnd pure livelihood j and
lactivities] bearing good, bad nod
uo fruition . lB. refers in 1.38
to this classification given i n Pa.
i. 44, but rejects it. )
10. lilUTfl-?'
[(ulolacitta.somutth4M1!1- kwol.a11l
Abydkatacitta' JomvHhdno'1!'" abyakato1?1- ,lla1?l.
11. Kdlli IflallO ddim.ojiha-pariyoldn4ni?
Samdaclna"1l ddi, Q'lJitikkamo 71la-jjho, obhirat i 110ri .
YOlan07!l .
12-13. Kati dhamma ,il(Usa antaTuyi!.:4? Kati stlaU(l het ,l P
(i) Catutei-IJlJQ clhammd mOf/f/oua kodlw,
POlOIO, makkho, lantdpo (M),' mocchariya7{l,
( iJ ), mtlya, llpanaho, N (rivalry), mallO, atimano, mado,
pa1lludo, kouoiio'Tfl, loblw, arati, ( :f tt
not following wiedom),3 micelld loti, pdpikd vacu, pdpakd
p(1paka7{lIMt!a1!I, papikd diHhi., akklumei . ou oddlul ,
ahirikafTl. , oIWJttappa'Tfl , kdyiko1!uc(uikabydpdrclu auddo ( y
!! lJ itthijOIt.ehi lG7{lv(ho, 'atthu likkhdya ogdrOl)o, in-
drill61U, OIOI!l-'VQ1"O, bhojall 6 amattaiLituta, patha1lldya roLtiyd
pacchi1Mya ca ratt i-va ajdgariy4n,uyogo,' ihAnd-lojjhdyiino1!'
abhd1!O. lme catutCi'l1ua dhammd 71Iaggauo antordya'<l .
1. P I. i. 44. 46.
2. Seu Mvy. 4926, 4026 whllre t llc character uscd fer l4p(1na. il
to tlli" t hougb not identical. Also see Kimura, 'The Ori ginal
and Develcpod Doct rines of I ndian Duddbislll (ill Chru)' , pp. 6,
18 -.nd 39 ",bere ... c do liud the \ferd onutdpa. included cmeng the
3. D_ thia eorffilpond to Vuubandhu'. alOfOIJ)f'CIjonl/Cl (_
Tritp'ikiVijiliipti, p. 32) for which Suzuki reads :f lE Jt 1 See D.
T. Suzuki, Studie. il:> Lllnkii ... t';.a $l1t r.1, p. 89(;.
Ol. See Kimurn., ibid., p. 89. It livN scme term. "' hieL eorreapoll d
to Il few If thoee.
(ii) The opposites of these dhamllins Me tho hetull of silil.
H. J(atillidhaqIIU01!1? DuvidJw1[I, cottlbbidhtn[l..
(A) h ath",[I. duvidlU:I.lf1?
(i) Curiital.n The explrmalion i.ll5ubslantially the L.2G
same as is given ill D.L 20.
(ii) HallabhugiY(lql ; able \.0 destroy duullo.
l'at tibh,igiytllll: able to aUain all kUJa.La dhammM
ond remove ull kiuds ot du!\Sil M.
LokuttarO?ll 1
Ariya-111"!/ga-pltalehi orlhigal(l'rl
silUql lQkuttOf(U[l-; Ula1r'
LQki!}o Jallt[uiilitc 1tp(lJ(l mp01l11Q
hot;, lokllttaro vim/
(11') SnpPOTllli(Ifl7f1 ; oI11,palf1l1lp01l1W-Jllfllll..
Buddluma pfltliiatta'1!l UpflJOmpanllll-
(v) SopariyrlTlto1.n
This substantiJ\lly agrees wit h B.I.
31, gi ving the 81lbstrUlce of t11e quo-
tations in that paragraph frOIll
Ps. i. 43,44.
I. 32
I. 31
(\'i) Niuito:rfl: subdi"ided into three classes of t01}l,(i, I. 29 p ..
ditthi and m(ina, of only the fi rst two f . 33
correspon(l to D.l. 29, while the explnnntion of
the tllird i\.8 given by Upa. is f OUlld i ll the first
tika of !Illla, maiihi-ma nnd of B.I. 33.
Ani1,ita11l: Upa. alao
adds: n1ui ta1f' duppariiiema abltina1lditaqL, oni..l.i-
ta1fi sappa.T1itcnfl ab"i1IandiWnfi.
(\'ii) Adibr-ahmacariYakoJ[I: lommu-ka,11.7n.nnto, lam'nd- L 27 u.
"if-Vo, .ammtl-vaydmo.
Khuddokdlwkltuddaka-sik"-hd ; 16JM[l-. (S.n.. with tlttl
first two quotations in B.I . 27. 1
(viii) ddi,.,ikkM-hrahmacoriya1f!. N.O.
Citta-1:ippayutta11l: JelQ'I!lo klwuldaka'l!lo.
Avitikkamo,ila7f1: ,dvaka-Jflo1]l.
Vi.,u.ddhi,lla7f1: l1ud<lMmul ca L)llccekabuddhdna11 co
I. 3S . d.
I. 34 B.a.
This curresponds to D's, classification
of 1. 30. 'f he expiauation generally
agrees with that of n. Upa. adds
tl'nt the fruit of the former takes
tim!;! to mature while that of the
latter is immediate
(13) lI.atha1fl- tiviwh.a'f!l-?
(i ) P(ilJa-nimm1i/;{men:a avitikka-mo (JI:.!in ;;r:::,it!): '0
stop all evil; although {si/al is not accepted, still
he considers it to have been accepted nud does not
e,en think of transgression.
Samiia.uncna (* :::r:: To accept In ,ow
of] non-transgression and so to abstain from
Samltccheda1Hma av[tikkamo Uff ;;f ATiyo fa,no
ariycna maggel1Q pripahetu mmucchindati.
(i i) Parii1l!attha,TfI. : pltbbevutto-sad,jsa7!t
ApaNimaHha7ll: puthujjana-kaly(i1.lakau(!, Jila7lt, mag-
gappattiyo. mmbhiirabhii.t07lk
Patippa.uaddlw."", (Ht )' : Arahatta-1ila7!l. [This last
is slightly different from E.!. 35.\
(iii) LQka-rw:uitatr[l-

1 S.n: with attUdhipa.teyya,
r dhtpateyya, a.nd dhammiidJI.I -
J p(tteyya in E.!. 34.
(iv) Vi sa'm07l1' [or, micchdl po"i hi.ta7!l Orr.lm.::f :\$): to
accep t 3ila to gi ve trouble to others.
Samatr[O (or Jam-mo.) pa"1}ihitO'r{l- (Jjf fJf to accept
sib. for happiness in this life, as well as, for
happiness of deliverence in the future.
m fJi): to accept dla without regret
and for the good of olhers.
1. Or, Ka/obhllOillof!l and dtlu!nlil0l/>.
2. Tai,ho amI Tokio
S.(l., with D.r. 3G except. that Upa,
ndds hel'c olle 100f\! case under tuc 1. 3G S.II.
heading of avisuddlw: s01icicc(,
apatCiyu iipajjana'r[t ; upmw,iiya
(ipattiyii (I1;ipW.l{.lsti"l'o. IT,
remarks :
sace YQgiivacaraHo.
aviJudcll/47!" hoti, gambMI"Q
vi1l1/af. i "aTQ uIJpadct"bbo; snCQ
vematiklL7[l, ii.pan11I'patti',n jli -
1lCyya, 7JhuS'!< ilhnvis$Qt;.
(vi) SekhaTfl : I. 37

/II eva
(,jij Bhaya-lila1fl : through fear of wrong one (loes not N.V.
commit evi l.
DlIkkha-silo711 : through 801'rOW, One does lLot camillit
any evil.
Moha-Jila1!l- ; go-sila or whi ch oue
ucceph. I n that case he becomes a bull or a dog,
or otherwi se he falls in to a hell, I
(yiii) tainted by grosser taints and 90ilc{1 by discon-
tent (a$o.nt1I,tthi ).
Maiihima'l/1; tainted by smaller taints an.l Msoei awd
with 8antv,tthi .
not tainttld by a.nythiug !lUll ussociutcd with
Janturthi .
Upa , adds that thc fulfil ment of the first conduces t o
the enjoyment of human pleasures, tho.t of the
second to thc enjoyment of heavenl y pleasures,
and that of the lnat to the attainment oC vimutti ,
(C) Ca tuhbilllWT(I [Cr . B.I.39 which differs in mauy respects
froDi this. !
(i ) moggeuo antarii.yB n -al Vi1Wdcti, I. 3!) ditr.
uH}wnavQ,ntehi janehi saiicicca
apajjati, apannQ IJaf,igiihati' ,
1. Cf. i. pp. 88S-S9.
I. 40
I. 0 ..
1. U-li2
VIMUTTIMAGOA [CllAI' . II. 14. (C) (i)
ThifibMgiya1!! :
lampiJrlite lile apl,a1naUo hoti,
l}a7UJ lIa lIpptideti.
V ilNalJluJgiya1fl: parilJur;ta-li la-samiJ.dhi,u al'l1(J..
matta hot;, na uppUtleti.
Nibbedhablulg;y(f;1[l: pariptirit.a-'iia.-&amcldhilu appo.-
rnatto Itoti,, ea n.ibbcdbabll,lj -
giya hoti-.
(ii) l1hi kkhu-JilaTJl
l1ki kklu.",,[-IiMT[Io
A 1; upaJampanna.-Jflaff!'
Oddt 1a1]1.
So.llHl as in D. 1. 40.
where B. gi ves gn/taU/HI-
sjf.a which corresponds to
the last expres9ion here.
(iii) Pakati-li/r.1?'
PTJbbaltctll -lilal/fl
} S .. ,,ith B. I. 41.
(iv) Stla-sila1f1.:
kusalo.-dla1Jl, akusala-'ila1!1.
Samudaya-ltila'1[l :
k1.lIala-citta-Jamult.!ullla1f1.. kU Jala-IUnl!1, aku-
,ala-citta-JIlml,,!hii1l(J1[I akulala.rill<'1f1...
kUlala-riMnuppaLtiyd a/.;u,alu.-lilalla "tlpo_
lama; ArahaUti1)Opattiyd ktllala-,ilaua 1l1ipa-
Niradhn.-magga-pa/.ipadd.tilaTfl: coLt-dro samrn(llJpa-
cll}tmd. When thU9 cln9sified theae four should be
con3idered as JTla and not "uy1i.mM.
(v) (8) l'dtimokkhU-IMTl"aTa-rila'l!t In. I. 42-52. 1 Like D.,
Upa. gives the follow-ing passage from Vbh.244
to expla.i n thlB lila:
ldha bhikkhu "UlOrati
G:!1'11maetelu 'lIajics'U
lamdddya ,ikkh<s.ti li.kkhdpaaelu.
CHAI". 11. 14 (C) ( . ) (b)l 81LA.PARICCllEDA 11
Upn., like n., comwenls 011 this whole IlalSsngll. III is worth
noting how hia COlll1llent \liffcl"6 from that of n. os well as frolll
that in Vibhangn 245248 !
Idlui. ti i1IWJIIlI7j'\ IUttltu'$lh{lltc Ilit. dlwIJl1/lcj.
lJ/,iIJ..-/ui. ti api ca ieHw, 1. 43 dill.
Putimokkhc", Li si lM!I . 111'!Iif!.hu, tldi,
!{lll'yamo, (J,lIiiJaJulJlo, 1Iall!!'-
J.:hlll{J. J.:lIJa.l!. JhmIHlllill6-J!J. la.lllt;pattj,ycl.
lIt should be noitd that thc COlllwenl in Vbh. p. 246 on this
passagll is exactly the same escept that there ia no word
corresponding to Ullibandlto. Vis. 1.43 gives a COOllllcnt which
is quite different.!
Sa1f1.t:aro t i J.:Jy i ka-T;aClI,ika-!.IJfIIlIUlua aviti/.:i.:tmlU.
Sa111vuto I i PdtiTTI o/.k/w-s{l7!J.1:t!rclra lIpCtO.
Vi/r.araU ti catu"-!{l1!l-1:arell{l IOl!J.Vllto.
,Icclra-uocara.Jal1I1JUlI1I O. 'l'he COlllmcllt a ll these words 1. 4.\..61
substantially agrees with that givcn by n. 1.4451
ill the quotations hom Vibhanga. 24li-47.
d(lUfflattc", vo.jjCl'u blltlyadaucld. 'rue COUHueut L G2
on this agrees with that or ll. 1.52.
Sli1l1cldil!Ja IjHlw,ti likklWl1D.JelU.
[{an i. 8ikHailudliui ti 1)uCclI1r t i? SatwllPubhcdo'
(b) ,IjhIl'Jliiri,uddh.i-dla'111: micchtljtvtma avftikkamlo.
EatmllO micc;/wjivo?
I . That is how I Ihould like to cmtnd t he punctuation, taking th!1
witb wb&t prcccdCl rather I,hau "' iih "' hat fottowa. I<'or tbe
CIpreuien dlltlljulJpCltlo 8l'e A. ii. 134.
2. VibhtUlg:: !'eao;U InllkA<I .!1 but in t ho footnote gives a variant
3. Whi ... b four P
4. Doe. this refor to the SO"eD cl_ of the rulea of Vinaya, namely.
pdrdjikd, wn.gltdduUa, anil'll/a, niua""iya-ll/itittiV(land (treated
na ODe elau) p..'Itidt,anlU, lekhi ya and adhikara(l(1'IallwtkaP Or, dllell
it refer the .bltinence hum the -.o'eD lpauikkhandhaa, detai)"') ;11
DhIA. p. 394 If foUowl' Pdnljik<L'fI, 1O'lf.'hddi,C,HUfI, til.ullaccBVU'!l,
rxuitli,,<I'!I, pclfidflClniya'.II, dukknf>.II, dlibbAdlitoll Ii f(ltto. apottillo?
J. 67-70
I. 62-65
r.l .
T. 44
l. s:h\8
nMUrrOIAGG,\ [Cu"l'. II. 1 . (C) (y) (b)
[(lll"mii (tM ,n)' of thL'CIl kinds: paccaya-pati'6l!UIIO-
"l!rl46I1a, iri yiiIJalha'l!aS61!fl, 'ti1/1antajapIJo/!{l>Va,6I1a
I Roughly gives the substance of ll.l.G 1- (01.
Ncm ittikatd
AlIi ca, miec1!1Jifvo ti
} Thi. "oughly 'g"" wilh D.1.62-GO.
1.d va 1JIJ./J/J/w.-Ilhala.-silldlw-
dalltakaHhaddl,a'!l-' lef. B. 1.44] nnd 0. list of other {lifferellt
kinds of 1nicchdjh;a, 8UWIllo.rising the list ill D.I.9. of words
tiS atg(17f1-, 1Iimitta1!"l. uppiida'1!', etc. partly quoted by B.
ill 1. 83. Upa. cOllcludes: cvamadiko m'1lldvidho micclla-
jivo. Micchii jh:ii pativiraei ti pdri,uddhi_sila1!"l.
(e) Upa. explaiU8 thia in a way
which agrees with "What B. explains in brief in 1.59.
But the detaill'd explanation which is given by B.
in 1.53-58 is quite different from that of Upa. who
gives nin.e ways-some of which are Dot quite clcnr-
in which this can be accomplished ..
(d) aHhohi. akfuchi lJati-
sallkhli. yonfsQ pil,u!apdta1!1- pati561:oti-
1. n-eva da,"vtlya, na ma.dil"ija,
2. na ma".t/a."rwlYfI 110 1!ibhul(lIIoya,
3. yii1!aaet'a klyautJ. thitiyo, yo.1J(J,lIfiya,
4. jigiuJ.cchd-piposdntJ.1!l u.paratiyrl (corrCSp1)D{\n to
B.'s 1.92 ),
5. braJimocariyo.nuggtJ.hliY(J,
6. itj, ca vt;aamJiT!' patihankhdllli, II(M!ali
(la vedanu''!1o nil uppadeudmi,
7. yatru co. me
8. wnavajjatd ca pMlUvihdro cd ti.
Thill whole passage is commented npon. The comment
agrees with the general spirit of the comment of B.
(I.89-94) though it is Dot without in detail.
1. 'Jrdinarilv thia word rneall& '''"ajia or /.\lnamiddMj but there
il no doubt that what i . intended here ill kuMn4.
2. Cf. MilD. 369-70; Mauug-Tin, Expositor, i. 201.
enAI. II . 1-1 (C) (\") (d) 13
eight waya CUD be reduced to four N.C.
1. coveri ng the firal two of
the eight ways mentioocd above j
2. pw;caya ( l)t. )-lJ/lCcavckklla(ltl, covcring thc tllinl,
fourth Ilod fifth j
3. yiitrd !J;: )-paccaveHlw.!ui, co,'crillg the sixth
tl.od seven til j
4. lJa.rittU.nllatrf'Ia pacc(J.vck/,:ha.t1d, coveri ll g UIC last.
These four ll!lCCtl." can further be I'cduced to tlll'ell:
lIur.iild7ll iJya ca lJa!ipad(iya
Upn. esplains these terms and in continuation of the same,
lIe gives the pll8sagll: l,atisa.nHtiJ YOlli lO lJa!i $ctati,
yd"t:ud.!-l'a taua patigMtdYf1, 1l') patifJ"dtiJya, r,Ta'Tfl.'(I'
pa(iglI4tdya, y.11:(I'
deva hiri.!.:opi,lla pathclulda'ltll!OIT{t. B. has givcn the comment
on this passage in 1. 8588.
In t_he same way regarding the ncceptance of medical rcqui -
sites. While begging hia food or t3kiug his medicine or using
clothes or bedding, the mendicant shonlcl reflect, from d(lY
to da.y, aud from time to time, that he deplmds upon others for
these thiugs,
Tho former teachers have said of the lour:kiuds of pnlibhog- as: 1. 1$
101. B.I. 125 where we hnve the same four killil5,
although their esplauation difters considerably.] tioa.
ThcYY(J"pIJribhogo; d111dlaua lJaribhogo.
; ahi-rikuJla ()/1()ttappc. u a 1Il1ccll/l
jivikaua paribl!09a.
DdyajjapaTibhaga: dtiipiua (or tlHhdlla1.!ata puri.
saua) 7!!ogo,
,S'dmi.paribho!Ja; o.,iyalla' .1l l'aribhoQ{). IOf. n,r.
125-127, 1
There are also two kiuds of paribhogas:
pariltuldha :
Io. -hirottaP1JaUa apaccavcJ..'khitvd
la.-hirat tap]I(uICI 11!atialhitmo
pdpa!.:81u cittUJJpdd8'1I Jlibbi'ldall-
1. Dll,lOO,
Ill, 12J
VH.lU'rTlMACGA [CIIAP. II. 1.1. (C) (,.) (d)
Upa. remarks about nil the four kinds of sIlas,1 mentioned
ill tho fou l'fold di"isiou in this way:
lILcllt iollOd abo\'c) adh.:7IIQ.ttiiya ,addhdya lwt i,
adhimoUe11Q. viri.ycflO paripurita'!l-lwt i,
i,ld,iya.,o,1!'-t"ora.-tila1,n adhi7l1ottd1lfJ .odd./wya (? pa.ri.
purita"l!l hoti , paccaya-,evollo,.rilo1!l odhimaJ.t4l1G. paiilldya
'WJ.rilHir'itCl-'!I- hoti.
UI'Il. next tells us how ujhJa-paN.'sudclhi follows Vi,lOya-
'O'!lvora and how tlH:6e two in t.urn follow
Paccaya.,a/ul.i."ilo .. dla is the same M i"driya-'01J1ovara.lila. Hu
again t ell s us that and aji va-pari,udclhi are
iucluded under rilakklialldha; and Viuaya.
under ul1llddhikkllCmdha; end catupaccaya,., a.1Iniuita-
dfa uuder paihitikhulldha_
15. dla'Viluddhi hoti?
When 0. bhikkhu has first accepted the jhanadhnrum:l s, he
sllouhl reflect whether he h:lS in himself any of tho HeVen
kinlls of (lapses)." If he in himself auy PdrUiiko olIence,
he fall en Crom bhikkhu-dha,m1llo. and he stays only in
Former tellchers ha\'c 6aid, "If he eees thnt he lwe b'o ns-
gressed iuto a SallgMidisoJu olIeDce, he should ask pardon
by a Sallghu.kamlllfl ( If<. tf. ). If he has transgressed other
offeucea he should get hi mself pardoned by another man. If
he Snde tho.l he has tl'anagre66ed inle a miccIl0jh;a, he shoultl
get a pardon appropriate to the case. Thus he should repent:
'1 shall not do it again.' (Cr. B. 1. 126, ' na pUlia
!tim' ti.'] He re!olves not to make auy further trunsgressi'lll.
Dy thi s dla-viJudd,lii, he dOe!; good actions ngain und again,
removes evi l , nnd every morning and eveniug resol ves upon
the purity of conduct.
1. H mould be noted that Up", gi.-a no fi.-efold u D. gi .. et
in I. 131.142.
2. Apparent\] there It'eml to be IIOme inetturacy in tbie reading of
tbe word fOcWlI4 where we .bould expect wti (;t) but all tbe three
editionl I have c:onaulted read in tbe .. me way. Of. B. I. 100.
3. See note 2 on P. 11.
Hl. A-ati ,Uaua (or rather IT liciiraU(l.)' l}{Itilf.hii ? {)!'c I 1(;:1 ,li(f.
,ilallo. pati!!hll;
( i ) d1fuUalla ddirlatlodall(l.lIa1?1-.
( ii) rilOIllJ.
The eltillnontion shows thai it corresllOods 10 D.' 8 dla1;ZJll!
and Illa-'lI'mllattiyd dni'GI.ns(I;-dauulla"fl
(1. 153) but the <llllniled euumeration 6ho\\'s that it is not
altogether the same.
In ille .nriou! illustrations of tile {lisndvantnge8 ot 0. mall
of conduct, he gives two similes. IIe comparee this IlIUII
to a thief in prison who finds no {lelight in noble things
nOll to Q. CCl:1yJiil:a who fio(is no pleasure i n n princel y throne.'
One muat guard one's ,Jla with utmost care, 8S nil ant
ih eggs, or n camart ita tail, or Q. pereon his only son, or his
single eye, or as a magician his body, or a poor mall hi s
treasure or a sailor his ship.
AH the ways of guarding his dIll> nre taken recourse to by
hilll. Thua i t becomes patiHlill for iilal,a.-,a'TI,(il)atti.
1. Obdousll' used in tho urne aenae IU ,Un. See p. G para. 8 ahme.
2. Cf. Vis. I. 164, nircba IOddhatntnll C/1llQlllokum4ro "ilia rajje.
8. cr. Vis 1. DB, the fif"!lt two linea of tho .tanu.:
Kikl t:a Otld!l'11 110
piJll1ty1. 1'0 pull",!, nayolla'1l t'a
10k. 2.1.4-2.9:'1A j 'r:'ll". 404b-40Gc. CUTis. IIncl chllpter.1
' L'ho introductory paragr:'lph telling tiS why the yogiivactJ,fll.
afler fulfil!ing- the purity of conuuct, {urnl! to the 'dllula., '
corresponus roughly to D.II.l. 'heu Up:'l. telb U8 lbut thero
are t hirteen' dhulas c1u9sifiec1 M fOI!OW9:
II. as Due dhlllnmij tecil1tlri_

pallctl dhammil
,alJaMnaclirikal[l, ekiiJalHlbhojana'l!l (B.'s
bliojtlne mattll11iiufu' (D. s k/wlu-
pacchiibhauikall ca.
pll1ica dhammi2 .ellij,alla-patila11:l.yuttd; 7' ull.:ha_
,niilikar,!,. obbhokclliko'l!l, yatlu'ilulltlwti-
ka11 ca.
ek47.n lIiriya-paJt#Jt1!,y"tta7JI.; 71uajiika1fl-.
(This corresponds to D.ILSS, where we find eJ.:aclly
s:'Ime classification. 1
Upn. nut tells U9 how each of these i1hutns is accepted,
although, later o.l90, he taIls us tbe Hame thing in his t reatment
of e&.ch of the db u tas.
1. On thit ace lIlY article 'A fragment. of u Ti beUl. II " eniou
of u Loft IDdian Work' p",bliaLed in the Proo.:cedingl "01. (PI' . 131135) of
tlla Sevent h All-India Orient al Baroda (1933).
2. /ltvy.ll23-11:19 u d Cbin. Dbs. XXXIV ( PI'. 31, 118) f!;ive a list of
hudve dhutangas onJ.y. Tbe list in oue dOOl not, bowever, agroo with thnt
in the other. The former, e.s well as P (p. 69),
orni u Itlpad4nac4rikar."a and (or bhojant mnU,..,lllutl! of
YimuWrM"ga) ... bile tho latter omita yot/t4$anthati/;.Q"Qa and pgttapil'1i.
kanga from tbe lilt of B., hut both th_ te",t. give a new aogo, called
n.4manlika or MrMtika fo r pattapil'1ika of D. For tba word nomataka (or
""lmatika or ndmantilm) lie!! CUI/aMgaa of V. 11, 1; 19, I, 21, I , X.IO, 4,
\'i n. Comm. e"'plains it UI ItIttha-velhanaka'.l', pilot ikakhan(lnf!l. AIIlO _
D.D. pp. 135-36 and tho Tibetan DietiOll1lry by S. C. Du, p. 836 under
pbyiil-pa t::.q. Namota is felt and ndlllatikafl90 i, tho practice of
.. caring felt. It should alto be DOted tbat tho chan.cion tued in the
(;bill. Dbl. differ .. idely from tbOQ used in our teJ.:t.
8. This term is found in tbo Tibetan ' er,ion also. Sce p. 133 of my
artil'lo roferred to 1100"0.
CUAP. 111. 2J
1. [Gmatthal.n pa'llt .. samadiyatiP
He sees disadvantages in secking his clothing from house-
holders and sees advantages in the IlCeelltauce of this practice,
which he does by thi uki ng in this way: yalwpati-dii.naI8G
paf,ikkllittutta pU1!Uuhlla'l)t sa:madtiyij.mi.
K o ani4a1.nso pa'l)tsukula.-samdddMI'?
The allSwer roughly corresponds to B.IL21 and some expres-
sions like corabllayena abhayata.
can be traced. There nre some additions by Upn. li ke ditt!w-
dhamma-sulcha-vihiiTitd and so on.
Katividha1Jl pa'1!uukiilaTf/.? Of two kinds:
(i) thnt which is not owned by anyone lI uch as
and n
civa:ra made of clippings picked up, washed, dyed nnd
sewn together.
(ii) things left over by common people such as clipping3
of a tailor, pieces eaten up by caUle or mice, (plutty)
burnt by fire, thrown away by people, coverings ovcr
a corpse, or ga rments of heretics und so on.
KaalGIfl- sa.mddiyatiP
Sace bhikkhu patikkllipatv, tClIGlIJa'llUtt-
kU1ika11l- hoti.
Katha7Jl bheda?
Saee bhikkhu gahapatid.ana'1!l samllidtiyo;ti, tena pa1'fl-1ukti -
lika1Jl bhinna1[) !tati.
2. Kathu1Jl tectvaTika1[l ulrmdd'iyo,ti f
If he lIas an additional ei-vara, be should give it to others,
should see ddill(1"a in keeping it and should see the advantage in
llossessi ng. only the three cIvaras. He should thi nk : aj jataY!Jc
atiTeka--ci-vara_14a Patikkhittutta tceha.rikall)'l- sa'1llddillMni.
Ko dni1U1!UO Uci1laTika-!<Mnef
'fbe answer roug-bly r.grees wi th B.II.25 some o[ the eXJlres-
sious from which cau be truced here such as appa8(lImiirOtm-
bhatii, !antuttho kiiya-pf1iri M."ikclIa.
Kiini civarani? Sanohdti, Uttarasom,go!1f/-, Atltaravii,akoii.
ca. (These names Ilre given in their Chinese trnusli leru-
Sate bh,kkhu aJ.ireka-ci-varOIIfl- 11a
dhtlr eti..
bhetk? Sacc bftikkhu catuttlw'7fI- unnadi -
II. 21
r ....
II. 15
I' ..
f .a.
U. 29
r. a.
3. piryfapatik(1.,!, hoti?
'1'ho yoga'Vacara should aee tho disadvantages in Ihis I.hat
it he invitations, it would inte rfere with his work and
that he would come into contact wi t h undesi"'l.ble bhikkhus.
Further he should see the advantages, aad resolve: a:jjata,gge
fl imalltaona.-pati kk hepena pi ry,la pdtika-d ham rna,,!, rami!diydmi.
Ko piryJapdtikQ.J,rt ani'a1]uo? The answer roughly corres-
llouda to D.I I.29. While some expressions from D. like kosajja __
flinullaehanatd, mdnappahflna,,!,, ca n clearl y
be seen, there are othe rs like cat llddi,atil (lit (!a "jj ) ndded.
(D. g ives this last 0.9 ono of the adnlntages of abbhokd,i -
I.allga"!l, II .G2.]
[(ati'Vidhd nimantand?
Ka t ha1f' Meao?
Upn. mentions three kinds
0/ nimanta.ncil-lor food,
lor going and ror meeting
-nnd adds that thia prac-
tice is accepted by avoiding
invitations and 'l'iolated by
J accepting them.
4. Katha1!l- l amlldi nnll:'l?l ho&i?
If he gets excellent food in the h011se9 he visits, he doe"
not go again. He is awny from doubtful places (Iankitatthii-
rlllm/. He knows their laul ts. He abo knows the aduntages ot
resolving: a.jjalogge a--,apadunacdrika"!l patikkhipiimi , , apailc1-

Ko dllUaJ.lWo ,apaddrnlcdrik s ? The answer corresponds to
D. II.33 frow which. the expressions like Q;l}hdnanabhi naudaJl ci ,
ccmdupOIIllatd_ can be traced here. Upa. also adds many
. r
Ka.thtlt1f' bhedo?
When a bhikkhu en tera a village
for alms, he starts from a house
on tho c.s:treme border. Ir he goes
from house to house, he fulfi lls
this practice; but if he llanes
over one house and goes to another.
he 'Violates it.
1. Cf. SN. 40 lmanlall<l holi ,all4y(l-lIIajjhe,
1;>/iJe fllane anmnne cclrikclya.
5. d.:iiIUlIlku1.n. sa1l1iidiyuti.P
E4'Olonika meaos to be far from tnkillg fooll at Mcb meal at
two or more different places. This is practised by good mCD alld
is sometbing about which there cnnnot be aoy doubt (. U)
Ko Ollim'l/UO ckillonike? The answer roughly corresponds
to D.II.37, some expressions from which like a'Pllclbildlw/d,
aP1JiiWnkata....... . .. 1/114fu-villiiro con bo troced here.
Ka.tlla1!l 1
J':' e IJori yantil?
Upa. speaks of the three pal'i_
yantas, dlollopariyallta, uda4a.-
paril1Q,n.ta. nnd
mentioned by B. in II.36. If ho
plans to sit twice for food, he
violates cJ.:a-bhojolUJ. (-it) whicu
with the e::s:ception of liquid medi -
cines is COIDmentled by the Duddba.
[CE. n. II. 36, Sace manuucl..
,appi1llUl.w,Icllli dharanti , bheloija.-
Kutho1Jl bhcdoP 1/1atta1/! eva va4tati . l
G. Katho1!l bhojollo' ,noUo,iiiiutil (32: iii :II it)
[Dill'. from of n.II.39lI. J
If he eats Dnd drinks ,vithout moderation, he increases his
bodily sloth and heaviness, always haa greed, nod never feels
entislied in his stomnch. He knows the disadva.ntages of thie
nod furthe)' kno'l'l'S the advantage of moderation in food wbich
be lakes with this resolve: a.jjato'!l9C IJo'fik.k1tipitllii
bhojona-mottail.iiuto,.1l. IMlllidiyami.
Ko lillila1,rUQ bl,ajana-mattaiifiutdya r ['f.he answer differs
from B.II.41.J
Moderation in Cood, not to allow the etomach to indulge in
(desires for {oodl-Cor, eating too much increases diseases and
gives no happiness-removes Bloth
and is recommended by good people.
Ko.t hlVtfl- bhedoP
Wheo he takes his food nod drink
he must know how much he needs,
and must uot take more than au
average etandnrd. He must cut
off lack of moderation. Otherwise,
the practice oC this d,huto1tga is
II. 37
11. 30
I I. 39
I f. 41
1. 45
::r. 49
: ..
(CUAI. il l . 7
1. Kathu1!' kholll pa.cchiibhattiko'T{lo s011looiyoJi?
He cuts off all npeetll.tions and is far from atiritfabhojo1la.
He knows the disadvantages of this and also sees the advanta-
ges of a resolve like this: ajjataooe patik.
Hipami. khalu-pacclia. bhattika1Jl- samMiydmi.
Ko klIolu1Jocchrl bharttike?
The answer partly corresponds to D. II. 45, frOIll which
pariyuondya. obhrlvo can be traced here.
DutJid1uz,'T{Io :
aporiccllimtdnt01,Tlo (?.::f iii il)- If he receives additional
food or gets it by a separate ap()logy he should not
eat it again. {Does this correspond to n. II. 43 : pavd-
retva puna bhojana7flo kOP1Jiyo'rp. kdretvd na. bhtdtjitab.
a.dhiHhMmto'f?\ ( W i!. )- Wben he has tnken
twentyone mouthfuls (hl,balas) he should not take any
Kathorn lamddd1lam? } When a mendicant is a J.halll-
IJa.cchabliattlklJJ, he cuts off atlTtUO_
bhol01Ulj so, If he takes tho latter,
J(at!tam bkedo? he violates the practice.
8. Katlla'f?\ drofl.iika1Jf lo.-madiyatiP
He see!! the diaadvantages of d\l'elling in a. noisy place, whore
hi s mind romes into contact with five kinds of impurities (l it.
dust !fit r.aja) and produces If he lives in
11 noisy placo, he ia disturbed by the people coming nnd going.
Furlher he sees the advantages in the practices of an aro.nfia:ko,
when he resolvea: ajjalagge!l> pa#kJ.:liipdml',!!ka7flo samddiydmi.
Ko arannallo paccan.eo? The anower l'ougbly corresponds
{o B. II. 49: pacchl'-maf!l>.
Katho7f} Mtmdddna'1?l? By giving tlp gdma..mojjlto vilul ra.
KatM1,TIo blu:do P By resort ing to odm(>omaiihc vihdra.
9. Katlw1!l rukJ.:h'amllliko.1!l samddiyoti P
He abandons a covered place (channG7f}), does not accumu-
late or store up, removes ta{lh6 or and know! their
di"r.d"antag!.'s. He al!!) sees the advantage:; oE a rukkhaml1lika
and resolves: ajjalagDe choTlna1!l patikkhipd1ni, rukkha-mlila-
'IIillara1!Jo lamddiyami.
lI.Q ruUh1Jl1lLike?
'fho answer cQrresponds to D.II.uS, somo e):prossiolls frOIl} II. 53
whi ch like sell.lisana.maccherakammGrGlII.aWllam abhu.ilo, aeilu- r. a.
t<ihi whavGsiM can be found here.
Ke Jevilabba? Such trees should be used, that by
time, the shadows of the trees lllay reach the place occupied
by hiw and such trees o.s would not shed leaves on his placo
whell it is wi ndy.
J(o fukk hii. na &evitabba? OliO .must keep (l.wny froUl U.56
JnngerouB, decayed t rees, trees, holl ow or eaten up by worlll8,
or trees resor ted to by demons or Bllirits. Cf. D.II.56, where D.
enlists di ffere nt kinds of trees to he avoided wherein he
menti ons cetiyarllkkha.
Ka tJuvrr;. &amauiInMp. ? By avoi ding covered places.
bhedo ? If he stays in covered places, he brenb the
10. Katham abbhokGJika1!t
He does not like a place with a roof on, nor does he like 10
sit under a tree, nor does he like a plare where things are stored
up. He kllo\\:g the disadvftutages of these and further sees tho
advantages of au abbhoka&ika. He tllinks: aiiatagge nivasa1!l-
na sadiyamli, sa1Juuiiyiimu.
Ko ani&af!l$o abbho/.:.{l$ikassa?
'fhe partl y corresponds to B. II. 62, some of tho u . GZ
expressions from which like thi lw.-middha-panlid'ana1!L, migii ".11.
viva, nillo.ngatii etc. call be traced here.
Katha7[lo Dy resolvivg: cftannan ca rnkkha11l11- .
lml ca poti!.khipa1ni, a.bbhokiisikoit ca Mmiidiyami .
/( at-ha1!l- bhedo? II he stays in a covered place, or under a
tree, ho viol ates the practice.
11. Kotha1]1 s08anika1!l- &amddiyaei?
If he resorts very little to places other than 8usdna, then
thero is little pamada, and he becollles afraid of evil (pilpa).
He knows tbe disadvantages or resortiug 10 places other than
susana, and the advautage of being a ,Osallika. Be thiuks:
ajjatagge na'&U3dna1?i' patikkhipdmi, &amddiydmi.
Ko dnisafll'&o &o&dnika,&a $a?rl.ii.d'dlle?
The answer to this roughly corresponds to B.lI.67, several
expressionc from which can be traced here. For instance, we
haV(, mara7)d .wtiya patildbho, uppamdaa-'lJ iharau., kii mariiga-
vinodana1Jlo, amanu .. udnafll' garllbhdvallfllaed.
II. 61
r .lI.
lJ .16
... \.IVJ u!\l,n .. loA Lt.:UA1'. III. 11
J\atlw.'!1- IOliiniklU?l,amadi lllla"J?l !toli? KaUlla
" ' hen he goes to n cemetery, !:e must rst note the places
where there is CODstnnt crying, or coustnnt smoke, or constant
fire, and if UIJ wan is to stay in the cemetery, he must stay in
places other than thtlse.
Kathal.n 8amdclJTitabbal.n? When n. stays there,
he must not build there any room, nor mnke nny hed, nor should
he stay in a place in the direction from which the 'Wind blows,
nor in n place against the current of the wind. (There are some
details in this connection, whi ch are not found in D.]
'lJ11IadanaJ?l- P By abandoning places olher than
KatllO.J?I- blredc? By living in pl nces other than IU3allO. .
12. lamddiyatiP
He rejoices not in whnt peorle are greedy for, and does not
bother others so as to make peorle fLl'oid him. ITe knows the
defects of this kind of life ond sees the advantages of II- yathii-
lanthalika. IHe resolves] ; a.jjatagge loniila1ta-loluppa'l/\ JXltik-
Ko d11iM1JWO yathulantllatike? (The answer differs consider-
ably from B.II.7!.1 One feeks contentment about a dwelling-
place, 10\'65 a solitary plnce, cuts off delight in the ncceptnnce
or many things, is highly respected by people and 60 on.
Katha7!l- By removing greed for a dwelling
blledQ? By resorti ng to n comfortable plnce.
13, Katha"J?l r.s,ojj.kaJ?llarMmYlti?
By knowing the disadvantages of drowsiness and sleep, and
knowing the advantages of being l\ uG8aiiika. He thinks:
ajjataoos ,sYYatr'f' 71eJajjikTfl- Jam&iiydmi.
Kc C!wila'?l-fo ne&aijike? (The angl\er diifen from B.II.75.1
He cuts off sloth, removes bodily illness, is nway from
IIRBsionate contact, delights in diminishing sleep, has constant
aolitarinus and quiet, and is able to produce ihdna_1JiuJla.
lamdd4na"J?l? By cutting off eloep.
KathaTfl- bhedcP If he sleeps, he would be violating the

Now follows a small seclion 011 jj! which Ilurporh 10
enumerate cases of convenience or emergency, when a certain
laxity in the observance of these IHactices may bo allowed j
as for instance, he may take SOlUe extra pieces of cloth lI.8 towels,
or for bandages of wounds j or, e,' en if he hM taken up tllO
practice of n 3apadiinacii."ka,, he should avoid elephants or horses
that may be coming in llis way. Seeing n ca1)aiila, he should
cover his beggiag-bowl. 'Following one's acariya or ltpajjhaya'
is also mentione(l as nn occasion Cor exception. lIe Ulay get
up from the place where he is taking his food, when he sees
his teacher coming or allY guest-mendicants coming, although
he hns taken up the practice of tnking food on one and the same
sent only. (B. also has referred to such cases from time to
time. See, for instance, II.31,35.J
Under these circumstances, even though these practices
(Ire violated, no sin of violation is attached. But uo exception is
allowed in the cases of a b}wjano.mat.talilili and a kliall1paccha-
blw.ttika.. Also in the case of a fI8sajjil.:a j although some say
thllt, in thi s case, an exception lllay be all owed when a mendicant
has to get up from his seat for cleariug hi s nose.
Upa .. next tells us how these dhutas can be condensed iu_
to just eight. Khalupacchdbhattikata. includes bhojana-matl.all-
;l."Utd o.nd ekci 8anikata-, while the practice of an araih/ika in-
cludes tbe practices 01 a TlIkJ.)uv?n1ilika, abbhokChika and
(It should be noted that t he details regarding Ihis
llS given by D. in II.S7 arc different. ) Upa. supports t.his
statement by a quotation from what be calls the Ab}l id/iamma.
These eight can further be reduce!1 to three: the practices
of an ara111hka, and
U pa. discueses the following questions regarding tbe dhntas
in general :
(i) Kena. 'VUUii11i dhlltangani?
TeraJa. ddw.tani BliagQ1)atd 1)uttuni, Bhagavatii pa1itiatM-
ni. In coutinuo.lion of this, Upa. says that we cauuot call these
dhutas kllsala, or all11salCl, or abyiikata.. For it is possible
for a. person of evil disposition not to give up evil thought or
evi l desires and to produce adharnmas and 60 it will be seen that
the dhulangns Dlay not be k, Now iu Vis. II. 78, 79, B.
combats the viewB of those who say (i) that the dhutangas cau
II . 87
II. 78
tbis dew
II. 83-84
II. 81-82
he cnlled I..u$ala, aktuala or abycikato.; or (iil tha.t Ihey ure
Upntiuo:s vie,v seema to bo identical
with the latter, which, saya Dhnmmapiiln the Commentator,
wall the view of the adherenta of the school of Abhayngiri,
sandlidyaha. To hi dhutaflgB1!I pa!1tioW Ii
(ii) Dhutaua katividhd d,hammd?
Due dhammd : alobho ca amaha ca. This agrees with D. II.
83, 84. Upo.. alao gives the' quotat ion from A. iii. 219 in n
sl ightl y varied form, while it i& merely r eferred to by B.
(i ii) Riigddicarite,u ho dhuta'1!l- 16vati?
Reigacarito camoha-carito ca. Upn. definitely says that the
prnctice of dhutaa is not helpful to a luna-caritl), It i8 poaiti,'ely
hnrmful to him just as a hot drink is harmful to a man who is
sulJering from the illness of fever. But he niso refers to aD niter-
nati ve vi ew that the practices of an draJi1hka. and .,."kkha-71Iuhka
are appropriate for n dota.carita, which D. also hM mentioned
in H. 80 Q.9 an nlttrnative "iew: dra:rhiika11-ga . .,.ukklta-'mali.
kimnapa.f,i:ct"a,na. va dot aea.,.itlUfdpi tappdyii.
(iv) Kati dhlltdni lWla-pa.ri,-YllntfIni?
The three dhutM, those of n Tukkha.-mtilika, abbhoku:ika ano
losdnika, a re restricted to eight months, The Buddha htl!
allowed II. sheltered place for the time [of the rainy 8eason)
wh.en n place of 61\{ely ill required.
(v) Ko tlh.tdo ea dhuta.viklo ca.?: (Cf. D, 11.81-82 where
t he nnatioD! quite diiJerent. jl
(n) Dhuto ell dhuta.-t"ddo ca.: Araha co. lUIU/a-
MmanlUigato ca ,
(b) Dhuto ea na clhuta-'1.'ddo ea: Arall(i, dh1ltllllQo.-
$lffl!(i dJn&rJ1l pana na Jamannagato,
(c) No. dhutfl co. dohuta-1!iido ell: ,,,l:lio ea pll thuiia-
no ea dhu(.(uamu<klllena Jllmalindgato.
IS pp. S8-39 of my t .. tiel, IVimuttimagga and the School of
Abhayagi .. iyi.hi r& ill Ceyloo' , prioted io the Jourllal of the Ulliyenity
of Bombay, Vol, V, part In, Nov, 1936, pp, 35-40,
2, 00 th!' oi tllil pUlgrapll as weU as of the chapter,
allO I(!e my a rticle ' Dhutal'lgas' in the Historical March
1937, Vol. XIII, no. 1, pp, 44..51.
(el) Na dhuto ca 11a dhuta-vlJdo co; ,ekho CLi
puthujjono ClI d-huto.-Iamddilnona fl a lama1l -
Dhutdni ki7p.-rlndm, ki1"[t -paccupaHhii

la1!tughi-f"a.ldni, idamatthitu-
Or else,
NilioluP1J(J.-lakkh..afJ.dnl:, ancldi1I(,
-Samdddnam ddi, potiJ6van<lmajjllO, J07lUJ flQuam onto.
1. It ",ill be noted that th_ e.>:planatiOI18 are limpler and more
d.;;.n thoM gil'.;n I;;y B. in n . 81-82.
2. Tib. Bupportl on/ldinal:t(1 (
III. 3
III. 4-
[llk. 2.9 . 5- 2. 14,.7; Tnk. 406,. -408 . Cf . Vi . IIU-25. J
When the yogdvacara with pure conduct has practiaed dhutas,
he should cultivate lamddhi . .
Upa. , ae usual, sets up a number of questions which be
answers and thus treats the aubject. Here, however, he does
not take up the questions in the same order. He changes the
order i n one place nt least . All the quesi.ions except the last one,
'Katha.J!l lamd&hi uppadetabbo?' are answered by him in this
chapter. ' The last one is answered in subsequent chapten.
1. Ko It is the concentration of tbe mind, already
purified, on an object, 80 that it is not distracted.lCr. B. IlL3]
Upa. gives anotber alternative definition supporting himself by a
quotation from the Abhidhamma "I'Ohich is none but the definition
of latmoo,hi given in Vihh. 211, Dha. is 11, 15, 24, 287, 570.
2. Kd1l.i
\Vhnt Ups. aays in this connection does not agree with B' s.
statement gi\eo in IlIA.
3. Ko puggalo ,amlidahinati .)
TIe who can hold his thoughu in a perfect, bl\lanced stale,
like a man who keeps himself well-balanced while carrying
the bowi of oil lCf. S. v. 170 for this simile. I. or like the four
borses that pull the chari ot with equal force.
4. Jlujna.1JiTMkkha-,amiidhi-lnmupnWna'J!l fl uncikllra-

J"dnaJl ti pathamajjM,lddini Cllttari ihdndni .
l'i1T'.ok"'w ti 1"1lpala1i111i bahiddhii. r11pani
pauaH' ti Mo.yo 0Hha vi'TlloHldJ .
Samddhl ti Javitakka-.ravicarddoyo tayo Jomddhayo.
SamdpotU ti nava anupubba"amdpo.ttiyo.
lThis corresponds to t1: ... e;tplaoation or these terml in Vhh.
Upn. also gou into the detai ls or the iuterpretati'll! Gf th2
word ihana, tIle lirat interpretation or which corresponds to B.' a
ill terpretali oll: dfOamm01Ja..1,pnmjjhanaltd in IV. 119.
VUH. IV. /J .:I".', ............ ,. v v " __ "
5. Kati d/liM,!ud) elL/taro ; lCr. D. XI. 120124, where
we have five mentioned, the lost uf which fltyodltCllti
10.1!&.$(1 not mentioned Lere,]
(i) Dit{.hadlrammo..-IUkhavihdritiL 'VLell II. 1U1I1I
lamddhi', he finds delight. a ud e.:.:perieuces 11(1bbajjd-
,ukha. Upa, llso gi\'6s 0. {llIotlltion in which the
Blessed Qne is spenking of the days he speut i n the
elnte of 6a11ladhi, while he was practising the
nigrJl.tfha. practices, for seven doys and night6. L
(ii) Vil'ouomillll 81,J.:hd J.:iriyo,. Wheu a ulan's mind is
f ree from lIh"araQ.a&. and when he has aUained the
pliability of lllind by the traiuing of he
can have a penetrative insight iuto the khandhas.
aYlltanas, dhii.lus, a n(1 80 on.
(iii) .d.bltiniid.lUcohikiriyti. One can altai n the five mira-
culous powers of iddhi .. vid}w, dibbolota, 1lO racitta-
tJijdrulIld, pubben;'viJ,dn.lIuoti, and dibbaco l.:kh.u,
(See Chapter Niue, p. 86J
(iv). B1Ul vo.Ju1Ilpatti. (corr esponding to or
B. XI.I23I, The nlan who has attained lamddh i doe8
not rail back from it ICL ,amddhi.lI!l1t11IulJari.-
hdyati in B. XI. 1231, but doe8 attai n a rui l. He
attains, if he does not become un ose/,!IIa, TI1 1Jc'irl1pa-
bMVa-viJua, as the Bles6ed Que has said; Pathama7!'
bhavebt:d B rahma_parilajjota.1!l

6. Aoti dhamma Glltardyakard} Attha d'/ui'm1lla.;
Kamacchando, byiJpadQ, thhla--middha7!'o, tuldhac-
CCI71>, vicikioecM, avijjd, pfli-, ukhavirahitaliJ.
;sabbll ca p6pak4 dhammd.
7. Kati dhamm4 lamddhiua !teta) A Hha. dhallund': la- N .0.
upaniHa.yatti ( };I!: I ), pabba;;d () W )', pahallG,,!,
1. b thia a correct. I"(lpl"tlStntation? Cf. M. ;. 9.t (Sutta no. 14).
\Ohero the Buddha i, reprennted al saying to the Niga(lthas that he
could in " ltate of ,"fll4dlli even for leven dll::rl.
2, .. The meaning i. Dot quite elear .
3. I.m not- lure .bout the aoeurac:y of the eight dhan1mas given
here, lUI the &eD" likel::r to chango wit.h a difforent punctuatinn.
4. Cf, J A i. 14, wbere among the eight requiremente given for
the . ucceuf"U1 aeeompli.hment of one', detire, . re melltiolled Ild" ..
po.bbaiid etc.
[UIIAI'. Iv. 7
( ., ntvaralta1!' })' adola, vi;jd, (J,lJikkhepo, $a.bue
krllald dJhamma cittdbhippa.modo.kd, $abue ktuald
dhammd d/ramma'f1ihlolUamuppiidakd ca.
8, [{ati &am.adhiua Mmb -drO.l Sattrrvidlrd,;
N.C. lila1!1' . yutta
dvarai.d,. bho;ane mattaliii:utd, rattiyd maj.
ihime pacchime yamll amiddhutd, r ,ati
&a.mpa;anlla1!l, parviveka-vlhoro ca.
9. Katividh.o sa-madhi}
III. 1 (i ) Duvidho; (Cf. B. III. 7 which differs coulliderllbly
(a) Lokuttaro; ariya-plwlella
Lokiyo: IIlIO;
loki-yo ,amddhi Idlavo, la7!l!loja"iyo,
N.C. ga7lthaniyo , lankil.eliko;' 'Vutta.-vipariyuYlllt"
IlI. 6
U1. 11
Ill. 12
(b) Miccha lawuJdhi: akrrlola cittekauyalii; 11lllrdt aubo
116 I,flmddhi ].
Samma Ia-madhi : k1llala.citte1.:a!/oatd j bhdvetabuo
vd {,am6&hi ].
(c) Upacdra" flmadhi: tlUla lalla ;h6.naua.
Ipavatto ].
App(1)4-lam<ldhi; gotrabhil.alrQ.ntard. lB. 111.G
lIaYII : parikammdnalltar4.1'
( ii ) Tividlw ;
ta) Savit.aHa"avicdro; ihdM1!l'l Corres-
Av,takka-avlcdro: J 12.
(b) ,aha uppanno; potltama;- )
i hanoi/, ca dut fya ji"iJII01'i. ca. Correspond" 10
,aha uppanllo; taLlya}- f B. III. 12.
Upekkhdya , aha Uppan1LO: catut

1. In Pili books, i . gener",U), refer red to u jd!7ariM4n"JIOl1a.
2. See Db,. .584.
3. See n. lV. 14, XXI. 130, 1M, 1U from which it appeanr that
the wordt, ,.po..cdm, tnd gotro.bll.ll did not Bignify
much dil tinction.
CII41'. IV. D. (iii) . (e
(c) KUlak): tlriyamoggo i ,ekhchi (;a co N.C.
bhdvito rllpul.IacaTa-anlpuCO(;OTa-'amadhi ca.
Vif,akO: tlTiyopholo'lJl ; rekhehi ca pllthuiianehi ca
uppaditii riipiir,lpiivuC(lTa dllow ca.
R iTiya: tllckhena .5(lmcip(!lUJ.O TlipUTUlJiivucoro-
samddhi. [See root-nolo 2 on the next plIgc.1
(iii) Catubbidho :
(a) Kd mavacaro : lena tena iici,.ttlO
R lipal.lOCaro: catlclr-i iildnalli.
tl Tlipdvacaro : oottdro aruIJo'Va-
carel ,omcidhayo, kll.$ulu-
ka7It7lIGvi,ldkti. ca.
JporiydpalUi o :caUdro 71Wlf1911
ca cattdri pholiini ca,.
Ct B. Ill. 2J.
DIIHhdlHJ.ti11add The uplaoaiion
SlIkh(j pattlJadd dandhabh,,"lcf. wIth tilat of D. 11\
Sukhij IJotipaJd khilJlliib hiihifi. II I. 14-19.
(c) r ariUo ,amdcUti parittaraln-)I
matlO I The el:plltnation
PaTilto ,amcidhi appamdttd- Is di fferent
rom that given in
Appamcitw tCl1ndcUt i IJaritll1-1
Appa.-miit1o samiidhi appamcil.W- J
D. III. 20.
(d) ChaMi(Vsam(\d.Ai

1 As"" with D. III . 24.
ilL :l3
III. 1"19

111 . 24
(e) Atlhi Budd'hchi ta1nadhiuato, 1Ia !ii1lakehi: N.C.
cMi' ca.
Atthi ,amddlti ,dvakehi samaclhigato, fla Bllddhehi;
lekhaphala-Iomddhi .
1. Cf. Mvy. 120&6-48 .. here the ch"radel"5 are enti rel,.
diCerent from those given in our llhillese Tut.
2. Also see p. SO. The IlaIUU of tqMe two nllmes li fe 81so gi"en in
Vim. Dk. 6. u. 5-6, PI. i. 3 and e"pla.i nW in I' . i . pp. 125-26.
(11 . 21
111 . 215
VIMUTl'lMAGGA (Cal r . IV. 9. (iii ). (e)
AU/Ii IIl1llodhi ,avaJ.:.elti Ifnnadlliualo, LJllddhflhi ca:
navll ll1tupubba-sllmddltl. ll,dha.phala-,allwJ,hi ca.
Atthi Illmadili nC1l1l Buddhehi. no.
Idvakehi ca: Alailrtf- la.miiJ.hi . '
(f) A.Hlli '(J.Jrniidhi uPlH.iddya, 110. lIirodhAya: kdmclvacu. re
J.:.uSIllo akluaoo mmddhi.
Atthi ,amadhi ltil"odhiiya Iltt Ilppiidaya: cllt l,.(lriya-
1IIoQua ,amddhi .
.!flhi 'omddhi IIPIJaddya Cet:1l nil"odll(iyu va: ,el;h-
1) II thllj j a tlipdrupiivaea ra-kulala-,a flwd hi .
AHlti ,amddhi neva uppdddya nil ni.rodhdya ca :
,abba..phala.,a1llddhayo, J.:.iri:yu.,amiidhi' co.
(g) Pathama711-
Tatiyo,?,- j luina'T[l-
(i l' ) Pu.iic{tvidho:
f Agrees with B. 111. 21.
(u) n eferring to the fi"e trances, i. e. one wore aurled
to the four jUlIt mentioned above. Thill corres
ponel s to B. III. 25. Upa. further dieculI8es this
fivefold divisiou and says that thi s division is
luade with reference to the two kiudll or men who
have mastered the first ihdlla-one to whom ouly
vitokka appears as gross, another to whom both
vitakka and viGdra appear lUI gross .
(b) l'mlcallga.:amapatti: paif.callgika l(unmlllamiidhi
in Ybh. 334, VbhCm. 42021 j Ps. i . 48. PsCm. i.
125-26; D. iii. 217, DCm. iii. 1059; A. iii 2527,
ACm. iii. 235. ]
Pit i-phartl.l;latd (tAU": pathame ihiine dutiye ilHlnfl va.
SukhaphaTatta t !i: U4U jhdnesu.
paTacit tandt.te.
Alo'/; a-pharat.tata : bib bacakkh uab hif.tidya.
PaccatlekJ.:.hattd-laiiiiii (iB ): tamhd tamhd l a1l1tidhi-
,nlui 1JuHhitallll [Ie m u!ed for
1. See p. 66; Mvy. 198"7; also see p. 53 for a.tlHl"-i gods.
2. Of. Ki,iJ/<ljll4na, Vibhallga, pp. 268, 281, 282.
3. Tba f)hillelle character i'.I is aNd both for pd";pllri I., ... ell .."
phara(latll. See Mvy. 4304, 6334, and 6491.
CnAI'. 1\ 9. (i .. ). (e)l SAl'4\DHI-l',\RrCCmmA
;+n whi ch would corresiiond to fli"m;tta or the
Pali tutaP Such con fusion of characters with
similar sounds is not. rarely met with in the
(!;) (See Vbll. 334, VbhCm.
Aya??l ,amadlli llQCCUppalulllIukllO ceva ayatii. ca x.c.
,uklJavipa/eo ti paccatla,,!,- ytva M!I(l.l/1. 1lppajjali .
,amddhi ariyo 7t'irdmi,o ti ...
,a.mlldhi ,appaliiieki (more akin to the reading
nf the VbhCm; pati&evito ti ..
Aya1]'t ,anto PClI.litO patippanaddhiladdlto
ekodibhdvd&higato ... (some mora npreseioDs are
added which Beem to be repeating what has been
already said aDd others which do DOt agree with
the readings of Vibhanga and its Commentary
but they seem to suggest that this , amiUlhi does
not vanquis h birth, death or egoism.}
Ima1Jl lamadhi1Jl ,ato va ICIn14pajjoti, (ima-nnd J{JlIlci-
cl.himh4J ,ato va llHhahatt ti paccatta1Jl yeva uppojjati.
Further, one has to properly understand the kammauhdlla.
He should understand whether the drammalJD is kina, majjliima
Thus Dna should know that t hel'Cl are many kinds of
!amiidhis, but that all of (hem are incl u(led under four.

[Uk. 2.143.8-2.19.3 (end of Dk.2); Tak. 408a409b.
Cf. Vis. III.61.73.J
Upll. takes up the or the questions (No. 10) set up by him
ill the l&IIt chapter: Katlta'/?l JClmddhi
'rho beginner in the practice of meditation (ddikammiktl) ,
wishing to produce ihantl-lamcJdki, should seek the best
mitta. For, he would become his guide, friend and relati"e
tnking every possible care of him. If he does not find such 0-
friend, he becomes like an elephant without a goad, wandering
alone, without anybody to direct, wherever it pleases him.
This kalya1Jllmitki is compared by Upa. to a skilful cart..driver,
helmsman, doctor, falher, mother or a teacher.
Who i s paTama.kalyul;!a.mittaP One should search for a ruan
who is well"'ersed in the Butta, Abhidhamma and Vinaya, well-
versed in understanding different kinds or kammd (P 11: ), who
has attained the ku,alaihiilt4.abhiiHld and who has an inaiglit
into the Four Truths.
If he does not find Buch a mnn, he should take recourse to
one who is endowed with the .seven qualities which are e:uetly
the same as are mentioned in the following sta nza of B.IlI.6l:
Pi.yo ga", bhdvaniyo vattd ca 1'Clcallakkhamo
gambMrml. co. Iwthal.n. a.Ud no ca'Hlidne nivCJayc.
Upa. comments on the seven qualities mentioned here.
While commenting on the last phrlue: no ca'Hhdnc ntivCJaye,
Upa. mentions kula, fititi, dvula, kamma, !JaTJAl and gantha as
the aHhiioa9 which shoull be avoided. [These are only six of
the ten pa!ibodhas mentioned by B. io III.29.J Such Q. man
he should seek.
Now comes the lIext question a.s to how. he should seek such
a lIIao.
!\atlw;,!,- If he knows that such' and such
II. pEorson lidng in auch 114d such 11 place has the necessary
1. Bee A. iv. 132, N8tt; p. 164, Pe\lkopade!la p. 96, (Bur. ed. 1M).
.... HAI'. V.J h.AL.I! A ~ A_M l'l"l'A-J' A It 1 ~ !>;8AN A
qualifications and is highly reSllected, and il he be a ;Iuillli-
cariya, he should go to him. If be does 1I0t personally know of
such a person, he should wake iuquiries with others nbout such
a man, his couutry, his residence, his jhdlldcariya, ond ao ou,
and then go to him and express his wish.
The text goes on giving va ri ous details as to how he
should behave while he i! waiting UpOD his teacher. In this
connection, there is one sentence which gives a very appropriate
simile to eXll ress the beha.vior of this man while he is living
with his teacher. 'He should not have any feelings of contempt,
but, on the contrary, like II 71ewlY-1IIarried brid'e goillg to leait
' ~ p o n her father_tn_law, aNd, should have hir'
and ottappa and should receive inst ructions.'
If he sees a teacher of the Vinaya or of the Abhidhamma, or
of the dhu ta3, he should try to learn things abeut them from
him. If he sees a jhtill,(lcariya coming, and even if he be younger
than himself, he should take his begging. bowl and clothes from
his hand (as 0. mark of respect for him), and wait upon him.
As soon as he finds 0. suitable opportunity, he should upress
his intention to him. He ilhould abide by the inatxuction given
to him.
The chnpter closes with a number of githiis attributed to
the Buddhn. summarising what 0118 should n"oid and what one
should practise.'
1. Thougb the lubjl>Ct.-matter in this chapter .. nd in B. Ill. 61-13
u the ume, It ill thllre it .. wide dil'ergenOB in the metbod of bllndling
tho .ubject.
1I1 'i4
CARI Y A. -p .... n ICCHEDO
IBk. 3. 1.4-3.G.9; Tak. 409b-411a. Cf. Vis. III.14-102. J
The observi ng the beha.vior of his pupil for 8everal
da.ys should prescribe a kamma.Hhdna suitable to his disposition
[crtriYd fi' l
There are fourleen kinds of cariya.:
1. R'ga.,",'.a I
2. Dosu>-ca",iya
3. M oM-caTIyil
4. Saddha-caTiya
O. 81,cldhi -caTiya
G. Vitakka-oadya J
1. Raga-d'osa-cariya
8. Raga-moha-caTiya
9. Dosa-moha-cariYii
lB. in III. 74 refera to
the fo urteen cariyas
but ncce ptll onl y six,
cor responding to t he
first si x of these. )
10. Sama-bMga-cariya' ;J- IT ) : raga, dOla,
and molUl laken equal ly together.
11. Saddha-budd}! i -oariyil
12. Saddhd-vitakka-cariya
13. 8 uddhi..vitakka--cariya
14. Samd.bhiiga-cariyii ;J- IT ) j :addha. ,
buddhi, end vi.takka taken equally
together .
Further, several other cases may be made through t a1). ha,
diHhi" and mana' [d . B.H!' 78J but they may not be considerd
us quite distinct in meaning. F rom these fourteen cariyas, we
get fourleen classes of Ulen such as raga.carit a, dOla-carita
and 80 on.
'fhese fourteen can be reduced to seven. N OB. 1 and 4 can
become one and the same. So also, Nos . 2 and 5, 3 und 6, 7 and
11, 8 and 12, 9 and 13, and 10 and 14.
1. Cf. of Pet. VII. p. 151 (Bur. ed. p. 190); abo
'TaUha ,.ilaa-doM-moha-.wm.o.bhdgawriluuQ. puaaa/a.u a
ihdqafJI- 1101i' in VII. p. 162 (Bur. ed. p. 192).
2. Of. {Bib!, Buddhiea XXI} p. 65,
(commeut on I. 26) where we have II. list of t .... elve kinds of people p-osses!!ing
different cariylill includiug t hese two) .
\VIIY is it lOP The reasons given are in substantial agree-
ment with those given b) B. in Vis. Ill. 75-77, and many of the
senlences frOlD those paragraphs can be traced here word for
or these seven classes of men. nos. 1, 2 and 7 have khipIUl
patipada. while nos. 3, Sand 9, and Ihe class made of nos.
10 and 14 have dalldlui patipculd. These seveu classes call furUtel'
be reduced to three, raga.carita, do.a-carita and '1Iloha-carita, in
so far 08 their mtila-kil6sa ( * 1ft ffil ) i8.coucerned .
The following questions about these co.riyiis are set. up Rud
(i) Eta tiuo cariyii kinnida11'ii? The anl106r il [Cf. III.
79-82.1 '
(a) pubb6 ki-ra i!thappayoga-
.ublwko.mmabalw.lo ......... {almost word lor word
the Bame as in B. III.80.)
(b) Dhiltu-niddnii: The some as B. IlLSl, the first
half of which refers to dhiitus.
(c) Dota.-niddllii: (oe.) I6mlllldllillO ragacarito, pittd-
dhiko dOla-car.ito, vatddhiko molta-carito. Or, it
is (,8) '6mhtldhiko moha-corito,
(In Vis. IILSl, B. refen to II view which corresponds to
this view, es.cept that he points out in III. S2, that according
to this view, only raga and mOM are while in thi8
tes.t, we find the mention of all the three, roga, do,a and mohal.
Re also poinh out that the two and P) eucHyopposite views
about the ragacaritG and moha-carita make the position of
those who hold this view untenable. B. ascribes this view to
' Ekaccc' which Dhammapaln in hie comment explains 119
fOUOW8: 'Ekacce' ti Upatissalthera'!' .andhaya aha. Tena hi
Vimuttimagge tatha vut.td111-', (p. 113 Durmese cdition.')]
(it) Katha7Jl- co. ianitabbCl-7B ayal?" puUgalo r6Jacarito, aya''!'
do,o..carito, aya,!,- mOha-C(!Tito tiP
The an8wer is that nIl these things can be known in 89-ren
HI . 75-77
1Il .... ,.lMIll-
teuOBll id.
II [. 79-82
.lmo-t id.
D. refers
Vie" .
. d. but n.
refers 1.0
t bi. vi ew
in Ill. 81.
(a) A.rammal).ato (J?J, $). Thi8 substantially agrees III. 114.
with dauan6<lito of B. III. 94.
1. Of P. G. Muod-yns PreM l llOOj but 7.abu Meit Swe PraM
ad. (11113) p. 105 j Siuhale68 edition p. 00.
lU. SS,
36 vmUTTIllAGGA [On,-I'. \1.
(b) Kiluaio. This corresponds to dhammappavattito of
B. III. 95; but the names of the dhammas ascribed
to each of the three classes of men do not always
agree. Upn. mentions only the evil dha-mmss for each
of these t1roo classes of men, wbile n. mentions
several dbammna foJ' each of tbe silt classes he accepts.
(c) Gamanato. This substantially agrees with B. Ill. 88,
eltcepting the quotation from the Commentary on
the Magandiya.autta to which there is nothing corres-
ponding in this text.
(d) This gives only a general descrip_
tion of the nature of clothes liked by each of these
three kinds of men.
(e) Bhojollato. Substantially agrees "' ith D. Ill. 93.
(f) Kiecato. Substantially agrees with D. III. 91.
(g) SIJ!Jyddito. Subatanall y agrees with D.III . 91 and
a part of iTiyopathato in III. 88.
(iii) Katha,,!, chara,,!, pdrupati., bJuHiiati, katham
aua umasana'T!', gocara, iTiyopatho co.? The answer
follows seriatim:
(a) Cit;ara-samdddlla"!I. This corresponds to the passage
regarding and urammaJ;la in. B.
III. 97-1OL
(b) Bhoianiihdra. This roughly corresponds to the reo
marks on yogllbhatta-khaiiaka in B. IlL 97, 100.
(e) Senosa./la., This corresponds to the remarks ou selld
Jana. in B. III. 97, 99. It is interesting to note II. reo
msrk of Upa. that a moli.acorita should stay in the
vicinity of his aeariya.
(d) Gocara. This roughly corresponds to the remarks on
bhikkhacJ.ramagga and bhikkhdedro.-guma in B. Ill.
D7-100. There is another interesting remark made by
Upa. that a ,-a.gaea.rita should go into the village
facing the sun, a d08acarita with his hack towarda
the sun, and a mohaoarita any way he pleases.
(e) lriydpatha. Upa. tells us what dilIerent postures are
resorted to by the three ci8llse5 of men. He mentions
that a dasacarita is given more to sitting and lying,
while the mohacarita to walking .

\AlAi'. Vlj
Upa. adds paki'H!akakatila.
A rJgacarita believes in objects, a d'CI&acwita ill N.C.
disagreeable ones, aud a mollhcarita sees uothiug in which he
can believe. A ragacaTita is like a sl ave, a dOH/carita like a
master, and a 1nolLacaritalike poison. A rii[lacarita loves colour
a J{)sucaTita loves finding huli, aud a mQhacarita
loves idleness.'
1. This chapter on the .... holll fll'llals a remarkabl, dG68 agreement
btltwellD Vis. and Vim., perhap$ because as D. hu ]l;\id in III. 96, hoth of
them afe foll()wing the sli me 4cari1f!J-mal a dcari1fl1-IIIal411uMrrna
There are se.-eral passages which lire fouud word for word in
both the texts.
HI. lO5

IBk. 3.6.10-3.11a-2; Tak. 411a-412b. Cf. Vis. III.105.12LJ
Havi ng obser'led the cariya of his pupil, the acariya should
proscribe the t hirty_eight kammatthanas nod also instruct him
in two Imore/, as would befit his cariyO. . Which are the thirty-
eight kammaHhanas?
1-10 DlHa kOli1}ii: pathavi, apo, tejo, vo.vo, nila, pita,
lokita, odo.ta, dkd.riiyatana and
11-20 DfM.a a.mblid.: udd,kumalaka, lIinilaka, lIipubbaka,
lIicchiddaka, 'Vikkhliyitaka, 'Vikkhittaka, hata.vik-
kkittaka, lohitaka, a.nd atthika.
21-30 DaJa antusatiyo: Buddhan.uuati, dhammo.lUusati,
sanghlinuuati, cligd.nu8lati, dc-vato.nus-
lati, marat1asati, kdyaga.tdJati, ana-panasati, and
upasaman.uuaf i.
31-34 Cattari lor, w.tanu appamafl.1ia,
corresponding to B's. brahmalliho.rdj: me-tto.,
mUMto. and upekkhd ..
35 Catudho.tulICIvatthana7[l> ) [Mark the change in the
order frOID that in Vis.
III.105, according to
36 ifMrcpati.kklilasaiiiW. I which the order of these
I kammaHhanas niter no.
34. would be 9, 10, 37, 38,
36,35 of those given in
37 .iI kificafifi.ayatal!a1!t this list, whilo dlQka_kaJi _
1;i.a anu paricchinmikd,o.-
kaJiJ;UI are given by D. as
.38 NevaJan1id-nasa1itidyatal!a1!t J the last t wo of the ka..siJ;ln8.1
1. Upa. doos not include in this liat IIloka--ka.ri1\(J and paricchinndkd.!a
ka.ri\1G. given hy B., although it is clear that. he knew these two. He in_
cludell them in the other two mentiOQed aho"e. Be8idel!, when he comes to
the detailed treatment of these he dOOll these two and
givell a detailed treatment of them, See pp. 58, 69. It is, however,
clear that there Wall a cJsl-llification, even in the .lId PaJi to:<t3, of thirty-
CUAl'. VU ]
One should keow these thirty-eight kaUlUlaHhii.DIls well ill
the following' nine wnys (B. mentiolLs t en way8, of \vhich
the first ,ankhiHaniddesato roay as weU be so.i(1 to hM'e beeu
gi,'en i" the enumeration above.]
(i) J hiin6to. This corresponds to ttpacarappalravalwto and
iluinappabhedato of B. I II .lOG.IOT, but dill'era in this
that Upa. adds II. cln8! of cat1I kka-pailcak'aiihdna to
which he ascribes the first eight kasiQI!.S and lilldpdlla-
Jati, atlds a class of ii.ruppas to which he Qscribes nos.
9, lU, 37,38 of the l ist given above, and Ulllt he as-
only (of the appnmaiHiii s) to the catuk-
kajjhimi.ka class.
HI. 103

teu Wlyl.
(ii) Sanldtikkamato: l OB
(a) R.ipalamatikkama : e1c61lting the iiTuPIJa kasi-
I}as (nos. 9 and 10 from the above list) i n the
remaining eight kasil}as only; in the remain.
ing thirty there is no rtlpaJamatikkama.
(b) ArammaJ.1oG. ,amaCikkama is seen in the tbree
kammaHhiinas only, t he two iiruppllknsil}Bs and
i n the aki,lcaihidyatama; not in t he remaining
(c) in no. 38 only, and
not in the remaining,
(D. mentions in III lOS: Dlle l amatikkamd:
angalamatikkamo co') dram:ma{UUamatikkOl I1W
Vat/4ha1! This corresponds to voQ4handlJa4tJ.ktmato
of B. IILI09-US, but there is an important difference.
A\:cording to Upe. the llIimitta of t he ten aod
the four appamdl}-acittUni should be developed and
the remaining should Dot be developed. B. ill
vehemently agninst developing the nimitta of the
brnhmnvihiras which correspond to the fou r appo.-
miiq.ncittas. (See B, III.U3-114].
eight See Dh . para 203, AUhwlinl pp. 168, 168, 187.
B. himself refel"$ to it in Vi . VI. 56 in these ... ordS! P4!iva.,.. hi wi bhal/a-
Cl'orGJlO'!l bhe..-o...:lromma(W.,.. n4ma nat/hi. The
lut two of the kaaio.&I ... mentioned in thia list are found in M, ii.
14.-16, PI . i . 6, and Abhk. VUI. 86&; al50 Netti p. 89. Soe MCm. ii.
aHhoti'!l$draIllTll(l!,CN cittoMicillO'!l kOlllllloHItdIl(l'!l oohch4. Also cf.
MOm. i. 195; ii. 358.
Ill . 100-16.
B. <:OIJIbati
thia .. ie ...
, HI. H7
(iv) Paccayato. This corresponds to B. III.120 which goes
into more details than this te:tt. Nine kammaHhii.nas,
the first eight kasil;las and the pancchinniikl'Ua/(lUi1J4,1
become the paccaya of the abhiiliiih and the remain-
ing thirty do not become.
Excluding the last no. 3S, the remaiaing thirty-seven
become the paccaya of 't!ipauand. N evawibMnd-
"a;IIia-yatana does not become. (B. does not agree with
this view."]
(v) Arammal;Wto:
(a) excluding
the remaining nine kasir;lIu, the
ten asubhas, d,napdn(llati and kdyagatt1uati.
(According to B. they are twenty-two, Dnd he
inserts the ten kasil;las according to hiB enu-
(b) -vinna",,-
ktui'(la, 1!.el.'ala;I;ldn6$anndyaiana, and the ten
which bring jh5.lliipaciirns.'
(c) lablulvdrammatkinf ti 'ltd
no vattabbani-five: the four
ni nnd akil1cafitidyatana. (B. hns six adding
There seeros to be 8 long digression here giving the sixteen
kinds of iirammal].DS and the allocation of the different kaIDmat
thinaa to each of these irammaQas. [ cl. B. XIII. 105 whera
twelve urammal].as are mentioned baud upon the four triads
N.O. of them given in Dhs. p. 2. 1
(vi) Vile.lato (:J$ fill). Upa. tella us here the special
distinctive character of some of these kammnt-
thinaa. For instance, the cittaa have thei r
special character in that they are faultleSll , or
catudhdtuvavattMna is called pml,ldvi$6lG because
it discerns the emptiness ( I1nlfl.atd) of things.
1. Apparentl,y from the two additioDal lr:ammatthlDaa.
2. Alao Cf. B. XVU. 75.
3. Th __ m to correspoDd to Bo'. eia:bt aD&uatill (ezcllldina:
4n4p.1na aDd kdlJ(lga/4 from the teD) aDd ahan pafikkilla-lIltlft4 aDd
tat1Ulhat","'aMtfli<1na. See B. ill. 106.
eu.<P. vn] KAMMA'!"fHAtiA-PARlCCHEDA
I 6
(vi i) Bhu,mito. This Bubstantially agrees with B. III. UB,
except that this text uses the word r1i.p3.ooka instead
of bMhm.a/oka, and that it does Dot any sentence
corresponding to manUUMu pi p.avattanti .
(viii ) Gaha1}ato. Agrees with B. III. 119, eJ.: cept that Upa.
includes kayagaM-lat-i under JlItena.
(ix) Riigacaritadito. (N. C. for the first half. 1
A raga.carita should not. practise the four appa- N.O.
mal}-a cittas , because they are the Jubhanimitta. For a
ragacarita, l u bhal Miii4 is not proper, just as fatty
or oily things are not good for a man who has a
preponderence of phlegm (Jemha) in his hUlUors. A
should not practise the ten Ilsubhas
because they are I:.ot suitable to him, just as a hot
drink is not suitable to a man who bas a preponder-
ence of hile (p.itta) in his humors. A maltacarita
whose understanding ill not developed may not allow
himself to practise any Mam1naH'uina, because he does
uot know the pruper means (updya 1i {J!). If he does
not know the proper means, his effort! are fruitless.
He would be like a man who rides an el ephnnt withou.t
a goad .
A ragacari ta should practise asubhasaniias and III. UI
krlyagata lati which are, 80 to Bay, proper antidotes
against rrlga. A do,acarita should practise the four appa-
m.dlJa ciUaB which are an anti dote for dGJa, or should
practise t he because they are agreeable
to hie mind. [For this and the remaining part under
this headi ng, see B. III. 121. 1 A , a&dhiicarita should
practise the six satiHhdndni beginning with Buddha,-
nll,tlati, ,addl14 makes one settled or stllady
r ii!.]. A buddh,icarita IIhould practise oatudMtu. _, Mwr6 maratl-4Jati- nnd
uplUamdnuuati because they are profound. And.
further, 0. buddhicarita has no obstacle in any A vitakkaoarita should practise
dnapan,tlsati , because it cUU! off vitillas. A moha-
carita should, with faith, ask about and hear about the
Dhamma, have reverence for it and should live with
hiB teacher and develop his ow:n u.uderstanding.
Ill. 121
VlMUTJ'rMAGGA [ClU.l'. vn
Out of these thirty-eight kammaHhiinas, one may practise,
when one likes, mara1Jdsati and, which
are the best.
The chapter concludes w; .h the following. paragraph to
which there does not appear to he anything corresponding in B.
A riig.GCan"ita. with a dull intellect (mudind.,.iya) should prac-
tise asubhanupassan5.s, while he who is endow:ed with a sharp
intellect ehould practise and thus remove raga.
A diosGCOirita with 8. dull intellect should practise the four
cittas, while one with a sharp intellect should
develop his insight and thus remove dOla. A. mohacarita with
no intellect (anindriya) should not practise any kammaghUna,
while one with an average intellect should develop anJptinasati
for r emoving vitakka. [cf. B. III. 121: mohacaritaua vitakka_
caritaua ca eka7]l dnii.panasatikammaHhUnam eva .. ]
(1.10 KASII)'A(
{ Bk. 4. 1. 4-4. 20. 10 (end of the Bk. 4) j Tak. 411b-411c.
Cf. Via. IV. 21-138}
Upa. all uBual .sou up a number of questions wbiob he
answers one after another . He u.plaina the meaning of tbe
word and tella us about its mia,
padaHndna and, which last agree very slightly wi th
those mentioned in B. V. 28.
He goea on to di scuss the two kinde of natural and
artificial (akata and kata of B. IV. 22). The former (akata) is
not good for a ,!!ogiwacara because the will
not be produced from it. The latter is of lOUT different colours
white, red nnd of daW'l\-colour IJl e I.
Of these one Ihould choose that of the dawn-colour, for if he
chooses other colouu, it would mean he i8 practisi ng

A man who has already had practice in jhiDas will aoon But a new man should make a
circular, four_sided or t.hree-sided, in a quiet place, a pl ace of
worship, a store house or under a tree. That place ahould
neither be too dark, nor have too much light. It Ihould be away
from non-human beinga (amanuna ;II: A). This may
either be on a pieca of cloth, or on a boar d of wood or on a
partition.wall. Upa. here remarks, that although it may be
1. Prof. Nagai t rlll. !atel fj' rn.J .. ' buia of .dion'. Appauntl.J
Uii. seem. to be uled in the ___ me IelIM .. komlOOHMna ( IT 1& I It ia,
bow, .. er, dillicu1t to see wh,. Upa. u.._ the former ChineN 8J:pr_10n for
the latter uled in the precedillg cl>ap!.er.
2. B. haa th, word pita, ,.,Uow (IV. 24).
IV. 22
B. doel
Dot ' !HIa"

VllfUTI'IM.A.GGA (CR&I'. VUl. 1
permisaible to have the different kinds of m.(J.I}Qala, oircular and
80 on, or on a piece of cloth and so on, II till former teachers
consider a circular one, and that too on the earth, all the
He also goes into some more details as to how he should lakp. a
compasllllnd make a oircle and then prepare a. out of
wet earth. It should be of the size of a winnowing.basket or
a walerbowl 'Va $(lro1.'amatwl)"l vo) all B. quous
in IV. 22 from some old lIource.
Katha1f1o ( 1) bhdvetabbo 1
IV. 27 If a man wi&hes to practille upon the
IV. 28
he mUllt fint refleot upon tbe disadvantages of wordly
pleaeurea (kdmelu, Mfllava) and the advantages of
(W __ ). To show the disadvantages of \vordly pleasurell
Upa-. give! a number of similes, taken from Majjhima 22nd
sutta, which B. merely indicates by saying : appauadd kdmd
t, dci,ul nayena. (B. IV. 27.1.
Upa. interpreta the word 7I6kkhamma in two waye: first, it
meana to leave home and then to practise kUlala; or it
means to be awa.y from the desires of lIense. He aillo showa
in a detailed maUneI the contrut between /c;dma and
When tbe yogdvaoara haa seen lhe dieadvante.ges of worldly
pleasuroa nnd the o.dvnotages of nekkham11U), he should see
what he should do aud what he should not do. He should
be moderate in food, remove idlene8II, tale a seat after washing
his hands aod feet, and reflect upon the Enlightenment of the
Buddha, upon the Dhamma and the Sa'lulia. He should place his
seat ( "tana J\ ) at a distance equal to the length of Q, yaks
(Yltga ft from the sit crolls.legged with his body
erect, and mindfulness alert, acd look at the ma'J4alCi with his
eyes hall open.
In three ways he lakes the nimitta;
(i) SallUlna ummJlanena. (This corresponds to B. IV. 28
Ilud subatanlially agrees with it.]
2. Bee MY)'. 5639; at, o B. IV. 26, o""hdewa'
hllUhanfart paden.
CUM'. Vlll. IJ
(ii) Upa. gives l our kinds of upayall or means
to reflect properly 80 all to produce t.he nimitta.
If t.he nimitta ill dillappear ing he thinb that there
i8 80met.hing with hiwself. If he 1115611 only
a. swall nimitta or see8 only half of the maMalfl.,
he IIhould 111515 the m,(JII}Q.alo. complete and without any
deficiency. When he thus se6S it, he way then remain
(iii) Vikkh8pappaM1IIena. By beping hi8 mind free from
any dilltraction in lOUT woys. He should allow
the balance of his mind to be di sturbed by over
work, or by elation of the
minrl, nor should he allow. hi8 mind to sink into
lethargy or depression. [Cf. U. IV. 66.12, where D.
illustrates this idea with various similes. Upe.. givea
none of them. )
Upa. then speaks of the two kinds of nimittaa, lIggulm-
nimitta and The former i, a kind of
10.11.116 that arise8 out of the anu the latter arises out
of the former. While explaining the word nimitta, Upa.
says that the is merely ao. image of
The yogdVOC<lra should guard the tli'",itta in three ways:
(i) a.kttlalappahdnen;o, (ii ) ku,alab1.dt:andya, aod (i ii)
nU:colevandya. Be e::r::plnins these terms. (Explanat ion of
(i) find (ii) seems to correspond to a few details given ill D. IV.
3541. 1
Ko jniin,llpacdro1 Kd O.PPf]61 K-rp. t ua'l!'
Upa. goes into far more details than B. Be givell eeveral
similes to show the distinction between the two, in addition
to the simile given by B. io. IV. 33 of 0. young child (dahara-
kum61'O) to wbom the upacdraiihdna is compared.
'Vhen ODe haa attained upacom or appa!l t'i, one may develop
the ka,i"a gradually, inch by inch, until it is spread over the
whole earth. [This portion agrees in thought, though not in
expressions, with D.IV .12627.J
'Vhen the.yogd1lacara; hILI! attained upacdra and is o.ot able
to produce appa1J4, he should try to produce it by these two
[ v. 66-72.
IV. 35-41
p ..
I V. 53
IV. 126-127
IV. 42-0.5
IV. 79
IV. 8990
(i) By the practice of the len waye and meane that would
help him to reach the appa'J6. [These ten are the SaDle len ways
menti oned and u:plained by B. in IV. 42, and IV. 4365,
respectively, with this eligbt difference tbot Upa. adds one,
anauddatd after citta1!' and puts o6amdhita-puggala.-
parWajianato and lamdhita.-puggalau:vanato into one. Thus
he bas the same number ten.]
(ii) By a suong resolve { .I!:l:! * J. When he bas under
stood the len dhammas mentioned just above, he enters a 50li
lary place, knowe his nimitta thoroughly, attaiDl wastery
over what he has already attained. Ri8 wind feels joy, is at
ease, and with a firm resolution is freed from kiles9s. It accom-
plishes one dhamma-rala.
With this special distinction hie mind gete the means [or
the and in no long lime he reaches it.
Re attains the first ihdna which is described in almost the
same words as those in B. IV.79:
Vivicc' 611a kdmehi 'Viouicca akulalehi d-hatmmehi ravitakka1!'
ravicdra1!1 vivekaia'/?l pitilukha??l, ihanam uPGlam_
pajja vihar/.lti.
Thi8 is the advantage oE the pathavt-ko,i';W.
Ups.. comments on this whole passage and hie cowment ie
much more elaborate as he goes into many more details than B.
He gives the VMious kinds of vivekos, and while explaining
the word kdma gives the two divisions of vatthu-kdma" and
kil81a-kdma which he explains in general ogreement wi th B. ,
but he differs considerably in details. In this connection, Upa.
reren to a book called:=: . (lit. three boxes, three pitakas)
from which he gives a quotation which purports to say: Alobh;tJ,_
Ja kdmehi viveko Jampajiati. ade'oua ...... amokaua
aktllalehi dhammehi 1Ji'Veko 8ampaiiati. t
While explaining the diatillction between vitakka and vied--
Upa. gives several similes iu addition to those of
ghdta and and poribbha.mana,
1. See Pet.-kopadesa, Vllth Chapter, p. 157 (printed Burmese edition
p. 191); f(.UiIo, cUobh<u.J<) pIlripiln)'d "illiUo taUTw Mof(IJ.J<)
pSnpnt/4, (lmo.\tu.a p/lnPllrill'l co lIivitto hoti pIlpokchi (lk"f(llehi

C'UP. vUI.- l)
given by B. in IV. 89_90. Upa. here again quotes;:: .. which
purports to show that 't'itakka ie the first appli cation or the
mind to the object of ita thought, like seeing a IHl .;;.:>n froul a
dieLance but not being able to recognize whether it is a mau or
woman.' Upn. also adde another interesting simile, amoog
seve ral othen, in which he compares 't'itaUu to a stron81 mao
muttering a ,utta to himself, while 't'ictira is like pondering
over the meaning or the ,utta. At the close of his remarks on
this subject, Upa. says that 't'itakka 18 equlvalent to nirutti-
and patibMnJa.pati,ambhidd, while vicdra is
equivalent to and
While explaining the word piti, in addition to the fivefolU
classification given by D. i n IV. 94-the explanation of which,
however, as given by Upa. is not the same as tbat of B.- Upa.
gives another sixfold division as follows:
(i) Kdmato iaW., (ii) ,atJ;dMya iaiti , (iii) akuk'lcucr.ato idta,
(iv) t>i't'ekato ;atd, (v) ,amddhito iaM, and lastly (vi)
bo;;hangato idta. Similarl y, while explaining the
word .s-ukha, he gives five kinds of rukha:
(i) Hetu.-Iuk1i4, (ii) ,ambhtira-I"kha, (iii) t>i'fleka-lUkl,o,
fiv) n-irupakkik"l-Iukha, and finally (v) t>edana-I"-
While explaining the disti noti on between pIti and suleha,
Upa. goes into many more poini.a or distinction than those
given by B. but in general purport his oxplanation agrees with
that given by B. in I V. 100.
Upa. furt hijr continues the description of the lint trance:
Paii congavippahlna1p., pancongaramonnagata1Jlo. tilvid.haNalyti-
1. See Pej.akopadesa, VIIth Cbapter, p. 158, (Burmese edition, p. 191);
TattAo. pafhamabAinip4to .. i/dko, pafi1addll!ulB "ico.l"I1!'O'1' .. ifaro; voll.a
purilo diiTCl o puri.oa'1' po:IBli flO m t4tH1 jan4l i 'it/M Ii t>II
purilo' li .. 4; lIadahu pafi!obho. li ' iHhi Ii t>4 pumo' !i .. d, evof1l"""Gtl!W Ii
..a, etHI'!l-w",h4no ti .. d, ' ime .. italo:1l1/O"/ 0 ,.Uo.ri 'llJIOJIOrikkA.oRli V h):
'kilfl. kilo riku,a 'llddAu dUl.uo, wJ4ho t>4 dUl1l1o.lo' Ii '114,. ellO.'1I- .. ;cdro
.. o.J}pdi.
2. See vnth Chapter, p. 191 of the Burm_
printed edition); balilo:o h'll'1l-hilo:o (I"'(\/lilo:o, &COOroina to the
printed. edition) mjiMJIO.Ifl karoti em'1l- 1I1lalo:ko, 1/01/ld la", 1I(1Hl a"","
JlCUIllIi e1lCl'1' "idJro. . .. NiruHipafi.ambiliddJlO.Ifl m patibAdllllpcofi.
rambAid4J1O.'1' ca ", talo:lo:o, dhammapalilambliid4ya'1'
1141/"'11- ca ,,;cdro.
IV. 79
d<uolakklw1].aJompanna1?l. panc(I.!!$lati.gutldbhiyuttam.
IC!. B. IV. 79. where B. has nothing co rresponding to the last
While nplaioing the word paiicaJ1.0amppahJn.a1)1 he enu_
meratea the five nlvaral:'l19 and while explaining tbo word
middJI4, Up", gQe5 into a discussion which sbow8 the attitude
of the 8chool of Upa. with regard to midr.tha.t, which is entirely
opposed to the altitude of B. l.ud hie school to the same nitlara1].a.
Upa. gives three kinds of mid4h'a: Wwraja, utujo., and
cittaja. of which only the l ut he cousidl:!rs as while
the other two ars possible even in an Arha.t." To support
his view, he give;', the authoritative atntement or
Anuruddha, who 18 reporLed to have that fifty-
five yeara had elapsed aince he had deatroyed the ilaavft9 and
attained a atate where thera was no middha produced from
citta, but it waa only twenty-five yean aince he had deatroyed
middJul produced from ahara and utu,' Upa, further S8.]S
that although middha is a, it is still a
upakkilua" because is something that defiles the mind,
Although middha i.s a kdYI'ka dlwmma and thina a ceta,ikn
dhamma, they are conaidered as one nivara1}a because they
have the same and the same lakkha:1J4 in that
they are identical with fatigue and e:s:haustion.
Upa. gives four kinds of vicikiccha, He also diaou88ea the
point 38 to why the nlvaral}8e are just five.
'Vhile commenting on the e:s:preSllion pmlcanga,amannd.
gata'f!lo, he givea the five angas, vitakka., vicara, piti, , ukllc. and
daggaw. Just a5 we cannot have a cart without ita dill'erent
parts, or an army witliout its lIub-divisiona
, 80 alan we cannot
have a ihdlill. without thesa 8ogae, They are five becaul& the8e
five include aU otliera, and becauae they are juat the oppoaite of
1. _Sao below pp. 95, 123; also DhICm. p. 840.
2. See Pej.akopadeu VIlth Chapter, p. ISO, (Burmese printed editiou
p. 201): .t.Hhi pana Arnhoto kdyakiiuamiddhal)!. CC1 oUa_ti, na co
ta,?, ftitoOnltIO'I'; '(lUG thfnamiddha"" niranl!l<l" ti na ekaIJUlna. Alto
(Of. Miln. 2M.
8. Of. Tber'81thl, .tanu. 904:
PaftcopallMIil traUdni nllOjjiko aha",
pallea"hali 1J{umni "",to middllam
4. See- B. IV. 107; XVIII. 28. Abbk. viii: 1-8; Milu. 26-28: S.III_uta.
p"IdiU I. He.
CHA),. "III. 1] '9
the nlvaral).a! which only five . In thi s connection Upa,
gives another quotation from :=: il, which e::s:actly corres
ponds to the quotation from given by B. in IV,S6. It
is word tor word the 8ame: Sam6dlti.' ktimacchalldaua
po.J.:kho, 'plti, vitakko tltinamiddhaua, .ukh'a1!l
uddhaccah.khuccaHB, vicdro vicikicchdya..
{V. 86

Commenling on tividha.. !ralydtw, Upn. gives three kinds IV. 111-113
of kalyul].ns, tidj.kalyufJa, and pariyo,dna'
and about them he further remarks:
(i) PatipadOvil1l ddhi. Mi- explained no. ullambhdriko Ill)'
CU1'o. tbi .
(ii) UpekkM'fI,'Ubru!tand mai;h'e-explained 88 appa1JO.
(iii) Sampaha"!ulllld par.iyo,ORa1l_explained as paccavek-
In hio. comment on dlualakkha1)a-.ampanna?n, Upa. givea the IV. l11-113
!8me lakkhnQ88 as In the quotation! from Po.. i. 167-168, given
in B.IV. 111-113, enept that Upa. uses vivekapatiparma1[5
in3tead or Jama.tltapatipanna1[5 in D.I V. 112. "While comment
ing on pailcavilati gll1)tibhiyutta,,!l be gives the foll owing
twenty.five gUl].ao.:
Vi takka, victira, piti, eftaggaM; ,addhti, viTi-ga, N.C.
ra7n<ldM, pailtia; adi., ma;iha, anta; ,ankhepa-,angaha (it 11),
blwvanci, vi'veka, nillaya, sangaha. ( MIi ;t), allunaya (? ) ;
vipwrnnd; ,avana, bala, vimuLti, viJuddhi, and parama-
l1i,uddha-yoga-liddh.i.-viMra (P Jt: II m i1f ... J#. G:).
To show the nature or this trance that it is 1\ d.l.bba.1IihuTa, N.C.
surpa.ssing human, produced from 1Itveka aud abi ding iu
pHi and IIIkha. Upa. gives a quotatioll. t rom M. i.2i 6 in which
the Buddha is repre3ented to have given the following eimile :
Seyyat!td pi, bhikkluwa, dahkho nalia.pako vel nahilpakaftte.
111111 va ... vivekOJjClIO pf-tilukhena apphutaT!' hot4.
Upa. abo gi ves the application ot the simile to the yoguvacara N.C.
and his trance. He further Bays thot this trance is of three
1. Lit. dlal/l/aM (_ It) ) it used for .Jllmildhi. I bave not yet been
able to trace thi. quotation in tbe Pej;akopadeaa. DbJ;Cm. 165.
2. Tbit puaage i . 'Ivy important to determine the reIatinn between
the Vim. and tbe Vi . . .. ell;aetly t.hit very interpretation, word for .... ord.
of these three terllU ill referred to by D. and he ucribed the tame
to eh (IV. 114). Dhamaplla in bi. comment on tbe word eke explain.
tbat the reference is to Abhayo.l/iri1l!lrino. IBurmeta edition, p. 1611)
killds, paritta, majjhima Ilnd p a ~ i t a . He who cultivates t be first
ot t hese is born, at the end of his life, among the goda who may
be i n the circle of Brahmd, I and his life-period there is l imi ted
to one third ot a kappa. Oue who cultivates the second of these
ie born among Brahma. gods, where the life-period is limited
100116 half of a kappa. If one culti,'ales the last of these, t hen
one is born among the Mahabrahmas, where the l ife-per iod is
DIUI kappa.
The lldvantage or bei ng born among the Brahma-gode is
or four kinds:
(i ) Hiillabhiigiya: like a man of dull faculties (mud-ill-
driya) who is carelus. Upa.also gives other alternative
eJ:.planations of this and discusses why oue fa11e from
the position once attained.
(ii) Thitibhligiya; like a mlln of dull faculti es, who be-
comes careful aud contemplates upon the DhamTlUl.
(iii) Vi'elabhiigiya: l ike a man of keeu faculti es (tA.kkhifl _
driya) who is careful and can attain the second tra ncs
wh en he likes.
(i v) Nibbedhabhdgiya: like a man of keen facuities, who
is careful and attains when he Jiho.'l, pursues
tboughts of nibbidii aud virago..
1. Thia IIOOms to be the equivalent of Brahma-parisajju. See A.bhl.
p. 22, C1up. V. ppra. 6.
2. Cf. Abhl. p. 22, Chap. V. para. 6, .... hl'fe we find an "ac:tit
.imilar .t.atemeut.
[DIr.5. 1.4-5.23.S; (end of Bir. five). 'i'alr. 418a-42411. eLVis.
I V. 139-V.26.]
The yogu,vQcora wishing to enter the second trauce thi nka
of the disadvantages of the first trO-nce O-ud the advO-ntages of
the second. But he hILS first to attain mO-stery over the firs t
trance. For. if he has not master ed the fint trance. Dot only
will he Dot he able to euter the second trance, but he wiU fal l
back even from the first. To illustrate thi s, Upa. like B. (IV.
130), gives the famous simile of pabbateyya ga-vi, I the mountaiu_
COIV, and shows its application also.
When the yogdvacoro has thUB attained mastery' over the first
trllnce, he tries for the second, of -vitakka and -vicar-a
as gross, and in no long time he attai Ds the lecond trance. Upa .
like B., follows Vibh8nga 245, in the deaoription or the second
trance : Vitakkll'lllCdrdna1]1- 'IIupatamd uiiliatta1[l- JampaJll-
cetatQ a1litakka1ft lamadliija'rfl
pW,ukha1[l. dutiyo1[l. iho.na7.n..
Upa.', comment on the words in this IlD.Ba8ge does not u\waya
agree with that of B. in its detaiia, although in general spirit
it agrees.
'fhe deflcriptioll of the second trance ia further continued:
dU' dUl'unga{ 1). JamalinDgata"!!-. s t i1Jidlw ...
1. A. iv. 418-19.
2. Up ... does not mantion the Ihe kind. givsn by D. in rv. IS11S7.
S. I fail to $eG why .... e have bere thn mention of two
ang .. only. Vbh. 258 mentiolll four, plti, .,.klta, and
cittauo rkaal7Otd. See alao Abbk. VIII. 7-8 ... bieb gi1'81 the "me four
aalu in the &eCOnd trance. Even Upa. mentions (6.2.10)
four .. tbe nnmber of ang ... for this trsnce. Petakopdasa VU. 165,
VIl. 206 (Burmese priuted ad. pp. I9:), 21:'1) alao mentions lour
I V. 130
IV. 139
IV. 149
. d.
Upa. does Dot e;t.plain the words in this pnssage. There is
nothing inB. c:orrespondingto the word tevhati-g1l';ldbhiyutta'l)t .
This second trance is further illustrated by tLe [ollowing eimile
frotO M.i. 276-77.
N.O. Selillatht1 pi, bhikkhav6, udakaraluulo 1lbbhid'Odako etc.
IV. 166
IV. 11"
The pannge here omits some details of eXpressions. Rere also
the application of the simile followa. This trance also is of
three kinds, paritta, ma;;hima, pa7;lUa, leading reSllectively to
birth nUiOng the Pari.ttdbhd .. and iIbhauaf'a
gods. where the life-period is limited to two, louf' nnd eight
kappas respecli vely. I
Later after acquiring maatery O\'er the second trance, the
yogavaoora proceeds to the third trance. It is described ns
follow! :
Pitiy" ca virdga 1lpekHiClko ca 'Viharati, ,ato ca rampo;ano,
,ukhml ca kdyena potiro'l)tveoUti, ya7!t tam oriya iiciHhanti,
upeJ.:khoko ,atima rukhovilidri ti. iycrr- iMflo'l)t.
In Ids comment on this passage, Upa. gives eight kinds of
u.pekkhl1 while B. gives ten kinds (IV. 156), but later (IV. 161)
B. e,;pJnins that ,onHuira-1lpekkhd and tatramahhattuIJtkklul
are included in some of the rest and 50 nre not quite distinct-.
Upn. gives another three-fold classification alao. Upn. also
discusses I-he poinh rai sed by B. in IV. 171,173 as to why
tlpekkiUJ. and rati.,ampajaniia are not mentioned in the lower
trnncell although they are there. 'Ve also find here the simile of
voccha gi"\"en by B. in IV. 174.
Upa.'s comment on .'UHu.n}, ca kiiV61t11 ...... Jukha-vihdrt
much different. although we ca.n trace a pasaage thnt correa..
ponds to the quotation from Vbb. U,9, given in B. IV.17G.
U l)a. further continues tho description of the third trance:
paifcanga-ramanndga!a'l)t,' tividha-

This trance is illustrated by the simile trom M. i. 277 :Seyya-
tlta. pi, bhikkhove, va pad-uminiyo1!l- va.
1. Th;' idea oorr8l!ponda to that ",xpressed in Abb.l. pp. 22-25,
Chap. V. par. 6.
2. Of. Vim. 5.7. 4-5; 1M Vbh., 260 which gil'. the Ii,.e .ngu u
,..ti, ICImpo;jcIl1l1a, .".\:ho., end eitto..uo. eko.aao. tlJ; . 110 Pe\-alur
pad8l!a VI. 155, 206 (Burmese printed ad. pp. 190, 218).
ellA!'. VIII. 2]

applmttJ7!I l lOti. Tho a pplication of this simile a.lso is givell.
This trance is dll scribed further M of three kinds, lJari t ta, 111(1j _
jhima ond pa"l}-ita, leading respectively to the birth among the
Parittambha, Appama1.wsub/Ul and gods, where t he
life-period is rcs}Jectively limited to $i .. fhrty-tl co aIHI
&i.dy-four kappas.'
Having mastered the third trance, the yo!}uvacQra proceeds
to the fourth trance which is descri bed in the same ..... ords as
given by D. in IV. 183 :
Sukhaua co. pahanii d11kkhaHa ca pahill/a pubbeva soma-
nGulJ-domallIJu {i'llG7!I atthan.gama adukkhama8llkhaf!l- u1Jekkh
satiPiiTisudhi'f!l- jhUlla1!l .
Upa.s comment ou Ihis passage generally agrees with that of
D. in I V. 184190, but does !lot her e go into tho distinction
between upac(i1"(J und appall{i. ns Le has already gi ven that ki nd
of distinctiou before.' 'Ve also fi nd here Ihe quotations from
S.V. 213-215, oUll from Vhll. 2Gl, given by B. in I V. 18G and ill
I V,194 respectively.
Upa. further continues the descri ption of the trance: ck(1nga-
'lJippahina'f!l-, t'i'IJanua-sama1llniigata1!I ,' ti'IJid,ha.kalyutl.a7!l, dala-
lB. has
nothing corresponding to the last adjective and instead of
tivwlga-sama1l-llagata'f!l- he gives
This trance is furlhtlr illuslrattld by the simile from M.L 277-
78: Seyyatl!a pi, bhikkhawl, pWrilo OdJtCl/G vattlwna &aSiSU7!1
parupito mlinno a.ssa, n.uua kifici sabbuvatQ kciyaua odutcJ!(l.
'lJauhena apphutam alia, cvameva ........... . .. etc.
An ordinary man (puth1tjjo.naj is born among the V chapplwla
gods. If his mind experiences t!ibbid-d, he is born alLollg the
amiiiH gods where the life-period is limited to f i f ty kappos .
If he is a he is boro. either n.ruoo.g the Velwpph ala
1. The life-periods mentioned here agree with thQSe gi'ell in Abhs.
p. 22-23 ;>nr. 6.
2. See p. 45 above.
8. 800 Vbh. 261 where the fourth t rance is ClI:plaiueO. a8 upekkM,
.rob and cittassa - ekaaatt4; also d. Pet-akopadesa VI. 1fi,5 (Burmese
printed ed. p. 190) ,,hic.h mentions Jour angas Le., odukkhalllafl'khCt
... in addition to the three gi .. en in Vihhanga.
4. Cf. Ahhs. p. 28, Chap. V, jlarD 6, where the life-period of these
gods i. given as 500 kappu.
IV. 184_
IV. \ 94
gods, or in one of the five planes of the Pure Abodell (Sud&hd-
'IIuJa-bhumi). '
Upn. raises a question as to why in this trance there are no
distinct grades of phalo and bhu11Ui, o.s we had in the thi rd trance.
He answers thnt in the third trance, a coa.rser or a finer state is
attained on account of ooarser or fi ner angas, and eo there could
be had some distinct grades of pho10. and bhum .. i; but in the
fourth trance, nll the augas are fine and so there cnu not
be any such distinguishing grades.
As described in the preceding trances, the 1IogtlvacarG seel!
the disadvantages of the last trance (i. e. the fourth trance i n
this Clue), as well aa of ma.terial form (rupa), and seeB the
advantages of the Meditation of Space (dhiJa.-lamapatti) and
considers thislastaa lanto and vimokkha. Upo.. gives the dis-
advo.ntages of rupo in worns which corresponl] to the first half
of the passage quoted in Vis. X. 1. 'fhe disadvantages of the
fourth trance ate described in words which also correspond to
thoss used by B. in X. 5.
The yog4vacaro. first induces the fourth trance on the
pat/Ulv.kanry;., and then breaking" through the patMvJ-n1mitll!
he attai ns the dku..Iana11ctiyatana-lamadlu:.
This attainment is descr ibed in the eame words from Vbh.
245 as are quoted by B, in X, 12:
Sabba.lo ,.tlpaMiin4na1Jl- lamati/chama,
attn.angamd, nlinatta--laitiidna"l1l arnarnllikdrd, anant o dkd!o ti
6kmdnanctiyatana'lJl- up(lIampajj(J viharati,
The comment on this passnge generally agrees wi th that
of D. except in the case of the words nlpasufiiid and dktlla. I n
the former CB5e, Upa, agreea with Vbh, 261, and in the latter ,
he comes closer to Dhs. para. 638, f-
In the explanation of aud 71dnatta-,a1hid also,
Upa. follows Vibhango. 261. The points raised by B. i u X.15,
1. See p. 120 be.!ow.
2. Upa. immediately arter tbe nip4"II00rtl trance! proceeda to the
iruppu, wbich are treated by B. in the Xtb cbapter.
S. n. X. 1: k(Ui!IG'Il
4. Dba. t 638: yo 414ro, dklllal/otol/', ol/Ao,?, oI/AogoloII', ,illGro
willGmIJ'do'll, olmph"Hliorp ootiihi mohdlJhiitehi, idorp tOI]l filpatfl
dkd.wdhdt" .
18, 19, are also referred to hy Upa . While illustrating tile
undisturbed condition of what Upn. calb u8anfii 8a11!adhi, Upa,
includes the name of Uddaka Ranmputta also, along with that
of [a!araJ Kalama, whom five huudred cRrts passed by and still
they neither saw them, uor heard any souuu of the cart.s pass-
ing by. B. mentians t his incident of onl y A!iira Kalama. We
alao find, in the es:planation of the word al.asdnmlca,yotana,
the illustration, as B, gives in X. 24, of devcina1ft
This lal1uidhi is fur ther described as tivattga-8a1llanllci gata1!t, N.V,
luvka l"ya 1Ja.7.n, daJa I a kk ha1fa.sampa7li1l<11ft, bilvJatig11'(labh i_
,!/uttaT(!- to which there i s nothing corresponding in B. As a
ret\'ard for this trance, onc is born among t he aka,anaficayat.anu-
pago gods where the life-period is limi ted to 2000 kappas. '

The sees the disadvantages of the ahisa-
71011cayatarl'a-samadhi. and sees the advalltages of the
ciiyatana-ga,miidhi, and in no long tilDe goes frolll tba lower t o
the higher lanuld'hi, which is described in the saille words frolll
Vibhanga as are quoted in Vis . X. 27;
Sabbalo omrnto7[l
vi?ifiar:!a1l. ti viilflaT}a11 cdyatamo7[l u pasa7ltpajja vihMati .
'rho comment on t his passage agrees in gener al with that of
B. eJ.:copt iu the caae oE akaliinaiicilyatan01ft $O'1Il(ltikkaml1!a
which is disposed off by Upa. in one selltence. Here al so tlle
illustration of devuyatanam iva as giveu by B. in
X. 31 is found.
Simi le
As a reward for this concentration , one is born among the N,C.
,viiifia,.w11cayatanupaga where the life-period is li wi ted to
4000 kappas."
A K ,\y ,\ T AN A-SA?tLlD HI.
Seeillg" the disndvalltages of vi11iia1J-llficciyatan(Hamadhi , thl!
yogavocara pr()ceeds lo the next higher Uki1ico111iayota'lld-
8amiidhi, which is described as in t he pnssage from Vbh. 245,
quoted by B. in X. 36;
&amatikkammo nattlli ki71c$ X.3(1
ti dki1icafi11ayatana'TI- up(uampa;;a vvharati.
I. Abhs. p. 23 gins 20,000 kappas as the life-period of t hese goda.
2. p. 23, gii-e& 40,00.:1 kappu.
N.C. I n his esplanation of dkrncII71,1tiyatana, Ups. gives n pU8!lage
corresponding to the quotation troUl Vbh. 262, given by B. in
X.38. This lamMhi (llso is further described as: t i'IJon.go-

b4l1f 1(1 tjgu (' db f,iy u tI 0"l!l-.
A8 n I'ewllrd tor its attainment, oue i8 born among the dki,;cof;-
,iflya/fl11lJ. gods, whe re lhe life- period is liluited to 0000 kappa!.'
'fhe yogu1.o..cura proceeds t'o the next Ili glLer '1I)'val(H1i1dlldIQ7j-
iidyatana-Iamddhi , which i8 described iu words that corres ,
va nd 10 the quotation f rom M. ii. 231 g iven by D. ill X. 40:
Soii1i(j raga la.ij1ici galJ.qo... . .. elc.
Li ke D., Upa. com menU on the p3ssage quot ed frOlu
Vibhanga, in Vis. X. 42.
N.C. This l amddhi also ia fur ther described IlS:
x .....
As a reward lor ih attainmeut. one is born among the nella
loii.11(lnuloihl ayotl'lno god5, where the life-peri od is limited to
84,000 kappas.'

General remarks on thie topic are mllde under the fol1owing
(i) A man who enters the fird trance
cuts oli speech , enters the four t h t ra.nce a.nd then
gra dually cula off brealhing in, and bre3tilillg out,
sound and smell. Here Wi! meet with II. Aenlell ce :
,odllo ll(1).tako, which cl08ely
corresponds to B.'s ilu'imJ.7JI,a1nul ,ullfioua
, oddo ka7]ta/r.o ei Bhngavata in X. 19.
Iii) VipaltuJ(wlIi-1ia. He knows the and
kuoWll its characteristics dnd so has no 'UipaU(,holo,Hl d.
1. Cf. Abha. p. 23, which give. 00,000 kapplll all the lif.period here.
2. Here Abhs. p. 23
8. Upatiun. bere di.poses off the qllelltion 'that may be rai.Md all to
why there q no 1:t;parlto ICIftll4 wben the yo"lhorora form. palho1:ti-ICIII:1I4
about things for which theTe cannot inberently be any palhovl_lCIlI:lI4.
W ... I,'IQII.-k,uil'O'1' $(lm4p..mno- a-f'6lhQ1l i-,oIl MtIQ pa!ho"I-IOi!l\al/\ karoti.
E"a'1' lilt; katha'1' 1l;parfta-laMlii nn hot; r). Hi.! argllluent, bowerer,
i . not quite clear.

(i ii) Vu!t//(inaJ?"l. Fh' e causes are mentioned for emergi ng
out of ,amudhi. But i f he bM entered upon (In llr1ipu.
-vacara Ill1n'::!hi, he does not emerge from it for o.llY
reason ot tile nlUltipl icity of objods , for Ihis
is uncli.ja"!;ihiira. If he hil s entered UpOll niTodha
samupatti, or u}Jon phala,aluupat ti, he emerges oilly
ns he had previously determined. No other cause
can affecthim.
(i v) Samatikkama ISee B. III. 1081':
(n) anga.,amatikkama, aft when one paRSes tram HI. 108.
one rllput:acara trance to aaother .
(bl samati kklUnC, I1S wIlen olle Pll S8CS
fr om Tupd1.lacara un/wdlti to
, amudhi, or from ono aMlp6:vacara ,amuuhi
to another.
(v) Upaciira. The '-1pacura or all kinds of samiidhis hili
five angaa.
(vi) Vitakka. Dutiyajjhiintidi-gotTabh-a.anantara'J?"l avita/I'
(vIi) Vcdand. Cotutthhhiincitbi.gotrabh1l -anantara1Jl upck.
khaya uppddo.
(viii) VicikiccM. If he has not cut off hindrances, ktimac.
chanda and tbe rest, he is lih one who is afraid
of a snake on a tree.
(l:i) Abho.bbd JllmddJtiulb uppudandyCi. Four" kinds of
people cantlot attain any IDoell t his corres
pond very roughly to Vis. V. 404l?J.
2-4. APO-KASQ<.4. , V.\YO.KASI1:<iA.
Upa. gives the TIUIl., etc. in three di fferent soc
tions, one for each of these three ko.eil,lns. Upa. agrees generally
with D's. rsroarks on the preparation of the ICf.D. V. 3,
5, a.1 He also agrees wi th B. in saying that a begi nner should
not practise on natural sheets of water luch as ponds, lakes,
rh'ers, ocean, but practise on water in a bowl or balin,
placed lU a. quiet, lolitary place, neither too dark nor having too
much light. U pa's. remarks about the two-Cold
1. 8ef, p. 39 IlOOl's.
2. Upa. does not enumerate 'I'hch these fou r lire.
f .a.
v. ,
V. 1220
V. 2123
V. 22 dili.
VI:'10'M'UlAGGA [COAl'. VlH. 2
va phughat:aJelll/. val of viiyo-kcui1)4 gellernUy
agree with B's. remarks in V.9-1O. Upa. also mentions in the
section on vuyc.!.atiJ;14 a sugar-cane, n bamboo-grove, or a place
where rank, wild grass grows, which comes closer to tlcc1wgga,
vci lo.gga quoted from tll e AH1Hlkatbiis by B. in V. 9.
Upa. here also gives the lak'klUl'Ja, ra8a, etc. The treatment
or ell these kasil;lu is the same except that the 6.owen, or pieces
or clot-h, or the colour used are those that correspond to these
names. Here also we find tbe mention of a ,n,a1J4ala that is
circuJar, quadrilateral or t-riangular.
A heginner should not
try to take nimitta from natural things, hut he should contem-
plate upon kuil;1as that are artificially mflde from Bowen of th.,
colour suitable to each ot t hese kasi!].u. The advantages of these
kasil;llu as given by Upa. substantially correspond to those
mentioned by B. in V.3235.
[It is rather st range to find here, the treatment of the iiloka-
kat iTJ.a as well a8 that of the nut (9b), 'dkdl4 not without f'lipo/
although Upa. does not include them in the list of the thirty-
eight kammaHhiinu. It is probably these that he had in hia
mind when he referred to the two extra ones. ' 1
The trentmeLt of this also is the same as given in the
luet rour. except thllt the artificial mentioned here is
dilIerent from that given in Vis. V. 22. Here Upn. saYd that
the yog{ivacara 8hould lIit by the wall of the ea9tern or western
(lirectioc, should fill a bowl of water an'd keep it in a ph,ce
where the aun shinell. From thi s water where the eun is ahin_
ing, li ght will be re8ect.ed on the wall. On this (reSected
li ght! he ehould meditate.
1. See pp. 43-44.
2. See p. 88; Cf. B. V. 2l2{I.
(13k. 6.1.4.-G.21.6 (l UU of Uk. 6); l 'a k. 424a--429c. Vis. v. 24-2G,
Chaps. VI & VII.]
9. Akdsa..k<Mi1!a.
U pa. gives here also rasa., etc. He gives this N"
kalit!a as of two kinds: di,.ision.
(a) iikiisa which is without r'!ipa. [It is this that is no.
9 of the kasiJ;las accordi ng to Upa.]
(b) dkdsa not without Tltpa , as the space in the hollow or
a well.' [Apparently corresponding to p.aricchinma.
kusa-kalittu of B. V. 24-26. J
The treatment of the natural or roughly
agrees with that given by B. in V. 24-25.
10. VINNAJ:'A-KASr:r:;A.
This is Vi1iiiu(uikusa.
[No details are given of Ibis
l'AKn;tti A!(AKATRA..
[The as give n by Upa. has notbiug in com- V.28-42
mOll with that given by B. in V. 28-42.] 'I.d.
"When the yogavacc.ra has attained mastery over one nimi t-
ta, he pllrSI!CS the remaining if he lihs. He may attain the four
trances in succession . The four vlHJ.l).akasil).lls are the best
because they accomplish the vimokkhas and because tbey enable
one to reach abhibhAyatanas J., ). Of these, the Qdatak<Mi1]-a is
the hest, because it creates light. (Wi th this compare B. XUI. _
95 where he says: i11!cSU ca pana tisu aloka-kaJi1)47T1. eva
1. Til isho 00. :11'.
A ... bole
quotation in
1 \'. 11).22
Whell mind has attaiued lUastery OVtlr the eight kasiJ.las
and eight gradually, lhe appana appears.
Upa. gives in thia passage several details of acrobatic fcata,
as it were, in the use of kasiJ.l!ls and various t rances attained with
their help, such ns going up from the first trance to the nevasaii-
back from the same to the first, or from the
first to the third, then back to the second, and agai n forwar d
10 the fourth, and so OU, up to the ntroosarlJiansalinayatww..
'l'here are several such details. [Witlt this should be compared
. ll. XIII. I-i. There also we fiud such acrobatic feals some of
which agree wilh those given by Upa.]
Upa. gives as usual the lakkha,!a, rasa, etc. He gives nine
Rnisal"!lSas of the 1l.ddhumataka-sanna:
(i ) aji'w.tta-kayagatasatiya
(iii) patilablto.
(iv) nibbida-bah,do.
(v ) kama.vikkhambh-ana1!l'
(vii) arooamadappa.hii.1WITJl..
(-viii) luoati-paraya1J.atii.
KathGl1"[l tana {JaJ).hiiti 1
A beginner s.hould go al one, without ally one else as hi a
companion, as described in detail i n the quotation from SOIne
older source, given in B.VI.19-22.
lIt is remarkable to find Ine whole of this long passage
ascri bed by B. to the AHhakathas (AHho.kat.hdsu vutteTla.
vidhi7la, VLI8) given here by Upa. One should be surprised to
find Buch close similarity in thought and wor ds and OD'3 cannot
attribute it to a mere accident.]
Upa. also commenia on this passage and his comment
generally agrees with that of B., except in t.bat on the words
Ii/loato, and except that he says dasavidhena
instead vf ni:mitea.gOilho of
B.VI. 58.
In his COWlllent on the word lill!}oto, UI);\. sayll that the
yogdv(U;ara may note whether the bloated body is tha.t of a
man or WOlUnll, or of one who ie c!;l or young, or whet her it is
10 ll g or short, and so on, although late r he says 16.Sa. l 01 that
(\ beginner with many kilesILS should not take a. from
all object that is disagreeable (vi-Iabhdga), which he explo.i us
a8 ' a woman's body to a WUIl . (er. D. VI .42=pLtruaua itthi-
The cowment on lamanta-io di ffel1l entirely from that of D.
in VI. 49.
Upa. has only ten ways becausD ILD takcB nillnato and thalato
together and not separately as D. doee {VI. 47-4S. ) Desides,
Upa. C<lmmeuts on several other o.s: pressioDs of this passage
Oil \vhich B. does not comm8nt.
I n thi s section Upa. treats the subject-matter eovered in VI. 86-87
D.VI. 50-0S and VI.S6S7. Upa. also rai ses the point discussed ..
by B. in V1. 86, as to why only the first trance iB possible on
the asubhas and his answer is essentially the same aa given by
B. in VI. 86-87. We do not, however , find the simila of a boat
r endered stable by 1\.0 a.ritta, gi ven by D. in VI. 80 to ill ustrat e
his e::tplanation. Upa. 0.1&0 does not go into the details of the
whole subject as B. does.
12. VINlLAKA 1 The t reatment of these asubhae is bl"ief VI. 70-80
17. HATAVlh.'KHIT-
20. A'ITBlKA
and almost lI imilar. Upa . givea DS usual
the lakkha1)a, Ta.lOl , etc, The lini!l\tpsa.8
of all are t he !ame as those of the uddhu-
mdt(l.ka. Even the modo or laki ng
is the same except in 1}icchiddaka. and
vikkhittaka, \vhere it roughl y agrees
with what B. saYII in VI.72,74. The ex-
planation of these names of the asubhas
is much different from that of D. iu VI.
1-10 and VI, 70-74. The quotation from
D.ii .296 all uded to by D. in VI. 78 is
given here in detail. About t he Inst
all,bha, aHlii ka, Upa. l ike B. (VI. 801
saYB tbat the ka.11Io11laHhdna. is successful
even If there is one bone, as when tharf!
IS a skeleton of bones, for ohject of
va. 167
VI;\IUTTIMAGGA [Ou.or. vw. 3

A beginner with many kiles8s should not take nimitta from
an object that is disagreeabl e (lIi.,abhdga) . "'!lich is explained
as 'a woman's body to a mao'. Upa. raises the question as to
why the asubhas are just ten, neither mcre no r less. In his
answer, awong other things, he says: Because \vhen the body is
dead, it can be only of ten kinds and because in a5 much as
there are [only) ten kinds or men (which are given in detail by
B. in VI. 851. there are ten kinds of ,aiiiliin.imitta.
U pa. closes this section, se.ying, wi ih rea5ons, the.t the
should not be developed. He gives a quotation from the
AbhidhawmB, and a grithd fr om Td.tNhi-kyu phu (*-. rJl
Bhad{J:n.ta Siglilapitd" which exactl y corresponda to stanza
18 from Theragithi from which only the second line is quoted
by Buddhaghoae. in III. 111.
Upn., while explnining the woru Buddhii1!uuati, COIJlments
on the word Buddha. Ri a comment is almost word for wora
the !UI gi"en in Pa.i.74, para. 28, (first sub para.), begin.
ning with the words: Y o ,0 B"agot:d ,ayambhu anocariyako ....
etc. B. refers in VII. 52 to the next 51lb-para. only of Ps.
beginning with the words: IJuiihitd ti 'BudrJ,/to, and
so on.
Upa. as Ilaual gives the etc. and gives
eighteen ac.vantages, many of which are the 85 given by
B. in VIJ.61. I n the same connection. he refers to a senlence
from chu (. n!. !I! -fU) Net rI-pada-
sutra (?)' whi ch says, 'If a man desires to reflect upon the
Buddha, be is worthy to be revered like a place with the image
of the Budclha'. [6. 10.6 ; Tak. 426c.7.1 IWil.h thia compare B.
VII.61: ajjhdvutfha"!l v'aulli rnriram
1. Of. D. lil. 111 ... hich q\lotel the lIeCOud liue from the followi ug
.tan ... ueribed to Thera
All" Bv.d4ha,," d4!/4do Il'hik.l:h" Il'hewkalal>(lIu;
knolo", IIHhUoMdlKl ophori polo\avim ;rna'll
moIUlt'ho,!' kdmar4l1O,!, khippa!J1. nl:l pahl l/lolU t:
(Thera-gitb! 1. 18)
2. Bea also p. 72. Of. Netripad.Si.tra of [Abhk. ii. 205J
IIi cetiya.glwram tva. 1Jujriraha7[' hot., which comes quite close
to the seutence referred to aoo\e. j
The yogflvacara should reflect upon the DUlldhn ill this
Bhagava lammii&amlruddlw viijdcara1}a-IOmpa1Uw
I1lgato lokallid{I- antlttaro plt'ri,adam1l!aldratM ,altha della-
1nant.wuna'l!l. It will be noticed Ihut thia is substantiall y Ihe
same as the passage given by B. in VII.2 and on which he hase .
his own exposition.
Upa. comment.. on this paMage. Bis comllleot some_
times agrees with that of D. nnd sometimes it does oot, It is
very simple aou there is nothing corresponding to tbe artifieial
and scholastic interpretation of the word Bhagavii as given by
D. in Vn .M-G4. While commenting on the word vijjiicarm:w. -
lampan,no, Upa. gives in lull the explanation of vijja. and
as given in the Bhayabhernva' nud the Ambattha" auttaa,
while D. merely refers to it. ' Vhile commenting on the word
w"amdil, Upa. apeak/l of only two lokaa, ,attaloka aod lankhara-
loka, and even their explanation is Altogether different froUi
D.' s interpretation of these words . (VII.3S,39j
(Now follows a section to which B. has nothing correspond-
ing in t.he chapter on 'Cha An-uuatinid.:l,w]". But Inter in
IX.2b-35, he hus somsthing which. corresponds only in a genenl
epirit to this section of Upa. The detaila are quite different. ]
The yogdvacara should reflect upon the Tatll(lgata in four
(i) By reflecting upon the preparation made by the
Buddha in his past lives, before he became the Buddha
(i. fl. while he was a Bodhisntta). During the long
period of twenty_four (J-.ank'heyya kappas, lind ODe
hundred ayutaa", i.e. siucethe time \'I'hell the Bodhisatta
e:rpressed his IUIpiration (pa1;lidlu:lna) to become the
Buddha until hislnst life, the Buddha, not being satis-
fied with special religious disti nctions he had attained,
1. Majjhima, 4th Sutta. 2. Diltha, Srd Sutta.
S. Cf. Vi . IX. 26, SaLlIul pubbel/6. IIImIJodh4 analJAil!lmbuddho
bodhi.,tto pi IamdM wWiri "","l:henodni l:apJ)a.fallUaha..u:alL ea pcl'TIJ-
m,yo Also Jl. \'01. i. 3, Bu(Mbal'&l]'Ila, p. 6, whicb botb rea.d:
Koppt eo lato.rahlllU ea co/uro co olallkhiyt.
vnl . 2

VII. 39, 39
IX. 26-3S
was alway! working for others, trying to lave them.
He practised the paramit.iis' of dana, Jila, nekkham.
ma, khmlti, IaOCtl', adln"Hhc'hllJ., mettd, upekklui, 1!iriya
Ilud pUfifia.. Upo. . reten to vo.rioUIJ stories which
illustrate the piiramitaa practised by the Buddha,
while he was n Bodhisalta. Among these atori es, the
following ca n be traced:
The stories of Sasajcitaka I. 10, p. 52; Jii. iii.
51.50), of Mahci-Govillda (D. ii. 220_252, Butta 00. xix)
SaccaJavliaya (? III. 7, p. 97), MtigapaHhn
(Cariycipi!aka III.G, p.96-97), Lo7llaha"!lra.-;citaka (Jii. i . 389.91),
Seuhi._;dfaka', of Dfghdvu (Vin. i. 342-349, Chap. x.), Cliaddan!a
;ci!aka (Ji,. v.36.57), Va[illi(lua (Ji. ii. 127-130), Nigrodllamiga
(Jii. i. 145153), Mahlikapi (Jii . iii. 3691'., no. 407) . The
slory of Maluikapi referred to by B. in IX.31 is the story' from
Jii. v_ 0774 nod is also referred to by Upa.
In thi3 way the yogciV(lC(lTa should reBect upoo the virtues
practised by the Buddha. in his post lives.
(ii ) By reBecting as to how the Blessed one pull ed himself
out {of the mire of this world.)
The yoga1.acara reBecUl how the Buddha (while he was still
II. Bodhisllttll) left his wife Ilod child, father, mother a.nd other
relatives, aod in search of the peaceful lIibban6-, went 10
Magadha country, cro8l!ed the Neranjarii river, went to the Dodhi
tree, deleated Mdra. and his army. In the fint part of the
night, he recalled his pest life, in the middle he attained tbe
Diviue Eye, and in the last he destxoyed lamudaya
reached the im'mortal etate (amatadhtuu), cultivated the eight
angae of the Ri ght Path and experienced the destruction of the
1. Of. Mvy. 914-923 .... bere ten .. . ro mantioaed, but tha
list dOOl not Iltroo with this i n IU ;14 eon.tituonta. Also seo B.D. p. 167_168.
Also Of. the list in Chin. Dha. (V.) pp. 24, 121 which agreet with tbe list
in M1'J'.
2. For the Chin_ chllracten for thia "ll"ord _ Mry. 8708. See
J atahmlli, .tories nOi. 4, 20; also no. S for A ... See
in the Ohin_ "o",'on, N.njio, 1312.
3. P.T.S. edition of the Vis. i. p. 303 refen! inlldvertontly to J l.
iii. 369ft.
.... ""i. viil. "j
(iii) By reflecting UpOll tho dbawmaviseso.s' lkalyu(la.-
dham'1llil of B. IX. 1241 atto.ined by the Duddba.
(a) Dasa Tathagatabalimi: the Bame as given in M. i . K.C.
(b) Bu,drJ,11.(I,11dl.UJ.pafil1i1: tho last fonrteen K.C. of the seventy.three Uiil.lall given in Fa. at
the end of the [Pa. i. 3. 1
(c) AHhilrasa Budi1hadham7lla' :
1. AtftM!US Buddhaua BJUlgatJato
2. All-iigata7"{"8S
3. Pllccuppaw
4. Sabba7TI
tt a7/1.
5. Sabba7TI vacikammu1l\
G. SabbfM9 l1wnoko.mmll'l!l
7. Natthi ehanWasla halfi.
8. N atthi viriyal$a hlilli .
9. Natthi satiyd hiini.
10. lI'atthi samijdl';$.fa hani.
11. Natthi p{l1iiiaya hdni.
12. Natthi vim.uttiyd hiini.
13. Natth'i dvedhayitaCta.1]t.. 1
14. Natthi 1'at!ci. last
15. Natthi {kille-il [lla/!-SlUl .] . eu: are ex-
16. Natthi Mvd . r plained by
17. NaUhi bydvatamano. Upa ..
18. Nattlti (lppatisankhdnupskkhd. J
(d) Caltari veMiraiiii'lli, cattari , atipaHltanani, ea/ta-
,a7lLmappadhdnall i, ca.ttal'Q iddhipiida, paii ca
indriyani, pariea balani , clUl abhi7ind, latta.
!amvojih.a1lgani, atlhangikQ magg.o, aHha aMi
1. Cf. Vis. lX. 124: Eval!l paromiva pU.,.d,,1i !I<lva d(1llJbol/a
catlul elUl'fljj(1ch(l...(UddMro!lail<l!IG..afliLdr'fllCl-lJuddhadhammappabntd e robbe
pi paripUrenti . B. daes nat enumerate them. Also cf.
Vis. (tawarda the end of Chap. IX) which gives only si:o:
Ill idhiraQu.iiil).as and eighteen Buddhadhu.mmaB; 119129, 131.134,
2. This list is also given in Vis. tQwsrds the end of the cam.
ment on Chap. I X. Also of. Mvy. 135-153; Chinese Dharmassngraha,
A,tddu.4,he!lik4 XLI (pp. 34 & lIS). The wording in the latter
is Qllite different .
bll(iyatall<:ini, aHha vimokkhti, nava anupubba-
lamll.pfJttiyo, dala arlyavd.ta, dal4o.Iavakkliaya-
bald-ni, avo.,/?J/l; co. anda ku,aladha?n7na.
(iv) Dy rellecting thal the Blessed One did a great good to
the world, that be, having compasaion upon the
people, turned the 'Vbeel of the Law, opened t he gatea
of deathlessness (ama!advdra), tbat he made innumer-
able goda and men reach the Illln()ii1iaphala, that by
the three' kinds of miracles (pati1,driy() he made the
people entertain faith, opened the 8ugatis, preached
thc Pitimokkha and so on.
Dy reflecting in these four waya, the mind of the yogalJo,-
cara aUains faith, becomes free from distraction, and the
j hii.oangas ari se.
Upn. ngrecs with B. VII. 6il. iu saying that by this reflec-
tion upon the Buddha, the mind does not reach appana. but only
Upa. concludes this section with a remark, "Fur ther it is
said Iby someJ that by reflecting upoa the Buddha eve n the
fourth trance is reached."
B. does not give aoy commcnton the wor d Dha-m'ma. Upa's.
comment 00 the same ' ~ o r d is worth noting,. Here it is:
Dhammo ti nibban&l1l , nibbii-nag4minJ patipadd ca.
Kd nibbdnogdminJ patapad<i? Cattliro latipaHhdnd, cattll r.()
lam1n4ppad114I1d" cattdm iddmipJd.d" indn-iydni, panca
balan.i, latta ,ambojjlia.ngdni, aH}14> samma maggan9d11li. aya1.n
'Vticcati nibbdnagdminf pafjpadd .. '
Kit!' ntbbdnaJ!lo'
N.O. SabbMaltkhdrammatho, Jabbupadhi-p.ati-niuaggo, taJ.lhak-
MIhYo, virdgo, nirl)dh:o, nibbtilla1,ll.'
Upa. II! usual giTeS the lakkhal]4, ra,a, etc .. He mentionB
dhammavicaya as its rata. The anisal"flsa! are the Bame a8 those
of Bud4han.ullati.
1. See D. i. 212 (lIth lutU, para. 3), Mvy. 231-34.
2. Thie COrT_PODda to IDUotilf1.1D l1odhipo.kkhiyodlLamm4 of B.
XXII. 33-39.
3. This i. identical with the passage 011 nibh4na1l\ in S. i . 136, A.
ii. 118.
Upa. like B. takes the following text for the exposition of
the subj ect:
Svdkkhdto nhagava/d dliammo la1ldiUhiko akdliko elli1j(J., vu. 68.
,jkfl paccatta1Jl> 1!edita-bbo 1!i1iii.uhi.
The comment on the words of this passnge is in mauy plnces
different. For instance, the comment on the word mndiHhiko
is: magganaiiJ ca pllaldlllm ca a1Iupubbddhigomatta., nibb611GUa
ca Tllaggaphalanaii. ca lacchiki:riyd-ya ,an<UHhiko, which is
quite different from D.-s comment on that word given in VII.
7679. Similarly the comment on the worus: ehipauiko paccoJ-
ta.7po 1Jccitabbo lli1i1ilihi is different oltllough the words corres
ponding to B.'s chi paua are met wi th hero.
Upo.. goes into several olher (letails as to how Due should
reHect upon the Dham.11Ia.
'Vhen the yogiu;acara thus reHects in this way, hi s minu
d6\'elops faith, becomes free from distracti on, destroys hindran-
ces, and the factors of trance gradually arise in him and tile
upacara-IamMhi is reacbed.
The rest is as has already been said ill the Bud-dltd1Ull!ati.
often dill.
Upa. , as usual, explains the woni ,a.."Jgha and gives the VII. 89-100
ra l a, etc. As a text lor his es:position, Upa. takes
a. pnunge which is almost the same as is quoted in VII. 89 by
B. from A. iii. 286:
Bhaoavato 4iit'aka'(UlfJ"o, lIjupatipanllo .... .
an-uttrQ.ra1,n pu;h'iakkhstta?!' lokalla.
The comment geoerally agrees with that of B. although,
here and there, it differs. Upa,'s interprotations of the word
are many more than that of B. The COlDment
on dhu1J.syyo, pdhu1}8yYU is very concise.
Upa. explains these terms and givC9 their 1'(Wa,
etc. The texts taken lor their exposition are the same pa5lages
lrom A. iii. 286-87 aa are quoted by B. io VII. 101, 107, 116,
respect.ively. Upa. givos no comment on the last two passages
and even in his comment on the first, UPIl.. differs considerably
from D. Tbe latter is more prolix and scholastic.
VII. IOI. 118
N.C. At the end of the sectiou on Devattinlluati a point is rai sed
as to why we should r"flect upon the merits of gods and not
upon the merits of meu. Upa.'s answer is, "because the merit s
of gods are superior, lead 10 s uperior heavens and excellent
states. By dwelling upon excell ent eta-tes, one's wind becomes
excellent. So we should reflect upon t he meri.t .. of gods and
uot upon those of men."
'f he rest is as is sa.i d before.
[Bk_ 1.1.4-1.19a,9; Tak. 429c--4353. Cr. ViII. VIILH5-244. ]
the firllt placl) it is to be nol el! that. Upa. lakell this section before
the lIectio1l5 HO and ko.yogoMsati, which even accord-
ing to the order in which they are mentioned in the chapter on
kammaHMna,1 precede andpdll(Uoti. Another thing to be noted
ill that in this section Upa. uses throughout the words dn-phan.
1B. the Chinese tran!literntion 01 the word dndpdna
although he hall used It A above, in the list given in the
chapter on kammatthanaa (p. 38, Vim. 3.6a.6.)]
As usual, Upa. e.:s:plains the word anci1}(ina nud giv('s the VIU.
lakklUJ.ryt., TaJa, etc. 'While giving the he mentions 238-44
several, whi ch are gi. en in B. in VIIL2-38-244., particularly
the passage from M. ii i. B2 quoted in VIIL239. Tho worde VIII . 239
catMri , atil)aH/uin8 pariplireti ... . . poripltTcti
are fOlmd word word.
The cuUi. alion of thill reflection is described substantiall y VW. Jol5
in the sarno words from S. \'.322 quoted by B. in VIII. 145 :
ldha, bhikkhalJ8, bhikkhu armhlogato va rukkhamilfagato V(i..
patiniuaggarrmpauJ pomuiwimi i i ,iJ.khati.
' Vh.ile commenting on the first. part of the passage, Upa, like
D. goes into many details of the practice or breathing, as to
how one IIhould direct one' s sttcntion to the tip of the DOlle or
t.he (upper] part or the lip, and that ooe should note the breath
ings onl y as they to1lch the body and not before or arter. The
1. See p. 38.
2. Thll 1I""Ord though dropped here {1.1I .JJ i, given I .. ter in tbe
tad (1.7.8.].
quotation from Ps.i. 165 given by B. in VIIL197 is given by
Upn. in au abridged fCJnD. in 7.2.8-9. So also, the simile of
a saw (kako:ca) gi l'en by B. in VIIL20l202 is given by Upa.
In 7.2.5-6 in au abridged form.
VIn.214-16 'Vhen the yoga1!(J.C(lr(l has purified his mind from niue'
upakkiles8a the l)o.#blul!)a-nimiUa appears. Regarding t-he sp-
pearanoc of this nimitta., we find a very interesting passage,
which corresponds to B,'s statement [VIII.214J: ttllapicu viva,
viitadlulra 1)iya co. upaHhiiti ti ekaccc" dhu. Upn. al80 further
refers to the appearance of the as dMi71li1sikhii, l1aliihaka-
ratala, and as what corresponds to pamanga-JUeta and daru-
Jiir{/.J!lci of B.VIII.215.
Graduall y, by practising this breathing, one's miud becomes
f,'ee from nivaraJ;las, and the trance is attained. All tIle rest has
been a!ready described in detail.
And again, former teachers have mentioned four' ways of
VIII. 190 (i) to count numbers from one to.ten and not
beyond ten; or to count from one to five and not
beyond five. [ef. B. VrII.190.]
VIII. 100 (ii) Anubandhand : explained in exactly the same words
as are used by B. in VII!.196:
nama pati8G1!Iharit1Ja 3atiya
(ii i) '[hapana: to direct the attention to t he point where
the wind of the breath touches the t ip of the nose
01" the lip.
(i v) Sallakkhat}<"i : to reflect upon the nimitw and produce
from this piti, 8ukha and ot her dharomns.
Ups . al so gives another alternative interpretation o all these
four words.
VIII. 1,3 While commenting on the wonl $ikkhati, Upa. reer& to the
three sikklllh, adhietlA:uikkhii, adhipa11f!dJikkhd
and gives a passage which is identical with B.'s passage
[VIII.173J: yo t'd tathabhtit.aJJa 3011l1Jaro, . ..... bahulikaroti.
In his comment on ptJ.$8a1nbhaya11l
...... eoo., Upa. following Patisambhida. expl ai ns kdya.sankMra as
1. Upa. doel not tell UI which theSl) nine are.
2. Duawillapaia CQwmeuting on the word ekacce simply BaYS:
4.:aTi]14 [Bllrm6l!e edition p. 305).]
3. Of. B. Vlll. 189 where eight are mentiolled.
audJapauilsa. ,Ve can al so trace in Ulla. a pallS3ge \.hat cor- "Ill. 181
responds to tIle synonymous worlIs UIIa7Ualla, villa11lami ... etc.
given by B". in VIII.lSl aa quoted trom Ps.i. 1848G.
In his comment on pitipatisa1!Wedi., Upa. uses words which "HI. 226
correspond to B.'s d",ihi akarehi. pIti IJl1tisal.nvidiW ltoti.;
ca lurunmohato ca. (lVIII.22G.J
Upa.'s comment on citttuankhurapatisa1]'l1:edi, tusa.JiU1?lmi ti
... paua7llbhaya1Jl cittala7lkhiira1Jl roughly agrees with thal given
by B. in VIII.229-30. But that on cittapa#laJ!lvem, abhip-
pamodaya7!l- titta7!l-, citl6l1t hIlS nothi ng correspond-
ing to B., while that on vimocaya1?l citta7!l- differs considerably
CromB.'s comment.
Upa., while commenting on mmocaya1?l- citta1?l saya thnt it
the yogdvacara while practising the inhaling or exhaling finds
his mind dull, he frees it Crom dulness; if he finds it distracted,
he frees it from distraction; if he finds it elated, he Crees it
from raga: if he finds it low in spirits, he frees it rrom hatred
(dola); if he finds it impure, he frees it from upakkil esns.
Further if be finds that his mind does not take del ight in the
arammat!a., he makes it take delight in it. (When we compare
this comment with that given by D. in VlII.233, we find thnt
B.'s comment is more artificial and scholastic, while that of
Upa.. is much simpler and more natura1.]
The comment on anicconupasrl ............ . patiniuQggilrw.pau!
tultuiuomi also differs considerably from that of B. (VIII.
Of these sixteen ways of cultivating the (as ex-
preMed in the quotation which forms the basis for the whole
exposition of this subject), Upa. agrees with B. (VIlI.237j in
saying that the first twelve constitute 6amatha and vipauand,
while the last only l.ltpasland.
Ups. again gives the passage from M.iii.82, quoted by B.
in VIII.239, showing how the cultivation or olldpilnasa.t4
fulfills the four IIstipaHhinas ......... the culti"\"'ation of the &even
factors of enlightenment (,amboiihangilllf) ful fllls v,:jjavimu.tti.
Upa. makes another important remark that by cultivating
the seven ractora of enlightenment, l.lijjd is perrected at the
moruent of reaching the Path, while the -vtmutti is perfected at
the moment of the attainment of the Fruit.
A point is raised as to why this dndpJncuati is ualled 'lJitakka-
uPQCcheda.. The answer roughly corresponds to B.'a VIII.238.
There is, however, in additi on interesting simile or 0.
V11 1. 229-00
I .
VIlL 233
"Ill. 239
VIII. 238
r ..
YlfI. 1-41
VIII. 41
[CHAr. VII1. 4
oandhabba who bearing ony souud r uns after it. l'iwkka,
l ike a oandhabba, runs after objects and therefore ought to be
banished.' Vi!al,,""-u.paccheda is also illust rated by the atten-
tive state of the mind of a man who is walking on 0. Cnarrowl
28. [Bk. 7. 8.6-1. 11a.9; Tak. 431c-432c. Cf. Vis.
Upa. defines the word maTlltlll dYlUankltdr(JJ$a upaccheJo'
and gives as usual the lakkhfJI.l{J., Tala, etc. He gives iinisa!
many of whi ch are the same in sense-though different in
those given by B. in VIII.41.
'Vllile speaking of the way of cultivati ng the practice of
Upa. says that a man should always think of the
death of other beings and reflect that, like others, he also is
subject to dea th, and has not gone beyond it. In this connection
Upa. refers to Nieh-ti-1i-po-tho-shiu-to-lo bl: AI lIB.
which so.ys: " If a man wants to reflect upon death, he shoulcl
reflect upon n dead person and see the cauae of hia death."
This reflection upon death is of four kinds:
(i) With sorrow, a& ,"{'hen one's beloved child dies.
(ii) With surprise, as when a child all of a sudden dies.
(iii) With indiffereuce as ""hen a corpse-burner (chava-
i/aholco.) looks at II lifeless body.
(iv) With insight )-To consider all things ns
impermanent and to produce disgust for worldly
things (ni bbida).
Out of these, thl;! 1/ogch:a.cara should cultivate tho l ast.
Dt-at h is of three kinlls:
(i ) Sodharatl(lrllUlMl.IO (;'$ it 1, to which all livi ng beinga
are subject.
(ii) Samuccheda-mara.1Ja., as that of the kilesas dest royed
by an A.rhat.
(iii) that of the dankhii.rns which ceaee
to exist cvery moment.
Also, it is of two kinds:
(i) Akdlika : If a man diee hefore he reaches t.he middle
age, either becauae of his own effort, or bec8we of
others, because of di sease or without any cause.
1. That i. loow I interpret it JI is, h""'ever liable t'l dill"erent
dill"erent punctuation. '
2. Or. Vii. VI Il. 1: ,kabhntrnpriydpann.aUIl j'vi!indriVOUIl upacchtdo.
3. 7.8&.4-; Tak . .fS1c.22-23. See p. 62 above.
ell"L'. VILl. 4]
AKUSSA'ri \:0
(ii) Kiilika : IC a m;l.U dies, because lile has come to an
end, or because of old age.
011 both of these the yogiiuawra 6hould reOect.
Moreover, former teachers have prcscribed eight ways of
refl ecting upon death: [B. also gives eight, which are mostly
the stUlle except nos. i i & vii below].
(i) VadllakapaccupaHhiiflalo. Que should think that VIIL 9.13
one is being pursued by death just as a man who
is being l ed to tbe post of e:s:ecution al ways sees
thnt he is being {ollowed by the executioner.
(With this COmpal'i! n. VIlI.9.13, where
13. is more elaborate auti gives lUauy morc
illustral iOlla.}
(ii) .4. hira7.lato. 'Without any cause or lucaos that would N.C.
prevent death from comiug; jU3t as wheu thc sun
aud the moon arise there is uothing to prevent
them from setting.
(iii) v.J.;$: -n, by referring to persons of the past time. \'lH. 16-2-&
[Thia corresponds to
VIII.16.24.] The great peuonages mcntioned
here below have all died:
(a) Great kings like Mahli.sudassana and lJi g! I VllI. 17
IiBVIII.17) .
(b) Oreal personages with DliraculoU8 powers Jike
Ve88ii.mitta nnd Yama!nggi (00 lSI jl who dil:f.
could emit fire lind water from their body.
(c) Grent disciples like Sitripultn nud MoggalUiull. VllI. 21
(d) Paccekabuddhss.
(e) Tathignlas.
VHI. 22
1. lhy. 8557 gival l{urdbatal;l rorrespoudi "g w Tibetan
Spylbo-Skyes wbich i! explained by S. O. Du in hi8 Tibetan
Dictionary p. 807 &I 'an epithet of King Mindbitl, '" legendary anccetor
of Oautama Buddha.' Apttl'. Dictionary gil'eII the following information
about MindhUr-Name of a king of the Solar race, 50n of YuvaniJ,..
(being born from hi.. own belly). All. aoon a. h, came out of bi.l own
belly, the "gel l\Ilid: ko"," t ill whereupon Indra came down
a!ld r.:: id: m"", ::!hd.:OtOti. The boy Will therefore called Mindhitr.
2. For these names _ D. i. 101, 23S-43; A. b'. 61.
[I. 21-28
[1. Z7
:I. 84-38
]. 2(-83
I. "
(iv) [,ef . B.VIII.25-26.] That the
possession of the body is to be shared
with others like vdla, semlia, worms, food and
drInk not properly digested, poisonnus serpents.
centipedes, liona, tigers, leopards, dragons, oxen ;
because when attacked by thClm the body succumbs.
(A part of the quotation from A.iii.36 given by B. in
VIII.26 is clearly traced in this passage.]
(v) AYlldubbalato . (Slightly different from B.VIII.
27-28.1 The life of beings is weak tor two reasons :
(a) Because the place or the abode (referring
thereby to the body) is too weak, unreal, un-
substantial, like n. bubble, or fon.m of water.
(b) Because the nW3aya ( .fli ) on which it de-
pends is weak. We find in almost Bimilar
words, though in a different order, the words
in the passage given by B. in VIIL27, begin
ning with the words aJsii..sapaJSiiJiipanibaddho.7F'-.
(vi) AddlulnaparicchedaJ:4. [Cf. B.VIlL 34-38.] It is
interesting to note that Upa. also says here that
from times ancient, people ha,e come into exiat-
ence rand gonel. Now no one lives past hundre<.J
years. (B. in the same connection limits thB
periud of time to present days by adding the word
[The long passage from A.iii.305-06, quoted by B. in VIII
36-37 appears here in a slie-htly abridged form. )
(vii) Ani1llittal.o. Because it hS2 no nimitta thl;!re is no
fixed time. {? Not quite clear.]
(viii) K1UJ."!ato. Upe. refers to a passage from the Abhi-
dhamma, which corresponds to that quotE'd by
D. in VIlI.39.' Escepting the second VE.' rse of
the three verses and the last quarter of the third,
the whole passage is the same.
In this way nibbidli is produced, mind becomes free from dis-
traction, and the trance is reached.
A small paragraph is added about the distinction hetween
anicc(J..JQ.li77a and mara"!usati.
1. Thill pnsage is traced to Nd.l.42.
" .... r " .
has, tor its object, the coming into and IHIMing N.O.
out of e..:isteoce of the khandhas, while concerns it.-
self with the disintegration of the indriyu. Dy the cultivation
of the anicca.lQltrid and anatuuarUiii, one removes prido and
egoisln, while, by tile cultivation of the 7naTal.l(l.I"ati, aniccaS(lJhld
and Jul.:k1l(Uaij,l14 become firmly establiehcd.
Dy the cessation of life mind ceases (to exist.!
Upa. as usual gives the explanation of the word !.:dyagatdlati VUI. H4
as reflecting on the nature of the body and also Jrives the p .
TaJa, etc. He gives Ihe linillal]lSIIS mau.y of which
C<lrrespond to giveu by D. in VIILH4. Upa. also includes
among them aniccaJwllM, auattasaihM, cHubhasaniiil and ddl-
IlaV(lIanl1cl. ' Vhen Upa. comes to the text giving the method VIII. 44
of cultivating this reflection, he gi\"es the same list nf the thi rty- id.
two paru of the body liS is quoted from M.iii.90 in Vis. VUI.44.
Upa. gives those different ways of reflecting upon this text VIU. 48
as are given by B. in VIIL48. He also adds that a dOS(IC4rita
should reflect upon the a rdgacarita upon the disgusti ng
nature lof the body], and a. pai!.ndcarita on the dhlltu!. In thi e
way he produces the nimitta.
Further he should reBect upon the natl!re of the body in the N.O.
fcHowing th.irleen ways:
(j) BijalQ. As from a poisonous seed are produced N.C.
different kinde or grass, such nil kUla, so this body
is produced from the impurities of the father and
mother nnd 80 it becomes impure.
(ii) Thanato. This body is not produced from among XVI. 37
flowers, or lotuses, but in the narrow place of the
womb, which: is an abode of many slinking im-
purities. This corresponds to Do's description 01
the womb from which a person is born, as giveu
in Vis. XVI.31.
(iii) P(I!;ooyaw. This bod.v, however taken care of, will
never be regarded WI precious like gold, silver,
pearllt, etc. or like cancJana or tagara and so on;
because it receives its nourishment from the im-
puri ties in the womb of the mother.
(iv) NiJJand/Jtq. Like a QI1g' full of leBoes and urine, this :Xl . 22-23
body is always lellking through the nine olJeninga. p.ll..
XI. 56
"III. 101
VI. 90
[With this compare B.XI.22-23. especiall y the
last quarter of the stanza in para. 23, navadvarehi
(v) t). 3I'c 10 *,. The form in succcssive times. Upa..
refers to the first four stagea of the growth of the
foetus by the names of kalala, abbuda, pe$i,
ghana, Bnd further traces the growth of the foetus
from week to wcek up to forty. two weeks' when
the child i8 In the twenty nintb week the
body is equipped with ull the limbs. Upa. . also
ugrees with B. 'e navantlutiyu
(vi) Kimiku/aUJ. Upa. refers to eighty thousand" kimi
kulas, while B. mentiOllS only eighty. [VIII.25.J
It is interesting to note Upa. gives II. long
list of the names of different worms residing in
different parts of the body.' They seem to be all
transliterations of Indian names. For instance,
a name like can be traced here.
(vii) J.!;1 How one bone is placed in relation to the other.
This agrees with B.XI.55.
(viii) Kaldpata. This is in substantial ngreement with
B.VIII.IOI except that according to n. there are
throe hundred bones in the human body excluding
the thirtytwo teeth, while according to Upa.
tbere are three hundred including the thirtytwo
(Il:) hf}tlcchcmaw 11Both these paragraphs roughly cow's
pond to B VI 90 J Rov; ever one may
try to decorate the body "WIth goou
clot/llng or by smeanng It wlth scents,
1t never gives up it-8 character or OOlOg
(x) d $ubhato uupure.
1. For dlltaill! 600 my artic\II 'UnidentifieJ Sourcs of thll Vimutti.
magga' published in thll Annals of thll Bhandarkar Oriental RlI60arch
lnetitute, Poona, vol. XV, paru IIIIV (1934) P. 211. Aiao _ Appendi .. A.
2. See Sik. p. 81: (lfTtim- krimikula.roh(l&rol" n; tiltha .. t, " .. tare;
p. 129: $anti (l&min kdye alft;/). krimikula.salia&r4!,i.
Thll namN in thi$ list of .... orme do Dot agree with the list found in
the Atharva. ... eda, Bk. II. hymm 31-32, Bk. V. hymn 33, nor with the li8t
found in Indian meoiical 1'I'() riis lik" Sutnta, Caraka, etc.
8. See Appendix A .. here I am r e-producing, .... ith the n_ary
cor rections, a substantial part of the article referred to above in Dote 1.
(:s:i) Nidh411aw. It is the &eat of many di lieases and there
are innumerable "'lingers (mwft la-adinavd) in the
(3ii ) Akatali fi uw. It is like an ungrateful relative. HoW' - N.C.
soever one may take care of the body by feeding
it l\ith the most delicious food, it is 6ur6 to leave
one and go towarde old age nnd deatb.
(3iii) Sa-pariyan!ato. It ie sure to come to an end either
by being cremated or buried, eaten up, dest.royed,
or disintegrated.
'Vhen the yo{Jii1!acara hiM! thus refl ected on the nature of the
body, his mind becomes free from distraction, the nivaraI;las
vanish and the factors of trance arise.
(The whole of thi s section on KliyaOatihati. differs wi dely
trom that in Vis. Upa. docs not go into the detailed e:rplanation
or the thirty-two parts or the body. But he gives a detailed list
of the names of different worms inhabiting the diD'erent parh of
the body.,
Upa. explains the word upa.sama 08 iil jana- Dill.
vipphalldalla-nirodha. He also gives as usual tIle raJa,
When he comes to tbe he gives enctly the ssme YIn. 251
08 are given by B. in Vis. VIU.2Sl. The method of cultivating
this reflection is to think UPOIl the anisslpsa8. We do not here
find the paSoiage taken by B. 9S R te1:t ror his exposition. It ia
n great fortune to aee, or hear the Law from, a monk who i& des-
cribed 8S dUuampa:nllo, .samadhilampa:nno, prui.iiU..lampa:nno, N.C.
virnutti.!aFl1lpalHW, I n thia re-
flection, if n man attains the first trance, he reflect.! upon that
8spect 01 the- trance which has been abandoned by him
(pahd1UJ1l{Ja), that is to aay, the nfva1'OlJOJ; in the second trance
on the tlitakka and tl i cdra, and so on, up to 8fJii.if(i..vtidayim-
flirodha. So also it he haa reached the Sot.6pateipluua he thinks
upon the cessation of some kilesas; if he has attained the Second
Fruit, he thinks upon the ceM)ati on or the o!drika-kiJmardga-
paeo,l"a and 80 0'1. 'tVhel! he !'eache! arhelship. he thinks of all
the kilesae which he has destroyed. When he attains nibbdna
he thinks of the cessati on of 311 things by upaJamdmmoti.
IX. 37
VIMUTIIMAGGA [011.1.1'. nl!. 4
In this way he produces faith, has hia mind free froll\ distrac-
tion, destroys nivarnJ,l.1l8 and {he trance-factors appear . He
attain! the upac;ar<uanuldhi.
Upo.. adds in which he gives a. summa ry in a
sentence each of the mode of cultivating the fint six aDUMatia.
131-34 APPAMAlI'lI'AI
(lBk. 8.1.5-8.23.5; Tali:. 4350.-4390.. cr. Vie. Chaps. I X & XII
31. METU. (Bk. 8.1.5-8.8a. 1O; Tak. 4350..-1431. Cf. B.I Xth
Up3. el:plains the word mee!d in this way. J ust an father
and mother hal'e affection for their only child, have always
friendly feelinge for it. and have the good of the chil d at their
heart, &0 one should love all beings and desire their weHRre.
This ia muM.' He 0.180 gives the lakkha1J.(J" r<ua, ele. He men-
tione eleven iinis3!psas- which are exactly the same lUI are given
in the quotation from A.v.342 given b.y B. in IX.S1.
Before one 8tarts the cultivation 01 thie metw .. one should
firet see the disadvantages in .ill-will (dola) and the advant3ges
in forbearance (khanti) . (Cf. Vis. IX. !' ]. Unli ke D. who
merely relete to &ome paastlges giving the disadl'lllItagea and
advantages, Upa. goes into all the details of these, showing how
one should see the disadvantages of (lo,a and advanlagea or
khanti. He refers to the simile of a saw (kakaca) referred to by
B. in I X. I S, and further BOme beautiful to illus-
trate how, if one goell on cherishing ill-will, one would be like
(i) a man who wishes to take a bath but entera unclean
and impure (waterJ.
(i i) a physician himself suffering fronl II.
(iii) a painted vase full of impurity but still uncol'ered.
(iv) 0. man who eats poi&oned !ood oeliberalel,.
(v) a man. who does not UBe, even when bitten by 0. ser'pent,
the antidote against poison which he carnes in biB
Upa. also give! the delnila of the ndvantages of khan- ti.
Re agrees with B. in eaying that when one starts culti-
vating wuttd, one ehoulJ not atart with an enemy or a neutral
1. Of. Su. ltaUt.a1 149-150.
Gnu. Vill. 6) 79
person but with oneself. Then gradually he should proceed to
ODe who dear, Ol1e who is neIJ.i.ral and l natl y an enemy. It is
illteresting to Dote that while Upn. gives a list of good thi ngs
which one may wish everyone to posseh, he mentions the eleven
advantages referred to above' and, slilong other thinge, adds
birth in the Middle-Country (mo;;1Iimade'lIpa.opatti), weeting
good people (lappurisa), freedom from (Jj scase, long lite and
1Iicca-Juklulvi1wra. These additional thing!! we do not find in B.
He way also wish to destroy it they hal"e already N.O.
arisen in him, and not to allow them to arise if they have not
yet arisen. Similarly, it the kusaladhaIDmas have al rendy not
ari sen in him, he should endeavour to make them o.rise and
should culti" ate them it they have already arisen in If
be can have the feelings of mettd l or n maHhatta, then for
IIOrne time he should wait and try to fi nd out defects in him-
He IIhouId be uhamed of himselt. He should ssy that the
Buddha practised mettij even upon his lme1ny, while he himself
can not practise even upon a neutral person. He should think
or his good qualities only, 8S when one takes water, one remove9
dirt l rom it and then takes it. Then he goes into seversl netaile
of the waYlI and meanl! to remove ill-will, among which we find
the mention of kammauakata referred to by Bo in I X.23,24,
and d4nasa1!lvibhdga referred to by B. in IX.39.
Upa. also refers to the Jimas(J.1Pbheda ment ioned by B. in
I XAO. Gradually he extends the feelings of fricudline3s to all
people in one direction, then to those in the second, third, nnd 80
on, to the whole world. He gives tbe Borne passnge from
Vi bhanga p. 2j 2 as is quoted by B. in I X.44. Similarl y Upa.,
like B. (IX.b) 6nys that it should not be practilled upon a deRd
person bec&.use there the i tselC is lost Rnd 80 metta can
not be produced.
Upa. next deala with the following quest ionl!:
(i) ki"'1fl mi;w17l-' (ii) ki11' (ii i) kd Jam.- NO.
patti' (iv) ka mpatti' (l") ki-I!l dTam.motla1Jl-'
In answer t o the first question be gi ves five things: alobha,
adola, amlJlw. , f'Jga and,ikiiTa. Although B. relers 93
t o the next three questions in IX.93, his n:planations are quite
1. See paea 7B.
2. See Vbb. S5-3B; l'i . XIV.IB. Vim. 9-&. 1.
different from those of Upa. In answer to the last,. Upa. says
that a satta is the hut he is careful to add t hat in the
strictest sense, there is no satta (paramattlwto sat/;{) 1I(ima fla
vijjati no labbhati) but only that wldch is conventionally called
by the world satta.
IHera 1IOW follows n digression to which n. has nothing
corresponding in the V is. 1
N.C. In order to cultivate ?Mttu for nIl Leings, the lluddha. while
IX. 103
he was n 130dhisatta practised the ten parami tas ot aana., lila,
'iekkha1a111a, pal,tia, 'li iriya, klw.nti, sacca, mettd and
He refers to the four adl.litthii nns' which are accolllplised by
the fulfilment of the ten paramitas. By the fulfilment of the
four he fulfilled samat/,a lind vipaualla. By the
fulfilment of Jmna.tha he fulfilled ali jhiinas, viruokkhllS, samii.-
dhia, samapattis, and Maluj_
karu"l}ii. saTl.aJhi .
By the fulfilment ot vipassalw he fulfilled all
abhiiiii.Us-, patisal!lbhidas, balaa and veBiirajjaa. As a perfection
of the he ful fill ed sabbanfitltafid"l}a.
Upa. concludes this section with 'et>ulll Bodll1'l attamal!(i!atto
,nella?)"1 bhavcitL'u allukka.71Icna bodhiTfl
l'l'his whole section contains much that is not fouud in B.
So abo there is much in D. that is not found here. As, for ins-
tance, Upn. gives no details such as odhiJO Q.lIodhiJQ
phaw1)'i I:tc., given by B. ill IX.4!)-52.j
[ilk. 8.9.1-8.10.2; Tak. 431a.--437b. Cf. Vis. IX.71-S3. J
Rere also IlS well as i ll the following two sections, the simile
01 the father !lnd mother looking at their only child with feelings
of compassion, delight and c.quanimi ty is used IO. n .IX.108]
to explain the words 7i7.udita and uptJkkhd. gives
as ubual the lakkM1Ja, raJa, etc., and Also in addition sampatti
and vipatti. Upa. agrees with B. in his statement about the
paccupatthdna only, whi ch accordi ng to both is vihi7[!Jd . The
o.nisalJlsas are the same as in metta. The order of the persons
on whom it is to be cultivnted in is the same, although
Upa. does not mention piyapuogaia.
1. Sacca, calla, upalllma .tnd pal\M; SCI; 1581-84.
2. Boo p. 29 anti note 2 On the same; IIlso StlC pp. 1)9100.
..... UJ
33. lIUDlT..l.
The ato.tement al1l.l.0at the same 0.8 in B.
?1. UPEKKH..l.
Upo.. gives the Tasa,ele. , which agree with what
B. gives in I X.96. 'rhea tllere is also a passage which gives the
8ubstance of B. IX.88: mettudistl rxlti1u(ldlwti/wcat1Ikkajihallcna
'VutPulya ... purimdJu diJ'IId . . . upek.
khiiya cl' dniJa'lllJa'lll diJvd... Similarly we can trace the e:xpre.s
sions from Vibho.nga 275 ekurr- 'PU99a1iJ1{l 'leva ?Illl1lapa1?l, nl'
amondlM1[l din:d quoted by D. in I X.88.
The order of persons, on whom it is to be cultivated in
succession is different in Upa. After 71wiillOtta, he takes veri
and then piyapu90u1a, while B. puts 'Vert 1118t (IX.89.) A fino
silllil t' is given for the 11pekklld which comea alter the first three,
metM, and mudiM. Just as a man. when he aees
relaii"a coming back lrom afar after a long sepa ration, rejoices
and pays attention to him, but later, when he has been in his
company lor $Orne time, he fails to pay the Slqne attention, and
gradually becomes indifferent; so the yoguvacara leaves the first
throo bhu.vanas and proceeds to the fourth.

(The whole discussion under thie heading ia very important
and very much corresponds to D.'a IX. l OS-tll the end 01 the
IXth chapter.}
One shouhl start with the cultivatiou or these appamaiiiih
with only one living heiag as the He may practise
them upon tiTacchdno,yoni, duniw, rlla1!on.ta, nibbi7)I](I.,
Idllaka, paccekabuddJw, and'TflbuddJUI.
A point is rai sed: why is it that the firal three bhiivania have
only the first three trances and not. the fOI'rth P The an.wer
is thnt the sufferings of produce byclpiida, ahi7!lId, aud
arati aud they have aa their appropriate remedy a mind with
l011U1I1(1..1IO and. so he practises mettd, kar1l1,ld IIUd. 1JW.ditd, and
therefore only the three trances are produced and not the lourth.
He also gives the argument referred to by B. in IX. UI, t hat
upekkhdbhlimi is the fourth ihana.
It is very interesting to Dote that here we find, as an alter
native view cr some, the Crom AUbakani pii;ta. (A.
I V. 300) quoted by D. in I X.I12, to prove to them
I X. 96
IX. 88
IX. 89
IX. 103124
LX. 711
lX. 112
the view that all the appamafiiiiis can have the fourth trance.
UI)a. Ilimply quotes the passage int roducing it with t he remark
'moreover it is said' and makes no comment at all .
I X. 108 Also another point is raised: why is it that these appamnniill
are just {our, neither three nor five? The answer is 'because
they are the pa/ipakkha of by(lpiidO-, viheJii, ara,ti and patuhii.
nU7Ul'ya', which are only four. With this compare B. IX.lOS.
The appamaiiihi.s have one lakkha7J.O- in so far as they are t he
opposite of the iidlllllV(lS, hav!'! living bbings as thei r drammal;la,
and have the thought of ldtaw,klm; but they have di sti nct
in tllat the patipakkha, and hitasuklia of
each nre distinct from those of the others. In this connection
I X. 1I9}23 Upa. also refers to the Yelloll'Garment Sutta ('Pi {I$ g; a
Ha!idda'l.aJumuutla) from which he the same passage (S.
v . 119 121) that is quoted b.y H. in IX. 119. Upa. concludes thia
6ection with the remarks all this passage which closel y agree
with B. IX. 120-123.
Xl. 117
. d .
XI. 81
dill .
XI. 86

I nk. 8, 13a. 9-8. 20a. 4; Tak. 438b. 25-440b. 13. Cf . B. XI.
27-to the end of Chap. XI ].
lIt is to be noted here that Upa. gives this section before
the section on tihii're papl.:l.:lllasofuia, just the reverse of the
order of B. III the list of the kammatthiinas mentioned by Upa.
earl ier' (4.68..29) they are mentioned in this !"sme order D8 is
foll owed by Upa. here.]
As usual, here also Upa. gives lokkhru.w, Ta.!a, etc. He
enumerates eight which lire almost the same as are
gi ven by D. in XI. 117, with t he p..xception th!lt i nstead of
mlfJpajjQ!l!/,o of B. , Upa.
gives iahati.
Like B., Upa. also treats this subject in two ways, sal'l khe.
palo, 1,ittMrato. (Of. B. XI. 2844 ann XI. 45ft'. 1. I n hie detail ed
Upa. followa the pas2agcs from ll. i. 1S5, 187, 188,
quoted by B. in XI. 31. Upa. does not COlUlnellt, as B". aoes,
on t he di ffi cult words of the passages, nor does he give a de.
ta il ed explnnatioll of t he thirty t wo parts of the body,
Upa. refers to the followi ng tenfold classificat.ion of the
former teachers, while B. gives a thirteen-fold classification but
does not refer to any teachers of the past. IE. XI. 86}.
1. See p. 38.
..... '" "'" ..... uu ..... v ."' ...... , ... ,,"'"
Dna should reflect upon the four dbiitus ill the
(i) Vacalwttflalo. T'II'o kinde of altha: ,(illullilia Ilnd XL 81
-vi,e,a nre given Rll in D. XL 8L This is further
cla3sifieu into
(a) JIloiwntapdtubM:mlQ. 'l'hi3 corresponds to D. XI. 97 and
XI. 97 and, in addit ion, we find in the verses
giyen b.y Ups. first of the first two veraes
and the third verse i n Vis. VII. 41 on(l the
firat verse in XI. 102. In these verses t here
i s also a reference to the scyenlh sun. (Cf.
Sattasuriyssulta, A. iv. 100-103.)
(b) Although these mahiibhiL tas a re not real, tlley
appear to be real. These mnil fl bh\itRll appear
as man, or 'II'oman, 10ll g or short, or as a tree
or a mountain. (ef . Vis. XI. 100 and the last
two lines of XI. 89).
(c) Just as a man po8Ile8lled by spirib becomes
either stiff or strong, light or movillg, so thin
body becomes.
XI. EO, 100
Xl. "
(d) Upa. gil'es the interpreta t ions of the words XI. 87
paehavt, apo, tejo, 'lJdyo and ahatu, which are
the same sa are given by B. in XI. 87. Ups.
goes into more details.
(ii) Kiccato ( v.L $ )_ This mentions the functions of each XI. 93
of the dhiitu5, corresponding to what U. 68YS i n XI.93 under the
rasa of each of thest'.
(i ii) Kaliipato. This corresponds to 13. XI. 88, ali hough XI. 88
lJ pa. goes into many more detai ls.
(iv) This corre6ponds to D. XI. 89. There is Xl. 89
a pauage which corre&ponds to hi farlr(l p,li.
ma.jjhi7rUJIIG pamd'Jena ... , though i t does not agree
with it in all the details.
(v) .4vinibbhogato. This partly corresponds to B. XI.
105. The <!xplr.oation ie more akill t o XI. 00-92.
(vi) Paccayto. This corresponds to XI. 111-12 t hough
there is a wide divergence i n details.
(vii) Ldlr.h(7)af.o. This corresponds to Vi s. XI. 93.
XI. 1M,
Xl. 1lI112
Xl . 9a
(vii i) This corresponds to XI. 106. XL 106
We can trace a passage that corresponds to B.'e:
parim6 dve garukatta l.abh6go., tathii pacchimd
, '"
(i.)l.:) Nrinattekattato. This correapond& to B. XL 95-96
and also includes B.'s classification of sangahatc
(XI. 108) Upa. adds much more to what is said
in Vi,.
(x) v.J, til f,. #. Li ke a wooden doll, like a puppet
that is painted, dressed up and worked by strings
within, our body. It is made of these four
great elements and stirred up by the wind-element
walks or slands, .goes or comes, stretches itself or
contracts itself, or speaks . The yogfl1:acara
realises that there is no lar.ta, no jtva, but merely
'Dawe and form', ' Vhen he has delimited 'name
nod form' he knows the 'name aod form' to be
suiYer ing, kool\"s craving (ta':thd) to be the cause of
suffering, its cessat ion t o be the cessation of suffer-
ing and the Eightfold Path to be the Path leading
to the cessation of suffering. Thus, he sees into the
Truths and sees danger in euffering. He hae
thoughts of dukkha and anattii. He sees
advantages into the cessation of suffering.
Upa. concludes this section thus: indriyuu, OOl6$1.!, bojjhan-
!JC3U 11.!I(l(lthito hoti. Sa'lkliarani1nittrl taua citta1!J. fJ14thahati,
IBk. 8.20.5--8.22.9: Tak. 4.40b.14---44la.lOj Cf. B.XL1.26. !
As usual Upa. gives the lal.k flalJa, f'a.fa, etc. He giVe! the
eight aniuQls88 whi ch are givell in almost the same worda a8
Bre ueed in n. XI. 26.
He must cultivate the reflection on the uisgueting nature of
t l!e food that he eab, the food ror which he has to go abollt.
selirching. He must rE'fl ect upon this paf,ikkillatJ. ill tbtl following
five ways: [Compare H. XL 5, where D. mentions te,:, waye. }
(i) W. iI -if (?bydprlf'at o). This seems to correspond
to gamanai6 and pariyesanato of B. XL 6-13.
For the sake of food and drink, a man has to do
many evil things. He has to l eave sacred places
and go for food throug!! dirty roads to towns or
Cu .. ,.. VIII . 61 NEV ASAN YA TANA
(ii) Parib/!o!Jaw. 'l'his cOl'respouds to Vis. XL '4J6. Xl. 1(..16
(iii) NidMlllato. cOl'fesponds to XI. 18. Xl. 18
(iv) This to XI. 22-23. XI. ZZ-23
though Upa. introduces lUuch that. is new. He p . .
compares the human body that is constantly oozing
out to 'a brokt'li jar in which wine is placed.' He
aho speaks olniuetY--lline IllousRud pores of hair.
Que part of tbis niuQllda ioi eaten lip b.y worms,
another is destroyed by fire, a third sustains the
body, a fourth is turned iuto urine and a firth into
the trunk of the body.
(v) (? accumulation). This seems to corres- XI. 21
pond to phalato of 13. XI. 21. Many eJ.:preasions
are substantially Hie same.
In thi s way when the yogin;acara has pract ised upon the
patikklilatd of "'Hjra, he is disgusted with food and gradually
his mind becomes free from distraction, vanish, trance-
factors appear and the upacdrojjhd7llJ is accomplished.
37 . .KIRCANJVAYATANII. } been already
des(mbed III the P6tIiavt-.
Upa. concludes with some verses whi ch arc not quite clear.
There is a mention or the name 0111 count ry culled Po-li-phu-to:
!#II pataiiputta.
Here end tbe Thirty-eight. R'ammaHhanas.
1. See pp. 56, .56.
XII. 232;5

IIBk. 9.1.5- 9.13a.3; Tak. 441a444c. Cf. Vis.
Chaptel"s XII & XUL]
'The YOf}uvacara having mastered sa7JUjdhi CRn prodllce in
the fourth trance fi\"e miraculous powetft (abhi1hi4):
(1) That of the body to lhe iddhividha of
B. XII. 2.
(2) That of tlle divine ear (dibba4ota) .
(3) '],hat of knowing the minds of others(paracittavijt'illalul).
(4). That of remembering past li\'es (zJubbe-nivdlt'i1umah).
(5) That of diviue eye (dibbacakkhu).
The miraculoWi power of the body means the power of
effecting cllange or transformation. Upa. gives the interpreta
tion of other miraculous powers also. 'fhen he seU! up the follow-
ing questions:
(A) How many kinds of the power of transormation or
iddhi are there?
(B) Who practises them?
(0) How can tlley be produced?
In answer to the questioll (A) Upa. mentions adhiHhil1!(l idclhi ,
vikubbOlIG iddhi, and manomayJ tddhi which. alone are meant
in this context, according to B. alllO (XII. 45). TIpa. al60 later
mention, the remaining seven iddhis as outl i ned by B. (XII.
26-44) from copious ilIu5irative estracU! from Ps. ii. 205-214
(iddhikathd). The explanation of thue closely follows thal of
Ps, which is generall.v followed by B. also. The explanation
of apiyJ iddhi is gil'Eln by Upa. in (ull following Ps. ii. 212-13.'
It is al60 worth noting that though Ups. gives geueralI.v all
the names mentioned 85 illustratioDs of t,hose perIODs who had
attained iddhis, we do not find in his work the Dame of Mel).qaka
in the list of names of persons given illustrations of pU1iifovat ...
iddhi. lis it because his name is included under the mention of
the pailca. Mah6pu1hld and 80 redundant?
1. AllO giveR in Pef. 218-233 (Dur. Printed Text 119-20).
CUAP. I X ] PASCA ADHIfI'f;I }i. 87
(B) Taking as the ninth or the fifth (kasi1).aJ, 1
one masters the iourth trance, or one attains the iourth
TupavacaTa trance with 80me disti nction, or one masters the
four th a second time and then one plactises these iddhis.
(0) In answer to the question as to how the iddhis call be
produced, Upa. gives the same passage irom P8. ii. 205 as is x u . GO
given by B. in XII. 50 : ldlla chandUrsamadhi - id.
p(J;(lhinla.sankMra.samul1Inagata1/l iddhiplidM[l- bh:aveti .. . . Upa.
comments on this passage also. 'Vhils commenting upon the
word viTiya he gives the fourfold iormula of right exertion as
given in Vibbanga 325-20, which is not given in this context
either in Fa. or in Vis. 'h8 comment gelldrally agrees with
that of B.
Upa. gi,es three amall separate sections to illustrate adhi-t-
fhiina iddhi, manomayd idJhi and v ikubba71ii iddhi. . He does
this by giving the relevent passages from Fa. ii . 207-211;
paragraphs 7.9. Upa . is as profuse as Ps. in the detailed des-
cription of adh.iHluina iddhi.
To illustrate the distinction between adhiHhaf1.ii idJki. and
vikubbana iddhi, Upa. says: adhiHhiinllya iddhiyd pakati-
appahaya adhi HlIll ti, vikubba1l.iiya idd/iiya pllkati-
vijah"ati .
Upa. a oman paragraph of paki1J7.IQ,kakatlul in which
he tens us that forms created by this miraculous
disappear at the end of the period of time Bet up previously
by the i dd/limii. If no such pe ri od i3 first delimited , then they
lJlay disappe!l.r a! SOOll us he thinks so. He also says that a man
created by this iddhi is without itvit.'ndriya.. As the aramma.
I).as of the irldhivi<Jha-fiat1o, he mentions nille:
parieta, mahaggata. na vat/abba;
aUta , amiigata. paccuppanna;
njjhatfa, bahidd.hll, ajilwttabal:iddhii.
B. in XIII. 105 mentions twel ve kinds of iirammanas, of
which he gives seven as applicable to tbis iddhivi&haiiiina
(XIII. 106). They are the aama 8S those given by Upa. with
the exception that B. does not mention flib '1!attabba and 105
aijhattabahiddlui .
1. See p. 90 belo,\".
XliI. 109
. d.
xnL 9
The lame questions as in the fi rst abhifhiU are set up. The
yogdvacara having attained mastery in the four iddhipadas
enters the fourth tmnce , graduully from it uud with
lli8 natural ear pays attention to sounds far aud u.ear , gross ot'
fine, in one or the other direction. By practising in tbis way
his mi nd gradually becomes pure nnd his ,otadJuitu. also
pure and thus is trnnsformed into heavenly ell.r with
which he can hear h.umnn aud superhumo.n, far and
nenr. Former teachers have said that this yoguvacara fir st
hears the sounds of worms residing his body. (Of.
sa..dehanilliMpiir)4kaJooda or D. XIII. 3). Then graduall y he
e:s:tends his sphere.
U pa. 1I1so pointe out another "iew according to which
this adikammika yog(ivacara cannot first hear the Bounds
or worms resi lli ng with in his body. He cannot hear t he fi ne
BOunds which cannot become tbe objects of his natural enr.
Upa.' s treatment is generally tbe Bame a6 D's, with BOrne
slight variations, as when be gives three iirammal,llls only,
paritta, paccuppal!1I.Q li nd bahiddha, while B. gives four addiug
aiihatea to t he tbree given here. (See D. XII I. 109. 1 Upa.
adds tbat if the natural ear is lost, the divine ear also is 101it.
One enn henr the souni! i n a thousand world-systems (lokad,lwell.),
the paecekabuddhas in still more, and the Tathagatas i n
couoll l!8S ones.
With mastery in the fourth trance with alokakol if.l(l, and
with the divine eye product'd, one knows the mind or olhe-n.
The yog(iMCara haying practised the four iddhipadlla aUains
mastery over bis mind and puri fies it, Wi th tJlokaka.:i1}a. he
altainll the fourth trance and gradually eUlCrgea rrom it. HII
pervades his body 'I"ith li ght, and, with the divine eye, seea
the colour of his mind or henrt, and knows its nature from the
If t here is ,omo.1lallindriya, the colour is like t hat or dadhi
or navullfta.
If there is c1.tnnanallindriyC!, the colour is purple.
If there is upekkhindriya, the colour is like that 01 hOl'ey.
If there is lobha, the colour i8 yelloW'.
Ir lhore is lhe colour is black.
If thore is mohfJ!, the colour is mu(lIly or turbid.
Ir there is saddha and the colour is ISJlotlessl pure
IVis. XIII. 9 mentions only the first tllfee cases of these and
hi s remarka are: nigrodhapaHaladi$(l7fl .
ia.mbupakk(uadi$a,fIo and pasannatilateiaJadisa7{l-. )
Having thus uuderstood the chauges of colour iu his owu
seH, he should pervade the bodies 01. others with light aud
uotice the colour of the mind or beal' t of others. Graduall y he
should leave the colours nnd know the heart il.gell. Then by this
practice he comes to know whether a mind is la-raga. or
vitaraga.ltvdola. or vitadosa, and 80 on. ICf. B. XllI. 11],
This has eight iiralllmal,11l9 which are the snme
as nre given by B. in XIII. 110.
The mind which is freo from iisavas cauuot be kllown by an
ordinary man (puthuiia1la). The mind of a beiug. in the
aTliap.iiVQCara can be known ollly by the Buddhas. As
in the last section, here nlso Upa. adds thnt oue can kuow the
minds in a thousand (lokadhiitu), the pacceka.
buddhaa ia still mOl'e, and the Talhigatas in innumerable oue8.
XUl. 11
II . id.
Upa. gives three kind. of pubbenilliiJiilluuati , by the first 01 Xlil. 27
which he call at the roost recall only seven lives, Il ud hy the dilf .
econd ouly lourteen, and by the third he call only practise
the iddhipiidas. (With this compare n. XIII. 27 where we
find B. mentioning or as acme would
call it which properly BIJ!;aking is not pll bbe.
lIivalalllluati.. j
The method of producing this kind of miraculoue power i. xnr. 2225
the saUIe 9.S is given by B. i n XIII. 22-25. If he is not able to
produce tbis power he should lIot give up efforts. He should
ngaiu attain the trance. Vpa. gi\'e9 the .imile of a mirror
whicb we often find used in Buddhist books. If you cannot
8ee your race in a mirror you do not throwaway t:"e mirror
bUl rub it again and again until you are able to see your face
in it. B. has used tbis 8imile in another place [XVI i'&: . 16"j,
though here he uses quite different aimiles. Upa. refers to
Ayasruii. Sobhita who 'Vas considered a.s the chief among those
who rememb.1red the past lins. (See A. i. 25. B. does not refer
to him.]
STll.I5-18 We h"\'8 a pMsnge which to B.'s XIII. 15-1B.
Upa. alBo speaks of the Tilthiyas who can remember only forty
kappas. Upa. very concisely states the CD.SC of Sammii.sam.
buddhas who caD recall the P:lSt lives and actions of others
o.s well as their own; they can also recall places. Othen can
recall tllei .. own actions Dilly and little of others. The Sammii.
s:l.nlbuddhas can recall everything as they please. while others
e:;aD do &0 only in 8uccession The Samm5.samhuddhas
mayor may Dot enter upon larn6dhi for recalling the past li ves,
N.C. Even it they {Io not enter they can recnll , while others can do
80 only by entering upon samddlii.
6. n InBACAKKB(l.
XIII. 13 This miraculous power is obtained by one who has attained
. d. mMtery in the four th trance with alokuka.i'QlJ as the ni nth or
the fifth {kalitwl' , and hy one who hu a natural eye (i. e. un
impaired). It is of two kinds: (i) kammaphalauipi!Jkanibbatw'T/I,
and (ii) (Compare I'Iu:aritakammanibbat ta'T/l
Dud lIil'iyabltli1:anubalanibbatta1!l- of B. XIII. 131. Dy the
firat, one can setl whether a treasure. box does contain any
trea.aure or not. Having attai ned mastery over t he four
iddhipii.das. he a ttains the fourth trance in the lilokaku.i1}OJ,
has alokiuuliiiii, makes no distinction between dny and night o.nd
finds no obstacle tor his mind. His mind know8 no darkness.
He is above daYlight. Grad14llily, by this practice he attai ns
XUI. 78-71 dibbacakkhu. Here we hava also the passage which is commen
ted upon by D. in XIII. 13-T1: Sodibb01l6 cakkhuni!Juwuddhl:na
utikkantamdnusuktl7la satte pauati cavamdne 1lpapajjamllne,
hiDI: pa'Qlte, .u-vatl,}e J..ubbatl tl6, duggate, yathd kammll
page .abbasatte .... Upa. does not cOlUment upon t his passage.
When a yogllvac(l ra is thus nble to produce the dibbacakkhu, he
must the kileaas destroyed. If he does not destl'oy the
kile!JIUI and i[ he hns the cibbaoo.kkhu. he !alLs from lamudhi.
If he falls from .amtldlii, hi s dioka vani shes, and the for ms leen
by hi m n.lso disappear . [Cf. D. XIII . 90: tato atoka antal'odha
yati, ta,mi7JI. antarahite '1'vpag.atOfTJ' pi na dtuatil . Among
the ki l esa8 mentioned, we find tlicikicchd, mi.cchiinllllati,
thinamiddho., mana, pdpik6 vdca, l a1]l.phappalo.pCl, flU1lattu..
wn;;.Ci, and 80 on. After t he kileus nre destroyed, if he cannot
obtain mnatery over the trance, his ia low, the
dl:oka illow, and the forms lee n by him are also !ow.
1. Soe p. 87 Ilbol'e.
IJUAP. 11J l ... . ............ JJ ........ ".
UPA-. mention! five iiramw:u.HIS: 7Jaritta, P!1CCU1'pa1J1!(1',
ailh.atta., bahiddM, and ajjhattabahi ddh(j, while D. mentiolls
oll ly four omitting the from the above list. Be fnrther Xlil. 103
says that frolll tbis dibbacakkhu are produced the four ki.nds of dif.
knowl edge : (il an-<lgata",!uan4':W. (ii)
(iii) (iv) and kammG.vipiikaphalaiiiil,!CI.
[With this comparo D. XIII . 103. wher e U. mentions only two
ki nds: and

Upa. also adds paki1)1J(Jkakat/u"i., in which he says that if the
yogdvaca:ra practises tamadhi with tile intent ion of seeing or
heari ng, he Bees or hears. If he has both the intentions, lie
both Bees lind hears. And if he practises with the intention
of seeing and hearing, a.!I well o.B, knowing the minds of others,
he can do all the three.
Lokiya abhinnas are 'osavd, rUIJapatibaddh4 and pothujja- N.C.
,lIikd . If they are t!:i ey are Ickhiy4 and pothujjanika.
Those of Arhak are abyiikat4.
These abhiui'ias are not produced in the arupfh;acara loka.

[Bk. 9. 13a. 0-9.11.5. Tak. 444c445e. Cf. B. XIV. 1311
As usual, Upa. gives the lakklVlIJ,(J., T(Ua, etc. Upn.. agrees
with D. in his statement regarding lakkha7}O., and paceu.
paHlul1/,(J only. The anisal.Jlsas are innumerabl e but they should
be known in briel. Be gives them in several githas in addition
to the eleven iinisaqlsas which he mentions later. Regarding
lakkhor].a, Tala, etc., he also gives another alternative Q8
Vijjdlakkha."a, .a&dham:mappaVe&arala, avijjandll6.'
kdra.viddh"a7i\,ana paccupaHhdna,
N.C. fld. To explain panna, Upa. gives a. passage which is 5ubst.a.n
tially the same as is given in Dhs. para. 16 [also cf. paragraphs
20, 555.1: PanM, pajdnand, vieayo, pavicayo, dham1?Wvi.
.gree in
IMIn&e only
cayo ....... etc.
'Vhen Upa. comes to the answe r or the question 'katividhG
panna' he starUi with
(A) Du.vidhd:
(B) Tividhd:
(i) CinMma-yd'
The explanations generally imply
the same idell, though they differ
in expressions, as in B. XIV. 9-10.
These correspond to B. XI V. 14,
which gives quotations from
Vibhnnga 324-25.
(ii) .Ayako,CjUo"l11-
Ap4yako,alla?!'; )1

These correspond to pas!ages from
Vbh.32526 quoted in Vis. XI V.
(iii) ..<l eal/a: t ibhtlmi-k,uala-paihw.
Apacya: rota,u magger" pMind.
} See Vbh.326
Neva dca-ytJ no apacya : catlin! bhlimisu phalenl ca
thu bhtlmiJu kiriya( UJ- ) .
abyakate' ca panfld.
1. See Pet. III. 78, VTI . 261 (Bl,lrmes-J ed. 240).
2. Apparently there is some incorrect reading here. It Ihol,lld be
12 inltead of 1f E. See.1Io 9.16 ... 6-7 which .. lso read. in tb" tallle
"'., but e1llul, we mOlt h ..... e.. readiog which would mll .. n abyllkafo,
at ia cle .. r trom Vbh.
(e) Catubbidha:
(i) (The same as i n Vibhanga I). 328: N.C. in Vi s.] N.C.
dasaslt thdl!6S1'
(Explained in Vhh. ]
klw .. tw,ll{j, d!lkkhtfti,
anattJ' ti, evamiida{j, kltant i .
MaO!JaJama1J.f} iua catllm 1IIa.f}!J6su paiiiiJ.
PhalcLSamallgiua plw/6ru paihia.
[(ri mavacara .. paiiiici 1
RUl)Jvacara-pmiliii If

Apan-yapannJ palifiii
pai'ii"ia, etc.
[The e:s:plnnatioll is Ihe same
os is given of this classifica-
t ion i n Vibhanga 329. 'fbe
firs t three of these are gi ven
in the t hreefold classification
in Vi s. XI V. 15.1
DluJ1nm6 . 1 [cr. Vbh. 329.
It tI , 11dI.W1Jl.' of Vbh. N.C. in Vis.'
Paraci tta.vijdnanalp- (paricc6 iiu- r The explana-
of Vihhanga) tioD8 are the
.w, (? sam mati- or sanmmti- same ns in
of Vbh.) Vhh.329.J
Atthi poniEd ticayiiya flO apacayaya 1
Atthi pa/ilia no acayJya f
Atehi paii1ia iiaayfiya Cetl Cl apa-
cyi;.ya C.'1
Atthi paiifi.d fWtlCl iicayiiya 11-0 I
apo<caydya )
[The same as
in Vbh. 330.
N. C. in Vis. I
(v) Atthi paiina ",ibbidaya 1tO patiV6(lhaY(l )1 IThe same
Atthi pafilid pafitl6dhJ!,'a 11'0 . Vhb
At thi paiiiid flibbidiiya ca CG )- N C:
Atthi paJI:fia noua nibbiclAjia. flO pati - !. Y' i
vedhdya - . J In 18 .
1. Here 1'1110 '!:3 re").diog in thi$ tut il ;ff Be, but it must bo
tit 00. For, tho intended ,vord i8
For this expres&ion, cf. Abhk. V. 35; vi. 184; Madhy. p. 480 ; also
d. A.M.B. p. 2$4.
3. Cf. Mvy. 1234-37 ""here t ho characters used for the BeCOnd and
tbe third of tbese are different.
XIV. 15
givcs only
the first
XIV. 21
XlV. 22
XlV. 21
XIV. 24
VlAlUTfI.:uAGGA. (ClIAI'. x. (0), (wi), (a)
(vi) (a) Attha-pati,a7JIbhidd f
Pat-ibhiina-patisa-rrbhidd J
[The same as iu Vis
XIV. 21 and Vbh. 331,
as well as 293. )
DII4".ma-pafi,a-rrbhi da. : hetumhi [Vbh. 293
. . h d cr. Vis.
lTllttl.-p.atua1!1-b d : d XIV. 22.)
tldbhllfipe iidtw"T!1.
iiU.I.IC3U nfi1J.a-rr.
(c) Atthapati,ambhidd: dukkho eo.
[Vbb. 293
niTodhe ea
magg6 ell
f\uUfibhi14pe 7idJ;la1!l.
cr. Vis.
XIV 24
,amud4Y8 ell
dhammami -
Pat ibhiinapa#3ambhidd :
from Vbh.J
[The same as in Vbh.294, refe rred to iu Vis. XIV.241
Nir ulti-pati,a1Jlbhidd
The knowledge of the
Buddhi sl literature !1.8 con-
tained in the old niue-rold
division such os w.tta,
gdtha, udtinla. ittivuttaka,
;dtGka, abblw.tacllta7WT1KJ,
and vedraUa. (All these
l\'ords are given in their
translitera tioDS.]
(e) There is one more interpretation or t he patislltpbhidi5
giyen by Upa. . whi ch begins with cakkhumhi ftt'i':K'1ll-
etc., some details or which are not quite clear. IN. C.
in Vbh. or Vis. in the corresponding porEona. ]
Dukkhe fld7;lQ.m 1
Dukkhasamudaye fldnam: dukkhO.famu-
Du.kkhaniTodhe bhdllaniilam- .
?llyuttal7' Iid,,01) .
Magga3amangiu(J fid1J.Q.J7lo:
MQa1!l- .
{Rk.IO-1. 5.1O, 22a. 4; Tak. 445c451c. Of. Vis. Chapters
XIV, XV, XVI!. ]
The wi shing to be tree from old nge aud death,
wishing to get rid of the cause of birth and death and the dark-
ness of ignorauce, wishing to cut alI the strings of craving and
to attain the a1'iyJ panna, should find the means (lIp,iya) in five
things: Khandhas, iiyatanas, dhiituB, hetupaccayna (or uidiinas)
and ariyasaccas.
1. KHANDHif.
The khandho.s are fi ve : 1'upa, vedallu, Jariiiii, JallkhuTa and
virind?;la .
What is 1'upakkha.n.dha? cuttdro ca maMbhutii, catunnali ca'
'mahiibhutiino7!, upiidJya TUpa1f'.
Upa. explains the four mah5.bhutas as explained already by
him in (p.83). Under the,
he gives a list of twenty_six things whioh are the sume as are
given by B. in XIV. 36, except that there is an addition of two:
jati1'ilpa and middll.a1'lipa. Thus Upa. Hays that the riipas arB
thirty in all.
[B. in XIV 71 emphntically rejects' any addition his
number, twenly-eight. He does refer among other riipas, to
these two riipns, but he says that jutirupa is included under
rupaua upacaya and r1lpaua &antati {also see XIV. GUL and
middha.-rUPli" which is advocated by soms (ekacoana.?[1 matrna)
is rejected by the AHbakathiis on the authority of the follow-
i ng quotation from Sn. 541: addhJ muni"Ji tambll dd,JlQ, na.tthi
tava. Dhammapala in bis comment on tbe word
ekacciina7!lo sa.ys Abhayagi1'ivaJilla7!lo. Buddhaghosa. is very
emphatic when he states: middharupa7!lo w-VQ. natthi yetla ti
and iti hoti anuna7!lo

l. See also Abhm. p. 72, AbhmV. p. 30 which lupjXIrt B.
2. 8ee pp. 123.
XI V. 36
XIV. 71
this view.
XIV. 42
XIV. 48
1I1m().!lt i<l.
Vlll Ul'TDrAGGA [CUAI'. 1:1. 1
In the upiidiiriipas, Upa. givcg the words cakkhJyatana,
sotayatana, gha1Jiiyatafta etc. iustead of B:s cakkh'U, sota,
gM.>J-a, etc. While explaining these organs of sense, Upa.
refers to the various views about the same, among which he
refers to one expressed by B. in XIV. 42 : apare tejii.dhikdna'1ll';
pa$ cakkhu, sOfa-ghan a-
;ivh.a-kdyiJ ti llad:anti . In the description of the ca.kkhdyato1}:a,
U pa. speaks of the three circles of the eye and the five lnyers
of 111.(U,nm, lohita, scmha, and khela within which it lie8.
The description of the cakkhuppasii.da is given by B. lXI V. 481
in these words:
Yena cakklw,PPaliUie1w- Tupani manupanti
paritta1.n Jukhumam eto1,n 1ikasir(uamilpama'1!i"l .
Upa. also like B. ascribes tbis quotation to Sii.ripuu-a an d his
quotation is the same ucept that instead of llko.&ira of B. he
uses the word ,lkii.
Upa. gives a very cl ear distinction between the mah1i.bhutas
and the upadd rupas. The former depend upon one another and
are produced aU together; the latter are produced relying upon
the former. The latter are not depended upon by the tormer,
nor do the latter depend npon one another 3.monB' themselves.
This is beauti f ully illustrated by 0. simile. The mahiibhutns are
like three. sticks' reclining upon one another. The upada
rupas are like the !hadows of the three sticks .. [10.3.6-7, Tak.
44Gb. 3-41.
The yoga'VQcara should understand these . thirty riipas in tbe
following five ways:
(i) SallwH,.anto. As they arise from kam7l1a. 'Il tlt, citta,
6lliJ,ra. taken singly or in combination with one another. Upa.
gives all details. (Cf. with this Abha. VIth chapter, para. 6,
(ii) Kalapato. Upa.. to the various groups, auch
as cakkkuda&o.ka, JfJtada&aka, itthindriyadwaka. vatthudaJaku. .
jivitindriyanavaka. and 80 on. He knows how many of these are
kammalamutt .. n.d. citta&amutthiina and 80 on. [Cf. Abba. VI.
8, p. 29]. To describe the cakkhusantati, Upa. gives tbe simile of
the flow of a strealll orlhe flame of a lamp. (Ct. Abbs. VI. 10:
L Sec Abhm. p. 00.
2. Cf. Vis. XVII. 78, 196,
Cu.lI'. XI. 11

nipakalapasolltati kti maloke dipaiiilii ",iya, 11adifQto v iya.
ca l}avattc ! i .1 UIJn. hero also goes into miultlo
(iii) YO/uto. With reSl)ect. to Hie birth in the k611luvacara
realm or the realm of opapClti/"a, dugO'itika or llTahmakiJyih,
beinga and ao on. ler. Abhs. VI. 10, II. 301.
(iv) Nilnattato .
(a) Du.vidhaT[l-: old1'ika., ",klltlma; ajjhatta, bahiJdluI:
jivitindriya, a-ihitilldriya. UplI.. gives the CUlt-
Ineration of the rupas cllUlsifietI untIer these head-
(L) 1tp6di1Ina, ' anvp6di,ma, and vik6ra
(or pabheda)-rilpa ( U!t & );
glta, and aliiduua1Ia-aPl/Qr
[See B. XIV.14J.
(c) CalMbbidhfJ.1!'>: rabhava, cikura seews to be
used for fiko.Ta-'lJikura) , alitI paricched'O..
(v) EkaUalo. Sabba7/l rtip(l1!l fl,fl Itetu ahehl/.:a7fl- hetv-
'lJippayu.ttll1.n ...
[The Burne passage from Dhs. p.124.25, parngl'lll,h 584, quoted
by B. in XIV. 12 is given here, with a slight variation ill. the
order of t.he words.}
Although one fold io its charadcristir: of sensation, i t is
Thunato dvvidhd: J.:dyiko. , cetafikd.
Sabhih'aw Uvidhil: ,ukM, du.kkhd, aWllkkha7U(Uukhd.
Dha1nmato catubbi dlui.: 1,'tI,alci , akwaw., vipiJka, l.:iriyci.
l nd-riyato paiicavidhd : Jukhindri yfi, dvkk"ifldriyci , IOMa
naui7llLroiyd, d017la-l1a"indri yd,
/{m.dl(uulclw. to c}wbbidha : ench member of the threefold
clllS!lificatiou above i! modified by
tha words fara'IJ') nud o.nlha11o..
1 Uppatt':- J d'IJllTato tattavid.hd: co/.Mwra'lllplwuaill, lota,alllvlifl-J-
loiu, jw7l0..
lampluw&ajd, J.:uya.rfl'lnphaJJaju,
1nanodhdtu.-,amphauaid, mana
'lJit111 ci1.W.J II a turatnp]ilmajd.
1. Upa. _1113 to e:s:piain it al meaning the aaDle as .i:ammc",ipakaja
For the explauation of hU'D\s, also Bee Dhs(,'m. 46, Sph. 60-62.
Xl\' . 74
XIV. 12
much dilL
Upa. also furl her says that when tal,en in detail they are
one hundred and eight.' He also shows how we get that
Although onefoltl in ih characteristic of perceiving the
object, perception is
KlJ'T,lluu'II.Havasena. duvjdha: vipariyasasaruid, avipari ydsa-
Almsalato tiviilluj ; rdgasafi,iiJ, dosasaii11ii, viheslisalbld .
[Lul alato tividlui : nekklu1J7nma-saii-lia, adosa-sa1111d, all,hi1?ua-
Catubbidhd :
(a) In so far ns one does not know the real nature of
things: a.Jubhe l'II.bha.Janii ii, du.kkkc wkluuaii71a,
anicce niccosoii11d, ollattani attalaii:1ld.
(b) In 80 far as one kuows the real nature of things :
alubhasaih1d, du.kkhasaii:iw, ani'CCa3a1111li, anatta.-
satltiCi .
Vi7laye pa7ica-saitiid : asubhe $tlobhasaiiiid, aJubhe alublUL-
mii1iei, s11bhe awbhasa11i'iii. sltbh'e su.bhala7i11a,vicikiccM-
Arammatlato ella sanna: T1l.pasa11ii.d, mddasaihia, gondha-
IQlhld, ra..ta_sm111ii, plwHohalJ.basaniid, dha=ma--satlild.
(Uppatti-) d'lldrato sattavidha : cak"klw.-Ia=ph(l.s,aj,i, Iota-
lampha,uajd, gl.CI1!<a-8U,mphassajd, jivM-sa-mphouajd,
kdya-sllmphauajd, mallod,hatu-samphauajii , ma1'llOvi-
Kusalato t ividha ; nekkh(mma-sanfid, adosa-$a111iU, avihi'll-'
1lo<inot tala711M veditllibbU.
Upn. gives a long list ot thirt::;-tf()O snnkharas aud adds
at thl.! end: ve.doJIChaihi.dvivajjitii sabbe cetasikli dh(lff(l.mfj
lankloaradhammo. In this list \'\'o;l filCJ and Ii
L Cf. Via. XVII. 22S where we have 89 kinds of sensation.
2. Thi, word !;OOm3 tQ be used fo r 5addh.l as it is explaineG as
ci Uaull pas4dana1]l.
v .. ...... l J 1" \1\1..- <\ Vl ''\ lA
nIvarnl.lilloS. On the other llnnd, arc &Ollie fronl n.' s l ist
ill the XIV. 13-3. 184, which we do not find i n UP3.'S1isl. Each
of list is expl ained by Upn. by simi les runny of wl! :: !! are
very npil fopriate. For instance, vhaua. is likened to thc light
of the sun striking the wnll, adhi7llokklia. to waler Bowing on
to a lower l evel, viriya to Il st rong bull ahle to cany a hurdell,
to n blind man touching a nd feeling au elephant,
anoltappa to a wicked ki ng who fean nobody. Anolher IIi mile
ill al so 10 be uoted. Ahi r ika is likeued to a aud along N.O.
with a1l,OUappa is said to Le agdraVal)QJaHhdna.
Upn. only seven kinds of viiHi.ii.l,lall XIV. sa-
lota-viiilMIJ4. gIUiI!a' viiifid!la, 124
and maIWdliatu.vifinlilJ.a. One should under- Ill t.ogclber
stand t.hess viihid!J.(u in th r ee waye :
(i) : the five viiiiHi.l,las have separate
vatthuB and separate arawmaQa8, while ma110dhatu
and manovi,UidJ.IUdJtdw have t he lIame vatthu, though
t.he rormer bOil five aramm8Q.nll while the latter has
aix. Upn. goes into mnny more minute detaile such
as the internal or exlernal tJaUhu. or Uramma'.'a, etc.
(ii) Aramma{l at o : several detai ls arc given which are not.
quito clear.
(iii) Dhammato : the association with different viiiiliil}as of
olle or of the following : vitakkOl, vicara, pHi,
8u.kho, dukkha, domallaJla, upckkhfJ, etc.
The Section cl08ell with a passage which ill the lIame as is
given at the end of the section on rtipa ( Dbs. para. 534. See
ahove p. 97] .
As a general concluding Ul.mmnry or the treatment of all
the fi ve khnndha!, Upn. lIeys that we muet. thew
frow the rollowing Cour points of view:
(i) Vacantth.a!.o. 'i'he wordll for each of the five khand ball
and the word khandll4 it-sell are int-erpreteil. Tpe interpretation
of these words appears to he the IInme a9 ie given by B.
except in the case of the word rupa.
(ii) La.kkha.l.lato. Thecbaracterillticsof each of the khandha.e
are given. Riipa, vedana, eto. are r espectivcly COmlJareti to a
dill .
XIV. 214,
XV. 1
XV. 3
XV. 3-7
XIV. 46
(eaAI'. n. 1
thorn that pricka, the disease of leprosy, II maker of illlllgeB,
the turning of II- wheel and kuowing the tnste.
(iii) Paric;cheJato.
Patica khandha $abbe dham:TlKi. 1
Paljc;1l 1I1Jaddnakkhandhii ; Jabbe Jdla'l1d IICf. B
dh4 mmd.
P01'ica d.hammakkha1!dhd: $Uakkhan LO, ' 214
JarMulhikkhandho, panrtakhandho, 219.'1
'Virnutti kklwndho',
dli o.
(iv) Sallgahato. All the khandhas are classified under tho
headings of uyata'M, dhcltu and JMC;a with II-
detailed enumeration.
(Bk. 10. 12a. 4-10. 16. 5 i Tak. 448c.-449c. cr. Vis. XV. l l G.1
Upa. gives the sawo twolve iiyatattas as are given by B. ill
XV. 10nd givos the interpretation and explanation of each
of thew. His interpretation is more simple and more natural
than that of B. He does not give the artificial interpretation
as 8 . gives of the words cakkltu, ladda, iivha or kaya. He
interprei.s the word cakkMyatana as the dMtuPaJdda by whi ch
ODO sees forms. iivM as the lhotupa:ddo by which one knoW/I
the taste, kdya as that by ,vhich one touche!. He e:s:ploins the
word mandyatana, as laLtavinndrJ-adhdtuyo, and the dha11l7114ya-
tana as tayo tNti.pino hhandhA, aHltarasa wkkum(Jo.rtlpdni,
These ayatanas should be under5tood in five ways:
(i) Vacaliotthato. Upa. interpretee the worda cllkkh1l , ,ota,
ele. l\S well as the word dyatClJIIl. He interprets the word
doom/rna. as wit-hout life (niiiivan.n), and dyatana as aTtil-'adham-
71IG-d.vdra vaUhuadhiHM1M. . Nc artificial interpretation of that
word as given by B. is found here.
(ii) Vi Jayato. The eye aun the ear do not come i nto con-
tact wit h .. illl)bjeele, while the nose, 10ngue and the body do.
[Cr. B. XIV. 46.1 Upa. alao refers to on alternative view of
some people who believe that the eye and the earl d<J coUle into
1. Dhllmmllplla i n his comment on thi. (p. 5(9) "'y.: Soeam pi
ti ke ci.
\';UM'. XI. 1J
' "
contact with their .. argument is tlnlt n magic
incaot.."ltioll will be there is sollie obstacle, which
i. very close to the ear. Similarl y, ILe eye be renching
the object. For, beyolld the \\"aU one calJuol.ce. [1'hnt i3 to
say it ca. uuot reMh the object and so it can uol sce.]
(iii) Pa(;cayato. ['hid 10 B. X v. 3530. J
Hero we find a JlIl5Sage correspoll dillg to what ill ascribed by
11.10 {urmer leachen (pubbcicariya). From tiLis D. quotes in
brief in -XV. 39. 'rhe passage gi ven by UIJa.. is fuller ond trent8
o{ the same subject. 'rherein it i3 showlJ that cakkhu1Jinlldl.1a
ariSe3 because of cakkllll, T1tpa, aloka and mand.tikdr(J.1 This
\JUS8nge agrees with that ill D. except ill the last two CMes of
k6yalliii iici(!.(l and .. a. III tha forlll er case, UPD.. drops
the wnrd patlwl1i from D.'II list, while, i n the latler CIlBO, he
gi,'es mana, dlwmma., adhimokldta , 'OOfUlJikdr(J. instead of D.'II
bhat:angamalla, dhamma., manall:klir(J.. Upa. goos then into
the detailed el:planation of these terms.
(iv) VUhibhedaw. [This corresJlondll to B.'II XIV. 115-
123. 1
Upn. speaks of the three kinds or vuhi which corrcsponds
10 paritta, aeip.aritta, and ment ionll the seven kinds of
ciUns in the mahanta1Jiehi. He further gives 0. very beautiful
Bimile to illustrate the stages io till" process or cogni_
tion by the eye. A king is sleeping in his palace' and the
queen and a dumb maid-serv3.ot arc t here in attendance, Ihe
maid-servant eh3.wpooing the feet of the king. Tile gales of the
pa latial structure (lown, as Upa. puts it) are closed und Me
gU!1I"ded by a. deaf man. The gardene r of tile king comes to the
gate with a mango-fruit (tf m) in hi ll hand with the inteo-
tio:! or prusentiog it to the king. He finde the door closed and
koocks at it. The king hears the BO und and wakes up. He
orders the dumb worunn in attendance to have the door opencd.
Sha instructs the tieal door- keeper, by menns of sigus, 10 open
t.he door. The door is opened and the kiog sees t.he fruit,
1 Of. Dh!A..S9; allo Sph. 84-85 (Comment on i.42): EMtflo IIi "ijll4na-
kdm!l4'!1- MlI.yat_akfllrindrillOm QlUlJXIlltlta'!l- bllal'ati, "',o!lO db0\4-
IUl/ato bllattati, wjjaka manad;dm./l pmt rllp.uthi lo bllattl;1ti; Sik. 22.5,
... he..., dkdSa i.s added U ODe more (:(Int riblltory factor : Oakfwca
protu.,a. ripa", cdloko", laiial\. ca man04ikdmll ea pratuytllpadl'Qle
2 For a clOHly allied .imile see pp. 279, 280; abo d.
Compendium of Pbilo.ophy p. SO.
XIV. 3539
tion in
XV. 39 in
{\ fuller
. d.
X IV. liS-
102 VI.1lU1"l'I.}IAGGA
[Cu .. " 11. 1
8 knife in his hand, while the dumb woman holds the fruit in
her haud. In cOUie the courtiers . The courtier! take the fruit
to the queen who washes it, and leeing whether it is rive or
unripe, gives a piece to each of the courtiers and then finally
gives it to the king. The king tastes the fruit and praises or
culldellloa it, the case IUllY be, aHer he bas colen it nut! then
goes back to deep.
'1'he simile is Further esplaiued I\'jlh il.8 apillication.
i the kiDg who is asleep.
Cakkh1ldV/Jra rUpdram. is like the gardener who bikes the
rI'WI,l(J-!}alw.I}G mango-fruit aud knocks at the
{/< 11\ iI!l'
If vo.jianu.citta

J (Jvallacitta
Tacldramm.atw-phal1' -
(?) is l ike the king's heari ng the
sound and instrucling the atten-
dant to have the door opened.
is like the dumb woma n instructi ng
the man by means of signs to open
the door.
is like the king's seeing tho fruit
utor the deaf mnn bas opened tho
is like tho king's taking the kuife,
the womnn's holding tho fruit, and
the coming in of the courtiou.
is like the courtiers' taiing tho
fruit and giving it to the queen,
is like the queen' s 1\'88hing the
fruit, !seeing) whether it is ripo or
unripe aod giving a piece to each of
the courtiers(?)" IIOri t hen giving
ono to tho king,
is like the king's ealing the fruit .
is like the king's praising or con-
demning the fruit aftc. ho has
eaten it.
is liko the king's going back to
1. The meanina; of this t!ltpreaion ;1 not clear. Evidently this stage
cx.rre.ponci8 to bhoWfI{ :.nd !:lee Vill.
XIV.1l5 and Abhs. IV.S, pp. 16-17.
2. Thi, also is not quite clear.
ellU'. X I . IJ PANCA UPAY,\ 103
Upa. also furlher speaks of tile olher yHhis M well flS that in
('Ill Sangahat<J. Upa. tells us how these ii.yalll.nas cau be
di stributed under the c1assifiction of the khandhas, dhii.tus
and saccaa.
3. D H II T US
[Bk IO.1G.G-IO.17.2 : 'l'nk. 449c.4501I.. cr. Vis . XV. 17
to the end of XVth Chap.]
Upa. givea the same eighteen kinds of dhatus' given by B.
in XV. 17. He explains those terms. 'i'here is 80 much matter
in thi s sectioD that is found in the last sectioa as well.
'fhese are called kha.ndhas because they are grouped
together, ii.yatanas becawe they are dvur.alakkha1J-li, nnd dhatu9
because they are In.bhdvalakkha1.ul . (CI. Vis. XV. 21 :
dhdrentt ti dhaeuyo. ]
Upa. gives a quotation ascribed to the Biessed One which
purports to 53y that a man of keen intellect speaks of the Truth
of Suffering with the help of khandM.lI, a man of medium in-
tellect spooks with the help of ayntanas, and a man of dull in_
tellect with the help of dhilus .
(Bk.IO.17.3-1O.23a"'; (end of Bk. 10); 'i'ok. 450c; cr. n.
XVIIth Chnp.]
(It is difficult to say what the original exprl!asion for if<
might have For, the samecbnracters are used for nid.ana,
paticcIlsam11ppiida and hetu-paccaya. (See My. 229, 9210, 224J,
2267). So these characten may as well have been used for
It may be noted that Upa. gives the section on Helupaecnyas
whic11 {'orresponds t.o B. '8 on before the sec-
tion on SReCll9, an order ,vb. ich is jUllt the opposite of no'll.]
We find here the same passage from S. ii. 1. all is quoted by
B, in Vis. XVII. 2: Avijidpaccaya sankhdra, .rankhiirapaccaya
etc. 'Ve also meet with anot ber paunge which gives
the negative side of the same formula. AviiiiJn4rodhd .r4nkhar4-
Mrodho, I(1nkMranirodM ste. [ef. s. ii. 4. )
B. docs not give tbis pll9!age.
1 ,With this compare Spb. 5S-59, (comment on , tanVoa 27).
VIMU1"1.'IAIAOQA [011.01'. n. 1
U)l(l..'8 e.:qJianation of these words is quite simple and 1I00vours
of no Bcolasticism of D. He also giv"iI II. protracted simile to
uptain lhe inter_relation of the tlvelve factors of the Low of
Causation-the siluile of the aeed growing into a tree :\od then
into n Beed ngaiu.
Here ate given below the twelve factors with their ex plnnn-
tion and illustration.:-
Fnctors Explnnntioll
Aviiiei: catUJU Jacccsu
$aJlkhiira.: kti.ya-l.'acfcittakam1milli:
Vi1i1ldlJ01!l: putisondhikklio1}e pa1.1attita"?1
citto7!+ j
NiinwrIi7,a1!': cittacetal ;kd dlwmmd,
kalalarapait co;
SuiciyataJIGTfl: elia ajjhatika-iiyata1ldni;
Phallo: cha phal)ol,uyii j
Ved.ana: cha 1Ieda1lCikdy(i:
BhalJo: kiimo..Tlipa-a1'upabhava-
JomuH!tlipaka'T!!- kamma1Jl- ;
bhauc kholldM,bhinibbati j
Jllrd: pllripdko i
khandlulna1.n "iddha1!Uana.
paribhedo i
is compa rod to fl
paddy (villi).
are cOlllpnretl to a
seed (bfjo.).
is compared to n
sprout (oukura).
is compared 10 a
leaf (patto).'
is compared 10 a
branch (,ohM) .
is compared to l\
1re6 ('Mtkkha).
is compared to a
Bower (puPVho1!I).
is compared to
juice (rollll).
ia compared to (the
ear 011 rice (Idl;
or ta'.l1'!lla).
is compared to a
seed (bfia) ngaiu.
is compared t o a
sprout (ank,.r/l).
tor thia no simile
i8 used.
for this no limile
is used.
Upa. ehows by this nimile that this is a round of which the
XVrI. 003 beginning or the end is not known. B. gives no such one simile
for the whole. In XVII. 303, whero n. gives eimiles
1 Sao Mvy. 433,4942.
for the differeul factors, lle uses the simi le of:l. Vijo. and (/,nkIlTUJ
for bhavo. au!! jali.
Upa. also raises lhe question: a'Vijjll? In
auswer he says:
(i) (I'Vijja ye'Va. avijjii..paccayo. L Aut! [ urU. e)" he 8ays t hat
(ii) all kilesas also are the paccayas of avijja Il ud to support
his statement he gives the quotation: asa.va8omudo.yii.. avijja-
8ar,luda-yo. i0r. n. XVII. 36, quoting from M, i. 54.]
Upa. then raises SODlS ten questious he briefly answers.
Of these twelve faclors, o.vijjlj, aud 'lpadulIO> are the thrlle
kilesas, &allJ.:lujrll aud bhava. are the two brnmas aud the
relUainiog seven are vipiikas. A'Vi jjJ and tMll',hara are in t he
past, jilti and jarll.marw.w are in the future, while the rest are
in the present. IWith t his compare n. XVl[. 234, 281 which is
exactly the same. I This successioll of old-age alld death should
be known to be witlJout a begi uuing. 'I'hese twelve dllft llllllaS,
because they are the causes of one a.noth"'r ill succession, are
the lIetllpaccaya samuPPlida or paticctuam111Jpllda. 'fhe differ-
ence between the twelve hetupaccaya-anglini and : amTtppan-
nadhamma is that th.e hetupaccayas are t he different kinds of
san.khal'l\s about whicb., when they have not yet COlDe into
e"i"tence, we cannot Bay that they are sankhata or
whi le they come into e:s:istence, they become the het upacco.ya_
d-harnm(i or lJaticca-:am-uppadadhaml.7nii (? ).J.:tl: f.!iI II ij; fi);"
when they have already cOloe i nto existeuce they a re Janklw,
ta." Upa. also epeaks of the h",tupaccayas as gambkira&(lbhll.
'Va. [Of. n. XVII" 11, 304-314.1
Further these should be known in Be\'(lJl ways :
(i) Salld-ltito. 'I' here is one sandhi between snnkharus and
another between 'Ve dana aud and t he third
between vhc'V(l. und jriti. [Of. Vis. XVII. 288-89. 1 n. speaks
of hetuphalasandhi, phalahettuandhi, and
Upa. call, the first alld the thi rd sandhis hetuphala-
sa7lidhi a.nd bhavatandhi, while the second is phalahetula1ldhi
and not bho.'Valana,hi. Upa. goes into a long discussion of the
bha'Vamndki aud describes how one individual passes froln one
e:s:istence to aoother. In that cOlloection he speaks of kam7M,
i. Cf. 'i9 , lti avijj,;: het'll, ayon;fo manafikdro paccallo.
2. This is oot clear.
3. Of. S. ii. 26.
XVII. 284,
XVII . 28S-
XVII. 136- '
p ....
XVII. 290
XVI I. 29l.
XVli. 298
kammanimitta, Ua6i (l.ud gatinimitta, while D. of only
three with the omission of gati. JC. D. XVII. 136-45. 1 We
also meet with here [Vim. 10.21.4! t.he famous simile ill
Duddi st ii terature,-the simile of one lamp kindling a nother
lamp. There is also a description ns 10 how tue material fornl
Jor an individunlJ is produced. [Cf. Vis. XVII. 155-561
(ii) CatJv.sankhepato . 'fh is conesponds to B.'s XVII. 290
although we do not fiod there the terms used by Upa., namely-
atitako:rlVmal..-ilcsa, paccuppannaphalavipaka, paccuppanna-
kamma-kilesa, and
(iii) Vi.ratiya dkdTehi. 'I'his is in substantial agreement
with B.' s XVII. 291.97, although Upa. is very brief. We find
in this connection the quotations from Ps. i. 52, given by D. in
XVII. 292, 296, 297. There see ms to be something wrong
with the Chinese Text, for instead of the closi ng line in the
quotation in the para. 292, we have the closing line of the
quotation in the pnrtl. 294, but t he whole passage correspon-
ding to the quotation in para. 294 is missing. Similarl y,
there is some variation in the last quotation.
(i v) CaM.:ato . Avifjupaccaya $ ... jiiLipaccaya iarii-
mara.IJa1?1. Eva.m etaua. keva.laua lamudayo
hoti. It is ignorance of t11is he-ap of suffering that is avifju. And
froro aviiia there arise su.nkha ras nnd so on. lef. D. XVII. 293,
which ill qui1e different.]
(v) * (P). Avijjd leadi ng for ward to the futu re 3nd jCl'ra-
m.a.ratla in the other directiou to the past.
(vi) Paricchedato. (N. C.]
(a) DuvidlUJ:
Lokiya: that (lvijia is at the beginuing;
Lokv.ttara : that d,.kk/la d"'pendll upon d-uld.:ha,
saddhu upon $(lddhd, and so on.
(Does this correspond to the quota_
tiOIl from Ptn. given by D. in
- XVII. 84 ?]
(b) Catv..bbidha:
!.:ammo..kilesato hetu : as avijja is at the begin-
bf.jatQ Iwtu.: us in the relati on of a seed
und sproul.
b!l(l va-nihlll ti{i! tt): 1I.n {t @. likfl OllOl!ritikaTtilla {Pl .
mI As in Lhings born together,
(? 8ahaj(Lta-kam1na- lwtu) ns the earth and snow,
mountain and ocean, the
SUllll.ll d nloon . '
(vii) the 1weh'e factors are distri- N.C.
bulert over Lhe classification of being us klHllldhas,
fl.yatanas, dhfl.tU8 and 5aCC8S i 8S, for instance, 50 many of tIle
t"'elve factors are included ill the JQllkhiimkkhamUt(J. and so OIl.
I II the same way the rest.
1. The idea. is not clea.r.
XVI. 31-1
XVI. 3Ij
(8k. 1l.1.5.-11.Ga. 8: '!ak. 452a-452b: Cf. Vis. XVI . 13-end of
the Chap. ]
GaUdTi ariya..!accdl!i ; dllkkha-
1drrodJho, dukhha-niTorlhu.-maugo.
'fhese four truths !lore desc ribed in the same from
Vibbanga. !Io5 are quottl d by B. i ll XVI. 31. The co mment. Oil
the text 01 the Fint '!'ruth : Jati. Vi. duHkii.. iaTa pi. tLukklld
.. .... !ankhitterus. panca updddllakkluwdhd dukkh4, generally
agrees- although it is very brief-with that of B. XVII. 31GO.
except i u a few cases, as on the word jaTa. Upa' s comment
on that word, if rendered in Pali, would be as follows:
Dhdtti.1W-1!l paripdkabhaIJd bala-rupa-indTi!J(J,-$,tana1!l
After giving the comment 00 this textual paslltlge, U plio.
Ilroceeds to tlle clauiffication of dukkha. It is
(a.) Dllvidha:
-vatthudukkha: jdtidvkklta1!l , 01'I)i ydna'Tfl-
&umpayogo, piydn-a"1Jlo vil,payogo, yam pi iccha1!l na
labhati tam pi dukkha1!l. lankhi ttena pafl.;a updddllak.
khandM dukkhii .
labhdIJodwkkhaT[l- : varideva.dukkha'/!l , J.oma-
(b) 1'i'IJidha:
dukkl!(Zukkha1!l; kdyika1.n., f
Jasavd ndhd V(ldOIiG 1

,ankhara4ukkha7!l-: panca: upadanakkha-
ndhd. J
19f. Vis.
);.VI.35 ;
see aho
The wwment 00. thp. tl".J"t of the Seccoo.d Truth geo.erally
agrees ,,"ith t.hat of B. XVI. 61. Wi th reference to the Third
Truth, Upa. is "ery concise, He merely gi,es the text and
gives no co mment on it . He no discussion on NibbOna
as B. gives in XVI. 61-10. He, however, like B. XVI. G-3,
states that the Blessed One preached about thll Cessation of
Suffering by way of the Cessntion or the Origin of Suffering.
'Vheu Upa. COiUes to the Fourth Truth he explains the
Eightfold Path with two alternative iute rpretations of each of
these factors of the Path. His interpretation often differs from
that of B. IXVI. 75-83]. Here it follows:
Catusacce8u Ildt!das8alw7p..
tividha-ktuala-$aw- sallkalJpo.
catubbidhci papacw- viicuya. palui-
Tita virati; n(}.1!!>.
tividha pupaca:ri>ta micchii. kamllla.&,a
man-to: "Virat.i j l)(}hal!aT!l .
micc!tdjivd virati ; 7IticcllrijivGs.$(l-lJalinaT!l.
cattari s(lfIIl.mappa_ 7niccka viriyaua
dlHin<in.i j IJa1ui1!(}'1p..
Samma-wti: catMri satipaHM- Nibba(IC sati.
Sammd-samadhi: cattd,i jhlhUini j cittekaf}f}atd.
Then l1e goes on to show how the Noble Eightfold Path
covers all the thirty-seven bodhidhammas. Icr. Vis. XVII. 8G
and XXII. 3338.]
XVI. 75-83
I' ..
Upa. raises the same question M is raised by B. in XVI. 27, XV!. 21-28
as to why thesfI Truths are just four, neither t. hree nOl" five. p .lI.
The answer of U pa. agrees in gener al wi th that of D. i n the
.first half of XVI. 28. B. gives several other reasons in addition
to the two of Upa.
These Truths should be understood ill eleven ways:
(i) VacanaUhato. Ups.. gives the interpretations of the XVI. 22
a:riya-tacca, dukkha, Jamua.aya, nirodha. and 7II009a.
His interpretations are, as usual, more simple and more natural.
[This corresponds to B. XVI. 16-22).
(ii) Lakkhat;lato. This corresponds to B. XVI. 23, whers XVI. 23
B. also gives ra8a, and pacclIapaHha1/(). Upa. agrees with B. p.a.
only in part.
(ii i) Kam.ato . Icompare B. XVI. 29, 30.] Upa. gives two XVI.:..'9-30
reasons of which only the first oliirikaHhe1UlJ is common with
thnt of Bo's o/arikatta. The second reason given by Upa. is
XVI. 85
p ....
XVI. 81
110 VmU'ITIfu:AGGA [CUAP. XI. 2
,clcch,'kdtabbounena. Upa.. gives a. very Due simile to illus-
trate the appropriatene58 of the order of these 'fruthM. Just
11.1 a skilful physician first sees the symptoms of a diliease,
then the caulie of it, and then seeint !.he nece88ity of
lhe cure or tho disease prescribes a s\litnble medicine; so the
four Truths lllay he known 11.1 coming iu the same order .
(iv) Sallkhepoto. There d06s not o.ppear to be any pllra-
graph in Vis. except a part or XVI. sa, which expresses an
idea similar to that expressed in the hUit of the three cases
under this heading. Upa. expla. ins in the tiut tlvo cases
the denotation of these Trut hs o.nd in the last case he tells
what these Truths can accomplish. Concerning the lMt he says:
Dl,kkllA'I[l lakkdyadiHhidvcira'pidahalla!amatthll'l[l, lamudayo
dVdra-pidapaflcuamattho, '1tla.guo miccMdiHhidtvdra-pidahana
,amUno. (Of.B. XVI, 85 where instead of miccltddiHhi B. hilS
(v) Upamdto. We lind here the similes or vilarukkna.
orimatira and of bllara as given in B. XVI. 87, where B. gives
several others in addition.
(vi) Paricchedato.
CaUdri ,accdni: Sammuti"acca"'!1, pocceka-Iat'caf!l (?
) ariya , lUcu'I[l.
Here it is the last that. is meant.
(vii) Ga!londto. This corresponds, in part onl y, to D. XVI.
86. There n. gives the various dhammas that ate included
under tne Four Trut.hs. U-pa. gives the various a\\.t.rnati' es
ot the dilIerent dhammas that ate covered by the .rat t.wo
Truihs. while tbe last two are in\'ariably the cena.tion of wha\
is included under the second, and the way to tbe ceuatioa
of the same, respectively.
(viii) Ek4etato. This is given to btl of four kinds:
laccotthato, avitathatthato (Cf. XVI.
dhammattitato, lun11tattnato (Cl. Vie. XVI.
(ilt) Ndnattatc.
(A) DlVi&ha:
(a) [okiya1!l: ,d$o.v0.1"fI. ,a1llyo;aniyo.1]l ... (Dha. para-
graph 584) . . Iankilelikaf!l .
lokuttaraf!l: . .. (just the opposite
above) ... asankil",ika'l[l.
Cn4r. XI. 2]
UP,\'i,\ III
(b) lankhata: l acculli.
alCmkhata: NiTodlta-'llCCa7!l.
(e) arupa: ti1}i lacclini.
IllNipa: tLukkha_Iacc(l1[l..
(B) Catubbidha:
(:l) (lkulala:

Nirodha-taCC07!l .
. abYdkata :
pal.dtabba1!t :
lacchiJ.:dtobbaJ11. :
bha v8tabba??t :

duHha" acc(n!' 1
lomud(lya_Iocco'1!l- 1 [or.n.XVI.
NiNJdha-,aCC01/i. 128, 102.1
Magga-IaccIH[I. J
(X) Koma-vittharato . The following will represent the
c1assificalion of the four Truths unde r thi s heading.:
dl/kklut lam11daya Nirodha Mugga
EkaviiMa: la-vi'liid!;la- abhimdna paM/la. of kayagata-
Duvidha: ndmtl1"1ipa
Tividha: rMtHth.
Gatllbbidha: l(1Jkkdya-blu"i.-
VlZ-vat th"u.
(P !t II; :It)
Pal1cavidka: palicn. gatiyo
Sat/(J1\Iid/t.a : latta viliiid-
Af.thavidha: I.I-Uha loka-
what is men-
tioned under
I01Tl6t ha,

rila, lamd
cattdro vi- cattdro IUti
pall illd-
pattlu'l nd.
panCQl-nivll.- pafica ifldri-
eha tar;lhti- cha par-in-il-
" laggadJiammd.
latt", alIU-
satta. bojihan-
sayd gdlli
aHlia. micolla aHll.lmgiko
alltd 'maggo
XVI . 28,

NaL'/uidhu: mUla 'CLtt d- 7ltUla La'f}luimu.
'Vlil d dILemma
[CHAI'. :1:1. 2
pallana na."Va. 'I1immu.-
of what is manasikara-
mentioned m!lia./{,i-
under clhaln1ll{1'
Da8(J!t)iflha: dwa sa7!lYO-
( + jj IT ) juniini
(xi) Sangahato:'
(a) !(halwJ/I.(l.,angaha i dukkha is included under all the
five kh nndhas, lamudayUJ and Magga under lankharakklumdlw
and Nirodha uuder no kIIa7w].ha .
(b) ifyata.n.a-,all galia: d!,kkll.(l is included under all t1.e
twelve iiyatanas, nnd the remaining three under dll(l1l1-
(c) DMtu-,a.n.flO'W.: dukkl/,d is incl uded under all the
eighteen dhilu9, while the remaini ng u nder dhammadlultu.
In lltia way one understands the noble Tru ths. These ore
called the ariya.,acca..llprJyd.
1 Cf. S. V. ilL Cf. Vis. XVlI. 107 Bvon.i.()om,, :;..;,ikera..mulaku.
2 For this threefold sang-allo, _ Dhiitukathl 1, 2 JJ. and itt commen_
tary, p. l1:i; at.o compare VI. 124 ' (Bur. ed. 176),
Rha,,01lC,, laRQ;'!' lividheRQ; lO"I7'IM=1'-
... , allOtane"", eo; abo _ Sph. 3; (comment on I tanu 14):
l//ia/l ava/() Vine,,"v()1UiIT() ddllnd(\: IkandIl41/1l10fladMtuddonlI(\.
[Uk. 11.Ga..9-11.19n.B (end of m.ll) ; Tak. 453b-45Gc;
Cr. Vis. Clmplers XVIII, XIX, XX in "art aud XXI . 1-281.
'l'he yogul)/lCaro,. when he has undenlood the khnudhas, dh1itus,
ilyatllnn.s, hetUjlaccnyos aud anccas, should know that there
exist illese things only and that there is no latta, uo iha, that
there ate only ,I.(ima and ,.upa, tilnt one does 1I0t consist of the
other , and yet one is uot iudependent or the other. (Compare
Vis. XVIII. 33, 32: NU'11Ia'T[l- rupe'lla '!amella
'U1I1Iam, a1tnamO'l'mo.'!l 7Iiuuyevo. puvutta.ti. 'io ill ustl'ate
this uature ot fldma and r1ipa, Upa. has given here the
simile of a clrum and Bouud, as well all that of a blind
man and a lame mnn. (These similes are giveli ill Cull iu Vis.
XVIII. 33,35.) Upa. dilates much upvn the distioctiou
hetween ndma. and rupa. The lormer has no budy, is Bighty
and very easy to move, while the laUer has body. and slow to
The former can think, know aud understand, while the
la.tter cannot do so. The former cau know '1 walk, sit, stand
01' lie down.' aIlhough it canuot do 80 i tself. 'i'he r'l'ipa. alone
call do these movements. Similarly "lima cannot do the actious
of eating, drinkiug, tasting, etc. which CRn he done by the 1'v1)a
1110DI:, but it can know ' I eat, drink, taste, etc.' Thw he knows
that it is only the sallkh1irus that exist, !tnd they are nothing but
Buffering. When he hilS thi s insight into aufferiug (dukkhe
there is ya:.hubh1Ha.-ilii1!ad'f)4'(l11tJ-1J1',udelM, or "iima-
,!lo. [Cr. B. XVIII. 37, XX 130\.
Even atter this if the yogdva.cara. hns stilt llUY thought nbout
,a.tta, he should further reBect upon the cause! (fl idu7Ia) of
lulIering. He should reflect upon the Law of Causation, or
of Dependent Originatio-n, both in the regular order as well as
iu the reverse order. He may reflect upon this Law of Depend-
cut Originatiou in fuli, or, even in brier, beginning with
'Uedanapaccy,j t(l1}lieJ [Cr. ViB. XVII. 28,30,32,37, 411 . ThUll
XVill. 32,
Simil. in
xrVtb clI.
diff .
htl has an insight illto the origin of suffering
;iuJ;l-a??l), whi ch is the Bame as or llCtlllJac-
catyapar.i.ggahe li(intl??l, 01" All these
6xpressions ffiM.n Ule same thiog though they arc different ill
words. [Cf. Vis. XIX. 25-26.1
When the yoga1!(N;(bra has thus understood tile of
Suffering, he further reflects upon the Cessation of Suffering. By
reflecting upon the Law of Dependent Originat ion in Hie nega-
t ive way, tbat is to aay, that the cessation of suft'erillg is IJOssible
by the cessation of birth, and 80 on, up to tbat the cessation of
snnkhiiras is possible by the cessation of ignorance (avijja),
he sees that Nirodha also is hetllpaccGYlV-patibaddha, nnd that
by the cessation of craving (ta.7;l-ha), it cnn be attained. When
he has thus realized the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.
be tries to find out the Path for the cessation of craving. He
kt;lows that seeing danger in the fi ve upidano.kkhaudhas is lhe
Way, the P atb.
He then reflects upon tIle upiidanakkhanrlhas in one hundred
and eighty ways. Upo n nlpa tor instance he reflects in this way :
Atthi rupa1p. atUa1[l-, anayata",,!", pa.ccuppOJ/1;Ua??l-, ajjnatta7!l-,
bahiddhli, paritta'f!/>, o/driko.??l, Jukhuma.'1[I-, dure,
Jantike, sabbM]t nlpa??l alliccan ti pa,uati. IThis is the same
quotation from Po. i.53.4 as is given iu B. XX. 6.1 In the
same way he refleots upon the other four khandbas. Thus
there would be 12 multipl ied by 5 i.e. 60 kinds of reSections.
Add to theso, 60 in each of tlle other two r eflections by way of
dukkha and anattli. 'l'hus we get one hundred and eighty in all.
There is also another way. He reflects D.8 anicca, dukldlO,
nnd an.atta on the following groups; [Cf. the list in Vis.
XX.91 6 G biihiTG-liytamini-, 6
G phauakdyd, 6 'Vcdanai.:ayJ., 6 safi ff dkdya, 6 cetamukJya, G
tal1).hd.ka.yd, 6 vitn.kl;a, 6 vicard.. ThuB we get one hundred and
eighty (3x 6x 10).
He consi(ters 0.11 sankllii.rns os changing frOI!l year to year,
month to month, day to day, nay, even from mOIDent to moment.
In fact they appear to be new every moment [B. XX. 104;
niccanavdi, li ke the continuous flame of a lamp [the constituent
particles of which are new every momentl.
He also considers them as dukkhd,a1tattd. Byanicclinupaua.-
nli hi s mi nd is inclined to animitta dlidiu, by dukkha"l1'Upa-
SJana to dhatu, Gnd by onotiuntlpauana to JlIfiiIatli
dhdtu. He understands by hiB discrimi nating knowledge that
every kind or u:istence 6uch as tayo bhatld, pallea g(ltiyo,
MUa Ila1,;a is feadul und uuren!.
The yogd'llaeara, huving discriminated Ihe upidiiuokkhandbo9
these three wislH!S 10 cut them oft . BIl t ukes
the flimitta ond peuetrates to the tldaya and tlaya.
Upa. gives three ki nds or
ei ) R ile&a-nimitta-ga}w./}a. l 'lIi8 is the perverse view N,O.
(llipallti50Ja;lna) of an ordinary man, that things are llermanent
when they ore not. He i9 ottnched to the kilesas. l 'h;s is
like the falling at a moth into a
(ii) On one of the thirty-eight
nimittas (Le, kammatthuuas
) he conceutraies his mind aud
thus binde it with the object. 'fbie is like the goad applied
to an elephant.
(ii i) If a man, who entertains
a beliel t hat thinga are permanent, sees with insight into eoch
of the five khandhas wi th their characteristics, he would wi sh
to give them up, like a man who has seized a Jloisonous serpent.
[For t.his simile compare Vis . XXI . 49-50.1
Upa. goes iulo details of the way of taking the ni mi tlas
and penetro.ting to thE' lakkhaQss. or the former he giveR 1""0
ways : aramTlUl"!lalo and 71tana!ihirato, and of t.he latter three :
hetute, paocayato, and ,a.-ra$ato, in each or the two of
lIdoya ond vayc..
He Ilenetrate! to the "d"4ya and vaya of nnkhiiraa.
he hAA seen udaya and 'IIoya, he understands four things:
1 [From the el..pi anahon given
(I) dalakkhcmadhamm(Jl I of thcee terms, tney appear
(ti) "t'Ino.1tta-dhamma 10 correspond to ekaUallaya,
nanatta1!olla, abyti.parandya
(ill) aku-iya-dhamma and ella1?l-dhammatdnaya of
(IV) ,amma_dhamma n XVII. 309-313 , also they
appear In XX. r02 J
These terms are explnined at great length. He perfects
hill knowledge a! the sankhurllS and kcow8 thf't all the sank-llama
1. See Chap. VII, abo"e, p. sa ff.
XVli. 309-
XX. 102
XX. 76
X:'i:. 7S
XX. 79
;VTII. 32,
33, 36
are limited, at the beginning by udo.ya, and at tile end by
vaJjo. Thus Ildaya.bbaye 11dl!o.1]1- lankhdra-pariccheJa-tiaf).u"!'
[CI. Vj XXI. 10-28)
The yogavaClt ra, having See!l the and
having tlloroughl y unde ratood t be aankbarD8, paya no Rtlention
to tile uJaya, but t hi nka onl y of'l!a.yo. of the mind . Here in
this connection, we find the )lassage, though in au nbbrevi Rted
form, from Pa. i. 57.58, quoted by D. in XXI. 11.
Upn. t hen proceeds to give the three WQ.ys in which he sees
the vo.ya or bhangc. IWi th t his, comptl.Te Vis. XX. T6, where
we have seven divisioll s, of which the first two are worded in
the lame way (UI the fi rst two here. but the e:'1>lanations agree
only in part.] Tbe three waya are:
(i ) (The second nplanation of Upa. agrees wilh
the second explanation DC B. given in Vis. XX. T8.1
(ii) Yamokato. This rougbly agrees with Via. XX. 19 .
(iii) Po.ricchedato. ITe Bees the vo.ya of many minds.
Thus the yogdvacora sees with hia inaight all wordly things,
eve n to tbe smallest speck, as changing, growing, aging and
passing out or existence. Further, he sees them ns described
in the go.thas given by Upa.
(Here we havo a. number or githie, quite n few or which aTe
the same 8IJ given by B. at the end of the XVIIIth chRpler, in
paragraphe 32, 33 anti aG. All the stanzas in para 33 are
lound in substanti ally the sallie Corm-though not ill the same
order-with only a rew variations i aa for instance, instead of, Upa. hi'll T"pagar.dhiidi-pancadllammd.
Simil A.rly, the gdtM in paragraph 32 is the same except I.hat the
laBt quarter shows a li ttle variation in words but the meaning
appears to be the Bame. In these stnnzas, we meet with the
si miles of a. fl ash of lightning and 1\ go.ndhabbo.-nagara. . ISee
Via. XX. 104, XXI. 34. J The firet atanza of paragraph 36 is
also the I l\me except t hat ill8tead of "ukena balena. Upa. has
,akena kdyena. In the aecond sLanza of the same paragraph,
instead of parapaccayato ea i';1/ar6 and para-dra7llmalJ;ato,
Upn. has resp;)ctively na attat ... jdyare and flO
D. haa ascribed these stanzns in paragraphs 32,33 to tbo
PoraQ.ila, nnd though it is not 80 definitely slated nboullhe
stanzas ill paragraph 36, still pre8umably they nre from the
same aource.]
'i' he yogavacara. sees the vaya in this way. When he has xx. 105
not yet completely mastered the lamdd-hi, there appear to him ....
the following ten things I which D. calls upaHilcldl :
obM,O, piti, pallddlii, lukha,,!,-, aJ"imokkllO, paUUol1o,
tllluHhoIlCl1!l,!lpekkJuj, aod ttl M. 'I'his is the same list as in given
i n Vis. XX. 105, except that the Inst na given by B. is nikanti'
while thia Chinese text gives what would mean 71.ekklUll1n.mfJ, or
niuaral.!a or
An unintelligent lUan ia distracted by these thioga but an
inlell igoot mall is not distur bed by tLem. He lokiya-
as well as lokuttara-doltamma.-Ni.cM-
'lol"alllmat'a. He removes diatraction, i there be Il. ny, aeen only
1Ja.yo anel skilfully and abundantly develops it.
B Ita"l"/l n iHhtG1Jl.
1. II thi. misunderstood by the CbiueI!o Tn.lI6lat"r as lI ikkAonti or
XXI. 29
I Bk.12. l.4-12.20.2(end)j Tnk. 4500.461<:. cr. B.
XXI. 29 onwards, XXII al1d XXIII.]
[Cf. Vi . XXI. 2:-:!4]
The yog{ivocara. , refl ecting \l ll0n tIle vaya or bhanga,
becomes nfraid of the khnndhns nnd of nil kinds of e:s:isteuce.
such as the three bhavas, five gatis, seven viiHHi.!.!ntthitia nod
nine aaltiiviisll!l, become9 afrnid, as of a frightful man carrying
a sword in his hand, or as of n poisonouB serpent , 01' tIS of a heap
ot fire. [The last two of these similes occur in Vis. XXI. 29,
and, lor ' the first , we have onl y the word 'g}wra' which may
st.a. nd for thi s Bi mile of a frighHul man.] He is afraid of all
nimittas and all ki nds of upplJda and thinks of animitta and
[Cf. Vb. XXI. 44-46. ]
lIt should be noted thnt Upn. does not give any treatment
of or perha})s
becauMe, as B. says, these two are the sam(o as bhayatupaUhdlw.
tiatul. See Vis. XXI. 44, where B. quotes as his authori ty
passages from the Porii.l).as and Piili (Ps . ii. 63) .]
When the yogdvacara sees all aankhiirna liS feartul, he
naturall y wishes to be free from them, l ike a bird that is
lIu rrouuded by fire, or like a penon that is Burrounded by

[It should be noted that Upn-o nt once proceeds to lUmloma
ndl,lG, wi t hout giving the other interveni ng i'ia-:tll8,
and mentioned by n.
in the liet of eight ilii.l).as preceding the See
Vis. XXI. 1.1
The yogdvacara, by the cultivation of mul1citukamyatd.
wi shes to be free from all eankbiiras and is inclined to-
wards nibbana. He coneiders all as anicca, dukkha
o.o.d illlattD nnd considers their ces!ntion as flicca, and
What is lilt'! meaning or
catMro ratipa,nhlinli, etc. [All the thirty-seven
given i n Vis. XXII. 33 are mentioned here.]

Up::.. :lnS\\,e r8:
bodhi -dham1l13s
Upn. exple.ins the word gotT'abhu nnd his explanation XXII. Ii
generall y ngrees with that of D. XXII. 5. He at!lO g ins a
quotation from Pa. i. GO, though in an abbrevi nted form, which
corresponds to that given by B. in XXII. 5.
Gotrabhll-7ia'.w"Jl fliHhita1!l.
I mmediately alter this gotTblui-fl12tta, he lItis nn insight iuto
Suffering, cuts off 'the Origin of Suffering, experiences its
Cessation, nnd cnltivates the Path for tIle Cessntion of Suffering,
o.ud the ,otdpatti-tnagga-fiu'.Ia as well as all the Bodhidli'ammii
are produced. At one and the same moment, Dot borore or
after, he makes .acca-pariccheda. To illustrate this simui_
taneous nature of Jacca-paTiccheda, Upn. gives three simiies-
that or a boat crossing the floods,o! the lamp that is burning, and
or the Bun that is shining. (These aimiies are gi ven by B. in
exactly the snme words in XXII. 96, 92 and 95 rl'8pectively. He
nscribes the of thlllamp definitely to the PoraE.las,' while
i n the cnse of others though he does not say so, they are clearly
rrom the saCle source.]
Upa. give3 a very fine simile to illustrate the difference
between gotrabhu-iiu'f}G and The former is
compared to 0. man who has put onl y one foot outside the threa
hold of the gate of :l city which is burning, while the laUer is
compared to another man who has put both of hia feet ouhide
the gate. Just u.s the former man cannot La said to iUl'Ve
properly escnped the burning city so t he yOga1JaOllT(J has not
properly escaped the bu.rni ng city or kilesu, it he has only the
gotrabh.,j-fidJ;lQo. But when he has the "!l40ga.fiaf.!3, he has
properly escaped the kilesas, li ke the second mlLn in the o.bove
1 For th_ similiea .1.10 see VIth Chllp. p. lSC (Bur. ed. 181),
Abdhm. ISZ-33.
2 D.o imile ;9 IIltoiether different; lee XXII. 1213.
XXII. 92,
91i, !Xl
19 id.
un. 65
an. 66
:11. 103
VIMUTTIMAGGA (Cuu. :r;u. 2
simile. It is this m(l!}ga'fUi.1]4< which makes the l Ucca-pari-
The yogu1Jaca1'a then destroys the three slllllyojallRs; lakkdya-
diHhi, 1Jicikicclid, and lilabbata.-1JaramclJa nod nttains t he
lottipatLi-p]wla.' 'Vhen he has destroyed the ,akkiiyatl,itthi.
he has destroyed all the si xty-two diHhis. For, lakkliyadi Hhi
i9 the chiof of nU the heresies. Upa. then goes on describing
how he gradually proceeds on his path towards Al'hnt.5hip. His
description generally correspond8 to that of D. XXn. 15-29.
Although Upa. is \'ery brief, we often find the same nrres-
SiODS as those or D. For iustance, the pnitS3ge about the five
paccavekkhnQll s of the 8otdpa1!na is uactly the as in B.
XXII. 19.
Upo. next goes on to tell U8 about the three kinds or sotii-
pan nas: mudidriyo &attakkllllttuparamo, majjhimind'riyo
kolaT[1-/,:ol,!, aDd tikkhi1HM-iyo elwbiji' [ef. Vis. XXIII. 55].
He hWl nlso the snme five kinds 01 auiigiimh as giveu by B. i n
XXII f . 56, but he adds that these five kinds of anagli mh are
seen i n ench ot the first four classes.of Suddlwva!(I goos,
nawely, Avihas, Ato.p pas, Sudasu.s, and while in t116
last clllJls, namely that of AkaniHha gods, there are only four,
because there is no Uddhmruota, as the highest stage baa beeD
already reached. From the state of a u AlIdgami he goes to
Arbatllllip. He has destroyed all the kil eaDs compl etely. cut
01I all saukhiirns aud made an end of all suffering.
To show the unknown nature of the destiny of nn Arhat,
Upa. gives a very approprinte simile. Just as when iron is
beatell. (red-hot ) and dipped into. water lind conled, we do. not
know where the sparks nf fire go, /In we do. not know ll.IIythiug
about the desti ny of au Arhat whe n he has reached the U0. 8hak-
nble Happy State!
U pa. ue:r.t refers to the vieW's of SOlDe teacbers who believe
iu the flandb/!i,amaya referred to by D. in XXI.I. l 03. D.
simply ralers to the Kath41atthv. for the refutation of t heir
1 Cf. 145, (Bur. 00. 186): Tatt ha ,otl!panno kalham hoti P
2 Of. lInd Chapter, p. 33-34 (Bur. ed. p. 135). .
3 cr. Sa. 1074: A,,,i tI'lth4 w4tavtg(1\(1 khi/to atthal!' paldi na "peli
nQop. muni n4mahiycJ 'IIimutto at/hll,!, p:tldi tla
t.!ptli ,flwkhlll)'l .
arguments, but Upa. proceeds to show the fl aws ill t.heir
argument, lie points out seven flaws, at least two of whi ch
can he identified with some of the relutations of this theory
given in the Kathavntthu, i. 213, para. 5 If., 216, pa.ra. 10. There
i8 one more passage containing the objection raised by nn
opponent, ' d ukkluuacca1]l caftari artYfl-lflcciiniti , ' \Kv. i.218.
para. 141 that can be traced in Upa. Another passage given in
answer to the above objection, 'Rtlpakkhandh" aniccato dirHh e,
pafi.cakkhandlui ani ccato diHh6 hontf t i" can also be traced.
And in the way, says Upa., the iiyntanal and dhiitus,
The Kathayatthu gives them in detail.

Upa. continues: Ettha 'Veditabbd., He
gives the following: 'Vipau and, vitakka, pHi, 'Vedanu, bhumi ,
in.d.,.iylilli, 'Vimokkllo, kilel u, dln'-la1nddhi-IG1n.ilpajjana1]l-.
Upo.. tokes them one after another allli goes into the detailed
treatment of them showing what part they play in the progress
or the yogdvacara towards his ideal of Arhol.ship.
Upa, gives two kinda of 'IIipammd: jhcina--vipau and and
lukkha--1!ipaJl(111-4. If the yogtluac'lr.a. destroys the nlvaraQM
by the power of lamadhi, then he cultivates lamatha-pubball-
lIama--l1lpa..uaml, If, on the contrary, he destroys nivaral}U
by t.he power of his insight, he cuhivales 'Vipauan.1-pubba.n-
'flil is explained as tukkha-vipauand , U po.. Ihows in wha.t
atagGII on the onward path of yog61JacarUJ, it is found a.nd
in what stages it is lIot found.
PIn 1
The treatment of lhese together with that of the
lut corresponds to Vis, XXI. 112-114, but the
explanationa do not agree ill all respeots, Upo.,
o.\so gives here the different aapecu of the Path
snoh la-vitakicablnzmi, Gvitakka--bhumi,
XVI . 1-10
much diff.
Dauana.bhumi' in the Sotiipatti .magga ; or in aniccadilt"i.
Sankapprt.bhumi in the remaining three Paths aud ill
the four Fruits; or in the reflection and practice of
a1Uicca.J,iuhi. IThe first interpretations correspon,: to
XIV. 13.1
Or e1se,
Sekh4-bMi:mi in the four mng-gas and three phalaa.
dlekha-bh1lmi in the Fruit of Arhatship.
Three kinds of lokuttara-indriyas,> anmifldta1iii/lwlmitin-
dJri;ya, aii1iind,.iya, and alil1iitd1:indTiya, which respectively
nppear in the sotapabtimaggo.iiii"Ia, in the of the ne,;t
three Paths as "I'o"ell as of the Fruits of the fi rst, second
and third Paths, aod in the lMtio. of the Fruit of Arhatship.
ICf. Vis. XVI. 1, 10 where these indriyas are given.)
dnimittG, appa7}ihita, and mfhiato. These are the
three kinds of vimokkhas. Long passages are given to
describe these. Only the introductory words of these
passages are found in the quotation from Ps. ii. 58, given in
Vis , XXI. 70. In the pa.!sage from that quotation about
the I, we have an expression 'Vedabah1llo
for which Upa. has a \vord which is the equivalent of
Upa. gives a long list of 134 kilesas, together with the
detail s II.!! to which of them are enfeebled and destroyed by
which of the Four Paths. [Cf. Vis. XXII. 49.76.}
(i) akusalamulani: lobho, doso, 'moho .
(ii ) Tiuo pariye$ana: bhava",

1. See Netti 50: Da.!1a1l<1bll..l.mi nivamo."o.kkanti1{ll padaHM1I<11/1-;
bh<hafl(l-bll.Umi uttaTik4na", pho.ldna'!1- pattiy4 padaHh411(11)l. AI50 cf.
VIth Chap. 145 (Bur. ed p. 185): ariV{l-bhilmil'o, caf ldri
lamafhla-phalan.i; tattha 1'0 V{lthdbhiitClI!1- paja1l<ii, dal.mna bhiimi .
2. For these three indriyas also see Chaps. II and III, pp. 56,
71-72 (13ur. cd. pp. 146, 152).
3. The same three are mentioned in Vbh. 866 and VlIIth Chap.
284 (Bur. cd. 251).
(iii) Cattaro dJav4:
(iv) CattiTo gantha:
(v) CaUdro oghfl
("1) CatMro yogd J
(vii) Cattari uptiddniini:
kdmo, bhavo, diHhi, avijjd.
abhiiihii, bydpddo, Jllabbata-
pa1"iimdJo, ida111-laCciibhinivclo.
kamo, bhatlo, diHh';, avi.jja.
kdmo, diHhi, li.labbata1Jl.,
(v iii) CataJ,o agaiyo: chando, dOlo. bhaya7!l-. moho.
(ix) Pmica macchariyfllli: a1:a,a-maccliariya7!l-. kula ,
liibha, (e.)*/ dhamma.
(x) Pafica nh:ara'.lfl7Ii: kamaochanda, bytlpdda, thhla-
middha1fl, uddhacca-kukk1Icoa1.n, vicikiccM. [It
is to be noted here that according to B. XXII.
71, thinamiddha and llddhacca are aba.ndoned
at the time of Arhahhi p.' But accordi ng to Upa. ,
it oaly !luna and lIddhacco that are given up
at the time of Arbauhip and not micldha.
Because be &ays that 1nitIdha is rllpd1ltWatti. For
U pa.'s position r egarding see above
pp. 4.8, 90.J
(xi) Cha vivadamul4ni: kodho, makkho, 'iud,
piipicchat4, ,anditphiparam4Iatd.
(xii) Satta anuJayd ( ): Kiimw,rago, mdno, diHhi,
vicikicohd, bhavardgo, avijjd.
(xiii) A Hha loka dhammd: labllo, aldbho, yalo,
palallucl, niMa, dukkhClfT!l1, $-ukha'!!..
(xi v) Navama7Ul : Seyyaua',eyyo 'hamalmt'ti '1Il aIlO, and
the remaining eight as given in Vibhnnga. 389-90.
(xv) Dala killf,a-vatth, lobho. dOlQ, moho, 1Ikino, diHhi,
vicikicch4, thina'!?'-, tddhcu;(!a1!l-. ahirt"/:a,!?,-, anot-
1. Tbe Chinese w:.:t interprcu tbe word 11a(l.!IQ. /II! nipa ( ("rrn)
Ind ibis is in keeping .. ith tbe alter nat iu interpretation gj,.cn in t be
Commentari es. See DCm. iii. p. 1027: Vart(lO ti c'dthe Vi
I1u.paOOtitlO pi DhCm. 375 comment.. on "
follo ... : pana vcariyatt idhamma-
ma.<'MriyellG c;a a/tano n IIGtI(lo ti, Jl'CIrutl'/1 va!llW 'k1", uo'ti tal!"
tal]l dow", ..adell/O pariVCZHiIl eo. I.:auo " kill ci adell/o dubbartfW C'I..a
qa""l"o ta hot;.
2. See /11.&0 Dem. iii. p. 1027, Thfl101J1. citf4.."eiall!1a,!,-; ",idalia""
khandllattava-ge/afta",. UbhallRm pi AmhaUama""aMjjha'!1-. Cf ls.:;
MOm. i i. 216: midaha,!,- ce/(lIil.:a-"do1h1a",.
lUnAP. Xlt. 11
tappa1!l. There also another al U!rnative to these.
'That man has done a great harm to me, or il
doing. or will do.' The same three cases with a man
whom one likes or dislikes. These nine with the
addition of the ten lh, the thought of doing ha: ':Il,
make up the number teo.
(xvi) Dala aku,ala /':amma.patha: adinllilddllaJIl-,
[kdmel'ul micehdcdro, mU$d'llado, vdea
[the Chinese Text has a word which means
'double wngueal. pha?'usd 'Vdcd [the Chinese text
would strictly mean papikd 'Vdea] , ,amphappaldpo,
abhijihd, byapMo, miechd diHhi.
(:uii) Da8a ,a7[lyoiandni <+ -i!!)1 : These are the same lUI seven
o.Dusayas mentioned above (in the xiith
category) with the addition of dlabbataplmi.
mlfla, iud and macchariya. [This list differs
from the usual list of the teo SD1]lyojaoas,
which gives ?'!tpa-raga, (J;rupa rdga and
tuldlract;() in the ploce or bhava-rdga, illd, and
1IIacchariya of this list. [See Abha. p. 32, Chap.
VII. para 2.]
(xviii) Dasa micchantd: the same It! micchaUa of B. XXII.
(xix) DvddMa vipalldJG: the same as mentioned in D.
XXII. 53, 68.
(:xx) Dvd&a4a akulala.cittuppad6: the same as mentioned
in D. XXII. 63, 76.
'rhus we have a list of 134 kilesas. Upa., unlike D., describes
in several cales at which DC the Paths these kilesaa are
enfeebled beCore they ere finally destroyed. Even It! regards
the etage or their complete destruction, Upa. often diffel'8
from D.
1. For the lint time wb(!re tbe enumeration of tho categoriea of tbe
kilesa& is given (12.13.3) , tbe ehancter used i, iti although bere where
the detailed oo"*t itu6lIta are given the: character used i.a It .ppean,
therefore, that both the charadera .. re inditcriminat.e1.r used, .. lthough
1I'e h .... e IIeeD above that the latter character is nsed for a ... ,.,a"". In
Pnyluski 'I.e Conceile do Rijagrha (first part), p. 48, we lind u.sed for
aRU.$(Il/CI, wbile fIi ill! is ueed for GI)\lI"iana. For the very dight distinOo
tion betWe6ll th_ 1.11'0 "Words, lee MCm. iii. '0 kiluo bo:nd/ul-.
na"Atna "'",yo;allal)\. apJlQAfnaHhcfla MUlaI/O.
........ ', ......... J
fA) Aputlmjiallasevitrl
(D) SaihMlledollita.nirodha,amapatti.
With reference to the (A), UIJa. raises the followiug
questions and answers them:
(i) What is phala-8umapatti.? It is a fdmalhiapl/ala with
the mind (citta) placed on Nibbcina: [cf. B. XXIII. G: ariya-
phalaua nirod-he appall.a. ] This is called phalaJamapatti.
(ii) Why is it called phala,amapatti? H is neither kUJala,
aku.ala, nor kiriyd. I It is as the lokuttara-magfJa
phala-vipdko anll 80 it is thus call ed.
(iii) Who attain it? The Arhats and the Anagamte, because
the ,amddJhi reaches perfection in their CMe (.&t JIb }i! f1'::
tAt). Also there are some' who say on the authority of the Abll1:'
dhamma that all the Ariyas attain it. Upa. here quotes, as
their authority, a passage which agrees with the passage from
Ps. i. 6S: Sotdpattimagga-patildbltaUhtiya abhi
bhullyatl tv gotrabhti , Sotapattipltala.6omdpottattMlIll
abhibh1,yyaH ti gotTabh-rl_ Eva'l!l- Jabbate/w.. lD, gives the sOlne
passage, in a fuller form, in Vis. XXIII. 7J.
[D, refers exactly to tbis view that is held by Upa. wheu be
S8YM: keci. Po.lIQ'Iotdpanna-,ok4ddg!Jmino p' na .omdpajjanti.,
IIpar-nnd dve yeva ti vadanti. lda:it ca t8,a1?l'
Eto hi paTipuTakiirino ti , D. refutes
this by saying that even a putkuiiollCi can attain that
state [of perfection] in a lokiya--samadhi attoined by him,
and by further adducing the pas!age froLD 1's. i. 6S [given
above in brief] in support of his position. It is evident from
t-his that Upa. was aware of this vie'v and the nrgument on
which it was based,J
The &arne
thll.tof D.
1, i. refer-
red to by
Upa. ned refers to another view ucco rding to which all
Ariyas may have it but only tboso in whom ,amdd.hi has
reached perfection call attain it. Tt;l support this view, Upa.
1. Cf. II. similar . tatement about tbe dbutu or dbutang .. on pp. Zl, U
.boge. The Taisbo edition gi .. es a different pUDctuation and 110 it gi.,.ea a
Iliahtly differl!llt interpret ation.
2. Upa.bere refera to the .. iew beld by tbe of Buddbagbon.
12, 13

VrMUT'flMAGGA [CIu.l>. :lll. 2
quotes one Ayasma Narada' INa-la-tho 1m Ii 1fB) who saye
to mendicants "Just as in a. mountain-forest there may be a well
but no rope with the help of which water may be taken out. If
at that time there comes a mall overcome by the heat of the Bun
and fatigued by thirst, and if he sees the well and knowil that
there is water in it, but still can Dot actually reach it,' then
merely by his knowledge about the existence of water in the
well and by seeing it, he caunot satisfy his thirst; so in the
same way, if I know nirodha as 1l!ibballQ and even if I have a
perfect I do not thereby become a
khi7}{uava AruM."
(iv) 'Yhy is it attained? The answer is the same 8S B.'s:
dlitthadh1l'l-masukhavihdrattha1?l [B. XXIII. 81 . Upa. gives
a quotation in which the Blessed One is described as aaying to
Kuanda I-hat he finds his body in a pMwl)iMra when he attains
(v) In what way does he attnin it? The answer substantially
agrees with thai given in B. XXIII. 10.
(vi) In what way does he reflect (katha7[l- ca karoti?)
dlanklUJta77l- a'1llatawhatu7[l- mntato manasikaroti.
(vii) In what way does he attain it, stay in it, and emerge
from it? The answer is the same in substance-although the
words used are different-of what is said in quotations from
M. i. 296-97, given by . B. in XXIII. 9,12,13.
(viii) Is this samddhi lokiya or lokuttara? This samapatti
is lokuttara and not lokiya.
Upa. then goes into a brief di5cu8sion of a technical point.
When the Anagami reflects upon the phalaM,mdpatti, why is i t
that the gottrabhu does not produce, without any i nterveni ng
obstruction, the Arahattamagga-? '1'he answer is: because it does
not produce lIipculanada,, as it is not the tbing aimed at;
and because it is not st rong enough.
1. Who is this "Narada.f m"y. 3470 mentiolU! aile Nara.dabhikkhu
uuder 'Mohor,014m4ni'. A.iii.67-62 mentiou$ one Nii-ratb.bhikkhu,
wbo is sho .... n w be <XID5oling King MUl}o;la on the death of bis wife
Bhadda. Petavattbu refers to one in pp. 1,2,44. Also see Petavattbu
Commeutary 2,15,208,210,211, etc; ViminavatthuCommentary 165109,
203; DbpCm. I.42,84,344. .
2. Of. 190 (Bur. ed. 206): 1J(Ith4 gambkire tdap4ne
eakkhun4 panati, 1\(> ca k4ye1l<l e"amauo ariyd
nijjh4nakkhantiUt\ bhalNlti, tIa ca &acchikot4.
(This is the answer of Upa. to the objection raiseJ by
D. in XXIII. 11, to tbe view or some: Y c' pana 'Vadanh:
lo/apanno pha/atamdpatti1]1o Mmdpajjillu'lii ti
paHhapetva u"kadiigami hoti-, f akadagami ca anugamf ti, Ie
vattabba: fati alldgdmi art1 ka bhaviuat1, af'DM pacceka-
buddho, paccekabuddlw ca bud&ho. Upa. seems to have
anticipated Ihis objection raised, perhaps along will ' olhen,
by the school B.l
Then he speaks of dmvidha,efa, which seems to he dilf.
quite different from B. '8 dvhi dkdrehi ra,dnubha1'ana1]l holi
[D. XXIII. 3[.
U p!L. next proceeds to the treatment of (B) 8a1hid-1Iedayila-
n1'7od,hOrlo:rmipatlJi , which very closely resembles timt given
by B. in XXIII. 17-51.
(i) What is la,hid-vedayitt.-nirodha-Ianrii patti? Citta-
ceta.ikana"/?1 appavatti.. (See B. XXIII 181.
(ii) Wbo attain it? The AniigamIs and the Arhats. I n
them, the la'11lddhr: reaches perrection. Upn. says thai the
SotiipanDas, Sakndiigiimls and those beillgs who are in the
G1"12pa'tlacara.loka cannot attain tllis ,amapat.ti. VIla. also
gives reasonB.
(iii) Being endowed with what powers can one att ain it?
The powers of ,amatha and vipauand. The treatment of them
iB the Bame as in ViB. XXIII. 19-23.
(iv) By the ce!sation of what sankhiitl\s is it attained? Tho
answer is the same as is contained in t hat part of the quotatioll
from Ps. i. 97.100, which is giveu by B. i n XXIII. 24.
(v) What are the preliminaries (pubba--kiccani)? They are
the same four as given by B. in XXIII. 34, except that for
SatMupakkoraM7[l we havo ;f .. whi ch means twi kkliepa.
(vi) Why is it at tained? DiHhadhamma,-ukhaviJUJratthaT{J.
For, it is added: aya1]l aroiydnll1P ,a.bbapacchimd
,amilrl.hi. And further to produce'.s one enters upon
vipphdra. fa17U'idhi, 9.s 4yo&'11I4 Sanj Iva di d to protect his body.
Aa alao Siiriputta' and (3 T (Moggaliputta.ti ssa( P
1. DhlUllmapila (ii. p. 896) here again UI that B. mikes tbil
.tatement with referllDCiI to Abhayagiri .. idin .
2. See P .ii.212. The storiea given in M.i .S33 Ind Ud. 89-40 are
hrieBy narrated in B.Xll .32 and 31 f8llpeclil"oiy.
3. TiMa, the son of whi te bird (Mogge!.).
uid. (Cf. B. XXUI. 37, where only the firs t two of these
Dames are given but i n a different contex t . The last IHuna is
lIot there. J
(vii) . How is it attained? The answer is the same as is given
in V i ~ . XXIII. 31-34, 43_47, eJ:cept that according to D. there
Ilfe not mo re than two nevasaiii'iii.-nii.siliiiHi-cittas, while accord.
illg to Upn. there may be two or thr ee.
(viii) How does he emerge Crom it? He does not think
'I ahil ll emerge from the 8afmadhi
but when the time-limit
thnt is previously determined is reached, he emerges from it ,'
(i:l:) Wit.h ,vhat kind of citta does he emerge from it? An
A7I.cigamf with allcigdmi-citta nud an Arhat with arahatta-citta .
[Or. B. XXIII. 49.)
(x) How many contacts hlUl he? Three contacts, contact
with 1'\t7111Gta, animitta, aud appu1.'ihita.
(xi ) What Sankhiira.s first arise? First kiiyasankbiirl\8 and
then vacI-sankhiirall.
(xii) What is the difference between a dead person and one
who hns attained this tam4([,1ti? The answer is the lIame as given
by D. in Vis. XXIII. 51, in the quotation from M. i . 296.
(xiii) Ie Ihis samad/ti sankhata or asankhata? It cannot he
said of this la'madlii thnt it is lankhata or asankhata. There is
no lallkliatadhamma in this .amadhi. and one cannot know when
asankhata&hamma comes and goes. (Cf. Vis. XXIII. 52. 1
Nirodhajihuna-Iaml!.patti niHhit6.
At the end of this chapter ill given the udddna of the lwelve
chapters in the book.
Then there is a concluding gatka, which purports to say:
'Who can know this Dhamma. which is profound, un-nam_
able, unthinkable? Only that who resolves upon
cultivating the excellent Path, who has no doubt in t he instruc-
t iODS and who has no ignorance.'
1. Thi, and t he following four questionl are ditcu..oo ill M.i.S02
(Sutta No. 44).
[ 1. My article ill t.he AUDah of the lJbandarlto.r Orielltnl Itesearch
l uatitute Vol. XV parts IU-IV pp. 208-11 ia reproduced her o with 60W"
altuatioD! a n ~ necessary corrcctiou$.)
'I'he development of il child ill tLll wowb
from week to \I-eek.
a ~ given ill t he Vimuttiruaggu (Chap. VIII, 4; p. 16,)
ht week KalaJa
2nd " Abbuda
31'd "
5th "
6th "
9th week and 10th wee.k
11th wee.k
14th "
16th ..
24th ..
26th' "
Five joints
Foul' joi uts (possibly ill addition
although it is not 80 expressly
said 88 ill the following case)
Four more joints
28 additional joiuts
Spille and bones
300 hones
800 joints
900 sinews
100 flesh balls
pleura , (kilomaka)
Colour of the skin
/(ammaja vdta. all over the body
11000 por es (?)
Solid body
99000 pores oE t he hail' Oil t.he body
All the limbs or the body
Also it is said that in the seventh week the child remains by
the back of the mother with the head dOWJl, In the 42nd week,
the child is Uloved from its position by fhe windy element born
of karma and comes t.o the yonidvara. with ita head below. And
then there is birth,
13<) VlllUTTL\.lAGGA
List of worms in a human body as given in the Yimuttimagga
(Chinese version Chap. VIII. 4 ; p. 76.)
'f he Vimuttimagga refers to 80,000 families of worm8 in all ,
H also gi ves the llames of some worms as follows :-
Hail' of the hend
Brain (watthalulll:j\I)
(i ) Yu-cu-ling-po
(iii) Tho-Io-a.
(hair. iron)
Er-tsung (ear. ki nd)
Tie.Quul.l-hsien (ma ddened
iulo foul' cat egories .
(i i ) 8a-l)010
(iv) 'l' bo-a-S8. lo
'i' hie-yen (licker of t htl eye)
'l' hie-er (" ear)
Thie-pi (" ., ,, nose)
subdi"ided into three kinds:
(i) Lau.kheu-mo-ii.("hil) (i i) A-Ieu-khen
(iii) Mo_na. la.mu_kUo
'f ougue Fu-kie (or Fu-cie)
Root of the tongue Mu-Ian-Io
Teeth Kyu-po
Root of the teeth Yu-po-kyu-po
Throat il. ( b1\ )
Neck subdivided into two kinds :
( i ) La-a.Io ( ii ) phi.lo-i-lo
Ruir of the body ( l orna ) Thie-mLio (hcker of hair of t It e body)
Nuils Thic-ha.-o (licker of nails)
Skin subdi'i'ided i nto two kinds
(i ) 'h-na
Pleura (KilomakalJl )
( i) Phi-lil n-po
( i) ..
(i ) Po-Io
Sinews (nhi ru )
( i) Lay-to-Io
( ii ) Tu-uan- to
subdivided into two kinds :
( ii ) Yo-o-phi_lLin_po (Maha )
Two kinds :
( ii ) Lo-sa_po
Two ki nds :
( ii ) P o-to_lo
Fonr kinds :
( i i ) Si_to_si
( iii) Po-Io. po-to-Io
( iv ) La-na-po-Io-na
Ki-l i-tli -ni
Root of the pulse
( i) Sa-po-Io
Two kinds :
( ii) Yu-po-sa-pol o
Location Name
Bones Four kinds:
(i) A.-thi -phi-phu (iii) it-niin-phi-phu
( iii) Tiiy-liu-tbo-phi-tbo ( iv) Ay-thi-ye-kho-lo
Marrow of the bones Two kinds:
( i) Mt-se ( ii ) MI-se-sa-Io
Spleen (pihaka) Two kinds:
(i ) Nt _Io (ii) Pi-to
Heart Two kinds: .
(i) Sa-pi--to (ii) lu-phi-to-sn-phi_to
Root of the heart Two kiodll :
( i) Man_kho ( ii ) Sa-Io
Liquid fact (vasa) Two kinds:
( i) Ko-Io ( ii ) Ko_lo_sa __ lo
Bladder Two kinds:
(i ) Mt-ko.lo (ii) Mo-hii.-ko_lo, !faMe)
Root of the bladdf'r Two kinds:
( i ) Ko-Io ( ii ) Ko-lo-sa-Io
Cells of the membrane Two kinds:
( i ) Sa-po-Io (ii ) Mo.hti-sti-Ilo-Io (MoM")
Roots of the cells of the membra ne Two kinds:
(i) Lay_to (ii) MO-ho-liiy-Io (Mnha")
Mesentry ( Antagu\}a ) 1'wo kinds:
( i) Cau.lay-to ( ii ) Mo-ho.Jiiy-io (llahil)
Roots or the Two ki nds ;
( i) Po ( ii) Mo-ho-!a-po
Root of the large intesti ne Two kinds:
( i ) A.. nao-po-arha) ( ii ) po-ko-po-a.
Stomaoh or rather ita cootenls (udar iya) Four kinds :
(i) Yu-sau-ko (ii )
( iii) Taa-se-po ( iv) Sie-sa-po
Abdomen Four kio(ls:
( i) Po_tiona ( ii) Mo-ho.po-a.nii.
( iii ) Tho-ua-phii.n ( tV ) Phang-na_mu_kho
Bile Pi_to_li_han
Saliva (khela) Sie_an
Sweat U. n.-sui-to-li-M (a)
Fat (Medo) Mi _tho-li_ii. (hil)
Strength Two kinde:
( i) So_po_a_mo ( ii ) Se-mo-chi_to
.82 '-DruTTDf,I.GGA
Locution Name
Root of the ,trenglh Three kinds;
( i) Chieu-a-mu-kho \ ii ) X-Io-ji-mu-kho
( iii)
Five kinds of worms in
The food in front of the body
" the side of the body
left ..
" " right"
nnd worms
Clin.tho-sa-Io Chang-a-so-Io
Lower two openings 'rbree k:nda:
and so OD.
( i) Kieu.lau_kieu_lo_weiYIl ( i ) Chii-io-Yll
( iii 1 Hii n-thi u-po-tho
.-\PPENDrx A
I propose to indicate here some of the llarollel )ll\ullges
found in the Vimuttimngga [ual Pelakopadesa.
(1) In the yery Introductory chapter2 of the Vimultilllngga,
Upatissa gi"es his reasons as io why l\e should tcll the prople the
Path ot Deli"erance. There are, he snys, sonic people who pro-
fit by listening to others and he giyes a quotation (sec M., i, 294)
in which the Blessed One declares that there :Ire 1\\'0 ways in
which one call ha"l""e the right (,am71uidiH'u)-either by
learning it from 01' by self-reflection. This corresponds
to 'Dre helli '/1.'e poccaYti nivakallo mmmiidi(!hiyti flptJii lltiya,
por(lto ('0 gJtOIO laCMmu(l7IC1M, ca yonilo manlUihiro'
founel at the \"Cry bE'ginning of the Petakopodesa.
(2) In tIle thinl chapter of (III.i4) of the Visuddhimogg:l,
Dnddhaghos8 refers to the view of tIle fourteen cariJas which
he is not prepared to accept. Upalina does refer to these
fourteenS nnd names them one nfter RnotJler. Among these
there are two types which are called by the IIRme of ,amabhii>-
oacoriyt.l. Now exactly this very type is fonnd in Pe\akopac1esa,
VIItli Chapter, pp. 151, 102 (pp. 19Q, 102 of tILe printed edition).
(3) I II the Twelfth book of the Vimuttimagga, in the twelfth
chapter (Saccapariccheda), part two,' ha"e only three lokut-
tara-indriyas given as playing an important part of the progl'eSll
of the Yogiivl\Cara towards. the ideal 01" Arhahhip. ' These same
three indriY3s, oltJUitoii1"illJIOmftindriyo1?', (llhiindriyo1?t, ana
Rre :lIsa found ill Il le second (l,n(1 the 1llird
chapters of the Pejakopaclesa, pp. 56, 71-72 (pp. 146, 152 of the
printed edition).
(4) So also in the same cllapter we COllle across kinds
of searches, tillo t!alui or pariyuo1to. The same three we meet
with in the eighth chapter of the. Petakopadesa, p. 284 (p. 251
of the printed edition). Also see Vibhanga, p. 300.
(5) In the second part of the XIth chapter' we have three-
fold classification of things; Iduuulha-Jongalw,
dhlJtUJQllgoho. E::uctly the same c1as8ification we Illeet witll
in the sixth chapter of the Petakopadesa, j). 124 (p. 176 of the
printed edition).
(6) I n Book fom, Chapter eight, part one,' of the Vimutti-
1. My article on thi. subject in Indian Culture "01. lII, no. of,
pp. 74.-46, is r'lproduced bere ",jlh a (elf altt'l'Iltion5.
2. p. 2. S. p. 34. 4. p. 122 .
HI? .. - ....
maggn, Upatissa mentions three kinds of middha, iihiiraja,
utu.ja tmd cittaja, of which only the last he considers as
nivara'.lu, while the other two are J:ossible even in an Arhat.
Upat.issn speaks of it in the twelfth chapt er' also. There he saYII
that mll ong things given up by one at the time of the Arhatship,
t here afe thifla and uddlwcca and not ehina--middha and
flddhacc(I. as is nsserted by Buddhaghosa in the XXII Chapter
71 para of the This view of Upatissa is sup-
ported in the Petakopadesa, VIIth Chapter, p. 180 (p. 201 of
the prilltect edition), wltel'e it is said ' .4. tthi pana, Arahato
kiiyokilesamiddhaji, ca okka.mati, no, co, w1?l faun
thlllami(ldha7Jl ti 1za eka1!uena.'. This view is also
supported by the author of the Miliudupaiiha (see p. 253 of
Trenckner's edition) who mentions m.1ddha among ten tllinllS
oyer which an Arhat has no control.
(1) Upatissa quotes from what he calls Sau Tsiin three
passagt's ' of whi ch I have so far able to identify two
passages. only in the Petakopauesa, VIIth Chapter, pp. 15'!.
158 (p. 191 of the printed edition). One of these passages (p. -in)
corresponds to 'Tattha alobhaua pii ripTlriya 't'i"lliUo hati kameh i,
latthn. piirip'11riyO-, a.m.ahana piiripllriyd .ea vi't' itlo hati
1"ipakehi akulalehi. ahammehi'.
(8) The other passage' contai ns II simile which illustroles the
distinction between vitaHo. and viciira. The simile in the
Vimullimagga. corresponds to tile followi ng passagt from the
Petakoradesa 'Tattha pathamiibhini.plito 1;iwkko. patiladdluma
vicdro. Y atha purilo dlirato pauati
lla ca !/iva jdlliiti itthi ti va plt,.iJO ti vii,
tu patilabhati itthi ti wi PUNIO ti t:a ti 'l.'c"i-cvarp.
vitakke appeti.'
(9) There are other similes also from the Vimuttimagga
which can be traced to tbe Petakopadesa, VIIth Chapter, p. 158
(p. 191 of the printed edition). Here is one.' 'YaJ.hti baJ.illo
111t1Jlhiko' $ajjhli.!Jo.JfI' lwroti e'l:a1!t 'vitaH'o, yatlul taJ?t y&va
aJI-Upauati e-va1?l- viciiro... ca paJi-
bhiinapa#lambhidiiya7!l- ea vitakko, dham-mapatisa1nbhiddya1fl' co.
attlUlpatisambhidiiya11\ co.. viciiro.'
(fO) While the sinmltaneous nature of the pene-
tration into Trut.hs (saccapa,.iccheda) Upatissa gives three
similes,' that of a boat the floods. that. of a lamp that is
1. p.123. 2. p.47. . 3. p.47.
4. The printed edition reads 6. p. 119.
lJUl"uiug" and that of th", snu that is shining. Petukopadesa. gives
almost ideutical similes (p. 150; 181 of the priuted edition) .
Budtlhaghosa refers one of similes to Porfll,las and although
h", (loes 1l0t meution that name with regan\ to olhers, it is vel'.\"
cleal" thnt the olher similes also he borrows from the same
(11) 'fhere is one othel" important simile which I have been
abl", 10 lI'ace to the PetakOlladesn, p. 190 (}). 20G of the printed
",dition). Upa\.issa gives a quotation' from one Niirada. which
purpo,t" to say 'Just as in a moulltllill -forest there lllay b", a
"'ell bllt no rope with which water could be taken out. If at
thn! time there cOllles a mall overcome by the heat of the suu
and fatigued by thirst, who seeft tho well and knows that there
is water in it, but still cannot actually reach it, then merely
by his knowledge about the existence of water in the well and
merely by seeing it, he cannot satisfy his thirst; so in the sallie
way, if I know ni1'odlia as 11ibbu11a and even if I haye a perfect
lIathiiblnUatiill.wtla . .uallo, I do not thereby become a khil.liisa-ca
araha.' The passage in the Petakopadesa says 'YaOtfl. gambhir&
lIdapuue cakldumii. pauati na ca M!}ella
evama.!.fa ariya 1J.ijjllli.l!akhallt iyii. aighi bhavuti no, ca
sacchikat(i' .
(l Z) Besides the passages given above there are some mi nor
pas5ages we find some of the jhiinas expla.ined as having
particular aligns. For instance, the thin\ trance' is e:i:plnined
as having five nngas in the VimuttiUlagga. These same angas-
are mentioned in the Petakopadesa, p. 155 (p. 190 of the printed
edition). 'Tatllii. ihiilla'/!I-
saliva, sampajaiiiieno., sul.:!u.l1I tJ" cietelwUoaUiya, upekldllJ.ya'.
Do the instances given above justiiy us in concluding that
the Author of the Vimutt.illlagga had the advantage of consult-
ing the
I. p. 126.
2. p. 52.
3. I'or other references, soo pp. 86, 120, 122.
facilitating reference to tho P.T.S. edition or tho
Visuddhimngga, tho following table is gil-en. lt sho,,"s the
ullIubel' of pages of the Visuudhimagga p\tblish.e(l by the l'nli
Text Society. corresponding to the chapters nud paragraphs of
the same led to be published in the Harvard Oriental Series.
'fhe Homan figure shows the number of the chapler.
1'.'1".S. 11.0.5. 1'.T,f;, 11.0.5. 1'.1'.::0. H.O."'. P.T.S. H.O.s.
l'ages l 'an.- l'a;Bl> I'UI"II. l'agu l'ura- J'agOli l'ara-
grllplh graphs
38 103-1OG
56-59 110 102-105
I I'
30 100-109 75
III 100-110
M <0 109-114 76 Gl.a3 112 UlO-W.
3 0'
if .,.." 113 114-118

U8-121 76 6073 11 1I9I'2Z
5 10-13
122-126 79 14-78 Hi; 1:12-126
6 13-11' .. BO
116 12G-129
1 iiIS
H i 129-133
1922 <6 130-132
9 47 132-185 83 9193 IV
10 >I." .. 135-137 liS 1-2
m 119 2;
21-31 50 14o.1U
1-3 \21) , 13

.. 121 13-1e.
H ,,-3, 52 144 14.9
8G 815
15-20 123 21-24
10 42-43 .. 153-165 88
1>1 ZI-27
24-Z9 125 27-31-
18 4547 56
])57-158 90 2!J.33

19 41-611
156-159 91 33-31 127 s.=
58 159-161
92 87 .. /;1'
.... , 93 41-4.4
43-4, 7
..... IT
ISO 4;-...51
1-3 95 41Hil
lSI 51-52

51-54 132 ....
61 8-1'
91 5<58 las ....
12-16 98
16-19 99
6 .. ,
1923 100 6771 136 06-10
, .. ,
161 nN 187 i()'14
102 14-80 135 74i8
31 .... 01 ' 8-31 100
139 78-82
8993 68 31-34
.... 140

35-38 105 ea-92 141 ....
9H6 70
.... ,
142 .... 1
85 .....
'lI 4a.48
95-97 143 91.00
SO 98-100 72
.... ,
198 91 99 14< 96-9IJ
37 100-103 13
100 99102 145 t OO-Ul3
APl'ENDIX 1J 1:17
P.T.S. H.O.S. P.T.S. R.O.S. P.T. S. H.O.S. P.T.S. R.O.S.
Pagell Para- Pages Para Paget!
Pnra_ Pagel Paln
graph, graphl ifapbt graphs
149 If\3..101 191 13-78 237 34-36
37-40 289 230233
148 112-115 193
149 115-119
..... 210
. ... ,
291 236-211
150 119-122
.... 1
.... ,
151 122-124
., ...
152 124-127 213
20. 247-251
121-130 VD
I "
13().135 191 I
135-139 198 29
156 140.144 199 0-18 247
144.141 200
' .. I
141-152 201 2226 249
81 ...
159 152-1 5.5
299 1&- 19
160 155-101
300 19-22
161 1611'68
""7 '50
9498 301
102 168-173

163 1'i"3-177
164 177-181 207 44-47 255 105-109
165 181186
166 186-190
.. ,,-64
190-194 216
168 194_108
S08 '3-<7
200 124-127
309 47.$2
213 61-70 261 128-130
170 14
' 16
77-82 264 135-138
313 1<8-73
171 ...
205 138-142
314 7479
.. "
218 88-90
173 12-17
00-95 268 148-163 :no
174 1722
269 153-156 317 ... 92
99-102 270 150-158
176 ....
102-tOO 271 159-164
320 101100
321 107 110
,., ..
115-117 27. 172-117
3'l3 114118
179 5-13
m 123-127 276 181-184 324 118-122
ISO 13-19
lr.I28 277 184-187
278 187191
191-195 X

195-109 326 14
184 ..... 230
199-202 32'/
.. ,
, ...
231 1013
18-16 283 205-210
233 16-21
210-213 330
188 ....
2!3-217 331 21-2.')

286 218-223
199 67-72
P.T.S. H.O.S. P.T.S. H.O.S. P.T.S. H.O.S. P.T.S. H.O. S.
P'gea Para- Para- Pagel P,ra- Pages Para-
graphs gr.pl1lll gr.phl grapbs
95-99 476 206-Zll
99-106 m 211-214
.30 106-109 478 214-220
331 41-52
<3l 109-113 479 220-226
338 5268
432 US-U9
... "
3M 49 ...

123-128 Xl'
128-129 481 1-<

3<1 1 ..
8S9 ....
9- 14
390 68-12 '30
... 14-19
343 9-13
391 72-71 4.37 ....
&11 4SO 25-21
81-85 439 H-W
85-'" '46
1,-" 488 31 ...
34' "."
90-94 441
"'25 48'

25-30 400
349 31-34
398 102-107 444 35-43
351 37-<1
.. ,
491 1.'
400 111-115 446 .92 ..
.. '"
401 115-119 441
493 912
.. ,
.02 119 121
61 ... 49. 13-1G
6<J.OO .04 121.132 480 69-73 .00
13-79 491
.00 181-139
7,., .98
1().73 xm
'54 OM'
000 .8-41
361 13-76 467 1-<
98-100 001 42.43
78-30 .08
.. ,
" .
7-11 45j
410 H13
365 88-93 m In-IS
9488 412 18-24 400 122-126 500
98-102 413 24-21 .61 121.129
" ...
. "
, ...
.63 133-135
370 112117
186-142 510
, ....
371 118-1'22 m
142-147 on
45-51 ... 147153
Be 90
419 ,2-6.\
.61 153-158 013 som
, .....
46. 158-164
1.' 421 "..,
515 97-'102
, ..
.22 85-70 470 17Q.116 ,16 I (l3...IQ4
70-74 411 li6-lOl xvn
914 .24 14.79
." 181-188 517
377 14-19
413 188-196 51,
378 19-24
414 196-201

'27 90-95
P.T.S. R.O. S. P.T.S. 8.0.5. P.T.S. H.O.S I'.T.S. H.O.S.
Pages j' arlL- Paljl:OII Parn- Pages Para- l'llgell Para-
gn.phs graphs graph.
16-22 &11 248-Z53 018 44-47
22-25 5i2 253-2.58 619
258-262- 620
01'" 06!l 125-129
521 31-35 514 262266 021 56-63 670 129-133
3><1 5; ,3 266-271
" ...
6il 13-1136
52. 41-45 5ie 271-271 623 67-69
527 45-49 577 277-281 624 69-72- XXII
49-52 518 252-281 625 72.i75 672
,2-68 ::;79
, ....

293-296 627
031 61-<14 681
076 13-17
... 93 6i 6
303-305 6SO 9.97 077 2328
53 1 72-76
". 005-309 631 97100 078
, ....
032 l QO.. l04 670 &1-30
586 31'
83-S6 XVIII 03< 100-111 Gal 43-45

1-4 635 111-116
539 91-95 58S


95-97 589 3-11
122-121 OS.
11-14 G38
16-19 XXI GS6 78-70
543 lOS-lIZ
23-28 640 3-10 688 .....
641 10-12
080 ... 92
12-18 600 112-00
33-36 643 691 96-00
136--140 XIX
l 00-11Z
140-148 60S 1-3
551 143-148
148-156 ." 3-13 648 31-31 6116 1'l1126
156-162 601 14-16
554 162161
16-20 0;0 '(}.<3 XXIII
168-174 663

... ,
S56 174-118
. 664 ,"'6


663 56-63 700 7-11
182--189 XX 664 .... 'Ol
' 00
6O-<l4 700 20-25
561 191202 ."
.. -68
" 1
10-13 658 63-73
205-212 610 13-16
13-16 706 36-3l!
564 213217 611 16-19 000
566 218-223
1920 001 706 43-"Il
666 2'23.".
.... 700
"..236 61.
663 89-92 710 "...
568 ",.".
3C-34 6G4 9297 7ll
24{)-243 616 66Ii 98-164 1!2
570 243-248
666 10-1.112 718
a_kata, 43,
a. kntai'iiluto, 11.
o i\.knniHbn, 120.
a-kiiral)\, 73.
Il. kilika, 67; 'wnral,1R, 12.
ditthi, 110.
dhllmma, 115
kaDimapatha, 124.
'cittuppada (twelve). l24.
dhammii, 79.
muliini (three), 122.
slla, 6, 10.
Rnkura:(sim.), 104, 105.
&-gnti ([our), 123.
ajjhatta, 87.
babiddhii.-iirawma.l,a, 81.
ail.iHiI,lR,upekkbii, 65.
ani5.5.tii.vindriya, 122.
aiiiiiod.ri yR, 122.
AHhakalha, 1>8, 60, 95.
Atthnka-nipiita, 81.
ntthi.saiii5.ii., 62.
ntthiku, 38, 6l.
atltal]18R, 65.
atIta-kammakilesR, lOG.
attha, 110.
nvita.thn, 110
dhammao, 110.
SRcca' , 110.
suiiiialiO, 110.
(two kinds): samailiia, visesll , 83.
Atharva.veda, 1611..
a.dukkhnmaaukhn. 53.
rIdosa, 28, 46, 80.
nddhann.paricchedoto, 74.
adhicitia-8ikkha, 2, 70.
(four), 80 n.
iddhi, 8G.
pal'aroita, 64, SO.
adhipaiiiia-aikkha, 2, 10.
udhipateyya, 8.
adhimokkha, 99.
(upakldleaa) 117.
adhi81iasikkhii., 2, 70.
anaiiiiiiailnassamHindri ya, 122.
unatta (Oa) 84, 114,119.
anupnB9nna, 114.
laniili, 75.
8Dllnvaya-ii.a'.'Il , G.
anagalall\Sa, 65.
iiaI;la. 91.
nniigCLtnphaia-vipii ka, lOG.
Aniigaml, 3,
five killda of, 120.
allacariyaka, 62.
Ilualluva, 1, 110.
anicca., 84. ll4, 118.
auupassauo., 114.
o,anno., 74, 75.
appatigha , 97.
!l.aiudriyn, 42.
a.nimittn (a), 118,128.
to, 14.
"dbiitu, 114.
vimokkha, 122.
aniyata, l1n.
anntf'pa, Gn.
anuttara, 1, 63.
auulluya, 49. 82.
patigha", 82.
annpa.dinnn, 97.
"rupn, 97.
anupubba.suwa.patti (uiue), 66.
auuppiida, 118.
Anuruddha, 48.
anul oma, 28n.
il1u,l.a, 118.119, 119.
anusaya. (satta), 111, 123, 124u.
auuBsati, 38, 62-78.
upaaama", 41.
Chao niddesa, 63.
dasa", 38,62.78.
Buddha", 41, 62-66.
anottappa, 99, 123.
anta, 49, kalya.Q,a", 2.
anturayikil. (dhamma)
(samadhissa), 21.
sllassa (34), 6.
an vnya i i i i ~ a . l l 1 , 93.
apacaya., 92, 93.
apariyii-paona, 29.
paiilia, 93.
apara, 95.
apaya-kosalla., 92.
a-puthujjana., 125.
nppa.l)ii., 45, 46, 49, 53, 60, 66.
nirodhao, 125.
sawii-dhi, 28.
appal,lihita ("a), 128.
dhatu, 114.
"vimokkha, 122.
appamaiiiia. 38, 39, 18.82.
(four), 38.
appsmii.l,la-cittii.oi, 38, 39, 40,41,42,
'Appamal)abha, 52.
apparajakkha, 2.
apphutaT!l nal.lenn, 65.
abbudn, 76,
abbocchiunn, 97.
Abbhutndhammu, 94.
abbhokiisika, 16, 21, 23, 24.
abya.kata, 91, 930.
"kiriyii., 92.
panna, 92, 93.
"sila, 6.
a-byaparanaya., 115.
nbhabba ssmiidhissa
uppadsnaya, 57.
"vii-dino, 1270.
"viisika, 24, 24n.
' vasioo, 490. 95.
abhiiiila, SO, 86-91.
(five), 27, 86,
(six), 65.
Abhidhamma. 1,4,23,26, 32,33,
62, 74, 125.
abhibhayataoa, 60.
(eight), 65-66.
ubhimaoa, 111.
"dvara, 66.
"dhatu, 64, 84, 126.
a-manussa, 43.
n-moha, 40, 79.
"manasikara, 105n, ll2n,
"manasikira_miilakii dhamllla,
nyuta, 63.
arati, 81, 82.
"upapaUi , 10.
magga, 120.
sHa, 8, 9.
Araha (ar a.harp.) 3, 24, 48, 03, 120,
127, 128.
khIQasava , 120.
ari ya
ilacca, 108, 109 .
sac(la-u paya, 112.
ariyii-iddhi, 80.
ariipavacara, 89.
(aphere), 89.
arul.l a-vaQI.ltl, 43.
n.lobha, 46, 79.
a.vikkhepa 28,127.
avijjii., 104-100, Ill.
n_vi ppatisnrn, 5, 9.
Avi,ahya-Srefthijataka, 04.
Aviha, 120
97, 98.
nVItikkama.sIlo. ,4.
n_sarpvaro., 4.5
n-sankhala, 105, 120, 128.
dhamma, 128.
IlStlnkhiya, 63n.
AsaiHii (devii), 30, 53.
samadbl, 30,55,
a-samprajanya, On.
asubhn, 38, 00-02,
"to 70.
(dnaa) 38, 41.
sanna, 7b.
a_aekha_bhumi, 122.
assiisa_pnuiilla-upanibaddha, 74.
a-hil llsi'l,81.
a-hiri kn, 99, 123_
ikiirn, 97.
"rrlpa, 97.
"vi kiira' nipa, 97.
iiklilln, 54, 04n.
"anai'iciiyntana, 04, 00.
. upaga,55.
"ii.yalann, 38.
59, 87_
' not witllOut rupa' 58, 69.
paricchinna "kasiJ?Q, 38, 40,59.
'without rii pa, ' 59.
flkincQiHiiiyalana, 38, 55-50. &_
"upngn (gous), bC.
iicayn, 92, 93.
iicariyn, 23, 34, 30, 70n.
"mata, 37.
iidira, 6,10, 11, 15_
iidikammi ka, 32, 88.
iidl nava
"nnupaaaanii-iliiQa, 118.
"saiHl.ii, 75.
Ananda, 120.
iinamani\, 71.
"aati, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 69.72.
aDiurpsll., 5, 17-22, 27, sa, 72, 75,
77,78, 79, SO. 84, 92.
"dhQmwa, 11.
",ihiirn, 57.
Sll.miidhi, 127.
['patti, lIn.
r'llO, S3.
iillo.kasil.w., 3S, 57.
Xbhasaaril, 52.
llmautana, I S.
ltya_kosalla, 92_
iiyatana, 95, 100. 113, 114.
(twelve), I 00-103.
ajjhatti ka, 114.
bilhira" 114.
"sll.nkhiira., 72.
ilraiinika, 16, 20, 23, 24.
iiramma':la, 31,36,40, 79, SO, 81,
82,88,89, 91,117.
(nine}: paritta, ruahnggatll., etc.
Nibbiina", 117.
bherava 0, 39.
aabh5.vadhamrua , 40.
u.rawmaJ).ato, 35, 40, 99, 115.
iiruppa, 39, Mn, 04-56.
kasiQ8 (two), 39.
iiloka.90, 101.
"kalliI}Q, 38, 68, 59, 88, 90.
"phllrnt:latii, 30.
saiiil.ii., 90.
avajjana-citta, 102.
[,viisa, 32.
ullaua, 44.
(lour), 123.
kbaya-balani (tea), 66.
"samudll.ya, 105.
ilhiirn, 96.
rthare IlntikHtla-sailiHi., 38, 40n,
41. 82, 84-85.
iihul).eyya, 67.
Al5.rn Kalama, 55.
itthi.snrlrafll purisallsn, 61.
itthindriya-dasakn, 96.
idamatthitii , 26.
idnlpsacd.bhinil"esa, 123.
idelhi, 86-87.
adhiHhina", 86, 87.
ariyu, ' , 86.
kathii, 86.
pufounvnlo' , 86.
manomayiiO, 86, 87., 86, 87.
iddhi_pida, 65, 66. 88, 89, 90,
iddbividha, 86.
", 87,
Jndra. 73n.
indriya, 84. 121.
(five), 65, 66, Ill.
(th ree),
"anrpvntll., 12, 14.
aukha", dukkha",
domannssa, somannssao,
upekkhii., 97.
iriyiipatha, 36.
iasa, 6, 124.
uggaha-nimitta, 45.
ucchagga, 58.
ucchedn-diHhi, uo.
uju-pati paana,67.
utu, 96.
uttarasanga, Ii.
udaka-rahada (sim.), 52.
udapiin8, 120n.
udaya, 115, 116.
udayabbr.ya, 115.
"nar)a, 115-11G.
lo.kkhnQa, UG.
U(ldnka Ra maputtn, 55.
UddhalllBotu, 120., 27, 49, 123.
nddhumfltnkn, 33, CO.CI.
'saiiita-anisalpsa, no.
upakkilesn, 7, 71, 117.
(len), 117.
Ullll.guptn, 62n.
upll.c1i.rn, 28n, 45, 53, 51, CG,
' jhiiuo, 45, 85.
' samiidhi, 28. G1, 78:
sa-sambharika ,4!J.
upajjhiiya, 23.
upaHhaua, 117.
Upntissll., 1,2,4,5,1,23, 24, 3S
(very i mportant), 74, 83, 84,
ete. (too numerous references).
eabbao GC.
SLl ' w., 21.
upo.mato, 110.
npasaqlbarnl,\ato, 73.
upasama, 77.
'(adhiUbii o.a), 80
o.nussnti 38, 41, 77-78.
uppntti-dviirnt<o, 97, 98,
upiidiinn, 104,
(four), 123.
'kuao.dha, 100, 108, 114, 115.
(180 ways of reflection upon),
upadii-rlipa, 95, DC.
(tweuty-si'!:), 95.
upiidin na-rtipa, 97.
upflya, 41, 45.
' kosalla, 92.
(pai'icn), 95-112.
UJlayusn-dukklla, lOS.
upekkhnkn, 52.
lI]lOkklifl, 52, 53, 53n, 80,81.
(of eight or teu kiu!l s ), 52.
(threefold,) 52.
' nuubrl1hanii, 49.
' (upakkilesa) , 117.
' IJiirnmitU, C4, SO.
' bht1rui, 81.
uppnlinI (8im. ), 52.
uwmtlall a, 44.
,ira., U6.
eka_bhojnnn, 19.
eknggatii,4S, 49, 4911 , 5ln, 52n,
ekacce, 35, 70.
ekntta_llaya, 115.
ekattnto, 97, 110.
ekabIjI, 120.
li kkhindriya' ,120.
eka-lllkkh:l.l.ll\-dhaW1ll3, 115.
ckii.sallika, 19, 23.
I'ke, 4911.
ekolli -bha.v3, 31, 51.
etarahi, 74.
evalp-dhnmOlatii_naya, 115.
ehi-p:l.saika, G1.
e!:l.muga, 1230..
oghU ({our), 123.
otiappa, 33.
ollii. ta-kasiQ.a, 53, 59.
odiilenn vn.tthena piirupitc\ (,illl.).
odata-vasaua-sila. 10.
' pliarlLl)ii, SO.
r il pa, l OT.
obhilsa, 117.
orimll_Urll (sim.), 110.
"aHhena, 110.
n .
r ii pn, 114.
kilo khii..v itaraQa-visuddhi, 113115.
kakaca (aim. ), 70, TR.
kal)tako., &G.
kal,di8-8Ukkll, 97, 98; to, 97.
kala, 43.
Kathii. vaUhu, 120, 121.
kappa, 50, 52, 53, 00, 56, Gao.
kamalo, 110.
kammB, 32. 96, 105,
-kile8a, lOG.
dviira, 43, 51, 59, 69,
-!limi tta, 100.
' vipiikaja, 970.
vipiikaphala. iiflI)R,91.
sokat/i.iiii.!,J. [l , 91, 93,
"RamuHhiina, 90.
so.hajiitaOb etu, 107.
kammaHhiioa, 31, 34, 41, 43, flI,
82, 115.
(Illirty-eigh!), 33.39, 115.
' pariccheda, 38-42.
karul)ii, 38. 50, 81.
kala1a, 76.
kalapal o, 76, 83, 96, tW,

adi", 2.
ti vidha. 47, 49, 51.53, 55, 56,
majjhe", 2.
"mitlo. , 32.
"mil la-pariyesanii,32-33.
knsi l.ln, 33, 38-53, 45, 57_59. 6S, 87.
dua", 38.
"maQQala, 43, 44, 45, 58.
val.B),n", 4l , 59 .
kiima, 44.
kilesa., 46.
"cbanda., 27, 49.
vatthu", 46_
kiiya, 100.
Ogata anti, 38, 40,41,76-77, EI .
"snnkhara, 70, 128_
sa_viiiii.ii.I.Hlka", Ill.
kiiya-bahu-sadhii ral)9.lo,74.
phassa", vedauii", salinii", ceta-
nii , tal}.hii ", 114.
kiiliko.-mar al}.a, 73_
kileaa , 90, 105, 121, 122.
", 46.
"to, 36.
Olfib., 35_
"va.tthii ni (ten), 123.
(attached to), 115.
(e nd of), 120. 124.
(one hunllred nnd thirty-four),
kiki (ai m,), 15n.
kiccato, 36, 83.
kimi-kula, 76, Appendix A 1.
kiriya. 30n.
"sam5.dhi , 29, 30.
kukkura-slb, 9.
kumiira, dahara (aim. ), 45.
kula, 32.
kusaln-dhamtn5., 136, 79.
kuhuna, 12.
kolalllkola, 120.
majjhimiuuriyaO, 12U.
iyuO, 8IJil)'a\ upayaO, 92.
khal)ato, 74.
khul), 72.
khanti, 78,93.
pii.ramiHi, 64, 80.
khundhii., (five), 95-100, 113, 118,
riipa, vedanfl, eauiia,,
viiiiial.H1, 95.
upadiiuu", 100,114,115.
khalu-pacchabhattika, 16, 20,
kh ippa-patipada, 35.
khela, 96.
gal).a, 32.
gal.lana , 70.
gaQ.ana\o, llU.
gaQ.Q.a, sanna' , 56.
Gal,lthi, Visuddhimugga.., 6511.
gati, lOG.
(fi\'e), 111, 115, 118.
gati-nimitta, lOG.
gaatha, 32.
gandhabha (aim.), 71, 72.
"nagara (sim. ), 116.
galllanat o, 36, 84.
"kalha, 32.
"eahh5.-va, 105.
"to, 4l.
nimitta.", 57, 115.
garu, 32.
gayi, pabbateyyaO (aim.) 5l.
gUI,li'i., paiioavIsuli o, 49.
levisati ", 51, 52.
dVavisati O, 52.
pauclJ,visat.i ", 48.
havlsati O, 53, 55, 56.
in(lt-iyesu" 28,
go_ctll"a., 10, 11, 3G.
Gotama, 1
golrabhii ,28, <?811, 57, 119, 125,
ghana, 76.
' anurava (aim}, 46.
"abJlighiita (aim.). 46.
ghorn, 118,
ghosa, 2.
cukkato, lOG.
cukkhu, 96, 101,
"ayatuIHl, 96, 100,
dasaka, 96.
IJasii da., 96.
99, 101, 102.
catu_sunkhepato, 106., 15, 23, 1)9.
catudh1i.tu-vu,atthiiqll., 38, 40, 40n,
41,42, 62&4, 95.
candana, 75.
camal"i, 15.
Caraka, 7611.
carRQa, (l3.
" jjji:,63.
cariyfl, 34, 35, 38.
(fourteen), 34.
pariccheda, 34-37.
Cariya.pitaka, 64.
O(aohiHhiina) 80.
auussaiI, 38, 67.
ciri Ua (511a), 1.
citla, 84, 96, 98,102.
"ekaggati, 109.
para. "vijananii, 86.
"sankhira, 71.
"samuHhiina, 96.
(in the dthi), 102.
ci nUimsyii-paiii'iii.. 92.
pipursl;lato, 36.
"samadiina, 36.
cUl;ll;lato, 83.
catani.-kiyi, 114.
"rukkha, 21.
"pariya-i'iil,,'La, 89.
Chaddanta-.jitaka, 64.
chanda, 123.
kima', 27, 49.
annkhii.ra.samanuagala, 87.
chava..qii.haka, 72.
jsri., 104, 108.
"maral;la, 105.
javilna-citta, 102.
jigariyiinuyoga, 28.
Jii.t.alr.a-mili. 64.n.
jiiti, 104,105.
"rupa, 95.
jigucchanato, 76.
jivhi., 100.
jlvll. 84, 113.
"indriya 72, 87, 91.
:f;)., 26, 48, SO.
"ii.cariyn, 33.
npacara' , 4il.
caluttha' ,53-54.81.
tatiya', 52-53.
"to, 39.
pathama" , 4S.5O.
i'iil,,'La, 89.
(upakki l esa), 117.
(four kinds), 91, 94.
(various kinds) 93.!l4, 115. 119.
thapsna, 10.
tbil).ato, 75.
thit i-bbagisa., 10, 50.
tal).duia (sim.), 104.
tal).hii, 7, 8, 34,84, 104.
"kiiyi. (cba) , Ill, 114.
"kbaya, 66.
"miilaki dhammi, 111.
tagarD, 75.
Talhagata, 63, 73, 88, 89.
"balini (dasa), 65.
tadiraUlmsl}llcitta, 102.
tipana, SII.
tikkhindriys, SO.
Titthi yi,90.
lila, pa.sann&. "tela, 89.,81.
tiila.pi cu (aim.), 70.
tecIvari ka, 16, 17.
tejidbikiioarfl. 96.
tejo, 33.
tejo-kaail).a, 38, 57.
thalato, 61.
thlua, 123, 1230 .
' widdha, 19, 21, 21, 47, 90, 12-3.
thullaccaya, lln,
i 'hera Si(u) gulapitii., GI:'
dadhi (colour of), 88,
clava, 12,
davi , 65.
dabarakumara (!jim.), 45
dana, 12.
' paramiti, 64, 83.
"slllJ1vibhaga, 79.
daru-sara-siici, 70.
di(.thi, 7,8,34,99.
akiriya" 110.
uccheda' , 110.
wi ccha. .. UO.
' visuddhi, 113.
so.kkiya" 110.
sassata., 110.
sukhavih1i.ra, 126, 127.
sukbavihiritii., 27.
'cakkllU, 86, 90-91.
(two kinds), 90,
'sota 86, 88.
dis3.., dlUla ' cariyi, 111.
DIghiivu, 64.
dipasi kM (sim.), 97.
'du kkaj..a , 11n.
dukkhll, 84, 106, 108, 114, 113.
' Illlupasslinii., 114.
"khandha , 106.
dukkha", 138, 111.
vattbu' , lOS.
viparil,lnma., 108.
stlokhii.ra, 108.
aabhiiva' , l OS,
'sila, 9,
duggati, 97.
dulJbhii sita, llo,
dussna. 7.
dfi re, ' rfipa, 114.
uevatii,.(l.nllssali, 38, 6768.
deva-manuss:l, 63.
(deVD.nlllll), (aim.) , 55.
sa'nissitii., 88.
dOlllanassa, 53.
' illdri ya, 88.
dosn, 71, 78, 89.
'carita, 24, 3437, 75.
"car iya, 34.
"oidiina, 35.
samipajjana , 121.
dvedhii.yitattalll, 65.
dhommR, 41, 44, 50, 00,
100. 128.
' alll;ssati, 66-67.
' iiyatana, 100.
kalyiil,la' , 65.
' t hit in:i.l,la, 114.
' l1ir llitabhili}la, 04.
' rasa, 46.
'vicaya, 66, 92.
'visesa, (is,
dhammll!.isIla , 10.
dhammato, 99.
Dh&lUlIlaplLla , 5, 35, 49
70, 95, lOOn. 12711 .
Dhammasangal,li , 54, 540, 92,
97, 99, 110.
a.kl1sala, 79:
kusal a', 79.
dhamme 93.
Dhllfmasang"fllha, 16.u, 640,
dhiHu, 83, 95, 103, 113, 114.
(eighteen), 103.
(four), 83.
"nidiinll, .'35.
cain vnvatthana, 83-84.
pas5.da, 100.
sallgaha, 112.
Dhiihl-katha, 11211.
dhuta, 5, 10-26, 125n.
dhulangn, 19, 23, 24, 24o,
akuaala, 23.
abyii.kataO, 2, 23-24.
kusalao, 23, 24.
vinimnlutia, 24.
rlhuta-vada, 24, , 25.
dhllma-sikha, 10.
gheoupaka-vaccha, 52.
nadiaota (aim.), 91.
oamataka, 160.
abyaparaO ,
na l"attabhiirammaJ;la, 81.
navanUa, (colour of), 88.
nahii.paka (sim.), 49.
anteva&i (sim.), 49.
ekattato. 84.
10, 91, 110.
"nays, 115.
"sanna, 54, 90.
niiniiblliaamays, 120-121.
nawatika (or nawaotika),
nama, 113.
"kaya, 12On.
104, 111.
vavntlhana, 113.
Nii.z-ada. 126, 12611.
nikanti, 111.
uikkhanti. 111n .
21, 2711.
(practices), 27.

miga, 64.
pakkn'6ndisa, 89.
.uicca, 119.
nicca-oava. 114.
oijigifllsanatii, 12.
nijjhioakkhaoti, 12130.
lIijjh'a, 100.
Nidina, 1-3, 103.
oidhiillato, 17, 85.
lIinnato, 61.
nippesikat.a., 12.
kammapbala-vipii ks , 90.
bhivanii. , 90.
"iriya-bhiiv8nii-balao, 90.
sucarita-kawmao, 90.
Nibbiina, 1, 64, 66, i1, laO, l aD,
118, 125, 126.
aouplidisesao, 1.
iiramwo.l).a, 111.
giimini-patipadii, G8.
nibbidii, 50, 53. 12, 14, 93.
lloupassana-uiiJ;la, 118.
bahula, 122.
nibbiJ;lI,la, k1i.mesu, 81.
bhiigiya, 10, 50.
nimantanii, 18.
lIimitta, 31. 39, 44-45. 4G. 57, 58,
59, 60, 61. 62, 70. 74, 75, us.
uggahao. 45.
gii..ha, 60.
patibhAga", 43, 45, 70.
Vllq.q.hana, 39.
pathavi , 64.
fNDEX 05' PALl WORDS, 57. U5.
kilcsl'l". snmadhi" . vipassnllil",
lliriimisa-s:1miidhi , 31.
Nirodllll, 66, 125, 12G.
"jhiina-samiipalti. 128,
"Raccn, 111.
sa Ii lla,vecl !lyi ta - sama patti,
125, 127-128,
"samiipatti, 57.
Ni ssaggiya-piicittiya, lIn.
75, 85.
nissa:ya, 49, 74.
ni ssita, 7, 8.
loka ", atta", dhnmma ", 8.
nil, 58.
nivaraQa, 1, 48, 49, 05.
(five), 48, 49, Ul , 12:3.
Nelti. 390, SOn. 1220.
nekkb:l1llma, 4, 44, 64, 1I7n.
"paralllitii, 64, 80.
"sanM, 91, 98.
Netripada-Siisira, 620.
NCil'ipndn-sillra , 62.
nemilti kota, 12.
Neroiij arli., 04.
N e,'osilfta-nasn iiiiiiyatana,
38. 40, 66, 60, 85.
upagn, 56.
nessjj ikn, W, 22, 23. 4811.
"fiiiJ;lll, 80.
"vaJ; 87.
' stia, 10.
Pllipsukil lo., 17.
pnf!lsuko.lika, 16, 23.
pnggaba, 117.
('Ipakkilesa), 117.
pakil1-l.l aka-kalhU. 37. 56, 59, 62,
18. 81-82, 87, 91.
paki l.ll.laka-dhammii, 121-28.
pakkha-vikkhepa, 46.
IlaccaUalp veditabbo vi iiiiiihi, 67.
paccaya, 12, 13, 103-107.
catu", 12.
' .Jhamma, ii.
"paccavekkhlll.lii, I :).
helu' , 103-107., 13, 49.
(five), 120.
' nil ',lll, 30.
pnccaya' , 13.
"sailllii, 30.
paccupat\hiilla, 5, 25. 26, 79, 80.
paccuppllnnal]lSn, G5.
' kamma-kilesn, 106.
'pbala.vipiika, 106.
1)nccekabllddha, 7, 73, 81, 88, 89,
pacceka-saccfl, 110.
' nngn'samiipatti , 29.
' ka-slllllma-sAllIfldhi, 30.
' dhallu-satika , 20.
1, 2, 3, 49, 92.
(f1dhillhii.oa), SOn.
(anekavidhii.), 92-94.
ariyii, ". 95.
' irhandha, 2, 14, 100.
"carita. 75.
' pariccheda., 92:,94_
' piirll miiii., 63, 80.
""iselin. 40.
84, 85.
Qatighn, 82.
' nnunaya, 82.
' sanilii, 54.
Paticca-S8muppii da. 103, 105.
pati ni asagga, 111.
' onupassanii, 4.
"AlillpOSS;, 69, 71.
"dhammii., Ill.
sabbll JJlulhi ", 136.
patipakkha. 49, 82.
khippii.", 35.
"i'tUJ.!n, 94.
"dandbii., 35.
dukkhii. ". 29.
"visuddhi, 49.
"stUnpaYlltta, 94.
8ukho..", 29.
J)lIti panna
uju", 67.
IIU" , 67.
patippassaddha-sll ll, S.
45. '
sanna.". 45.
pntibhliga-nimitta, 43. 45, 70.
pativedba, 93.
patisllnkhii, 12.
patiaambhid5., 70. 80.
catu". 92, 94.
attha" , 47. 94.
dhamma". 47, 94.
nirutti" . 47, 94 .
patihhiina , 47, 94.
4, 7, 30, 39,
49, 62, 70, 86, etc.
(almost througbout)
pat havi, 83.
a aaiii'iii, 56n.
<kasi l,la, 43-57, 54. 56, 85.
"dhamma, 44.
"nimitla. 54.
sslina, 56, Mo., 63.
pal].ihita, 8.
plIJ;lita, 50, 52, 53.
patiHhi, ailaa,a, 15.
patta (sim.), 104.
Ilatta-piJ;lq.ika, 16, 19.
padaHhiina, 5, 26, 43.
podumint (sim.), 52.
padhina-sankbi ra, 87.
pabbajjii, 27.
pabheda-riipa, 97.
para-citta-vijii.nllna. 86, 8889,
pflramatlha, 119.
"&acca. 110.
paramllttlillto, 80.
paramnttha, 8.
parikammll, 28, 28n.
slImidhi-iiiil,la, 89.
pnricce iia.l,lfli::p., 93.
paricchinna-ikisa-kasiJ;lll, 38, 40,
"iial].a, 115.
"to, 100. 106, no. 116.
"rupa, 97.
paritta, 50, 53.
"rlipa. 114.
Paritta-subhii., 53.
ParitU.bbii, 52.
paripaka, (dhiituntllp), 108.
paripurakiirino (&amiidhi smilp),
paribbhnrnana , 46.
paribhoga, 13.
"to, 85.
"mllcchllriya, 123 u.
pariyauta, 19.
pariyesanato, 84.
pariyesanii. (three), 122.
paHisa, 6.
passaddhi, 7.
(upakkilesa), 117.
citta," L
I:\ DEX 01' j'ALl WOII OS ,6:1
vnvicnya, 92.
pll"iwkll"dhftra, 28.
plls5.dn. 96.
cakkhu* JeseriuerJ), 96.
pusftdanll . cittassa, 9an.
pallO-na, 27.
nnga, 77,
(nharal}.analll ), 28.
llll}ibodha, 32.
Piicittiya, 11n.
rr1taiiputta, S3.
pajihuriyn, (three), G6.
pal)akasadda, 88.
Piitimokkha, 10, 11, G6.
*dhamma. 5.
Sllrpvara, 10, 14.
pi"uuanga-suUa, 70.
pUl"llmitfl (or piirallll), 63n, G5u.
(ten), 64, 80.
l )ilriljika(l'I.), 11n., 14.
piihulI eyya, 67.
pil.H.lapatika, 18.
pitta, 35, 41.
piya-puggala, SO, 81.
lliyo, 32.
lliro garu bhiivalilyo etc., 32.
llfta, 43n.,
kuil].a, 58.
piti, 2, 47, 48, 49, 51u., 52.
(six lold), 47.
(upakkilesa). 117.
"sukho.virahitata, 27.
"phaffll.lat5, 30.
ll ui'ifin.khetta, G7.
puthujjana, 53, 89, 125.
puppha (sim.), 104.
"iicariyii, 101.
*kiccUlli, 127.
lIivusfluussali, I:)(j , 89-9{l.
(three kinds), S9.
Jlllubiicil.!' Il, 35.
*Il idiiua, 35.
lIUl"isa:-dallllllnsfll"nthI, U;J.
jJu111"nka. 3B, 61.
l 'elnka, 49.
Petakopadesa, 2. 32n, ;)411 ,
4Gu-49u, 51u, S3n.
S6n, 112u, 12011. 122u,
Appeudi:x A 3.
ped, 76.
polhujjllllikn, 91.
Porfll.lii .. 1l7, lIS, 119.
anodhiso" SO.
odhi so 80.
Illillfal.latii. 30.
rliokn", 30.
lIIli *. sukha*, et c." 30.
phnla, 54.
"10 85.
"visesa, 127.
*salllai'igissa ii.iil).al!l, 93.
*"alUiipatti, 27, 1251:27.
]lhnla-hetu-saudhi. 105.
phassll, 99, 104.
a.Ylltauiini, 711.
kuYii, 114.
*pniicam5, llG.
phiis\I-\"ihiira, 12. 19, 12G.
bala, 49, SO, 84.
(five). G5, G6.
iisnvakkhaya" (tcn), GG.
Tatbii gala," G5.
bija (ailll. ). 104. 105.
bIjato, 75, *hetu, 107.
Buddha, 7, 33, 44. 62. 63, G4, GG,
"tlIlU8SUti, 02-6G.
", G3.
gul}iiuussati, li2.
", G5.
o(lhamml' (atthfi ln .. a). 05.
DuddhagllOsa, 4, 5, 62, 70, 103,
118, 125, etc.
(almost throughout).
lluddhfillussali, 38, 41. 62-6G, 61.
"carita, 41.
\:ariya, 34.
hojjballga, 84, (<>e\'(:Il), 11l.
Dodbi (tree), 64, SO.
"dhallllllli (thirlJ' sevel.l). 109,
pakkhiya.dh::lUuufi. G6o.
Bouhisatta,64. , 80.
byapada, 21,-49, 81. 82.
byapado'lIlooo, 65.
Brahllla(ii), 50.
'gods, 60.
"pari sajjotii., 27.
parisajjii, 50. 50n.
lhhfl,' 50.
Drahwa-kiiyikt., 91.
Drahwa-loka, 41.
Brahma. vihiira, 38.
bhanga, ll6. 118.
"anupassana-iiiilola, llG ll7.
Dhagavu, 66, 62, G-3. G7.
Dhadollta, 62.
llhaddii, wife or liillS-
bhaya.stla, 9.
BhayabheraYD. -sut{a, G3.
bhayatupaHhiilla-i'ial).(l, 118.
bbava, 104, 105.
(three), 115, 118.
"' al).hii., Ill.
" isesll, 27.
Sllwpatti, 21.
"upoccheda, 10211.
calona. 10211 .
"citta, 102.
piila-citta, 102.
mano, 102.
bha\'a-betll-Sall(lhi, l O,j,
bhihalla. 49. 81.
maya. paIiiHi., OZ.
bhfi\'auiya, 32.
"gama, 36.
"magga, 36.
bnura (sim.), llO.
bhikkhu, 11.
' dhawma, 14.
blnimi, 54, 120, 121. 1:!2.
avitakka, sa-vilakka ". 12l.
"to, 41.
dassoua 0, sankappa . 122.
llippitiko", sappitiko". 121.
bhivanii. 0, 1220.
sekha 0, a-sekba . 122,
bhel'a, 'al'ammnl).a, 39.
Bhesa-kahivana, 62.
ahiira, 36.
10, 36.
ruatlaiiiiutii, 16. 19. 23.
wakkha, 6.
Magadha, 1l4.
angani , 66.
iiiil).a, 119, 120.
"pa1ipadi, 1.
'sacca, lll.
5awangissa filil.lalll , 93.
ruacchariya, (five), 123.
lUajjhe, 40,
kalyUI.lo., 2.
majjllottn, 79, 81-
majjhima, 50. 52. 53.
majjhimndesa. upapatti. 79.
mal:lq.aln, 43, 44, 45. 58.
bhojnne "tii, 16, 19, 23, 28.
mnnasikiira, 10l.
oyoni80" lOon., 1120.
' 10, 11b.
' mlilnku dhnmmfi , 112.
sammu , 79,
manuyalallu, 100,
lllano 10l.
dh:itn. 97-99.
"viiiiifil)u, 101.
vinniil,la.dhii l u, 97-99.
mono-maya iddhi, 8(;.
mara!],a, 72, 104,
(of tWI) kinds),
(of three kinds), 72,
"8ali, 38, 40, 72-75.
(dislinguishell from nni('ca
Banilll), 74-75.
mahanta-patubha"lIt o. s."1,
'Hrahmii. 60.
bhflta, 83, 95. 96.
Mahtikapi, 64.
mahiikaru!lii-s&Uladbi. 29, SO.
Mahiigovinda, 64.
mahiipuiliiii. (paneaO), 87.
Mahii-vyutpatti, loot-notes on G,
IG, 29, G4, 65, 93, 104 ..
Mahii-satta, SO.
lIah:i.sndassana, 73.
Miigandiyn suttn, 36.
mana, 7, 34; (uine). 123.
Miindhati\('tr), 73n.
Miira, 64.
.lliga (aim, ), 2l.
miccha, 11-12. 14.
'antii, 111, 124.
iijiva. 11-12, 14.
micchatta, 124
middha, 48.
flhiirajn ", ntnja ' , ('illaju' , 48.
(kiiyika dhnmma), 48.
'rflpa, 95, 123.
(nlpndbanlUla), 48.
(rnp5.nuvatti), 123.
muiicitukamyatiiil.iil.lll, 118.
1ll11l.liiitHnukha, 76.
king, 12611.
Il\uuilii, 38, 80, 81.
Illlldn-indri,Ya, 42, 50.
mnni, 95, 120u.
Mfigupakkhu, 64.
(MfJt(lhujiitnl.l), 73n.
IIl111n, (mettiiya). 79.
llllila-kilesa, 35. '
meUii., 3, 78-83
"piiramitti., 64, 80.
llloggala, 127n.
Mos-gallana, 73.
lllohf!, 89.
'carita, 24, 34-37.
'cariya. 34.
Yatha-kammupaga, 90.
" 91.
'Ml).adnss&.na-yisuddhi , 1l3.
yamakato, 116.
yamnka-piltihiiriya, 29, SO.
Yomataggi, 73.
ynthiisanthohka, 10, 22.
yuga, 44 .
yoga. (four), 123.
yogavacara, 16, 20, 43, 44,45,49.
51. 52, 53, 54, 55, 50, 58, 59.
01, 63, 64, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73,
71,81, 84, 86, 88. 95, 113, 110,
etc.; too numerous r eferences.
yonito, 97.
palisllnkhii,', 12.
' pntisevnti, 12, 13.
' manasikiro, 2.
raja, 20.
r:'1"U, 65.
l':lSll, 5. 2.). 20, 43, 5i-a9, GI, 62,
09, 72, i5, 77, 80-82. 83, 84,92.
' allubha"ana, 127.
dholllllla", 4f'l.
rasa (aim.), 104.
Raga, 71, i9.
' carila, 24, 31, 37. 75.
'cari:ra, 34.
rr'gn-caritildito, 41.
rukklla (&im.), 104.
rukkha-mI11ika. Hl, 21. 23. 24.
Sf"'ilabbfl , un Re"ilrlbb:i, 21.
rlipn, 101, 113.
(thirty), 95, 90.
(twenty. eight), 95,
(reflect ion upon), 114.
upildi\ ' . 95.
'khanuhn, 95,97,
jati' . 95'.
middha', 48, 95, 123.
' Iokn, 41.
rilpa-kaHill:l -santati, 97.
' (trance) , 47-54. 87.
roga-saniiii '. 66.
l akkhal,la, 4. 25, 43, 57 69. 61, 62,
69, 72. 75, 71, 78. 81H2. 84.
' 10, 83, 99, 109.
duo. sampnnn:'Illl, 48, 49, 51,
52, 53, 55, 56.
(lnira ' , 103.
' rilpn, 97.
snbbii\'a' , 103. ngahato, 107.
ltlpana, 12.
lfibhena labha, 12.
lingolo, GO, 61.
' dhnmma (cight), 111, 123.
' 88, 89.
' l'idu, 63.
snnkhiirn ' , 63.
saltn ' , Ga.
' panna, 92.
'snmiidhi, 28.
'sila, 7.
' pail ilii . 92.
' samiidhi, 28.
'sila. 7.
lobha. 88, 122.
nnyannnlti ' saIIMs:!, 9Q.
(1I15O see 85) .
LomaJul.lllsa jiitaka, 64. .
lohita, 38.
kasil).a, 58.
lohitaka, 38, 61.
'ntthato, 83, 99, 100, 109.
' khamo, 32.
",acche. (dhellupr,ka '), 52.
niwittaO, 39.
' to, 39.
va\ll,la-kasil}a, 41, 59.
(reSection upon), 75.
l'OQ.I}J-macchariya, 123, 123n.
vattharummal).ato. 99.
,'adhaka-llaccnpa!\hiiJll\to. 13.
vatta, 32.
' kama, 46.
"dasah, 96.
voya, 115, 110, 117, 118.
" allihakl'l-pl\ta1a, i'D,
ValiihaS/l I\,64.
Vasubou(lhu, On.
,uta., 35, 74.
v[l ta-dharii, (sim.), 70.
va.yama, 10,
Tiiyo, 83.
viiyo-kasil,la, 38, 57, 5B.
viiriHa (sIlo), 7.
"u.!agga, 58.
,ikappa, 82,
ihhi-purisiidi ', 82.
vikUra-rupn, 97.
vilrubbonii-iddhi, 86.
"vimutti, 1, 2.
' vimutti -lllllgga, 2.
vikkhl1yitako, 3S. 61.
vikkhiHakJI.. 38, 61-
vikkhepa-pahiina, 45.
vicaya, 92.
dhammo, 92.
viclira. 40-47, 48, 40, 51, ii.
(siJ.:), 114,
vicikicchii, 48, 49, 51, 123.
(of four kinds), 48.
-ricchiddaka, 3S, 01.
vijja, 28.
!'!, 03.
"viwutti, 69. 71.
viiiiiii'.la, 99-100, 104.
(seven kinds), 99.
'unniiciiyaialla, 55.
' iinaiicayaIIlOn-\lpogn, ;j;j.
[.yalana, 38.
knsil.ln, 40, 59.
"kiiyii., 114.
"t hi l i (seven), Ill. 115, 118.
"iiiiiiU.lo-(lhlitu, 100.
(seven), 100.
vitnkk:l, 4'2, 4G-41. 4f1, 49. 51, 57.
ii , 72, 77, 121.
(six), 114.
""aritn, 41.
"coriya, 34.
vitthiirnlo, 82.
"i nalilllnii, 71.
Vinllya, 1, 32, 33, 98.
(rules), 11.
"sIU]n-nra, 14.
"inilaka. 38, 61.
,'iparita-sl\fl.iHi., 5(1.
vipaiHian, 111.
(four), 111.
(t"l"\""elve), 124.
"sniliHi, 56, 11u,
"ipatti, 79, SO.
"ipassallil, 27, 49, JjO, 71. flO, l11.
121, 121,
"(1098I1.ll9., 126.
pubbougamn-samnthu, 121.
snmatha-pubbangnml\ " , 121.
8ukklta". 121.
"\""ipubb9.ka, 3B. 61.
vippajiafira, 9.
"ipphlira-samadhi, 127.
Vibhanga, 11, 31, 1)4. 19. 81.
vimutti. 1, 9, 49.
(five kinds), 1.
an\lt!ar1i.". 1.
"klianclha, 100.
"i1111.1akkhnndha, 100.
"aambhiirll, 1.
ViUluttimaggn, 2, 24n, 31, 35
(very important), 76n.
"imokkhn, 26, 54, 59, 80, 121
(eight), 66.
vimocayal1i cittalp, 71,
"I"iragl\, 50, 66.
viriya, 49, 87, 99,
"paramitii., 64, SO.
"h'ura, 96.
vjvaua-ml1la (six) , 123.
viveka , 46. 49.
"ja, 46.
"patipannll, 49.
visarukkhn (aim.), 11 0.
vi.s:lbhiiga, 61. Ill?
"to, 100.
sampatta"gilhi, lOOn.
"iauddhi, 49.
I1!l, 114.
dtto.", 2.
dittbi ". 2, 113.
sI]a' , Z.
Visuddhimaggn, l. 4, 5, etc.
(almost throughout).
' to, 40.
bhalIl.", 27.
"bhiigiya, 10, 50.
vihilJl83. SO.
'uparati, 12.
viheaa, 82.
'snnna, 98.
vHhi, 101, 102. 103.
(thre& kinds), 101.
"bhedato, 101103.
mano-dvlira', 103.
vIsat.iyii akilrebi, 106.
vlhi (aim.), ]04.
vuHhina, 67.
"edana, 57, 97-98. 104, l 21.
(oDe hundred and eight), 98.
' kiyii, 114.
veda-bahula, 122.
Vcdalla. 94.
vematika, 9.
Veyyiikaral,lu, 94 .
verI, 81.
"esiirajja, SO.
(four), G5.
Vessiimitta, 13.
Vehllppll alR, 53.
voHlmbbnnncitta, 102.
76n, lOIn.
slIqlyojana, 111; (three) , 120.
(teu), Ill. 124.
snq'lV81'8, 4, 10, 11.
indriya" (of nine wlly.\), 12.
snttappnbhedn". 11.
"sna, 4.
Sakadiigami, 3, 125, 127.
sangaha, 49, 112.
' to, 84, 100, 103, 112.
khandha", iiyat;mll", dhfitu' . 112.
slInkhepa. , 49.
MnldlaIIl, 72.98-39, 104, 105, l 07,
114, 128.
(thirty. two), 98.
' iirammana, 117.
' upekkhii, 52.
' \IpekkhiiAl..fu)a, 118.
kii.yu" 70, 128.
'khanclhn, 107.
citta' , 71, 128.
'nimiitn, 84.
paricchedanii.l).a, 116.
sabba " samathll, GG.
"ditthi, 110, (chief or beresies),
l);DEX 01' P.I.L1 WORDS 100
"bhii ... a-ditthi, 110.
6ankhata, 105, 12S.
SBnkhitt a, l OS.
"to, 82, 110.
"sangaha, 49.
Sangha, 44.
auussa ti, 3S, 67.
"1.nmmn, 14.
6ii. ... n1.a . 67.
6Ullghil!i, 17.
8tlccn, 108-125.
"Cadhi Uhilua), SOn.
anulomika-ii5I.lo. , 9:3, lI S.
ariya". 95.
catu, lOS.
"pariccheda, 3, 113-128.
p'iiramit5, 64, SO.
Saughadisesn, lIn., 14.
Saccasavhayn, 64.
sacchi-kiitnbbnWleua, 110.
aai."icicca, 9.
Sailj[va, 127.
Sanna, 45.
(ten), 111.
kiiyii, 114.
l1 anatt ll. , 54.
uimittn, 62.
IJ n(igha", 54.
patibilllbn, 45.
pathnvj , 5G, 56u.
viparita, 56.
"Vipallftsn.". 56.
,ihesii!. 98.
aaiiila-vedayitn-uirodha, n.
"samapatti, 121.
sati, 49. 53.
iiniipilnn, 38-42.
kii.yagatu", 75-77.
!hiinani, 41.
parisuddhi, 53.,, 41, 4.2.
"ma, 52.
(four), 65, G6, G9, 71, 10''>, Ill ,
sllt i-s.Illllpajnnna, 2R, 52.
sn tta, SO, 84, 113.
"i"w[isn (uill e), 111, l1(i, lIS.
sat takkhatu-p31"1l111a , 120.
(lI\\l(liutiriya), 120
Satta-sll riya'sutta, 83.
SattM, 63.
SaUhu-pakkosao3, 127.
"kaJ.ltllka, 56.
nirodhu, 56.
piil.laks" . 58.
snddhii, 49, 89, l OG.
"cll riin, 41-
"cnriyii., 34.
sR.nidnS81lI1R-SnpPlltigha, 97.
anutn., 54.
,nntipn, 6, corrections &
additious., 102.
santutlhitii, 28.
5ll u(Jitthikn, 67.
sa u(lhi, 105.
"to, 105.
phnla-hetu, 105.
bha"ao, 105.
6spadanaciirikl\. 16, 17, 18, 23.
sll-pnriysntato, 77.
sapp.urisa, 79., 80.
sabhiiga, 83.
vi-sabhii.gato, 83.
sabhiiva-rUpa, 97.
100 VDllil"fDI .. \GGA
39, 51.
illlgaO, 39, 57.
iinllllmllua", 39, 57.
O!o, 39.
nipao, 39.
Imiii'iil.\'et\(l ,Yitn, 39.
6;)mnl ilo, 71, SO, 111. 127.
jlUUbllugamn-vipnsstln;I, 121.
"ipauflua-pubhllugnuHl o. 121 .
patipanna, 49,
Sl\U1antato, GO, 61.

' carita, 34.
' cariya, 34.
5umiidhi, 1, 2, 3, 2G-31, 19, SO,
antnl'iiyo.kal'a, 27.
3saiiiW, 30.
"fi nisIIQ1Sa , 27.
kiriy,,', 30.
khaudha. 2. 14, 100.
ja, 61.
(nan6.vidha), 28-31,
llibbedha-bhiigiyu", L
'pari ccheda , 26-31.
llahfikal'uQ.ii o. 29, 80.
yamaka-patihfu';ya, 29, SO.
'sambhiira, 28.
"smi l!l p::ori)lUrakiirino, 125.
helu (eight), 27-28.
suwiipntti. 26-, 79.
anupubbao ( Dille) , GG.
(d,'c), 121 , 12&-128.
Illliicnnga O, 2-9.
s311l uccheda-maral.nt, 72.
s:lIuudnya (=talJ.hii), 04.
slIUlpajaillia, 52.
811mpalta-vi5llyaggiihi, lOOn.
5lllUpalti, 79, 80.
sll lllpnlialjlSana, 4V.
snlUplillPllllliijl:.l, 90.
cakkhu ' ja, etc., 07, 98.
(se"ell), OJ, GG, 71.
3. ,
' ;lllgillli (se"en),' U,}.
bammati (or &ammuti)
', 93.
' sacca, 110.
snmbhiira (samiHl hi ssn' ) , 28.
nmmnppadhana, 10: Ili, 65',
cattiil'o' , 10, 06, 109.
samma. ii.jivll, 2, 1. 109.
sammii.-kamman'ta, 2. 1, 109.
samm[l.ditthi, 2, 109.
sawmii-dhalluna, 115_
so mmii. mnggangiini. 66,
sammii -manasikii ra. 19, 109.
samwii"'iicii, 2, 109.
sammii-yiiyiilllo, 2, 1, 109.
2. 109.
sammii-sllti, 2, 109.
snruwiisamadhi, 2, 109.
pai'ica-utlJ:l,ikn , 30.
Sallllllii-salllbuddha , 81. 9U.
Sayawbho., 62.
Sal'rWIl, 44.
snjiiyatana, 104.
Saccn-jiitaka, 64,
sa-sambhli rika-upaciira., 49.
sRssata..diHhi, 110,
s5. dhiiralJ.a-marIlJ.lR, 12_
sallakkhaJ:l,ii, 10,
siikM (sim.), 104,
siimaiiiia-phaia, 66.
Sii rilmtta, 13. 90. 127_
ll'wJ.::X OL" 1'.\),) \rOllo::; Hi l
"iili (aim. ). 104.
tiikkhapmla, 10, 11.
("I. Siugrua.piUi ), 02u.
sil'attlw, 5.
sHaiattiLn, 5.
1, 1-15, 3_
autal'uyikii, G.
D.uussati, 38, 67.
' auissIl1611, 5.
kho.uuha, 2, 14. 100.
(nunfwiuila), 114.
' pariccheda, 415.
piiramiHi. .. G4. 80.
lakklllu.ll\, 4.
"ra sa -])occnpat ! hillla'Jlatia j.\ ha!la ,
' visuduhi, 14.
"hehl, 7.
silabbala-]lIll":imiis:J. , 120. 123, 124.
s\\klw. 3, 48, 49, 5111., 119.
(of five kiuds), 47.
"i udri y:'!, 97.
nicca. ' vihiira, 79.
" illal'i. 52.
sukh\lllln-rupo. , (cighh'cu), 100.
8ui5.ihtll(a), 40, 12S.
dh1i.tu, 114.
suil ilnlo ("imokkhn), 122.
Gutll-mayr. paiiiia, 02-.
sutena, 41.
Sutta, 1, 32.
Sutlo.uipllta, 95, 12(10.
Sudo.ssii, 120.
Sudasst, 120.
ll"nsa (gods), 120.
"iivasa.bhiimi, 54.
sU-l'u\ill:tILIl:t, ij7.

niwitta. H.
saiiM. 1 1.
Subltakil.lha. G3 .
Scnlti-jal<il.:a. GJ.
ISCU\IS;1IL:1, 3G.
Mlllliw, 3,j, H, -; .1. Uti.
sl')yadit o, 3G.
5G. 88, 1001l.
dasnKn, 9G.
tlibba o. sn, 88,
tlhatu. 88.
"mngga iiiqla, 119, 122.
phala, 120. 125.
"U1l1ggll, 121. 125.
SotiipllllUa, 3. 120. 127.
(of t111'ce 1'20.
Sobhitll, 89.
SOlllllllllssa, 53. 81.
i, 88, 97.
sosullika, 16. 21. 23. 24.
vyiikhl'ii, 34u. lOI n, 11'2 11.
lHlta"'ikkhittakn, 3S. 61.
HaFdda-\'asalla-fmtla, 5'2.
hiulubhtlgiytl. 7, !), GO.
lIila, 7. 9.
hani, 65.
c1lOull asso.", vi riyllssO" . slIli l's",
stlllludhissa o, paiiiHiyaO,
"imuttiyuO, 60.
hita-8u'kha, 82.
hiri, 33.
hirikopiun, 13.
hUI!lhika, 470,
"to, 11&.
,)hala-nill,la, 94.
sUlllii dhi ssa, 21-28,
sila, 7.
llefu-paccaya, 95, lOJ-I01, 113.
patib:uhiha, 114.
pal'iggahe ulII,la, 114.
hctu-phala-salldhi, 105.
heturuhi fiul,lall'l, 94.
accumul ation. tiO.
acrobatic realll, GO
(aim.) 15.
autiJote, 41, 78.
UU- IJh('m, G9,
Arhat, 3, 24, 4S, UJ, 121.1, 125.
ullkuOWIl destiu y of, 120.
,hhahhip, 120.
Path 1.0, 12U.
arwy, 48.
bag of r(lsces and Il L'iuc (!lim.), 75.
bini, surrounded by fire (,iw. ), 118.
Ulessed ou8, {see Dhagn\,ii), 6-1, GU,
103, 109, 126.
bli nd (sim.)
aud l nme, 113.
wan (ei m.), 2.
wan touching nnd feeling the
elepha nt, 99.
boat, crossing the floods (8im.), 119.
reHection upon (thirteen ways),
wnes, three hundred. 76.
newly married (sim.), 33.
bubble (aim.) 14.
Buddhist Literature (nine-loldr
bull. able to carry a bur deu (8im.),
cart (sim. ), 48.
cart-dr i\'cr (5im.), 32.
carta, five hundred, 55.
centipede, 74,
chil d, young (sim.), 45.
city, burning, 119.
colour of mind 01' heal't, 88-89.
courtiers (sim.), 101-102.
CUI\', mouutaiu' ol.
cl'avi ng 84.
deaf door-keeller (sim.), 101, 102.
death , reflection -upon" (foUl'
ki nds), 72; (ei::-ht ways) 73-7-1.
Del iverance, 1.
l' ath of, 2.
Depeudent Ol'igiuatioll (ahu
Law. of Cuu$aliou), 113, 114.
(ullg'ati"e way), 114.
disellse of leprosy ("iw.) , WU.
Diviue Eye, {j .. 1.
doctor (sim.), 32 ..
doll, wooden, 84.
double-tongued, 124.
dragon, 74.
dumb maid-ser"\'ant 101 .. 102 ..
ear, 100.
hea.venly 88.
nat ural ' 88 ..
ealth (ai m .. ), 107 ..
Eightfol d Path, 109 ..
el ephant
goad appl ied to, 115.
wi thout a goo{l (sim .. ), 32, 41.
eucution, post cr, 73
elt: ecutionel' (aim.), 73 ..
eur t ion, right", 87 ..
eye, 100
(descri bIHl),90 ..
di vi ne" 88.
eye, si ngle (sim.), 15 ..
rut her (8im.), 32, SO ..
fatty t hings (Bim.), 41.
fire (eim .. )
heap of, 118.
spa rks of, 120 ..
foa.m of water (siw .. i, 74 ..

tuetus, g l'OWlh ut, 71i,
'Appeudix A 1.
tooll , disgust iug ualu!'c of, ::14.
ganJeuer . (aim,), 101, 102.
goa- d (sinl.), 3i, 41.
aPIJiied to lIU elephant,
guide, without a, 2.
hehn8mau (silll.), 32.
hol driuk (sim.), 32, H.
image of the lluudha, li-.!.
image, mal,er uf lUU.
i nterpretatioll
artificial anJ .... G;J, 71,
l:Iimpl e and nalural, 11, 25u, 71 ,
IOU, 109.
iroll , (red.hol) bl)( and dipped
into water, 120.
jar, broken, with wine ill it, 85.
king (sim.), sleepi ng, 101 102.
knife, 101, 102.
lame Rnd bl ind, 113.
iamp, the flame or (sim.),9G, 10G,11.1.
burning, 119.
Law of Causation, 104, 113, 114.
(also aee Depelldent Origination)
l eprosy, 100.
light. of the suu (sim.), 99.
l ightning, fi R5h of, llG.
lip (upper pa r!), G9, 70.
man (sim.).
bitten by a. serpent out not
using antidote, 78.
eating poisoned food, 78.
frightful, carrying a sword, 118.
muttering a Butta, 47.
overcome by the heat, 12G.
pondering over the meaning of
a autta, 47.
Iloor, I f'.
possessed hy spi l'iI5, 33.
a relative after a lUllg
time, etc. 31.
IIn.iutdligell t, 111.
wishiug n bath bul enlorillg
unclean water, 78.
with feet ontside the threshold,
lLlango (huit), 101, 102.
UJastcI' (SiUl.), 37.

0\"01' 1iU.
" nilllitla , 69.
H l1'81lCeS, 5163.
miraculous powel'S, 8li -!H.
mirror (sim.), 89.
moon (sim.), 73, 107.
woth (sim.), 116.
mother (sim.), 32, 80.
mountain, 107.
Na-Iotho, 12\l.
name and form, 84 .
neutral pehon 7379.
Kieh-t iIi po-tho-
shiu-to.lo, 72, (also see G2).
ocean, 107.
oi ly things (aim.), 41.
llarts (thirty. two), of the body 76,
Path, Eightfold 34.
perfection of samidhi, 125.
person, surrounded by robben,llt:i.,lGIl.,
physioian (sil!l), 110.
suffering from a disease, 73.
poison (si m.), 37, 73; Oed Cood, 78,, 85.
poor wan (Si lll. ), 15.
pores of bair, ni nety. nine thou
SRllG, 8il (aha 76) .
preliminaries, 127.
protracted simi les, 10 1-102, 104.
Przyluski, 124 n .
puppet (sim.) painted, dressed up,
n'orked by strings wit lliu, 84,
Pure Abodes, 51.
R ight Path, G4.
Bai lor (.,im. ), 15.
Sau-Tsaug, 4G, 47, 49.
8!!.n" (kakaC(l) 70, 78.
seed 104. 107.
Heeiug a persolL h om Jistanf'e
(silll .) 47.
man seizing a poisouous" 115,
poisonous", 118
Sbiu-to-l o-ni eh-ti-Ii (;2, (also see

penetration iato trut hs, 119.
slave (aim.), 37.
son, ouly (ai lll.), 15.
sou nd
far and near, etc. 88
human ll.ud 88.
of worms, 88.
space in the holl ow or a well
apeck, smallest, changing, 116.
sprout, 104, 101.
spyi-bo-skyes, 73u.
etick, (ai Ul.), 96.
IIhndow8 or, 96.
atream, the fiow of (sim.) , 96.
aufferi ng , 119 .
ceasll. ti on of, 119.
iusi g ht iuto, 119.
origi n of, 119.
Palh lending to eessatioll of,
Bun (sim.), 73.107, 119.
tallw, knowing of, 100.
'l 'ii._le_ahi_k"yu_phu, 62.
former,82,88, 101 .
of the past, 82.
teeth, thirty two, 7G.
thoru (aim.), 100.
ti p of the nose, aUention to G9 ,
Trnths (rourl, 32, 84, 108-28.
Uushakabl e B appy State, 120.
vase , paiuted but full ofi wjlurit y,
well , in a mountai n- rarest, 125.
water, Rowing to n lowe r level
(3i m.) ,99.
Wheel of tIle Law, 00.
n' beel , the turning of (sim.), 100.
wine io Ii. l eaking pot, 85.
woman' s body to II man, 61, 62.
woodell 0011 (sim.), 84.
II'orms , in huwau body. 76,
Appeudix A 2.
worms, sou nds of, 88.
YtllOIV-g:ument-aulh, 82.
Corrections and Additi ons
For Rend
Maddhynlllakn Mndllyaulaka
Abhnyagirlvihii l'n Abhayngirivihsfll.
lIle- lite-
the first Chinco!e character
nirodha-.rolluipotthi 1lirodha-lomdpatti
kssinRIl kaail.lll.6
u vi 1 from the
holtoJU: Add to Dole 13: o' Cf . Via. XVll.18: milia. 11 "lJate/wmbhal.:a7!l ti-dal.L{l
-viYQ; nbo aee XVI L19G. XVIlL32."
foot-nole 1 p. not quoted
foot note 8 79
foot-nole 4
not quoted
Add " 58".
xui foot_nole xui X-l!:i xxxix- xl
l!: .uvi 16
d ili 13
xl. II
xh'i 5
).Ivi R
xlvi ii 6 from \.he
Iii 2
6 4 from the
N evasa.i'iiiUnasaii ii ya.-
d dd a new note on Petalm : ':\frs. C. F.
Rhys Davi ds also identifies Petaka wi th
l >etnkopadesa as can be seen frOID her
edition of the Vis. (P.T.S.). i.141, note
3. It is alao in ter esting to nole what
Gandhavalllil a saya ou p . G5 : Pelakopa-
desassa tI ka.rp Udumbara- nimacariyo
akasi . ..
.AkaniHiJa Akan it\bii
Panni P niiiiii.
10, 10),
S5.iii'i i Saiiiia
contact cont act.
Vijiiil)li Vijiiapti
\'1l1 en IZl1.'\GGA
Page I,jne Por Read
G 6 from the
bottom '0 note 2, add; For rant6pa as 1\ kilu(l
aod for other kilesDs correEpondiog to
8everal in this lisl, lee respect h-cly pp.
223 and 222224 of Yamakami Sogen's
'Systoms of Buddhistic Thought' (1912).
12 the first Chinese
cha ra cter
15 -paticchddantth.a.'rl
flo m the
bottom note 2
1 delailed
8 Raga-cariya.
10 Mohn_ca rIl'a
margin kammattanas
12 po.!avaka.
13 kilyooatduati
- cd ad a nat tho1'!l.
note 4
detai led
Raga-cari ya
ki:Ul'ullaHbii n(ld
40 4 from the
bottODI In note 2, add 'XXIII. 14.'
41 8 from the
bottom patiHtilouritid
45 11 frum t he
bottom kd OPIl':l4P
49 root-uote 1 Add: "Petsko p. 178 (p. 200 of I.he prin-
ted edition) has, however, the follow-
iug passage: Kdmo.t; nd:
kho.m1Tt(J.-vilo.Ho pat ipakkho, uyd- abyopddo.-vito.kko po.(ipak_
kh() , avihi,!ucl-
50 5 Brahma gods BTo./imd gods
b2 10 from the
COHllECIlO:-;S AND .... DDl'llO?'S Ic9
Li lle 'For
sat,:parillldh iTF'

Gat uttlwjj/,c1l11idi.
62 foot-note 2 Add: "Abhidharmakosa\'yfikuya edited
by'Vogiha "II , \'o\. i.162:
I Ii 8tilt,-n-IIQ 1110
66 13 frOID the
bottom MlIIl1Iti nwgoon,golii $ommti-I1WOUOII !J.dlti
70 6 from tbe
2 rom the
" fr om the
96 12 from the
96 b froro tbe
Add : " Also see
ii,31014 ,"

bottow kommU$(l1II 1IHd llti
91 13
98 15 from the
tho first Chine&e
bottom l'hof.f.ohobbo"01i .it'i
98 14 from the
.Mandhfitn Jii.lakft, Hi.

bottom cakkhu-ltimplwuaj6
99 2 in the XIV. 133-184 i ii XIV. 133-184
99 6 from the
bottom Vacall Uhato T'acanattlld!o
2 from I,be
bottom Lakkhat;lato Lakkh(bl,wto
Page Line For Read
100 9 vimtltti kkhalldh o vi mutti kkh(llldllQ
l ' 0 11 fron' the
bottom iot erpretes interprets
100 1 from the
boLtom ke ci keci
102 12
","ud C",u,", '"""I"}
103 21,24
., .. .. .
105 24 fourth
110 15 d ,;;a. ralJidapGII(I. .. al.ldra-pidaha,.a., .
110 16 samttho samattho
7 from the
bottom ltdhitattlwto upiiiatatilulto
110 marginal XVI.8G XVI.86
note u. p,a.
113 15-16 Add a note on the parable of blind nod lame man:
"See Braiunasiitra, 11.2.7 and $aukarn's
on it: also Sii.nkhyakarika, 21; Macdonell ' s ' I ndia's
Past', p. 152 where he says that the IJRl'able was
known in China ill the second ('.eotnry B.C,"
113 1 from the
hoUom vedalla._pa-ccyd vooanii'l)(lccayd
114 12 from the
lib 15 kammatthiinas kamoJat\hana.8
117 8 pas,lddhi pauaddhi

11S 6 from the
boltom $onkharaupekkha- $onkhiirupekklla-
tlaJ.1<li 7WIJO
120 15 mudidriyo mudindriyo
122 10 from the
bottom ktima-pariye$ana
Page Line For Reali
122 5 from the
pajd1lC'ii pajiilldti
123 G froID t.he
boltom maccarliyella macc/tariyella
12. 7
.kammapatlill . kallull apatli.a
12. 4 trom the
hot.lom ' Le COllceile .. 'Le Couci!e ...
126 13 ditthadh1ll711al uklta diHhadllammaluHlfJ-
'l!ihiirat tha.1[1o
121 7 along will nlong with
133 14 cbal)ter of (UI.74) of chapter (Ill .74) of
133 23 part of the part in the
133 21)26 nod 1IIliitdvilidriya aud aiHlcitUvimlriya