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Mickey Mouse Club

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Contents
Articles
The Mickey Mouse Club Jimmy MacDonald (sound effects artist) Jimmie Dodd Morality Sharon Baird Bobby Burgess Lonnie Burr Tommy Cole Annette Funicello Darlene Gillespie Cheryl Holdridge Cubby O'Brien Karen Pendleton Doreen Tracey Don Grady Johnny Crawford My Three Sons Sherry Alberoni Bonnie Lynn Fields Mickey Rooney, Jr. Tim Rooney Paul Williams (songwriter) Candice Bergen Tim Considine Tommy Kirk Roberta Shore David Stollery Judy Nugent Kevin Corcoran J. Pat O'Malley Alvy Moore Julius Sumner Miller Spin and Marty The Hardy Boys 1 10 12 14 25 27 29 31 33 41 43 46 49 50 51 53 56 63 65 66 68 69 78 85 87 93 94 96 98 101 104 106 110 113

Adventure in Dairyland List of Jiminy Cricket educational serials The Adventures of Clint and Mac Romper Room Third Man on the Mountain The Misadventures of Merlin Jones The Monkey's Uncle Kim Richards Robbie Rist Lisa Whelchel The Facts of Life (TV series) Julie Piekarski Kelly Parsons The Brady Bunch Eischied Fantasy Island Corey Feldman Allison Fonte Wayne Allwine Courtney Love Christina Aguilera Lindsey Alley Rhona Bennett JC Chasez Braden Danner Nikki DeLoach Albert Fields Dale Godboldo Ryan Gosling Tiffini Hale Chase Hampton Tony Lucca American Idol (season 3) Deedee Magno Matt Morris (musician) The Party (band) Keri Russell Justin Timberlake

126 127 130 132 140 142 144 146 151 153 158 168 169 170 184 185 193 199 200 202 217 243 244 246 251 256 258 259 261 276 277 280 285 302 303 308 312 318

Britney Spears Marc Worden Fred Newman Jessica Simpson Mickey Mouse Clubhouse

331 357 360 361 376

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 380 394

Article Licenses
License 396

The Mickey Mouse Club

1

The Mickey Mouse Club
The Mickey Mouse Club
1955-1960 and 1975-1979 Logo Format Children's Variety show Bill Walsh (1955-1958 Producer) Hal Adelquist Walt Disney Several different casts United States 360 Production Producer(s) Running time Bill Walsh (1955–1958) 30 or 60 minutes

Created by

Starring Country of origin No. of episodes

Production company(s) Walt Disney Productions Broadcast Original channel United States: ABC (1955-1960) CBS (1977-1979) The Disney Channel (1989-1997) Disney Channel (1997-2002) Canada: Family Channel (1989-1996) October 3, 1955 – March 7, 1996

Original run

The Mickey Mouse Club is an American variety television show that aired intermittently from 1955 to 1996. Created by Walt Disney and produced by Walt Disney Productions, the program was first televised from 1955 to 1960 by ABC, featuring a regular but ever-changing cast of child performers. The series was revived, reformatted and reimagined after its initial 1955–1960 run on ABC, first in 1977 for syndication, and again, from 1989 to 1996 on The Disney Channel.

Before the TV series
Previous to the TV series, there was a theater based Mickey Mouse Club. The first one started on January 4, 1930 at 12 noon at the Fox Dome Theater in Ocean Park, California with 60 Theaters hosting clubs by March 31. The Club released its first issue of the Official Bulletin of the Mickey Mouse Club on April 15, 1930.[1] By 1932, the Club had 1 million members, and in 1933 its first British club opened at Darlington's Arcade Cinema.[2][3] In 1935, with so many clubs around the world, Disney begins to phase out the club.[4]

The Mickey Mouse Club

2

The 1950s-1960 series
The Mickey Mouse Club was Walt Disney's second venture into producing a television series, the first being the Walt Disney anthology television series, initially titled Disneyland. Disney used both shows to help finance and promote the building of the Disneyland theme park. Being busy with these projects and others, Disney turned The Mickey Mouse Club over to Bill Walsh to create and develop the format, initially aided by Hal Adelquist.[5] The result was a variety show for children, with such regular features as a newsreel, a cartoon, and a serial, as well as music, talent and comedy segments. One unique feature of the show was the Mouseketeer Roll Call, in which many (but not all) of that day's line-up of regular performers would introduce themselves by name to the television audience. In the serials, teens faced challenges in everyday situations, often overcome by their common sense or through recourse to the advice of respected elders. Mickey Mouse himself appeared in every show not only in vintage cartoons originally made for theatrical release, but in opening, interstitial and closing segments made especially for the show. In both the vintage cartoons and in the new animated segments, Mickey was voiced by his creator Walt Disney. (Disney had previously voiced the character theatrically from 1928 to 1947, and then was replaced by sound effects artist Jimmy MacDonald.)

Cast
Mickey Mouse Club was hosted by Jimmie Dodd, a songwriter and the Head Mouseketeer, who provided leadership both on and off screen. In addition to his other contributions, he often provided short segments encouraging young viewers to make the right moral choices. These little homilies became known as "Doddisms".[5] Roy Williams, a staff artist at Disney, also appeared in the show as the Big Mooseketeer. Roy suggested the Mickey Mouse ears worn by the cast members, which he helped create, along with Chuck Keehne, Hal Adelquist, and Bill Walsh. The main cast members were called Mouseketeers, and they performed in a variety of musical and dance numbers, as well as some informational segments. The most popular of the Mouseketeers comprised the so-called Red Team, which consisted of the following: • Nancy Abbate (first year only) • • • • • Sharon Baird Bobby Burgess Lonnie Burr Tommy Cole Dennis Day (first and second year)
1956 cast photo. Front row; L–R: Annette Funicello, Karen Pendleton, Cubby O'Brien, Sherry Alberoni, Dennis Day. Row two: Charley Laney, Sharon Baird, Darlene Gillespie, Jay-Jay Solari. Row three: Tommy Cole, Cheryl Holdridge, Larry Larsen, Eileen Diamond. Row four: Lonnie Burr, Margene Storey, Doreen Tracey. Back row: Jimmie Dodd, Bobby Burgess.

• Annette Funicello • Darlene Gillespie • Cheryl Holdridge (joined in second year) • Cubby O'Brien ★

The Mickey Mouse Club • Karen Pendleton ★ • Jay-Jay Solari (second year only) • Doreen Tracey ★ Cubby and Karen were initially "Meeseketeers" because they were the youngest of this group. The remaining Mouseketeers, consisting of the White or Blue Teams, were Don Agrati (later known as Don Grady when starring as "Robbie" on the long running sitcom My Three Sons), Sherry Alberoni, Billie Jean Beanblossom, Johnny Crawford, Jonathan A. Kahn (a.k.a. Tio Juan), Eileen Diamond, Dickie Dodd (not related to Jimmie Dodd), Mary Espinosa, Bonnie Lynn Fields,[6] Judy Harriet, Linda Hughes, Dallas Johann, John Lee Johann, Bonni Lou Kern, Charlie Laney, Larry Larsen, Paul Petersen, Lynn Ready, Mickey Rooney Jr., Tim Rooney, Mary Lynn Sartori, Bronson Scott, Michael Smith, Margene Storey, Ronnie Steiner, Mark Sutherland and Don Underhill.[7] Dennis Day was a Mouseketeer for two seasons; the others served for shorter periods. Larry Larsen, on only for the 1956–57 season, was the oldest Mouseketeer, being born in 1939. Among the thousands who auditioned but didn't make the cut were future vocalist/songwriter Paul Williams and future actress Candice Bergen. Other notable non-Mouseketeer performers appeared in various dramatic segments:[5] • Tim Considine • Tommy Kirk • Roberta Shore a.k.a. Jymme Shore • • • • • • • • Steve Stevens (not to be confused with musician of same name) David Stollery Judy Nugent Kevin Corcoran, a.k.a. Moochie J. Pat O'Malley Sammy Ogg Alvy Moore Julius Sumner Miller as "Professor Wonderful"[5]

3

These non-Mouseketeers primarily appeared in numerous original serials filmed for the series, only some of which have appeared in reruns. Certain Mouseketeers were also featured in some of the serials, particularly Annette Funicello and Darlene Gillespie.

Major serials
Major serials included the following:[5] • • • • • • • Spin and Marty (three serials, starring Tim Considine and David Stollery in the title roles) The Hardy Boys (two serials, starring Tim Considine and Tommy Kirk) Corky and White Shadow, starring Darlene Gillespie Walt Disney Presents: Annette, starring Annette Funicello Adventure in Dairyland, featuring Funicello and Sammy Ogg, and introducing Kevin Corcoran as Moochie Jiminy Cricket educational serials (four Animated serials educating kids on various topics). The Adventures of Clint and Mac (starring Neil Wolfe as Clint Rogers and Jonathan Bailey as Alastair "Mac" MacIntosh.) • Boys of the Western Sea

The Mickey Mouse Club

4

Music
The opening theme, "The Mickey Mouse March," was written by the show's primary adult host, Jimmie Dodd.[5] It was also reprised at the end of each episode, with the slower it's-time-to-say-goodbye verse. A shorter version of the opening title was used later in the series, in syndication, and on Disney Channel reruns. Dodd also wrote many other songs used in individual segments over the course of the series.

Show themes
Each day of the week had a special show theme, which was reflected in the various segments. The themes were: • • • • • Monday – Fun with Music Tuesday – Guest Star Wednesday – Anything Can Happen Thursday – Circus Friday – Talent Round-up

Scheduling and air times
The series ran on ABC Television for an hour each weekday in the 1955–1956 and 1956–1957 seasons (from 5:00 to 6:00 pm ET), and only a half-hour weekdays (5:30 to 6:00 pm ET) in 1957–1958, the final season to feature new programming.[8] Although the show returned for the 1958–1959 season (5:30 to 6:00 pm ET), these programs were repeats from the first two seasons, re-cut into a half-hour format. The Mickey Mouse Club was featured on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and Walt Disney's Adventure Time, featuring re-runs of The Mickey Mouse Club serials and several re-edited segments from Disneyland and Walt Disney Presents, appeared on Tuesdays and Thursdays.

Cancellation
Although the show remained popular, ABC decided to cancel the show after its fourth season, as Disney and the ABC network could not come to terms for renewal.[9] The cancellation in September 1959 was attributable to several factors: the Disney studios did not realize high-profit margins from merchandise sales, the sponsors were uninterested in educational programming for children, and many commercials were needed in order to pay for the show. After canceling The Mickey Mouse Club, ABC also refused to let Disney air the show on another network.[10] Walt Disney filed a lawsuit against ABC, and won the damages in a settlement; however, he had to agree that both the Mickey Mouse Club and Zorro could not be aired on any major network. This left Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color (later retitled the Wonderful World of Disney) as the only Disney series left on prime time until 1972, when The Mouse Factory went on the air. The prohibition against major U.S. broadcast network play of the original Mickey Mouse Club (or any later version) became moot when Disney acquired ABC in 1996, but no plans have been announced for an ABC airing of any version of The Mickey Mouse Club produced between 1955 and 1996 or for a new network series.

Australian tour
Although the series had been discontinued in the United States, many members of the cast assembled for highly successful tours of Australia in 1959 and 1960. The television series was very successful in Australia and was still running on Australian television. The cast surprised Australian audiences, as by then they had physically developed and in some cases, bore little resemblance to the young cast with whom Australians were so familiar. Mainstream television did not reach Australia until 1956 so the series screened well into the 1960s when the back catalogue expired.

The Mickey Mouse Club

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CBS
In response to continuing audience demand, the original Mickey Mouse Club went into edited syndicated half-hour reruns that enjoyed wide distribution starting in the fall of 1962, achieving strong ratings especially during its first three seasons in syndicated release. (because of its popularity in some markets, a few stations continued to carry it into 1968 before the series was finally withdrawn from syndication). Some new features were added such as Fun with Science, aka "Professor Wonderful" (with scientist Julius Sumner Miller) and Marvelous Marvin in the 1964–1965 season; Jimmie Dodd appeared in several of these new segments before his death in November 1964. Many markets stretched the program back to an hour's daily run time during the 1960s rerun cycle by adding locally produced and hosted portions involving educational subjects and live audience participation of local children, in a manner not unlike Romper Room. In response to an upsurge in demand from baby boomers entering adulthood, the show again went into syndicated reruns from January 20, 1975, until January 14, 1977. It has since been rerun on cable specialty channels Disney in the U.S. and Family in Canada. The original Mickey Mouse Club films aired five days a week on the Disney Channel from its launch in 1983 until the third version of the series began in 1989. The last airing of the edited 1950s material was on the Disney Channel's "Vault Disney" from 1997 to September 2002.

Reunions
Almost all of the original Mouseketeers were reunited for a TV special, which aired on Disney's Wonderful World in November 1980. Several original Mouseketeers performed together at Disneyland in the fall of 2005, in observance of Disneyland's 50th birthday, and the 50th anniversary of the TV premiere of The Mickey Mouse Club.

1970s revival, The New Mickey Mouse Club
In the 1970s, Walt Disney Productions revived the concept but modernized the show cosmetically, with a disco re-recording of the theme song and a more ethnically diverse group of young cast members. The sets were brightly colored and more simplistic than the detailed black and white artwork of the original. Like the original, nearly each day's episode included a vintage cartoon, though usually color ones from the late 1930s and onward.

Serials
Serials were usually old Disney movies, cut into segments for twice-weekly inclusion. Movies included Third Man on the Mountain, The Misadventures of Merlin Jones and its sequel The Monkey's Uncle (both starring Tommy Kirk), Emil and the Detectives (retitled The Three Skrinks), Tonka (retitled A Horse Called Comanche), The Horse Without a Head (about a toy horse), and Toby Tyler (starring Kevin Corcoran). In addition, one original serial was produced, The Mystery of Rustler's Cave, starring Kim Richards and Robbie Rist.

Theme days
Theme days were: • • • • • Monday: Who, What, Why, Where, When and How Tuesday: Let's Go Wednesday: Surprise Thursday: Discovery Friday: Showtime (at Disneyland, with performers usually at Plaza Gardens)

The Mickey Mouse Club

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CBS
The series debuted on January 17, 1977, on 38 local television stations in the United States, and by June of that same year, when the series was discontinued, about 70 stations in total had picked up the series. Additional stations picked up the canceled program, which continued to run until January 12, 1979; 130 new episodes, with much of the original material repackaged and a bit of new footage added, and a shortened version of the theme song, were produced to start airing September 5, 1977. Since the 1970s, the series has aired only briefly in reruns, unlike its 1950s predecessor, and while both the 1950s and 1990s series had DVD releases of select episodes in July 2005, the 1970s series has been largely forgotten with the exception of the generation of youthful viewers for whom it defined the Club.

Cast
The cast had a more diverse ethnic background than the 1950s version. Several 1970s cast members went on to become TV stars and other notable icons. The show's most notable alumnus was Lisa Whelchel, who later starred in the NBC television sitcom The Facts of Life before becoming a well-known Christian author and, most recently, overall runner-up, and winner of the $100,000 viewers' choice award, on the fall 2012 season of the CBS television reality series Survivor. Mouseketeer Julie Piekarski (born St. Louis, 1963) also appeared with Lisa Whelchel on the first season of The Facts of Life. Kelly Parsons (born Coral Gables, Fla., 1964) went on to become a beauty queen and runner-up to Miss USA. Shawnte Northcutte (born Los Angeles, 1965) appeared then too. Billy 'Pop' Attmore (born at US military base in Landstuhl, West Germany, 1965) appeared in a few movies before and after the series, a fifth-season episode of The Brady Bunch ("Kelly's Kids"), and as a streetwise hood in the short-lived Eischied crime drama. Nita Dee appeared at the tail end of an episode of Fantasy Island. Other Mouseketeers from the 1970s show:[7] • • • • • • • Scott Craig: born in Van Nuys, California, in 1964; lived in Las Vegas, died December 30, 2003. Nita Dee (Benita DiGiampaolo): born in Long Beach, California, 1966 Mindy Feldman: born in Burbank, California, 1968, and sister of Corey Feldman. Angel Florez: born in Stockton, California, 1963; died April 25, 1995. Allison Fonte: born in Anaheim, California, 1964 Todd Turquand: born in Hollywood, California, 1964 Curtis Wong: born in Vancouver, British Columbia, 1962

Disney voice actor and sound effects editor Wayne Allwine voiced Mickey Mouse in the animated lead-ins for the show, replacing both Jimmy MacDonald, who in 1947 had replaced Walt Disney as the voice of Mickey for theatrical cartoons, and Walt Disney himself, who had been the original voice of Mickey and once again provided the voice for animated introductions to the original TV show but had passed away in 1966. Allwine would keep providing the voice for the character up to his death in 2009. Future rock musician Courtney Love claims to have auditioned for a part on the show, reading a poem by Sylvia Plath; she was not selected.

The Mickey Mouse Club

7

Theme song and soundtrack
The lyrics of the "Mickey Mouse Club March" theme song were slightly different from the original, with two additional lines: "He's our favorite Mouseketeer; we know you will agree" and "Take some fun and mix in love, our happy recipe." A soundtrack album[11] was released with the show.

Distribution
This incarnation was not distributed by Disney alone; while Disney did produce the series, it was co-produced and distributed by SFM Entertainment, which also handled 1970s-era syndication of the original 1950s series (Disney since regained sole distribution rights).

1989-1996 revival (MMC)
Reruns of the original Mickey Mouse Club had aired on the Disney Channel since its 1983 launch. While the show was popular with younger audiences, Channel executives felt that it had become dated over the years, particularly as it was in black-and-white. Their answer was to create a brand-new version of the Club, one geared toward contemporary audiences. Another notable thing that happened was the producers decided that the all-new "club-members" would wear high-school like mouseketeer jackets without the infamous mickey mouse ears. This show is called "The-All New Mickey Mouse Club".

Scheduling and air times
From the first through fifth seasons, the series aired Monday through Friday, at 5:30pm. Through Season 6, the show aired Monday to Thursday . In its final season, Season 7, it aired Thursdays only at 7:00 pm (later moved a half hour later, to 7:30). The series premiered Monday, April 24, 1989, ended production in late October 1994, and ran reruns until Thursday, May 31, 1996. Seasons 3, 5, and 7 had the most episodes (55, each season). Seasons 4 and 6 were shorter, having about 35 episodes each. The remaining seasons were a standard 45 episodes, each. Format The format was somewhat similar to the 1950s and 1970s versions with its "theme" days, but the show had more of a Saturday Night Live feel:

Skits
The show was known for its sketch comedy. In seasons 6-7, some of the sketches played off well-known movies, musicals and even cartoons, as well as holiday-related skits. During the final season, some of the skits showed everyday occurrences experienced by teens, often teaching viewers a lesson on how to handle real-life situations.

Music Videos
During seasons 1–6, the series featured music videos of the Mouseketeers singing their versions of popular songs, always in front of a live studio audience or in the Walt Disney World Resort. This became one of the most popular segments, and for better or worse, the kids who performed in it earned a special lifelong cachet among viewers.

Live Concerts & Performances
A unique feature to the show was the Mouseketeers performing concerts on certain days (which were usually taped the day before or in the summer, when the kids had more time). During the final season, the concerts were replaced primarily by live performances featuring singing and dancing in front of the audience.

The Mickey Mouse Club

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Theme days
This version maintained the "theme day" format from the previous two versions. When Disney decided to revamp the show for its final season, the show was reduced to a single weekly airing, shown only on Thursdays (although still produced as a daily series during the final season taping in 1994 , The Disney Channel, after cancelling the series after Season 7 production had concluded, decided to air the final season in a weekly format). Theme days were as follows: • • • • • Music Day – Mondays (Seasons 1–5), Tuesdays (Season 6) Guest Day – Tuesdays (Seasons 1–5), Mondays (Season 6) Anything Can Happen Day – Wednesdays (seasons 1–5) Party Day – Thursdays (Seasons 1–4, 6), Fridays (season 5) Hall of Fame Day – Fridays (Seasons 1–4), Thursdays (Season 5), Wednesdays (Season 6)

Mouseketeer roster
Listed alphabetically are all 37 Mouseketeers:[5] • Josh Ackerman (seasons 1-7 (all seasons)) • Christina Aguilera (seasons 6-7) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lindsey Alley (seasons 1-7 (all seasons)) Rhona Bennett (seasons 4-7) Nita Booth (seasons 4-7) Mylin Brooks (seasons 3-5) Brandy Brown (seasons 1-3) Blain Carson (seasons 4-5) JC Chasez (seasons 4-7) Braden Danner (season 1) Tasha Danner (seasons 4-5) Nikki DeLoach (seasons 6-7) T.J Fantini (seasons 6-7) Albert Fields (seasons 1-6) Dale Godboldo (seasons 4-7) Ryan Gosling (seasons 6-7) Tiffini Hale (seasons 1-7 (all seasons)) (became a host in season 7) Chasen Hampton (seasons 1-7 (all seasons)) (became a host in season 7) Roque Herring (season 1-2) David Kater (season 1) Tony Lucca (seasons 4-7) Ricky Luna (seasons 3-7) Marque "Tate" Lynche (seasons 6-7) Deedee Magno (seasons 1-6) Jennifer McGill (seasons 1-7 (all seasons)) Terra McNair (seasons 4-5) Ilana Miller (seasons 3-7) Jason Minor (seasons 3-5) Matt Morris (seasons 4-7) Kevin Osgood (seasons 2-5)

• Damon Pampolina (seasons 1-6) • Keri Russell (seasons 4-6)

The Mickey Mouse Club • • • • • • Britney Spears (seasons 6-7) Justin Timberlake (seasons 6-7) Marc Worden (seasons 3-7) Mowava Pryor (Host) (seasons 1-3) Fred Newman (Host) (seasons 1-6) Terri Misner-Eeof (credited as Terri Misner) (Host) (seasons 4-6)

9

Future pop-turned-country singer and actress Jessica Simpson auditioned for season 6, but her tryout was scheduled immediately after that of fellow performer Christina Aguilera (who was eventually selected for the series), whom Simpson described as having "sung like Mariah Carey," and caused her to freeze up during the audition as a result.

References
[1] Polsson, Ken. "1930" (http:/ / kpolsson. com/ disnehis/ disn1930. htm). Chronology of the Walt Disney Company. kpolsson.com/. . Retrieved 7 November 2012. [2] Polsson, Ken. "1932" (http:/ / kpolsson. com/ disnehis/ disn1932. htm). Chronology of the Walt Disney Company. kpolsson.com/. . Retrieved 7 November 2012. [3] Polsson, Ken. "1933" (http:/ / kpolsson. com/ disnehis/ disn1933. htm). Chronology of the Walt Disney Company. kpolsson.com/. . Retrieved 7 November 2012. [4] Polsson, Ken. "1935" (http:/ / kpolsson. com/ disnehis/ disn1935. htm). Chronology of the Walt Disney Company. kpolsson.com/. . Retrieved 7 November 2012. [5] Cotter, Jim (1997). The Wonderful World of Disney Television. New York: Hyperion Books. pp. 181–196 (1950s), 197–198 (1970s), 295 (MMC). ISBN 0-7868-6359-5. [6] Woo, Elaine (2012-11-20). "Bonnie Lynn Fields dies at 68; former Mouseketeer" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2012/ nov/ 20/ local/ la-me-bonnie-lynn-fields-20121120). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2012-12-13. [7] Smith, Dave (1998). Disney A to Z: The Updated Official Encyclopedia. New York: Hyperion Books. pp. 387–388. ISBN 0-7868-6391-9. [8] Mickey the Magnificent (http:/ / www. otrr. org/ FILES/ Magz_pdf/ TV_Radio_Mirror/ TV Radio Mirror 5705. pdf). TV-Radio Mirror. May 1957. p. 21. . Retrieved 12 February 2012.(PDF) [9] The Mickey Mouse Club (http:/ / disney. go. com/ disneyatoz/ familymuseum/ exhibits/ articles/ mickeymouseclub/ index. html) [10] Zorro – the hour-long episodes (http:/ / www. billcotter. com/ zorro/ hour-episodes. htm) [11] Disneyland Records DQ-2501

External links
• The Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0047757/) at the Internet Movie Database (1950s-1960 version) • The New Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0075545/) at the Internet Movie Database (1970s version) • MMC (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0096641/) at the Internet Movie Database (1990s version) • The Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.tv.com/shows/the-mickey-mouse-club/) at TV.com • The New Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.tv.com/shows/the-new-mickey-mouse-club/) at TV.com • MMC (http://www.tv.com/shows/mmc/) at TV.com DVD releases • Walt Disney Treasures: The Mickey Mouse Club at UltimateDisney.com (http://www.ultimatedisney.com/ mickeymouseclub.html) • Mickey Mouse Club: Best of Britney, Justin & Christina at UltimateDisney.com (http://www.ultimatedisney. com/mickeymouseclub-britneyjustinchristina.html) Fan websites • Classic TV – The Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.fiftiesweb.com/annette.htm) • The New Mickey Mouse Club Renaissance Project (http://dm_one.tripod.com/) • New Mickey Mouse Club.com (http://web.archive.org/web/20070308002223/http://www. newmickeymouseclub.com/), via Archive.org

The Mickey Mouse Club • Original Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.originalmmc.com/) • Mickey Mouse Club (http://www.cizgidiziizle.com/mickey-mouse-izle) (Turkish)

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Jimmy MacDonald (sound effects artist)
James MacDonald
Born John James MacDonald 19 May 1906 Dundee, Scotland, UK 1 February 1991 (aged 84) Glendale, California, U.S. Animator, voice actor, musician and head of Disney sound effects department

Died

Occupation

Years active 1934 - 1977

John James "Jimmy" MacDonald (19 May 1906 – 1 February 1991) was a Scottish-born American voice actor and the original head of the Disney sound effects department. He was also the voice of Mickey Mouse from 1947 to 1977.[1][2]

Early life
He was born on May 19, 1906. His parents were Richard William MacDonald and Minnie Hall.[2] The family emigrated to America when MacDonald was six months old. They travelled via the SS Haverford from Liverpool, England, arriving in Pennsylvania 15 days later. As a young man MacDonald landed a job as a musician on the Dollar Steam Ship Lines, which in 1934 led to an opportunity to record music for a Disney cartoon. He went on to secure a permanent contract with Disney, becoming head of the sound department.

Career and sound effects
In addition to directing sounds for animated shorts as aurally complicated as Mickey's Trailer (1938), he developed many original inventions and contraptions to achieve expressive sounds for characters like Casey Jr., the circus train engine from Dumbo (1941); Evinrude the dragonfly from The Rescuers (1977); the bees in Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree (1966); and Buzz-buzz (later called "Spike"), the bee who gets the best of Donald Duck in his 1950s short films. MacDonald also added voice effects, like on-screen humming for Kirk Douglas in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954).

Jimmy MacDonald (sound effects artist)

11

Voice acting
By 1947, Walt Disney was getting too busy and too hoarse from smoking to continue voicing Mickey Mouse, so he was replaced by MacDonald, after the film Fun and Fancy Free (1947). MacDonald voiced the mouse until 1977, when he was replaced by young Disney sound effects man Wayne Allwine for The New Mickey Mouse Club (Allwine's first theatrical role of Mickey was in the 1983 featurette Mickey's Christmas Carol). MacDonald was also the original voice actor for Chip, one half of the duo Chip and Dale. He provided the voice of Jaq and Gus and Bruno the dog in Cinderella (1950), the Dormouse in Alice in Wonderland (1951), Humphrey the Bear, and the Wolf in The Sword in the Stone (1963). He also appeared in the feature film Toby Tyler as the Circus Band Drummer, but was uncredited. MacDonald also found time to play drums in the Firehouse Five Plus Two jazz band. He played with the band on and off from its inception until it disbanded in the early 1970s.

Death
Having retired in 1977, MacDonald died of heart failure on 1 February 1991 at his home,[3] and was buried in Glendale's Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery.

References
[1] Obituary Variety, February 18, 1991. [2] Book: A Viking in the Family by Keith Gregson, published in 2011 by the History Press. [3] MacDonald, Jimmy. "Obituaries: James MacDonald, 84, Mickey Mouse's Voice" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1991/ 02/ 08/ obituaries/ james-macdonald-84-mickey-mouse-s-voice. html). Online newspaper. LA Times. . Retrieved 2012-09-27.

External links
• James MacDonald (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0531763/) at the Internet Movie Database • Biography (http://legends.disney.go.com/legends/detail?key=Jimmy+MacDonald) at Disney Legends website • Jimmy MacDonald (sound effects artist) (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=18298) at Find a Grave • The Voice of Mickey Mouse (http://living.scotsman.com/tvradio/Radio-Listener-The-Voice-of.5926507.jp) at The Scotsman website • The Voice of Mickey Mouse (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00pgph8) at BBC Radio Scotland

Jimmie Dodd

12

Jimmie Dodd
Jimmie Dodd

Jimmie Dodd as a Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, circa 1956 Born James Wesley Dodd March 28, 1910 Cincinnati, Ohio, USA November 10, 1964 (aged 54) Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Actor 1940–1959 Ruth Carrell (1940–1964, his death)

Died

Occupation Years active Spouse(s)

James Wesley Dodd (March 28, 1910 – November 10, 1964) was best known as the MC of the popular 1950s Walt Disney television series The Mickey Mouse Club, as well as the writer of its well-known theme song, "The Mickey Mouse Club March". A slowed-down version of this march, with different lyrics, became the alma mater that closed the show.

Career
Dodd had some early film roles in The Three Mesquiteers series of westerns. Coincidentally, he performed in two unrelated series whose names were plays on "musketeers". Dodd made his first screen appearance in the 1940 William Holden film Those Were the Days! in a minor role.[1] He also played the taxi driver in the MGM film Easter Parade starring Fred Astaire and Judy Garland.[2] Dodd had a small role in an early episode of Adventures of Superman, titled Double Trouble.[3] He also appeared in many theatrical films in the 1940s and 1950s, often uncredited. Two of his films were biographies of baseball players: The Jackie Robinson Story, in which Jackie Robinson played himself,[4] and The Winning Team, in which future president Ronald Reagan portrayed pitcher Grover Cleveland Alexander. He also appeared with John Wayne in the film Flying Tigers. Dodd appeared as a deputy in the 1955 episode "Sontag and Evans" of the syndicated television series Stories of the Century, starring Jim Davis. The segment was based on the California train robbers Chris Evans and John Sontag,

Jimmie Dodd with Morris Ankrum and John Smith, respectively, cast in those roles.[5] The Mickey Mouse Club aired each weekday. Dodd always wore Mouseke-ears, played his Mouse-guitar and sang self-composed songs. His tunes contained positive messages for kids. In addition, among his other musical contributions is a song that a generation of kids has used for nearly a half century to spell "encyclopedia." Dodd also wrote some themes for Zorro and performed songs in several of his movies. The original Mouseketeers, frequent guests at the Dodd home for backyard barbecues and sing-alongs, said that Dodd treated them as part of his extended family.[6][7]

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Death
Dodd died of cancer on November 10, 1964, in Honolulu, Hawaii. He was 54. Cheryl Holdridge was the last Mouseketeer to see Dodd alive. Holdridge visited Dodd in his final hours because she and her new husband Lance Reventlow had flown to Hawaii for their honeymoon. They came to the hospital before Dodd died.

References
[1] imdb.com/title/tt0033155 (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0033155/ ) [2] imdb.com/title/tt0040308 (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0040308/ ) [3] imdb.com/title/tt0506562 (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0506562/ ) [4] imdb.com/title/tt0042609 (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0042609/ ) [5] "Stories of the Century: "Sontag and Evans", February 8, 1955" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0710964/ ). Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved September 15, 2012. [6] legends.disney.go.com (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=Jimmie+ Dodd) [7] Original Mickey Mouse Club (http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ jimmie. html)

External links
• Jimmie Dodd (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0230082/) at the Internet Movie Database • Jimmie sings to Annette Funicello (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6NatiMGTH4)

Morality

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Morality
Morality (from the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are "good" (or right) and those that are "bad" (or wrong). The philosophy of morality is ethics. A moral code is a system of morality (according to a particular philosophy, religion, culture, etc.) and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code. Morality may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness." Immorality is the active opposition to morality (i.e. opposition to that which is good or right), while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any set of moral standards or principles.[1][2][3][4] An example of a moral code is the Golden Rule which states that, "One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself."[5]

Philosophy
Morality and ethics
Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is that branch of philosophy which addresses questions about morality. The word 'ethics' is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality' ... and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual."[6] Likewise, certain types of ethical theories, especially deontological ethics, sometimes distinguish between 'ethics' and 'morals': "Although the morality of people and their ethics amounts to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Kant, based on notions such as duty, obligation, and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, and generally avoiding the separation of 'moral' considerations from other practical considerations."[7]

Descriptive and normative
• In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural values, codes of conduct or social mores. It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, but only refers to that which is considered right or wrong. Descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense. • In its normative sense, "morality" refers to whatever (if anything) is actually right or wrong, which may be independent of the values or mores held by any particular peoples or cultures. Normative ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense.

Realism and anti-realism
Philosophical theories on the nature and origins of morality (that is, theories of meta-ethics) are broadly divided into two classes: • Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. For example, while they might concede that forces of social conformity significantly shape individuals' "moral" decisions, they deny that those cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior. This may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalists, however not all moral realists accept that position (e.g. ethical non-naturalists).[8] • Moral anti-realism, on the other hand, holds that moral statements either fail or do not even attempt to report objective moral facts. Instead, they hold that moral claims are derived either from an unsupported belief that there are objective moral facts (error theory, a form of moral nihilism); the speakers' sentiments (emotivism, a form of moral relativism); or any one of the norms prevalent in society (ethical subjectivism, another form of moral relativism).

Morality Theories which claim that morality is derived from reasoning about implied imperatives (universal prescriptivism), the edicts of a god (divine command theory), or the hypothetical decrees of a perfectly rational being (ideal observer theory), are considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, but are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism.

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Anthropology
Tribal and territorial
Celia Green made a distinction between tribal and territorial morality.[9] She characterizes the latter as predominantly negative and proscriptive: it defines a person’s territory, including his or her property and dependents, which is not to be damaged or interfered with. Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another. By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual. These norms will be arbitrary, culturally dependent and ‘flexible’, whereas territorial morality aims at rules which are universal and absolute, such as Kant’s ‘categorical imperative’ and Geisler's graded absolutism. Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, and the ascendancy of contract over status.

In-group and out-group
Some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an "in-group" (the individual and those they believe to be of the same culture or race) or an "out-group" (people not entitled to be treated according to the same rules). Some biologists, anthropologists and evolutionary psychologists believe this in-group/out-group discrimination has evolved because it enhances group survival. This belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution.[10] Gary R. Johnson and V.S. Falger have argued that nationalism and patriotism are forms of this in-group/out-group boundary. Jonathan Haidt has noted[11] that experimental observation indicates an in-group criterion provides one moral foundation substantially used by conservatives, but far less so by liberals.

Comparing cultures
Peterson and Seligman[12] approach the anthropological view looking across cultures, geo-cultural areas and across millennia. They conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined. The major virtues they identified include wisdom / knowledge; courage; humanity; justice; temperance; and transcendence. Each of these includes several divisions. For instance humanity includes love, kindness, and social intelligence. Fons Trompenaars, author of Did the Pedestrian Die?, tested members of different cultures with various moral dilemmas. One of these was whether the driver of a car would have his friend, a passenger riding in the car, lie in order to protect the driver from the consequences of driving too fast and hitting a pedestrian. Trompenaars found that different cultures had quite different expectations (from none to almost certain). John Newton, author of Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century [13] compared the Eastern and the Western cultures about morality. As stated in Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century, “One of the important objectives of this book is to blend harmoniously the fine souls regarding conduct in the Eastern and the Western cultures, to take the result as the source and then to create newer and better conduct principles to suit the human society of the new century, and to introduce a lot of Chinese fine conduct spirits to the Western world. It is hoped that this helps solve lots of problems the human society of the 21st century faces, including (but not limited to the Eastern and the Western cultures) what a single culture cannot.”

Morality

16

Evolution
See also: Altruism, Evolution of morality, Evolutionary ethics The development of modern morality is a process closely tied to the Sociocultural evolution of different peoples of humanity. Some evolutionary biologists, particularly sociobiologists, believe that morality is a product of evolutionary forces acting at an individual level and also at the group level through group selection (though to what degree this actually occurs is a controversial topic in evolutionary theory). Some sociobiologists contend that the set of behaviors that constitute morality evolved largely because they provided possible survival and/or reproductive benefits (i.e. increased evolutionary success). Humans consequently evolved "pro-social" emotions, such as feelings of empathy or guilt, in response to these moral behaviors. Conversely, it has been argued by other biologists that the humans developed truly moral, altruistic instincts.[14] On this understanding, moralities are sets of self-perpetuating and ideologically-driven behaviors which encourage human cooperation. Biologists contend that all social animals, from ants to elephants, have modified their behaviors, by restraining immediate selfishness in order to improve their evolutionary fitness. Human morality, though sophisticated and complex relative to other animals, is essentially a natural phenomenon that evolved to restrict excessive individualism that could undermine a group's cohesion and thereby reducing the individuals' fitness.[15] On this view, moral codes are ultimately founded on emotional instincts and intuitions that were selected for in the past because they aided survival and reproduction (inclusive fitness). Examples: the maternal bond is selected for because it improves the survival of offspring; the Westermarck effect, where close proximity during early years reduces mutual sexual attraction, underpins taboos against incest because it decreases the likelihood of genetically risky behaviour such as inbreeding. The phenomenon of 'reciprocity' in nature is seen by evolutionary biologists as one way to begin to understand human morality. Its function is typically to ensure a reliable supply of essential resources, especially for animals living in a habitat where food quantity or quality fluctuates unpredictably. For example, some vampire bats fail to feed on prey some nights while others manage to consume a surplus. Bats that did eat will then regurgitate part of their blood meal to save a conspecific from starvation. Since these animals live in close-knit groups over many years, an individual can count on other group members to return the favor on nights when it goes hungry (Wilkinson, 1984) Marc Bekoff and Jessica Pierce (2009) have argued that morality is a suite of behavioral capacities likely shared by all mammals living in complex social groups (e.g., wolves, coyotes, elephants, dolphins, rats, chimpanzees). They define morality as "a suite of interrelated other-regarding behaviors that cultivate and regulate complex interactions within social groups." This suite of behaviors includes empathy, reciprocity, altruism, cooperation, and a sense of fairness.[16] In related work, it has been convincingly demonstrated that chimpanzees show empathy for each other in a wide variety of contexts.[17] They also possess the ability to engage in deception, and a level of social 'politics'[18] prototypical of our own tendencies for gossip and reputation management. Christopher Boehm (1982)[19] has hypothesized that the incremental development of moral complexity throughout hominid evolution was due to the increasing need to avoid disputes and injuries in moving to open savanna and developing stone weapons. Other theories are that increasing complexity was simply a correlate of increasing group size and brain size, and in particular the development of theory of mind abilities. Richard Dawkins in The God Delusion suggested that our morality is a result of our biological evolutionary history and that the Moral Zeitgeist helps describe how morality evolves from biological and cultural origins and evolves with time within a culture. A British poll found that the most important moral points among young people were looking after ones family and putting others before yourself.[20]

Morality

17

Neuroscience
The brain areas that are consistently involved when humans reason about moral issues have been investigated by a quantitative large-scale meta-analysis of the brain activity changes reported in the moral neuroscience literature.[21] In fact, the neural network underlying moral decisions overlapped with the network pertaining to representing others' intentions (i.e., theory of mind) and the network pertaining to representing others' (vicariously experienced) emotional states (i.e., empathy). This supports the notion that moral reasoning is related to both seeing things from other persons’ points of view and to grasping others’ feelings. These results provide evidence that the neural network underlying moral decisions is probably domain-global (i.e., there might be no such things as a "moral module" in the human brain) and might be dissociable into cognitive and affective sub-systems.[21]

Brain areas
The explicit making of moral right and wrong judgments coincides with activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) while intuitive reactions to situations containing implicit moral issues activates the temporoparietal junction area.[22] Stimulation of the VMPC by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to inhibit the ability of human subjects to take into account intent when forming a moral judgment.[23] Similarly VMPC-impaired persons will judge an action purely on its outcome and are unable to take into account the intent of that action.[24]

Mirror neurons
Mirror neurons are neurons in the brain that fire when another person is observed doing a certain action. The neurons fire in imitation of the action being observed, causing the same muscles to act minutely in the observer as are acting grossly in the person actually performing the action. Research on mirror neurons, since their discovery in 1996,[25] suggests that they may have a role to play not only in action understanding, but also in emotion sharing empathy. Cognitive neuro-scientist Jean Decety thinks that the ability to recognize and vicariously experience what another individual is undergoing was a key step forward in the evolution of social behavior, and ultimately, morality.[26] The inability to feel empathy is one of the defining characteristics of psychopathy, and this would appear to lend support to Decety's view.[27][28]

Psychology
In modern moral psychology, morality is considered to change through personal development. A number of psychologists have produced theories on the development of morals, usually going through stages of different morals. Lawrence Kohlberg, Jean Piaget, and Elliot Turiel have cognitive-developmental approaches to moral development; to these theorists morality forms in a series of constructive stages or domains. Social psychologists such as Martin Hoffman and Jonathan Haidt emphasize social and emotional development based on biology, such as empathy. Moral identity theorists, such as William Damon and Mordechai Nisan, see moral commitment as arising from the development of a self-identity that is defined by moral purposes: this moral self-identity leads to a sense of responsibility to pursue such purposes. Of historical interest in psychology are the theories of psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud, who believe that moral development is the product of aspects of the super-ego as guilt-shame avoidance. Even though we have a sense of responsibility to pursue moral purposes, we still, at least occasionally, engage in immoral behaviour. Such behaviours jeopardize our moral self-image; however, when we engage in immoral behaviours we still feel as though we are moral individuals. Moral self-licensing attempts to explain this phenomenon and proposes that self-image security increases our likelihood to engage in immoral behaviour. When our moral self-image is threatened, we can gain confidence from our past moral behaviour. The more confident we are, the less we will worry about our future behaviour which actually increases the likelihood that we will engage in immoral behaviours.[29][30]

Morality Monin and Miller (2001)[29] examined the moral self-licensing effect and found that when participants established credentials as non-prejudiced persons, they were more willing to express politically incorrect opinions despite the fact that the audience was unaware of their credentials.

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Morality and politics
If morality is the answer to the question 'how ought we to live' at the individual level, politics can be seen as addressing the same question at the social level. It is therefore unsurprising that evidence has been found of a relationship between attitudes in morality and politics. Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham have studied the differences between liberals and conservatives, in this regard.[31][32][33] Haidt found that Americans who identified as liberals tended to value care and fairness higher than loyalty, respect and purity. Self-identified conservative Americans valued care and fairness less and the remaining three values more. Both groups gave care the highest over-all weighting, but conservatives valued fairness the lowest, whereas liberals valued purity the lowest. Haidt also hypothesizes that the origin of this division in the United States can be traced to geohistorical factors, with conservatism strongest in closely knit, ethnically homogenous communities, in contrast to port-cities, where the cultural mix is greater, thus requiring more liberalism. Group morality develops from shared concepts and beliefs and is often codified to regulate behavior within a culture or community. Various defined actions come to be called moral or immoral. Individuals who choose moral action are popularly held to possess "moral fiber", whereas those who indulge in immoral behavior may be labeled as socially degenerate. The continued existence of a group may depend on widespread conformity to codes of morality; an inability to adjust moral codes in response to new challenges is sometimes credited with the demise of a community (a positive example would be the function of Cistercian reform in reviving monasticism; a negative example would be the role of the Dowager Empress in the subjugation of China to European interests). Within nationalist movements, there has been some tendency to feel that a nation will not survive or prosper without acknowledging one common morality, regardless of its content. Political Morality is also relevant to the behaviour internationally of national governments, and to the support they receive from their host population. Noam Chomsky states that [34][35]

“ “

... if we adopt the principle of universality : if an action is right (or wrong) for others, it is right (or wrong) for us. Those who do not rise to the minimal moral level of applying to themselves the standards they apply to others—more stringent ones, in fact—plainly cannot be taken seriously when they speak of appropriateness of response; or of right and wrong, good and evil.

” ”

In fact, one of the, maybe the most, elementary of moral principles is that of universality, that is, If something's right for me, it's right for you; if it's wrong for you, it's wrong for me. Any moral code that is even worth looking at has that at its core somehow.

Morality and religion
Positions
Within the wide range of moral traditions, religious moral traditions co-exist with contemporary secular moral frameworks such as consequentialism, freethought, humanism, utilitarianism, and others. There are many types of religious morals. Modern monotheistic religions, such as Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and to a certain degree others such as Sikhism and Zoroastrianism, define right and wrong by the laws and rules set forth by their respective scriptures and as interpreted by religious leaders within the respective faith. Polytheistic religious traditions tend to be less absolute. For example, within Buddhism, the intention of the individual and the circumstances should be accounted for to determine if an action is right or wrong.[36] A further disparity between the morals of religious traditions is pointed out by Barbara Stoler Miller, who states that, in Hinduism, "practically, right and wrong are decided according to the categories of social rank, kinship, and stages of life. For modern Westerners, who have been raised on ideals of universality and egalitarianism, this relativity of values and obligations is the aspect of

Morality Hinduism most difficult to understand".[37] Religions provide different ways of dealing with moral dilemmas. For example, there is no absolute prohibition on killing in Hinduism, which recognizes that it "may be inevitable and indeed necessary" in certain circumstances.[38] In monotheistic traditions, certain acts are viewed in more absolute terms, such as abortion or divorce.[a] Religion is not always positively associated with morality. Philosopher David Hume stated that, "the greatest crimes have been found, in many instances, to be compatible with a superstitious piety and devotion; Hence it is justly regarded as unsafe to draw any inference in favor of a man's morals, from the fervor or strictness of his religious exercises, even though he himself believe them sincere."[39] Religious morals can diverge from commonly-held contemporary moral positions, such as those on murder, mass atrocities, and slavery. For example, Simon Blackburn states that "apologists for Hinduism defend or explain away its involvement with the caste system, and apologists for Islam defend or explain away its harsh penal code or its attitude to women and infidels".[40] In regard to Christianity, he states that the "Bible can be read as giving us a carte blanche for harsh attitudes to children, the mentally handicapped, animals, the environment, the divorced, unbelievers, people with various sexual habits, and elderly women",[41] and notes morally suspect themes in the Bible's New Testament as well.[42][e] Christian apologists address Blackburn's viewpoints[43] and explain that Jewish laws in the bible show the evolution of moral standards towards protecting the vulnerable, imposing a death penalty on those pursuing slavery and treating slaves as persons and not property.[44] Elizabeth Anderson, a Professor of Philosophy and Women's Studies at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, states that "the Bible contains both good and evil teachings", and it is "morally inconsistent".[45]

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Empirical analyses
A number of studies have been conducted on the empirics of morality in various countries, and the overall relationship between faith and crime is unclear.[b] A 2001 review of studies on this topic found "The existing evidence surrounding the effect of religion on crime is varied, contested, and inconclusive, and currently no persuasive answer exists as to the empirical relationship between religion and crime."[46] Phil Zuckerman's 2008 book, Society without God, notes that Denmark and Sweden, "which are probably the least religious countries in the world, and possibly in the history of the world", enjoy "among the lowest violent crime rates in the world [and] the lowest levels of corruption in the world".[47][c] Dozens of studies have been conducted on this topic since the twentieth century. A 2005 study by Gregory S. Paul published in the Journal of Religion and Society stated that, "In general, higher rates of belief in and worship of a creator correlate with higher rates of homicide, juvenile and early adult mortality, STD infection rates, teen pregnancy, and abortion in the prosperous democracies," and "In all secular developing democracies a centuries long-term trend has seen homicide rates drop to historical lows" with the exceptions being the United States (with a high religiosity level) and "theistic" Portugal.[48][d] In a response, Gary Jensen builds on and refines Paul's study.[49] His conclusion is that a "complex relationship" exists between religiosity and homicide "with some dimensions of religiosity encouraging homicide and other dimensions discouraging it". On April 26, 2012, the results of a study which tested their subjects' pro-social sentiments were published in the Social Psychological and Personality Science journal in which non-religious people had higher scores showing that they were more inclined to show generosity in random acts of kindness, such as lending their possessions and offering a seat on a crowded bus or train. Religious people also had lower scores when it came to seeing how much compassion motivated participants to be charitable in other ways, such as in giving money or food to a homeless person and to non-believers.[50][51]

Morality

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Moral codes
Codified morality is generally distinguished from custom, another way for a community to define appropriate activity, by the former's derivation from natural or universal principles. Some religious communities see the Divine as providing these principles through revelation, sometimes in great detail. Such codes may be called laws, as in the Law of Moses, or community morality may be defined through commentary on the texts of revelation, as in Islamic law. Such codes are distinguished from legal or judicial right, including civil rights, which are based on the accumulated traditions, decrees and legislation of a political authority, though these latter often invoke the authority of the moral law. Morality can also be seen as the collection of beliefs as to what constitutes a good life. Since throughout most of human history, religions have provided both visions and regulations for an ideal life, morality is often confused with religious precepts. In secular communities, lifestyle choices, which represent an individual's conception of the good life, are often discussed in terms of morality. Individuals sometimes feel that making an appropriate lifestyle choice invokes a true morality, and that accepted codes of conduct within their chosen community are fundamentally moral, even when such codes deviate from more general social principles. Moral codes are often complex definitions of moral and immoral that are based upon well-defined value systems. Although some people might think that a moral code is simple, rarely is there anything simple about one's values, ethics, etc. or, for that matter, the judgment of those of others. The difficulty lies in the fact that morals are often part of a religion and more often than not about culture codes. Sometimes, moral codes give way to legal codes, which couple penalties or corrective actions with particular practices. Note that while many legal codes are merely built on a foundation of religious and/or cultural moral codes, often they are one and the same. Examples of moral codes include The Golden Rule (or "ethic of reciprocity");[52] the Five Precepts and the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism (see Śīla); the ancient Egyptian code of Ma'at; the Ten Commandments of Judaism and Christianity; the Quran of Islam; Judaism's Noahide Law; and the yamas and niyama of the Hindu scriptures. Another related concept is the moral core of an individual, which is assumed to be innate. This, in some religious systems and beliefs (e.g. Gnosticism), is assumed to be the basis of all aesthetics and thus moral choice. Moral codes as such are therefore seen as coercive—part of human politics.

Notes
a.  Studies on divorce in the United States done by the Barna Group suggested that atheists and agnostics have lower divorce rates than faith groups on average (though some faith groups had lower rates still).[53][54] The study notes that fewer atheists and agnostics enter into marriage relative to faith-based individuals. b.  Some studies appear to show positive links in the relationship between religiosity and moral behavior[55][56][57]—for example, surveys suggesting a positive connection between faith and altruism.[58] Modern research in criminology also suggests an inverse relationship between religion and crime,[59] with some studies establishing this connection.[60] A meta-analysis of 60 studies on religion and crime concluded, "religious behaviors and beliefs exert a moderate deterrent effect on individuals’ criminal behavior".[61] c.  Zuckerman identifies that Scandinavians have "relatively high rates of petty crime and burglary", but "their overall rates of violent crime—such as murder, aggravated assault, and rape—are among the lowest on earth" (Zuckerman 2008, pp. 5–6). d.  The authors also state that "A few hundred years ago rates of homicide were astronomical in Christian Europe and the American colonies,"[62] and "[t]he least theistic secular developing democracies such as Japan, France, and Scandinavia have been most successful in these regards."[63] They argue for a positive correlation between the degree of public religiosity in a society and certain measures of dysfunction,[64] an analysis published later in the same journal argues that a number of methodological problems undermine any findings or conclusions in the research.[65]

Morality e.  Blackburn provides examples such as the phrase in Exodus 22:18 that has "helped to burn alive tens or hundreds of thousands of women in Europe and America": "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live," and notes that the Old Testament God apparently has "no problems with a slave-owning society", considers birth control a crime punishable by death, and "is keen on child abuse".[66] Others interpret these passages differently, arguing for example that Jewish laws show the evolution of moral standards in society: that Jews actually threatened those who pursued forced slavery with the death penalty, held that slaves were persons instead of property, and protected them in several ways.[43][44]

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References
[1] Johnstone, Megan-Jane (2008). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0-7295-3873-2. [2] Superson, Anita (2009). The Moral Skeptic. Oxford University Press. pp. 127–159. ISBN 978-0-19-537662-3. [3] "Amorality" (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ amorality). Dictionary.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-18. "having no moral standards, restraints, or principles; unaware of or indifferent to questions of right or wrong" [4] "amoral" (http:/ / en. wiktionary. org/ wiki/ amoral#Adjective). Wiktionary. . Retrieved 2010-09-09. "(of people) not believing in or caring for morality and immorality" [5] Antony Flew, ed. (1979). "golden rule". A Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Pan Books in association with The MacMillan Press. p. 134. ISBN 0 330 28359 X. This dictionary of philosophy contains the following exact quote under the entry for "golden rule": "The maxim 'Treat others how you wish to be treated'. Various expressions of this fundamental moral rule are to be found in tenets of most religions and creeds through the ages, testifying to its universal applicability." (end quote) [6] John Deigh in Robert Audi (ed), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995. [7] Oxford Dictionary of philosophy, 2008, p240 [8] Chapouthier, Georges, To what extent is moral judgment natural ?, European Review (GB), 2004, Nr12(2), pp179-183 [9] Green, Celia (2004). Letters from Exile: Observations on a Culture in Decline. Oxford: Oxford Forum. Chapters I-XX. [10] T.R. Shultz, M. Hartshorn, and A. Kaznatcheev. Why is ethnocentrism more common than humanitarianism? (http:/ / 141. 14. 165. 6/ CogSci09/ papers/ 500/ ) Proceedings of the 31st annual conference of the cognitive science society, 2009. [11] Haidt, Jonathan; Graham, Jesse (2007). "When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that Liberals may not Recognize". Social Justice Research 20: 98. doi:10.1007/s11211-007-0034-z. [12] Peterson, Christopher, and Martin E. P. Seligman. Character Strengths and Virtues. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. [13] Newton, John (2000). Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century, Nicer Century World Publishing, ISBN 0967370574. [14] Griffith J. 2011. Conscience. In The Book of Real Answers to Everything! (see http:/ / www. worldtransformation. com/ conscience/ ). ISBN 9781741290073. [15] Shermer, Michael. "Transcendent Morality" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=eevvWAcMBaAC& pg=PA19& dq=shermer+ exegesis& ei=EIC1SNOiE4uWyATTmaj2Bg& sig=ACfU3U3KFh8kP8Ns8-YgpqBuI03N1JrpEg). The Science of Good and Evil. ISBN 0-8050-7520-8. . [16] Bekoff, Marc and Jessica Pierce Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press 2009) [17] O’Connell, Sanjida (July 1995). "Empathy in chimpanzees: Evidence for theory of mind?". Primates 36 (3): 397–410. doi:10.1007/BF02382862. ISSN 0032-8332. [18] Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0674356616). [19] Boehm, Christopher (1982). "The evolutionary development of morality as an effect of dominance behaviour and conflict interference". Journal of Social and Biological Sciences 5: 413–22. [20] Young people see family care as higher moral priority than religion (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ uk/ home-news/ young-people-see-family-care-as-higher-moral-priority-than-religion-8129687. html) retrieved 12 September 2012 [21] "Bzdok, D. et al. Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Struct Funct, 2011." (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ a8926q746t212727/ ). Springerlink.com. 2012-01-24. . Retrieved 2012-05-06. [22] Harenski, CL; Antonenko, O; Shane, MS; Kiehl, KA. (2010). "A functional imaging investigation of moral deliberation and moral intuition". Neuroimage 49: 2707–2716. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.10.062. PMID 19878727. [23] Young, Liane; Camprodon, Joan Albert; Hauser, Marc; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Saxe, Rebecca (2010). "Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments". PNAS 107 (15): 6753–6758. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914826107. PMC 2872442. PMID 20351278. [24] Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio (2010). "Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent". Neuron 65 (6): 845–851. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.003. [25] Giacomo Rizzolatti et al. (1996). Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions, Cognitive Brain Research 3 131–141 [26] Vedantam, Shankar. "If It Feels Good to Be Good, It Might Be Only Natural" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 05/ 27/ AR2007052701056_pf. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 2010-05-13. [27] de Wied M, Goudena PP, Matthys W (2005). "Empathy in boys with disruptive behavior disorders". Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines 46 (8): 867–80. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00389.x. PMID 16033635.

Morality
[28] Fernandez YM, Marshall WL (2003). "Victim empathy, social self-esteem, and psychopathy in rapists". Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 15 (1): 11–26. doi:10.1023/A:1020611606754. PMID 12616926. [29] Monin, B; Miller, D. T. (2001). "Moral credentials and the expression of prejudice". The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (1): 33–43. [30] Merritt, A., Effron, D., & Monin, B. (2010). Moral self-licensing: When being good frees us to be bad. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4/5, 344-357. http:/ / wat1224. ucr. edu/ Morality/ Monin%202010%20Compass%20on%20Moral%20Licensing. pdf [31] Haidt, Jonathan and Graham, Jesse (2006). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize (http:/ / faculty. virginia. edu/ haidtlab/ articles/ haidt. graham. when-morality-opposes-justice. doc) (DOC) Social Justice Research. [32] "Morality: 2012: Online Only Video" (http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ online/ video/ conference/ 2007/ haidt). The New Yorker. . Retrieved 2012-05-06. [33] "Why conservatives and liberals talk past each other on moral issues." (http:/ / dangerousintersection. org/ ?p=1445). Dangerous Intersection. 2007-07-07. . Retrieved 2012-05-06. [34] Chomsky, Noam (2002-07-02). "Terror and Just Response" (http:/ / www. zmag. org/ znet/ viewArticle/ 11934). ZNet. . [35] Schivone, Gabriel Matthew (2007-08-03). "On Responsibility, War Guilt and Intellectuals" (http:/ / www. counterpunch. org/ schivone08032007. html). CounterPunch. . Interview. [36] Peggy Morgan, "Buddhism." In Morgan, Peggy; Lawton, Clive A., eds. (2007). Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions (Second ed.). Columbia University Press. pp. 61, 88–89. ISBN 978-0-7486-2330-3. [37] Miller, Barbara Stoler (2004). The Bhagavad Gita: Krishna's Counsel in Time of War. New York: Random House. p. 3. ISBN 0-553-21365-2. [38] Werner Menski, "Hinduism." In Morgan, Peggy; Lawton, Clive A., eds. (2007). Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions (Second ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7486-2330-3. [39] David Hume, "The Natural History of Religion." In Hitchens, Christopher (2007). The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-306-81608-6. [40] Blackburn, Simon (2001). Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-280442-6. [41] Blackburn, Simon (2001). Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-280442-6. [42] Blackburn, Simon (2001). Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-19-280442-6. [43] Colley, Caleb. "Is Christianity a Threat to Ethics?" (http:/ / espanol. apologeticspress. org/ articles/ 240427). Apologetics Press. . Retrieved 3 May 2012. [44] "Does the Old Testament Endorse Slavery? An Overview" (http:/ / enrichmentjournal. ag. org/ 201102/ 201102_108_slavery. htm. cfm). Enrichmentjournal.ag.org. . Retrieved 2012-05-06. [45] Elizabeth Anderson, "If God is Dead, Is Everything Permitted?" In Hitchens, Christopher (2007). The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-306-81608-6. [46] Baier, Colin J.; Wright, Bradley R. E. (February 2001). "If You Love Me, Keep My Commandments": A Meta-analysis of the Effect of Religion on Crime (http:/ / brewright. com/ articles/ If You Love Me, Keep My Commandments. pdf). 38. No. 1. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. p. 3. . Retrieved 20 November 2011. Original in italics. [47] Zuckerman, Phil. Society Without God: What the Least Religious Nations Can Tell Us about Contentment. New York: New York University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8147-9714-3. Zuckerman's work is based on his studies conducted during a 14-month period in Scandinavia in 2005–2006. [48] Paul, Gregory S. (2005). "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look" (http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ 2005/ 2005-11. html). Journal of Religion and Society (Baltimore, Maryland) 7: 4, 5, 8, and 10. . [49] Gary F. Jensen (2006) Department of Sociology, Vanderbilt University Religious Cosmologies and Homicide Rates among Nations: A Closer Look http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ 2006/ 2006-7. html http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ pdf/ 2006-7. pdf Journal of Religion and Society, Volume 8, ISSN 1522-5658 http:/ / purl. org/ JRS [50] Highly Religious People Are Less Motivated by Compassion Than Are Non-Believers (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2012/ 04/ 120430140035. htm) by Science Daily [51] Laura R. Saslow, Robb Willer, Matthew Feinberg, Paul K. Piff, Katharine Clark, Dacher Keltner and Sarina R. Saturn My Brother’s Keeper? Compassion Predicts Generosity More Among Less Religious Individuals (http:/ / spp. sagepub. com/ content/ early/ 2012/ 04/ 25/ 1948550612444137. full. pdf+ html) [52] Walter Terence Stace argued that the Golden Rule is much more than simply an ethical code. Instead, he posits, it "express[es] the essence of a universal morality." The rationale for this crucial distinction occupies much of his book The Concept of Morals (1937): –Stace, Walter T. (1937, Reprinted 1975 by permission of MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., Also reprinted January 1990 by Peter Smith Publisher Inc). The Concept of Morals. New York: The MacMillan Company; and also reprinted by Peter Smith Publisher Inc, January 1990. p. 136. ISBN 0-8446-2990-1. (above quote found p. 136, ch. 6) [53] Barna Group (31 March 2008). "New Marriage and Divorce Statistics Released" (http:/ / www. barna. org/ barna-update/ article/ 15-familykids/ 42-new-marriage-and-divorce-statistics-released). Barna Group. . Retrieved 19 November 2011. [54] Wicker, Christine (2000). "Survey Inspires Debate Over Why Faith Isn't a Bigger Factor in Marriage" (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ largecom/ baptist_divorce. html). www.adherents.com. . Retrieved 1 April 2012.

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[55] KERLEY, KENT R.; MATTHEWS; BLANCHARD, TROY C. (2005). "Religiosity, Religious Participation, and Negative Prison Behaviors". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (4): 443–457. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00296.x. [56] SAROGLOU, VASSILIS; PICHON; DERNELLE, REBECCA (2005). "Prosocial Behavior and Religion: New Evidence Based on Projective Measures and Peer Ratings". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (3): 323–348. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00289.x. [57] Regnerus, Mark D.; Burdette, Amy (2006). "RELIGIOUS CHANGE AND ADOLESCENT FAMILY DYNAMICS". The Sociological Quarterly 47 (1): 175–194. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00042.x. [58] e.g. a survey (http:/ / www. ropercenter. uconn. edu/ data_access/ data/ datasets/ social_capital_community_survey. html) by Robert Putnam showing that membership of religious groups was positively correlated with membership of voluntary organisations [59] As is stated in: Chu, Doris C. (2007). "Religiosity and Desistance From Drug Use". Criminal Justice and Behavior 34: 661. doi:10.1177/0093854806293485. [60] For example: • • • • • • Albrecht, S. I.; Chadwick, B. A.; Alcorn, D. S. (1977). "Religiosity and deviance:Application of an attitude-behavior contingent consistency model". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16: 263–274. doi:10.2307/1385697. Burkett, S.; White, M. (1974). "Hellfire and delinquency:Another look". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 13: 455–462. doi:10.2307/1384608. Chard-Wierschem, D. (1998). In pursuit of the "true" relationship: A longitudinal study of the effects of religiosity on delinquency and substance abuse. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation. Cochran, J. K.; Akers, R. L. (1989). "Beyond Hellfire:An explanation of the variable effects of religiosity on adolescent marijuana and alcohol use". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 26: 198–225. Evans, T. D.; Cullen, F. T.; Burton, V. S.; Jr; Dunaway, R. G.; Payne, G. L.; Kethineni, S. R. (1996). "Religion, social bonds, and delinquency". Deviant Behavior 17: 43–70.

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Grasmick, H. G.; Bursik, R. J.; Cochran, J. K. (1991). "Render unto Caesar what is Caesar's": Religiosity and taxpayer's inclinations to cheat". The Sociological Quarterly 32: 251–266. • Higgins, P. C.; Albrecht, G. L. (1977). "Hellfire and delinquency revisited". Social Forces 55: 952–958. • Johnson, B. R.; Larson, D. B.; DeLi, S.; Jang, S. J. (2000). "Escaping from the crime of inner cities:Church attendance and religious salience among disadvantaged youth". Justice Quarterly 17: 377–391. • Johnson, R. E.; Marcos, A. C.; Bahr, S. J. (1987). "The role of peers in the complex etiology of adolescent drug use". Criminology 25: 323–340. • Powell, K. (1997). "Correlates of violent and nonviolent behavior among vulnerable inner-city youths". Family and Community Health 20: 38–47. [61] Baier, C. J.; Wright, B. R. (2001). "If you love me, keep my commandments":A meta-analysis of the effect of religion on crime". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 38: 3–21. doi:10.1177/0022427801038001001. [62] Paul, Gregory S. (2005). "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look" (http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ 2005/ 2005-11. html). Journal of Religion and Society (Baltimore, Maryland) 7: 4, 5, 8. . [63] Paul, Gregory S. (2005). "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look" (http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ 2005/ 2005-11. html). Journal of Religion and Society (Baltimore, Maryland) 7: 11. . [64] Paul, Gregory S. (2005). "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look" (http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ 2005/ 2005-11. html). Journal of Religion and Society (Baltimore, Maryland) 7. . [65] Gerson Moreno-Riaño; Mark Caleb Smith, Thomas Mach (2006). "Religiosity, Secularism, and Social Health" (http:/ / moses. creighton. edu/ JRS/ 2006/ 2006-1. html). Journal of Religion and Society (Cedarville University) 8. . [66] Blackburn, Simon (2001). Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 10, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-280442-6.

Further reading
• Yandell,, Keith E. (1973). God, man, and religion: readings in the philosophy of religion (http://books.google. com/books?id=3EwgAQAAIAAJ). McGraw-Hill. containing articles by Paterson Brown: "Religious Morality" (http://www.metalog.org/files/tpb/rel.m.html), (from Mind, 1963), "Religious Morality: a Reply to Flew and Campbell" (http:/ / www. metalog. org/ files/ tpb/ reply. html), (from Mind, 1964), "God and the Good" (http://www.metalog.org/files/tpb/god.g.html), (from Religious studies, 1967) • Churchland, Patricia Smith (2011). Braintrust : What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality (http://books. google.com/books?id=tLsIzyFR08IC). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13703-X. (Reviewed in The Montreal Review (http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/

Morality What-neuroscience-tells-us-about-morality.php)) Harris, Sam (2010). The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values. New York: Free Press. ISBN 1-4391-7121-1. Stace, Walter Terence (1937). The Concept of Morals (http://www.archive.org/details/ conceptofmorals029360mbp). New York: The MacMillan Company; Reprinted 1975 by permission of MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., and also reprinted by Peter Smith Publisher Inc, January 1990. ISBN 0-8446-2990-1. Trompenaars, Fons (2003). Did the Pedestrian Die?: Insights from the World's Greatest Culture Guru (http:// books.google.com/books?id=BAYKAQAAMAAJ). Oxford: Capstone. ISBN 1-84112-436-2. Virtuous Behaviors Sanction Later Sins: People are quick to treat themselves after a good deed or healthy act (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=license-to-sin) March 4, 2012 John Newton, Ph.D. Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century, 2000. ISBN 0967370574.

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• •

• • •

External links
• The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on the Definition of Morality (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ morality-definition/) • Boston College's Morality Lab (http://moralitylab.bc.edu/publications/) • Objective Morality An evolutionary approach (http://www.percepp.com/morality.htm) • Morality and Judaism (http://www.chabad.org/search/keyword.asp?kid=1222), chabad.org • Wiki site for discussing and taking action on shared morals (WorldMoralMovement.org) (http://www. worldmoralmovement.org) • Stephen Pinker on the Psychology and Evolutionary Biology of Morality (http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/ 13/magazine/13Psychology-t.html?pagewanted=print)

Sharon Baird

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Sharon Baird
Sharon Baird
Born August 16, 1943 Seattle, Washington, USA

Years active 1950 - 1995 Spouse(s) Lee Thomas (1964-1969)

Sharon Baird (born August 16, 1943) is an American actress and dancer who is best known for having been a Mouseketeer.

Early life
Sharon Baird was born in Seattle, Washington to Eldon Baird, an aerospace worker, and Nikki Marcus, a future talent agent. She has one younger brother, Jimmy Baird, also a former child actor. Sharon began dance lessons at age three, and won a "Little Miss Washington" contest at five. Her mother took her to California for the national competition and fell in love with the climate.[1] So the family relocated to Los Angeles, where Sharon continued her dance lessons with tap great Louis da Pron among others.

Career
Sharon Baird appeared in her first film, Bloodhounds of Broadway, in 1950. At age nine she began regular appearances on The Colgate Comedy Hour television show with Eddie Cantor. She did episodes of several different television shows, and an unbilled song and dance number with Dean Martin in Artists and Models (1955), just before being selected for the Mickey Mouse Club. Contrary to the impression given by Disney publicity, many of the Mickey Mouse Club cast had some prior experience in films and television. Sharon Baird was among the most experienced of these professionals, and performed with the show's "Red Team", or first-string unit, for all three seasons of original programming (1955–1958). Her specialty was tap, but she did other forms of dancing, as well as singing and acting on the show. After filming completed in 1958, Sharon finished high school at Hollywood Professional School, then attended Los Angeles Valley College where she made the National Honor Society and was president of her class. She briefly interrupted her education in May 1959 for a short performing tour of Australia with the Mouseketeers, then graduated from college in 1963 with degrees in mathematics and secretarial science. In 1964 Sharon Baird married singer Dalton Lee Thomas, and with a male friend of his, worked up a nightclub act called "Two Cats and a Mouse", which faded out, along with the marriage, by 1969.[1] During the 1970s she worked extensively as a live "puppet" for Sid and Marty Krofft among others, doing children's shows such as New Zoo Revue, H.R. Pufnstuf, Sigmund and the Sea Monsters and Land of the Lost. Sharon Baird did rotoscoping work for Ralph Bakshi's late seventies film The Lord of the Rings. She was the live-action model for the part of Frodo Baggins, for which she did not receive screen credit. In 1980, Sharon, along with the other Mouseketeers, did a television special for The Wonderful World of Disney, reprising her famous tap-dancing while jumping-rope routine. She then joined a smaller number of her colleagues in performing live shows at Disneyland on weekends for several years during the early 1980s.

Sharon Baird

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Later life
In 1984, Sharon Baird appeared on-stage in the Gallagher: Over Your Head [2] comedy show. She did a tap-dancing routine and assisted Gallagher during his famous Sledge-O-Matic routine. For the critically panned cult film Ratboy, she played the title character under heavy makeup, being credited as S. L. Baird to hide the fact "Ratboy" was really "Ratgirl". Though she still makes appearances with the Mouseketeers, Sharon Baird gradually ceased doing professional engagements in the 1990s. She relocated from Southern California to Reno, Nevada about the same time, where she lives in semi-retirement.

Filmography
• • • • Bloodhounds of Broadway (1950) ... as Little Elida (uncredited) Artists and Models (1955) ... as Dancer (uncredited) The Lord of the Rings (1978) ... as Frodo Baggins (uncredited) Ratboy (1986) ... as Ratboy (credited as S. L. Baird)

Television credits
• • • • • • • • • • • • Colgate Comedy Hour: recurring performer (1952–1954) ....as Sharon Baird Death Valley Days: "Lotta Crabtree" (1954) ....as Actress Damon Runyon Theater: "There's No Forever" (1955) ....as Suzy The Donald O'Connor Show: 1 episode (1955) ....as Sharon Baird Disneyland: 3 episodes (1955–1957) ....as Mouseketeer Sharon The Mickey Mouse Club: series regular (1955–1958) ....as Mouseketeer Sharon The Wonderful World of Disney: "The Mouseketeer Reunion" (1980) ....as Mouseketeer Sharon H.R. Pufnstuf series regular (1969–1970) ....as Lady Boyd/Judy Frog/Stupid Bat/Shirley Pufnstuf/Toadinov New Zoo Revue series regular (1972) ....as Charlie the Owl Land of the Lost series regular (1974) ....as Sa Dumbo's Circus (1985) The Mickey Mouse Club Story documentary (1995) ...as Sharon Baird

References
[1] Forever Hold Your Banner High, by Jerry Bowles, 1976, pg 113 ISBN 0-385-11622-5 [2] http:/ / imdb. com/ title/ tt0284138/

External links
• Sharon Baird (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0047922/) at the Internet Movie Database • Sharon Baird profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/sharon.html)

Bobby Burgess

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Bobby Burgess
Bobby Burgess

Burgess with dance partner Cissy King and Lawrence Welk, 1969. Born Robert Wilkie Burgess May 19, 1941 Long Beach, California Singer Dancer

Occupation

Robert Wilkie "Bobby" Burgess (born May 19, 1941 in Long Beach, California) is an American dancer and singer. As a child he was an original Mouseketeer[1] and later in life a regular on the The Lawrence Welk Show.[2]

Early life
Growing up in Southern California, Burgess first started performing at age five, which included dancing, singing and playing the accordion. In 1955 he was selected as one of the original Mouseketeers by Walt Disney to appear on his new ABC television series, The Mickey Mouse Club, giving young Burgess his first taste of celebrity. He also guest starred on The Donna Reed Show as a suitor of Mary Stone (Shelley Fabares). Burgess attended Southern California Military Academy in Long Beach, California in the late 1950's for his elementary and junior high years.

After Disney
When the series ended in 1959, Burgess returned to a normal teenager's life, completing high school. In 1961, while attending Long Beach State University, he and his childhood friend (and dancing partner) Barbara Boylan entered a Calcutta dance contest held by Lawrence Welk and his orchestra based on the hit song of the same name. They won the contest and first prize was an appearance on The Lawrence Welk Show, which appeared nationally on ABC. After their initial appearance, Burgess and Boylan continued to guest on the maestro's show for the next few weeks, either dancing to Calcutta or to the orchestra's next hit song Yellow Bird. The positive fan response led to Lawrence Welk hiring the dance couple as permanent members of the show, which was described by the maestro as having created a job for themselves. Over the course of the show's run, first on ABC and later in syndication; Burgess had three dance partners: Barbara Boylan from 1961 to 1967 and was a temporary fill-in for a few shows in 1979, Cissy King from 1967 to 1978, and

Bobby Burgess Elaine Balden from 1979 until the show ended in 1982. He also did song-and-dance numbers with fellow Welk hoofers Arthur Duncan and Jack Imel. Burgess shared with Mary Lou Metzger as host of the wraparound segments on The Lawrence Welk Show's PBS reruns in 2010.

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Later life
Today Burgess still dances, whether it's in his dance studio teaching young students, or with Elaine Balden out on tour with his fellow Welk stars. He married Kristin Floren, the daughter of Welk accordionist Myron Floren on Valentine's Day 1971. The couple today lives in Studio City and are the parents of four children, Becki, Robert, Wendi, and Brent.

References
[1] Hollis, Tim; Ehrbar, Greg (May 2006). Mouse tracks: the story of Walt Disney Records (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rw-Rffdqb1IC& pg=PA13). Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57806-849-4. . Retrieved 10 July 2010. [2] Newcomb, Horace; Communications, Museum of Broadcast (2004). Encyclopedia of television (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CFXgj7a55agC& pg=PA1329). CRC Press. p. 1329. ISBN 978-1-57958-411-5. . Retrieved 10 July 2010.

External links
• Bobby Burgess Webpage (http://www.welkshow.org/burgess.html)

Lonnie Burr

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Lonnie Burr
Lonnie Burr
Born Leonard Burr Babin May 31, 1943 Dayton, Kentucky

Other names The Velvet Smog

Lonnie Burr was born on May 31, 1943, in Dayton, Kentucky. He is an American actor, dancer/choreographer, singer, director and author of Danish, French, Scots-Irish and German descent, best known for having been a star on the original Mickey Mouse Club television show from 1955 to 1959. His parents were Howard Babin and Dorothy Burr, a vaudeville dance team that performed in film and on stage as "Dot and Dash".

Early performances
At age four Lonnie started dance lessons and was soon making live appearances on local TV shows as well as acting on radio and turned professional at five. By six he began working on national television and radio, acting in commercials and landed his first film appearance in A Yank in Korea (1950). He had his first recurring television role as the next door neighbor Oliver Quimby on The Ruggles situation comedy (1950–1951). He guest starred on such series as The Range Rider (as Jimmy in the 1953 episode "The Holy Terror"), The Colgate Comedy Hour, The Roy Rogers Show, The Alan Young Show, The Donald O'Connor Show, and Father Knows Best. He was the child lead on the soap opera Dr. Paul and the voice of Chef Boy-Ar-Dee for two years, both on radio. His stage career began at the Pasadena Playhouse at age six. Lonnie landed his first guest star role as the title character on a segment of The Range Rider and the same year, his eighth, he performed his first stage lead in The Strawberry Circle. His film roles include Queen for a Day (1951), Hans Christian Andersen -to whom he is related- (1952), The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) and Apache (1954). His early television commercials include Space Patrol and The Lone Ranger.

Mickey Mouse Club
In 1955 Lonnie was signed to a seven-year contract by Walt Disney Studios as one of twenty-four original Mouseketeers. He was made a member of the show's first string unit, the Red Team, and appeared in the show's Roll Call and Alma Mater segments daily for the first two seasons. (A facial injury suffered during rehearsal kept him off-camera during the filming of Roll Call and Alma Mater for the third season). While on the show Lonnie performed in skits and musical variety numbers, both as a soloist and with others. He was generally acknowledged to be one of the show's three top dancers and his slightly husky singing voice caused other Mouseketeers to nickname him "The Velvet Smog" for at twelve he also resembled "The Velvet Fog", singer Mel Tormé.

Lonnie Burr

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Roles as an adult
After the Mickey Mouse Club stopped filming in 1958, Lonnie finished high school, turning fifteen a few days before getting his diploma, and achieved a B.A. and M.A. in Theatre Arts from UCLA by age twenty. He then completed a year toward a Ph.D. in English Literature. He resumed performing in the 1960s in plays and musicals including Broadway, films, television, commercials and industrial films. His 25 films include Sweet Charity (1968), The Hospital (1971), The Prisoner of Second Avenue (1975), Hook (1991), Lionheart (1991), Newsies (1992), Mr. Saturday Night (1992), and Police Academy: Mission To Moscow (1994). His over 60 TV credits as an adult include guest roles on The Beverly Hillbillies, Hill Street Blues, Hunter, a recurring role on Falcon Crest, Murder She Wrote, Chicago Hope, L.A. Heat and Homicide: Life on the Streets. Lonnie also has a total of over 100 radio performances. His 49 stage roles range from Mack and Mabel on Broadway, the first National Company with Joel Grey and the Las Vegas production on his own of George M!, the Los Angeles company of 42nd Street and Tamara. Lonnie also directed for radio, TV, and theater and choreographed plays, musicals, commercials, industrial films, and live performances—one that he also wrote and appeared in at Disneyland. He has written two books of poetry, the non-fiction book TWO FOR THE SHOW: Great 20th Century Comedy Teams (2000), five plays (Icons Are Not in Vogue, Occam's Razor, Over the Hill, Children Are Strangers and Exeunt All), and the book and lyrics for the musical Fantasies, which have been staged in Los Angeles and New York City. In February 2009, his autobiography, Confessions of an Accidental Mouseketeer, was published.[1] Lonnie published articles on various subjects for eighteen national and regional magazines, newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times, The Village Voice, The Washington Times, and Cincinnati Enquirer, and also for e-zines. He has written for the screen, TV and has had 22 produced radio scripts that aired in the U.S. on a 500-station syndicate for Heartbeat Theatre and American Radio Theater. Lonnie also appeared as a contestant on two game shows, The Big Showdown (1975) and Wordplay (1987). Most notably, after losing in his second appearance on WordPlay, the celebrity panelists put on mouse ears and sang the ending theme version of the Mickey Mouse March.

References
[1] A great movie on a great screen (http:/ / leonardmaltin. net/ June09Journal. htm)

External links
• Lonnie Burr (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0123015/) at the Internet Movie Database • Official website (http://www.mouseketeerlonnieburr.com/) • Lonnie Burr profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/lonnie.html)

Tommy Cole

31

Tommy Cole
Tommy Cole
Born December 20, 1941 Burbank, California

Years active 1955 - 2007 Spouse(s) Aileen ? (1966–present) 2 children

Tommy Cole (born December 20, 1941) is an American make-up artist, a former actor and singer who is still best known for having been a Mouseketeer.

Early life
Although born in Burbank, California, Tommy Cole grew up in the Los Angeles suburb of La Cañada. He was self-motivated toward performing from an early age, despite the disapproval of some of his more strict Lutheran relatives.[1] His father was an editor of the Los Angeles Herald Examiner; his mother later worked part-time at movie studios as a welfare guardian for minor children. He has one older brother, John Cole.

Career
Performer
Tommy Cole started as a musician, playing the accordion as a young teenager with three other kids in a western swing band. The band played in amateur contests and small clubs, and even managed to get a one-time gig on Ray Bolger's mid-1950s television show Where's Raymond? Besides playing the accordion, he was also the band's singer. When the ensemble auditioned together at the Disney Studio for The Mickey Mouse Club in spring 1955, he was the only one selected to join the cast of Mouseketeers. Though he started on the second-string Blue Team, Tommy Cole's singing ability earned him a transfer to The Mickey Mouse Club's first-string Red Team midway through the 1955–56 season. He remained with the show for its final two seasons (1956–1958) of original programming and, after filming stopped, attended Hollywood Professional School and went on live-performance tours with other Mouseketeers to Australia in 1959 and 1960. For the next several years Tommy Cole's career was based on live-singing at teenage clubs, public events, and as an opening act for other performers. He attended Pasadena City College, did a hitch in the Air Force, and had guest star parts on a few television shows. By 1964, he had realized that his days as a performer were ending, and so looked around for some other way to stay in show business.

Make-up artist
While acting in an episode of My Three Sons in 1963, Tommy Cole had started learning make-up technique from one of the show's regular artists. He soon joined the craft as an apprentice, working first for ABC, then later in the sixties for NBC. He began freelancing as a make-up artist in the early seventies, gathering Emmy nominations in 1975 for Masquerade Party and 1978 for Once Upon a Brothers Grimm, before winning, along with Mark Bussan and Ron Walters, in 1979 for Backstairs at the White House. Tommy has since been nominated for Emmy awards for the miniseries Right to Die (1988), the television series Wings (1996), and most recently for the TV special Gepetto (2000), for which he shared in winning the Hollywood

Tommy Cole Makeup Artists and Hairstylist Guild Award. He has long been active in his craft's union, serving in 2003 as business representative for Local 706 of the Makeup Artists and Hairstylist Guild. He currently represents his guild on the Governor's Board of the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.

32

Personal life
Tommy's wife Aileen is a former dancer. They met in Korea, on a USO tour in the mid-sixties, and were married when they had both returned stateside. They have two children, now adults.

Filmography
• • • • • • Westward Ho, the Wagons! (1956) ... as Jim Stephen Pretty in Pink (1986) ... makeup artist L.A. Confidential (1997) ... makeup artist Presence of Mind (1999) ... makeup artist Forever Fabulous (1999) ... makeup artist Sorority Boys (2002) ... head of makeup department

Television credits
• • • • • • • • • • • • Where's Raymond?: 1 episode (1955) ....as unknown The Mickey Mouse Club: series regular (1955–1958) ....as Mouseketeer Tommy Disneyland: "The Fourth Anniversary Show" (1957) ....as Mouseketeer Tommy Leave It to Beaver: "Borrowed Boat" (1959) ....as Red Bennett My Three Sons: "A Car of His Own" (1963) ....as Jimmy Masquerade Party TV series (1974) ....makeup artist Once Upon a Brothers Grimm TV Movie (1977) ....makeup artist Backstairs at the White House TV Miniseries (1979) ....makeup artist The Wonderful World of Disney: "The Mouseketeer Reunion" (1980) ....as Mouseketeer Tommy Right to Die TV Movie (1987) ....makeup artist The Mickey Mouse Club Story documentary (1995) ...as Tommy Cole Gepetto TV special (2000) ....makeup artist

References
[1] Forever Hold Your Banner High, by Jerry Bowles, 1976, pp. 52, ISBN 0-385-11622-5

External links
• Tommy Cole (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0170823/) at the Internet Movie Database • Tommy Cole profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/tommy.html)

Annette Funicello

33

Annette Funicello
Annette Funicello

Born

Annette Joanne Funicello October 22, 1942 Utica, New York, U.S. Actress, singer

Occupation

Years active 1955–1995 Spouse(s) Jack Gilardi (1965–1981; three children Glen Holt (1986–present)

Annette Joanne Funicello (born October 22, 1942) is an American actress and singer. Beginning her professional career as a child performer at the age of twelve, Funicello rose to prominence as one of the most popular "Mouseketeers" on the original Mickey Mouse Club.[1] As a teenager, she transitioned to a successful career as a singer with the pop singles "Tall Paul" and "Pineapple Princess", as well as establishing herself as a film actress, popularizing the successful "Beach Party" genre alongside co-star Frankie Avalon during the mid-1960s.

Annette Funicello

34

The Mickey Mouse Club
Annette Joanne Funicello was born in Utica, New York, to Italian Americans Virginia Jeanne (née Albano) and Joseph Funicello.[2] Her family moved to Southern California when she was four years old.[3] Funicello took dancing and music lessons as a child to overcome shyness. In 1955, the 12-year-old was discovered by Walt Disney when she performed as the Swan Queen in Swan Lake at a dance recital at the Starlight Bowl in Burbank, California. Disney cast her as one of the original "Mouseketeers". She was the last to be selected, and one of the few cast-members to be personally selected by Walt Disney himself. She proved to be very popular and by the end of the first season of Mickey Mouse Club, she was receiving 6,000 letters a month, according to her Disney Legends biography. In addition to appearing in many Mouseketeer sketches and dance routines, Funicello starred in several serials on The Mickey Mouse Club. These included Adventure in Dairyland, Walt Disney Presents: Annette (which co-starred Richard Deacon), and the second and third Spin and Marty serials - The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty and

Funicello as a Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club (1956)

The New Adventures of Spin and Marty. A proposed live-action feature Rainbow Road to Oz was to have starred some of the Mouseketeers, including Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy and Funicello as Ozma. Preview segments from the film aired on September 11, 1957 on Disneyland's fourth anniversary show.[4] By then, MGM's The Wizard of Oz had already been shown on CBS Television for the first time. Theories on why the film was abandoned include Disney's failure to develop a satisfactory script, and the popularity of the MGM film on television. Disney ultimately replaced this film project with a new adaptation of Babes in Toyland (1961). In a hayride scene in the Annette serial, she performed the song that launched her singing career. The studio received so much mail about "How Will I Know My Love" (lyrics by Tom Adair, music by Frances Jeffords and William Walsh[5][6]), that Walt Disney issued it as a single, and gave Funicello (somewhat unwillingly) a recording contract.[7]

Annette Funicello

35

Actress and singer
After the Mickey Mouse Club, she remained under contract with Disney for a time, with television roles in Zorro, Elfego Baca, and The Horsemasters. For Zorro she played Anita Campillo in a three-episode storyline about a teen-aged girl who arrives in Los Angeles to visit a father who does not seem to exist. This role was reportedly a birthday present from Walt Disney, and the first of two different characters played opposite Guy Williams as Zorro. Annette also co-starred in Disney-produced movies such as The Shaggy Dog, Babes in Toyland, The Misadventures of Merlin Jones, and The Monkey's Uncle.[8] Although uncomfortable being thought of as a singer, Annette had a number of pop record hits in the late 1950s and early 1960s, mostly written by the Sherman Brothers and including: "Tall Paul," "First Name Initial," "O Dio Mio," "Train of Love" (written by Paul Anka) and "Pineapple Princess." They were released by Disney's Buena Vista Funicello and Richard Tyler on The Danny label. Annette also recorded "It's Really Love" in 1959, a reworking of Thomas Show (1959) an earlier Paul Anka song called "Toot Sweet"; Anka reworked the song for a third time in 1962 as "Johnny's Theme" and it opened The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson on television for the next three decades. In an episode of the Disney anthology television series titled "Disneyland After Dark," Annette can be seen singing live at Disneyland. Walt Disney was reportedly a fan of 1950s pop star Teresa Brewer and tried to pattern Annette's singing in the same style. However, Funicello credits "the Annette sound" to her record producer, Tutti Camarata, who worked for Disney in that era. Camarata had her double-track her vocals, matching her first track as closely as possible on the second recording to achieve a fuller sound than her voice would otherwise produce. Early in her career, she appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood. [7]

Beach icon and spokeswoman
She moved on from Disney to become a teen idol, starring in a series of "Beach Party" movies with Frankie Avalon for American International Pictures. These included Beach Party (1963), Muscle Beach Party (1964), Bikini Beach (1964), Pajama Party (1964), Beach Blanket Bingo (1965) and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965). When she was cast in her first beach movie, Walt Disney requested that she only wear modest bathing suits and keep her navel covered. However, she wore a pink two-piece in Beach Party, a white two-piece fishnet suit in the second film (Muscle Beach Party) and a blue and white bikini in the third (Bikini Beach). All three swimsuits bared her navel, particularly in Bikini Beach, where it is visible extensively during close up shots in a sequence early in the film when she meets Frankie Avalon's "Potato Bug" character outside his tent.[9] She and Avalon became iconic as "beach picture" stars and were re-united in 1987 for the Paramount film Back to the Beach, parodying their own surf-and-sand films two decades earlier. They toured the country as a singing act. In 1979, Funicello began starring in a series of television commercials for Skippy peanut butter.[10]
Funicello and Frankie Avalon at the height of the "Beach Party" era

Annette Funicello

36

Personal life
Funicello was married to her first husband, Jack Gilardi, from 1965 until 1981. They had three children: Gina (b. 1966), Jack, Jr. (b. 1970), and Jason (b. 1974). In 1986, she married California harness racing horse breeder/trainer Glen Holt.[3] Annette and Glen were frequently seen at Los Alamitos Race Course and at Fairplex in Pomona in the 1980s and 1990s attending harness horse races. In 1987, Funicello reunited with Frankie Avalon for a series of promotional concerts to promote their film Back to the Beach. She began to suffer from dizzy spells, but kept her failing health from her friends and family. Funicello announced in 1992 that she suffers from multiple sclerosis.[11] She had kept her condition a secret for many years, but felt it necessary to go public to combat rumors that her impaired ability to walk was the result of alcoholism. That same year, she was inducted as a Disney Legend.[12] In 1993, she opened the Annette Funicello Fund for Neurological Disorders at the California Community Foundation.

Funicello and Frankie Avalon reunited for the television special Good Ol' Days, 1977

Funicello's best friend is Shelley Fabares. She and Fabares have been friends since they were young teenagers in a catechism class, and Fabares was a bridesmaid at Funicello's first wedding. She is also very close to fellow Mouseketeers Lonnie Burr (she later claims in an auto-biography that he was her first boyfriend during the first season of the Mickey Mouse Club), Sharon Baird, Doreen Tracey, the late Cheryl Holdridge, her '"Disney" co-star, Tommy Kirk, and her "Beach" movies co-star, Frankie Avalon. Her autobiography, dictated to Patricia Romanowski and published in 1994, is A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: My Story. The title is taken from a song from the Disney movie Cinderella. A made-for-TV movie based on the book, A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story, was made in 1995. In the final scene, the actress portraying Funicello (Eva LaRue), riding in a wheelchair, turns away from the camera — turning back, it is Funicello herself, who delivers a message to a group of children. During this period, she produced a line of teddy bears for the Annette Funicello Collectible Bear Company.[3] The last collection in the series was made in 2004. She also has her own fragrance called "Cello, by Annette". Funicello's parents died within two years of each other. On September 2, 2007, her mother, Virginia Funicello, died of pneumonia, one month after her 86th birthday. On May 21, 2009, her father, Joseph Funicello, died of natural causes at the age of 93. Her parents appeared in the above-mentioned A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story, and her mother also appeared in the 1995 documentary The Mickey Mouse Club Story [13]. On March 10, 2011, Funicello's Encino, California, home caught fire. She suffered smoke inhalation, but was otherwise unharmed.[14] In 2012, CTV profiled Funicello as an update on her after she had spent fifteen years out of the public eye. The profile revealed that her disease had severely damaged her nervous system; Funicello had lost the ability to walk in 2004 and the ability to speak in 2009, and she now required round-the-clock care to survive. In the profile, Holt and Fabares discussed Funicello's current state, as well as the numerous medical interventions and treatments attempted to improve her condition.[15]

Annette Funicello

37

Discography
Numbers in parentheses indicated peak position in Billboard charts [16]

Albums
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Annette – Vista BV-3301—1959 Annette Sings Anka (#21) – Vista BV-3302—1960 Hawaiiannette (#38) – Vista BV-3303—1960 Italiannette – Vista BV-3304—1960 Dance Annette – Vista BV-3305—1961 The Story of My Teens – Vista BV-3312—1962 The above albums were issued in mono only Annette's Beach Party (#39) – Vista BV-3316 (Mono)/STER-3316 (Stereo) – July 1963 Muscle Beach Party – Vista BV-3314/STER-3314—April 1964 Annette On Campus – Vista BV-3320/STER-3320—1964 Annette At Bikini Beach – Vista BV-3324/STER-3324—September 1964 Pajama Party – Vista BV-3325/STER-3325—November 1964 Something Borrowed Something Blue – Vista BV-3328/STER-3328—1964 Annette Sings Golden Surfin' Hits – Vista BV-3327/STER-3327—July 1965 Annette Funicello – Vista BV-4037—1972 Annette Funicello Country Album – Starview 4001—1984 Best of Annette—Rhino RNDF-206—1984 Also released as a picture disk on Rhino RNLP-702 • Annette: A Musical Reunion with America's Girl-Next-Door – Vista 60010—1993 • A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes – Time/Warner 520564—released April 16, 1995 • The Best of Annette – Vista—Released August 14, 1991

Singles
• • • • "How Will I Know My Love"/"Don't Jump To Conclusions" – Disneyland 102 (1958) "That Crazy Place In Outer Space"/"Gold Doubloons and Pieces of Eight" – Disneyland 114 (1958) "Tall Paul" (#7)/"Ma, He's Making Eyes at Me" – Disneyland 118 (1959) "Jo Jo the Dog Faced Boy" (#73)/"Lonely Guitar" – Vista 336 (1959) Later pressings feature "Love Me Forever" as the B-side • • • • • • • • • • • "Lonely Guitar" (#50)/"Wild Willie" – Vista 339 (1959) "Especially For You"/"My Heart Became Of Age" – Vista 344 (1959) "First Name Initial" (#20)/"My Heart Became of Age" (#74) – Vista 349 (1959) "O Dio Mio" (#10)/"It Took Dreams" – Vista 354 (1960) "Train of Love" (#36)/"Tell Me Who's The Girl" – Vista 359 (1960) "Pineapple Princess" (#11)/"Luau Cha Cha Cha" – Vista 362 (1960) "Talk to Me Baby" (#92)/"I Love You Baby" – Vista 369 (1960) "Dream Boy" (#87)/"Please, Please Signore" – Vista 374 (1961) "Indian Giver"/"Mama, Mama Rosa (Where's The Spumoni)" – Vista 375 (1961) "Hawaiian Love Talk"/"Blue Muu Muu" (#107) – Vista 384 (1961) "Dreamin' About You" (#106)/"Strummin' Song" – Vista 388 (1961)

• "That Crazy Place From Outer Space"/"Seven Moons (Of Batalyre) (By Danny Saval & Tom Tyron) – Vista 392 (1962)

Annette Funicello • • • • • • • "The Truth About Youth"/"I Can't Do The Sum" – Vista 394 (1962) "My Little Grass Shack"/"Hukilau" – Vista 400 (1962) "He's My Ideal"/"Mr. Piano Man" – Vista 405 (1962) "Bella Bella Florence"/"Canzone d'Amoure" – Vista 407 (1962) "Teenage Wedding"/"Walkin' and Talkin'" – Vista 414 (1962) "Treat Him Nicely"/"Promise Me Anything" (#123) – Vista 427 (1963) "Merlin Jones"/"The Scrambled Egghead" – Vista 431 (1964) Duets with Tommy Kirk • • • • • "Custom City"/"Rebel Rider" – Vista 432 (1964) "Muscle Beach Party"/"I Dream About Frankie" – Vista 433 (1964) "Bikini Beach Party"/"The Clyde" – Vista 436 (1964) "The Wah-Watusi"/"The Clyde" – Vista 437 (1964) "Something Borrowed, Something Blue"/"How Will I Know My Love" – Vista 438 (1965) B-side is a new version of Annette's first recording • "The Monkey's Uncle"/"How Will I Know My Love" – Vista 440 (1965) A-side features Annette with The Beach Boys • "Boy To Love"/"No One Else Could Be Prouder" – Vista 442 (1965) • "No Way To Go But Up"/"Crystal Ball" – Vista 450 (1966) • "What's A Girl To Do"/"When You Get What You Want" – Tower 326 (1967) Annette's name is misspelled on both sides as "Annettte" • "The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes"/"Merlin Jones" – Vista 475 (1970) • "(Together We Can Make A) Merry Christmas"/"The Night Before Christmas" – Pacific Star 569 (1981) Duets with Frankie Avalon • "The Promised Land"/"In Between and Out Of Love" – Starview 3001 (1983)

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Filmography
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Shaggy Dog (1959) Babes in Toyland (1961) Elfego Baca: Six Gun Law (1962) (compilation of episodes from Wonderful World of Color serial) The Horsemasters (1962) (compilation of episodes from Wonderful World of Color serial) Beach Party (1963) The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964) Muscle Beach Party (1964) Bikini Beach (1964) Pajama Party (1964) Beach Blanket Bingo (1965) The Monkey's Uncle (1965) Ski Party (1965) (Cameo) How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965) Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965) (Cameo) Fireball 500 (1966) Thunder Alley (1967)

• Head (1968) • Back to the Beach (1987) • Troop Beverly Hills (1989) (Cameo)

Annette Funicello

39

Television work
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mickey Mouse Club (1955–1959) Zorro (1959; 1961) The Danny Thomas Show (cast member in 1959) The Horsemasters (1961) Escapade in Florence (1962) Wagon Train episode "The Sam Pulaski Story" (1963) "Rosetta", The Greatest Show on Earth (1964) Easy Does It... Starring Frankie Avalon (1976) (Four-week summer variety series) Love, American Style...'Love and the Tuba' (1973) (with Frankie Avalon Frankie and Annette: The Second Time Around (1978) (unsold pilot) "Ghostbreaker" episode Fantasy Island (1978) [17] The Mouseketeer Reunion (November 23, 1980) Lots of Luck (1985; made-for-TV movie) Growing Pains episode "The Seavers and the Cleavers" (guest star, 1985) Pee-wee's Playhouse Christmas Special (guest star, 1988) Full House episode "Joey Goes Hollywood" (guest star with Frankie Avalon, March 29, 1991)

• A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story (1995; made-for-TV movie) • The Mickey Mouse Club Story [13] (1995; documentary)

Book
• Funicello, Annette and Patricia Romanowski. A Dream is a Wish Your Heart Makes: My Story 1994, ISBN 0-7868-8092-9 • The Annette Mysteries- Box Set of 4 (Walt Disney Presents) includes The Desert Inn Mystery, The Mystery at Moonstone Bay, The Mystery at Smugglers' Cove, and Sierra Summer [18]

References
[1] McLellan, Dennis (January 9, 2009). "Cheryl Holdridge dies at 64; popular Mouseketeer" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ obituaries/ la-me-cheryl-holdridge9-2009jan09,0,6897570. story). Los Angeles Times. . [2] (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ mydesert/ access/ 1989006161. html?FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Sep+ 06,+ 2007& author=& pub=The+ Desert+ Sun& desc=Virginia+ Jeanne+ Funicello& pqatl=google) [3] "Annette Funicello Biography (1942-)" (http:/ / www. biography. com/ search/ article. do?id=9542632). Crystal Reference, Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. 2003. . Retrieved 2007-03-30. [4] Disneyland segment at YouTube (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=kJjhqBb3qGI) [5] Disney Fake Book. New York: Hal Leonard Corporation. 1996. p. 74. ISBN 0-7935-4521-8. [6] "Annette Album Release" (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ Annette-Annette/ release/ 2164777). Discogs.com. . Retrieved 2012-02-20. [7] "Oct 22nd Happy 65th Birthday Annette" (http:/ / www. yourememberthat. com/ media/ 1780/ Oct_22nd_____Happy__65th_Birthday__Annette/ ) (video interview). You Remember That.com. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071224112948/ http:/ / www. yourememberthat. com/ media/ 1780/ Oct_22nd_____Happy__65th_Birthday__Annette/ ) from the original on 24 December 2007. . Retrieved 2007-12-22. [8] Cotter, Bill (1997). The Wonderful World of Disney Television. New York: Hyperion Books. ISBN 0-7868-6359-5. [9] "The Myth of the Hidden Navel" (http:/ / www. beachpartymoviemusic. com/ TheMythoftheHiddenNavel. html). Beachpartymoviemusic.com. . Retrieved 2012-02-20. [10] "History of Skippy" (http:/ / www. peanutbutter. com/ history. asp). Unilever. 2007. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070222101609/ http:/ / www. peanutbutter. com/ history. asp) from the original on 22 February 2007. . Retrieved 2007-03-30. [11] "Annette Funicello Fund For Neurological Disorders" (http:/ / www. calfund. org/ 8/ giving_funicello. php). California Community Foundation. 2008. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080123173306/ http:/ / www. calfund. org/ 8/ giving_funicello. php) from the original on 23 January 2008. . Retrieved 2008-01-28. [12] "Disney Legends" (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=Annette+ Funicello). Disney. 2005. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [13] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0323245/

Annette Funicello
[14] Oldenburg, Ann (12 March 2011). "Annette Funicello suffers smoke inhalation during fire" (http:/ / content. usatoday. com/ communities/ entertainment/ post/ 2011/ 03/ annette-funicello-suffers-smoke-inhalation-during-house-fire/ 1). www.usatoday.com. . Retrieved 17 March 2011. [15] "Annette Funicello: Her life with multiple sclerosis" (http:/ / www. ctvnews. ca/ w5/ annette-funicello-her-life-with-multiple-sclerosis-1. 984202). CTV. . Retrieved 12 October 2012. [16] "Billboard Artist Annette Funicello" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ #/ artist/ annette-funicello/ discography/ songs/ 12830). Billboard.com. . Retrieved 2012-02-20. [17] TV.com (1979-03-03). "Fantasy Island: Birthday Party / Ghostbreaker - Season 2, Episode 20" (http:/ / www. tv. com/ fantasy-island-1978/ birthday-party-ghostbreaker/ episode/ 53212/ summary. html). TV.com. . Retrieved 2012-02-07. [18] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Annette-Mysteries-Presents-Moonstone-Smugglers/ dp/ 0786834617

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External links
• Annette Funicello (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm2088/) at the Internet Movie Database • Annette Funicello (http://www.briansdriveintheater.com/annettefunicello.html) at Brian's Drive In Theatre

Darlene Gillespie

41

Darlene Gillespie
Darlene Gillespie

Darlene Gillespie as a Mousketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, circa 1956 Born April 8, 1941 Montreal, Quebec, Canada Darlene Valentine

Other names

Darlene Faye Gillespie (born April 8, 1941) is a former child actor. She is best known for having been a singer and dancer on the original Mickey Mouse Club television show from 1955 to 1958. Her Irish father and French-Canadian mother were a former vaudeville dance team. When Darlene was two years old, her family moved to Los Angeles, California, where she became a naturalized US citizen in September 1956.

Biography
Early life and career
She was born in Montreal, Canada. At age ten Darlene started singing lessons with Glen Raikes, and at age eleven, dance lessons with Burch Mann, founder of the American Folk Ballet company. She auditioned for the Mickey Mouse Club in March 1955, was hired, and appeared on the show for all three seasons of its original run. She was the show's leading female singer, and starred in the serial Corky and White Shadow during the first season. In the third season, she appeared in the serial The New Adventures of Spin and Marty. She was cast as Dorothy in a musical number from the proposed live-action Disney film, Rainbow Road to Oz, on an episode of the Disneyland television show in September 1957. The movie was never made, and after Mickey Mouse Club stopped filming in 1958, her short career in television was over. While still with Disney, she made many recordings under the various Disney labels, including an album of fifties rock and roll standards called Darlene of the Teens (1957). She also recorded albums of songs from Disney animated films, such as Alice in Wonderland and Sleeping Beauty. In 1975, she released a 45 rpm record of country songs under the name Darlene Valentine.

Darlene Gillespie

42

Controversy
In December 1998, she was convicted in federal court of aiding her third husband, Jerry Fraschilla, to purchase securities using a check-kiting scheme.[1] She was sentenced to two years in prison,[2] but was released after serving only three months. In 2005, she and her husband were indicted on federal charges of filing multiple fraudulent claims in the settlement of a class-action lawsuit.[3]

References
[1] (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ US/ 9812/ 11/ mouseketeer. conviction/ ) CNN.com [2] (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9B07EEDA143EF931A25750C0A96F958260) Query.nytimes.com [3] (http:/ / abclocal. go. com/ wpvi/ story?section=entertainment& id=3611739) ABClocal.go.com

• Ex-Mouseketeer could go to P-R-I, S-O-N (http://www.cnn.com/US/9812/11/mouseketeer.conviction/), CNN.com, December 11, 1998, retrieved August 15, 2006 • Former Mouseketeer Will Be Jailed for Fraud (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. html?res=9B07EEDA143EF931A25750C0A96F958260), nytimes.com, published March 12, 1999, retrieved August 15, 2006 • Former Mouseketeer Arrested (http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/story?section=entertainment&id=3611739), 6abc.com, November 7, 2005, retrieved August 15, 2006

External links
• Darlene Gillespie (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0318920/) at the Internet Movie Database • Darlene Gillespie profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/darlene.html) • Darlene Gillespie: Walt Disney's Bad Seed (http://popcultureaddict.com/ from-the-pca-archives-darlene-gillespie-walt-disneys-bad-seed/) Tribute to Darlene Gillespie at Confessions of a Pop Culture Addict

Cheryl Holdridge

43

Cheryl Holdridge
Cheryl Holdridge
in The Mickey Mouse Club (1957) Born Cheryl Lynn Phelps June 20, 1944 New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. January 6, 2009 (aged 64) Santa Monica, California, U.S.

Died

Other names Cheryl Reventlow Post Occupation Years active Spouse(s) Actress 1955–2000 Lance Reventlow (1964–1972) Albert James Skarda (1974–1988) Manning J. Post (1994–2000)

Cheryl Holdridge (June 20, 1944 – January 6, 2009)[1] was an American actress, best known as a cast member of the original Mickey Mouse Club.

Early life
Holdridge was born Cheryl Lynn Phelps in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her mother, Julie A. Phelps (October 19, 1908 – October 24, 2003), was a dancer who performed on Broadway with her partner, Dick Mason; her biological father has not been identified.She and her mother moved to Burbank, California shortly after her birth. In 1950 her mother married Herbert Charles Holdridge, a retired Brigadier General active in fringe political movements. He adopted her in 1953 and gave her his surname.[2] Holdridge grew up in Sherman Oaks, California. She started dance lessons from an early age with Joyce Cole in North Hollywood, learning ballet and tap.

Career
Holdridge first performed professionally at the age of nine, when she landed a role in the New York City Ballet's version of The Nutcracker in Los Angeles. Her first screen appearance was as an uncredited extra in the 1956 film production of Carousel. She auditioned for The Mickey Mouse Club in the spring of 1956, was hired, and joined the club's "Red Team"--the most visible and popular of the Mouseketeers. Though a good dancer, her weak singing voice kept her in the background of most musical numbers performed by the Mouseketeers. A competent actress with a pleasant speaking voice, she was employed for two of the show's episodic serials: Boys of the Western Sea and Annette. After the show's run ended, Cheryl returned to Van Nuys High School and graduated from Grant High School with the winter 1961 class. She was cast in two episodes of Leave It to Beaver in 1959 as 'Gloria Cusick'; she later played an occasional, recurring role as Wally Cleaver's girlfriend, Julie Foster. In May 1960, Holdridge went on a live tour to Australia with other former Mouseketeers. While there, she became involved with Lucky Starr, an Australian singer.[3] She was later linked in fan magazines and gossip columns with many other celebrities, including Elvis Presley.

Cheryl Holdridge From 1960, Holdridge made guest appearances on over twenty different shows, including The Rifleman, My Three Sons, Bewitched, Bringing Up Buddy and The Dick Van Dyke Show. She was cast in the lead role of Betty in an unsold television series pilot based on the Archie Comics.Holdridge left acting abruptly in 1964 to marry Lance Reventlow, her first husband. After the death of her third husband, Holdridge made a cameo appearance in the 2000 feature film, The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas. In 2005 she appeared at Disneyland for 50th anniversary celebrations of both the opening of the park and The Mickey Mouse Club. She appeared in televised documentary specials about Cary Grant (2005) and Barbara Hutton (2006), and has also appeared in a special feature interview for a Disney DVD.

44

Personal life
While touring Australia in May 1960 with the Mouseketeers, Holdridge was involved in a sex scandal just before her 16th birthday with local teen singer "Lucky Starr," who was 19.[4] Holdridge's first husband was sportsman and athlete Lance Reventlow, the only child of Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton; his father was a Danish count. Reventlow, a pilot, died in the crash of a small plane in 1972 in which he was a passenger. Her second husband was Albert James "Jim" Skarda. They married in 1974. He ran a car rental service in Aspen, Colorado.[5] Her third husband, Manning J. Post (January 3, 1918[6] - March 13, 2000), was active in Democratic politics in California. He died of natural causes aged 82.[7] All of her marriages were childless. Holdridge was a long-time supporter of environmental causes and charities including the Children's Burn Foundation for which she served as a Council Member, and with her third marriage became more active in fund-raising events. Holdridge died on January 6, 2009 from lung cancer.[8]

Filmography
Film Year 1956 1959 2000 Carousel A Summer Place The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas Film Young Girl #2 Role Notes Uncredited

Girl in dormitory at Briarwood School for Girls Uncredited Genevieve Television

Year

Title Mouseketeer Cheryl Mouseketeer Cheryl Madge Markham Gloria Cusick Julie Foster Lila Meredith Judy Doucette Juliet Johnson Mona Morgan Sharon Betty

Role

Notes

1956–1958 The Mickey Mouse Club 1957–1980 The Wonderful World of Disney 1958 Walt Disney Presents: Annette

2 episodes 2 episodes 8 episodes 3 episodes 3 episodes 1 episode 1 episode Television Pilot

1959–1963 Leave It to Beaver 1960–1961 Bachelor Father 1960–1964 My Three Sons 1961 Westinghouse Playhouse Bringing Up Buddy 1962 Life with Archie

Cheryl Holdridge

45
4 episodes 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 2 episodes 1 episode 1 episode 2 episodes

1961–1962 The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet Joyce Maynard Norma Lane 1962 The Rifleman The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis King of Diamonds Dennis the Menace The Donna Reed Show 1963 Hawaiian Eye Ripcord 1964 The Dick Van Dyke Show Mr. Novak Dr. Kildare The Eleventh Hour Wagon Train Bewitched 1984–1987 The New Leave It to Beaver Sally Walker Daphne Winsett Chick Hendricks Helen Franklin Pat Walker Mary Anne Sayer Angie Carter Joan Delroy Betty Nurse Reynolds Judy Gormley Annbelle Liza Randall Julie Foster

References
[1] "Cheryl Holdridge, a Mouseketeer Known for Her Smile, Dies at 64" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 01/ 11/ arts/ television/ 11holdridge. html). The New York Times. 2009-01-10. . Retrieved 2009-04-27. [2] Retired General Adopts Daughter of His Wife,Los Angeles Times,March 14, 1953, pg 12 [3] Forever Hold Your Banner High, by Jerry Bowles, 1976, pg 65 ISBN 0-385-11622-5 [4] "Mouseketeer Cheryl dies at 64, linked to Lucky Starr, Presley" (http:/ / www. canberratimes. com. au/ news/ local/ news/ general/ mouseketeer-cheryl-dies-at-64-linked-to-lucky-starr-presley/ 1404511. aspx). The Canberra Times (Fairfax Media). January 12, 2009. . Retrieved February 8, 2010. [5] "Did you know?". Star-News (Pasadena, California). 3 July 1977. [6] Social Security Death Index (http:/ / ssdi. rootsweb. ancestry. com) [7] Manning J. Post; Democratic Fund-Raiser Advised Party’s Candidates for 40 Years (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2000/ mar/ 15/ news/ mn-9114) [8] "Cheryl Holdridge dies at 64; popular Mouseketeer" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ obituaries/ la-me-cheryl-holdridge9-2009jan09,0,6897570. story). Los Angeles Times. January 9, 2009. .

External links
• Cheryl Holdridge (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0390374/) at the Internet Movie Database • Images of Cheryl from her appearance on Bewitched (http://www.angelfire.com/mech/elispot/ cheryl-holdridge.html) • Cheryl Holdridge, before and after the Mickey Mouse Club (http://cytokines.1hwy.com/cheryl.html) • Cheryl Holdridge profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/cheryl.html) • "Cheryl Holdridge" (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=32726540). Find a Grave. Retrieved August 28, 2010.

Cubby O'Brien

46

Cubby O'Brien
Cubby O'Brien

Cubby O'Brien as a Mousketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, circa 1956 Born Carl Patrick O'Brien July 14, 1946 Burbank, California 1955 - present Marilyn Miller (1967-1976) 1 child Terry Wilemon (1978-1999) Holly ? (2002-today)

Years active Spouse(s)

Carl Patrick O'Brien (born July 14, 1946), better known by the nickname of "Cubby", is an American drummer and former child actor, best known as one of the original Mouseketeers on the weekday ABC television program, The Mickey Mouse Club from 1955–1958.

Early life
O'Brien was the third son of musician Haskell "Hack" O'Brien, a well-known drummer for several big band era ensembles. When he was an infant, his mother thought he resembled a bear cub, and tagged him with his lifelong nickname. He has two older brothers, Haskell O'Brien, Jr., a trumpet player, and Warren O'Brien, also a drummer.[1] Although born in Burbank, O'Brien grew up in the Los Angeles suburb of Shadow Hills, California between Sun Valley and Sunland. He began studying music at the Carl Babcock School of Music from age five, and later performed with the Roger Babcock Dixieland Band at charity events and for local television. He would eventually graduate in 1962 from Hollywood Professional School, where he was president of his class.

Cubby O'Brien

47

Career
O'Brien, like Annette Funicello, was personally selected to audition for The Mickey Mouse Club by Walt Disney, in the spring of 1955. Disney had been alerted to him by a staff member, who caught his live performance at a charity gala.[2] Though he had little prior experience in singing or dancing, O'Brien was placed on The Mickey Mouse Club's first-string "Red Team" right from the start. He quickly picked up enough dance skills to perform in musical numbers, though his solo performances remained centered around his drums. He remained with the show for all three seasons (1955–1958) of original programming, and after filming stopped, went on live-performance tours with other Mouseketeers to Australia in 1959 and 1960. Following Disney, he joined the Lawrence Welk organization for two years, having performed with the "Little Band", doing guest bits on the maestro's show, as well as other television series. After graduating from high school, Cubby started touring with Spike Jones, playing show tunes and dance music with the formerly manic bandleader's final group. He then played for Ann-Margret in her live performances, and in the late sixties returned to television as the sometime on-camera drummer for CBS's The Carol Burnett Show. O'Brien also acted as Music Director for LA touring companies of the Broadway hits Hair and Oh, Calcutta! in the early seventies, and often fulfilled the same role for other engagements where his primary responsibility was drumming. Beginning in 1973, O'Brien played drums for The Carpenters during tours, through the early eighties. Karen Carpenter usually played them herself on recordings, but for live performances sometimes needed a substitute, so she could sing. The two drummers became quite close, in a platonic, professional sense, with O'Brien introducing Karen Carpenter to drumming-legend Buddy Rich.[3] O'Brien was a contestant on the ABC game show The Big Showdown in the mid-1970s, winning $5,000 for rolling "Show Down" during the timed dice roll round. In 1980, O'Brien reunited with his fellow Mouseketeers for a television special, in which he sang and danced, and, of course, played drums. He also joined some of these same Mouseketeers for live shows on fall weekends at Disneyland during the early 1980s. Since the eighties, O'Brien's career has predominated around performing for Broadway productions, as well as for live shows by performers like Bernadette Peters. He based himself out of New York City instead of the West Coast for many years, though he has since moved back.

Personal life
O'Brien has been married three times, and has one adult daughter. His first wife, Marilyn Miller, was a vocalist with the Good Time Singers, whom he met while touring together with Spike Jones. Their daughter, Alicia O'Brien, was born in 1971. The couple divorced in 1976. Two years later, O'Brien married Terry Wilemon, whom he met in Las Vegas while touring with the Carpenters.[4] He relocated from New York City to her hometown of Dallas, but after twenty years together, they parted in 1999. O'Brien and his current wife, Holly, have been together since 2002. They recently moved from New York City to the Pacific Northwest. He now lives in Amboy, Washington.

Cubby O'Brien

48

Filmography
• Westward Ho, the Wagons! (1956) ... as Jerry Stephen

Television credits
• • • • • • • • • • • The Spade Cooley Show: 3 episodes (1954) ....as guest drummer Where's Raymond?: 1 episode (1955) ....as guest drummer Disneyland: 3 episodes (1955–1957) ....as Mouseketeer Cubby The Mickey Mouse Club: series regular (1955–1958) ....as Mouseketeer Cubby The Lawrence Welk Show: unknown episodes (1958–1959) ....as guest drummer and singer Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater: "The Man from Yesterday" (1960) ....as Ted Duncan The Wonderful World of Color: "The Mickey Mouse 40th Anniversary Show" (1968) ....as Mouseketeer Cubby The Carol Burnett Show crew (1967–1970) ....as drummer Tomorrow 1 episode (1975) ....as Cubby O'Brien The Wonderful World of Disney: "The Mouseketeer Reunion" (1980) ....as Mouseketeer Cubby The Mickey Mouse Club Story documentary (1995) ...as Cubby O'Brien

Broadway credits
• Annie Get Your Gun (1999–2001) ...as drummer • Gypsy (2003–2004) ...as drummer • The Producers (2001–2007) ...as drummer

Discography
With Milt Jackson • Memphis Jackson (Impulse!, 1969)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Walt Disney's Magazine, Vol II No 6, October 1957, pg 9 Forever Hold Your Banner High, by Jerry Bowles, 1976, pg 96 ISBN 0-385-11622-5 Modern Drummer, May 1983, "Karen Carpenter: A Drummer Who Sang" by Rod Fogarty The Dallas Observer, October 31, 1996, Music Section, "Not So Mickey Mouse" by Laurel Ornish

External links
• Cubby O'Brien (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0639481/) at the Internet Movie Database • Cubby O'Brien (http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?id=112981) at the Internet Broadway Database (http:// www.ibdb.com/) • Cubby O'Brien profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/cubby.html)

Karen Pendleton

49

Karen Pendleton
Karen Pendleton

Karen Pendleton as a Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, circa 1956 Born August 1, 1946 North Hollywood, California, USA

Karen Pendleton was born August 1, 1946 in North Hollywood, California. She was an original Mickey Mouse Club Mouseketeer on ABC television from 1955-1958. She was one of only nine Mouseketeers who were on the show during its entire original run. Karen toured Australia in 1959 and 1960 with a number of other Mouseketeers and Jimmie Dodd. She was often coupled with Carl "Cubby" O'Brien in the television series and in live performances as they were the youngest members of the cast. After the show's run, she left show business and finished school. She got married in 1970, had a daughter in 1973, but divorced in 1981. Following an automobile accident in 1983, in which she was paralyzed from the waist down, she returned to college and earned a Bachelor's degree in psychology. She worked at a shelter for battered women and served on the Board for the California Association of the Physically Handicapped.

External links
• Karen Pendleton [1] at Original MMC Show [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ karen. html [2] http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/

Doreen Tracey

50

Doreen Tracey
Doreen Tracey
Born 3 April 1943 London, England,  United Kingdom

Spouse(s) Robert Washburn (divorced; 1 child)

Doreen Isabelle Tracey (born 3 April 1943) is known for having been a performer on the original Mickey Mouse Club television show from 1955 to 1958.

Life and career
Tracey was born in London, England. Her parents, Sidney Tracey and Bessie Hay, were an American vaudeville dance team that performed for Allied soldiers during World War II. Her father's original named was Murray Katzelnick; he immigrated to the United States from Russia with his Jewish parents as an infant.[1] When Doreen was four, her family returned to the United States, where her father first ran a nightclub, then opened a dance studio in Hollywood, California. Tracey learned to dance and sing at an early age, courtesy of the many instructors and performers who worked out at her father's studio. Her first professional work was an uncredited singing and dancing bit in the musical film The Farmer Takes a Wife (1952). At age twelve she auditioned for the Mickey Mouse Club and was hired. She appeared for all three seasons of the show's original run. In 1956, she was featured in the Disney western Westward Ho, the Wagons!, and in the third season of the Mickey Mouse Club, had a role in the serial Annette. She was cast as Scraps, the Patchwork Girl, in a musical number from the proposed live-action Disney film Rainbow Road to Oz on an episode of the Disneyland television show in September 1957. The movie was never made, and when the Mickey Mouse Club stopped filming in 1958, Tracey switched to singing live at concerts and teen nightclubs. She appeared on several television shows, including the episode "April Fool" (April 1, 1959), of ABC's The Donna Reed Show, with James Darren in a guest-starring role as well. Tracey wound up her career as a performer touring American military bases in South Vietnam and Thailand and performing lead vocals for a Filipino rock group. She later worked for Frank Zappa as a publicist, and became an amateur weight-lifter. She posed for the men's magazine Gallery in 1976, wearing her Mouseketeer ears and little else. In 2001, an excerpt from her memoirs, called Confessions of a Mouseketeer, was published in the NPR anthology I Thought My Father Was God. She married Robert Washburn and had a son, but the marriage ended in divorce.[1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ doreen. html

External links
• Doreen Tracey (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm870435/) at the Internet Movie Database • Doreen Tracey profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/doreen.html)

Don Grady

51

Don Grady
Don Grady

Grady (left) with William Demarest (right) in My Three Sons, 1969 Born Don Louis Agrati June 8, 1944 San Diego, California, USA June 27, 2012 (aged 68) Thousand Oaks, California, USA Cancer Actor, musician, composer 1954–2006 Mouseketeer, My Three Sons Julie Boonisar (m. 1976 – 1979) (divorced), Virginia Lewsader (m. 1985 – 2012) (his death) Website http:/ / www. dongrady. com/

Died

Cause of death Occupation Years active Notable work(s)

Spouse(s)

Don Louis Agrati (June 8, 1944 – June 27, 2012), better known as Don Grady, was an American actor, composer, and musician. He was best known both as one of Mickey Mouse's original Mouseketeers, and as Robbie Douglas on the long-running ABC/CBS television series My Three Sons. His sister was also an actress, billed as Lani O'Grady. Their mother was a talent agent, known as Mary Grady.

Life and career
Grady was born Don Louis Agrati in San Diego, California, the son of Mary B. (née Castellino), a talent agent, and Lou A. Agrati, a sausage maker.[1] He grew up in Lafayette, California, where he was a class president at Lafayette Elementary School[2]); Stanley Junior High School, where he spent only a few months before being signed by Walt Disney and leaving the area;[2] and Burbank High School (pictured as Don Agrati).[3] His acting credits included several Western series, including John Payne's The Restless Gun, Buckskin, Wagon Train and The Rifleman, in which he played two roles in the second season.[4] In December 1959, at the age of fifteen, Grady appeared in two different episodes of CBS's Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater, having played opposite Joan Crawford and Dick Powell. In "Rebel Ranger", he is cast as Rob Faring, the young son of Crawford's character, Stella Faring, a Confederate widow who tries to reclaim her former home and Rob's birthplace from the Unionist owner, Cass Taggart, played by Scott Forbes. Character actor John Anderson is cast as Fisk Madden, who tries to drive Taggart off his land and gain Stella's favor. The episode ends with Stella and Rob heading into a nearby town with the understanding that Taggart would call upon Stella for possible courtship even though Crawford was fifteen years Forbes' senior. Stella Faring reveals that she had been living during the war

Don Grady in San Antonio, Texas, also the birthplace of Joan Crawford.[5] In "Death in a Wood", Grady played a young Unionist, Zachary, who grows to understand that a Confederate soldier, Lawrence (played by Dick Powell), who is holding him prisoner, is a man of decency and strength of commitment. Simon Oakland appeared in this episode as a less sympathetic Confederate named Townsend.[6] Grady also appeared in the NBC medical drama, The Eleventh Hour. Originally the frustrated middle brother on My Three Sons, he became the confident elder brother with the departure of Mike (Tim Considine, who had earlier appeared with Grady in The New Adventures of Spin and Marty), and the adoption of Ernie (Barry Livingston), who became the new "third son." During production of My Three Sons, Grady both appeared with his own band The Greefs on the series, and was the drummer for The Yellow Balloon, whose self-titled song became a minor hit in 1967. For a while during the run of the series, he attended Los Angeles City College.[7]

52

After My Three Sons
After My Three Sons ended in 1972, Grady pursued a musical career. His works included music for the Blake Edwards comedy film Switch, the theme song for The Phil Donahue Show[2] and for EFX, a Las Vegas multimedia stage show which starred Michael Crawford, David Cassidy, Tommy Tune, and Rick Springfield. In the fall of 2008, Grady released Boomer: JazRokPop, a collection of songs written for and about the baby boomer generation. Boomer was his first original album as an artist since Homegrown was released by Elektra Records in 1973.

Later life and death
Grady married Virginia "Ginny" Lewsader in 1985, having met her at Disneyland.[2] The couple remain married until his death. They had two children, Joey and Tessa. Grady died of cancer June 27, 2012, in Thousand Oaks, California.[8]

References
[1] Don Grady Biography (1944-) (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 76/ Don-Grady. html) [2] Janice De Jesus. "Ex-Mouseketeer slated for Lesher performance: 'Robbie' from 'My Three Sons' will perform with lyricist Marty Panzer to benefit a nonprofit group for foster children," Walnut Creek Journal (CA), May 12, 2005, page 3. [3] "1962 Burbank High School Yearbook, Burbank, CA" (http:/ / www. classmates. com/ yearbooks/ Burbank-High-School/ 104311?page=52& searchTerm=agrati). Classmates. . Retrieved 2012-06-28. [4] Previous information stating that Grady played a deaf-mute character in The Rifleman, Season 3, Episode 13, is incorrect; that role was played by Brad Weston. [5] "Zane Grey Theatre: "Rebel Ranger", December 3, 1959" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0754275/ ). Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved September 20, 2012. [6] "Zane Grey Theatre: "Death in a Wood", December 17, 1959" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0754232/ ). Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved September 21, 2012. [7] Kaufman, Dave (1968) (mass market paperback). TV 69: Who's Who, What's What in the New TV Season. New York: Signet. p. 130. [8] Robert J. Lopez (2012-06-28). "Don Grady obituary: Mouseketeer, 'My Three Sons' star dies at 68" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ obituaries/ la-me-don-grady-20120628,0,7035373. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2012-06-28.

Don Grady

53

External links
• Official website (http://www.dongrady.com) • Don Grady (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm333589/) at the Internet Movie Database

Johnny Crawford
Johnny Crawford

Johnny Crawford with Chuck Connors in The Rifleman, c. 1959 Born John Ernest Crawford March 26, 1946 Los Angeles, California, United States Actor, singer, musician, band leader

Occupation

Years active 1954–1999 Spouse(s) Relatives Charlotte Crawford (1995-present) Father Robert L. Crawford, Sr. Brother Robert L. Crawford, Jr. Website [1]

John Ernest "Johnny" Crawford (born March 26, 1946) is a prolific American character actor, singer and musician. At 12, Crawford rose to fame for playing Mark McCain, the son of Lucas McCain (played by Chuck Connors), in the popular ABC western series, The Rifleman, which originally aired from 1958 to 1963. He first performed before a national audience as a Mouseketeer.

Johnny Crawford

54

Life and career
Crawford was born in Los Angeles, California, the son of Betty (née Megerlin) and Robert Lawrence Crawford, Sr. His maternal grandparents were both Belgian, and his maternal grandfather was violinist Alfred Eugene Megerlin.[2][3][4] In 1959, Johnny, his older brother Robert L. Crawford, Jr., a co-star of NBC's Laramie series, and their father Robert, Sr., were all nominated for Emmy Awards (the brothers for acting and their father for film editing). One of Walt Disney's original Mouseketeers in 1955, Crawford has acted on stage, in films, and on television. Disney started out with twenty-four original Mouseketeers. At the end of the first season, the studio reduced the number to 12 and Johnny was released from his contract. His first important break as an actor followed with the title role in a Lux Video Theatre production of "Little Boy Lost," a live NBC broadcast on March 15, 1956. Following that performance, the young actor worked steadily with many seasoned actors and directors. Freelancing for two-and-a-half years, he accumulated almost 60 television credits, including featured roles in three episodes of NBC's The Loretta Young Show and an appearance as Manuel in "I Am an American," an episode of the syndicated crime drama Sheriff of Cochise. By the spring of 1958, he had also performed 14 demanding roles in live teleplays for NBC's Matinee Theatre, appeared on CBS's sitcom Mr. Adams and Eve, and made three pilots for a series. The third pilot, which was made as an episode of Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater, was picked up by ABC and the first season of The Rifleman began filming in July 1958. He was nominated for an Emmy Award at the age of thirteen for his role as Mark McCain, the son of Lucas McCain, played by Chuck Connors, in the Four Star Television series The Rifleman, which originally aired from 1958 to 1963. During this time, Crawford had wide popularity with American teenagers and a recording career that generated five Top 40 hits, including the single "Cindy's Birthday," which peaked at #8 on Billboard's Top 40 in 1962. His other hits included "Rumors" (#12, 1962), "Your Nose is Gonna Grow" (#14, 1962), and "Proud" (#29, 1963). Late in 1961, Crawford appeared as Victor in the episode "A Very Bright Boy" of the ABC sitcom, The Donna Reed Show.[5] Earlier his brother Robert had also been a guest star on The Donna Reed Show. Throughout The Rifleman's five seasons, there was a remarkable on-screen chemistry between Connors and Crawford in the depiction of their father-son relationship. They were still close friends when Connors died on November 10, 1992, and Crawford gave a eulogy at his memorial. Among his films, Crawford plays an American Indian in the unique adventure film, Indian Paint (1965). He gets mixed up with a disturbed young girl played by Kim Darby in The Restless Ones (1965), and he gets shot by John Wayne in El Dorado (1966). While enlisted in the United States Army for two years, he worked on training films as a production coordinator, assistant director, script supervisor, and occasional actor. His rank was sergeant at the time of his honorable discharge in December 1967. In 1968 he played a soldier wanted for murder in "By the Numbers," an episode of Jack Lord's Hawaii Five-O. The Resurrection of Broncho Billy was a USC student film he agreed to do as a favor to his close friend, producer John Longenecker. It won the 1970 Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Subject. The Naked Ape was a partially animated 1973 feature film starring Johnny Crawford and Victoria Principal, produced by Hugh Hefner.[6] In an article about that movie he became the first man to be shown in full-frontal nudity in Playboy magazine.[7] Crawford had a key role in the early career of Victoria Jackson of Saturday Night Live fame; after appearing together in a summer stock production of "Meet Me in St. Louis," he presented her a one-way airline ticket to California and encouraged her to pursue a Hollywood career. This led to her early television appearances on The Tonight Show before she was cast as a regular on Saturday Night Live.

Johnny Crawford Since 1992, Johnny Crawford has led a California-based vintage dance orchestra which performs at special events. His band has been sponsored by the Playboy Jazz Festival, and has been the repeated choice for fifteen annual Art Directors Guild Awards at the Beverly Hilton. A remastered version of the orchestra's highly rated first album, "Sweepin' the Clouds Away," was officially released on September 30, 2011. He reconnected with his high school sweetheart, Charlotte Samco, in 1990, and they married in 1995.[8] In 2012, Johnny Crawford did an introductory commercial for The Rifleman for MeTV, saying, "Watch me on me, MeTV, on The Rifleman!"

55

Stills from The Resurrection of Broncho Billy

References
[1] http:/ / www. thejohnnycrawford. com/ [2] (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=qM5FAAAAIBAJ& sjid=A9AMAAAAIBAJ& pg=5147,4710521& dq=megerlin+ crawford& hl=en) [3] (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=Ar9RAAAAIBAJ& sjid=XlUDAAAAIBAJ& pg=5262,4559709& dq=megerlin+ crawford& hl=en) [4] (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=GjxQAAAAIBAJ& sjid=91YDAAAAIBAJ& pg=2136,3233237& dq=belgian+ johnny+ crawford& hl=en) [5] ""A Very Bright Boy" on [[The donna Reed show (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0564205/ )], December 21, 1961"]. Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved January 14, 2013. [6] Johnny Crawford: The Naked Ape (http:/ / www. celebhost. net/ johnnycrawford/ ape. html) [7] The Naked Ape Playboy (USA) September 1973 [8] Johnny Crawford (http:/ / www. scottstander. com/ Personalities/ johnny_crawford. html)

External links
• • • • • • http://www.scottstander.com/Personalities/johnny_crawford.html Johnny Crawford on The Rifleman (http://www.riflemansrifle.com/johnny.htm) Official Site for Crawford Music (http://www.crawfordmusic.com) Broncho Billy short film (http://www.bronchobilly.Vidmeup.com) Johnny Crawford's MySpace site (http://www.MySpace.com/JohnnyCrawfordOrchestra) Johnny Crawford (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm186844/) at the Internet Movie Database

My Three Sons

56

My Three Sons
My Three Sons
My Three Sons opening titles Genre Starring Sitcom Fred MacMurray William Frawley William Demarest Don Grady Stanley Livingston Barry Livingston Tim Considine Meredith MacRae Tina Cole Beverly Garland Dawn Lyn Ronne Troup Daniel, Joseph, and Michael Todd

Theme music composer Frank De Vol Country of origin Language(s) No. of seasons No. of episodes United States English 12 378 (List of episodes) Production Executive producer(s) Producer(s) Don Fedderson Edmund L. Hartmann Peter Tewksbury George Tibbles 25 minutes

Running time

Production company(s) Don Fedderson Productions (1960–1972) Gregg-Don, Inc. (1960–1965) MCA Television (1960–1965) CBS Productions (1965–1972) Broadcast Original channel ABC (1960–1965) CBS (1965–1972) Black-and-white (1960–65) Color (1965–72) Monaural September 29, 1960 – August 24, 1972

Picture format

Audio format Original run

My Three Sons is an American situation comedy. The series ran from 1960 to 1965 on ABC, and moved to CBS until its end on August 24, 1972. My Three Sons chronicles the life of a widower and aeronautical engineer named Steven Douglas (Fred MacMurray), raising his three sons. The series also featured William Frawley, who was replaced by William Demarest due to health issues after five years.

My Three Sons The series was a cornerstone of the ABC and CBS lineups in the 1960s. With 380 episodes produced, it is second only to The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet as television's longest running (live-action) family sitcom. Disney producer Bill Walsh often mused on whether the concept of the show was inspired by the movie The Shaggy Dog, as in his view they shared "the same dog, the same kids, and Fred MacMurray".[1]

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History
ABC years
The show began on ABC in black-and-white. The first season, consisting of thirty-six episodes, is particularly remarkable for having been directed in its entirety by Peter Tewksbury, who also produced and occasionally scripted the programs. These early episodes held to no specific generic type, so that any episode from one week to the next might be either comedic or dramatic. Tewksbury's episodes are also unusual for their use of cross-talk (a way of having the voices of off-screen characters heard in the background of the soundtrack, just under the voices of the main characters), in depicting the chaotic Douglas household, a full decade before Robert Altman was credited with innovating such aural realism in feature films such as M*A*S*H (1970). An example of Tewksbury's use of cross-talk is the fourth episode, "Countdown," written by David Duncan, which chronicles the The ABC cast of My Three Sons, with William Frawley, circa 1962. Douglas family's attempts to wake up, prepare for the day, have breakfast and get out of the house by a common, agreed-upon time, all carefully synchronized to a televised rocket launch countdown – to comical and often ironic effect. Tewksbury returned to directing feature films after concluding the season because the producers could not handle his perfectionist attitude which was costing thousands of dollars in lost time and reshoots.

Directors throughout the series
Peter Tewksbury directed the first season. The succeeding director, Richard Whorf, took over the reins for one season and was in turn followed by former actor-turned-director Gene Reynolds from 1962 to 1964. James V. Kern, an experienced Hollywood television director who had previously helmed the 'Hollywood' and 'Europe' episodes of I Love Lucy continued in this role for two years until his untimely death in late 1966, aged 57. Director James Sheldon was also contracted to finish episodes that had been partly completed by Kern in order to complete that season. Fred De Cordova was the show's longest and most consistent director of the series (108 episodes) until he left in 1971 to produce The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Earl Bellamy rounded out the series as director of the show's final year.

CBS years
My Three Sons moved to the CBS television network for the 1965–66 season after ABC would not commit to the expense of producing the program in color. Along with the change in networks and the transition to color, William Frawley, who played "Bub" O'Casey, the boys' maternal grandfather, was declared too ill to work by Desilu Studios (founded by former co-stars Desi Arnez and Lucille Ball, but soon to be sold to CBS), as the company was informed that insuring the actor would be too costly. Frawley continued in the role until a suitable replacement could be found at midseason. He was replaced by William Demarest, who had played his hard-nosed brother Charley part way through the 1964–65 season (the last on ABC). According to the storyline, Bub returns to Ireland to help his Auntie

My Three Sons Kate celebrate her 104th birthday. Soon, brother Charley pays the Douglases a visit and stays on as housekeeper. In his biography, Meet the Mertzes, Frawley says he was hurt by being ousted from the show and held a grudge against Demarest for taking his job. Frawley died a short while later in March 1966 at age 79. Tim Considine, who had worked with MacMurray on The Shaggy Dog, had played oldest son Mike and did not renew his contract after a falling-out with executive producer Don Fedderson over his wish to direct but not co-star in the series (he did direct one of the last black and white episodes). According to Considine (Pat Sajak Show, August 1989), he was devoted to car racing, which his contract forbade. The character was written out, along with Meredith MacRae, who had played his fiancee, in a wedding episode that was the premiere of 1965–66 on CBS. After said episode, the program's first in color, Mike Don Grady with Frawley's replacement William is mentioned briefly in only four succeeding episodes (including one in Demarest in My Three Sons (1969). which Ernie becomes adopted), and is otherwise never seen again, even at Robbie's and his dad's weddings. In the episode "Steve and the Huntress" (first aired January 27, 1966), Mike is specifically mentioned as teaching college. There is an indirect reference to Mike in the October 19, 1968 episode "The Grandfathers," when Steve Douglas says, "The first two boys weren't bothered, but we did have a little trouble with Chip," when discussing his experience taking care of infants. To keep the show's title plausible, the show's head writer, George Tibbles, fashioned a three-part story arc in which an orphaned friend of youngest brother Richard (better known as Chip and played by Stanley Livingston), Ernie Thompson (played by his real-life brother, Barry Livingston), awaits adoption when his current foster parents are transferred to the Orient. Steve offers to adopt Ernie but faces antagonism from Uncle Charley, who can foresee nothing but more work with another boy. Ultimately, Charley comes to the rescue when a law stating that there must be a woman in the home stalls Ernie's adoption procedure. (A judge overseeing the case determines that the intent of the law is to make sure a full-time caregiver would be present; with Uncle Charley meeting that role, he assents to a legal fiction declaring him "housemother" to the Douglases.) While the three sons were always central to the storyline, several major changes take place by the late 1960s. In 1967, the family moves from the fictitious town of Bryant Park in the Midwest to California, settling in Los Angeles. Robbie (Don Grady) marries his classmate/girlfriend, Katie Miller (Tina Cole). The following season, 1968–69, the newlyweds discover that Katie is pregnant, and she gives birth to triplets (three sons, of course) named Robert, Steven, and Charles. Although originally played by sets of uncredited twins, these babies were played uncredited by Guy, Gunnar, and Garth Swanson. The most familiar triplets in the show's last two seasons are played by Michael, Daniel, and Joseph Todd. The following year in the tenth season, 1969–1970, Steven re-marries, taking widowed teacher Barbara Harper (Beverly Garland) as his wife; she brings with her a 5-year-old daughter, Dorothy aka Dodie (Dawn Lyn), so Steven now had a stepdaughter whom he also subsequently adopts. Also, the last 1 1/2 years of the series features fewer appearances of both Don Grady and Stanley Livingston. Grady's character was written out of the show at the end of the eleventh season, which allowed for his wife Katie and their triplet sons to remain within the Douglas household the following season (as a structural engineer Robbie was working on a bridge construction in Peru). Chip and his teen wife Polly (Ronne Troup) (who eloped after Polly's disciplinarian father refused to sanction the marriage) move into their own apartment. With a large cast of regulars, the show's storylines are centered on different family members from episode to episode. At this point the program's narrative focus is that of blended families. At the end of the 1970–71 season (the show's eleventh year), My Three Sons was still garnering healthy ratings. By the spring of 1971, it had finished in 19th place. For the majority of its run, the show had aired on Thursday nights, whether on ABC or CBS.[2] In 1967, it moved to Saturday nights. For the series' twelfth season, 1971–72, CBS initially decided the show would remain on Saturday nights, but its time slot would be moved from 8:30 P.M. to

58

My Three Sons 8:00 P.M. At the last minute, CBS President Fred Silverman ordered that My Three Sons be moved to Monday nights at 10:00 P.M. and that the hugely popular All in the Family be scheduled for Saturday nights at 8:00 P.M. As a result, the ratings for My Three Sons plummeted. In addition to the time changes for the twelfth season, a new four-part story arc is introduced with MacMurray in a second role, that of his cousin, the Laird (Lord) Fergus McBain Douglas of Sithian Bridge. The voice of English actor Alan Caillou is dubbed for MacMurray's as Lord Douglas. The plot centers around Lord Douglas's arrival in Los Angeles from the family's native Scotland, in search of a First Lady to marry and return with him to Scotland. He finds Terri Dowling (Anne Francis), a waitress at the Blue Berry Bowling Alley. While initially reluctant to give up her life in America and return to Scotland as royalty, she finally accepts. This storyline is a continuation of a plot idea that originally began in the fourth season, when the Douglases visit Scotland on the pretense of having been told they had inherited a castle in the highlands. With a later time slot, after some younger viewers were in bed, the show finished the season outside the Top 30. To save the series, CBS moved it in midseason back to Thursday nights at 8:30 P.M, its old time slot. Nevertheless, My Three Sons ended its prime-time run in the spring of 1972 after twelve years on the air. Fred MacMurray, bitterly disappointed, protested the show's cancellation to Fred Silverman, but to no avail.

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Cast
Main cast
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Fred MacMurray, Steven "Steve" Douglas (1960-1972) William Frawley, Michael Francis "Bub" O'Casey (1960–1965) William Demarest, Charles Leslie "Uncle Charley" O'Casey, Bub's brother (1965–1972) Tim Considine, Michael "Mike" Douglas (1960–1965) Don Grady, Robert "Robbie" Douglas (1960–1971) Stanley Livingston, Richard "Chip" Douglas (1960-1972) Barry Livingston, Ernest "Ernie" Thompson/Douglas (1963–1972) Meredith MacRae, Sally Ann Morrison Douglas (1963–1965) Tina Cole, Kathleen "Katie" Miller Douglas (1967–1972) Beverly Garland, Barbara Harper Douglas (1969–1972) Dawn Lyn, Dorothy "Dodie" Harper Douglas (1969–1972) Ronne Troup, Polly Williams Douglas (1970–1972) Michael, Daniel, and Joseph Todd, playing Robbie, Stevie, and Charley Douglas respectively (1970–1972)

Recurring cast
• • • • • • • • • • Cynthia Pepper, Jean Pearson (1960–1961) Peter Brooks, Hank Ferguson (1960–1963) Cheryl Holdridge, Judy Doucette (1960–1961) Lesley-Marie Colburn, Frieda (1964–1965, uncredited) Ricky Allen, Hubert 'Sudsy' Pfeiffer (1961–1963) Hank Jones, Pete (1964–1966) Bill Erwin, Joe Walters (1962–1964) Doris Singleton, Helen Morrison (1964–65) and Margaret Williams (1970) John Howard, Dave Welch (1965–1967) Joan Tompkins, Lorraine Miller (1967–1970)

My Three Sons

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Musical connections
The series' cast had several music connections. MacMurray began his career as a saxophone player during the 1930s, and sometimes played it on the series, as well as clarinet. Actress Tina Cole (Katie) was born into the King Family, a popular 1950s–1960s group. Ronne Troup (Polly) was the daughter of musician/composer Bobby Troup (Emergency!), who wrote the song Route 66, and Dawn Lyn is the younger sister of popular 1970s idol Leif Garrett. Don Grady (Robbie) composed and produced music, having created successful Las Vegas venues for Phantom of the Opera star Michael Crawford and pop star David Cassidy. Grady also played drums in the 60s pop group Yellow Balloon.

Episodes
My Three Sons had 36 episodes in the first two seasons. The series had more than thirty episodes in the first eight seasons. The episodes decreased by two episodes until the eleventh season, which had twenty-four episodes, along with the twelfth season. The series was cancelled after season twelve. The first five seasons were filmed in black & white, and after that, was filmed in color.

Broadcast history
NOTE: The most frequent time slots for the series are in bold text. • • • • • Thursday at 9:00-9:30 PM on ABC: September 29, 1960—June 20, 1963 Thursday at 8:30-9:00 PM on ABC: September 19, 1963—May 20, 1965 Thursday at 8:30-9:00 PM on CBS: September 16, 1965—May 11, 1967; January—April 13, 1972 Saturday at 8:30-9:00 PM on CBS: September 9, 1967—March 20, 1971 Monday at 10:00-10:30 PM on CBS: September 13—December 6, 1971

Ratings
• • • • • • • • • • • • Season 1 1960 – 1961: #13 (12,177,600 viewers) Season 2 1961 – 1962: #11 (11,993,085 viewers) Season 3 1962 – 1963: #28 (10,563,000 viewers) Season 4 1963 – 1964: #27 (11,300,400 viewers) Season 5 1964 – 1965: #13 (13,438,500 viewers) Season 6 1965 – 1966: #15 (12,816,300 viewers) Season 7 1966 – 1967: Not in the Top 30 Season 8 1967 – 1968: #24 (11,787,360 viewers) Season 9 1968 – 1969: #14 (13,281,000 viewers) Season 10 1969 – 1970: #15 (12,753,000 viewers) Season 11 1970 – 1971: #19 (12,500,800 viewers) Season 12 1971 – 1972: Not in the Top 30

Production schedule
The series was initially filmed at Desilu Studios in Hollywood, but at the start of the 1967–68 season, the cast and crew up-anchored and began filming the series at the CBS Studio Center in Studio City, California. The reasons behind this move were because actress-comedienne Lucille Ball had sold her studios to the Gulf + Western conglomerate, who owned Paramount Pictures, so Don Fedderson Productions, who produced My Three Sons (along with Family Affair starring Brian Keith), had to quickly make other arrangements for filming. The move also necessitated moves in the show's storyline as well.

My Three Sons Fred MacMurray was the only actor to appear in every episode of the series. Reportedly, MacMurray's contract stipulated that he work only 65 days per year. His scenes for each season were produced in two blocks of filming. He would report to the Desilu-Gower lot in late May and work 35 days (five days per week, weekends off), then take off for 10 weeks. He would then return to complete his remaining 30 days of shooting and was finished altogether around Thanksgiving. MacMurray's ten-week hiatus in the middle of each season's production schedule freed up the actor to follow other pursuits, while the filming of scenes with the other cast members continued. In short, all episodes were filmed out of sequence. Evidence of this is very apparent in several episodes, where plotlines had MacMurray's character on a business trip (e.g. "Small Adventure") or spending much of his time at the office (e.g. "Soap Box Derby"). This allowed him to seemingly take part in the entire episode with limited or no interaction with the other regulars during filming. This sometimes produced noticeable continuity problems onscreen, especially as the boys grew and changed styles. William Frawley, for one, never felt comfortable with this filming method, having grown accustomed to filming I Love Lucy in sequence.

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Distribution
Although Don Fedderson gets the credit, My Three Sons was created by George Tibbles and produced by Don Fedderson Productions throughout the show's run, with MCA Television co-distributing the series during its 1960–65 ABC airing. When the series moved to CBS in 1965, the latter network assumed full production responsibilities (in association with Fedderson Productions) until the end of the series in 1972. CBS now holds the series' copyright. CBS Television Distribution presently owns distribution rights to the entire series (including the more widely seen and aforementioned 1965–72 CBS episodes). Nick at Nite aired My Three Sons from November 3, 1985 to October 28, 1991 with episodes from Seasons 1–5 & Season 12. The Family Channel also aired the black and white episodes from September 7, 1992 to July 30, 1993. The Seasons 6–12 episodes were later aired on TV Land in the late 1990s and on Odyssey in the early 2000s. In 2000, TV Land briefly aired the black & white episodes again, using the same syndication episode rights that were on Nick at Nite during the 1980s. Since fall 2004, only Seasons 6-10 are being distributed for syndication in the US-Domestic market. In 2009, FamilyNet began airing the program as a lead-in for its Happy Days and Family Ties program block, which ended in February 2010. The program is broadcast weekday mornings on the Me-TV network.

DVD releases
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released the first two seasons of My Three Sons on DVD in Region 1.[3][4] All releases have been reworked to eliminate licensed musical and sound assets. Although the original theme tune has been left unaltered, the background musical score for most episodes (which were originally stock music from the Capitol Records library) was replaced with more modern, synthesized music. This has caused a huge debate as when the same episodes are shown on television, they still include all music intact. This situation should change when the later seasons eventually come to DVD as Frank DeVol was the in-house composer and the later episodes should not need to be rescored.

My Three Sons

62

DVD Name The First Season: Volume 1 The First Season: Volume 2 The Second Season: Volume 1 The Second Season: Volume 2

Ep # 18 18 18 18

Release Date September 30, 2008 January 20, 2009 February 23, 2010 June 15, 2010

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Fred MacMurray: The First Disney Legend (http:/ / www. mouseplanet. com/ 8943/ Fred_MacMurray_The_First_Disney_Legend) http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070523193621/ www. getty. net/ texts/ tv-48-66. txt tvshowsondvd.com (http:/ / tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Sons-Season-2-Volume-1/ 13056) http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Sons-Season-2-Volume-2/ 13504

External links
• • • • My Three Sons (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0053525/) at the Internet Movie Database My Three Sons (http://www.tv.com/shows/my-three-sons/) at TV.com My Three Sons (http://epguides.com/MyThreeSons) at epguides.com My Three Sons at the Museum of Broadcast Communications (http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/M/ htmlM/mythreesons/mythreesons.htm)

Sherry Alberoni

63

Sherry Alberoni
Sherry Alberoni

Sherry Alberoni as a Mousketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, circa 1956 Born December 4, 1946 Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. Actress/Voice artist

Occupation

Years active 1956–1984 Spouse(s) Dr. Richard Van Meter (1971–present)

Sherry (or Sherri) Alberoni (born December 4, 1946) is an American actress and voice artist. Alberoni got her start as a Mouseketeer on the weekday ABC television program The Mickey Mouse Club. As an adult, she became a voice artist for Hanna-Barbera Productions. Besides providing voices for numerous incidental characters in series such as Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and Jeannie, Alberoni is best known as the voice of both nasty rich-girl Alexandra Cabot from Josie and the Pussycats and "superhero-in-training" Wendy from the first season of Super Friends. In 1971, she starred alongside Patty Andrews in the Sherman Brothers stage musical, Victory Canteen.

Background
Sharyn Eileen Alberoni was born December 4, 1946, in Cleveland, Ohio, the youngest of three children. After her family moved to California, Alberoni started modeling at age two, and shortly after, took up dancing lessons, joining her older brother Roy. Both children also learned to play musical instruments; trumpet for Sherry, and drums for Roy. Alberoni's biggest hobby was collecting dolls, and by her teenage years she would have several hundred. Early on Alberoni displayed a generosity of spirit that would stay with her throughout her life. She volunteered for charity work, and became so successful at it that she was proclaimed a "Red Feather" girl by the Community Chest. This enabled her to attend opening day at Disneyland in 1955, where she first met Walt Disney. Both Sherry Alberoni and her brother tried out for the Mouseketeers in the spring of 1956. Roy was up first, and after realizing his chance was slipping away, gallantly volunteered that his little sister could play the trumpet while tap-dancing. The casting judges then called for Alberoni and she performed as advertised, in the process nearly knocking her teeth out. What really got her a spot on the show though was her lisp; director Sidney Miller thought it was hilarious.

Sherry Alberoni

64

The little girl with a lisp
Sherry Alberoni joined the Mickey Mouse Club as a second season replacement and was assigned to the Blue Team. She had few solo performances in her one season with the club, but was part of many audience scenes for guest stars and circus acts. She had a long show business career as an adult, including voice work for cartoons.

Performance
At age nine, Sherry Alberoni was the youngest Mouseketeer for the show's second season (there were two younger mice during the first season). She used the stage name "Allen" upon the advice of her first agent, who thought some casting directors might not hire an ethnic talent. Like all second season mice, Alberoni's performances are unavailable for viewing today, as the studio hasn't released production numbers from that year on video or DVD. Though normally assigned to the Blue Team for Circus Day and Guest Star Day audiences, Alberoni was also given roles in several Anything Can Happen Day numbers. She recalled in later years that director Sidney Miller would often change her lines to include many sibilants, so fond was he of hearing her lisp.

Aftermath
After leaving The Mickey Mouse Club Sherry Alberoni appeared in the film Dance With Me, Henry, the last Abbott and Costello picture. It was Lou Costello who advised Alberoni to stick with her original last name, Alberoni. She followed that up with guest appearances on Bronco and The Ed Wynn Show, before going to Europe in 1960 to make The Three Worlds of Gulliver (in which she played the character Glumdalclitch). Upon return to the United States, Sherry Alberoni had a feature role on The Tom Ewell Show as the star's daughter. Alberoni graduated from Westchester High School in Los Angeles, where she was a straight "A" student. In 1962 her brother Roy founded a professional combo called The Rhythmaires, for which Alberoni was the lead vocalist. Throughout the sixties Sherry Alberoni would appear on episodes of many television series, such as The Donna Reed Show, The Farmer's Daughter, Ripcord, My Three Sons, The Man from UNCLE, and The Monkees, while also doing bit parts in minor films. Her biggest recurring television role was as "Sharon James" on Family Affair (1966–71). Sherry Alberoni also took a regular part in entertaining Marines at Camp Pendleton during these same years for a monthly production called "The Julie London Show". It was also in the late sixties that she began doing voice work for animated series, like Josie and the Pussycats, Super Friends, and in 1984, The Mighty Orbots. During the seventies she also featured in two horror films, Nightmare Circus (1974) and Sisters of Death (1977). In 1980 Sherry Alberoni took part in the televised Mouseketeer Reunion, and for once got a chance to tap dance with the Red Team. Sherry took part in the Mouseketeer live performances at Disneyland in the 1980s, and also became a fixture on Mouseketeer personal appearance tours during the late eighties and nineties, often teaming with Bobby Burgess. Alberoni has been married to Dr. Richard Van Meter for forty years. The couple has two adult daughters and four grandchildren, and resides in Southern California. Throughout her life Sherry has kept up her volunteer work for charities, donating her time and talents for a variety of worthy causes.

Sherry Alberoni

65

External links
• Sherry Alberoni [1] at the Internet Movie Database • Original MMC site [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0016432/ [2] http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ sherry. html

Bonnie Lynn Fields
Bonnie Lynn Fields (July 18, 1944 – November 17, 2012) was an American actress and Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club, beginning with the show's third season.[1] Hera film credits included roles in Angel in My Pocket, Bye Bye Birdie, and Funny Girl.[1] Fields was born Bonita Fields in Walterboro, South Carolina.[1] Fields was just 12 years old when she was cast as a Mouseketeer, joining The Mickey Mouse Club at the start of its third season (1957-1958).[1] Approximately 5,000 children auditioned to join the show for its third season; Fields was the second to the last person to audition for the show.[1] Walt Disney reportedly personally asked Fields to change her name from "Bonita," which had three syllables, to a new two-syllable stage name ("Bonnie") to harmonize more effectively with the show's other Musketeers during musical songs.[1] In the 1960s, Fields appeared on Broadway, including Half a Sixpence and Kelly.[1] Fields died from throat cancer in Richmond, Indiana, on November 17, 2012, aged 68.[1]

References
[1] Woo, Elaine (2012-11-20). "Bonnie Lynn Fields dies at 68; former Mouseketeer" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2012/ nov/ 20/ local/ la-me-bonnie-lynn-fields-20121120). Los Angeles Times (latimes.com). . Retrieved 2012-12-13.

External links
• Bonnie Lynn Fields (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0276309/) at the Internet Movie Database

Mickey Rooney, Jr.

66

Mickey Rooney, Jr.
Mickey Rooney, Jr.
Born Joseph Yule III July 3, 1945 Birmingham, Alabama, U.S. Actor

Occupation

Years active 1964–1980 Spouse(s) Merci Montello (? - ?) (divorced) Laura Hollander (1986 - 2006)

Mickey Rooney, Jr. (born July 3, 1945) is an American former actor and musician, and the eldest son of the actor Mickey Rooney. He operates the Rooney Entertainment Group, a movie and TV production company.

Early life
He was born Joseph Yule III in Birmingham, Alabama to actor Mickey Rooney and former Miss Alabama and singer Betty Jane Rase.

Acting career
After appearing as a "Mouseketeer" in the Mickey Mouse Club in 1955 along with his brother Tim, he played his first movie role in 1967 in Hot Rods to Hell. He later appeared in the television film Beyond the Bermuda Triangle in 1975, and in the movie Honeysuckle Rose in 1980.

Personal life
He was once married to Playboy Playmate of the Month Merci Montello. In 1986, Mickey, Jr. met Laura Hollander and married on December 30, 1986 until her death in 2006. He currently resides in Hemet, California.

Filmography
Film
Year Title Role Combo Leader TV Movie Cotton Roberts Notes

1967 Hot Rods to Hell 1975 Beyond the Bermunda Triangle 1980 Honeysuckle Rose

Television

Mickey Rooney, Jr.

67

Year

Title

Role

Notes

1955 Mickey Mouse Club Himself 1964 I've Got a Secret Shindig! 1980 Disneyland Himself Himself

External links
• Mickey Rooney Jr. [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0740296/

Tim Rooney

68

Tim Rooney
Tim Rooney
Born Timothy Hayes Yule January 4, 1947 Birmingham, Alabama September 23, 2006 (aged 59) Hemet, California

Died

Years active 1955─1983

Timothy Hayes Yule (January 4, 1947 – September 23, 2006), better known as Tim Rooney, was an American actor and voice actor. He was the second son of actor Mickey Rooney and suffered from a muscle disease known as dermatomyositis. He was born in Birmingham, Alabama. His mother was a former Miss Alabama and singer, Betty Jane Rase, who performed as B. J. Baker. His notable appearances included the films Village of the Giants and Riot on Sunset Strip, and also the TV series The Donald O'Connor Show, Maverick, Dr. Kildare, Gidget, Bewitched, Dragnet and the cartoon show Mister T, in voiceovers. In 1962 he co-starred as one of the children in the ABC comedy Room for One More (TV series). In 1964-1965, he co-starred with his father in Mickey, an ABC situation comedy about a family which operates a hotel in Newport Beach, California. He played Timmy Grady. Mickey Rooney appeared as Mickey Grady. Emmaline Henry starred as mother and wife, Nora Grady. Rooney died at the age of fifty-nine on his father's 86th birthday.

External links
• Tim Rooney [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm740362/

Paul Williams (songwriter)

69

Paul Williams (songwriter)
Paul Williams

Performing in 1974. Background information Birth name Born Paul Hamilton Williams, Jr. September 19, 1940 Omaha, Nebraska Omaha, Nebraska Pop folk, Pop, Soft rock, Folk Singer, songwriter, actor, writer and director. Vocals, guitar, keyboards 1960s–present A&M Records

Origin Genres Occupations Instruments Years active Labels

Associated acts The Holy Mackerel, The Muppets, The Carpenters Website [paulwilliamsconnection.org paulwilliamsconnection.org]

Paul Hamilton Williams, Jr.[1] (born September 19, 1940[2][3][4]) is an Academy Award-winning American composer, musician, songwriter, and actor. He is perhaps best known for popular songs performed by a number of acts in the 1970s including Three Dog Night's "An Old Fashioned Love Song", Helen Reddy's "You and Me Against the World", David Bowie's "Fill Your Heart", and the Carpenters' "We've Only Just Begun" and "Rainy Days and Mondays", as well as his contributions to films such as "Evergreen" from A Star Is Born and "Rainbow Connection" from The Muppet Movie. He has also had a variety of high-profile acting roles such as Little Enos Burdette in the highly successful 1977 action-comedy Smokey and the Bandit, and as the villainous Swan in Brian De Palma's Phantom of the Paradise (which Williams also co-scored, receiving an Oscar nomination in the process), as well as television, theater, and voiceover work for animation.

Musical career
Williams was part of a short-lived rock group called "The Holy Mackerel". He and his collaborator, Roger Nichols, were responsible for a number of enduring and very successful pop hits from the 1970s, including several hits for Three Dog Night (the aforementioned "An Old Fashioned Love Song", as well as "The Family of Man", and "Out in the Country"), Helen Reddy ("You and Me Against the World"), and the Carpenters, most notably "Rainy Days and Mondays", "I Won't Last a Day Without You", and "We've Only Just Begun", originally a song for a Crocker National Bank television commercial featuring newlyweds, and which has since become a cover-band standard and de rigueur for weddings throughout North America. An early collaboration with Roger Nichols's "Someday Man,"

Paul Williams (songwriter) was covered by The Monkees (a group for which he auditioned but was not cast)[5] on a 1969 single, and was the first Monkees' release not published by Screen Gems. He also auditioned for, but was not selected to be a Mouseketeer. Bobby Sherman also sang "Cried Like a Baby." Anne Murray sang "Talk It Over in the Morning". He also wrote the cantata Wings with music by Michel Colombier. A frequent cowriter of Williams was musician Kenneth Ascher; their songs together included the popular children's favorite "Rainbow Connection," sung by Jim Henson (as Kermit the Frog) in The Muppet Movie. Williams also collaborated with Biff Rose, notably on the song "Fill Your Heart," originally recorded by Tiny Tim as the B-side of his 1968 hit "Tiptoe Through The Tulips" and subsequently covered by David Bowie on his album Hunky Dory. Most recently, he collaborated with Scissor Sisters on their second album, Ta-Dah and contributed lyrics to Richard Barone's 2010 album Glow.[6] Williams has worked on the music of a number of films, including writing and singing on Phantom of the Paradise (in which he also starred and earned an Oscar nomination for the music); and Bugsy Malone. He contributed lyrics to the Cinderella Liberty song You're So Nice to Be Around with music by John Williams, and it earned them an Oscar nomination. Along with Kenneth Ascher and Rupert Holmes, he wrote the music and lyrics to A Star Is Born, with Barbra Streisand and Kris Kristofferson. The love ballad, "Evergreen," from the movie won the Academy Award for Best Song of The Year. He is a member of the Songwriters Hall of Fame,[7] and his songs have been performed by both pop and country music artists. He has won one Academy Award for best song ("Evergreen") from A Star Is Born (whose music was composed by the artist who performed it, Barbra Streisand; Williams wrote its lyrics) and has been nominated for several others.[8] He wrote the music for a musical production of Happy Days that debuted in 2007 and also made a cameo appearance as an animated version of himself singing "Breathe in the Sunshine" in the hit animated TV series Dexter's Laboratory.[9] He wrote and sang "What Would They Say," the theme song from the made-for-television film The Boy in the Plastic Bubble, a 1976 film starring newcomer John Travolta alongside Diana Hyland. In April 2009, Williams was elected President and Chairman of the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers.[10] In March 2012 it was announced that Williams had "written a couple of tunes" on the upcoming album of French electronic duo Daft Punk.[11]

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Film and television career
Although predominantly known for his music, Paul Williams is also an actor, appearing in films and many television guest appearances, notably as the Faustian record producer Swan in the cult film Phantom of the Paradise (for which he also wrote the songs), a rock and roll remake of Phantom of the Opera, and as Virgil, the genius orangutan in Battle for the Planet of the Apes (on Feb. 9, 1973, Williams mixed his two fields for a joke appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in which he sang a song in full make-up as Virgil). His most recognizable role is "Little Enos Burdette" in Smokey and the Bandit. He also played Miguelito Loveless Jr. in The Wild Wild West Revisited, a reunion movie of the original Wild Wild West, and played himself, singing a song to Felix Unger's daughter Edna, in "The Odd Couple." He made his film debut as Gunther Fry in the 1965 satire The Loved One. He also wrote for Mort Sahl in the 1960s. After appearing on The Muppet Show in 1976, Williams worked closely with Jim Henson's Henson Productions on The Muppet Movie, most specifically on the soundtrack, and even had a cameo in the movie as the piano player in the nightclub where Kermit the Frog meets Fozzie Bear. He was also the lyricist for Emmet Otter's Jug Band Christmas.

Paul Williams (songwriter) Williams was hired by TV producers Paul Junger Witt and Tony Thomas to write title tracks for two of their ABC comedies, It Takes Two (1982–83), on which he also co-sang with Crystal Gayle, and Condo (1983), in which Williams' theme was sung by Drake Frye. Williams has appeared in many minor roles. He provided the voice of The Penguin in Batman: The Animated Series. He had a role in Star Trek: Voyager as Prelate Koru of the Qomar Planetary Alliance, a race technologically superior to the Federation but lacking musical ability, and also appeared on an episode of Walker: Texas Ranger as a radio DJ covering a modern day Bonnie and Clyde pursued by Walker. He recently appeared in 2009 in an episode of Nickelodeon's children's show Yo Gabba Gabba! entitled "Weather", where he performed "Rainbow Connection". He has also appeared on Cartoon Network's Dexter's Laboratory where he played Professor Williams in an episode entitled "Just An Old Fashioned Lab Song". He made numerous television appearances in the 1970s and 1980s, including guest appearances on Hawaii Five-O, Match Game '79, The Love Boat, The Hardy Boys, The Odd Couple (as himself), The Muppet Show (as a guest star), The Fall Guy, and The Gong Show. He has also guest-starred in the Babylon 5 episode "Acts of Sacrifice" (Season 2 Episode 12) as Taq, the aide to Correlilmurzon, an alien ambassador whose species finalizes treaties and agreements by having sex with the other signees. In a bit of subtle irony, Williams also appeared in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Virtuoso" as the leader of a planet that has never heard music before. Williams appeared on an episode of Picket Fences as the brother of the just deceased Ginny Weedon (Zelda Rubinstein). While eulogising Ginny, he sings a small part of "Rainbow Connection". He starred as Ferdinand the Bull in a musical 1/2 hour TV production of the same name written by the Sherman Brothers. In October 1980, he was host of the Mickey Mouse Club 25th Anniversary Special on NBC-TV. He stated that he tried out for the show in early 1955 and was turned down. Paul was a frequent guest and performer on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. WIlliams also appears as the man making the phone call at the beginning of the music video for Hank Williams Jr.'s song "All My Rowdy Friends Are Coming Over Tonight."

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Personal life
Williams was born in Omaha, Nebraska, the son of Bertha Mae (née Burnside), a homemaker, and Paul Hamilton Williams, an architectural engineer.[1] He is married to writer Mariana Williams, and has two children, Sarah and Cole. His brothers are John Williams (a NASA rocket scientist) and Mentor Williams (a songwriter as well who penned Dobie Gray's 1973 hit "Drift Away"). Williams identifies himself as a recovering alcoholic, and he has been active in the field of recovery from addictions. In 2009, Paul Williams was elected President of ASCAP (the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers). In September 2011, director Stephen Kessler's documentary Paul Williams Still Alive premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival.

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Songwriting
Albums
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Words and Music by Paul Williams The Holy Mackerel (with The Holy Mackerel [1969]) We've Only Just Begun (by Roger Nichols and Paul Williams) Someday Man [1970] Just an Old Fashioned Love Song [1971] Life Goes On [1972] Here Comes Inspiration [1974] A Little Bit of Love [1974] Phantom of the Paradise [1974] Ordinary Fool [1975] Bugsy Malone [1976] A Star is Born (Motion picture Soundtrack; with Kenny Ascher) [1976] Classics [1977]

• " One on One: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack" (Lyrics by Paul Williams, music by Charles Fox; performed by Seals and Crofts (1977)) • A Little on the Windy Side [1979] • The Muppet Movie: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (by Paul Williams and Kenny Ascher [1979]) • ...And Crazy for Loving You [1981] • The Secret of N.I.M.H.: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack [1982] (features songs written by Jerry Goldsmith; Paul Williams performs the song "Flying Dreams" • The Best of Paul Williams [1983] • Back to Love Again (1997) • I'm Going Back There Someday (2005)

Notable songs
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • "Nice to Be Around" (Cinderella Liberty Soundtrack) "Evergreen" (Love Theme from A Star Is Born), (#1 hit for Barbra Streisand) "Rainy Days and Mondays", (#2 hit for The Carpenters) "We've Only Just Begun" (#2 hit for The Carpenters) "You and Me Against the World" (Top-10 hit for Helen Reddy) "An Old Fashioned Love Song" (Top-10 hit for Three Dog Night) "Family of Man" (#12 hit for Three Dog Night) "Out in the Country" (#15 hit for Three Dog Night) "I Won't Last a Day Without You", (Top-20 hit for The Carpenters) "The Rainbow Connection" (Golden Globe and Oscar-nominated song) "When the River Meets the Sea" (from Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas) "One More Angel" "Moonlight Becomes You" "You're Gone" "Waking Up Alone" (Biggest single as performer) "Flying Dreams" (from The Secret of Nimh soundtrack)

• "Gone Forever" • "Where Do I Go From Here (Thunderbolt and Lightfoot)" • "Someday Man" (Monkees - 1969 - "A" Side of "Listen To The Band" single)

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TV themes (lyricist)
• • • • • "The McLean Stevenson Show" "Theme to the Love Boat" "It Takes Two" "Sugar Time!" "Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas"

Notable recordings
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • "An Old Fashioned Love Song" (from Just an Old Fashioned Love Song [1971]) "Bitter Honey" (from The Holy Mackerel [1969]) "Don't Call It Love" (from Ordinary Fool [1975]) "Evergreen (Love Theme from A Star Is Born) ([1977]) "The Family of Man" (from A Little Bit of Love [1974]) "Faust" (from Phantom of the Paradise [1974]) "Flash" (from Ordinary Fool [1975]) "For Goodness Sake" (from A Little on the Windy Side [1979]) "Flying Dreams" (from The Secret of N.I.M.H. [1982]) "The Hell of It" (from Phantom of the Paradise [1974]) "Here's Another Fine Mess" (from A Little on the Windy Side [1979]) "If We Could Still Be Friends" (from Here Comes Inspiration [1974]) "I Won't Last a Day Without You" (from Life Goes On [1972]) "Let Me Be the One" (from An Old Fashioned Love Song [1971]) "A Little Bit of Love" (from A Little Bit of Love [1974]) "Loneliness" (from A Little Bit of Love [1974]) "Ordinary Fool" (from Ordinary Fool [1975]) "Out in the Country" (from Life Goes On [1972]) "Rainy Days and Mondays" (from Here Comes Inspiration [1974]) "Sad Song (That Used to Be Our Song)" (from A Little Bit of Love [1974]) "Save Me a Dream" (from A Little on the Windy Side [1979])* "Someday Man" (from Someday Man [1970]) "To Put Up with You" (from Someday Man [1970]) "Trust" (from Someday Man [1970]) "Waking Up Alone" (from Classics [1977]) "We've Only Just Begun" (from An Old Fashioned Love Song [1971]) "When I Was All Alone" (from An Old Fashioned Love Song [1971]) "You and Me Against the World" (from Here Comes Inspiration [1974])

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Scores
Films
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Loved One [1965] The Chase [1966] The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing [1972] Cinderella Liberty [1973] Thunderbolt and Lightfoot ("Where Do I Go From Here" [1974]) Phantom of the Paradise [1974] The Day of the Locust [1975] Bugsy Malone [1976] A Star Is Born [1976] Lifeguard (Theme song "Time and Tide" [1976]) Smokey and the Bandit [1977] One on One [1977] Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas [1977] The End [1978] Agatha [1979] Stone Cold Dead (1979) The Wild Wild West Revisited 1979 The Muppet Movie ("Rainbow Connection" [1979]) The Secret of NIMH ("Flying Dreams" [1982]) Ishtar [1987] The Muppet Christmas Carol [1992] The Rules Of Attraction [2002] The Princess Diaries 2 [2004] A Muppets Christmas: Letters to Santa [2008] Paul Williams Still Alive [2011]

Theatre
• • • Bugsy Malone [1997] Happy Days The Musical [2007] Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas [2008]

Cinema songs
• "Where Do I Go From Here" (composed and performed by Williams for Thunderbolt and Lightfoot [1974]) • "Evergreen (Love Song from A Star Is Born)" (lyrics written by Williams, Academy and Golden Globe winner for Best Original Song [1976]) • "Rainbow Connection" (co-composed by Williams for The Muppet Movie [1979]) • "Flying Dreams" (co-composed [with Jerry Goldsmith] and performed by Williams for The Secret of N.I.M.H [1982])

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Acting
Films
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Loved One, 1965 The Chase, 1966 Watermelon Man, 1970 Battle for the Planet of the Apes, 1973 Phantom of the Paradise, 1974 Smokey and the Bandit, 1977, as Little Enos, a recurring part The Cheap Detective, 1978 The Muppet Movie, 1979 Stone Cold Dead, 1979 Wild Wild West Revisited, 1979 Smokey and the Bandit II, 1980 Rooster, 1982 Smokey and the Bandit Part 3, 1983 The Night They Saved Christmas, 1984, as Ed Frog, 1987 The Doors, 1991 Headless Body in Topless Bar, 1995 The Rules of Attraction, 2002 The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement, 2004, as Lord Harmony Georgia Rule, 2007 Valentine's Day, 2010, as Romeo Midnight (Narrator)

Theatre
• Under the Sycamore Tree • Tru on Broadway, 1989

Television
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hawaii Five-O Police Woman B. J. and the Bear Hardy Boys The Love Boat The McLean Stevenson Show Match Game The Gong Show It Takes Two Sugar Time! Baretta Emmet Otter's Jug Band Christmas, produced by Jim Henson The Muppet Show The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson

• The Brady Bunch Hour • The Donny & Marie Show

Paul Williams (songwriter) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Mary Tyler Moore Hour The Odd Couple Fantasy Island 227 - "Play It Again, Stan" Batman: The Animated Series - The Penguin Babylon 5 Walker: Texas Ranger Star Trek: Voyager Courage the Cowardly Dog, 2004, as Professor Lame Dexter's Laboratory, 1998, as Professor Williams Yo Gabba Gabba A Muppets Christmas: Letters to Santa, 2008, as the Head Elf Silver Spoons Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, 2011, as himself The View, 2012, as himself

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References
Notes
[1] "Paul Williams Biography (1940-)" (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 10/ Paul-Williams. html). Filmreference.com. . Retrieved 2012-04-10. [2] Paul Williams's biography at Film Reference (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 10/ Paul-Williams. html) [3] Paul Williams's biography at allmusic (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ paul-williams-mn0000753254) [4] Paul Williams's "mini biography" at IMDb (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0931437/ bio) [5] Lurie, Karen (2002). "The Monkees" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_g1epc/ is_bio/ ai_2419200851). St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. . [6] "Richard Barone - Bar/None Records" (http:/ / www. bar-none. com/ richard-barone. html). Bar-none.com. . Retrieved 2012-04-10. [7] "Songwriters Hall of Fame Bio" (http:/ / www. songwritershalloffame. org/ exhibit_bio. asp?exhibitId=185). . Retrieved February 8, 2008. [8] "Academy Awards Database" (http:/ / awardsdatabase. oscars. org/ ampas_awards/ BasicSearch?action=searchLink& displayType=6& BSNominationID=44449). . Retrieved February 8, 2008., two Grammy Awards and several Golden Globe Awards "Golden Globes Database" (http:/ / www. goldenglobes. org/ browse/ member/ 29890). . Retrieved February 8, 2008. [9] www.paulwilliamscouk.plus.com (http:/ / www. paulwilliamscouk. plus. com/ pwnbugsyh. html) [10] "Songwriter Paul Williams Elected President and Chairman Of ASCAP" (http:/ / www. ascap. com/ press/ 2009/ 0416_williams. aspx). . Retrieved August 27, 2010. [11] "'The Muppets' songwriter to feature on new Daft Punk album? | News" (http:/ / www. nme. com/ news/ daft-punk/ 62718). Nme.Com. 2012-03-19. . Retrieved 2012-04-10.

Bibliography • Skinner, Curtis (2001), Contemporary Authors Online, Detroit: Gale, ISBN 978-0-7876-3995-2

External links
• paulwilliamsconnection.com — site includes biography, discography, acting bio, photos, media downloads any thing and everything Paul Williams including information on service organizations. (http:// paulwilliamsconnection.com/) • paulwilliamsstillalive.com - Paul Williams Still Alive - Paul Williams documentary (http://www. paulwilliamsstillalive.com/) • paulwilliams.co.uk - Paul Williams' Music & Acting Page (http://www.paulwilliams.co.uk/) • Paul Williams (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm931437/) at the Internet Movie Database • Paul Williams (http://www.discogs.com/artist/Paul+Williams+(2)) discography at Discogs • Paul Williams (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memoryalpha:paul_williams) at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek wiki)

Paul Williams (songwriter) • Jim Bennett's interview with Paul Williams (http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities. com/Athens/Academy/1127/People/evergree.htm&date=2009-10-25+05:38:43) • Songfacts Interview (http://www.songfacts.com/int/2007/06/paul-williams.html) • Songwriters Hall of Fame Biography (http://www.songwritershalloffame.org/exhibit_home_page. asp?exhibitId=185)

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Candice Bergen

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Candice Bergen
Candice Bergen

Candice Bergen in 1993 Born Candice Patricia Bergen May 9, 1946 Beverly Hills, California, U.S. University of Pennsylvania Actress, fashion model 1966–present Louis Malle (m. 1980 – 1995) Marshall Rose (m. 2000) 1 Frances Bergen Edgar Bergen

Alma mater Occupation Years active Spouse(s)

Children Parents

Candice Patricia Bergen (born May 9, 1946) is an American actress, producer and former fashion model. She is known for starring in two TV series, as the title character on the situation comedy Murphy Brown, for which she won five Emmy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards; and as Shirley Schmidt on the comedy-drama Boston Legal, for which she was nominated for two Emmys, a Golden Globe, and a Screen Actors Guild Award. Her first film was The Group (1965), which was based on Mary McCarthy's novel of the same name. She starred in several major films throughout the mid 1960s to early 1980s such as The Sand Pebbles, Carnal Knowledge, The Wind and the Lion, and Gandhi and received an Academy Award nomination for her role in the 1979 film Starting Over. Her later career includes character roles in Miss Congeniality (2000) and Sweet Home Alabama (2002).

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Early life
Bergen was born in Beverly Hills, California. Her mother, Frances Bergen (née Westerman), was a Powers model who was known professionally as Frances Westcott.[1] Her father, Edgar Bergen, was a ventriloquist, comedian, and actor. Her paternal grandparents were Swedish-born immigrants who anglicized their surname, which was originally "Bergren". As a child, Candice was irritated at being described as "Charlie McCarthy's little sister" (referring to her father's star dummy).[2] Bergen began appearing on her father's radio program at a young age,[3] and in 1958, at age eleven, with her father on Groucho Marx's quiz show You Bet Your Life as Candy Bergen. She said that when she grew up she wanted to design clothes. She later attended the University of Pennsylvania, where she was elected both Homecoming Queen and Miss University, but acknowledges that her failure to take her education seriously resulted in her being asked to leave. She received an honorary doctorate from Penn in May 1992. She worked as a fashion model before she took up acting.

Career
Early years
Bergen made her screen debut playing an aloof university student in The Group (1966), which delicately touched on the then-forbidden subject of lesbianism. Her second film in 1966 was The Sand Pebbles, in which she played Shirley Eckert, an assistant school teacher and missionary opposite Steve McQueen. The film was nominated for several Academy Awards. After starring in the French film Live for Life (1967) and The Magus (1968) with Michael Caine and Anthony Quinn, she was featured in a 1970 political satire, The Adventurers, playing a frustrated socialite who has a lesbian affair. In 1975 she starred with Sean Connery in The Wind and the Lion, as a headstrong American widow kidnapped in Morocco in 1904 along with her two young children.

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Despite initial rocky reviews, she appeared in Mike Nichols' provocative Carnal Knowledge (1971) and the Burt Reynolds romantic comedy Starting Over (1979), for which she received Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for best supporting actress. Bergen had roles in Western films including The Hunting Party and Bite the Bullet, both of which starred Gene Hackman. Another Western she starred was the highly controversial Soldier Blue, a worldwide hit, but a failure in its homeland. It led to Bergen being voted by British exhibitors as the seventh most popular star at the British box office in 1971.[4] She was the love interest of Ryan O'Neal in the Love Story sequel, Oliver's Story, and portrayed a best-selling author in Rich and Famous (1981) with Jacqueline Bisset. In 1982, Bergen appeared in the Oscar-winning film Gandhi in which she portrayed documentary photographer Margaret Bourke-White. Bergen was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role.[5] Turning to television, Bergen appeared in the 1985 miniseries Hollywood Wives.

Murphy Brown
In 1988, she took the lead role in the sitcom Murphy Brown, in which she played a tough television reporter. The series provided her with the opportunity to show her little-seen comic talent, and although primarily a conventional sit-com, the show did tackle important issues. Murphy Brown, a recovering alcoholic, became a single mother and later battled breast cancer. In 1992, Vice President Dan Quayle criticized prime-time TV for showing the Murphy Brown character "mocking the importance of fathers by bearing a child alone and calling it just another lifestyle choice."[6]

Bergen at the 60th Academy Awards in 1988.

Quayle's remarks became comedic fodder, and were written into the show as if he were talking about the Murphy Brown character, who was depicted watching Quayle's speech. A subsequent episode explored the subject of family values within a diverse set of families. The Brown character arranges for a truckload of potatoes to be dumped in front of Quayle's residence, an allusion to an infamous incident in which Quayle erroneously directed a school child to spell the word "potato" as "potatoe". In reality, Bergen agreed with at least some of Quayle's observations, saying that while the particular remark was "an arrogant and uninformed posture", as a whole, it was "a perfectly intelligent speech about fathers not being dispensable and nobody agreed with that more than I did."[7] Bergen's run on Murphy Brown was extremely successful. The show ran for ten seasons and between 1989 and 1998, Bergen was nominated for an Emmy Award seven times and won five. After her fifth win, she declined future nominations for the role. Throughout the same time frame as Murphy Brown, Bergen also appeared as the main spokesperson for a Sprint telephone ad campaign, known to many in the ads as the "Dime Lady", for advertising Sprint's 10 cents a minute rate.

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Later career
After playing the role of Murphy Brown, Bergen was offered a chance to work as a real-life journalist. After the run of Murphy Brown ended in 1998, CBS approached her to cover stories for 60 Minutes, an offer she declined, with the conviction that she didn't personally want to blur the lines between actor and journalist at the time. She hosted Exhale with Candice Bergen on the Oxygen network. She also appeared in character roles in films, most notably Miss Congeniality (2000) as a former beauty queen who rivals Sandra Bullock; and as the mayor of New York who disapproves of her son marrying Reese Witherspoon in Sweet Home Alabama (2002). She also appeared in the comedies View from the Top with Gwyneth Paltrow and The In-Laws with Michael Douglas, both released in 2003. In January 2005, Bergen joined the cast of the television series Boston Legal as Shirley Schmidt, a founding partner in the law firm of Crane, Poole & Schmidt. She played the role for five seasons. In 2006 and 2008, she received Emmy nominations for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series. A frequent host on NBC's Saturday Night Live, she was the first woman to host the show and the first host to do a second show. Bergen guest-starred on The Muppet Show in its first year, appearing in several skits, an episode now available in a DVD collection. She was also featured in a long-running "Dime Lady" ad campaign for the Sprint phone company. She has also made guest appearances on many other TV shows, including Seinfeld (as herself playing Murphy Brown), Law & Order, Family Guy, Will & Grace (playing herself), and Sex and the City, where she played Enid Frick, Carrie Bradshaw's editor at Vogue. More recently she appeared in the 2009 movie Bride Wars as Marion St. Claire, New York's most sought-after wedding planner, who also serves as the narrator of the story. Since its launch in 2008, Candice Bergen has been a contributor for wowOwow.com, a website for women to talk culture, politics and gossip. Bergen has an occasional role on House as Lisa Cuddy's mother, starting in Season 7, including the 2011 episodes "Larger Than Life" and "Family Practice". In 2010, she appeared in a one-night only concert semi staged reading of Evening Primrose by Stephen Sondheim.[8]

Personal life
A political activist, Bergen accepted a date with Henry Kissinger. During her activist days she participated in a Yippie prank when she, Abbie Hoffman, and others threw dollar bills onto the floor of the New York Stock Exchange in 1967, leading to its temporary shut-down. In 1972, she served as a fundraiser and organizer for George McGovern's presidential campaign.[9] In addition to acting, Bergen has written articles, a play, and a memoir, Knock Wood (1984). She has also studied photography and worked as a photojournalist.

Relationships and marriages
During the 1960s, Bergen dated and lived with Terry Melcher, a music producer and the son of Doris Day. The couple lived at 10050 Cielo Drive in Los Angeles, which was later occupied by Sharon Tate and her husband, Roman Polanski. Tate and four others were murdered in the home in 1969 by followers of Charles Manson.[10] There was some initial speculation that Melcher may have been the intended victim.[11] On September 27, 1980, she married French film director Louis Malle (Bergen herself has traveled extensively and speaks French fluently). They had one child, a daughter named Chloe, in 1985. The couple were married until Malle's death from cancer on Thanksgiving Day in 1995. Since June 15, 2000, she has been married to New York real estate magnate and philanthropist Marshall Rose.

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Awards won
Emmy Awards: • Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series for: Murphy Brown (1989, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1995) 5 wins Golden Globe Awards: • Best Performance by an Actress in a TV-Series – Comedy/Musical for: Murphy Brown (1989, 1992) 2 wins Television Academy Hall of Fame: • Inducted in 2010

Filmography

Candice Bergen and her mother Frances Bergen at the 62nd Academy Awards March 26, 1990

List of feature film credits
Year 1966 The Group 1966 The Sand Pebbles Title Lakey Shirley Eckert Role Notes

1967 The Day the Fish Came Out Electra Brown 1967 Vivre pour vivre 1968 The Magus 1970 The Adventurers 1970 Getting Straight 1970 Soldier Blue 1971 Carnal Knowledge 1971 The Hunting Party 1971 T.R. Baskin 1974 11 Harrowhouse Candice Lily Sue Ann Daley Jan Kathy Maribel Lee, 'Cresta' Susan Melissa Ruger T. R. Baskin Maren Shirell aka A Date with a Lonely Girl (UK) aka Live for Life (US)

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1975 The Wind and the Lion 1975 Bite the Bullet 1977 The Domino Principle 1978 A Night Full of Rain 1978 Oliver's Story 1979 Starting Over 1981 Rich and Famous 1982 Gandhi 1984 2010 1985 Stick 2000 Miss Congeniality 2002 Sweet Home Alabama 2003 View from the Top 2003 The In-Laws 2008 Sex and the City 2008 The Women 2009 Bride Wars 2010 The Romantics Eden Pedecaris Miss Jones Ellie Tucker Lizzy Marcie Bonwit Jessica Potter Merry Noel Blake Margaret Bourke-White SAL 9000 Kyle McClaren Kathy Morningside Mayor Kate Hennings Sally Weston Judy Tobias Enid Frick Catherine Frazier Marion St. Claire Augusta voice only (credited as Olga Mallsnerd) aka The Domino Killings (UK)

Short subject
• Unusual Occupations: Film Tot Holiday (1947) • Flash 02 (1967) • The Lion Roars Again (1975)

Documentary
• • • • Wedding of the Doll (1968) Frames from the Edge (1989) Belly Talkers (1996) Who Is Henry Jaglom? (1997)

Television
• • • • • • • • • • • Coronet Blue (1 episode, 1967) The Kraft Music Hall (1 episode, 1969) Saturday Night Live (1975) The Muppet Show (1976) Arthur the King (1985) (aka Merlin & the Sword) .... Morgan le Fay Murder: By Reason of Insanity (1985) Hollywood Wives (1985) (miniseries) Mayflower Madam (1987) Trying Times (1 episode, 1987) Murphy Brown (247 episodes, 1988–1998) (also executive producer) Seinfeld (1 episode, 1992)

Candice Bergen • • • • • • • • • • • • Understanding Sex (1994) .... Narrator Understanding (2 episodes, 1995) .... Narrator Mary & Tim (1996) (also co-executive producer) Ink (1 episode, 1997) Family Guy (2 episodes, 2000) as Gloria Ironbox Footsteps (2003) Sex and the City (3 episodes, 2004) as Vogue editor Enid Frick Law & Order (1 episode, 2004) .... Judge Amanda Anderlee Will & Grace (2004) as herself Law & Order: Trial by Jury (3 episodes, 2005) .... Judge Amanda Anderlee Boston Legal (78 episodes, cast member from 2005–2008) House (3 episodes, 2011)

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References
[1] Candice Bergen Biography (1946–) (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 22/ Candice-Bergen. html) [2] "So when I was born, it was only natural that I was known in the press not as Candice Bergen, but as "Charlie's sister."" (Bergen, "My Dad, Charlie and Me' in Jack Canfield, et al., A Second Chicken Soup for the Woman's Soul 1998:36 [3] "Bergen & McCarthy 55-12-25 Christmas (Guest Candice Bergen)", listed on Golden Age OTR's playlist on Live365.com [4] Peter Waymark. "Richard Burton top draw in British cinemas." Times [London, England] 30 Dec. 1971: 2. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 11 July 2012. [5] BAFTA (1983). "BAFTA Awards Database (Supporting Actress 1982)" (http:/ / www. bafta. org/ awards-database. html?year=1982& category=Film& award=Supporting+ Actress). British Academy of Film and Television Arts. . Retrieved 1 September 2012. [6] "Then & Now: Dan Quayle" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2005/ US/ 08/ 08/ cnn25. tan. quayle/ index. html). CNN. 2005-08-08. . [7] "Candice Bergen agrees with Quayle" (http:/ / archives. cnn. com/ 2002/ SHOWBIZ/ News/ 07/ 11/ showbuzz/ index. html). CNN. 2002-07-11. . [8] Portantiere, Michael (2011). "Back into the light". The Sondheim Review (Sondheim Review, Inc.) XVII (3): 44. ISSN 1076-450X. [9] McGovern, George S., Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern, New York: Random House, 1977, pp. 173, 247 [10] "Obituary Terry Melcher" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ obituaries/ 1477227/ Terry-Melcher. html). telegraph.co.uk. 2004-11-23. . Retrieved 30 November 2012. [11] "Doris Day's son, musician, writer, record producer" (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=rLgyAAAAIBAJ& sjid=EHEDAAAAIBAJ& pg=6710,3106227& dq=candice+ bergen+ terry+ melcher& hl=en). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: pp. A–15. 2004-11-23. . Retrieved 30 November 2012.

External links
• • • • Candice Bergen (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm298/) at the Internet Movie Database Candice Bergen (http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?ID=86320) at the Internet Broadway Database Candice Bergen (http://www.allrovi.com/name/p5591) at AllRovi Candice Bergen (http://www.wowowow.com/users/candice) at wowOwow (http://www.wowowow.com/)

Tim Considine

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Tim Considine
Tim Considine

Considine and Meredith MacRae in My Three Sons, 1965. Born Timothy Daniel Considine December 31, 1940 Los Angeles, California, USA Author, Photographer, Actor 1953–2006 Willette Hunt (1979-present) 1 child Charlotte Stewart (1965-1972) (divorced)

Occupation Years active Spouse(s)

Timothy Daniel "Tim" Considine (born December 31, 1940, in Los Angeles, California) is a former American child actor and young adult actor who was popular in the late 1950s and early 1960s. He later became a writer, photographer, and automotive historian. Considine was born to a show business family; on his mother's side, Carmen, he is of Greek ancestry and grandson of theater magnate Alexander Pantages, while on his father's side, John Considine, Jr., he is of Irish descent and grandson of Pantages' rival vaudeville impresario John Considine. His older brother is actor John Considine. His uncle Bob Considine was a King Features Syndicate columnist.[1] Considine's most famous acting roles were in the 1955–1957 Disney TV serials Spin and Marty (he played Spin) and The Hardy Boys (he played older brother Frank opposite Tommy Kirk as Joe), both of which appeared in 15-minute segments on the Mickey Mouse Club; in the Disney show Swamp Fox as Gabriel Marion, nephew of Francis Marion; in the Disney motion picture The Shaggy Dog; and as the eldest son, "Mike Douglas", in the first years of the long-running television series My Three Sons, when it aired on ABC. In both The Shaggy Dog and My Three Sons, he starred with Fred MacMurray. On December 31, 1959, his 19th birthday and before My Three Sons debuted, Considine appeared as Jamie Frederick in the episode "Bound Boy" on CBS's Johnny Ringo western television series, starring Don Durant in the title role. In the story line, a rancher is investigated for turning orphaned boys into virtual slaves.[2] Considine also had a notable role in the 1970 film, Patton, as one of two shell-shocked soldiers slapped by General George S. Patton, Jr., who believes them to be a coward. As an adult, Considine is an automobile historian, photographer, and writer who specializes in motor sports. He is the author of The Photographic Dictionary of Soccer (1979, ISBN 0-446-87953-3), The Language of Sport (1982, ISBN 0-87196-653-0), and American Grand Prix Racing: A Century of Drivers and Cars (1997, ISBN 0-7603-0210-3). He has also filled in for the late William Safire as writer of the "On Language" column in The New York Times Magazine.

Tim Considine In 2000, Considine and David Stollery, his co-star in the Spin and Marty serials, made cameo appearances in The New Adventures of Spin and Marty: Suspect Behavior, a made-for-TV movie on the ABC network. A DVD version of the Adventures of Spin & Marty was released in December 2005 as part of the fifth wave of the Walt Disney Treasures series. On the 50th anniversary of the serial's premiere, Considine and Stollery are interviewed by Leonard Maltin as a DVD bonus feature about their experiences filming the hit series. On June 19, 2010, he participated in the My Three Sons 50th Anniversary Reunion at the Paley Center for Media in Beverly Hills, California. Most surviving cast members appeared at the event except for Dawn Lyn who is now living in Germany and Don Grady who prior to his death was in Europe for the summer.

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References
[1] "Tim Considine" (http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ considine. html). The Original Mickey Mouse Club Show. . Retrieved 2012-09-12. [2] ""Bound Boy" on [[Johnny Ringo (TV series)|Johnny Ringo (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0616744/ )], December 31, 1959"]. Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved December 7, 2012.

External links
• Official website (http://www.authorsandartists.com/Tim/tim.htm) • Tim Considine (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0175919/) at the Internet Movie Database • Disney Legends profile (http://legends.disney.go.com/legends/detail?key=Tim Considine) • Tim Considine profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/considine.html) • Tim Considine (http://cinchset.com/tim-con.html) acting career prior to Spin and Marty in 1955.

Tommy Kirk

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Tommy Kirk
Tommy Kirk
Born Thomas Lee Kirk December 10, 1941 Louisville, Kentucky Actor

Occupation

Years active 1955–2001

Thomas Lee "Tommy" Kirk (born December 10, 1941) is a former American actor, and later a businessman. He is best known for his performances in a number of highly popular movies made by Disney Studios.

Early career
Kirk was born in Louisville, Kentucky, one of four sons. His father was a mechanic and his mother a legal secretary. Looking for better job opportunities, they moved to Downer, California, when Kirk was fifteen months old.[1] In 1954 Kirk accompanied his elder brother Joe to an audition for a production of Eugene O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness! at the Pasadena Playhouse in Pasadena, California. Joe was not cast, losing out to Bobby Driscoll but Kirk was, and he made his stage debut opposite Will Rogers, Jr.[2] The performance was seen by an agent from the Gertz agency who signed Kirk and succeeded casting him in an episode of TV Reader's Digest, "The Last of the Old Time Shooting Sheriffs". Kirk began to work steadily in television: episodes of The Man Behind the Badge, Frontier ("The Devil and Doctor O'Hara"), Letter to Loretta ("But for God's Grace", "Little League"), Gunsmoke ("Cow Doctor"), Big Town and Matinee Theatre ("The Outing", "The Others"). Kirk also supported Angie Dickinson in a short feature called Down Liberty Road (aka Freedom Highway) (1956),[3] a short commercial travelogue produced by Greyhound Lines to promote their Scenicruiser buses. Of these experiences, Kirk especially liked working on Matinee Theatre: I did thirty-seven of those in the next five years. I think I did more than any other actor. That was a fantastic training ground. They were hour-long shows, telecast live from coast to coast. I worked with some fascinating people—Sarah Churchill and others—and I started getting known.[4]

Disney
In April 1956, Kirk auditioned for the part of Joe Hardy for The Mickey Mouse Club serial "The Hardy Boys: The Mystery of the Applegate Treasure". He was successful and was selected to co-star with Tim Considine. The show was filmed in June and early July 1956, and broadcast that October, at the start of the show's second season.[5] The show and Kirk's performance were extremely well received and led to a long association between the actor and the studio. In August Disney hired Kirk and former Mouseketeer Judy Harriet to attend both the Republican and Democratic presidential nominating conventions, for newsreel specials that later appeared on the show.[6] Kirk also hosted short travelogues for the serial segment of the show's second season. He did the voice-over narration for "The Eagle Hunters", and then co-hosted two more travelogues with Annette Funicello. Tommy also did voice-dubbing work for the Danish-made film Vesterhavsdrenge, shown on the Mickey Mouse Club as the serial "Boys of the Western Sea." Around this time it was announced Kirk would appear as Young Davy Crockett, but this does not seem to have eventuated.[7]

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Film Stardom
Kirk's career received its biggest break yet when in January 1957 Disney cast him as Travis Coates in Old Yeller (1957), an adventure story about a boy and his heroic dog.[8] Kirk had the lead role in the film, which was enormously successful, and he became Disney's first choice whenever they needed someone to play an all-American teenager. Kevin Corcoran played his younger brother and the two of them would often be teamed. Both Kirk and Corcoran were announced for the cast of Rainbow Road to Oz, a feature film based on the stories of L. Frank Baum, but this film never resulted.[9] Kirk appeared in another Hardy brothers installment, the original story The Mystery of Ghost Farm (September 13 - December 20, 1957). He then starred in The Shaggy Dog (1959), a comedy about a boy inventor, Wilby Daniels, who is repeatedly transformed into an Old English Sheepdog under the influence of a magic ring. This teamed him with Corcoran and two other Disney stars with whom he would regularly work, Fred MacMurray and Annette Funicello, and was even more popular than Old Yeller. Kirk went over to Universal-International to do some voice work for the animated film, The Snow Queen (1959), originally in Russian but adapted for US release. Kirk says at this stage Disney told him they did not have any projects for him and he was being dropped. "I was thin and gangly and looked a mess... I thought the whole world had fallen to pieces," he said.[10] However, the studio soon contacted him offering him another long-term contract and a role as middle son Ernst Robinson in another adventure film, Swiss Family Robinson (1960). This was another box office hit, and it remains Kirk's favourite movie.[11] He followed up with three highly successful comedies where he supported Fred MacMurray: The Absent-Minded Professor (1961), Bon Voyage (1962), and Son of Flubber (1963). MacMurray once reportedly gave Kirk "the biggest dressing-down of my life" during the filming of Bon Voyage!, one that Kirk says he deserved.[12] Kirk: I really liked him very much but the feeling wasn't mutual. That hurt me a lot and for a long time I hated him. It's hard not to hate somebody who doesn't like you. I was sort of looking for a father figure and I pushed him too hard. He resented it and I guess I was pretty repellent to him, so we didn't get along. We had a couple of blow ups on set... He was a nice person, but I was just too demanding. I came on too strong because I desperately wanted to be his friend.[13] But Kirk maintained good relationships with other actors he worked with. "Tommy played my brother in a lot of films and put up with a lot of things that I did to him over the years," Corcoran says in a commentary on the DVD release of Old Yeller. "He must be a great person not to hate me." Tim Considine calls Kirk "a monster talent."[12] Kirk also played Grumio in the fairy tale fantasy Babes in Toyland which he later described as "sort of a klunker... but it has a few cute moments, it's an oddity", and enjoyed working with Ed Wynn.[14] He had a small role in Moon Pilot (1962) and teamed with Funicello for two stories shot overseas which screened in the US on TV but were released in some countries theatrically: The Horsemasters (1961) and Escapade in Florence (1962). Newspaper columns occasionally linked Kirk and Funicello's names romantically.[15] Kirk always spoke highly of her: A perfect lady, perfect manners, very careful about her career, a very cool-headed businesswoman, friendly. We've always been friendly, but never been friends... But nobody can fault her, she's always friendly and gracious to everybody. People say bad things about everybody in this business, but I don't know anybody who ever said anything bad about her.[13] Kirk was given the lead in Savage Sam (1963), a follow up to Old Yeller which did not do as well at the box office. However, when he played "scrambled egghead" student inventor Merlin Jones in The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964), it resulted in one of the biggest hits of the year.

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Leaving Disney
Kirk said he knew he was homosexual from an early age: I consider my teenage years as being desperately unhappy. I knew I was gay, but I had no outlet for my feelings. It was very hard to meet people and, at that time, there was no place to go to socialize. It wasn't until the early '60s that I began to hear of places where gays congregated. The lifestyle was not recognized and I was very, very lonely. Oh, I had some brief, very passionate encounters and as a teenager I had some affairs, but they were always stolen, back alley kind of things. They were desperate and miserable. When I was about 17 or 18 years old, I finally admitted to myself that I wasn't going to change. I didn't know what the consequences would be, but I had the definite feeling that it was going to wreck my Disney career and maybe my whole acting career. It was all going to come to an end.[16] While filming The Misadventures of Merlin Jones, Kirk started seeing a teenage boy he had met at a local pool. The boy's mother discovered the affair and informed Disney, who elected not to renew Kirk's contract.[17] Walt Disney himself fired Kirk after receiving a complaint from the boy's mother.[18] Kirk describes the situation himself: "Even more than MGM, Disney was the most conservative studio in town.... The studio executives were beginning to suspect my homosexuality. Certain people were growing less and less friendly. In 1963, Disney let me go. But Walt asked me to return for the final Merlin Jones movie, The Monkey's Uncle, because the Jones films had been moneymakers for the studio." [19] The news was not made public and Kirk soon found a home for himself at AIP who were looking for a leading man to co-star with Funicello in a musical they were preparing, The Maid and the Martian; Kirk was cast as a martian who arrives on Earth and falls in with a bunch of partying teenagers. The movie was later retitled Pajama Party and was a hit, so AIP signed him to star in a follow up How to Stuff a Wild Bikini. In the meantime The Misadventures of Merlin Jones had become an unexpected smash hit, earning $4 million in rentals in North America and Disney invited him back to make a sequel The Monkey's Uncle (1965). He was also cast in a John Wayne film The Sons of Katie Elder and it seemed his career was in good shape.

Decline
On Christmas Eve 1964 Kirk was arrested for possession of marijuana.[20] Although the charges were later dropped[21] Kirk was replaced on Wild Bikini by Dwayne Hickman and on Katie Elder by Michael Anderson Jnr. "This town is full of right-wingers—the world is full of right-wingers—intolerant, cruel sons-of-bitches," said Kirk later.[4] But he later admitted that he "richly deserve to be fired from the studios because of my irresponsibility. A person on drugs is not fit for work.".[11] However for the moment Kirk could still get work. He appeared in Village of the Giants which he later described as "kind of a crazy movie, but the production values are pretty good and it sort of holds together. I could have done without the dancing ducks, though.".[16] In late 1965 it was announced Kirk had signed a four-picture contract with Executive Pictures Corp, but only one movie resulted, the beach movie/crime comedy Catalina Caper (1967).[22] Along with Village of the Giants this was eventually lampooned on Mystery Science Theater 3000. The Monkey's Uncle came out and was almost as successful as Merlin Jones. AIP cast him in The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966) with Deborah Walley, with whom he was then reteamed on It's a Bikini World. Also for AIP he appeared in a TV special The Wild Weird World of Dr. Goldfoot. The release of Bikini World and Catalina Caper was held up for a number of months and Kirk's career was losing momentum. Kirk: After I was fired from Disney, I did some of the worst movies ever made and I got involved with a manager who said it didn’t matter what you did as long as you kept working. He put me in every piece

Tommy Kirk of shit than anybody offered. I did a series of terrible things, but it was only to get the money.[16] Kirk did not criticise the AIP films which he described as "cute, lightweight screwball comedies, but their production values are high. I'm not ashamed of those, but I did some other movies that you wouldn't believe. My manager said just take it, whatever it is, just take it, or they'll forget you."[16] Among those were two films he made for Texan director Larry Buchanan: Mars Needs Women, where he costarred with "Batgirl" Yvonne Craig, and It's Alive!. Kirk: What I was doing in those pictures, I don't know. The only thing I can say is that I had a drug problem then, and I didn't know what I was doing, or what I was getting into. I was an idiot. Buchanan's like a cinematic serial killer, and he's got to be stopped before he kills again... But I'd also like to add that personally, Larry Buchanan was one of the nicest, most gracious men I ever work for. He paid me well, he was generous, and he was decent."[23] Kirk's acting career tapered off during the 1960s, hampered by the transition to adulthood, drug use, and "personal problems."[12] I was drinking, taking pills and smoking grass. In fact, I was pretty wild I came into a whole lot of money, but I threw a lot of parties and spent it all. I wound up completely broke. I had no self-discipline and I almost died of a drug overdose a couple of times. It's a miracle that I'm still around. All of that didn't help the situation. Nobody would touch me; I was considered box office poison.[16] Kirk says by the time of Track of Thunder he was so into drugs "I was about half awake in that film. I just sort of walked through it and took the money."[13] Kirk says he reached bottom in 1970 when he did two movies that were non-SAG, Ride the Hot Wind and Blood of Ghastly Horror, causing Kirk to almost lose his SAG card. "Finally, I said, to hell with the whole thing, to hell with show business, I"m gonna make a new life for myself, and I got off drugs, completely kicked all that stuff."[11]

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Retirement
Kirk got over his drug addiction and went into the carpet-cleaning business in the San Fernando Valley north of Los Angeles which he ran for 20 years. He continued to act occasionally, however, including in the R-rated spoof, Attack of the 60 Foot Centerfold. As of 2006, Kirk had more than thirty feature film roles to his credit. He also enjoyed writing. I don't blame anybody but myself and my drug abuse for my career going haywire. I'm not ashamed of being gay, never have been, and never will be. For that I make no apologies. I have no animosity toward anybody because the truth is, I wrecked my own career.[13]

Disney legend
Tommy Kirk was inducted as a Disney Legend on October 9, 2006, alongside his old co-stars Tim Considine and Kevin Corcoran. His other repeat co-stars, Annette Funicello and Fred MacMurray, had already been inducted (in 1992 and 1987, respectively). Also in 2006, the first of Kirk's Hardy Boys serials was issued on DVD in the fifth "wave" of the Walt Disney Treasures series.[24]

Filmography
Features • The Peacemaker (1956) • The Snow Queen (1957) (voice in 1959 English dubbed version) • Old Yeller (1957) • The Shaggy Dog (1959)

Tommy Kirk • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Swiss Family Robinson (1960) The Absent-Minded Professor (1961) Babes in Toyland (1961) The Horsemasters (1961) (TV) Moon Pilot (1962) Escapade in Florence (1962) (TV) Bon Voyage! (1962) Son of Flubber (1963) Savage Sam (1963) The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964) Pajama Party (1964) The Monkey's Uncle (1965) Village of the Giants (1965) Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965) The Unkissed Bride (1966) The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966) Mars Needs Women (1967) It's a Bikini World (1967) Track of Thunder (1967) Catalina Caper (1967) It's Alive! (1969) Ride the Hot Wind (1971) (aka My Name is Legend) Blood of Ghastly Horror (1972) Streets of Death (1987) Attack of the 60 Foot Centerfold (1995) Little Miss Magic (1997) Billy Frankenstein (1998) Club Dead (2000) The Education of a Vampire (2001)

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Short Subjects • Down Liberty Road (1956)

TV Credits
• • • • • • • • • • • TV Reader's Digest - "The Last of the Old Time Shooting Sheriffs" - 17 January 1955 Frontier - "The Devil and Doctor O'Hara" - 5 February 1956 Letter to Loretta - "But for God's Grace" - 1 April 1956 Big Town - "Adult Delinquents" - 8 May 1956 Crossroads - "The Rabbi Davis Story" - 8 June 1956 Gunsmoke - "Cow Doctor" - 8 September 1956 Letter to Loretta - "Little League" - 16 September 1956 The Mickey Mouse Club - "The Hardy Boys: The Mystery of the Applegate Treasure" - 2–26 October 1956 Matinee Theatre - "The Outing" - 2 November 1956 The Mickey Mouse Club - "The Eagle Hunters" - voice over narration The Mickey Mouse Club - "Boys of the Western Sea" - voice over

• Matinee Theatre - "The Others" (based on The Turn of the Screw) - 15 February 1957 • The Mickey Mouse Club' - "The Mystery of Ghost Farm" - 13 Sept- 20 Dec 1957 • The Californians - "Little Lost Man" - 3 December 1957

Tommy Kirk • • • • • • • • Matinee Theatre - "Look Out for John Tucker" - 4 June 1958 Playhouse 90 - "A Corner of the Garden" - 23 April 1959 The Millionaire - "Millionaire Charles Bradwell" - 10 June 1959 Bachelor Father - "A Key for Kelly" - 19 November 1959 Angel - "Goodbye Young Lovers" - 17 May 1961 Mr. Novak - "Love in the Wrong Season" - 3 December 1963 Shindig! - "The Wild Weird World of Dr. Goldfoot - 18 November 1965 The Streets of San Francisco - "Deadline" - 15 February 1973

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References
Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Freida Zylstra, 'Actor Tommy Kirk Tries His Hand in Kitchen', Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 18 Jan 1963: b7. 'Will Rogers, Jr. Makes Auspicious Stage Debut', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 21 Aug 1954: 13. http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ freedom_highway_ipod Jones interview "TV - 1955 / 57 Disney Serials" (http:/ / www. hardy-boys. com/ disney. shtml). Hardy-Boys.com. . Retrieved 2006-12-21. Southland Girl, 13, Boy, 14, Cover Parley for Newsreel, A Times Staff Representative. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 17 Aug 1956: C2.

[7] Hedda Hopper, 'Looking at Hollywood: Top Role in War Film Goes to Paul Newman', Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 23 Aug 1956: c2. [8] Hedda Hopper, 'Solid Acting Found on 'Old Yeller' Set', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 23 Apr 1957: C6. [9] 'Movie Producers Crashing Broadway', The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954-1959) [Washington, D.C] 03 Sep 1957: B8. [10] Bob Thomas, "Tommy Grows Up", Toledo Blade, 29 June 1962 (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=jAwwAAAAIBAJ& sjid=NAEEAAAAIBAJ& pg=7436,6210675& dq=tommy-kirk& hl=en) accessed 2 August 2012 [11] Minton p 69 [12] "Tommy Kirk (Television & Film)" (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=Tommy+ Kirk). Disney Legends. The Walt Disney Company. October 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-21. [13] Minton p 71 [14] Minton p70 [15] 'Soraya Is Denying Marriage Plans', The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973) [Washington, D.C] 06 Nov 1963: D14. [16] Minton p 68 [17] http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ tomkirk. html [18] "Tommy Kirk" (http:/ / www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ participant. jsp?spid=102791). tcm.com. . Retrieved November 12, 2010. [19] "Imdb bio" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0456565/ bio). . [20] http:/ / www. hunkvideoonline. com/ library/ kirk/ index. html [21] 'Tommy Kirk Cleared of Drug Charge', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 05 Jan 1965: b6. [22] Betty Martin, 'Franciosa Set for 'Swinger' ', Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 18 Dec 1965: a12. [23] Minton p 70 [24] "Sir Elton John, Joe Ranft Headline Disney Legends Award" (http:/ / news. awn. com/ index. php?ltype=top& newsitem_no=18127). AWN Headline News (AWN Inc.). 2006-10-09. . Retrieved 2006-10-10.

• Minton, Kevin, "Sex, Lies, and Disney Tape: Walt’s Fallen Star", Filmfax Issue 38, April 1993 p 67-71. • Jones, Marvin, "Interview with Tommy Kirk" - from 1973 but later published in Quorum Magazine and reprinted at Campfire Video http://www.hunkvideo.com/library/kirk/kirk.html in 2000 (link now dead)

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External links
• Tommy Kirk (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0456565/) at the Internet Movie Database • Salon interview with the author of Tinker Belles and Evil Queens: The Walt Disney Company From the Inside Out (http://www.salon.com/books/int/2000/01/27/fabulous/index.html) — mentions Kirk • Disney Legends profile (http://legends.disney.go.com/legends/detail?key=Tommy Kirk)

Roberta Shore
Roberta Jymme Schourop (born April 7, 1943, Monterey Park, California), better known as Roberta Shore, is an American actress and performer, most famous for her youthful television and movie roles in the 1950s and early 1960s. Though never a Mouseketeer, Shore co-starred in several Walt Disney productions featuring the Mouseketeers, and thus came to be associated with them. She appeared as Annette Funicello's rival Laura Rogan in Annette's self-titled series, and as French-speaking Franceska in The Shaggy Dog. Aside from Disney, Shore had a featured role in the 1959 screen version of Blue Denim, duetting with Warren Berlinger, and an uncredited cameo appearance in A Summer Place, as Sandra Dee's gossipy schoolmate Anne Talbert. Later she played Ricky Summers in the 1960 movie Because They're Young, and had another uncredited role, as Lorna in Stanley Kubrick's 1962 version of Lolita.

Shore with Bob Cummings on The New Bob Cummings Show, 1961.

Shore's television credits include appearances on Playhouse 90, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The Donna Reed Show, The Lawrence Welk Show (a singing appearance in 1959),[1] several Western series including Maverick, Wagon Train, and Laramie, and regular roles on Father Knows Best (as Joyce, Bud Andersons girl friend), The New Bob Cummings Show and The Virginian. Shore was featured very prominently as a series regular within the first three seasons of The Virginian as Betsy Garth, the daughter of Shiloh Ranch owner Judge Garth played by Lee J. Cobb. Though no longer a regular in the fourth season, she returned in the fourth episode of that season (#95 "The Awakening") in a story in which Betsy meets and falls for a gentleman played by Glenn Corbett. A disillusioned former minister, Corbett's character finds his way back to his belief in God and by story's end finally proposes to Betsy. The episode ends with the couple being wed at Shiloh Ranch by Judge Garth himself before the newlyweds ride off to Pennsylvania where Corbett's character is to become the minister of a church. After the mid-1960s, Shore did little in the way of movies or television. She emerged in 1984 as a radio disc jockey and program host in Salt Lake City, Utah. Active in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[2] Shore and then-husband Ron Frederickson auditioned for the parts of Ishmael and his wife Leah in a 2004 movie adaptation of the Book of Mormon. While her husband won the role of Ishmael, the producers felt Shore's earlier fame would detract from the movie's message, and chose actress Sheryl Lee Wilson to play Leah.

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References
[1] http:/ / www. welknotes. com/ Guest-Champagne-Ladies. htm [2] Biographies: Latter-day Saint and/or Utah Film Personalities: S (http:/ / www. ldsfilm. com/ bio/ bioS2. html)

External links
• Roberta Shore (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0794956/) at the Internet Movie Database • Roberta Shore profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/roberta.html)

David Stollery
David John Stollery, III (born January 18, 1941, in Los Angeles, California), is a former American child actor and, as an adult, a noted industrial designer. He appeared in numerous Disney movies and television programs in the 1950s. He is best known for his teenage role as the loner "Marty" in the television serials Spin and Marty on the Mickey Mouse Club in the mid-1950s. At the age of seven, he was named "Child Actor of the Year" for his role in the Broadway production On Borrowed Time. He then appeared in several films, including A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court in 1949 and Where Danger Lives in 1950. In the early 1950s, Stollery appeared in various television programs, including I Love Lucy, Dragnet, My Friend Irma, The Red Skelton Show, and The Ray Milland Show. It was on the latter program, in the role of "The Prodigy", that Walt Disney took notice of his acting and had the 14-year old signed to a Disney Studio contract for the lead character of "Marty Markham" in the Spin and Marty serials televised on the Mickey Mouse Club between 1955 and 1957.[1] In 2000, Stollery and Tim Considine, his co-star in the Spin and Marty serials, made cameo appearances in The New Adventures of Spin and Marty: Suspect Behavior, a made-for-TV movie on the ABC network. A DVD version of the Adventures of Spin & Marty was released in December 2005 as part of the fifth wave of the Walt Disney Treasures series. On the 50th anniversary of the serial's premiere, Stollery and Considine (who are nineteen days apart in age) are interviewed by Leonard Maltin as a DVD bonus feature about their experiences filming the hit series. After his teenage years, Stollery decided not to continue acting as a fulltime career. He studied design at the Art Center College of Design, then became an automobile designer with General Motors and later Toyota. At Toyota, he designed the second generation A40 Series Toyota Celica in 1978.[1]

Filmography
• • • • • • • • • • • Walt Disney Treasures: The Adventures of Spin & Marty (2005) DVD - interview with Leonard Maltin The New Adventures of Spin and Marty: Suspect Behavior (2000) - Original Marty Ten Who Dared (1960) - Andrew 'Andy' Hall Walt Disney Presents: Annette (1958) TV Series - Mike Martin Drango (1957) - Jeb Bryant The Gale Storm Show - Jonathan (1 episode, 1957) The New Adventures of Spin and Marty (1957) TV Series - (Martin) Marty (Markham) Westward Ho, the Wagons! (1956) - Dan Thompson The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty (1956) TV Series - Marty Markham Storm Fear (1955) - David Hallmark Hall of Fame - Tommy (1 episode, 1955)

• The Adventures of Spin and Marty (1955) TV Series - (Martin) Marty Markham • Her Twelve Men (1954) - Jeff Carlin • Dragnet - Donald Rush (1 episode, 1952)

David Stollery • • • • • • • • • No Pets Allowed (1952) Jack and the Beanstalk (1952) - Donald I Love Lucy - Timmy Hudson (1 episode, 1952) Darling, How Could You! (1951) - Cosmo (Charles) Grey Tales of Robin Hood (1951) - Robin as a Boy Stop That Cab (1951) (uncredited) - Charles Thomas Where Danger Lives (1950) (uncredited) - Dickie, boy patient Peggy (1950) (uncredited) - Little Boy in Library A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1949, uncredited) - Billy

95

References
[1] "Walt Disney Legends" (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=David+ Stollery). . Retrieved 2007-11-16.

External links
• David Stollery (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0831564/) at the Internet Movie Database • David Stollery profile (http://www.originalmmc.com/stollery.html) • David Stollery (http://cinchset.com/djs.html) acting career prior to Spin and Marty in 1955.

Judy Nugent

96

Judy Nugent
Judy Nugent
Born Judy Ann Nugent August 22, 1940 Los Angeles, California, USA

Years active 1947-1978 Spouse(s) Buck Taylor (1961-1983) 3 children

Judy Ann Nugent (born August 22, 1940) is an American actress.

Biography
Early life
Nugent was born in Los Angeles, California, daughter of Lucille and Carl Nugent.[1] Her father was a property master for MGM, her mother later became a talent agent, managing Judy's career and that of her older sister, Carol Nugent.

Career
Judy was a child actor, first appearing on screen at age six in It Had to Be You (1947), where she and her sister Carol portrayed the same character at different ages. A few bit parts in forgettable films was followed by her landing a regular role in television's first family sitcom, The Ruggles (1949–52). Her film career then took off with supporting parts in several mid-fifties dramas, including Magnificent Obsession (1954) and There's Always Tomorrow (1956). One of her best-remembered roles was as Jet Maypen for the Walt Disney Presents: Annette serial on The Mickey Mouse Club. As she reached adulthood, her parts were mainly guest appearances on television shows. She gave up acting after getting married in 1961, but did cameos for two independent film productions during the seventies.

Personal life
Judy married actor Buck Taylor in 1961. They divorced in 1983. The Taylors had a daughter Tiffany and three sons, Adam Carlyle Taylor (1966–1994), Matthew Taylor (born 1970), and Cooper Taylor (born 1975). The three sons were involved with acting, directing, or stunt work for motion pictures and television. The Taylors moved to Montana during the latter 1970s. There Adam was killed in a road accident in Madison County three days before his 28th birthday. Adam was married to actress Anne Lockhart, daughter of June Lockhart.

Filmography
• • • • • • • • • • It Had to Be You (1947) ... as Victoria at age 5 The Big Clock (1948) ... as Little Girl (uncredited) City Across the River (1949) ... as Little Girl (uncredited) Here Comes the Groom (1951) ... as McGonigle Girl (uncredited) Angels in the Outfield (1951) ... as Margaret (uncredited) Night Stage to Galveston (1952) ... as Daughter The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) ... as Little Girl (uncredited) Down Laredo Way (1953) ... as Taffy Wells Ma and Pa Kettle at Home (1954) ... as Betty Kettle Magnificent Obsession (1954) ... as Judy

Judy Nugent • • • • • • There's Always Tomorrow (1956) ... as Frances 'Frankie' Groves Navy Wife (1956) ... as Debby Blain The Girl Most Likely (1956) ... as Pauline High School Caesar (1960) ... as Wanda Anderson Summer Run (1974) ... as Debbie Beartooth (1978) ... as Judy Green

97

Television Credits
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Ruggles: series regular (1949–1952) ....as Donna Ruggles The Lone Ranger: "Triple Cross" (1953) ....as Susie Rich Annie Oakley: "Valley of the Shadows" (1954) ....as Donna Bishop Adventures of Superman: "Around the World" (1954) ....as Ann Carson The Ford Television Theatre: "Remember to Live" (1954) ....as Kathy Johnson The Life of Riley: "Riley's Wild Oats" (1954) ....as Janet The Man Behind the Badge: "The Case of the Deadly Delicacy" (1955) ....as Donna Lassie: 2 episodes (1955–56) ....as Spike Celebrity Playhouse: "The Twelve Year Secret" (1956) ....as Actress Matinee Theatre: "Greybeards and Witches" (1956) ....as Emma The Mickey Mouse Club: "Annette" (1957) ....as Jet Maypen Playhouse 90: "The Gentleman from Seventh Avenue" (1958) ....as Jenny The Thin Man: "The Delinquent" (1958) ....as Jinx The Ann Sothern Show: "The Road to Health" (1959) ....as Gloria Sugarfoot: "Wolf" (1959) ....as Charonne 77 Sunset Strip: "Vacation with Pay" (1959) ....as Bobbie Anderson Rawhide: "Incident of the Night Horse" (1960) ....as Willie The Tall Man: recurring role (1960–62) ....as June McBean The Brothers Brannagan: "Mantrap" (1961) ....as Girl Saints and Sinners: "Luscious Lois" (1962) ....as Phoebe Hawley

References
[1] The Country Girl. (http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ nugent. html) originalmmc.com 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.

External links
• Judy Nugent (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0637803/) at the Internet Movie Database

Kevin Corcoran

98

Kevin Corcoran
Kevin Corcoran
Born Kevin Anthony Corcoran June 10, 1949 Santa Monica, California

Other names "Moochie"

Kevin Anthony "Moochie" Corcoran (born June 10, 1949) is an American director, producer, and former child actor. He appeared in numerous Disney projects between 1957 and 1963, frequently as an irrepressible character with the nickname Moochie. One of eight children, most of whom did some acting in the late 1950s to early 1960s, Corcoran is the sibling whose work is best remembered. His father, William "Bill" Corcoran, Sr. (1905–1958), was a police officer and then director of maintenance at MGM Studios. Corcoran's mother, the former Kathleen McKenney (1917–1972), was, like her husband, a native of Quincy, Massachusetts.

Moochie
Between 1956 and 1960, Corcoran played several different (but similar) characters, each bearing the nickname Moochie. Although he was never a Mouseketeer, Corcoran appeared in three Mickey Mouse Club serials, beginning with Adventure in Dairyland, where he played Moochie McCandless, a farmer's son.[1] This was the first of Corcoran's many Disney credits. He soon returned, as Montgomery (Moochie) O'Hara, in two Spin and Marty serials, The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty and The New Adventures of Spin and Marty.[1] Corcoran appeared in a Mouseketeer outfit with the name Moochie across his chest - once. In Disneyland: The Fourth Anniversary Show (1957), "Mouseketeer" Moochie repeatedly badgers Walt Disney for information about Zorro.[1] Also on the fourth anniversary show, aired on September 11, 1957, segments were shown of Rainbow Road to Oz, a live-action film about characters in the Land of Oz. Inspired by L. Frank Baum's Oz books, the film was to star some of the Mouseketeers, including Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy and Annette Funicello as Ozma, as well as Tommy Kirk and Corcoran.[2] Continuing his fictional Moochie roles, Corcoran played Montgomery "Moochie" Daniels in the 1959 Disney film The Shaggy Dog. He also starred as Moochie Morgan in Moochie of the Little League (1959) and Moochie of Pop Warner Football (1960), both for the Disney anthology series. Character actor Russ Conway played his father.[1] In each iteration, Moochie likes to hang out with the older "guys" (big brother Wilby in The Shaggy Dog, the title characters in Spin and Marty), and hates being treated like the little kid he is. His determination to emulate elder peers despite adult warnings (swimming, helping Wilby, even switch-hitting) frequently gets him in trouble, but Moochie's bravado always returns soon afterward. Film writer Donald Liebenson has called Corcoran's character "part All-American boy and part hellion."[3]

Kevin Corcoran

99

Other childhood roles
Corcoran appeared in numerous Disney projects (and a handful of non-Disney ones) without the Moochie name. He starred as Toby, an orphan who runs off to join the circus, in Toby Tyler, or Ten Weeks with a Circus (1960). This was the only theatrical film in which Corcoran had the lead role. Important co-starring roles include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Old Yeller (1957) - younger son Arliss Coates Goliath II (1960) - Goliath II Pollyanna (1960) - Pollyanna's friend, orphan Jimmy Bean Swiss Family Robinson (1960) - youngest son Francis Robinson Daniel Boone (1960 Disney miniseries) - son James Boone Toby Tyler (1960) - Toby Tyler Babes in Toyland (1961) - nursery rhyme character Boy Blue Bon Voyage! (1962) - younger son Skipper Willard The Mooncussers (1962 Disney TV) - Jonathan Feather Johnny Shiloh (1963 Disney TV) - Union Army drummer Johnny Lincoln Clem Savage Sam (1963) - Arliss Coates again A Tiger Walks (1964) - Tom Hadley

Kevin Corcoran and Tommy Kirk played brothers in five films, beginning with 1957's Old Yeller. The other films in this category were The Shaggy Dog (1959), Swiss Family Robinson (1960), Bon Voyage! (1962) and Savage Sam (sequel to Old Yeller, 1963). Fred MacMurray played their father in The Shaggy Dog and Bon Voyage! Dorothy McGuire played their mother in Old Yeller and Swiss Family Robinson. Corcoran largely retired from acting after A Tiger Walks, although he also appeared in the 1968 film Blue in a minor role. It was probably around the time of the latter film that he attended college. In an interview for the DVD release of The Shaggy Dog, he credits his studio teachers with having prepared him well for his college studies.

Adult career
Corcoran graduated from California State University, Northridge with a degree in theatre arts. After this he returned to Disney, this time working behind the camera as an assistant director and producer. His credits from this era include Superdad (1973), The Island at the Top of the World (1974) and Pete's Dragon (1977). Appropriately, he also worked on The New Mickey Mouse Club (1977). He was an associate producer on Treasure of Matecumbe (1976), on the sequel Return from Witch Mountain (1978) and on The North Avenue Irregulars (1979). He co-produced Herbie Goes Bananas (1980), and was the producer of the comedy television series Zorro and Son (1983). Corcoran's more recent contributions to Disney include commentaries and interviews on such Disney DVD releases as The Shaggy Dog and Pollyanna. He has also served as first assistant director on several non-Disney television series, including Scarecrow and Mrs. King, Quantum Leap, Profiler and Karen Sisco; and produced a number of projects. Over the course of his tenure on the Angela Lansbury series Murder She Wrote, he was credited as first assistant director, assistant producer, and director.

Kevin Corcoran

100

Family
Kevin Corcoran is the brother of Donna Corcoran, Noreen Corcoran, Hugh Corcoran, Brian Corcoran, Kerry Corcoran, and Kelly Corcoran (1958–2002). Elder siblings Donna, Noreen, and Hugh Corcoran have extensive film and television credits as child actors during the 1950s. Donna, Noreen, and Kevin all appeared in the 1955 film Violent Saturday. Noreen Corcoran starred as Kelly Gregg on the television series Bachelor Father from 1957-1962. During its five-year run, Bachelor Father was seen on all three national networks. Brian Corcoran played Kevin's brother, and Kerry, his sister, in the 1960 Daniel Boone miniseries on Walt Disney Presents, then on ABC. Brian also was Willie Winkie to Kevin Corcoran's Boy Blue in the 1961 film Babes in Toyland. Donna Corcoran played Moochie's sister Marian in Moochie of the Little League (1960). She also played Bridget White, ("...eight years old") as the little orphan who saw the "Angels in the Outfield" in the original 1951 version with Paul Douglas and Janet Leigh. Younger brother Kelly Corcoran (1958–2002) portrayed 8-year-old Kip Pride in the NBC western series The Road West (1966–1967), starring Barry Sullivan. Kevin Corcoran and his wife have been married since 1972.

Disney Legend
Kevin Corcoran was honored as a Disney Legend on October 9, 2006. Among the other recipients at the 2006 ceremony were the two lead actors in Corcoran's Spin and Marty serials, Tim Considine and David Stollery, and Corcoran's frequent co-star, Tommy Kirk, himself a veteran of Mickey Mouse Club serials about the Hardy Boys.[4]

References
[1] Cotter, Bill (1997). The Wonderful World of Disney Television. New York: Hyperion Books. pp. 112, 137, 157, 166, 188–189, 189–190, 191–192. ISBN 0-7868-6359-5. [2] "Movie Producers Crashing Broadway", The Washington Post and Times-Herald (September 3, 1957), page B-8 [3] "Kevin Corcoran (Television & Film)" (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=Kevin Corcoran). Disney Legends. The Walt Disney Company. 2006. . Retrieved 2007-07-07. [4] "Sir Elton John, Joe Ranft Headline Disney Legends Award" (http:/ / news. awn. com/ index. php?ltype=top& newsitem_no=18127). AWN Headline News. 2006-10-09. . Retrieved 2007-07-07.

The Wonderful World of Disney Television: A Complete History by Bill Cotter. Hyperion, 1997. ISBN 0-7868-6359-5

External links
• • • • Kevin Corcoran (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0002019/) at the Internet Movie Database Allmovie bio (http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/filmography.html?p_id=14947&mod=bio) Disney Legends profile (http://legends.disney.go.com/legends/detail?key=Kevin Corcoran) Profile on The Original Mickey Mouse Club Show website (http://www.originalmmc.com/moochie.html)

J. Pat O'Malley

101

J. Pat O'Malley
J. Pat O'Malley
As "Perkins" in the 1955 hit television serial, Spin and Marty Born 15 March 1904 Burnley, Lancashire, England 27 February 1985 (aged 80) San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, California, USA

Died

Cause of death cardiovascular disease Occupation Years active Spouse(s) Children Singer, composer, songwriter, actor, music director 1929-1985 Fay M. O'Malley (his death, widow) 2 children [1]

James Patrick O'Malley (15 March 1904 – 27 February 1985) born in Burnley, Lancashire, England was an English singer and character actor, who appeared in many American films and television programmes during the 1940s–1970s, using the stage name J. Pat O'Malley. He also appeared on the Broadway stage in Ten Little Indians (1944) and Dial M for Murder.[1] A New York Times drama critic praised O'Malley's performance in Ten Little Indians, calling him "a rara avis, a comedian who does not gauge the success of his efforts by the number of laughs he induces at each performance".[2]

Life and career
O'Malley began his entertainment career in 1925 as a recording artist and then as principal singer with Jack Hylton and his orchestra in the United Kingdom from 1930 to 1933. Known at that time as Pat O'Malley, he recorded over 400 popular songs of the day. O'Malley began a solo recording career in 1935 in parallel with his work with Hylton. At the end of 1935, Hylton and O'Malley went to the U.S. to record with a band composed of American musicians, thus emulating Ray Noble and Al Bowlly. The venture was short-lived but O'Malley remained in the United States. Now known as J. Pat O'Malley (to avoid confusion with another film actor named Pat O'Malley), he had a long and varied acting career including the film Lassie Come Home in 1943 as "Hynes". He appeared later in Walt Disney's Spin and Marty hit television serials as the always-faithful "Perkins" (1955–1957). In 1956, he guest starred in the episode "The Guilty" of the NBC legal drama, Justice, based on case files of the Legal Aid Society of New York. He guest starred twice as Cinnebar Jones on Bill Williams's syndicated series The Adventures of Kit Carson (1951–1955). He also appeared in Rod Cameron's syndicated City Detective in the episode "Found in a Pawnshop". He also appeared in 1960 in another Cameron series, COronado 9. On 6 January 1959, O'Malley played a priest in the episode "The Secret of the Mission" on the syndicated adventure series, Rescue 8. In the story line, the priest is trapped with a would-be thief named Carlos (Rafael Campos) under the roof of a collapsed church.[3] In 1959–1960, O'Malley starred eight times as Judge Caleb Marsh in the ABC western series Black Saddle starring Peter Breck as a gunslinger-turned-lawyer, with Russell Johnson as a peace officer. In 1960, O'Malley guest starred on the short-lived The Tab Hunter Show sitcom on NBC, on ABC's The Law and Mr. Jones legal drama with James Whitmore and Conlan Carter, and on the syndicated crime drama Johnny Midnight starring Edmond O'Brien. He also appeared as a police officer on John Cassavetes's NBC detective series Johnny Staccato. He guest starred on Pat O'Brien's ABC sitcom Harrigan and Son.

J. Pat O'Malley O'Malley made numerous guest appearances on Perry Mason, including the defendant in The Case of the Prudent Prosecutor, and the murderer in The Case of the Roving River. In 1961, he guest starred in ABC's drama Bus Stop, starring Marilyn Maxwell as the owner of a diner in a fictitious small Colorado town. O'Malley appeared in 1962 on CBS's Twilight Zone episode called "The Fugitive" (he made also a very short appearance in the episode Walking Distance). In the 1962–1963 season, he guest starred twice on both Gene Kelly's ABC's Going My Way, about a Roman Catholic priest in New York City, and on the CBS anthology series The Lloyd Bridges Show. O'Malley and Spring Byington starred in an episode of Jack Palance's ABC circus drama, The Greatest Show on Earth, which aired in the 1963—1964 season. In the 1964–1965 season, O'Malley appeared as a handyman on the ABC's sitcom Wendy and Me with costars George Burns, Connie Stevens, Ron Harper and James T. Callahan. He guest starred in 1965 in Christopher Jones's ABC western, The Legend of Jesse James, and in 1966 in Jack Sheldon's CBS's short-lived unconventional sitcom Run, Buddy, Run.[4] O'Malley also appeared occasionally as "Vince" in the 1966 ABC comedy/western series The Rounders, with Ron Hayes, Patrick Wayne and Chill Wills. That same year he also played an old prospector who helps David McCallum in the Man from U.N.C.L.E. episode, "The Nowhere Affair". In 1969, O'Malley portrayed Carol Brady's (Florence Henderson) father in the premiere episode of ABC's The Brady Bunch. That same year, he appeared as cop on the beat in 20th Century Fox's film production of Hello, Dolly! He made several appearances in the television series Maude, as Hermione Baddeley's beau, from 1973-75. He appeared in two episodes on NBC's Emergency! the first in the third season the second in season four.[5] Walt Disney also engaged O'Malley to provide voices for animated films such as the Cockney coster in the "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious" sequence in Mary Poppins (1964), Cyril Proudbottom,Winkie and a policeman in The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad (1949) and the role of Colonel Hathi and the vulture Buzzie in The Jungle Book (1967). His voice can also be heard in Alice in Wonderland (1951), in which he performs all the character voices in the "The Walrus and the Carpenter" segment (besides Alice), including Tweedledum and Tweedledee, the Walrus, the Carpenter, and Mother Oyster. He performed the roles of the Colonel and Jasper in One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) and in the Pirates of the Caribbean attraction in several roles including the original voice of the Pirate Captain dunking the magistrate into the well. In 1979 he made an appearance on Three's Company as Leo. In 1982, O'Malley made what would be his final television appearance ever, in one episode of Taxi. A DVD version of the Adventures of Spin & Marty from the 1955 season was released in 2005 as part of the Walt Disney Treasures series. O'Malley died from cardiovascular disease in San Juan Capistrano in Orange County, California, 27 February 1985, shortly before what would have been his 81st birthday. He was survived by his wife, Fay M. O'Malley (1926–2002)[6] and two children.[1]

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Selected filmography
The following is a list of notable films/episodes that J. Pat O'Malley appeared in or did voices for. This list is incomplete.

J. Pat O'Malley

103

Year 1935 "Police Patrol film" 1943 Lassie Come Home 1943 Thumbs Up

Film Bob Larson Hynes Sam Keats

Role(s)

Notes

1949 The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad 1951 Alice in Wonderland 1961 One Hundred and One Dalmatians 1962 The Fugitive (Twilight Zone) 1966 Hogan's Heroes, How To Cook A German Goose With Radar 1967 The Jungle Book 1967 Hogan's Heroes, D-Day At Stalag 13 1969 Hello, Dolly! 1973 Robin Hood 1976 The Gumball Rally

Cyril Proudbottom, Policeman, and Paper boy (unseen) Tweedledum and Tweedledee, Walrus, Carpenter and Mother Oyster Jasper Badun and Colonel Old Ben US General Tillman Walters Colonel Hathi and Buzzie the Vulture England General at Headquarters Policeman in park Otto the Blacksmith - a dog Barney Donahue

(Voices) (Voices) (Voices)

(Voices)

(Voice)

References
[1] "J. Pat O'Malley" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9D06EEDD1039F931A35750C0A963948260& scp). The New York Times. 1985-03-02. . Retrieved 2008-11-06. [2] Theodore Goldsmith (30 July 1944). "One of the 'Ten Little Indians'" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=FA0D10FC3C59157A93C2AA178CD85F408485F9& scp). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-11-06. [3] "The Secret of the Mission, [[Rescue 8 (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0805364/ )], January 6, 1959"]. Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved 29 January 2013. [4] CTVA Comedy - "Run, Buddy, Run" (Talent Associates/CBS) (fall 1966) starring Jack Sheldon (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. geocities. com/ TelevisionCity/ Stage/ 2950/ US/ Comedy/ RunBuddyRun. htm& date=2009-10-25+ 11:10:38) [5] screen credits, Emergency!, Season three DVD, disk 4 [6] "Social Security Death Index: Fay M. O'Malley" (http:/ / ssdi. rootsweb. ancestry. com/ cgi-bin/ ssdi. cgi). Rootsweb Ancestry. . Retrieved 10 January 2009.

External links
• • • • J. Pat O'Malley (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0641729/) at the Internet Movie Database J. Pat O'Malley (http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?ID=54908) at the Internet Broadway Database J. Pat O'Malley (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=19591) at Find a Grave J. Pat O'Malley (http://www.originalmmc.com/omalley.html) profile

Alvy Moore

104

Alvy Moore
Alvy Moore
Born Jack Alvin Moore December 5, 1921 Vincennes, Indiana, USA May 4, 1997 (aged 75) Palm Desert, California, USA

Died

Years active 1952-1995 Spouse(s) Children Carolyn Moore (m. 1950 – 1997) (his death) 3 children

Jack Alvin "Alvy" Moore (December 5, 1921 – May 4, 1997) was an American light comic actor best known for his role as scatterbrained county agricultural agent Hank Kimball on the television series Green Acres. His character would often make a statement, only to immediately negate the statement himself and then negate the corrected statement until his stream of statements was interrupted by a frustrated Oliver Douglas portrayed by Eddie Albert. One such statement was, "Good morning, Mr. Douglas! Well, it's not a good morning...but it's not a bad morning either!" Born in Vincennes, Indiana, a young Moore moved with his parents to Terre Haute, Indiana. President of the senior class at Wiley High School in 1940-41, he attended Indiana State Teachers College, now Indiana State University, both before and after service with the Marines during World War II. Moore appeared in guest and supporting roles in a number of movies and television shows, including Mickey Mouse Club, where he hosted "What I Want to Be" segments as the Roving Reporter. He had a small role as a member of Marlon Brando's motorcycle gang in the 1953 film, The Wild One. Moore also co-starred with Dick Powell and Debbie Reynolds in the 1954 film Susan Slept Here where he displayed his natural gift for physical comedy. In 1955, Moore co-starred with Brian Keith and Kim Novak in the film, 5 Against the House. He made a brief appearance as a cab driver in the 1964 Perry Mason episode, "The Case of the Wednesday Woman." He also appeared in two episodes, of the TV comedy series The Dick Van Dyke Show, "The Impractical Joke" and "The Case Of The Pillow", in 1965. He was a producer and uncredited script writer for the movie A Boy and His Dog, attending DisCon II, the 1974 World Science Fiction Convention, to help promote it. His last appearance on television was a brief guest shot on the sitcom Frasier. In the 1980s, Moore appeared in many cult horror films, including Scream (1981), Mortuary (1983), They're Playing With Fire (1984), Intruder (1989), and The Horror Show (1989). In his spare time, during the 1960s, Moore also umpired Little League baseball in Lake View Terrace, California. Moore died of heart failure on May 4, 1997, at his home in Palm Desert, California.[1]

Alvy Moore

105

References
[1] Longtime TV star Alvy Moore dies (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ latimes/ access/ 11673077. html?dids=11673077:11673077& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=May+ 07,+ 1997& author=MYRNA+ OLIVER& pub=Los+ Angeles+ Times& desc=Alvy+ Moore,+ 75;+ Co-Starred+ in+ 'Green+ Acres'& pqatl=google), Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved on January 22, 2010.

External links
• • • • • Alvy Moore (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0600886/) at the Internet Movie Database Alvy Moore (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1720) at Find a Grave Interview (http://www.jmdigitalscrapbook.com/SeniorWorld/AlvyMoore.shtml) The Roving Mooseketeer (http://www.originalmmc.com/alvymoore.html) "Mr. Kimball" Tops List of TV Greats in Secondary Role (http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/ 1385457-hank-kimball)

Julius Sumner Miller

106

Julius Sumner Miller
Julius Sumner Miller
Born May 17, 1906 Billerica, Massachusetts April 14, 1987 (aged 80) San Jose, California Physics

Died

Fields

Alma mater Boston University Known for Influences Children's television Albert Einstein

Julius Sumner Miller (May 17, 1909 – April 14, 1987) was an American physicist and television personality. He is best known for his work on children's television programs in North America and Australia.

Off-screen
Julius Sumner Miller was born in Billerica, Massachusetts the youngest of nine children. His father was Latvian, his Lithuanian mother spoke 12 languages.[1][2] Miller graduated with a Philosophy degree and a Master's in Physics from Boston University in 1933 but due to the Depression worked as a butler for a wealthy Boston doctor for the next two years. He married the doctor's maid, Alice Brown; they had no children, but he was to reach millions of children through his popular science programs.[2] After making over 700 job applications, he was offered a place in 1937 in the Physics Department of Dillard University, a private, African American liberal arts college in New Orleans. During World War II he worked as a civilian physicist for the U.S. Army Signal Corps while holding fellowships in physics at the universities of Idaho and Oklahoma and was a Ford Foundation Fellow at UCLA. In 1950 he enrolled in the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, N.J. where he was a student of Albert Einstein. He became a lifelong friend of Einstein and went on to amass a collection of Einstein memorabilia that included Einstein's birth certificate. Miller also taught at Princeton but disliked large institutions, leaving in 1952 to join the Physics Department at the then small El Camino College in Torrance, California (1952–1974), to maximum student enrollments due to his great popularity[2] and where he was instantly recognizable by his casual hair and horn-rimmed spectacles. Miller was intolerant of misspelled words and misplaced punctuation and often angered his colleagues because he charged the students of most faculty were not learning enough. During an interview in the 1940s, he stated that intellectual life in America was in trouble, a belief he held for the rest of his life. "We are approaching a darkness in the land. Boys and girls are emerging from every level of school with certificates and degrees, but they can't read, write or calculate. We don't have academic honesty or intellectual rigor. Schools have abandoned integrity and rigor."[2] From 1963 to 1986 he was the visiting lecturer for the Physics Department of the University of Sydney [3] and from 1965 to 1985 at the US Air Force Academy.

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Television
Miller began hosting his educational program, "Why Is It So?" in 1959 on KNXT Channel 2 in Los Angeles. From 1962 to 1964, Miller was Disney's "Professor Wonderful" on new introductions, filmed at Disneyland, to the syndicated reruns of The Mickey Mouse Club. During the same period, he appeared on a semi-regular basis, performing physics experiments, on Steve Allen's late night TV show in Hollywood, syndicated by Group W. Miller's first television appearance in Australia was on Bob Sanders People in 1963. In an improvised physics demonstration he attempted to drive a straw through a raw potato. A paper straw does not have the strength but if you pinch the end, the trapped air acts as a piston, easily piercing the potato. For the first time in his career he could not get it to work and loudly exclaimed "Australian straws ain't worth a damn". The next morning, Miller arrived at his Sydney University laboratory to find one million drinking straws on the floor with a telegram reading "You might find one of these fitting your requirements". He later stated "I sat amongst the straws with straws stuck in my hair and ears. But clearly I had made a mistake. I should have said: "Australian potatoes ain’t worth a damn," and I’d have cornered the potato market!" Shortly after, he was offered a job presenting science for ABC Television. When asked how much money he wanted he replied he never asked, he listened to an offer then "multiplied it by a factor between two and ten". Due to budget constraints the offer was withdrawn but an agreement was reached for Miller to host his own science based TV series which was filmed at the University of Sydney where he taught. Why Is It So? (his eventual stock phrase), was broadcast from 1963 to 1986 and became an instant hit known for its "cool experiments, interesting science, and fantastic hair." The 1960s program became Demonstrations in Physics (also called Science Demonstrations when it was aired on American Public television). He introduced each episode with the line: "How do you do, ladies and gentlemen, and boys and girls [sometimes adding "and teachers"]. I am Julius Sumner Miller, and physics is my business." Miller was also one of the team of celebrity lecturers (including Professor Messel, the astrophysicist, and the young James Watson, fresh from his triumphant co-discovery of the helical structure of DNA, but decades ahead of his work on the Human Genome) in the University of Sydney's pioneering "Summer School of Science", broadcast early in the morning during Australia's long summer holidays in January, around 1963. "My first TV series on demonstrations in physics - titled Why Is It So were now seen and heard over the land. The mail was massive. The academics were a special triumph for me. They charged me with being superficial and trivial. If I had done what they wanted my programs would be as dull as their classes! I knew my purpose well and clear: to show how Nature behaves without cluttering its beauty with abtruse mathematics. Why cloud the charm of a Chladni plate with a Bessel function?"[4] Miller's on-air popularity was due to an enthusiasm not normally associated with serious science. Shows would be liberally sprinkled with phrases such as "He who is not stirred by the beauty of it is already dead!" and he also liked to trick the audience. A common ploy would be to hold up an empty glass and ask guests to confirm it was empty....then chide them for not noticing it was full of air. Before each demonstration he would usually ask for a show of hands to indicate which of several results they expected. Often he would then add "hands up those who don’t care". In 1964 Miller suffered a near fatal heart attack. Scheduled to give a lecture in Australia, he sent Sydney University a telegram saying; "I've dropped dead here." He would suffer a second heart attack in 1986.[2] In 1966 questions from his show with an answer to the previous day’s question were published as "Millergrams" for The Australian newspaper. 112 of these questions were published as a book "Millergrams; Some Enchanting Questions for Enquiring Minds". Further books were published in 1967: "The Second Book of Millergrams: Some More Enchanting Questions for Enquiring Minds" and 1988: "Why is it So?: The Very Best Millergrams of Professor Julius Sumner Miller".

Julius Sumner Miller Sample Millergram: Q32: A juggler comes to a foot-bridge of rather flimsy design. He has in hand four balls. The maximum load is no more than the juggler himself and one ball. Can he get across the bridge by juggling the balls, always having at most one ball in the hand (and three in the air)? A: No. A falling ball exerts a force on the hand greater than its own weight. Rather, a 'thrown' ball exerts greater force than a 'held' one. That is, the additional force equal and opposite to that imparted to a flung ball, in addition to the juggler's mass, would exceed the bridge's tolerance (the bridge can tolerate a juggler and held ball, but not the additional downward force associated with forcing a ball 'up'). Miller appeared as "The Professor" in the Canadian series The Hilarious House of Frightenstein (1971), in a 2- to 3-minute segment each episode where he demonstrated physics experiments and explained the principles involved. Miller was also an occasional guest in the 1970s on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in the United States.

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Commercials
During the 1980s Miller appeared in a famous series of Australian television commercials for Cadbury chocolate, using his stock phrase "Why is it so?", demonstrating a simple scientific principle, and describing how each block of chocolate "embraces substantial nourishment and enjoyment," and contained "a glass and a half of full-cream dairy milk." While in Australia, Miller also appeared in ads for non-stick saucepans and Ampol Petroleum which included demonstrations of real principles of physics, albeit briefly. The ads were sufficiently popular to be played for some years after his death.

Foundations
In February 1987 Miller became ill while visiting Australia and returned to the United States where he was diagnosed with leukemia. Miller died six weeks later on April 14, 1987, in Torrance, California. Miller willed his body to the University of Southern California's School of Dentistry, no services were held at his request.[2] Professor Miller's wife, Alice Brown Miller, wanted to perpetuate the memory and achievements of her husband, and so conceived the idea of the Julius Sumner Miller Foundation, which was established in 1998.[1] Through an offer by Cadbury-Schweppes Pty Ltd, the Cadbury-Julius Sumner Miller Scholarship for Academic Excellence was set up to provide undergraduate scholarships in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. In 1993 the Australian Science Foundation for Physics established the Julius Sumner Miller Fellowship in his memory. The fellowship is currently held by Karl Kruszelnicki, best known as "Doctor Karl" for his appearances on Australian radio and television as a science commentator and author.

Popular culture
In 1966 Miller devised a word game "Milleranagrams" which was published in Australia by John Sands Limited. The game, whose only materials were 200 Scrabble-like letter tiles, required players in their turn to draw an unseen tile from the "pool" then either make a word from their stock of tiles or add a tile to a word already on the table (rearrangement of the letters being permitted, hence the name) to form another word. Miller remains popular in Australia, where he is still quoted. As Professor Julius Sumner Miller often asked, "Why is it so?" and its variations are still often used in newspaper articles that pose questions unrelated to science.[5]

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Bibliography
• • • • • • • • • • Millergrams; Some Enchanting Questions for Enquiring Minds, Ure Smith, 1966 The Second Book of Millergrams: Some More Enchanting Questions for Enquiring Minds, Ure Smith, 1967 Quiz Questions in Physics, Horwitz-Martin, Australia 1967 Why It Is So, ABC books, 1971 ISBN 0-642-97296-6 The Kitchen Professor, ABC books, 1972 ISBN 0-642-97352-0 Why It Is So: Heat and Temperature, ABC books, 1973 ISBN 0-642-97496-9 Why It Is So: Sound and Electricity & Magnetism, ABC books, 1973 ISBN 0-642-97584-1 Why It Is So: Mechanics, Heat & Temperature, Sound and Electricity, ABC books, 1978 ISBN 0-642-97523-X Enchanting Questions for Enquiring Minds, Currey/O'Neil, 1982 ISBN 0-85902-280-3 Why is it so?: the very best Millergrams of Professor Julius Sumner Miller, Australian Red Cross Society, Ringwood, Vic; Penguin Books, 1988 • The Days of My Life: an autobiography, Macmillan, 1989. ISBN 0-333-50337-6

References
[1] Julius Sumner Miller Bio (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0588697/ bio) IMDb [2] TV and Classroom Physicist : 'Professor Wonderful,' Julius Sumner Miller, Dies (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1987-04-16/ news/ mn-721_1_julius-sumner-miller) Los Angeles Times April 16, 1987 [3] JSM Fellow at University of Sydney (http:/ / www. physics. usyd. edu. au/ about/ jsm. shtml) [4] The Days of My Life: An Autobiography Julius Sumner Miller, Macmillan Publishers, 1989 pg 212 ISBN 0-333-50337-6) [5] Miller in the news (http:/ / static. search. news. com. au/ search/ Julius+ Sumner+ Miller/ 0/ ?us=ndmnews& sid=2& as=NEWS& ac=news& r=seealso) Recent newspaper articles quoting Julius Sumner Miller

External links
• Julius Sumner Miller Foundation (http://www.juliussumnermiller.org/) • Australian Julius Sumner Miller tribute page (http://retrorocket.tripod.com/JSM/index.html) • Julius Sumner Miller page at a Hilarious House of Frightenstein tribute site (http://www.frightenstein.com/ characters/professor.html) • Julius Sumner Miller at TV.com (http://www.tv.com/julius-sumner-miller/person/153302/summary.html) • Julius Sumner Miller (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0588697/) at the Internet Movie Database • Why is it so? site at Australia's ABC.net.au featuring original episodes (http://www.abc.net.au/science/ features/whyisitso) • http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/Outreach/DRK/jsm.pdf (http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/ foundation/Outreach/DRK/jsm.pdf) Julius Sumner Miller 1909 - 1987, Physics Department, University of Sydney.

Spin and Marty

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Spin and Marty
Spin and Marty
David Stollery (left) as Marty Markham and Tim Considine as Spin Evans introduce the series Genre Created by Written by Directed by Starring children's serial Lawrence Edward Watkin Jackson Gillis William Beaudine, Sr. David Stollery Tim Considine Harry Carey, Jr. Annette Funicello Roy Barcroft J. Pat O'Malley USA The Adventures of Spin and Marty (1955): 25 The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty (1956): 23 The New Adventures of Spin and Marty (1957): 30 Production Executive producer(s) Running time Bill Walsh 11 minutes per episode Broadcast Original channel Picture format Original run ABC black and white November 4, 1955 – December 13, 1957

Country of origin No. of episodes

Spin and Marty is a popular series of television shorts that aired as part of ABC's Mickey Mouse Club show of the mid-1950s produced by Walt Disney. There were three serials in all, set at the Triple R Ranch, a boys' western-style summer camp. The first series of 25 eleven-minute episodes, The Adventures of Spin and Marty, was filmed in 1955. Its popularity led to two sequels – The Further Adventures of Spin and Marty in 1956 and The New Adventures of Spin and Marty in 1957. It aired as re-runs on the Disney Channel until September 9, 2002. The serials were based on the 1942 novel Marty Markham by Lawrence Edward Watkin.[1] The producer for Disney was Bill Walsh and the screenplay was written by Jackson Gillis.[2] The shows' success led to the Spin and Marty comic books of the late 1950s. The first season's 25 episodes with bonus material were released on DVD by Disney in 2005.

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Premise and major characters
The series starred David Stollery as the rich, orphaned Martin "Marty" Markham and Tim Considine as the poorer Spin Evans, the most athletic and popular boy at the Triple R Ranch. When the pampered Marty first arrives at the ranch in a chauffeur-driven limousine, his contemptuous dismissal of the dude ranch as a "dirty old farm" and evident fear of horses result in his ostracism by the other boys, led by Spin. By the end of the first series, however, Marty overcomes his fears and wins acceptance, becoming close friends with his erstwhile foe, Spin.[2] Supporting roles include Sammy Ogg as their jokester sidekick Joe Simpson, and B.G. Norman as Ambitious, Marty's first friend at the Triple R. The second series adds Annette Funicello and Kevin Corcoran to the cast as Annette and Moochie, respectively. The third series adds Darlene Gillespie, and quickly turns into a showcase for song and dance sketches as part of a "Let's put on a show!" storyline reminiscent of Mickey Rooney–Judy Garland movies. All three serials also co-star Roy Barcroft as Triple R owner Col. Logan, Harry Carey, Jr. as popular counselor Bill Burnett, and J. Pat O'Malley as Perkins, Marty's butler and the Triple R's assistant cook.[3] In the first two serials, Leonard Geer played Ollie, the wisecracking (and wise) stablehand in charge of the horses.

Music
The series featured a couple of songs, Triple R Ranch song ("Yippee Yay, Yippee Yi, Yipee Yo"), as well as a song about Slue-Foot Sue ("Buckaroo"), named for Pecos Bill's tragic love story. Among the musical pieces featured in the third series was a cover of the Disney song Nowhere in Particular by Perkins and Sam the cook.

Remake
A TV movie focusing on updated versions of the eponymous characters, The New Adventures of Spin and Marty: Suspect Behavior, was made in 2000. However, it bore almost no resemblance to the original. It was based on the Paul Zindel novel The Undertaker's Gone Bananas.[4] Stollery and Considine made cameo appearances.

DVD release and comic books
A DVD version of the 1955 season, The Adventures of Spin & Marty, was released in December 2005 as part of the fifth wave of the Walt Disney Treasures series. Hosted by Leonard Maltin, it includes the complete first season of 25 episodes, plus bonus features such as interviews with David Stollery, Tim Considine, and Harry Carey, Jr., on the 50th anniversary year of the series' original telecasts. Maltin wrote of Considine's and Stollery's roles, "The key to the serial's success was ... Tim and David seemed genuine, and boys and girls related to them. The series may seem low-key to a modern generation raised on video games and the internet, but it was that unhurried pace and simple storytelling that captured the hearts and imaginations of an entire generation".[5] Western Publishing published comic book adventures of Spin and Marty beginning in 1956, first under Dell Comics Four Color title (#714, 767, 808, 826), then under their own title (#5-9), then in Four Color again (#1026 and 1082).[6] The comic books continued even after the television series had ended, such as issue number 7 in September, 1958 (pictured): Stollery and Considine, by then 17-year olds, are depicted on the cover in their Spin and Marty characters, as they confront danger at the Triple-R Ranch. Disney included this cover with its 2005 DVD release. Gold Key Comics would later reprint some of these stories in their titles, such as the Walt Disney Showcase comic book issue of 1975, "The Treasure of Old Fort Resolute".[6]

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Disney Legends
In October 2006, Stollery, Considine and Corcoran were all honored as Disney Legends[7] . Funicello had been so honored in 1992.[8]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Watkin, Lawrence Edward (1942). Marty Markham. New York: Henry Holt. LCCN 42021068. "Spin and Marty review" (http:/ / www. atlascom. us/ spin_mar. htm). Atlas Communications. June 2006. . Retrieved 2008-04-20. Cotter, Bill (1997). The Wonderful World of Disney Television. New York: Hyperion Books. pp. 187, 189, 191. ISBN 0-7868-6359-5. Firebrand Productions Past Projects (http:/ / www. firebrandproductions. com/ pastprojects. htm) Retrieved 2008-01-31. Leonard Maltin (narrator) (2005). The Adventures of Spin & Marty (DVD). Walt Disney Productions. "Comic Art Collection (Reading Room index, "Spin" to "Spiridione")" (http:/ / www. lib. msu. edu/ comics/ rri/ srri/ spin. htm). Michigan State University Library. . Retrieved 2009-06-17. [7] "Sir Elton John, Joe Ranft Headline Disney Legends Award" (http:/ / news. awn. com/ index. php?ltype=top& newsitem_no=18127). AWN Headline News. 2006-10-09. . Retrieved 2007-07-07. [8] Disney Legends - Annette Funicello (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=Annette+ Funicello)

External links
• The Adventures of Spin and Marty (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0047775/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Adventures of Spin and Marty (http://www.tv.com/shows/the-adventures-of-spin-and-marty/) at TV.com • Spin and Marty History (http://www.spinandmarty.us) • "Original Mickey Mouse Club" summary of The Spin and Marty serials (http://www.originalmmc.com/marty1. html) • "Ultimate Disney" review of The Adventures of Spin and Marty DVD (http://www.ultimatedisney.com/ spinandmarty.html) • "Cinchset" filming locations and background history of the original The Spin and Marty series (http://www. cinchset.com/ranches.html)

The Hardy Boys

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The Hardy Boys
The Hardy Boys, Frank and Joe Hardy, are fictional characters who appear in various mystery series for children and teens. The characters were created by Edward Stratemeyer, the founder of the Stratemeyer Syndicate, a book-packaging firm, and the books have been written by many different ghostwriters over the years. The books are published under the collective pseudonym Franklin W. Dixon. The Hardy Boys have evolved in various ways since their first appearance in 1927. Beginning in 1959, the books were extensively revised, largely to eliminate racial stereotypes. The books were also written in a simpler style in an attempt to compete with television. Some critics argue that in the process the Hardy Boys changed, becoming more respectful of the law and simultaneously more affluent, "agents of the adult ruling class"[1] rather than characters who aided the poor. A new Hardy Boys series, the Hardy Boys Casefiles, was created in 1987, and featured murders, violence, and international espionage. The original Hardy Boys Mystery Stories series ended in 2005. A new series, Undercover Brothers, was launched the same year, featuring updated versions of the characters who narrate their adventures in the first person. Through all these changes, the characters have remained popular. The books sell more than a million copies a year.[2] Several additional volumes are published annually, and the boys' adventures have been translated into more than 25 languages. The Hardy Boys have been featured in computer games and five television shows and used to promote merchandise such as lunchboxes and jeans. Critics have offered many explanations for the characters' longevity, suggesting variously that the Hardy Boys embody simple wish-fulfillment,[3] American ideals of masculinity,[4] American ideals of white masculinity,[5] a well-respected father paradoxically argued to be inept,[6] and the possibility of the triumph of good over evil.[7]

Premise
The Hardy Boys are fictional teenage brothers and amateur detectives. They live in the city of Bayport on Barmet Bay[8] with their father, detective Fenton Hardy, their mother, Laura Hardy,[9] and their Aunt Gertrude. Frank, the older brother, is eighteen (sixteen in earlier versions), and his younger brother Joe is seventeen (fifteen in earlier versions). The brothers nominally attend high school in Bayport, where they are in the same grade,[10] but school is rarely mentioned in the books and never hinders the Hardys in solving mysteries.[1] In the older stories, the Hardy Boys' cases often are linked to the confidential cases their detective father is working on. He sometimes asks them for help, while at other times they stumble upon villains and incidents that are connected to his cases. In the Undercover Brothers series, begun in 2005, the Hardys are members of an organization known as American Teens Against Crime, which assigns them to cases. The Hardy Boys are sometimes assisted in solving mysteries by their friends Chet Morton, Phil Cohen, Biff Hooper, Jerry Gilroy, and Tony Prito, and, less frequently, by their platonic girlfriends Callie Shaw and Iola Morton (Chet's sister). The Hardy Boys are constantly involved in adventure and action. Despite frequent danger, the boys "never lose their nerve ... They are hardy boys, luckier and more clever than anyone around them."[11] They live in an atmosphere of mystery and intrigue: "Never were so many assorted felonies committed in a simple American small town. Murder, drug peddling, race horse kidnapping, diamond smuggling, medical malpractice, big-time auto theft, even (in the 1940s) the hijacking of strategic materials and espionage, all were conducted with Bayport as a nucleus."[12] With so much in common, the boys are so little differentiated that one commentator facetiously describes them thus: "The boys' characters basically broke down this way – Frank had dark hair; Joe was blond."[13] In general, however, "Frank was the thinker while Joe was more impulsive, and perhaps a little more athletic."[13] The two boys are infallibly on good terms with each other and never engage in sibling rivalry.[14]

The Hardy Boys Frank and Joe do not lack for money and they travel frequently to far-away locations, including Mexico in The Mark on the Door (1934), Scotland in The Secret Agent on Flight 101 (1967), Iceland in The Arctic Patrol Mystery (1969), Egypt in The Mummy Case (1980), and Kenya in The Mystery of the Black Rhino (2003). The Hardys also travel freely within the United States by motorcycle, motor boat, iceboat, and airplane,[15] as well as their own car.[16]

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Creation of characters
The characters were conceived in 1926 by Edward Stratemeyer, founder of the Stratemeyer Syndicate, a book-packaging firm. Stratemeyer initially pitched the new series to publishers Grosset & Dunlap and suggested that the boys might be called the Keene Boys, the Scott Boys, the Hart Boys, or the Bixby Boys.[17] Grosset & Dunlap editors, for reasons unknown, chose the name "The Hardy Boys" and approved the project. Stratemeyer accordingly hired Canadian Leslie McFarlane to ghostwrite the first volumes in the series. McFarlane would author nineteen of the first twenty-five volumes in the series. Subsequent titles have been written by a number of different ghostwriters, all under the pseudonym Franklin W. Dixon. The first three titles were published in 1927, and were an immediate success: by mid-1929 over 115,000 books had been sold.[18] So successful was the series that Stratemeyer created the character of Nancy Drew as a female counterpart to the Hardys.[19]

Ghostwriters
All Hardy Boys books have been written by ghostwriters. In accordance with the customs of Stratemeyer Syndicate series production, ghostwriters for the Syndicate signed contracts that have sometimes been interpreted as requiring authors to sign away all rights to authorship or future royalties.[20] The contracts stated that authors could not use their Stratemeyer Syndicate pseudonyms independently of the Syndicate.[21] In the early days of the Syndicate, ghostwriters were paid a fee of $125, "roughly equivalent to two months' wages for a typical newspaper reporter, the primary day job of the syndicate ghosts."[22] During the Great Depression this fee was lowered, first to $100[23] and later to $75.[24] All royalties went to the Syndicate; all correspondence with the publisher was handled through a Stratemeyer Syndicate office, and the Syndicate was able to enlist the cooperation of libraries in hiding the ghostwriters' names.[25] The Syndicate's process for creating the Hardy Boys books consisted of creating a detailed outline, with all elements of plot; drafting a Edward Stratemeyer, creator of the Hardy Boys manuscript; and editing the manuscript. Edward Stratemeyer's and founder of the Stratemeyer Syndicate daughter, Edna Stratemeyer Squier, and possibly Stratemeyer himself, wrote outlines for the first volumes in the series.[26] Beginning in 1934, Stratemeyer's other daughter, Harriet Stratemeyer Adams, began contributing plot outlines; she and Andrew Svenson wrote most of the plot outlines for the next several decades.[26] Other plot outliners included Vincent Buranelli, James Duncan Lawrence, and Tom Mulvey.[26] Most of the early volumes were written by Canadian Leslie McFarlane, who authored nineteen of the first twenty-five titles between 1927 and 1946. Unlike many other Syndicate ghostwriters, McFarlane was regarded highly enough by the Syndicate that he was frequently given advances of $25 or $50,[27] and during the Depression, when fees were lowered, he was paid $85 for each Hardy Boys book when other Syndicate ghostwriters were receiving only $75 for their productions.[24]

The Hardy Boys Beginning with Volume 17, The Secret Warning (1938), John Button took over the series; McFarlane resumed with Volume 22, The Flickering Torch Mystery (1943).[26] McFarlane's last contribution was Volume 24, The Short-Wave Mystery (1945); his wife, Amy, authored Volume 26, The Phantom Freighter (1947).[26][28] Over the next several decades, other volumes were written by Adams, Svenson, Lawrence, Buranelli, William Dougherty, and James Buechler (a teenager at the time).[26] Beginning in 1959, the series was extensively revised and re-written. Many authors worked on the revised books, writing new manuscripts; some of them also wrote plot outlines and edited the books. Among the authors who worked on the revised versions were Adams, Svenson, Buechler, Lilo Wuenn, Anne Shultes, Alistair Hunter, Tom Mulvey, Patricia Doll, and Priscilla Baker-Carr.[26] In 1979, the Hardy Boys books began to be published in paperback, rather than hardcover. Lawrence and Buranelli continued to write titles; other authors included Karl Harr III and Laurence Swinburne.[26] The rights to the series were sold, along with the Stratemeyer Syndicate, in 1984 to Simon and Schuster.[29] New York book packager Mega-Books subsequently hired authors to write the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories and a new series, the Hardy Boys Casefiles.[30]

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Legal disputes
In 1980, dissatisfied with the lack of creative control at Grosset & Dunlap and the lack of publicity for the Hardy Boys' 50th anniversary in 1977, Harriet Adams switched publishers for the Hardy Boys and Nancy Drew, as well as other series, to Simon and Schuster. Grosset & Dunlap filed suit against the Syndicate and Simon and Schuster, citing "breach of contract, copyright infringement, and unfair competition"[31] and requesting $300 million in damages.[32] The outcome of the case turned largely on the question of who had written the Nancy Drew series. Adams filed a countersuit, claiming that, as author of the Nancy Drew Mystery Stories, she retained the rights to her work. Although Adams had written many Nancy Drew titles after 1953 and edited others, she claimed to be the author of all of the early titles.[33] In fact, she had rewritten the older titles, but was not the original author. When Mildred Benson, the author of the early Nancy Drew volumes, was called to testify about her work for the Syndicate, Benson's role in writing the manuscripts of early titles was revealed in court with extensive documentation, contradicting Adams' claims to authorship.[34] The court ruled that Grosset had the rights to publish the original series of both Nancy Drew and the Hardy Boys as they were in print in 1980, but did not own characters or trademarks. Furthermore, any new publishers chosen by Adams were completely within their rights to print new titles.[29]

Evolution of characters
The Hardy Boys have gone through many permutations over the years. Beginning in 1959, the books were extensively revised, and some commentators find that the Hardys' characters changed in the process.[35] Commentators also sometimes see differences between the Hardy Boys of the original Hardy Boys Mystery Stories and the Hardy Boys of the Hardy Boys Casefiles[36] or the new Undercover Brothers series.[37]

1927–1959
The early volumes, largely written by Leslie McFarlane, have been praised for their atmosphere and writing style, qualities often considered lacking in juvenile series books.[38] McFarlane's writing is clear and filled with specific details,[39] making his works superior to many other Stratemeyer series titles.[40] Such, at least, was McFarlane's intention: "It seemed to me the Hardy Boys deserved something better than the slapdash treatment Dave Fearless[41] had been getting... I opted for Quality."[42] The volumes not written by McFarlane or his wife were penned by John Button, who wrote the series from 1938 to 1942; this period is sometimes referred to as the "Weird Period" as the writing is full of inconsistencies and the Hardy Boys' adventures involve futuristic gadgetry and exotic locations.[43]

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116

"Of course, chief," said Frank smoothly, "if you're afraid to go up to the Polucca place just because it's supposed to be haunted, don't bother. We can tell the newspapers that we believe our father has met with foul play and that you won't bother to look into the matter, but don't let us disturb you at all–" "What's that about the newspapers?" demanded the chief, getting up from his chair so suddenly that he upset the checkerboard.... "Don't let this get into the papers." The chief was constantly afraid of publicity unless it was of the most favorable nature. The House on the Cliff, 1927
[44]

In general, the world of these early volumes is a "[dark] and ... divided place".[45] In these early titles, the boys are cynical about human nature, an attitude apparently justified when the police, whom they have repeatedly helped, throw them into jail on slim evidence in The Great Airport Mystery (1930).[46] The police and authority figures in general come off poorly in these books, so much so that at one point Edward Stratemeyer wrote McFarlane to reprimand him for "grievous lack of respect for officers of the law."[47] The Hardys are less affluent than earlier Stratemeyer characters; they eagerly accept cash rewards largely to finance college educations, and, with their parents, strive to please their Aunt Gertrude, because she possesses a small fortune.[46] The rich are portrayed as greedy and selfish.[48] This view of the world reflects McFarlane's relative "lack [of] sympathy with the American power structure."[46] In his autobiography, McFarlane described his rationale for writing the books this way, writing: "I had my own thoughts about teaching youngsters that obedience to authority is somehow sacred.... Would civilization crumble if kids got the notion that the people who ran the world were sometimes stupid, occasionally wrong and even corrupt at times?"[49] The books' attitudes towards non-Anglo characters are a matter of disagreement. These early volumes have been called models of diversity for their day, since among the Hardys' friends are Phil Cohen, who is Jewish, and the Italian immigrant Tony Prito.[13] However, these two friends are rarely involved in the Hardys' adventures, a level of friendship reserved for Biff Hooper and Chet Morton.[50] The books have been extensively criticized for their use of racial and ethnic stereotypes[51] and their xenophobia. Vilnoff, for example, the villain in the The Sinister Sign-Post (1936), is described as "swarthy" and "a foreigner", notes critic Steve Burgess. We sense his untrustworthy nature immediately when he sits down beside the boys at a football game and doesn't understand it, despite the boys' best efforts to explain. When he does grasp something, you know it. "I onnerstand pairfectly," he says. Later he adds genially, "I haf you vhere I vant you now!" Can't quite place the accent? It's foreign. Twenty-five chapters are not enough to solve the mystery of his nationality.[13] African Americans are the targets of much racism, being depicted as unintelligent, lazy, and superstitious,[50] "bumpkin rescuers" at best and "secretive and conspiratorial villains" at worst.[52] Benjamin Lefebvre notes that Harriet Adams at times rebuked Leslie McFarlane for not sufficiently following her instructions regarding the portrayal of African-American characters; he writes that it is not clear "whether Adams rewrote parts of McFarlane's manuscripts to add [racist] details or to what extent these early texts would now be considered even more notoriously racist had McFarlane followed Adams's instructions more carefully."[53] In Footprints Under the Window (1933),[54] Chinese American men are portrayed as effeminate threats both to national security and white heteromasculinity.[55] Native Americans received mixed treatment; those living within the continental United States are portrayed as members of once-noble tribes whose greatness has been diminished by the coming of white men, while those living outside the continental U.S. are "portrayed as uneducated, easily manipulated, or semi-savage."[56] However, Hispanics are generally treated as equals; the Hardy Boys as well as their father speak Spanish, and Mexico's history and culture are treated with respect and admiration.[57]

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1959–1979
The Hardy Boys volumes were extensively revised beginning in 1959 at the insistence of publishers Grosset & Dunlap, and against the wishes of Harriet Adams.[58] The revision project, which also encompassed the Nancy Drew Mystery Stories, was sparked largely by letters that parents had been writing to Grosset & Dunlap since at least 1948, complaining about the prevalence of racial stereotypes in the books.[58] Volume 14 in the Hardy Boys series, The Hidden Harbor Mystery (1935), was singled out for particular and repeated attention for its portrayal of a black criminal who organizes a gang of black boys and treats whites disrespectfully.[59] As one parent put it, the books were "ingraining the old race-riot type of fear."[60] As such letters became more frequent, Grosset & Dunlap informed the Stratemeyer Syndicate that the books must be revised and such stereotypes excised. The end result, however, was less the removal of stereotypes than the removal of non-white characters altogether[61] and the creation of an "ethnically cleansed Bayport".[62] By the 1970s, however, the series began to re-introduce black characters.[63] An additional rationale for the revisions was a drop in sales, which became particularly significant by the mid-1960s.[58] Accordingly, the revisions focused on streamlining the texts, as well as eliminating stereotypes. The books were shortened from 25 chapters to 20 and the writing style was made terser.[64] Difficult vocabulary words such as "ostensible" and "presaged" were eliminated, as was slang.[13] As a result of the new, more streamlined writing style, the books focus more on non-stop action than on building atmosphere,[65] and "prolonged suspense [is] evaporated."[66] The books were also aimed at an increasingly younger audience[67] with shorter attention spans.[64] For this reason, many commentators find the new versions nothing less than "eviscerated",[13] foremost among them being the first Hardy Boys ghostwriter, Leslie McFarlane, who agreed with a reporter's statement that the books had been "gutted".[68]
"Great, Dad!" Frank said, jumping to his feet. "With spring vacation coming up we won't miss any time at school!" "Are your passports up to date?" his father asked. "Sure, we always keep them that way." The Arctic Patrol Mystery, 1969
[69]

In the course of revising and modernizing the series, many plots were completely re-written. The Flickering Torch Mystery (1943), for example, was changed from a plot involving an actual flickering torch used as a signal by a gang to a plot featuring a rock group called "The Flickering Torch".[70] When plots were kept, their more lurid elements were eliminated; Vilnoff, the villain in The Sinister Sign-Post, was changed from a criminal who compulsively sculpts miniature models of his own hands to a car thief without such eccentricities, and another villain, Pedro Vincenzo, who branded his victims no longer does so in the revised version of The Mark on the Door (1934, rev. 1967).[71] The books became more respectful of law and authority. Even villains no longer smoked or drank, and scenes involving guns and shoot-outs were compressed or eliminated, in favor of criminals simply giving themselves up.[72] The boys, too, become more respectful of rules and of the law; for example, they no longer drive faster than the speed limit even in pursuit of a villain.[73] The Hardys also became more and more wealthy, prompting the criticism that the "major problem in [these volumes] is that the Hardy Boys have risen above any ability to identify with people like the typical boys who read their books. They are members and agents of the adult ruling class, acting on behalf of that ruling class."[1]

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118

1979–2005
"A secret door!" Joe said. "We haven't seen one of these in, oh, several months," Frank said. Casefiles No. 65, No Mercy, 1992
[74]

The Hardy Boys began to be published in paperback in 1979. The Hardys were also featured in two new series, the Hardy Boys Casefiles and the Clues Brothers. The latter series, modeled on the Nancy Drew Notebooks, was aimed at a younger audience, and ran from 1997 to 2000. In contrast, the Casefiles, begun a decade earlier in 1987, was aimed at an older audience than the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories.[75] In the new series, the Hardys' work with a secret government organization simply called the "Network", with which they collaborate to "infiltrate organized crime, battle terrorists and track down assassins around the world."[75] The Hardys' personalities are portrayed as more separate and distinct, and they sometimes fight; in the first of the series, Dead on Target, for example, the brothers brawl after Frank tries to restrain Joe after Joe's girlfriend, Iola Morton, is killed by a car bomb.[75] In general, the series is more violent, and the Hardy Boys carry various guns;[76] Lines like "Joe! Hand me the Uzi!" are not out of character.[77] Barbara Steiner, a Casefiles ghostwriter, describes a sample plot outline: "I was told that Joe Hardy would get involved with a waitress, a black widow kind of character, and that Joe would get arrested for murder. I was told the emphasis was on high action and suspense and there had to be a cliff-hanger ending to every chapter."[78]

2005–present
The long-running Hardy Boys Mystery Stories series ended in 2005 and was replaced with a reboot series, The Hardy Boys: Undercover Brothers. In these volumes, the Hardys' adventures are narrated in the first person, each brother alternating chapters. This fresh approach to telling the adventures reveals two boys quite foreign to how they have been portrayed before, egotistical and jealous, and long time readers will find few connections with the boys' previous personalities. The boys' Aunt Gertrude becomes "Trudy", their mother Laura is given a career as a librarian, and their father is semi-retired. The boys are given their cases by a secret group known as ATAC, an acronym for American Teens Against Crime. In this new series, the Hardy Boys seem "more like regular kids – who have lots of wild adventures – in these books, which also deal with issues that kids today might have thought about. For example, the second book in the series, Running on Fumes, deals with environmentalists who go a little too far to try to save trees."[79] The Hardys are also featured in a new graphic novel series, begun in 2005 and produced by Papercutz,[80] and a new early chapter book series called The Hardy Boys: Secret Files, begun in 2010 by the publisher Simon & Schuster under their Aladdin imprint. The last Undecover Brothers books were released in January 2012 (main series) and July 2012 (Nancy Drew/Hardy Boys Super Mystery'07 series). At the time of cancellation, there was one book that had been announced, but was ultimately shelved (The Case Of The MyFace Kidnapper); it is unknown if this was going to be the final title of this unpublished book, since many book store websites and Simon & Schuster's website always had the letters "W.T" behind the title, meaning that it was a Working Title. February 2013 will see the launch of "The Hardy Boys Adventures", a series written in the first person. For the first time since 1985, the books will be issued in hardcover, along with paperback editions.

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Books
The longest-running series of books to feature the Hardy Boys is the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories, sometimes also called the Hardy Boys Mysteries.[81] The series ran from 1927 to 2005 and is comprised 190 volumes, although some consider only the first fifty-eight volumes of this series to be part of the Hardy Boys "canon".[82] The Hardy Boys also appeared in 127 volumes of the Casefiles series and are currently the heroes of the Undercover Brothers series.

International publications
Hardy Boys books have been extensively re-printed in the United Kingdom, with new illustrations and cover art. The Hardys' adventures have also been translated into over twenty-five languages, including Norwegian, Swedish, Spanish, Icelandic, Hebrew, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Malay, and Italian.[83] The books are widely read in India,[84] and Japan's Kyoto Sangyo University listed twenty-one Hardy Boys books on its reading list for freshmen in the 1990s.[83]

Television
There have been five separate Hardy Boys television adaptions.[85] In the late 1950s, Disney contracted with the Stratemeyer Syndicate and Grosset & Dunlap to produce two Hardy Boys TV serials, starring Tim Considine and Tommy Kirk. The first of the serials, The Mystery of the Applegate Treasure, was aired on The Mickey Mouse Club in 1956 during the show's second season.[86] To appeal to the show's audience, the Hardy Boys were portrayed as younger than in the books, seeming to be eleven or twelve years old.[87] The script, written by Jackson Gillis, was based on the first Hardy Boys book, The Tower Treasure, and the serial was aired in 19 episodes of fifteen minutes each with production costs of $5,700.[88] A second serial, The Mystery of Ghost Farm, followed in 1957, with an original story by Jackson Gillis.[87] In the mid-1960s, sales of Hardy Boys books began to drop. The Stratemeyer Syndicate conducted a survey, which revealed that the decline in sales was due to the perceived high cost of the books and to competition from television.[89] As a result, the Syndicate approved an hour-long pilot for a new Hardy Boys television show. The pilot, based on The Mystery of the Chinese Junk, was aired on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1967 and starred Tim Matthieson (later Matheson) as Joe Hardy and Rick Gates as Frank. Both actors were twenty at the time of production and portrayed the Hardy Boys as young adults rather than children, as they had been in the Mickey Mouse Club serials. The show did poorly, however, and the series was abandoned.[90] Two years later, in 1969, the American Broadcasting Company aired a Saturday morning cartoon series based on the Hardy Boys; the series was produced by Filmation and ran from 1969 to 1971.[91] In this series, the Hardys were members of a rock and roll band. A group of professional musicians performed all the songs on the series, and toured across the United States.[92] The animated series produced two bubblegum music albums "of moderate quality with no commercial success."[93] The series was notable for being the first cartoon to include a black character.[94] The show took note of current concerns; although aimed at a young audience, some plot lines dealt with illegal drugs, and the animated Frank and Joe spoke directly to children about not smoking and the importance of wearing seat belts.[95] ABC aired another series featuring the Hardy Boys, The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries, from 1977 to 1979. The prime time series starred Parker Stevenson and Shaun Cassidy as Frank and Joe Hardy; Pamela Sue Martin and later Janet Louise Johnson played Nancy Drew. During the first season, the series alternated between episodes featuring the Hardy Boys one week and Nancy Drew the next. The Hardy Boys were cast as young adults (Stevenson and Cassidy were twenty-four and eighteen respectively during the filming of the first episodes) to appeal to a prime time television audience. The series featured original plots as well as ones based on Hardy Boys books, among them The Disappearing Floor and The Flickering Torch Mystery. The series received an Emmy nomination and featured a number of guest stars, including Kim Cattrall, Ray Milland, Howard Duff, and Ricky Nelson.[96] During the second

The Hardy Boys season, the series format changed to focus more on the Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew appearing mostly in crossover episodes with the brothers; midway through production of the second season, Martin quit and was replaced by Johnson. The series returned for a third season, dropping the Nancy Drew character completely and shortening its title to The Hardy Boys. In 1995, a TV show called simply The Hardy Boys was produced and syndicated by New Line Television, a division of New Line Cinema. The show was co-produced by Canadian broadcasting company Nelvana[97] and was dubbed in French for airing in Quebec and France as well as in the United States.[96] Colin Gray starred as Frank Hardy and Paul Popowich played Joe. The characters were portrayed as in their early twenties, Frank working as a reporter and Joe still in college. The show only lasted for one season of thirteen episodes due to poor ratings.[96]

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In other media
• The Hardy Boys have appeared in several titles in the Nancy Drew computer game series produced by Her Interactive.[98] As of 30 April 2009, Her Interactive has announced that it will partner with Sega to release its own series of Hardy Boys games. The first game in the series is titled "Treasure on the Tracks" and is scheduled to be released in 2009 for Nintendo DS.[99] • JoWood Productions and DreamCatcher Games have released a Hardy Boys computer game called The Hidden Theft. Jesse McCartney and Cody Linley are the voices of Frank and Joe.[100] • The Hardy Boys have also been used to sell a variety of merchandise over the years, much of it tied to television adaptations. They have appeared in several board games, comic books, coloring books,[101] and activity books, jigsaw puzzles, and lunch boxes; two LP albums, Here Come the Hardy Boys and The Hardy Boys Wonderland; a Viewmaster set, a toy truck, charm bracelets, rings, wristwatches, greeting cards, jeans, and guitars.[102] • The Hardy Boys were mentioned in The Kenan & Kel Opening • In July 2009 DreamCatcher Games released another computer game called The Perfect Crime. • The Hardy Boys have been parodied in the animated series South Park in an episode titled "The Mystery of the Urinal Deuce", in which the "Hardly Boys" investigate a 9/11 conspiracy theory.[103]

Thematic analysis
The Hardy Boys have been called "a cultural touchstone all over the world."[104] Their adventures have been continuously in print since 1927. The series was an instant success: by mid-1929 over 115,000 books had been sold,[18] and as of 2008 the books were selling over a million copies a year[2] (the first Hardy Boys book, The Tower Treasure, alone sells over 100,000 copies a year).[105] Worldwide, over 70 million copies of Hardy Books have been sold.[13] A number of critics have tried to explain the reasons for the characters' longevity. One explanation for this continuing popularity is that the Hardy Boys are simple wish-fulfillment. Their adventures allow readers to vicariously experience an escape from the mundane.[106] At the same time, Frank and Joe live ordinary lives when not solving mysteries, allowing readers to identify with characters who seem realistic and whose parents and authority figures are unfailingly supportive and loving.[107] The Hardy Boys also embody an ideal of masculinity: by their very name they "set the stage for a gentrified version of hardness and constructed hardiness as an ideal for modern American males", part of the "cultural production of self-control and mastery as the revered ideal for the American man."[4] Further, according to Meredith Wood, the characters embody not just an ideal of masculinity, but an ideal of white masculinity. She argues that "racist stereotypes are ... fundamental to the success of the Hardy Boys series." In support of this claim, Wood cites the replacement of one stereotype (evil Chinese) with another (evil Latin Americans) in the original and revised versions of Footprints Under the Window and the popularity of the Applewood Books reprints of the original, unrevised texts.[108] Critic Jeffery P. Dennis suggests that one reason for the books' popularity is that they, especially in the early volumes, provide readers with something they cannot get in other media: homoromance. While the Hardy Boys have

The Hardy Boys nominal girlfriends in Callie Shaw and Iola Morton, the boys exhibit little interest in them, planning no individual dates with them, for example.[109][110] Instead, the Hardys spend time in the early volumes with male friends; "Frank favors chubby, good-natured Chet, who frets over household chores, befriends girls, and eventually goes to art school" while Joe "favors Biff, with 'muscles like steel', who dislikes school chores, dislikes girls, and plays every school sport."[109] Later, the Hardys no longer have particular friends; they do everything as a group: rescue each other from being tied up, finish each other's sentences, attend the same classes at school despite their age difference, and never argue or disagree with each other. According to Dennis, they "behave precisely as if their bond is romantic",[111] but "All that separates them from homoromance is the fraternal bond: Their passion is the passion of brothers, not lovers".[111] However, critic Gary Westfahl argues that the Hardy Boys are neither heterosexual or homosexual, but asexual, although he and others suggest that Chet is portrayed as a feminine male character.[112] The Hardys' ignorance of sex and their increasing respect for the law have led to some negative perceptions and many parodies of the characters. They are "well-scrubbed Boy Scout types"[2] who "fetishized squareness".[113] They have been parodied numerous times, in such works as The Hardy Boys and the Mystery of Where Babies Come From by Christopher Durang, The Secret of the Old Queen: A Hardy Boys Musical by Timothy Cope and Paul Boesing,[114] and Mabel Maney's novel A Ghost in the Closet: A Hardly Boys Mystery. National Lampoon ran an article in 1985 entitled "The Undiscovered Notebooks of Franklin W. Dixon", in which the authors "purport to have stumbled upon some unpublished Hardy Boys manuscripts", including "The Party Boys and the Case of the Missing Scotch" and "The Hardly Boys in the Dark Secret of the Spooky Closet".[115] Others have pointed to the Hardy Boys' relationship with their father as a key to the success of the series. As Tim Morris notes, while Fenton Hardy is portrayed as a great detective, his sons are usually the ones that solve cases, making Fenton Hardy a paradoxical figure: He is always there, he knows everything. He is infallible but always failing. When the boys rescue him, he is typically emaciated, dehydrated, semi-conscious, delirious; they must succor him with candy bars and water. He can take on any shape, but reveals his identity within moments of doing so. He never discusses a case except the one he's working on in a given novel, so that his legendary close-mouthedness turns to garrulousness when a Hardy Boys novel begins, which is of course the only time we ever get to see him. All the same, he only discusses the case in enough detail to mislead his sons and put them in mortal danger. He has systems of information and data-gathering that put the FBI to shame, yet he is always losing his case notes, his ciphers, his microfilm, or some other valuable clue, usually by leaving it in his extra pair of pants, meaning that the Boys have to drive to Canada or Florida or somewhere to retrieve it. I suppose he isn't mysterious at all; he simply embodies what many think of their own fathers: utterly powerful, contemptibly inept.[50] As a result, the Hardy Boys are able both to be superior to their father and to gain the satisfaction of "fearlessly making their dad proud of them."[116] In the end, many commentators find that the Hardy Boys are largely successful because their adventures represent "a victory over anxiety".[117] The Hardy Boys series teaches readers that "although the world can be an out-of-control place, good can triumph over evil, that the worst problems can be solved if we each do our share and our best to help others."[118]

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122

Notes
[1] Westfahl (2000), 34. [2] Kirkpatrick (2001). [3] See Cross; Kismaric and Heiferman. [4] Riska (2006), 66. [5] Wood (2002) [6] Morris (1997) [7] Kismaric and Heiferman (1997), 130 [8] http:/ / www. hardyboysonline. net/ content. php?page=lit-setting [9] In The Mystery of the Flying Express, Mrs. Hardy's first name is given as Mildred (Greenwald [2004], 149). [10] Frank was ill and kept out of school for a year, according to early volumes. See Dennis (2007), 39. [11] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 8. [12] Prager (1971), 103–104. [13] Burgess (1999). [14] Prager (1971), 103. [15] Billman (1986), 80. [16] Westfahl (2000), 22. [17] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 18. [18] Rehak (2006), 108. [19] Johnson (1993), 12. [20] Plunkett-Powell (1993), 24. [21] Keeline (2008), 21. [22] Keeline (2008), 22. [23] Rehak (2006), 149. [24] Greenwald (2004), 122. [25] Plunkett-Powell (1993), 26–27. [26] Keeline, "Who Wrote the Hardy Boys?" [27] Greenwald (2004), 66. [28] There is some dispute over this, as Leslie McFarlane claimed authorship of the title in his autobiography. However, Stratemeyer Syndicate records list only Amy McFarlane as the author of the volume (Keeline). [29] Johnson (1993), 17. [30] Plunkett-Powell (1993), 29. [31] Johnson (1993), 16. [32] Rehak (2006), 290. [33] Rehak (2006), 296. [34] Rehak (2006), 295–296. [35] See, for example, Kismaric and Heiferman; Westfahl. [36] See, for example, McQuay. [37] See Grant (2005). [38] See, for example, Burgess, Westfahl. [39] Greenwald (2004), 126. [40] Westfahl (2000), 20. [41] "Dave Fearless" was the hero of another, earlier Stratemeyer Syndicate series, published under the name Roy Rockwood. [42] McFarlane (1976), 64. [43] Connelly (2008), 66–71. [44] Dixon (1927), 111. [45] Westfahl (2000), 30. [46] Westfahl (2000), 31. [47] Quoted in Westfahl (2000), 32. [48] Westfahl (2000), 32. [49] McFarlane (1976), 183. [50] Morris (1997). [51] See, for example, Morris (1997), who calls them "hideously and uncompromisingly racist." [52] Connelly (2008), 115. [53] Lefebvre (2006), 243. [54] There is some disagreement as to whether this title was penned by McFarlane. See Keeline. [55] Wood (2002), 238. [56] Connelly (2008), 125.

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[57] Connelly (2008), 120–121. [58] Rehak (2006), 243. [59] For an extended analysis of the original and revised versions of this title, see John Wasylyshyn, "An Analysis of American Culture as presented in Two Hardy Boys Books that Differ in Time", in Researching American Culture: A Guide for Student Anthropologists, ed. Conrad Phillip Kottak (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1982), pages 116–127. [60] Rehak (2006), 246. [61] Rehak (2006), 248. [62] Morris (1997), 124. [63] Connelly (2008), 118–120. [64] Connelly (2008), 88. [65] Rehak (2006), 247. [66] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 111. [67] Westfahl (2000), 35. [68] Quoted in Connelly (2008), 89. [69] Dixon (1969), 3–4. [70] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 107. [71] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 118. [72] Connelly (2008), 87. [73] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 113. [74] Dixon (1992), 121–122. [75] Schleier (1987), 70. [76] McQuay (1987), 5. [77] Dumas (1991), 10M. [78] Dumas (1991), 10M. The book in question is Casefiles No. 20, Witness to Murder. [79] Grant (2005), C16. [80] "Sleuths Go Graphic" (2008). [81] See, for example, Connelly's The Hardy Boys Mysteries. [82] Connelly (2008), 233. [83] Connelly (2008), 20. [84] Connelly (2008), 21. [85] Woolnough (2007), 87. [86] Connelly (2008), 202. [87] Connelly (2008), 204. [88] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 104–105. [89] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 119. [90] Connelly (2008), 206. [91] Goldmark and Taylor (2002), 181. [92] Goldmark and Taylor (2002), 181–182. [93] Goldmark and Taylor (2002), 182. [94] Connelly (2008), 208. The introduction of Pete Jones in the series predates the introduction of Valerie Brown from Josie and the Pussycats, who is often credited as the first African American animated character; the Hardy Boys first aired in 1969 while Josie and the Pussycats aired a year later in 1970. [95] Connelly (2008), 208. [96] Connelly (2008), 209. [97] Forman-Burnell (2001), 470. [98] Frey (2004), E1. [99] "Games: The Hardy Boys: Treasure on the Tracks" (http:/ / www. herinteractive. com/ game. php?game_id=hb& platform=nintendo). Her Interactive. 2006. . Retrieved August 4, 2009. [100] "JoWooD and DreamCatcher Sign Jesse McCartney and Cody Linley for Hardy Boys Game" (2008). [101] Connelly (2008), 205. [102] Kismaric and Heiferman (2007), 120, 122. [103] Dan Iverson (October 12, 2006). "South Park: "Mystery of the Urinal Deuce" Review" (http:/ / tv. ign. com/ articles/ 738/ 738646p1. html). IGN. . Retrieved February 25, 2011. [104] Greenwald (2004), 279. [105] Connelly (2008), 6. [106] Cross (2004), 135. [107] Connelly (2008), 17–18. [108] Wood (2002), 252. [109] Dennis (2007), 38.

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[110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] Prager (1971), 112. Dennis (2007), 39. Westfahl (2000), 30; Kismaric and Heiferman (1997), 86. Scott (2006), 551. Connelly (2008), 211–212. Greenwald (2004), 278. Prager (1971), 123. Connelly (2008), 14. See also Billman (1986), 96, for similar sentiments. Kismaric and Heiferman (1997), 130.

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References
• Billman, Carol (1986). The Secret of the Stratemeyer Syndicate. New York: Ungar. ISBN 0-8044-2055-6. • Burgess, Steve (October 7, 1999). "Perky fellows in a gay-looking speedwagon: The Hardy Boys return" (http:// www.salon.com/mwt/feature/1999/10/07/hardy_boys/print.html). Salon.com. Retrieved April 7, 2009. • Connelly, Mark (2008). The Hardy Boys Mysteries, 1927–1979: A Cultural and Literary History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7864-3386-5. • Cross, Gary S (2004). The Cute and the Cool: Wondrous Innocence and Modern American Children's Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515666-8. • Dennis, Jeffery P (2007). We Boys Together: teenagers in love before girl-craziness. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0-8265-1557-6. • Dixon, Franklin W. (1969). The Arctic Patrol Mystery. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 0-448-08948-3. • Dixon, Franklin W. (1927). The House on the Cliff. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. • Dixon, Franklin W. (1992). No Mercy. New York: Archway Paperbacks. ISBN 0-671-73101-7. • Dumas, Alan (August 25, 1991). "Grandma's Adventures with the Hardy Boys." Rocky Mountain News: p. 10M. Accessed through Newsbank on May 9, 2009. • Forman-Brunell, Miriam (2001). Girlhood in America: an encyclopedia. Oxford: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-206-1. • Frey, Christine (August 5, 2004). "Nancy Drew recruits Hardy Boys: Teen Sleuths Will Team Up in New Computer Game." Seattle Post-Intelligencer (WA). Accessed through Access World News on May 9, 2009. • Grant, Tracy (July 20, 2005). "Extreme Danger (Book 1 of Hardy Boys Undercover Brothers series) [review]." The Washington Post. P. C16. Accessed through LexisNexis on April 8, 2009. • Goldmark, Daniel; Yuval Taylor (2002). The Cartoon Music Book. Chicago: The Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1-55652-473-0. • Greenwald, Marilyn S (2004). The Secret of the Hardy Boys. Athens: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0-8214-1547-6. • "Hardy Boys: Treasure on the Tracks" (http://www.sega.com/games/hardy-boys-treasure-on-the-tracks/). SEGA. 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2009. • Hill, Jason (July 13, 2006). "Review of Nancy Drew: Last Train to Blue Moon Canyon" (http://www.smh.com. au/news/game-reviews/nancy-drew-last-train-to-blue-moon-canyon/2006/07/12/1152383751640.html). The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 6, 2009. • Johnson, Deirdre (1993). Edward Stratemeyer and the Stratemeyer Syndicate. New York: Twayne. ISBN 0-8057-4006-6. • "JoWooD and DreamCatcher Sign Jesse McCartney and Cody Linley for Hardy Boys Game" (May 16, 2008). Wireless News (England). Accessed through Access World News on May 10, 2009. • Keeline, James D (2008). Cornelius, Michael G; Gregg, Melanie E. eds. "The Nancy Drew Mythtery Stories" in Nancy Drew and Her Sister Sleuths. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-3995-9. • Keeline, James D. "Who Wrote the Hardy Boys? Secrets from the Syndicate Files Revealed" (http://www. keeline.com/Hardy_Boys.pdf). Retrieved April 7, 2009.

The Hardy Boys • Kirkpatrick, David D (July 29, 2001). "In Latest Hardy Boys Case, A Search for New Readers" (http://www. nytimes.com/2001/07/29/us/in-latest-hardy-boys-case-a-search-for-new-readers.html). The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2009. • Kismaric, Carole; Marvin Heiferman (2007). The Mysterious Case of Nancy Drew and the Hardy Boys. New York: Fireside. ISBN 1-4165-4945-5. • Lefebvre, Benjamin (2006). "The "Hardy Brats" and Their Foolhardy Creator". Children's Literature 34: 239–245. doi:10.1353/chl.2006.0014. • McFarlane, Leslie (1976). Ghost of the Hardy Boys: An Autobiography. London: Methuen Press. ISBN 0-8467-0157-X. • McQuay, David (August 16, 1987). "The Hardy Boys Grow Up – Have Joe and Frank been watching too much 'Miami Vice'?". The San Francisco Chronicle: p. 5. • Morris, Tim (Winter 1997). "Returning to the Hardy Boys". Raritan: A Quarterly Review 16 (3): 123–142. ISSN 0275-1607. • Plunkett-Powell, Karen (1993). The Nancy Drew Scrapbook: 60 years of America's favorite teenage sleuth. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-09881-2. • Prager, Arthur (1971). Rascals at Large, or, The Clue in the Old Nostalgia. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 9997486072. • Rehak, Melanie (2006). Girl Sleuth: Nancy Drew and the Women Who Created Her. New York: Harvest. ISBN 0-15-603056-X. • Riska, Elianne (2006). Masculinity And Men's Health: Coronary Heart Disease in Medical And Public Discourse (http://books.google.com/?id=Os-gQMnOKKYC&printsec=frontcover). Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2901-0. • Savage, Dan (2000). The Kid: What happened after my boyfriend and I decided to go get pregnant. New York: Plume. ISBN 0-452-28176-8. • Schleier, Carl (May 18, 1987). "Frank and Joe prove they're the hardy type". Advertising Age: p. 70. • "Sleuths Go Graphic" (March 10, 2008). The Hindu (English) (Madras, India). Accessed through Access World News on May 19, 2009. • Westfahl, Gary (2000). Science fiction, children's literature, and popular culture: coming of age in fantasyland (http://books.google.com/?id=HlxJKBEEG9QC&printsec=frontcover). California: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30847-0. • Wood, Meredith (2002). Lee, Josephine D; Lim, Imogene L; Matsukawa, Yuko. eds. "Footprints from the Past: Passing racial stereotypes in the Hardy Boys" in Re/collecting Early Asian America: Essays in Cultural History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-964-5. • Woolnough, Damien (April 20, 2007). "Tom and Ben as Hardy Men." The Advertiser. Accessed through LexisNexis on April 7, 2009.

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External links
• The Hardy Boys Wiki (http://hardyboys.wikia.com/wiki/The_Hardy_Boys_Wiki). A wiki hosted by Wikia, that anyone can edit. • The Hardy Boys In Norway (http://www.hardyguttene.webs.com/) A guide to Norwegian editions. • The Hardy Boys Unofficial Home Page (http://hardyboys.us) Detailed information on the Hardy Boys. • HardyBoys.co.uk (http://www.hardyboys.co.uk/) A guide to British editions. • Hardy Boys Online (http://www.hardyboysonline.net/content.php?page=home) Detailed information on the Hardy Boys

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Adventure in Dairyland
Adventure in Dairyland
Genre Format Directed by Starring Children's program Serial William Beaudine, Sr. Annette Funicello Sammy Ogg Kevin Corcoran Herb Newcombe Fern Persons Glen Graber Mary Lu Delmonte United States English 8 Production Producer(s) Location(s) Bill Walsh Burbank, California Verona, Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Walter Castle

Country of origin Language(s) No. of episodes

Cinematography

Production company(s) Walt Disney Productions Broadcast Original channel ABC

Adventure in Dairyland is a television serial that aired in 1956 on ABC as part of the second season of The Mickey Mouse Club. The serial starred Mouseketeer Annette Funicello and Sammy Ogg of Spin and Marty and featured Kevin Corcoran in his first Walt Disney production.

Plot
Annette Funicello and Sammy Ogg visit the 560-acre McCandless Sunny Acres Dairy Farm in Wisconsin. They get to know the members of the McCandless family and learn about the operation of a dairy farm.[1]

Tie-in
The serial was produced in co-operation with the American Dairy Association who published a 16-page paper pamphlet that presented material from the serial.[2]

References
[1] Terrace, Vincent (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2007 (Volume 1). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-3305-6. [2] The Original Mickey Mouse Club Show: Adventure in Dairyland (http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ dairyland. html)

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External links
• Adventure in Dairyland (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt647280/) at the Internet Movie Database

List of Jiminy Cricket educational serials
Jiminy Cricket serials
Format Created by Children's variety show Bill Walsh Hal Adelquist Walt Disney Cliff Edwards (voice)

Starring

Country of origin United States No. of episodes 30 Production Running time 8 minutes Broadcast Original channel Original run ABC, syndicated, Disney Channel 1955 – 1959

This is a list of all four Jiminy Cricket educational serials that originally aired on the Mickey Mouse Club TV series. The serials feature Jiminy Cricket, Pinocchio's moral compass, providing general education and science information in an entertaining and accessible manner. The serials also have a strong focus on the importance of books and learning on one's own. The first 2 serials were later updated in the 1980s and 1990s as stand-alone shorts, and were shown in schools and occasionally on the Disney Channel.

I'm No Fool series
Each short is less than 10 minutes in runtime and begins and ends with the theme song, "I'm No Fool", with the lyrics to the closing number reworked to include the lessons taught during the short. Jiminy presents each hypothetical situation by drawing chalk outlines of the primary participants (usually a stereotypical, Family Circus-esque American boy) on a black board. The drawings then come to life and get into various questionable situations, with Jiminy steering them in the right direction.

List of Jiminy Cricket educational serials

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Filmography
• • • • • • • • • • • • I'm No Fool With A Bicycle (10/06/55) I'm No Fool With Fire (12/01/55) I'm No Fool As A Pedestrian (10/08/56) I'm No Fool with Water (11/15/56) I'm No Fool Having Fun (12/15/56) I'm No Fool in a Car (1957) I'm No Fool in an Emergency (1957) I'm No Fool in Unsafe Places (1957) I'm No Fool in Unsafe Places II (1957) I'm No Fool on Wheels (1957) I'm No Fool with Safety at School (1957) I'm No Fool with Electricity (1957)

You and Your series
Similarly to the I'm No Fool series above, Jiminy Cricket teaches children about the human body.

Filmography
• • • • • • • • You - the Human Animal (10/20/55) You - and Your Five Senses (12/15/55) You - and Your Eyes (11/07/56) You - and Your Food (4/18/57) You - the Living Machine (5/01/57) You - and Your Ears (10/03/57) You - and Your Sense of Touch (1964) You - and Your Sense of Smell and Taste (4/01/77)

Nature of Things series
Jiminy Cricket teaches children about the animals of nature, in a similar manner to the No Fool series. This series also had live-action footage lifted from True-Life Adventures, this series was also known as Animal Autobiography, generally these had only intro sequence featuring Jiminy Cricket, the rest was live-action of real Animals.

Filmography
• • • • • • • • • • Animal Champions (10/13/55) Cansdale (10/27/55) The Black Bear (12/28/55) The Prairie Dog (12/29/55) The King of Beasts (12/30/55) The Camel (1/26/56) The Bee (10/31/56) The Elephant (11/01/56) Alaskan Sled Dog (11/02/56) The Mountain Lion (12/24/56)

• The Beaver (1962) • The Buffalo (1962)

List of Jiminy Cricket educational serials • The Coyote (1962) • The Giraffe (1963) • The Horse (1964)

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Encyclopedia series
Jiminy Cricket teaches children how to spell, also in a similar manner to the No Fool series.

Filmography
• • • • • • • Cork and Wheelwright (11/01/56) Milk (11/26/56) Tuna (12/27/56) Railroads (2/19/57) Steel (4/26/57) Give the United Way (1956) Curiosity (1956)

Following Mickey Mouse Club Newsreel Specials were aired under Encyclopedia banner but didn't feature Jiminy Cricket. • • • • • • Uranium Hunt (10/30/57) Cormorant Fishing (12/27/57) Roaring Midgets (1/20/58) Shipyards (1/20/58) The Lobster Story (1/20/58) Shooting the Rapids (1/20/58)

Educational film
In 1984, Disney Educational Inc. produced a film called Jiminy Cricket, P.S. (Problem Solver) which recycles animation from other classic Disney shorts. The film was 10 minutes long, and also stars Goofy, Donald Duck, and Ludwig Von Drake. It was originally released on VHS[1][2]

Notes
[1] http:/ / www. cesa8. k12. wi. us/ media/ details. asp?id=3120 [2] Disney A to Z - The Official Encyclopedia, by Dave Smith.

External links
• The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts: I'm No Fool (http://www.disneyshorts.org/miscellaneous/ imnofool.html) • The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts: You and Your (http://www.disneyshorts.org/miscellaneous/ youandyour.html) • Everything 2 (http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1288522) • The Big Cartoon Database (http://www.bcdb.com/cartoons/Walt_Disney_Studios/Shorts/Educational/ I_m_No_Fool____/) • From Ukelele Ike to Jiminy Cricket: Cliff Edwards (http://www.mouseplanet.com/9135/ From_Ukelele_Ike_to_Jiminy_Cricket_Cliff_Edwards)

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The Adventures of Clint and Mac
The Adventures of Clint and Mac
Genre Format Written by Directed by Language(s) No. of episodes Children's program Serial Malcolm Stuart Boylan Terence Fisher English 15 Production Producer(s) Location(s) Cinematography Bill Walsh London Ernest Palmer

Production company(s) Walt Disney Productions Broadcast Original run December 30, 1957 – January 17, 1958

The Adventures of Clint and Mac is a 1957 television serial that aired on ABC as part of the third season of The Mickey Mouse Club.[1]

Plot
Clint is an American boy living in London while his father is stationed there with the United States Air Force. He's formed a friendship with Mac, his neighbor, whose father is a Scotland Yard Inspector. The serial, taking place over the course of a single day, portrays their involvement in the theft of the original manuscript of the novel Treasure Island and their attempts to return it to its rightful owners.[2]

Cast and characters
• • • • • • • • • Neil Wolfe as Clint Rogers Jonathan Bailey as Alistair "Mac" MacIntosh John Warwick as Inspector MacIntosh Dorothy Smith as Mac's Mother Bill Nagy as Clinton Rogers, Sr. Mary Barclay as Clint's mother Sandra Michaels as Pamela Stuart George Woodbridge as Toby Jug Eric Phillips as Constable Hawkins

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Episodes
1. "An Introduction" (Dec 30, 1957) 2. "The Day Begins" (Dec 31, 1957) 3. "The Mysterious Bookshop" (Jan 1, 1958) 4. "The Strange Character" (Jan 2, 1958) 5. "The Forgotten Clue" (Jan 3, 1958) 6. "Looking For Trouble" (Jan 6, 1958) 7. "A Call For Help" (Jan 7, 1958) 8. "The Chase" (Jan 8, 1958) 9. "The Meeting of the Pirates" (Jan 9, 1958) 10. "The Getaway Boat" (Jan 10, 1958) 11. "The Unseen Watchers" (Jan 13, 1958) 12. "Dangerous Journey" (Jan 14, 1958) 13. "Pamela Takes a Hand" (Jan 15, 1958) 14. "The Signal" (Jan 16, 1958) 15. "A Battle Royal" (Jan 17, 1958)

References
[1] Mickey Mouse Club Serials: The Adventures of Clint and Mac (http:/ / www. originalmmc. com/ clintmac. html) Retrieved 2011-08-29. [2] Terrace, Vincent (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2007 (Volume 1). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-3305-6.

External links
• The Adventures of Clint and Mac (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0828466/) at the Internet Movie Database

Romper Room

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Romper Room
Romper Room was a long running children's television series that ran in the United States from 1953 to 1994 as well as internationally at various times in Canada, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, Puerto Rico and Japan. The program is targeted at preschoolers, children five years of age or younger.

Television franchises
Romper Room was a rare case of a series being franchised and syndicated, so local affiliates—Los Angeles and New York were prime examples—could produce their own versions of the show instead of airing the national telecast. For some time local shows all over the world used the same script but with local children. Kids would be on waiting lists for years (sometimes before birth) to be on the show. It was called "an actual kindergarten". Originally filmed in Baltimore, Romper Room eventually moved its broadcast facilities to Chicago, then moved back to Baltimore in 1981. River West Brands[1] is the current owner of the Romper Room trademark and intends to re-launch the brand.

A typical episode
Each program would open with a greeting from the hostess and the Pledge of Allegiance. Then the hostess and her group of children would embark on 30 or 60 minutes of games, exercises, songs and moral lessons, which were regularly accompanied by background music. The young cast was rotated every two months and ranged from four to five years old. Romper Room tried to teach its young charges to be polite. For instance, the hostesses were always addressed as "Miss." Many of the hostesses had prior experience in working with small children, as many were former kindergarten teachers. The hostess would also serve milk and cookies to the children, with prayer offered before eating. The famous Romper Room prayer went "God is great, God is good. Let us thank him for our food. Amen." A recurring character was Mr. Do-Bee, an oversized bumblebee who came to teach the children proper deportment; he was noted for always starting his sentence with "Do Bee", as in the imperative "Do be"; for example, "Do Bee good boys and girls for your parents!" There was also a "Mr. Don't Bee" to show children exactly what they should not do. Do-Bee balloons were also manufactured. Each balloon featured a painted sketch of Do-Bee on it. When the balloons were inflated and then released, they would fly around the room slowly emitting a buzzing sound. These balloons were made available for purchase to the public.[2] The show used the then-popular Mattel Jack-in-the-box for its opening and closing titles, with its traditional nursery rhyme "Pop Goes the Weasel" theme song. At the end of each broadcast, the hostess would look through a "magic mirror" – actually an open hoop with a handle, the size and shape of a hand mirror – recite the rhyme, "Romper, bomper, stomper boo. Tell me, tell me, tell me, do. Magic Mirror, tell me today, have all my friends had fun at play?" She would then name the children she saw in "televisionland", saying, for example, "I can see Robert and Jessica and Julie and Jimmy and Kelly and Tommy and Judy" and so on. Kids were encouraged to mail in their names, which would be read on the air – first names only.

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Romper Room and Friends
In 1981, the format of Romper Room was overhauled and re-titled Romper Room and Friends. 100 syndicated versions were taped in Baltimore with "Miss Molly" as host. The biggest change to the program was the introduction of a series of new puppet characters, including a full costume character named Kimble, and puppets, Granny Cat and Up-Up. Kimble and UpUp were performed by Bruce Edward Hall and Granny Cat by Molly McCloskey aka "Miss Molly". The three characters were developed by The Great Jones Studios in NYC. The new characters starred in a series of vignettes, somewhat similar to the "Neighborhood of Make-Believe" segments on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, and were meant to introduce or reinforce simple moral lessons. About 100 of these skits — each running three to five minutes — were produced for insertion into local Romper Room programs; the host would introduce each segment and comment after its conclusion. In addition, a new opening and closing credits sequence, and lyrical theme – "Romper Room and Friends", containing mostly non-sensical lyrics, but also naming the characters Up-Up, Do Bee, Granny Cat, and Kimble in the lyrics as well – were used, replacing the "Pop Goes the Weasel" theme that had been used.

Hostesses
National
"Miss Nancy" Terrell, was the hostess in the 1960s and early 1970s when Romper Room was seen on ABC-owned and operated stations throughout the United States in locales that did not have their own hostesses.

Baltimore
The first Romper Room hostess was Nancy Claster, who helped produce the series with her husband under the Claster Television banner. Miss Nancy hosted the show, produced at the studios of WBAL-TV in Baltimore, Maryland, from the first episode in 1953 until 1963, when she was replaced by her daughter Sally Claster Gelbard. Miss Sally hosted the show, in Baltimore and the surrounding area, until 1981 when it was retitled.

Boston
Miss Jean was in the Boston area Romper Room (which aired on WHDH and its successor WCVB). She was an English major and Education minor and a graduate of Salem State College, in Salem, Massachusetts. A Swampscott native, she now makes her home in Florida. The show aired with Miss Jean from 1958-1972.

Cleveland
Cleveland hostess "Miss Barbara" Plummer hosted the local version of Romper Room on WEWS from 1958 until 1971. She died on March 20, 2010, at the age of 80 from pneumonia-related complications.

Quad Cities, IA/IL
Quad Cities hostess "Miss Peggy" Wittke hosted the local version of Romper Room on WQAD from the late 70s and into the 80s.

Honolulu
The Hawaiian version of Romper Room debuted in 1964 on KTRG (now KHNL) with "Miss Robin" (Robin Mann), but after the station canceled the program in 1966, the show and its host moved over to KHON where it ran until 1972, when KHON replaced it with Today. Mann later admitted that despite the success of Romper Room in Honolulu, she felt that there wasn't any Hawaiian influence or culture being emphasized into the series during its run. In 1974 KHON bought Mann back for a series called "Robin's Room", which incorporated the Hawaiian culture but

Romper Room had the Romper Room elements, which ran until 1976.

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Johnstown, Pa.
A version of the program aired on WJAC-TV out of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, was originally hosted and taught by "Miss Jean," Jean Federici of Pittsburgh. A music education graduate of Indiana State Teacher's College in Indiana, Pa - now Indiana University of Pennsylvania, she hosted the program from 1958 to 1960. "Miss Patti" Patti Hewitt was the hostess from October 1960 through December 1973. She was an elementary major and graduated from Penn State University in State College, Pennsylvania. Miss Patti was replaced with "Miss Mary" Mary Parks until the end of its run about 1976. Mary remained with channel 6 for until 1990 as an anchor, reporter and public affairs reporter. She left WJAC in 1990 to become Sister Mary of the Sisters of St Joseph.

Lexington, Ky.
A local version of the program in Lexington, Kentucky, was hosted by "Miss Roni," Roni Martin Scott, from 1974 until 1976 on WTVQ-TV.

Los Angeles
In Los Angeles, Romper Room aired on KCOP-TV. There were only two hosts of the Los Angeles version of the series: "Miss Mary Ann" and "Miss Soco". The second host of the program was Socorro Serrano, aka "Miss Soco", who hosted from 1977 until it ended in 1989 and was the first Latina of Mexican American Heritage to host Romper Room. Miss Soco is still fondly remembered by Angelenos in their late 20s and 30s.

Little Rock, Ark.
One hostess would later find some measure of success in music. Margaret Jones, who hosted the Little Rock show as "Miss Peggy" between 1963 and 1966, went on to sing and to play tabla and keyboards for a locally popular psychedelic rock band called Campbell's Lavender Circus (or sometimes simply Lavender Circus). The sextet sold 2,000 copies statewide of their single, "I Have No Time for Time"/"Mr. N. Bourbaki's Multicoloured Jam."

Madison, Wis.
Judy Fraser attended the University of Wisconsin in Madison and graduated with a B.A. in Speech Communications. She received an honorary scholarship and membership in the Phi Beta Honorary Society for outstanding academic work and the University's Outstanding Actress Award for her portrayal of Maggie in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. After college, Judy remained in Madison, working at a local television station as weathercaster, movie hostess, and Romper Room's "Miss Judy." Channel 15 [WMTV].

Miami
The Miami, Florida hostess "Miss Iris" Maxwell from WCKT (now WSVN) Channel 7 was formerly Miss Miami Beach 1953. She was also the author of the children's book Terri and Mike in Lollipop Land, named after her first two children, Michael and Theresa Martin, who had appeared on the show several times. She later married philanthropist and real estate developer Ben Tobin, with whom she had a daughter, Benita Tobin.

Milwaukee
The Milwaukee version of Romper Room aired on WISN-TV Channel 12.

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New Orleans
Virginia Sherwood Carino, a former broadcaster and ABC News White House correspondent best known in New Orleans for the role that began her career – as Miss Ginny on WWL-TV’s “Romper Room” – died Oct. 7. She was 87. Mrs. Carino suffered complications from Alzheimer’s disease, her family said. Her husband was former WWL-TV general manager Larry Carino, who came to WWL in 1958 as sales manager. Mrs. Carino’s career included a stint at ABC News, as one of the network’s first female correspondents, covering the White House during the Nixon and Ford administrations. Later, she became a communications coach and consultant, helping TV reporters and hosts, political candidates and corporate executives enhance their communication skills. But she is best known in the city where she began her TV career and spent nearly 10 years teaching children to be “Do Bees” and not “Don’t Bees,” on Channel 4’s “Romper Room.” Each weekday the station aired a local edition of the nationally syndicated show which licensed local versions in TV markets across the country. A later New Orleans version was hosted by actress Linda Mintz. As “Miss Ginny,” Mrs. Carino presided over the Romper Room schoolhouse, welcoming six preschool-aged children to the studio for games, exercise and lessons in everything from math and reading to table manners – particularly how “Do Bees” acted. "Do Bee good boys and girls for your parents," was an example, illustrated by a large bumblebee hand puppet and on signs posted in the school room studio. Each show began with a Jack-in-the box opening title, to the theme of “Pop Goes the Weasel,” and closed with the hostess looking into her Magic Mirror. Miss Ginny, and her counterparts across the country, would recite the still-familiar line, "Romper, bomper, stomper boo. Tell me, tell me, tell me, do. Magic Mirror, tell me today, have all my friends had fun at play?” She would then name the children she saw in "television land,” who had mailed in their names and were part of the at-home audience. Mrs. Carino hosted various other shows and appeared in commercials on the station before leaving in 1967. She was a graduate of Stanford University, where she majored in theater. In addition to her husband, Mrs. Carino is survived by a daughter, 8 stepchildren, 28 grandchildren and 31 great-grandchildren. A memorial service was held in Sun Lakes, Arizona. Memorial donations may be made to the Mayo Clinic for Alzheimer’s Research or the Alzheimer’s Association.[3]

New York City
In New York City, the first hostess was "Miss Gloria" Flood on WABC-TV for the years 1955-57. "Miss Joan" Thayer became the new hostess when it moved to WNEW-TV (now WNYW) in 1957. "Miss Louise" Redfield took over hosting duties at the same time the program moved over to WOR-TV (now WWOR-TV) in 1966. From 1966 to 1971, in the New York City market, Romper Room aired at 11 a.m. In 1971 it moved up to 10 a.m. in order not to conflict with PBS's 9 a.m. airing of Sesame Street. "Miss Louise" was followed by "Miss Mary Ann" Pedersen, who began filling in for Louise in the early 1970s. After Louise Redfield left in 1975, Mary Ann Pederson took over the show until 1981. In 1981, the name was changed to Romper Room and Friends with new host "Miss Molly" McCloskey and was now syndicated to other markets outside of the NYC area. Miss Molly gained a great deal of popularity with viewers and is still fondly remembered today. WOR-TV continued to produce the show, moving it to 9 a.m. in the fall of 1981 and then back to 10 a.m. a month later, due to complaints that it was interfering with the airing of PBS's Sesame Street. The show was aired "live" until 1985. Children who were on the show for a week were on a waiting list for three to four years. It would remain in that time slot until the summer of 1985 when it was pushed up to 8:30 am. A few months after WOR-TV was sold and renamed WWOR, Romper Room was reduced to 30 minutes and moved to 6 a.m. in September 1987. Production in the New York area was discontinued a year later. While many local versions ended

Romper Room in the late 1980s and early 1990s (and some ended in the early-to-mid 1980s), nationally syndicated episodes of Romper Room and Friends with "Miss Molly" stopped airing in 1994.

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Philadelphia
Another early Romper Room hostess was Claire Coleman, who was the original "Miss Claire" at the Romper Room debut in Philadelphia in 1954. Miss Claire hosted the show at WFIL (now WPVI-TV) from 1954 until 1956. During this time she shared an office with Dick Clark from American Bandstand. Claire Coleman is married to former U.S. Senator Richard Schweiker.

Pittsburgh
WTAE's version ran from 1958 to 1976, although they also carried the national version on Saturday mornings in its later years. "Miss Jan" Bohna was the local teacher for the WTAE version.

Rochester
In Rochester, New York, where the show was carried on the newly-founded WOKR, now WHAM-TV, it was hosted from 1962-1967 by "Miss Rita," Rita Barton, who later founded an innovative child-care facility and is still active today, nearly 50 years after her debut on the program. The role was later taken on by "Miss Karen" for a later portion of the program's run in the 1960s and early 1970s.

San Francisco
Miss Nancy Besst hosted the San Francisco version on KTVU from 1958 to 1969.

Savannah, Ga.
Miss Kay Lisicia hosted the Savannah version on WTOC during the early 1970s.

Washington, D.C.
Miss Connie Bohlin hosted the D.C. version on WTTG Channel 5 from 1957 - 1967.

Controversy
Two controversial events were connected with Romper Room:

Miss Sherri
In 1962, the hostess of the Phoenix franchise of Romper Room linked her own name with that of the ongoing controversies over abortion. Sherri Finkbine, known to television viewers as "Miss Sherri", sought hospital approval for abortion on the ground that she had been taking thalidomide and believed her child would be born deformed. Finkbine made a public announcement about the dangers of thalidomide, and the hospital refused to allow an abortion, apparently because of her announcement and its own fear of publicity. Finkbine traveled to Sweden for the abortion. Upon completion, it was confirmed that the fetus had no legs and only one arm. The incident became a made-for-TV movie in 1992, A Private Matter, with Sissy Spacek as Finkbine.

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Action For Children's Television
After the children's television watchdog group Action for Children's Television was organized in 1968, the group's first target was Boston's version of Romper Room at WHDH-TV (today's WCVB-TV), which at the time was a children's show that focused on the promotion of its branded line of toys to its viewers. Threatened with referral to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), WHDH scaled back the host's role in pitching the program's products ("host-selling"). Through the 1980s, Hasbro (which had purchased the program in 1969) sold branded Romper Room toys and products, but since ACT's intervention, ads and promotions for the items were not seen in the Romper Room program.

International
The Romper Room format was expanded into other countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United Kingdom.[4]

Australia
Several stations in Australia aired their own versions of Romper Room, most notably the Seven Network (who produced a national version through its Sydney station ATN-7) and regional station NBN-3 Newcastle. The hostesses of the national edition were Miss Susan, Miss Patricia, Miss Colleen, Miss Helena and Miss Megan. This version of Romper Room was axed in 1988 as the children's show Fat Cat and Friends replaced it.[5] The NBN edition continued after the station became an affiliate of the Nine Network, with a new title, Big Dog and Friends, the title referring to the station's mascot Big Dog, who appeared in the show as the sidekick of the hostess, Miss Kim. This, the last version of Romper Room to survive on Australian television, was eventually cancelled. Other stations known to have produced their own versions of Romper Room are SAS-10 (now SAS-7) Adelaide, which ran from 1965 to 1974, and ATV-0 (now ATV-10) Melbourne.

Canada
In Canada, the first station to start airing the locally produced version of Romper Room was CKLW-TV in Windsor, Ontario, which at the time was serving the Detroit, Michigan television market, in 1954, the year the station signed on, with Miss Ardis and Miss Flora, Flora (Paulin) Asselstine. Besides Windsor, CJCH-TV in Halifax, Nova Scotia also produced a local version during the 1960s, which was hosted by "Miss Ann" (Ann Wilson). This version later moved to CHSJ-TV in Saint John, New Brunswick during the 1970s.[6] Other local versions were produced at CHCH-TV in Hamilton, Ontario, CHBC-TV in Kelowna, BC, CJAY-TV in Winnipeg, CKVR-TV in Barrie, Ontario hosted by "Miss Lois" (Lois Welsman) and CFCF-TV in Montreal. In Newfoundland and Labrador, a local version was produced on CJON-TV (NTV) in St. John's, and there was another local version produced in Grand Falls-Windsor. The version in Toronto aired on CFTO-TV. A nation-wide program that ran from 1972-1992 on CTV was produced at CKCO-TV in Kitchener, Ontario and was hosted by "Miss Fran" (Fran Pappert), "Miss Jean" (Jeanette Moffat) and "Miss Betty" (Betty Thompson). The Canadian version of the program used the same opening credits and "Pop Goes the Weasel" theme as the US version, the Jack-in-the-box logo, and other elements such as the Do-Bee character and the Magic Mirror (including the psychedelic visual effect that went along with it). When the US franchise changed the title to Romper Room and Friends, the Canadian series followed suit.

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Hong Kong
In Hong Kong, there was a local version called Xiaoxiao Leyuan (小 小 樂 園), which aired since the late 1960s to the early 1970s. It was hosted by Miss Zhao Shuzhen (趙 淑 貞) but she would be known as "Sister Zhao" (趙 淑 貞 姐 姐). Elements such as "Pop Goes the Weasel" theme, the Jack-in-the-box logo, the Do-Bee character and the Magic Mirror are the same as other versions.[7][8]

Japan
In Japan, there was a localised version called Ronpārūmu (ロ ン パ ー ル ー ム), which aired from 1963 to 1979. Just before this show debuted, the first Japanese hostess, Midori Namiki, visited New York for training with other hostesses from several countries.[9] Hostesses of the Japanese version were always named Miss Midori, with "midori" meaning "green".

Puerto Rico
In Puerto Rico, the show was hosted by Bertita Novoa and later, by Sandra Zaiter.

United Kingdom
The United Kingdom had several versions of Romper Room. Anglia Television produced a version for broadcast in the East Anglia region of England from 1964–1976, hosted by "Miss Rosalyn" (Rosalyn Thompson).[10] In Northern Ireland, local ITV affiliate UTV created a local production in the late 1960s and early 1970s, hosted by "Miss Adrienne" (mother of television reporter Andrea Catherwood), and then "Miss Helen" and Rose Neill "Miss Rose". Around the same time, Grampian Television in northern Scotland produced a version hosted by "Miss Lesley" (Lesley Blair, a continuity announcer) and "Miss Rose Neill".

References
[1] "River West Brands" (http:/ / www. riverwestbrands. com). River West Brands. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [2] "quicksales.com.au - Online auction & shopping site - Shop, buy & sell in Australia" (http:/ / www. oztion. com. au/ buy/ auction. aspx?itemid=5186869). Oztion.com.au. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [3] "Virginia Carino, "Miss Ginny" on WWL-TV's "Romper Room," dies at 87 | wwltv.com New Orleans" (http:/ / www. wwltv. com/ news/ Virginia-Carino-Miss-Ginny-on-WWL-TVs-Romper-Room-dies-at-87-174093211. html). Wwltv.com. 2012-10-14. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [4] "Romper Room Takes Its Own Advice: 'Do Bee' the Longest-Running Kids' Program on U.S. Television" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ archive/ article/ 0,,20070134,00. html). People Vol 9 No. 5. 02-06-1978. . [5] "Romper Room - Australian Television Archive" (http:/ / austv. hostforweb. com/ cgi-bin/ cgi2/ index. rb?page=Romper Room& section=Television History Reference/ TV Shows/ R& mode=0). Austv.hostforweb.com. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [6] CBC News (20 Feb 2009). "Miss Ann of Saint John children's TV dies at 80." (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ canada/ new-brunswick/ story/ 2009/ 02/ 20/ miss-ann. html). Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. . Retrieved 20 May 2012. [7] "Long Distance Voyager - maninov4u 遠 航 者 遊 蹤 :麗 的 映 聲 的 回 憶 - 樂 多 日 誌" (http:/ / blog. roodo. com/ maninov4u/ archives/ 7231001. html). Blog.roodo.com. 2008-09-23. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [8] "《 太 平 山 下 》—自 家 製 作 的 早 產 兒 | Blog | C'est La Vie - Yahoo! Blog" (http:/ / blog. yahoo. com/ _4PX2PSWO7BK426ZODVI3RZEO2A/ articles/ 384914). Blog.yahoo.com. 2009-06-14. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [9] "ロ ン パ ー ル ー ム" (http:/ / www. isec-j. co. jp/ 90midori/ romperroom. htm). Isec-j.co.jp. . Retrieved 2012-11-12. [10] "The TV Room" (http:/ / tvpresenters. thetvroomplus. com/ channel-20. html). Tvpresenters.thetvroomplus.com. 2006-09-06. . Retrieved 2012-11-12.

Romper Room

139

External links
• • • • • • • A Clip from the Australian Romper Room c. 1985 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIRu8-5Nyek) Romper Room (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0190196/) at the Internet Movie Database A Private Matter (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0105176/) at the Internet Movie Database Miss Nancy's Journal (http://www.missnancysjournal.com) Romper Room info from tvparty.com (http://www.tvparty.com/lostromper.html) Romper Room on WOC TV 6 Davenport, Iowa (http://www.captainerniesshowboat.com/romperroom.html) 2008 interview with Honolulu's Romper Room host Robin Mann (http://archives.starbulletin.com/2008/02/ 04/features/flashback.html) from Honolulu Star-Bulletin • Romper Room at the National Film and Sound Archive (http://colsearch.nfsa.afc.gov.au/nfsa/search/display/ display. w3p;adv=yes;group=;groupequals=;holdingType=;page=0;parentid=;query=138079;querytype=;rec=0;resCount=10)

Third Man on the Mountain

140

Third Man on the Mountain
Third Man on the Mountain
Directed by Produced by Written by Based on Starring Music by Ken Annakin Bill Anderson Walt Disney (uncredited) Eleanore Griffin Banner in the Sky by James Ramsey Ullman Michael Rennie James MacArthur William Alwyn

Cinematography Harry Waxman Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Box office Walt Disney Productions Buena Vista Distribution

November 10, 1959

105 minutes United States English $1,700,000 (US/ Canada)
[1]

Third Man on the Mountain is a 1959 American Walt Disney Productions movie set during the golden age of alpinism about a young Swiss man who conquers the mountain that killed his father. It is based on Banner in the Sky, a James Ramsey Ullman novel about the first ascent of the Citadel, and was televised under this name. The movie inspired the Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland Park.[2]

Production
The film was made on location in Switzerland with Gaston Rebuffat as the head of the mountain second unit photography.[3] The film was shot in the summer of 1958 in Zermatt, that Disney had known from his ski trips. The studio portions of the film were done in London.[4]

Cast
• • • • • • • • • • Michael Rennie as Captain John Winter James MacArthur as Rudi Matt Janet Munro as Lizbeth Hempel James Donald as Franz Lerner Herbert Lom as Emil Saxo Laurence Naismith as Teo Zurbriggen Lee Patterson as Klaus Wesselhoft Walter Fitzgerald as Herr Hempel Nora Swinburne as Frau Matt Ferdy Mayne as Andreas

Third Man on the Mountain • Helen Hayes as Tourist (uncredited) • James Ramsey Ullman as Tourist (uncredited)

141

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] "Rental Potentials of 1960", Variety, 4 January 1961 p 47. Please note figures are rentals as opposed to total gross. p.267 Barrier, Michael. The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney 2008 University of California Press http:/ / www. ultimatedisney. com/ thirdman. html p.267 Barrier, Michael. The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney 2008 University of California Press

External links
• Third Man on the Mountain (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0053352/) at the Internet Movie Database

The Misadventures of Merlin Jones

142

The Misadventures of Merlin Jones
The Misadventures of Merlin Jones
Directed by Produced by Written by Robert Stevenson Walt Disney Ron Miller Story: Bill Walsh Screenplay: Alfred Lewis Levitt Helen Levitt Tommy Kirk Annette Funicello Leon Ames Buddy Baker

Starring

Music by

Cinematography Edward Colman Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Box office Cotton Warburton Walt Disney Productions Buena Vista Distribution March 25, 1964 91 minutes United States English $4,000,000 (US/ Canada)
[1]

The Misadventures of Merlin Jones is a 1964 Walt Disney production starring Tommy Kirk and Annette Funicello. Kirk plays a college student who experiments with mind-reading and hypnotism, leading to run-ins with a local judge. Funicello plays his girlfriend (and sings the film's title song written by brothers Robert and Richard Sherman). This film led to a 1965 sequel called The Monkey's Uncle.

Plot
Midvale College student Merlin Jones (Tommy Kirk), who is always involved with mind experiments, designs a helmet that connects to an electroencephalographic tape that records mental activity. He is brought before Judge Holmby (Leon Ames) for wearing the helmet while driving and his license is suspended. Merlin returns to the lab and discovers accidentally that his new invention enables him to read minds. Judge Holmby visits the diner where Merlin works part-time, and Merlin, through his newly-found powers, learns that the judge is planning a crime. After informing the police, he is disregarded as a crackpot. Merlin and Jennifer (Annette Funicello), his girlfriend, break into Judge Holmby's house looking for something to prove Holmby's criminal intent but are arrested by the police. Holmby then confesses that he is the crime book author, "Lex Fortis," and asks that this identity be kept confidential. Merlin's next experiment uses hypnotism. After hypnotizing Stanley, Midvale's lab chimp, into standing up for himself against Norman (Norm Grabowski) - the bully student in charge of caring for Stanley, Merlin gets into a fight with Norman, and is brought before Judge Holmby again. Intrigued by Merlin's experiments, the judge asks for Merlin's help in constructing a mystery plot for his next book. Working on the premise that no honest person can be made to do anything they wouldn’t do otherwise – especially commit a crime – Merlin hypnotizes Holmby and

The Misadventures of Merlin Jones instructs him to kidnap Stanley. Shocked when the judge actually commits the crime, Merlin and Jennifer return the chimp, but are charged for the theft themselves. The judge sentences Merlin to jail, completely unaware of his own role in the crime. Livid at the injustice, Jennifer persuades Holmby of his own guilt, and the good judge admits that there might be a little dishonesty in everybody.

143

Production notes
The screen credit for writing reads, "Screenplay by Tom and Helen August", which were the pseudonyms for Alfred Lewis Levitt & Helen Levitt, two writers who were blacklisted.[2] To date Disney has not officially stated whether or not this film was actually two episodes of a planned television series, however, this has long been suspected to be the case,[3] with at least one critic, Eugene Archer, of The New York Times, writing upon its release: "Movies made for television are commonplace these days, but the idea of screening television shows in movie theaters is still farfetched. Who is expected to spend the $2? Strange as it sounds, this seems to be the explanation behind Walt Disney's latest hit, "The Misadventures of Merlin Jones." It is a pastiche of two separate stories with the same set of characters, each running less than an hour (leaving time for commercials), stitched together in the middle and released yesterday in neighborhood theaters." [4] Filming took place in early 1963.[5] In March of that year it was reported NBC were so pleased with the results they wanted more Merlin Jones adventures.[6] It appears that Disney then decided to release the movie theatrically.

Reception
Although critics were not impressed (see Eugene Archer's comment in Production notes, above), audiences seemed to love it, as the film grossed over $4 million in North America, surprising even Disney.[7] It made enough money to encourage a sequel in 1965.[8]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] "Updated All-time Film Champs", Variety, 9 January 1974 p 60. Please note figure is rentals accruing to distributors. Variety, April 3, 1997 (http:/ / www. variety. com/ vstory/ VR1117434876. html?categoryid=38& cs=1) SciFilm.org (http:/ / www. scifilm. org/ musing2741. html) The New York Times, March 26, 1964 (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?res=9906E2D71230E033A25755C2A9659C946591D6CF) FILMLAND EVENTS: MISS PICKFORD, LLOYD WILL RECEIVE HONOR Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 03 Jan 1963: C7. ABC Planning the Shocker of All Time Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 16 Mar 1963: d19. Disney: Self-Perpetuating Money Machine: 'Mary Poppins' Works Her Magic for Happy Shareowners VanderVeld, Richard L. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 18 July 1965: h1. Disney Announces Diverse Schedule: Doris Day Winner (Again); Ill Wind a Boon to Actors Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 04 Jan 1965: B7.

External links
• The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0058355/) at the Internet Movie Database

The Monkey's Uncle

144

The Monkey's Uncle
The Monkey's Uncle
Directed by Produced by Written by Starring Robert Stevenson Ron Miller Walt Disney Alfred Lewis Levitt Helen Levitt Tommy Kirk Annette Funicello Leon Ames Buddy Baker

Music by

Cinematography Edward Colman Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Box office Cotton Warburton Walt Disney Productions Buena Vista Distribution August 18, 1965 87 minutes United States English $4,000,000 (US/ Canada rentals)
[1]

The Monkey's Uncle is a 1965 Walt Disney production starring Tommy Kirk as genius college student Merlin Jones and Annette Funicello as his girlfriend, Jennifer. The title refers to a chimpanzee named Stanley, Merlin's legal "nephew" (a legal arrangement resulting from an experiment to raise Stanley as a human); Stanley otherwise has little relevance to the plot. Jones invents a man-powered airplane and a sleep-learning system.[2][3] The film is a sequel to the 1964 film The Misadventures of Merlin Jones.

Plot
Midvale College is told that a wealthy man, Mr. Astorbilt (Arthur O'Connell), will give a large donation, but he has a strange request — he challenges the school to build a man-powered flying machine. If they succeed by a certain date, they get the donation, otherwise it will go to a rival school. Merlin Jones (Kirk) designs a lightweight airplane, powered by a propeller driven by bicycle pedals. Recognizing that even his football-jock friends won't be strong enough for such a feat, he develops a strength elixir (based on adrenaline), which should give the power that a man would need to get off the ground. To get the jocks' support, he creates "an honest way to cheat", adapting the recently-discovered sleep-learning method to help them pass a particularly hard history course. Once the jocks are asleep, a timer starts a phonograph album, with the sound of Jennifer reading their lessons to them. This backfires in class, however — asked to give an oral report, the jocks speak, but Jennifer's voice comes out. Eventually it works out in the students' favor. Jones gets their help, and the great day comes. The pilot drinks the elixir, then pedals off into the sky, winning the contest. Unfortunately, the "wealthy donor" is last seen fleeing from men in white coats, who want to take him back to the local mental hospital.

The Monkey's Uncle

145

Production notes
The Misadventures of Merlin Jones had been a surprise hit, earning over $4 million in rentals for Disney and prompting a sequel.[4] This production marks both Tommy Kirk's and Annette Funicello's last film for the studio. Actor Mark Goddard, who plays Haywood (and is perhaps best known as Major Don West on television's Lost in Space), made his feature film debut in this movie. The screen credit for writing reads, "Screenplay by Tom and Helen August", which were the pseudonyms for Alfred Lewis Levitt & Helen Levitt, two writers who were blacklisted.[5]

Music
The title song, written by the Sherman Brothers, is performed by Funicello, with The Beach Boys doing backup. This song was covered in 2006 by Devo 2.0 on the music CD Disneymania, Volume 4.

Reception
The New York Times reported, "It all falls into bright, colorful and innocuous non sequitur and, in an hour and a half, you are through, mildly diverted and unburdened by message." [6]

References
[1] This figure consists of anticipated rentals accruing distributors in North America. See "Big Rental Pictures of 1965", Variety, 5 January 1966 p6 [2] The New York Times, August 19, 1965 http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?res=9D0DE2DB173EE03ABC4152DFBE66838E679EDE [3] Turner Classic Movies http:/ / www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title. jsp?stid=83871 [4] Disney Announces Diverse Schedule: Doris Day Winner (Again); Ill Wind a Boon to Actors Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 04 Jan 1965: B7. [5] Variety, April 3, 1997. http:/ / www. variety. com/ vstory/ VR1117434876. html?categoryid=38& cs=1 [6] The New York Times, Movie Review by Richard Shephard, August 19, 1965

External links
• The Monkey's Uncle (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0059462/) at the Internet Movie Database • Annette Discusses The Monkey's Uncle (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDdlnUkEkuo&feature=related)

Kim Richards

146

Kim Richards
Kim Richards

Kim Richards, circa 1970 Born Kimberly Richards September 19, 1964 Mineola, New York, U.S. Actress 1970–1990; 2002–present G. Monty Brinson (Divorced) Gregg Davis (Divorced) Brooke Brinson Whitney Davis Chad Davis Kimberly Jackson

Occupation Years active Spouse(s)

Children

Kimberly "Kim" Richards (born September 19, 1964) is an American actress. She achieved fame as a former child actress, and as a television personality.[1] Richards was born in Mineola, New York.[2] Beginning her acting career at the age of four months in a diaper advertisement, Richards made her television debut in 1970 as Prudence on Nanny and the Professor. She then starred in films Escape to Witch Mountain, No Deposit, No Return, Assault on Precinct 13, The Car and Return from Witch Mountain garnering the title as the "Disney Girl". [3] Richard has also appeared significantly in television films and in recurring roles in television series', including Police Woman, Little House on the Prairie, Dukes of Hazzard, Love Boat, Diff'rent Strokes, Magnum, P.I., and Medical Center. Richards took a hiatus from acting in 1990 to raise her children. Upon her return to acting Richards starred in films Black Snake Moan and Race to Witch Mountain.[4] Since the series commenced in 2010, Richards has been a cast member on The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills. Richards resides in Los Angeles. Richards is the mother of four children. She has been married twice to G. Monty Brinson, supermarket heir, and Gregg Davis, oil heir.[5] She is the sister of Kyle Richards and Kathy Hilton. Richards is a recovering alcoholic and has been admitted to rehab on three occasions.[6]

Kim Richards

147

Early life
Kim Richards was born in Mineola, New York, the daughter of Kenneth E. Richards (1935–1998) and Kathleen Dugan (1938–2002).[1] The couple separated in 1972 and Kathleen later remarried. Richards' sisters are the actresses Kathy Hilton (born 1959) and Kyle Richards (born 1969). Socialites Nicky and Paris Hilton are her nieces, daughters of her half-sister, Kathy.[1] She is of Welsh and Irish ancestry.[7][8]

Career
Her career began during her childhood in the early 1970s.[1] From 1970–1971, she starred as Prudence Everett in the television series Nanny and the Professor, with costars Juliet Mills, Richard Long, David Doremus and Trent Lehman.[1] She also starred in several Disney films, including Escape to Witch Mountain, No Deposit, No Return and Return from Witch Mountain.[1][9][10] She starred in an episode of Little House on the Prairie as Olga Nordstorm, Laura Ingalls' friend with one leg shorter than the other, whom her Pa fitted with a handmade wooden heel on her shoe that allowed her to run and play normally with the other children.[1] In 1974 and 1976, she appeared in Disney's Whiz Kid Capers series (The Whiz Kid and the Mystery at Riverton and The Whiz Kid and the Carnival Caper) two television movies which aired as part of The Wonderful World of Disney anthology series.[1] In 1977, she and her sister Kyle both appeared as the daughters of James Brolin in The Car.[1] By 1978, she teamed up once again with Witch Mountain co-star Ike Eisenmann for the made-for-television movie Devil Dog: The Hound of Hell. In the John Carpenter film Assault on Precinct 13, she played a young girl who was brutally murdered when a gang member fired a round into her chest. She later starred in the short-lived series Hello, Larry and appeared as a guest on numerous episodes of popular American television shows including Diff'rent Strokes, Alice, Fantasy Island, The Love Boat, CHiPs, Magnum, P.I., James at 16, The Dukes of Hazzard and The Rockford Files.[11][12][13] As a young adult, she appeared in the films Meatballs Part II, Tuff Turf and Escape.[1] In addition, she also co-produced Escape along with then-husband G. Monty Brinson.[14] After 1990, she went into semi-retirement. In 2006, she appeared in a supporting role as Christina Ricci's estranged mother in Black Snake Moan. She made a cameo appearance in 2009's Race to Witch Mountain, playing a waitress named "Tina," a minor variation from the character "Tia" she played in the 1975 and 1978 films.[9][10][15] Since October 2010, she has starred as a full cast member of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills alongside her sister Kyle.

Personal life
In July of 1985, Richards married the heir to a supermarket franchise, G. Monty Brinson, who is now a professional poker player. Seven months later, in February 1986, Richards gave birth to daughter Brooke. Richards and Brinson divorced although they share custody of Brooke and remain friends. Richards second and most recent husband was oil heir Gregg Davis, son of oil tycoon and Dynasty inspiration Marvin Davis. Davis and Richards had two children together daughter Whitney and son Chad. The two were married for only a few years.[16]
"John’s murder was a devastating tragedy, and Kim was just torn apart. Poor Kim had to identify his body. It was a horrible nightmare for her. I’ve never recovered from the loss, and I don’t think Kim has either." John’s mother, Janis Collett, speaks about Kim's reaction.
[17]

In 1991, immediately after Richards’ separation from Davis, Richards began dating commodities salesman John J. Collett. Collett was a central figure in a large scam, involving eight thousand elderly investors and nearly $150 million in losses. On October 28, 1991 Collett was murdered by a hit man outside of Brent’s Deli, located in the San Fernando Valley community of Northridge. Collett and Richards were speaking on the phone whilst the shooting occurred.[17] The ordeal had a deep impact on Richards, who has opened up and spoken about Collett's murder on an episode of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills.[18]

Kim Richards Richards was later in a long term relationship with aircraft parts supplier John Jackson. In 1995, Richards, with John, gave birth to her fourth child Kimberly Jackson.[16] In December 2011, she entered rehab, and left in early January 2012.[19][20][21] Shortly after, she admitted to being an alcoholic.[20][22] She admitted she had been to rehab twice before.[23]

148

Filmography
• 1970–1971 Nanny and the Professor (TV series) – Prudence (54 episodes) • 1971–1976 Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color (TV anthology series) • "Strange Monster of Strawberry Cove: Parts 1 & 2" – Girl (uncredited) (1971) • "The Whiz Kid and the Mystery at Riverton: Parts 1 & 2" – Daphne "Daffy" Fernald (1974) • "Hog Wild: Parts 1 & 2" – Sara Melborne (1974) • "Return of the Big Cat: Parts 1 & 2" – Leroy McClaren (1974) • "The Whiz Kid and the Carnival Caper: Parts 1 & 2" – Daphne 'Daffy' Fernald (1976) • 1972 The F.B.I. (TV series) – Barbie Ghormley, episode "Dark Christmas" • 1972–1973 The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie (TV anthology series) • "Nanny and the Professor" – Prudence Everett (1972) • • • • • "Nanny and the Professor and the Phantom of the Circus" – Prudence Everett (1973) 1973 The Picture of Dorian Gray (TV movie) – Beatrice as a child 1973 Here We Go Again (TV series) – Jan Standish 1973 Alvin the Magnificent (TV movie) 1973–1977 ABC Afterschool Specials (TV anthology series) • "The Incredible, Indelible, Magical Physical, Mystery Trip" – Missey (1973) • "The Horrible Honchos" – Minnow/Missey (1977) 1974 Police Story (TV series) – Melanie, episode "The Wyatt Earp Syndrome" 1974 The New Temperatures Rising Show (TV series) – Little Girl 1974 Little House on the Prairie (TV series) – Olga Nordstrom, episode "Town Party-Country Party" 1974 Emergency! (TV series) – Melissa, episode "How Green Was My Thumb?" 1975 The Streets of San Francisco (TV series) – Julie Todd, episode "River of Fear" 1975 Medical Story (TV series), episode "Million Dollar Baby" 1975 Escape to Witch Mountain – Tia Malone 1976 Special Delivery Juliette 1976 Sara (TV series) – Maude, episode "Code of the West" 1976 The Rockford Files (TV series) – Marin Rose Gaily, episode "The Family Hour" 1976 Raid on Entebbe (TV movie) – Alice 1976 No Deposit, No Return – Tracy 1976 Police Woman (TV series) – Kerry McGuire, episode "Father to the Man" 1976 Medical Center (TV series) – Penny, episode "If Wishes Were Horses" 1976 Family (TV series) – Laura Richardson, episode "Monday Is Forever" 1976 Assault on Precinct 13 – Kathy 1977 Police Story (TV series) – Melanie, episode "Stigma" 1977 The Car – Lynn Marie 1977–1978 James at 15/16 (TV series) – Sandy Hunter (20 episodes) 1978 Return from Witch Mountain – Tia Malone

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• 1978 Project UFO (TV series) – Amy Forman • 1978 Devil Dog: The Hound of Hell (TV movie) – Bonnie Barry • 1979 Hizzonner (TV series) – Jamie, episode "Mizzonner"

Kim Richards • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1979 Fantasy Island (TV series) – Rebecca, episode "Cornelius and Alphonse/The Choice" 1979 Diff'rent Strokes (TV series) – Ruthie Alder (3 episodes) 1979–1980 Hello, Larry (TV series) – Ruthie Alder (35 episodes) 1981 Why Us? (TV short) – Holly Sanborn 1982 The Love Boat (TV series) – Gail / Lilian Gerbert 1982 CHiPs (TV series) – Sheila, episode "Tight Fit" 1982 Alice (TV series) – Lisa, episode "Not with My Niece, You Don't" 1982 Magnum, P.I. (TV series) – Carrie Reardon, episode "Mixed Doubles" 1983 Lottery! (TV series) – Valerie 1983 The Dukes of Hazzard (TV series) – Nancylou, episode "Cooter's Girl" 1984 The Mississippi (TV series) – episode "Informed Consent" 1984 Meatballs Part II – Cheryl 1985 Tuff Turf – Frankie Croyden 1990 Escape – Brooke Howser 2002 The Blair Witch Mountain Project (short) – Tia 2006 Black Snake Moan – Sandy 2009 Race to Witch Mountain – Tina

149

• 2010 The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills (TV series)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Kim Richards (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0001668/ ) at the Internet Movie Database http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0001668/ http:/ / www. bravotv. com/ people/ kim-richards/ bio http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0001668/ bio http:/ / www. wetpaint. com/ real-housewives-of-beverly-hills/ articles/ who-is-kim-richards-exhusband http:/ / www. usmagazine. com/ celebrity-news/ news/ kim-richards-im-trying-to-reconnect-with-my-kids-after-rehab-2012225 "Ancestry of Paris Hilton" (http:/ / www. wargs. com/ other/ hilton. html). Wargs.com. . Retrieved 2013-01-27. "Kyle Richards - The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills - Drama in the City - Blog" (http:/ / www. bravotv. com/ the-real-housewives-of-beverly-hills/ season-1/ blogs/ kyle-richards/ drama-in-the-city?page=1). Bravotv.com. 2010-11-11. . Retrieved 2013-01-27. [9] Vancheri, Barbara (March 13, 2009). "Primer for previous 'Witch' versions" (http:/ / www. post-gazette. com/ pg/ 09072/ 955221-42. stm). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. . [10] Lang, Derrick J. (March 16, 2009). "'Witch Mountain' gets a 21st-century makeover" (http:/ / readingeagle. com/ article. aspx?id=129825). Reading Eagle. . [11] Jerry Buck, 'Country's McLean Stevenson Always Top Ten Gets His New TV Series', in The Robesonian, February 7, 1979 (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=26JhAAAAIBAJ& sjid=fTUNAAAAIBAJ& pg=6681,4621095& dq=kim-richards& hl=en) [12] Howard Rosenberg, 'Hello McLean Stevenson', in The Los Angeles Times, January 26, 1979 [13] Howard Rosenberg, 'McLean Stephenson: Rejection doesn't bother him--he's used to it', The Spokesman-Review, (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=4T1OAAAAIBAJ& sjid=B-4DAAAAIBAJ& pg=3812,645806& dq=kim-richards& hl=en) [14] Escape imdb.com entry (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0099517/ ) [15] Hollywood Reporter Two 'Witch Mountain' vets return: Actors who played kids in original are back for the remake 29 April 2008 (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ hr/ content_display/ news/ e3ia9aa6fd4930eb09533b9382d6ea55f30) Retrieved 30 April 2008 [16] Jenny McGrath (November 15, 2012). "Real Housewives of Beverly Hills - Who Is Kim Richards' Ex-Husband?" (http:/ / www. wetpaint. com/ real-housewives-of-beverly-hills/ articles/ who-is-kim-richards-exhusband). Wetpaint.com. . Retrieved 2013-01-27. [17] "RHoBH’s Kim Richards’ fiance John Collett murdered over $150 million scam" (http:/ / starcasm. net/ archives/ 71621). Starcasm.net. . Retrieved 2013-01-27. [18] (2010-11-04). "Real Housewives of Beverly Hills - Beverly Hills Housewife Kim Richards' Fiance Was Murdered!" (http:/ / www. wetpaint. com/ real-housewives-of-beverly-hills/ articles/ beverly-hills-housewife-kim-richards-fiancee-was-murdered). Wetpaint.com. . Retrieved 2013-01-27. [19] Liz Raftery; Aili Nahas (January 09, 2012). "Kim Richards Leaves Rehab" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20559967,00. html). People. . [20] Kindelanm, Katie (January 27, 2012). "‘Housewives’ Kyle Richards Reveals What Sent Kim to Rehab" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ blogs/ entertainment/ 2012/ 01/ housewives-kyle-richards-reveals-what-sent-kim-to-rehab/ ). ABC News. .

Kim Richards
[21] Chen,, Joyce (January 18, 2012). "Kim Richards feeling 'phenomenal' after rehab" (http:/ / articles. nydailynews. com/ 2012-01-18/ news/ 30641123_1_kim-richards-beverly-hills-star-rehab). New York Daily News. . [22] Brian Orloff (January 26, 2012). "Kim Richards Admits, 'I'm an Alcoholic' on Real Housewives Reunion" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20564621,00. html). People. . [23] Johnson, Zach (May 22, 2012). "Kim Richards: I'm Trying to Reconnect With My Kids After Rehab" (http:/ / www. usmagazine. com/ celebrity-news/ news/ kim-richards-im-trying-to-reconnect-with-my-kids-after-rehab-2012225). US Weekly. .

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External links
• Kim Richards (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1668/) at the Internet Movie Database

Robbie Rist

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Robbie Rist
Robbie Rist

Robbie Rist, circa 1973 Born Robert Anthony Rist April 4, 1964 Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California Voice actor, Actor, Musician And Singer

Occupation

Notable credit(s) The Brady Bunch as Cousin Oliver Final Fantasy X as Maroda Naruto as Choji Akimichi Balto as Star Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles as Michaelangelo Website RobbieRist.com [1]

Robert Anthony "Robbie" Rist (born April 4, 1964) is an American actor and musician.[2]

Acting and voiceover work
As a child, Rist played Cousin Oliver in the final six episodes of The Brady Bunch. With the regular children all getting older, his inclusion was intended to reintroduce cute younger children to the series. With his Dutch Boy haircut and wire-rimmed glasses, his resemblance to pop singer John Denver and juvenile appeal, he seemed ideal; however the plan became moot as the network had opted to not renew the series before his debut anyway. This gave rise to the term "Cousin Oliver Syndrome". After The Brady Bunch he co-starred in a Saturday morning show called Big John, Little John, was Glendon Farrell on the David Hartman vehicle Lucas Tanner, and in 1976 and 1977 played Ted Baxter's son David on The Mary Tyler Moore Show. In 1980, Rist played "Dr. Zee" on Galactica 1980.[3] He made four guest appearances on CHiPs

Robbie Rist and the short-lived CBS series Whiz Kids, and also played Booger in a failed Revenge of the Nerds TV pilot. In 1986, Rist had a notable supporting role as Milo in the action film, Iron Eagle which was a box-office hit despite being critically panned.[4] As an adult, Rist has worked as a voice actor, such as in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film series (as the voice of Michaelangelo); from 1984 to 1986, he starred in the Saturday morning cartoon Kidd Video, playing the character Whiz both in live-action music videos and animated sequences. He was the voice of Star, a Siberian husky, in the 1995 Universal Studios film Balto. He was also the voice of Aaron in the PC game Star Warped. An episode of Batman: The Animated Series titled "Baby Doll" contained a character called Cousin Spunky that was intended to boost sagging ratings of the fictional Baby Doll sitcom, a clear reference to Cousin Oliver (Rist lent his voice to the episode, but did not play Cousin Spunky; his character was an adult). Rist also voices characters Choji Akimichi from Naruto, Itsuki "Iggy" Takeuchi from Initial D and Bud Bison from Megaman Starforce. Robbie Rist is currently the voice of Stuffy, Doc's overly proud stuffed dragon, in Disney Junior's new animated series Doc McStuffins. Recently, he voiced Griffin in Terminator Salvation, he also recently provided additional voices in Final Fantasy XIII, as well as reprising his role as Michelangelo in a fan-made movie about Casey Jones.[5]

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Music
Rist is also a musician and producer. He has performed as the lead singer, guitarist, bassist and/or drummer for several Los Angeles rock bands, including Wonderboy, The Andersons (band), Cockeyed Ghost, Nice Guy Eddie, and Steve Barton and the Oblivion Click. The list of west coast pop bands Rist has performed with numbers in the hundreds. He divides his time between film and music production, performing with Los Angeles alt-country band KingsizeMaybe and rock band Jeff Caudill & The Goodtimes Band (with Jeff Caudill of Orange County punk band Gameface and Michael "Popeye" Vogelsang of Orange County punk band Farside). Rist has also produced a number of records for bands, including Suzy & Los Quattro, Backline, Ginger Britt and the Mighty, Jeff Caudill, Steve Barton and the Oblivion Click, Nice Guy Eddie, Kingsizemaybe and The Mockers. Rist produced the Rubinoos album Automatic Toaster[6] and played drums on that album.[7] He currently is the drummer for the rock formation Your Favorite Trainwreck.[8]

Film
As of 2009, Rist is acting, working with music and also working in film production. Rist's latest project is a horror/comedy film he produced, Stump The Band, directed by William Holmes and JoJo Hendrickson.[9] A trailer for a project with the working title, "Robbie Rist: The Time Thief" in conjunction with Thonghead Productions is set to be released soon.

References
[1] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080207153205/ http:/ / www. robbierist. com/ index. html [2] The New York Times (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ person/ 108352/ Robbie-Rist/ biography) [3] Rist, Robbie, Interview, Arts Talk with the Johnson Brothers. Host Duane Johnson and Dennis I. Johnson. BlogTalkRadio, 13 Feb. 2011. Web. [4] Thomas, K. "Iron Eagle: Middle-east Rescue Mission," Los Angeles Times, July 18, 2002. [5] Lamar, Cyriaque. "Texas filmmaker self-funds fan flick about TMNT sidekick Casey Jones" (http:/ / io9. com/ 5833635/ texas-filmmaker-self+ funds-fan-flick-about-tmnt-sidekick-casey-jones). io9. . Retrieved 16 October 2011. [6] Borack, J. "John Borack's Top 10 CD's fo 2010." Goldmine Magazine. Feb. 2011. [7] Borack, J. "Something Old, Something New...," Goldmine Magazine. 2010. [8] Yourfavoritetrainwreck.com (http:/ / www. yourfavoritetrainwreck. com) [9] Kelly, Liz. "Catching Up With Robbie Rist," The Washington Post, August, 2009.

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External links
• Robbie Rist (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0728411/) at the Internet Movie Database

Lisa Whelchel
Lisa Whelchel
Born Lisa Diane Whelchel May 29, 1963 Littlefield, Texas, U.S. Flower Mound, Texas Lisa Cauble Actress, singer, songwriter, author, speaker 1977–present Women of Faith Blair Warner

Residence Other names Occupation Years active Organization Known for

Notable work(s) The Facts of Life The New Mickey Mouse Club All Because of You Survivor: Philippines Style Religion Spouse(s) Children Contemporary Christian music Christianity Steven Cauble (1988–2012) 3 Website [lisawhelchel.com lisawhelchel.com]

Lisa Diane Whelchel (born May 29, 1963) is an American actress, singer, songwriter, author, and speaker. She is known for her appearances as a Mouseketeer on The New Mickey Mouse Club and her nine-year role as the preppy and wealthy Blair Warner on The Facts of Life. In 1984, she was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Inspirational Performance for her contemporary Christian album, All Because of You. Since 2009, she has been a regular speaker with Women of Faith Christian conferences. In 2012, Whelchel participated as a contestant in Survivor: Philippines, the 25th season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor, reaching the finale and finishing in second place.[1]

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Personal background
Lisa Whelchel was born on May 29, 1963, in Littlefield, Texas. She is the daughter of James "Jimmy" and Virginia "Genny" (née French) Whelchel.[2] Her parents divorced in 1981, and her mother married Roy Coleman in 1983. Whelchel is the oldest sister of Chasin (Cody) Whelchel and half-brother, Casey (Justice) Coleman. She was raised for most of her childhood in Fort Worth, Texas. When Whelchel was ten years old, she became a born-again Christian and has devoted her life to her Christian faith.[3] On July 9, 1988, Whelchel married Steven Cauble, who was an associate pastor at The Church On the Way in Van Nuys, California, which Whelchel attended at the time. The couple, who have three adult children, divorced in March 2012.[4]

Professional background
Acting
The New Mickey Mouse Club When Whelchel was 12 years old, she was recruited in Texas, by talents scouts who were looking for children interested in working with Disney Studios as a Mouseketeer on The New Mickey Mouse Club. She moved to California the next year and appeared on the show in syndication from 1977 to 1978. The Facts of Life As a cast member of The Facts of Life, Whelchel once refused a storyline that would have made her character the first among the four young women in the show to lose her virginity in that episode. Having become a Christian when she was 10, Whelchel refused because of her Christian convictions, and the storyline was rewritten for the character of "Natalie", portrayed by Mindy Cohn. Whelchel appeared in every episode except that one. In 1988, The Facts of Life went off the air. In 2001, Whelchel reprised her role as Blair Warner for the made-for-television movie, The Facts of Life Reunion. Actress Geri Reischl ("fake Jan" of The Brady Bunch Hour) was given the role of Blair Warner in the television pilot Garrett's Girls (later renamed The Facts of Life), but was forced to give it up due to her contract with General Mills.[5] TV Land Awards On March 7, 2004, Whelchel was reunited with Charlotte Rae to perform The Facts of Life theme song at the 2nd Annual TV Land Awards at the Hollywood Palladium in Hollywood, California. In spring 2006, she appeared with two of her Facts of Life co-stars on The Today Show to promote the show's DVD releases of the first and second seasons, admitting to being "bummed out" that Kim Fields was unable to attend. On February 1, 2007, Whelchel was reunited with Kim Fields on WFAA-TV's Good Morning Texas. Fields was in Dallas to promote her appearance in the production Issues: We've All Got 'Em', when Whelchel was introduced as a surprise guest. On April 10, 2011, Whelchel and the cast of The Facts of Life, including Charlotte Rae, Nancy McKeon, Mindy Cohn, Kim Fields, Geri Jewell, and Cloris Leachman were honored with the Pop Culture Award at the 9th Annual TV Land Awards at the Javits Center in New York City.

Lisa Whelchel Survivor: Philippines On August 20, 2012, Whelchel was announced as a contestant in Survivor: Philippines as a member of the Tandang tribe. She joined retired Major League Baseball star Jeff Kent as the season's two "celebrity" contestants.[6] She elected to keep her true identity as a former television star secret from the other contestants, many of whom were too young to have watched The Facts of Life during its original run and thus did not recognize her. However, this fact was revealed by fellow contestant Jonathan Penner to the jury at the final tribal council. On November 14, 2012, Whelchel announced via her Twitter account that she is suffering from West Nile Virus and had been advised by her doctor that recovery would take approximately one year. She did not specify whether she had contracted the arbovirus while in the Philippines shooting Survivor.[7] On December 16, 2012, Whelchel made it to the finale, receiving one vote from the jury and tying with returning contestant Michael Skupin for runner-up. She was also voted the Sprint Player of the Season, winning $100,000 by a margin of about .07 percent against Malcolm Freberg.

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Hosting Duties
On January 14, 2013, Whelchel added television talk show host to her resume when she joined The Jeff Probst Show as Probst's co-host in an effort to boost the show's struggling ratings.[8][9]

Singing
In 1984, Whelchel released a Christian pop album entitled All Because of You. The album reached No. 17 on the Billboard Contemporary Christian music charts. She was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Inspirational Performance and was recognized as the writer of the title song, "All Because of You".[10][11] Among the songs featured on the album were "All Because of You", "Just Obey", "Cover Me Lord", and "Good Girl". She did not record a second album. While she was appearing on The Facts of Life, she made a cameo appearance in the music video for contemporary Christian music singer-songwriter Steve Taylor's song "Meltdown (at Madame Tussaud's)". The song was the title track from the album Meltdown.

Writing
Whelchel has written ten books on motherhood, child discipline, adult friendships, homeschooling, and finding Jesus through the development of holiday traditions. Additional topics from a spiritual point of view include prayer and wisdom. She is the bestselling author of So You're Thinking About Homeschooling and The Facts of Life (and Other Lessons My Father Taught Me). While Whelchel has been honored as a Gold Medallion nominee for her book on child discipline, entitled Creative Correction, she has received negative press and criticism by both Christian and non-Christian parenting groups for her views. In an 2005 interview with talk show host Drew Marshall, Whelchel spoke about her books on motherhood and shared her ideas on child discipline presented in the book.

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Speaking
Whelchel has been a regular inspirational speaker at churches and conferences nationwide since 2004. In 2000, she founded Momtime Ministries, a religious network of mothers' groups who meet weekly to "equip and refresh and encourage" each other.[12] In 2009, she began touring with the Women of Faith conferences, speaking on various issues including motherhood, child discipline, and friendship.

Published works
• Whelchel, Lisa. Creative Correction, Tyndale House Publishers, 320 pages, 2000. ISBN 978-1561799015 • Whelchel, Lisa. The Facts of Life (and Other Lessons My Father Taught Me), Multnomah Books, 192 pages, 2001. ISBN 978-1590521489 • Whelchel, Lisa. So You're Thinking About Homeschooling: Fifteen Families Show How You Can Do It (2nd edition), Multnomah Books, 224 pages, 2005. ISBN 978-1590525111 • Whelchel, Lisa. How to Start Your Own Mom Time • The ADVENTure of Christmas: Helping Children Find Jesus in Our Holiday Traditions • Taking Care of the Me in Mommy • The Busy Mom's Guide to Prayer • The Busy Mom's Guide to Wisdom • The Busy Grandma's Guide to Prayer • Speaking Mom-ese: Moments of Peace & Inspiration in the Mother Tongue from One Mom's Heart to Yours

Filmography
Year 1977 Title The New Mickey Mouse Club Herself Television special Episode: "All for Love" Role Notes

The Mouseketeers at Walt Disney World Herself 1978 1979 Family The Double McGuffin The Magician of Lublin Disney's Wonderful World 1979, 1981 Diff'rent Strokes Cathy Connelly Jody Halina Robin Lapp Blair Warner

Episode: "Shadow of Fear (Parts 1&2) Episodes: "The Girls School", "The Older Man"

1979–88 The Facts of Life 1980 1981 1982 Skyward Twirl The Facts of Life Goes to Paris The Wild Women of Chastity Gulch 1983, 1985 1987 1992 2001 2012 2013 The Love Boat

Blair Warner Lisa Ward Jill Moore Blair Warner Amy Cole

200 episodes NBC pilot movie NBC movie NBC movie ABC movie

Caroline / Keley Barrett Episodes: "Captain and the Kid..." (Parts 1&2) "German Cruise - The Villa..." (Parts 1&2) Blair Warner Sara Coleman Blair Warner Contestant herself NBC movie Direct-to-video release ABC movie Runner-up co-hosting duties

The Facts of Life Down Under Where the Red Fern Grows: Part Two The Facts of Life Reunion Survivor: Philippines The Jeff Probst Show

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Honors and awards
Young Artist Awards • • • • 1982: Nominated, "Best Young Comedienne in a Motion Picture or Television" – The Facts of Life 1982: Nominated, "Best Young Actress in a Television Special" – Twirl 1983: Nominated, "Best Young Actress in a Comedy Series" – The Facts of Life 1984: Nominated, "Best Young Actress in a Comedy Series" – The Facts of Life

References
[1] Survivor. "Survivor Cast: Lisa" (http:/ / www. cbs. com/ shows/ survivor/ cast/ 160003/ ). Cbs.com. . Retrieved 2012-12-18. [2] "Lisa Whelchel Biography (1963-)" (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 99/ Lisa-Whelchel. html). Filmreference.com. . Retrieved 2012-12-18. [3] Lisa Whelchel. "Lisa Whelchel: My Faith" (http:/ / www. lisawhelchel. com/ my_faith. htm). . Retrieved 2008-02-11. [4] Steve Helling (2012-9-20). "Lisa Whelchel Is Divorced" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20631716,00. html). . Retrieved 2012-09-20. [5] Love To Love You Bradys: The Bizarre Story Of The Brady Bunch Variety Hour. ECW Press. 2009. pp. 267. ISBN 978-1-55022-888-5. [6] Strecker, Erin. "'Survivor: Philippines' cast includes Lisa Whelchel and Jeff Kent | Inside TV | EW.com" (http:/ / insidetv. ew. com/ 2012/ 08/ 20/ survivor-philippines-cast-lisa-whelchel-jeff-kent/ ). Insidetv.ew.com. . Retrieved 2012-12-18. [7] "Lisa Whelchel has West Nile Virus, 'Survivor' star reveals" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ entertainment/ 2012/ 11/ 15/ lisa-whelchel-has-west-nile-virus-urvivor-star-reveals/ ). Fox News. . Retrieved 2012-12-18. [8] http:/ / www. realitynation. com/ tv-shows/ survivor/ lisa-whelchel-jeff-probst-show/ 24933/ [9] http:/ / www. realitynation. com/ tv-shows/ survivor/ lisa-whelchel-jeff-probst-show/ 24933/ [10] Carolyn A. Burns. "Lisa Whelchel | Lisa Whelchel" (http:/ / www. todayschristianmusic. com/ artists/ lisa-whelchel/ features/ lisa-whelchel/ ). TodaysChristianMusic.com. . Retrieved 2012-12-18. [11] "Lisa Whelchel Biography at Simon & Schuster" (http:/ / authors. simonandschuster. com/ Lisa-Whelchel/ 38978319/ biography). Authors.simonandschuster.com. . Retrieved 2012-12-18. [12] The State (Columbia, S.C.) (2008-01-25). "Q&A / Lisa Whelchel" (http:/ / www. thestate. com/ weekend/ story/ 295933. html). . Retrieved 2008-02-11.

External links
• Official website (http://www.lisawhelchel.com/) • Lisa Whelchel (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm924075/) at the Internet Movie Database • Hollywood Bible Study – Christy Tennant (http://www.biblestudymagazine.com/preview/BSMHollywood. pdf)

The Facts of Life (TV series)

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The Facts of Life (TV series)
The Facts of Life
The Facts of Life season 1 title screen Genre Created by Sitcom Dick Clair Jenna McMahon Howard Leeds Ben Starr Jerry Mayer Charlotte Rae (1979-86) Lisa Whelchel Kim Fields Mindy Cohn Molly Ringwald (1979-80) Nancy McKeon (1980-88) Mackenzie Astin (1985-88) George Clooney (1985-87) Cloris Leachman (1986-88) Sherrie Krenn (1987-88)

Developed by

Starring

Theme music composer Al Burton Gloria Loring Alan Thicke Opening theme Country of origin Language(s) No. of seasons No. of episodes "The Facts of Life" United States English 9 209 (episodes) Production Executive producer(s) Jack Elinson (seasons 2–7) Jerry Mayer (seasons 3–6) Linda Marsh Margie Peters (seasons 5–6) Deidre Fay Stuart Wolpert (seasons 6–7) Irma Kalish Richard Gurman (seasons 8–9)

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Producer(s) Jerry Mayer (seasons 1–3) Linda Marsh Margie Peters (seasons 3–4) Rita Dillon (seasons 5–9) Kimberly Hill (season 6) Multi-camera Videotape 22 mins.

Camera setup

Running time

Production company(s) T.A.T. Communications Co. (1979–1982) Embassy Television (1982–1986) Embassy Communications (1986–1988) ELP Communications (1988) Columbia Pictures Television (1988) Distributor Embassy Telecommunications (1984–1986) Embassy Communications (1986–1988) Columbia Pictures Television Distribution (1988–1996) Columbia TriStar Television (1996–2002) Sony Pictures Television (2002–present) Broadcast Original channel Original run NBC August 24, 1979 – May 7, 1988 Chronology Preceded by Followed by Related shows Diff'rent Strokes The Facts of Life Reunion (2001) The Facts of Life Goes to Paris The Facts of Life Down Under

The Facts of Life is an American sitcom that originally ran on the NBC television network from August 24, 1979, to May 7, 1988. A spin-off of the sitcom Diff'rent Strokes, the series' premise focuses on Edna Garrett (Charlotte Rae) as she becomes a housemother (and after the second season, dietitian as well) at the fictional Eastland School, an all-female boarding school in Peekskill, New York.[1]

Premise
Season 1
A spin-off of Diff'rent Strokes, the series featured the Drummonds' housekeeper, Edna Garrett (Charlotte Rae) as the housemother of a dormitory at Eastland School, a private all-girls school. The girls in her care included spoiled rich girl Blair Warner (Lisa Whelchel); the youngest, gossipy Dorothy "Tootie" Ramsey (Kim Fields); and overweight, impressionable Natalie Green (Mindy Cohn). In the second season, Mrs. Garrett was promoted to school dietitian, and all the original cast members were dropped except for Blair, Natalie, and Tootie. Nancy McKeon joined the cast as tough, streetwise-but-vulnerable Jo Polniaczek. The pilot for the show originally aired as the last episode of Diff'rent Strokes' first season and was called "The Girls' School (aka Garrett's Girls)." The plotline for the pilot had Kimberly Drummond requesting that Mrs. Garrett help

The Facts of Life (TV series) her sew costumes for a student play at East Lake School for Girls, the school Kimberly attended in upstate New York, as her dorm's housemother had recently quit. Mrs. Garrett agrees to help, puts on a successful play, and also solves a problem for Nancy. Mrs. Garrett is asked to stay on as the new housemother but states she would rather remain working for the Drummonds at the end of the pilot. Following the pilot, the name of the school was changed to Eastland and characters were replaced, with Natalie, Cindy, and Mr. Bradley becoming part of the main group featured. Although Kimberly Drummond is featured as a student at East Lake, her character did not cross over to the spinoff series with Mrs. Garrett. In the show's first season, episodes focus on the troubles of seven girls, with the action usually set in a large, wood-paneled common room of a girls' dormitory. Also appearing was the school's headmaster, Mr. Stephen Bradley (John Lawlor). Early episodes of the show typically revolve around a central morality-based or "lesson teaching" theme. The show's pilot episode plot included a story line in which Blair Warner insinuating that her schoolmate Cindy Webster is a lesbian because she is a tomboy and frequently shows affection for other girls. Other season one episodes dealt with issues including drug use, sex, eating disorders, parental relationships, and peer pressure.

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Seasons 2-8
After the first season, the show was retooled extensively. The producers felt that there were too many characters given the limitations of the half-hour sitcom format, and that the plotlines should be more focused to give the remaining girls more room for character development. Four of the original actresses—Julie Anne Haddock (Cindy), Julie Piekarski (Sue Ann), Felice Schachter (Nancy), and Molly Ringwald (Molly)—were written out of the show (although the four did make periodic appearances in the second and third seasons, and one "reunion" in the eighth season). Mr. Bradley's character was also dropped and replaced with a generally unseen headmaster named Mr. Harris. (Mr. Harris actually appeared in an early second season episode, "Gossip", played by Kenneth Mars) and Mr. Parker for the rest of the series. In addition to being housemother to the remaining girls, Mrs. Garrett became the school dietitian as the second season began. Jo Polniaczek, a new student originally from the Bronx, arrived at Eastland on scholarship. A run-in with the law forced the four to be separated from the other girls, and work in the cafeteria, living together in a spare room next to Mrs. Garrett's bedroom. In 1983, Jo and Blair graduated Eastland Academy in the season four finale "Graduation". To keep the four girls under one roof, Mrs. Garrett went into business for herself and opens a gourmet food venture named Edna's Edibles. The four girls come to work for her and live in one of the rooms in the house attached to the store. The show became part of NBC's much-watched Saturday night lineup in 1985, but by this time, the main actors were now in their late teens and early twenties, and public interest was beginning to wane. In an attempt to increase ratings, Mrs. Garrett's store, Edna's Edibles, was gutted by a fire in the season seven premiere "Out of the Fire", placing #11 for the week—giving the series a strong start for the season. The follow-up episode "Into the Frying Pan" (placing #8) had the girls band together to rebuild the store with a pop culture-influenced gift shop that the girls ran together, called Over Our Heads. By the end of the season, TV Guide reported, "Facts' success has been so unexpected that scions of Hollywood are still taken aback by it. ... Facts has in fact been among NBC's top-ranked comedies for the past five years. It finished twenty-third overall for the 1985–1986 season, handily winning its time slot against its most frequent competitors, Airwolf and Benson. Lisa Whelchel stated, 'We're easily overlooked because we've never been a huge hit; we just sort of snuck in there.'"[2] Charlotte Rae initially reduced her role in seasons six and seven, and later decided to leave the series altogether. In season eight's heavily promoted one-hour premiere "Out of Peekskill", Mrs. Garrett married the man of her dreams and joined him in Africa while he works for the Peace Corps. Mrs. Garrett convinces her sister, Beverly Ann Stickle (Cloris Leachman), to take over the shop and look after the girls. Beverly Ann later legally adopted Over Our Heads worker Andy Moffett (Mackenzie Astin) in the episode "A Boy About the House" which became the highest rated regular episode of the season with 18.3 rating/31Share.[3] Describing the new changes to Facts of life Brandon Tartikoff NBC Ent President said "I was surprised that 'The Facts of Life' performed well this season, as, with a

The Facts of Life (TV series) major cast change and all, I thought it might not perform as it had in the past" "Facts" has been renewed for next season.[4]

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Final season
In the final season, the series aired on NBC's Saturday night lineup at 8 p.m. NBC still had confidence in the series, however, and placed it as the 8 p.m. anchor, kicking off one of the network's highest-rated nights (second to Cosby Thursdays). The show's writers created a storyline in this season for the episode titled "The First Time" in which Natalie became the first of the girls to lose her virginity. Lisa Whelchel refused this particular storyline that would have made her character, not Natalie, the first among the four young women in the show to lose her virginity. Having become a Christian when she was 10, Whelchel refused because of her Christian convictions. Whelchel appeared in every episode except that one. In an article titled "Ratings Top with Teens" appearing in the January 19, 1988 edition of USA Today, The Facts of Life was ranked as one of the top 10 shows in a survey of 2,200 American teenagers.[5]

Cast
• Charlotte Rae ... Mrs. Edna Garrett (1979–1986) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lisa Whelchel ... Blair Warner Nancy McKeon ... Joanna Marie "Jo" Polniaczek (1980–1988) Mindy Cohn ... Natalie Green Kim Fields ... Dorothy "Tootie" Ramsey Cloris Leachman ... Beverly Ann Stickle (1986–1988) Mackenzie Astin ... Andy Moffett (1985–1988) George Clooney ... George Burnett[6] (cast member 1985–1986, recurring 1986–1987) Pamela Segall ... Kelly Affinado (1983–1984) Jenny O'Hara ... Miss Emily Mahoney (1979) Molly Ringwald ... Molly Parker (1979–1980) Todd Hallowell ... Jeff Williams (occasional, 1984–1988) Alex Rocco ... Charlie Polniaczek (occasional, 1981–1988) Woody Brown ... Cliff (occasional, 1983–1984) John Lawlor ... Steven Bradley (1979–1980) Julie Anne Haddock ... Cindy Webster (cast member 1979–1980, recurring 1980–1987) Geri Jewell ... Geri Tyler (occasional, 1981–1984) Felice Schacter ... Nancy Olsen (cast member 1979–1980, recurring 1980–1987) Sherrie Krenn ... Pippa McKenna (1987–1988) Julie Piekarski ... Sue Ann Weaver (cast member 1979–1980, recurring 1980–1987) Roger Perry ... Mr. Charles Parker (1981–1983)

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Casting
Actress Geri Reischl ("fake Jan" of The Brady Bunch Hour) was given the role of Blair Warner in the television pilot Garrett's Girls (later renamed The Facts of Life), but was forced to give it up due to her contract with General Mills.[7]

Recurring characters
A key recurring character was Geri Tyler (Geri Jewell), Blair's cousin who has cerebral palsy. Other recurring characters included the judgment-impaired Miko Wakamatsu (Lauren Tom), the snobbish Boots St. Clair (Jami Gertz), and the royal princess Alexandra (Heather McAdam). Shoplifter Kelly (Pamela Segall) was billed as a regular during the fifth season. Other guest roles included the boyfriends of the girls; Jo's parents, played by Alex Rocco and Claire Malis; Blair's parents, played by Nicolas Coster and Marj Dusay (Blair's mother was played by Pam Huntington in one episode during the first season); Tootie's parents, played by Kim Fields' real-life mother, actress Chip Fields, and Robert Hooks; and Natalie's parents, played by Norman Burton and Mitzi Hoag. (Natalie's grandmother was played by Molly Picon, and appeared in two episodes). A 1984 episode was built around Natalie coming to terms with the sudden death of her father. Characters from Diff'rent Strokes also appeared in some episodes of both season one and season two.

Controversy
Geri Jewell
The Facts of Life was one of the first television shows to feature a person with cerebral palsy as a recurring character.[8] Indeed, actress Geri Jewell was the first person with a disability to have a regular role on a prime time series.[9] In an interview as part of an episode of E! True Hollywood Story, Jewell stated that she believed her character "cousin Geri" was going to continue as a recurring character on the show during the sixth season, but the producers offered her only one episode for the season because viewers would immediately assume that any episode with cousin Geri would be a "very special episode". Jewell stated that she stopped appearing on the show for that reason.

Weight
Another issue during the show's early seasons concerned the stars' appearances. Lisa Whelchel has stated in various interviews, including on E! True Hollywood Story, that the cast spent a lot of time on set doing nothing, so the natural inclination for many of them was to eat, as food was readily available all over the set. This noticeably affected the girls' appearances, leading Joan Rivers to dub them "The Fats of Life" during the cast's appearance at the Emmy Awards; the producers eventually restricted what the actors could eat while on set, and in an April 2011 interview, Lisa Whelchel stated that the producers sent her to various weight loss programs in an effort to help her lose weight. Mindy Cohn, in the E! True Hollywood Story, stated that the situation was the exact opposite for her. She had been losing weight during this period due to an interest in dancing, and the producers asked her to stop because much of her character's identity hinged on the fact that she was overweight. Cohn said the producers compromised with her regarding her weight by dressing her in baggy clothing to make her appear heavier than she was.

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Ratings
The Facts of Life was originally not a ratings winner on Friday nights in its summer debut in 1979 or in its second tryout in the spring of 1980. It ranked #74 out of 79 shows on the air in the year-end Nielsen ratings, and was NBC's lowest-rated series. The show was retooled in hiatus and brought back in a Wednesday time slot, where it flourished in its second season, ranking a respectably moderate #26 in the ratings. At the time, it was NBC's fourth highest-rated scripted series, after Little House on the Prairie, Facts' parent series Diff'rent Strokes, and CHiPs.[10] The show ranked in the mid- and upper-20s in the ratings for it's entire run. by the 7th season it was moved Saturday 830PM to bolster the premiering series Golden Girls at 9PM. A year later in Fall 1986 the series was moved to the toughest time slot on television - Saturday at 8PM, this move brought the ratings down to #31 in 1986–87 and #37 in 1987–88 - but still easily winning it's timeslot. • • • • • • 1) 1979–80: #74 (3.6 million viewers)[11] 2) 1980–81: #26 (15.4 million viewers)[10] 3) 1981–82: #24 (15.5 million viewers)[12] 4) 1982–83: #32 (14.7 million viewers)[11] 5) 1983–84: #24 (14.4 million viewers)[13] 6) 1984–85: #24 (14.4 million viewers)[14]

• 7) 1985–86: #27 (15.2 million viewers)[15] • 8) 1986–87: #31 (14 million viewers)[11] • 9) 1987–88: #37 (12.7 million viewers)[11]

Attempted spin-offs
The various attempts at spin-offs were backdoor pilots, which were shown as episodes of The Facts of Life. • "Brian & Sylvia" — A season two episode in which Tootie and Natalie go to Buffalo, New York to visit Tootie's Aunt Sylvia, a black woman (played by Rosanne Katon) who has recently married a white man, played by Richard Dean Anderson (the future star of MacGyver and Stargate SG-1). Ja'net Dubois of Good Times played Ethel, who was both Tootie's grandmother and Sylvia's mother.[16] The episode never developed into a series, and in the season five episode "Crossing the Line", Tootie mentions Brian's and Sylvia's interracial marriage, and says that the two have since gotten divorced. • "The Academy" — A season three episode set at Stone Academy, an all-boys military school that was near Eastland. In this episode, the girls at Eastland attended a dance with the boys from the military school. The boys included actors Jimmy Baio, Ben Marley, David Ackroyd, Peter Frechette, and John P. Navin, Jr. • "Jo's Cousin" — Another season three episode, in which Jo visits her family in the Bronx, including her cousin Terry, a fourteen-year-old girl (played by Megan Follows) going through adolescence in a family full of men. The family included actors Grant Cramer, John Mengatti, Donnelly Rhodes, and D.W. Brown. • "The Big Fight" — A season four episode set at Stone Academy, a boys' military school. Natalie comes to visit a boy who tries to impress her with his boxing. This episode includes the same cast from the season three episode "The Academy." • "Rumor Has It..."/"Peekskill Law" — Two season nine episodes which center around Blair's law major at Langley College. In the first, Blair's law professor Richard Katt (Franc Luz) is introduced, a teacher whose ethic in the classroom stood in contrast to his reputation for sleeping around with many of his students. Blair and Katt were sharp debaters in and out of class, but nothing could prevent Blair from becoming nervous about the time she spent with him in his office after hours. Katt's wife subsequently walked in on one of his sessions with Blair, assumed they had fooled around with each other, and threatened to leave her husband. In the second episode, after Katt had resigned from the college in the wake of his rumored affair with Blair, he was now working as an attorney at a law firm where Blair was coincidentally working as an intern. The two found themselves working together on a high-stakes financial fraud case, with their sharp, aggressive banter a centerpiece yet again.

The Facts of Life (TV series) • "Big Apple Blues" — A season nine episode in which Natalie spends the night with a group of eccentric young people living in a Soho loft, and decides to remain in New York to begin her life. Two of the tenants in the loft were played by David Spade and Richard Grieco. • "The Beginning of the End/Beginning of the Beginning" — The two-part series finale sees Blair buying Eastland to prevent its closing. Blair finds that the school is in such dire financial straits that she is forced to make the school co-ed. Blair then essentially adopts the Mrs. Garrett role as she presides over the school, and is forced to deal with the trouble-making students in a plot line that is highly reminiscent of the season two premiere. The new Eastland students included Seth Green, Mayim Bialik, and future Oscar-nominee Juliette Lewis.

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Production notes
The Facts of Life was produced first by T.A.T. Communications Company, followed by Embassy Television (Norman Lear's production companies), and then by Embassy Communications, and Columbia Pictures Television (through ELP Communications) on January–May 1988 episodes of the series. Sony Pictures Television currently owns the distribution rights to the sitcom. From 1979 to 1982, the show was produced at Metromedia Square in Los Angeles, California. In 1982, production moved to Universal City Studios and then to Sunset Gower Studios in 1985.

Theme music
The show's theme was composed by Al Burton, Gloria Loring, and her then-husband, Alan Thicke. The well-known opening lyric "You take the good, you take the bad..." came later as the first season lyrics, some of them performed by Rae, differed from those that followed. The original lyrics eventually shifted to the closing credits before being dropped entirely. Burton, Loring, and Thicke had previously composed the theme to Diff'rent Strokes, which was sung by Thicke.

Television films
The Facts of Life Goes to Paris, a two-hour TV movie in which Mrs. Garrett and the girls travel to France, aired September 25, 1982. The movie was later added to the U.S. syndication package, broken up into four half-hour episodes; however, the original cut of the film appears on the 2010 Season 4 DVDs (the syndicated versions do not). The Facts of Life Down Under, another two-hour TV movie, aired Sunday February 15, 1987 placing a strong #13 for the week garnering 21.4/32.[17] This was strategic counter programming by NBC which placed the Movie against the conclusion of ABC's highly publicized mini series Amerika. The Telemovie was also syndicated as four half-hour episodes in later U.S. airings. On November 18, 2001, The Facts of Life Reunion aired, in which Mrs. Garrett and the girls are reunited in Peekskill, New York, for the Thanksgiving holiday. It airs sporadically in the U.S. on the ABC Family Channel.

Syndication
NBC aired daytime reruns of The Facts of Life from December 13, 1982 until June 7, 1985 at 10:00 AM (and later 12:00 noon) on the daytime schedule. Episodes aired on the USA Network on and off from September 13, 1993[18] to September 11, 1998.[19] In August 1994, the network celebrated the show's 15-year anniversary with a day-long marathon of 14 episodes featuring new interviews with Rae, Whelchel, and Cohn. Episodes aired on Nick at Nite from September 4, 2000 to June 28, 2001, although the network did not air certain episodes that contained highly controversial content during prime time (including the first season episode "Dope"), instead opting to air episodes with more serious topics at late night/early morning times. TV Land aired 48 hours of The Facts of Life episodes on its "Fandemonium Marathon Weekend" on November 17–19, 2001.

The Facts of Life (TV series) The Hallmark Channel aired The Facts of Life from July 1 to November 1, 2002. Episodes were available on Comcast's Video-On-Demand service from August 8, 2005 to July 31, 2006 and again from the August 6, 2007 until Tube Time's shutdown date on December 31, 2009. On July 16, 2008 full episodes and short "minisodes" of The Facts of Life became available online via Hulu.[20] On March 12, 2012, Teen Nick added the series to their morning line-up; however, the series' addition to the channel was short-lived, as it left the schedule on April 3, 2012.[21] The series premiered on The Hub, where it continues to rerun, on April 2, 2012.[22] Many MeTV affiliated terrestrial television stations air The Facts of Life around 5PM ET depending on your time zone.

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International airings
In Brazil, the show aired on Nick at Nite as Vivendo e Aprendendo (Living and Learning, in English). In Italy, seasons one through five were aired in 1983–1986 (dubbed as usual in Italian), on the terrestrial TV Canale 5, the first Italian commercial network, and later on other local commercial TV networks. The Italian version was named L'albero delle mele, which means apple tree (the word 'apple' is popularly used euphemistically in Italian as a reference to teenage girls). In France, seasons two and three (dubbed in French and titled Drôle de Vie) aired in 1987 on the terrestrial TV La Cinq, and seasons one, eight and nine aired on TF1. Unlike Diff'rent Strokes, The Facts of Life has never aired on terrestrial TV in the United Kingdom. A few seasons aired on the UK BSB satellite channels and after BSB merged with Sky Television plc, the entire series was shown on Sky One. In Canada, The Facts of Life aired on CTS, a Christian-based network, from September 2006 to 2009. Beginning on September 15, 2007, The Facts of Life aired weekends at 10:00 am and 2:00 pm on CanWest's digital specialty channel, DejaView. In March 2010 episodes moved to weekdays at 4:00 pm and 4:30 pm on DejaView.

DVD and VHS releases
Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released the first two seasons on DVD in Region 1 on May 9, 2006 with new interviews with most of the cast, including season one originals Felice Schachter and Julie Anne Haddock. To promote the DVD's release, McKeon, Whelchel, and Cohn appeared together on various TV shows such as Entertainment Tonight, Today Show and CNN Showbiz to reminisce about their time on the show and talk about their lives presently; unfortunately, Fields was unable to take part due to other commitments. The third season was released on October 24, 2006. This release failed to match the success of the first and second seasons, sales-wise. The first and second seasons were also released in Region 4 on March 7, 2007.[23] On January 26, 2010, it was announced that Shout! Factory had acquired the rights to the show (under license from Sony Pictures) and subsequently released the fourth season on Region 1 DVD, May 4, 2010.[24] Special features include The Facts of Life Goes To Paris, a made-for-TV-movie, which originally aired a few days prior to the fourth season debut, and a "Know The Facts: Trivia Game." The fifth season was officially released on November 2, 2010.[25] It is as yet unknown if the remaining four seasons will be released.

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DVD Name The Complete First and Second Seasons The Complete Third Season The Complete Fourth Season The Complete Fifth Season

Ep # 29 24 23 26

Release date May 9, 2006 October 24, 2006 May 4, 2010 November 2, 2010

On April 21 and 22, 2001, Columbia House released The Facts of Life: The Collector's Edition, a 10-volume "Best of" the series on VHS (40 episodes in all). With the advent shortly thereafter of TV on DVD and Columbia House's eventual move from the direct marketing model of exclusive series, the tapes were discontinued.

Awards and nominations
• Emmy Nomination for Best Actress (1982)—Charlotte Rae • Emmy Nomination for Outstanding Technical Direction/Electronic Camerawork/Video Control for a Series (1986)—For episode "Come Back to the Truck Stop, Natalie Green, Natalie Green". • Emmy Nomination for Outstanding Achievement in Hairstyling for a Series (1987)—For episode "'62 Pickup". • TV Land Award Won for Pop Culture Icon in 2011.

References
[1] New York Times (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ 125399/ The-Facts-of-Life-Goes-to-Paris/ overview) [2] TV Guide July 5–11, 1985 [3] Variety March 4, 1987, Weekly Ratings Scorecard,page 93 [4] Web Brass Dissect Past Season Variety April 22, 1987 [5] USA Today Information Network, Jan 19, 1988 When teenagers watch TV, they like to laugh. [6] "TV Playbook: Let's Add a Kid!" (http:/ / uk. tv. ign. com/ articles/ 935/ 935812p2. html). IGN. . Retrieved 2010-08-15. [7] Love To Love You Bradys: The Bizarre Story Of The Brady Bunch Variety Hour. ECW Press. 2009. pp. 267. ISBN 978-1-55022-888-5. [8] "Geri Jewell – Biography @imdb" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0422434/ bio). . Retrieved 2008-07-18. [9] http:/ / www. greatwomenspeakers. com/ Pages/ speaker-pages/ geri-jewell/ Geri-Jewell. htm [10] 1980-81 television ratings (http:/ / www. classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1980. htm) [11] Facts of Life ratings (http:/ / www. televisionhits. com/ factsoflife/ ratings. html) [12] 1981-82 television ratings (http:/ / www. classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1981. htm) [13] 1983-84 television ratings (http:/ / www. classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1983. htm) [14] 1984-85 television ratings (http:/ / www. classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1984. htm) [15] 1985-86 television ratings (http:/ / www. classictvhits. com/ tvratings/ 1985. htm) [16] ""The Facts of Life" Brian and Sylvia (1981)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0575316/ ). . Retrieved 2008-07-18. [17] Variety Feb 18 1987, Weekly Ratings Scorecard, page 112 [18] The Intelligencer – September 13, 1993 [19] TV Guide – September 5–11, 1998 [20] "Hulu—The Facts of Life" (http:/ / www. hulu. com/ the-facts-of-life). . Retrieved 26 July 2010. [21] http:/ / blog. sitcomsonline. com/ 2012/ 04/ facts-of-life-removed-from-teennick. html [22] http:/ / blog. sitcomsonline. com/ 2012/ 03/ facts-of-life-coming-to-teennick-nbc. html [23] "Facts Of Life, The: The Complete First And Second Seasons" (http:/ / www. atlanticdvd. com. au/ tv/ show/ 21047). . Retrieved 26 July 2010. [24] "The Facts of Life - Shout! Takes the Good, and There Ya' Have...Season 4 on DVD!" (http:/ / tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Facts-Life-Season-4/ 13259). January 26, 2010. . Retrieved 26 July 2010. [25] "The Facts of Life - The Complete 5th Season Official: Date, Cost and Package Art!" (http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Facts-Life-Season-5/ 14155). 28 July 2010. . Retrieved 28 July 2010.

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External links
• The Facts of Live (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0078610/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Facts of Life (http://www.tv.com/shows/the-facts-of-life/) at TV.com • The Facts of Life Site (http://www.televisionhits.com/factsoflife/) At Televisionhits.com

Julie Piekarski

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Julie Piekarski
Julie Piekarski
Born January 2, 1963 St. Louis, Missouri, U.S. Actress

Occupation

Years active 1977–1986 Spouse(s) John Probst (1986–present; 3 children)

Julie Ann Piekarski (born January 2, 1963[1][2] St. Louis, Missouri) is best known for her role as Sue Ann Weaver on the sitcom The Facts of Life. Piekarski got her first big break in show business as a Mouseketeer on The New Mickey Mouse Club in 1977. After gaining popularity working for Disney, she was cast as Sue Ann Weaver in seventeen episodes of The Facts of Life from 1979–1986. She went on to appear in several television shows, mainly making guest appearances, most notably on Diff'rent Strokes, General Hospital, Quincy, M.E., and Three's Company. After a brief stint as a news reporter on KPLR-TV in St. Louis, the 5'3" tall[3] Piekarski married dentist[4] John Probst in 1986. They reside near St. Louis with their three children, Patrick, Jaquelyn, and Christian.

References
[1] "The Facts of Life: Biographies/Where are they now?" (http:/ / www. sitcomsonline. com/ folwhere. html). . Retrieved 2008-08-12. [2] "Free Birthday Database" (http:/ / www. birthdatabase. com/ cgi-bin/ query. pl?textfield=julie& textfield2=piekarski& age=). . Retrieved 2008-08-12. [3] "TalentPlus Talent Agency - Julie Probst Resume" (http:/ / www. talent-plus. com/ dataimages/ 237/ julieprobst_resume. pdf). . Retrieved 2008-08-12. [4] "Former Child Star Central" (http:/ / members. tripod. com/ ~former_child_star/ piekarski_julie. html). . Retrieved 2008-08-12.

External links
• Julie Piekarski (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0682161/) at the Internet Movie Database

Kelly Parsons

169

Kelly Parsons
For the British model born Kelly Parsons, see Kelly Brook.

Kelly Parsons
Beauty pageant titleholder Born Kelly Parsons January 23, 1964 Coral Gables, Florida, United States Miss California USA 1986

Title(s)

Major Miss USA 1986 (4th runner-up) competition(s)

Kelly Parsons achieved fame as an American actress and model. She was born in Coral Gables, Florida, on January 23, 1964. She won the Our Little Miss pageant in 1975. This led to her being chosen as one of the Mouseketeers in the 1977-79 revival of the New Mickey Mouse Club. She also appeared in the films Evils of the Night and The Night Stalker and in episodes of the TV series Quincy, M.E. and Alice. She was Miss California USA in 1986 and one of the finalists for Miss USA. Her last national television appearance was on Star Search in 1986. She has since left show business.

External links
• Kelly Parsons [1] at the Internet Movie Database • 1977 biographical sketch [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0663856/ [2] http:/ / www. newmickeymouseclub. com/ kellybio. html

The Brady Bunch

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The Brady Bunch
The Brady Bunch
Cast from the final season Format Created by Starring Family sitcom Sherwood Schwartz Robert Reed Florence Henderson Ann B. Davis Barry Williams Maureen McCormick Christopher Knight Eve Plumb Mike Lookinland Susan Olsen

Theme music composer Frank De Vol Sherwood Schwartz Opening theme Performed by: Peppermint Trolley Company (season 1) Barry Williams, Maureen McCormick, Christopher Knight, Eve Plumb, Mike Lookinland, Susan Olsen (seasons 2–5) Frank De Vol United States English 5 117 (List of episodes) Production Producer(s) Camera setup Running time Sherwood Schwartz Single-camera 25-26 minutes

Composer(s) Country of origin Language(s) No. of seasons No. of episodes

Production company(s) Redwood Productions Paramount Television Distributor CBS Television Distribution Broadcast Original channel Original run ABC September 26, 1969 – March 8, 1974 Chronology Followed by The Brady Brides A Very Brady Christmas The Bradys The Brady Kids The Brady Bunch Hour

Related shows

The Brady Bunch is an American sitcom created by Sherwood Schwartz and starring Robert Reed, Florence Henderson, and Ann B. Davis. The series revolved around a large blended family. The show originally aired from

The Brady Bunch September 26, 1969 to March 8, 1974 on ABC and was subsequently syndicated internationally. In 1997, "Getting Davy Jones" (season 3, episode 12) was ranked No. 37 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All-Time.[1]

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Premise
Mike Brady (Robert Reed), a widowed architect; with three sons, Greg (Barry Williams), Peter (Christopher Knight), and Bobby (Mike Lookinland); marries Carol Ann Martin (née Tyler) (Florence Henderson), who has three daughters: Marcia (Maureen McCormick), Jan (Eve Plumb) and Cindy (Susan Olsen). The wife and daughters take the Brady surname. Producer Schwartz wanted Carol to have been a divorcée but the network objected to this. A compromise was reached whereby no mention was made of the circumstances in which Carol's first marriage ended. Included in the blended family are Mike's live-in housekeeper, Alice Nelson (Ann B. Davis), and the boys' dog, Tiger. The setting is a large, suburban, two-story house designed by Mike, in a Los Angeles, California suburb.

Themes
The theme song, penned by Schwartz, and originally arranged, sung and performed by the Peppermint Trolley Company,[2] quickly communicated to audiences that the Bradys were a blended family. In the first season, this blending figures prominently in the stories. These episodes chronicle the family learning to adjust to its new circumstances and become a unit, as well as typical childhood problems such as rivalries and family squabbles. Over time, the episodes focus more on issues related to the kids growing up, such as dating, self-image, responsibility and puberty. From season two on, the family carries on as if they had long since adjusted to life as a blended family, and the stories no longer showed such tensions and adjustments. The fact that they are a blended family is only mentioned a few more times. Two episodes from season three, "Not So Rose Colored Glasses" and "Jan's Aunt Jenny," mention that Mike and Carol had been married for just three years. And, "Kelly's Kids" from the final season explicitly recalls Mike and Carol's adoptions when their neighbors, the Kellys, adopted three boys of different races. The Brady Bunch was not the first TV series about a blended family. Two series which debuted in the 1950s, Make Room For Daddy and Bonanza, had step-siblings and half-siblings respectively. Nor was it the only network series to start the 1969 season showing life in a blended family: My Three Sons (CBS) brought a new wife and daughter into the Douglas family (which also had an Alice-equivalent, Uncle Charley). At a time when remarriage was becoming more prevalent, these shows reflected a new lifestyle in America. Contemporary issues were sometimes explored. Season two's "The Liberation of Marcia Brady" explored the equality of women, as Marcia sets out to prove a girl can do anything a boy can. The boys challenge the idea and coerce Peter into joining Jan's club, the Sunflower Girls, to make a point.

Cast and characters
Main
The regular cast appeared in an opening title sequence in which video head shots were arranged in a three-by-three grid, with each cast member appearing to look at the other cast members. In a 2010 issue of TV Guide, the show’s opening title sequence ranked No. 8 on a list of TV's top 10 credits sequences, as selected by readers.[3] Although many actors who become type-cast into the roles they played on a particular series resent this, the cast of The Brady Bunch express a contrary attitude. On a TV Land documentary, the actors revealed that they all remain close friends, and most have remained in regular contact with one another. On several episodes of Christopher Knight's reality show series, My Fair Brady, Florence Henderson made guest appearances, and gave advice on Knight's ongoing relationship issues. Knight also invited Barry Williams, Susan Olsen, and Mike Lookinland to a

The Brady Bunch wedding party, during which most of his time was spent hanging out with them, away from the party. He said it was important his betrothed accept that his Brady Bunch friends are an important part of his life.

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Recurring characters
Sam Franklin (Allan Melvin) is Alice's boyfriend. He is the owner of a local butcher shop. Sam appears in only eight episodes, but they span all of the show's five seasons. He is also frequently mentioned in dialogue, and Alice occasionally goes on dates with him off-screen. By the time of the 1981 made-for-TV movie The Brady Girls Get Married, Alice and Sam are married. Tiger the dog – The original dog that played Tiger was hit by a florist truck and killed early in the first season.[4] A replacement dog proved problematic, so the producers decided the dog would only appear when essential to the plot. Tiger appeared in about half the episodes in the first season and about half a dozen episodes in the second season. Tiger seemingly vanished without an explanation and was not shown again after "The Impractical Joker" (1971). According to Barry Williams, the doghouse was retained as a prop to cover holes in the artificial turf caused by a falling stage light. Cousin Oliver (Robbie Rist) – In 1974, (in yet another parallel to The Partridge Family who brought in a younger neighbor for six episodes of its final season) the producers added a younger character to fill the age gap left by the maturing Brady children—the youngest (Susan Olsen) was 12 during the show's final season. Robbie appeared in the final six episodes of the series.

Special guests
• Herbert Anderson (known for playing Dennis' father in the 1960s sitcom Dennis the Menace) appears as a doctor who comes to treat the boys' measles in "Is There a Doctor in the House?" (season one) • Desi Arnaz, Jr. (teen heartthrob son of Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball) meets Marcia, who had written about him in her diary in "The Possible Dream" (season one) • Jim Backus (known for playing Mr. Thurston Howell, III in Robbie Rist as Cousin Oliver Gilligan's Island) appears three times in the series, twice in two of the three Grand Canyon episodes, "Ghost Town U.S.A." and "Grand Canyon or Bust", playing Zaccariah T. Brown who mistakenly thinks the Bradys are jumping his gold claim and locks them in a ghost-town jail, and in "The Hustler" (season 5) playing Mike's second boss, Mr. Harry Matthews • Imogene Coca (known for starring in Your Show of Shows) plays the Brady girls' Great Aunt Jenny, whom Jan fears she will grow up to resemble after seeing a childhood photo of her in "Jan's Aunt Jenny" (season three) • Don Drysdale (pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers) tries to inject reality into Greg's dreams of being a professional baseball player in "The Dropout" (season two) • Don Ho (Hawaiian singer) meets Cindy and Bobby and serenaded Cindy in Honolulu in "Hawaii Bound" (part one of a three-part season four episode, filmed on location in Hawaii) • Davy Jones (former member of The Monkees) performs at a music studio and then takes Marcia to her school dance in "Getting Davy Jones" (season three) (he also satirized his cameo decades later in The Brady Bunch Movie) • Deacon Jones (defensive end for the Los Angeles Rams) encourages Peter's singing in "The Drummer Boy" (season two) • E. G. Marshall (known for playing Lawrence Preston in The Defenders with Robert Reed, 1961–1965 — making this a reunion of the two) plays Mr. J. P. Randolph, Marcia's school principal in "The Slumber Caper" (season

The Brady Bunch two) Brigadier General James McDivitt (NASA astronaut) signs autographs for Peter and Bobby after appearing on a talk show in "Out of This World" (season five). Joe Namath (New York Jets quarterback) visits Bobby because he thought that Bobby had a terminal illness in "Mail Order Hero" (season five) Wes Parker (first baseman for the Los Angeles Dodgers) meets Mike and Greg in Greg's math classroom, thus curing Greg of the crush he had on his teacher Miss Linda O'Hara (played by Gigi Perreau), Parker's fiancée in "The Undergraduate" (season one) Vincent Price (horror film actor) appears twice in the series in two of the three Hawaii episodes, "Pass the Tabu", and "The Tiki Caves" from season four, playing the villainous Professor Hubert Whitehead, who holds the Brady boys hostage Natalie Schafer (known for playing Mrs. Lovey Howell in Gilligan's Island) is Mike's fussy client, Penelope Fletcher, who is charmed by Cindy's impromptu 'Shirley Temple' routine in "The Snooperstar" (season five) Paul Winchell (ventriloquist and actor, known for his 1960s show Winchell-Mahoney Time, and the voice of "Tigger" in Winnie-The-Pooh) appears as Skip Farnum, the TV commercial director in "And Now a Word From Our Sponsor" (season three)

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• • •

• •

Production
American television producer Sherwood Schwartz conceived the Brady Bunch television series in 1966 and registered the idea that same year with the Writers Guild under the name "Yours & Mine" as a blended-family presentation. Schwartz then developed the pilot script to include three children for each parent, a widower, a mother whose marriage past was left open, and a housekeeper, each of whom would be introduced in the pilot in connection with the wedding between the parents. After receiving a commitment for 13-weeks of television shows from ABC in 1968, Schwartz hired film and television director John Rich to direct the pilot, cast the six children from 264 interviews during that summer, and hired the actors to play the mother role (whose maiden name was Taylor and first married name was Martin), the father role, and the housekeeper role. As the sets were built on Paramount Television stages 2 and 3, the production crew prepared the backyard of a home in Sherman Oaks, California as the Taylor home's exterior location to shoot the chaotic backyard wedding scene. Filming of the pilot began on Friday, October 4, 1968 and lasted eight days. The original show last aired on March 8, 1974.

Development
In 1965, following the success of his TV series Gilligan's Island, Sherwood Schwartz conceived the idea for show after reading in the Los Angeles Times that "30% of marriages [in the United States] had a child or children from a previous marriage." He set to work on a pilot script called Mine and Yours[5] and passed it around the "big three" television networks of the era. ABC, CBS and NBC all liked the script but each network wanted changes before they would commit to filming and Schwartz shelved the project.[6] There are similarities between the series and the 1968 theatrical release Yours, Mine and Ours starring Henry Fonda and Lucille Ball. The original script for The Brady Bunch predated the script for the film. The success of the film was a factor in ABC's decision to order episodes for the series.[5]

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174

The Brady house
The house used in exterior shots, which bears little relation to the interior layout of the Bradys' home, is located in Studio City, within the city limits of Los Angeles, California. According to a 1994 article in the Los Angeles Times, the San Fernando Valley house was built in 1959 and selected as the Brady residence because series creator Schwartz felt it looked like a home where an architect would live.[7] The real house is a Mid Century modern, split level. A false window was attached to the front's A-frame section to give the illusion it had two full stories during filming of the series' many establishing shots, all of which took place before the program debuted. In the years since the show first aired, owners of the house have had problems with visitors trespassing to peep into the windows, or coming to the front door asking to see the fictional Bradys. As a result, the property has been extensively re-landscaped, so someone casually driving by most likely would not recognize it as the house shown in the TV show. Contemporary establishing shots of the house were filmed with the owner's permission for the 1990 TV series The Bradys. The owner refused to restore the property to its 1969 look for The Brady Bunch Movie in 1995, so a facade resembling the original home was built around an existing house. In the series, the address of the house was given as 4222 Clinton Way (as read aloud by Carol from an arriving package in the first season episode entitled "Lost Locket, Found Locket"). Although no city was ever specified, it was presumed from references to the Los Angeles Dodgers, the Los Angeles Rams, and a Hollywood movie studio, among many others, that the Bradys lived in Southern California, most likely Los Angeles or one of its suburbs. In the 2002 TV movie The Brady Bunch in the White House, Cindy's map and Mike's speech state that the family lived in Santa Monica, California. The police officers depicted in the final act of The Brady Bunch Movie wore Los Angeles Police Department badges and their squad cars bore LAPD markings. During season three, the living room of the Brady home was used as a villain's Hawaiian home in a season six episode of Mission: Impossible, "Double Dead" (both shows were produced by Paramount Pictures Television). The set was redressed with tropical plants and the staircase removed. All of the Brady furniture, including the television, remained in its usual place in the Mission: Impossible episode.

Episodes
In 1971, following the success of the ABC Friday-night companion show, The Partridge Family (about a musical family), some episodes began to feature the Brady Kids as a singing group. Though only a handful of shows actually featured them singing and performing ("Dough-Re-Mi" in season 3, "Amateur Nite" in 4, and "Adios, Johnny Bravo" in 5), the Brady Bunch began to release albums. The LP records featured background vocals by the same session vocalists who were on The Partridge Family records. Though the kids never charted as high as the Partridges, the cast began touring the United States during the show's summer hiatus, headlining as The Kids from the Brady Bunch. Only Barry Williams and Maureen McCormick stayed in the music business as adults. Christopher Knight has admitted he felt he could not sing and recalled having great anxiety about performing on stage with the cast.

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Season Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5

Ep # 25 24 23 23 22

First broadcast

Last broadcast

September 26, 1969 March 20, 1970 September 27, 1970 March 20, 1971 September 17, 1971 March 10, 1972 September 22, 1972 March 23, 1973 September 14, 1973 March 8, 1974

Reception
U.S. television ratings
The Brady Bunch never achieved high ratings during its primetime run (never placing in the top 30 during the five years it aired) and was canceled in 1974 after five seasons and 117 episodes; it was canceled shortly after the series crossed the minimum threshold for syndication. At that point in the story Greg graduated from high school and was about to enroll in college. Despite its less-than-stellar primetime ratings and having won no awards, the show would become a true cultural phenomenon, enduring in the minds of Americans and in syndication for decades. The series has spawned several sequel series on the "Big 3" U.S. networks, made-for-TV movies, and parody theatrical releases, as well as a touring stage show and countless specials and documentaries on both network and cable TV.

Critical reception
When the episodes were repeated in syndication, they usually appeared every weekday in late-afternoon or early-evening slots on local stations. This enabled children to watch the episodes when they came home from school, making the program widely popular and giving it iconic status among those who were too young to have seen the series during its prime time run. According to Schwartz, the reason the show has become a part of Americana, despite the fact that there have been other shows that ran longer, rated higher and were critically acclaimed, is that the episodes were written from the standpoint of the children and addressed situations that children could understand (such as girl trouble, sibling rivalry and meeting famous people such as a rock star or baseball players). The Bradys are also portrayed as a harmonious family, though they do have times when one of the children does not cooperate with his or her parents or the other children. In a 2010 issue of TV Guide, the show’s opening title sequence was ranked 8 on a list of TV's top 10 credits sequences, as selected by readers.[3]

Awards and honors

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Award Young Artist Award TV Land Awards

Year

Category

Result Barry Williams Honored Nominated Nominated Nominated Won Won Davy Jones Joe Namath

Recipient

1989 Former Child Star Lifetime Achievement Award 2003 Hippest Fashion Plate - Male Favorite Dual-Role Character Funniest Food Fight The Brady Pie Fight on the Paramount Lot. Favorite Guest Performance by a Musician on a TV Show Most Memorable Male Guest Star in a Comedy as Himself 2004 Favorite Fashion Plate - Male Most Memorable Mane Favorite Made for TV Maid 2005 Theme Song You Just Cannot Get out of Your Head Best Dream Sequence For episode "Love and the Older Man," in which Marcia has a crush on her dentist. Favorite Two-Parter/Cliffhanger For the Greg Brady surfboard accident. Favorite Singing Siblings 2006 Best Dream Sequence For episode "Love and the Older Man" Favorite Made for TV Maid Favorite TV Food Pork chops and applesauce. 2007 Most Beautiful Braces Pop Culture Award

Christopher Knight as Peter Brady and Arthur.

Nominated Barry Williams Nominated Susan Olsen Won Nominated Ann B. Davis

Nominated

Nominated Nominated Nominated Won Won Nominated Maureen McCormick Won Williams, McCormick, Knight, Plumb, Lookinland, Olsen, Davis, Henderson, Lloyd J. Schwartz (producer) Ann B. Davis Williams, McCormick, Knight, Plumb, Lookinland, Olsen

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Syndication and distribution
Since its first airing in syndication in September 1975, an episode of the show has been broadcast somewhere in the United States and abroad every single day of every single year through at least 2008. Reruns were also shown on ABC daytime from July 9, 1973 to August 29, 1975, at 11:30 a.m. EST/10:30 CST. The run was interrupted only once, between April 21 and June 27, 1975, when ABC ran a short-lived game show, Blankety Blanks, in that time slot. The Brady Bunch has been a popular staple in syndication and on cable for decades. The show was aired on TBS starting in the 1980s until 1997, on Nick at Nite from 1998 to 2003, TeenNick (under the channel's former name The N) from March to April 2004 and on TV Land from 2002 to 2010. The show briefly returned to Nick at Nite in Spring 2012. In syndication, the station broadcasting the series usually cuts out many unneeded parts of the episodes to make more time for station commercial breaks, with the original version of the episodes being 25-26 minutes. However, in the DVD releases by Paramount Home Entertainment, the full, uncut episodes are shown.

Current
As of 2013, the series is being shown on some local stations around the country, while airing nationally on Me-TV Sundays from 11AM-1PM (in its own programming block called "The Brady Brunch"), INSP weekdays from 5-6PM, and on Hallmark Channel weekdays from 5-8PM. A modified version of the show airs on Nick Jr.'s programming block NickMom and is called What Was Carol Brady Thinking, which is a standard episode of The Brady Bunch with added pop-up "thought bubble" comments from Carol Brady.

DVD releases
Paramount Home Entertainment released all five seasons on DVD in Region 1 from 2005 to 2006, before CBS DVD took over DVD rights to the Paramount Television library (though CBS DVD releases are still distributed by Paramount). Paramount/CBS has released the series on DVD in other countries as well. A Complete Series box set was released in 2007 by CBS and Paramount, which includes the TV movies A Very Brady Christmas and The Brady 500, as well as two episodes of The Brady Kids animated series. The box art for the set features green shag carpeting and 70's style wood paneling. The first two seasons are also available on Region 2 DVD for the Nordic countries, with audio in English and subtitle choices in Norwegian, Swedish, Danish or Finnish.[8][9] The series has also been released on VHS, but the VHS tapes have gone out of print. Seasons one and two have also been released in the UK.
DVD name Episodes Region 1 The Complete First Season The Complete Second Season The Complete Third Season The Complete Fourth Season The Complete Fifth Season The Complete Series 25 24 23 23 22 March 1, 2005 July 26, 2005 September 13, 2005 November 1, 2005 March 7, 2006 Release dates Region 2 Region 4

August 27, 2007 September 19, 2007 March 24, 2008 N/A N/A N/A N/A March 6, 2008 September 4, 2008 April 2, 2009 June 18, 2009 N/A

117 (with extras) April 3, 2007

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Spin-offs, sequels, and other treatments
Several spin-offs and sequels to the original series have been made, featuring all or most of the original cast. These include another sitcom, an animated series, a variety show, television movies, a dramatic series, a stage play, and theatrical movies:

Kelly's Kids
A final-season Brady Bunch episode, "Kelly's Kids", was intended as a pilot for a prospective spinoff series of the same name. Ken Berry starred as Ken Kelly, a friend and neighbor of the Bradys', who with his wife Kathy (Brooke Bundy) adopted three orphaned boys of different racial backgrounds. One of the adopted sons was played by Todd Lookinland, the younger brother of Mike Lookinland. While Kelly's Kids was not subsequently picked up as a full series, producer Sherwood Schwartz would rework the basic premise for the short-lived 1980s sitcom Together We Stand starring Elliott Gould and Dee Wallace.

The Brady Kids
A 22-episode animated Saturday morning cartoon series, produced by Filmation and airing on ABC from 1972–74, about the Brady kids having various adventures. The family's adults were never seen or mentioned, and the "home" scenes were in a very large well-appointed tree house. Several animals were regular characters, including two non-English speaking pandas (Ping and Pong), a talking bird (Marlon) who could do magic, and an ordinary pet dog (Mop Top, not Tiger). The first 17 episodes featured the voices of all six of the original child actors from the show, but Barry Williams, Maureen McCormick and Christopher Knight were replaced for the last five episodes due to a contract dispute.

The Brady Bunch Variety Hour
A variety show called The Brady Bunch Variety Hour was spun off in 1977. It was canceled after only nine episodes. Eve Plumb was the only regular cast member from the original show who declined to be in the series and the role of Jan was recast with Geri Reischl. Produced by Sid and Marty Krofft, the sibling team behind H.R. Pufnstuf, Donny and Marie and other variety shows and children's series of the era, the show was intended to air every fifth week in the same slot as The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries, but ended up being scheduled sporadically throughout the season, leading to inconsistent ratings and its inevitable cancellation. In 2009, Susan Olsen published a book, Love to Love You Bradys, which dissects and celebrates the Variety Hour as a cult classic.

The Brady Girls Get Married / The Brady Brides

The Brady Brides
Genre Directed by Starring Sitcom Peter Baldwin Maureen McCormick Eve Plumb Jerry Houser Ron Kuhlman Ann B. Davis Florence Henderson Keland Love

Theme music composer Frank De Vol Country of origin Language(s) United States English

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No. of seasons No. of episodes 1 10 Production Executive producer(s) Lloyd J. Schwartz Sherwood Schwartz John Thomas Lenox Paramount Studios (5555 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California) Lester Shorr 25 minutes

Producer(s) Location(s) Cinematography Running time

Production company(s) Paramount Television Distributor CBS Television Distribution Broadcast Original channel Original run NBC February 6, 1981 – April 17, 1981 Chronology Preceded by Followed by Related shows The Brady Bunch Hour The Bradys The Brady Bunch

A TV reunion movie called The Brady Girls Get Married was produced in 1981. TV Guide indicated the movie would be shown in one evening, but at the last minute NBC divided it into half hour segments and showed one part a week for three weeks, and the fourth week debuted a spin-off sitcom, titled The Brady Brides. The reunion movie featured the entire original cast; this would prove to be the only time the entire cast worked together on a single project following the cancellation of the original series. The movie's opening credits featured the season one "Grid" and theme song, with the addition of the "Brady Girls Get Married" title.[10] The movie shows what the characters had been doing since the original series ended: Mike is still an architect, Carol is a real estate agent, Marcia is a fashion designer, Jan is also an architect, Greg is a doctor, Peter is in the Air Force, Bobby and Cindy are in college, and Alice has married Sam. Eventually they all reunite to see Jan and Marcia both marry in a double wedding. The Brady Brides series features Maureen McCormick (Marcia) and Eve Plumb (Jan) in regular roles. The series begins with Marcia, Jan and their new husbands buying a house and living together. The clashes between Jan's uptight husband, Phillip Covington III (a college professor in science who is several years older than Jan, played by Ron Kuhlman), and Marcia's slovenly husband, Wally Logan (a fun-loving salesman for a large toy company, played by Jerry Houser), were the pivot on which many of the stories were based, not unlike The Odd Couple. Ten episodes were aired before the sitcom was cancelled. This was the only Brady show in sitcom form to be filmed in front of a live studio audience. Bob Eubanks guest-starred as himself in an episode where the two couples appear on The Newlywed Game. In the 1990s, The Brady Girls Get Married, including the pilot of The Brady Brides, was rerun as a single two-hour movie on Nick at Nite, to celebrate the release of The Brady Bunch Movie in 1995.

The Brady Bunch Episode titles
№ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Title Original Airdate

180

"The Brady Girls Get Married (Part 1)" February 6, 1981 "The Brady Girls Get Married (Part 2)" February 13, 1981 "The Brady Girls Get Married (Part 3)" February 20, 1981 "Living Together" "Gorilla of My Dreams" "The Newlywed Game" "The Mom Who Came to Dinner" "The Siege" "Cool Hand Phil" March 6, 1981 March 13, 1981 March 20, 1981 March 27, 1981 April 3, 1981 April 10, 1981 April 17, 1981

10 "A Pretty Boy Is Like a Melody"

A Very Brady Christmas
A second TV reunion movie, A Very Brady Christmas, aired in December 1988 and featured all the regular cast (except Susan Olsen; the role of Cindy was played by Jennifer Runyon), as well as three grandchildren, Peter's girlfriend, Valerie, and the spouses of Greg, Marcia and Jan (Nora, Wally and Phillip, respectively). Mike is still an architect and Jan has followed in his footsteps to become one herself; Carol is a realtor; Greg is a physician; Marcia is a stay-at-home mom with two kids; Peter works in an office; Cindy is in her last year of college; Bobby was in graduate school studying for business but dropped out to drive race cars. After a series of pratfalls to get the family together, everyone comes home harboring various secrets (e.g., Jan and Phillip are considering separation; Wally is out of work again, having lost his job in a merger at his toy company; Greg's wife Nora wants to spend Christmas with her family; Cindy felt pressured to come home in lieu of a skiing trip with her college friends; Peter feels inferior to his girlfriend, who is also his boss; and Bobby hasn't revealed his leaving graduate school for a racing career). Alice, meanwhile, temporarily moves back in with Mike and Carol after her husband, Sam, runs off with another woman. (Allan Melvin did not reprise the role; he had retired from acting and was replaced in a single scene by Lewis Arquette.) Even Mike has problems: Contractor Ted Roberts, wanting to save money on a downtown office complex project (at 34th Street and Oak) where Mike is the architect, demands that he redesign the building to omit important safety specifications. Mike advises against it and causes his firm to lose Roberts' services. On Christmas Day, the building crumbles, and Roberts, unable to contact anyone at the new firm he hired, must rely on Mike to find what caused the building's structure to become unstable. While inside, the building continues to crumble, trapping Mike and two security guards inside. Of course, everyone turns out to be okay, and Alice and Sam reunite. The movie, which aired on CBS to high ratings, renewed interest in the Brady clan and set out the current careers and family situations which were continued in The Bradys. The fact that this movie aired on CBS gave the Bradys a rare feat: the original show and reunions aired on all of the "Big 3" networks — ABC, CBS and NBC.

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The Bradys
A six-episode dramedy series named The Bradys was produced in 1989 and premiered on February 6, 1990. The theme music used an instrumental version for the (CBS) network run and a lyrical version for reruns. The theme lyrics no longer featured the "That's the way we all became The Brady Bunch" lyrics, and the theme was no longer sung by The Brady Kids—it was performed by the Brady mom Florence Henderson.

Reboot
On July 31, 2012, it was announced that CBS would be producing a reboot to The Brady Bunch, produced by Vince Vaughn.[11] The series will act as a sequel, in which the plot revolves around an adult Bobby Brady who has been divorced, but remarries to start a new family.[12]

Specials, documentaries, and other revivals
The Brady Bunch has met with a remarkable amount of television coverage, most of which has capitalized on the show's continuing iconic cult status. • The World of Sid & Marty Krofft at the Hollywood Bowl; Thanksgiving weekend, 1973; the kids sing at the Los Angeles venue; Robert Reed and Ann B. Davis watch from box seats. • Donny & Marie; October 1, 1976; Florence Henderson, Maureen McCormick, Mike Lookinland, and Susan Olsen appear as their Brady characters on an episode the variety show in several comedy sketches • The Brady Bunch Variety Hour; November 28, 1976; special from the producers of Donny and Marie, which leads to The Brady Bunch Hour
Barry Williams, Christopher Knight and Mike Lookinland ("Greg", "Peter", and "Bobby" respectively) at the Big Apple Convention in Manhattan, October 1, 2010

• The Love Boat; October 29, 1983; Robert Reed and Florence Henderson appear in a cameo (though the name "Brady" is not mentioned) and talk about how they can take a cruise since the kids are all grown up (other famous television couples appear in the episode) • A Very Brady Christmas (CBS) December 18, 1988; the highest-rated TV movie of the 1988–89 television season • Day by Day: "A Very Brady Episode" (NBC) February 5, 1989; Robert Reed and Florence Henderson reprise their roles; other Brady veterans also appear, including a then-pregnant Maureen McCormick. In the episode, a teenage boy in the family (Christopher Daniel Barnes) dreams he is Chuck Brady and escapes to the Bradys' world after he is scolded for his poor scholastic habits due to watching a Brady Bunch marathon. Barnes was later cast as "Greg Brady" in the theatrical Brady Bunch movies) • Free Spirit: "The New Secretary" (ABC) December 10, 1989; Robert Reed and Florence Henderson play a couple (the name 'Brady' is not mentioned) seeking a divorce • The Real Live Brady Bunch; stage show featuring re-enactments of series episodes; Andy Richter played Mike, and appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on November 9, 1992 almost a year before becoming the sidekick on Late Night with Conan O'Brien; Jane Lynch played Carol Brady • The Brady 500 (CBS) February 9, 1990; Bobby is paralyzed from the waist down due to an auto racing accident; the first two episodes of The Bradys (also known as Start Your Engines) • Bradymania: A Very Brady Special, 1993; based loosely on Elizabeth Moran's book Bradymania; hosted by Florence Henderson and includes clips comparing Brady behavior with that on other sitcoms • The Brady Bunch Movie, 1995; theatrical release; a tongue-in-cheek parody to the original series; some Brady veterans appear in cameos (scenes with Mike Lookinland and Susan Olsen were filmed, but were cut from the

The Brady Bunch final film) A Very Brady Sequel, 1996; theatrical release; same cast as The Brady Bunch Movie with Tim Matheson playing a villain impersonating Carol's first husband Brady Bunch Home Movies, May 23, 1995; Tribute special to Robert Reed using 8 mm movie camera footage filmed by the cast using cameras given to them as a gift from Reed; Susan Olsen was executive producer Groovin' with the Bradys, a 1998 VH1 special Attack of the Bradys, a second 1998 VH1 special E! True Hollywood Story: The Brady Bunch, June 6, 1999; members of the cast retell their anecdotes Unauthorized Brady Bunch: The Final Days, May 16, 2000; television movie focusing on the final season, which was marred by dissension among the cast pertaining to their business arrangements and creative direction of the show Growing Up Brady, May 21, 2000; television movie inspired by Barry Williams's 1992 book book of the same name Pop-Up Brady (VH-1) July 18, 2001; several episodes of series with textual commentary added in the form of on-screen balloons modeled after Pop-Up Video The Weakest Link (NBC) September 24, 2001; all surviving cast members including Robbie Rist (sans Davis) appeared; Rist later joked "I hope I don't kill this show, too!"

182

• • • • • •

• • •

• The Brady Bunch in the White House, November 29, 2002; television movie sequel of A Very Brady Sequel with Gary Cole and Shelly Long reprising their roles; Brady kids are recast • The Brady Bunch 35th Anniversary Reunion Special: Still Brady after All These Years, September 29, 2004; reunion special featuring all surviving cast members; hosted by Jenny McCarthy • My Fair Brady, 2005; reality television series about Christopher Knight and Adrianne Curry (the first America's Next Top Model winner) and their relationship, post a stint on VH1's The Surreal Life (Barry Williams, Florence Henderson, Susan Olsen and Mike Looklinland make appearances) • Coming Together Under One Roof, 2005; Sherwood Schwartz narrates this documentary about the creation of the original series for the DVD release of the first season • Biography: The Brady Bunch, (A&E) June 24, 2005 • The Brady Bunch Cast Back in Hawaii, 2005; Florence Henderson, Barry Williams, Christopher Knight, Mike Lookinland and Susan Olsen return to Hawaii; Don Ho appears as himself, as he did in the September 1972 episode "Hawaii Bound" • A Very Brady Musical June 6, 2008; a stage musical which debuted in Los Angeles written by Lloyd J. Schwartz and sister Hope Juber; music written by Hope and Laurence Juber, directed by Lloyd Schwartz[13] • A Very Brady Reunion August 31, 2008; Barry Williams, Susan Olsen, and Mike Lookinland return to Kings Island (where the November 1973 episode "The Cincinnati Kids" was filed) for a four-show special of song, dance, and Brady Bunch stories[14] • All Star Anything Goes, 1977-78: on two episodes, four members of the cast, including Geri Reischl (from the variety series), competed twice against four members of the DeFranco family singers, with the DeFrancos winning the first time and the Brady cast the second

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References
[1] "Special Collectors' Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide (June 28-July 4). 1997. [2] "The Biography of the Peppermint Trolley Company" (http:/ / www. dannyfaragher. com/ bio/ the-peppermint-trolley-company/ ). Danny Faragher. . [3] Tomashoff, Craig. "Credits Check" TV Guide, October 18, 2010, Pages 16-17 [4] "Growing up Brady" by Barry Williams with Chris Kreski, p. 210, 1992 [5] Edelstein, Andrew J.; Lovece, Frank (1990). The Brady Bunch Book. New York: Warner Books. pp. 5–9. ISBN 0-446-39137-9. [6] Biography Channel Documentary titled "The Brady Bunch", retrieved on June 16, 2008. [7] "Here's the story of the Brady Bunch house" (http:/ / davidbrady. com/ times/ latbrady. html). Davidbrady.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-11. [8] "The Brady Bunch – Sesong 1 (Television 1969, Serie på 4 plater)" (http:/ / www. lovefilm. no/ film/ 312074-The+ Brady+ Bunch+ -+ Sesong+ 1. do;jsessionid=4CA8DC6688423258E4B3F9AB12D83808). Lovefilm.no. . Retrieved 2010-08-11. [9] "The Brady Bunch – Sesong 2 (Television 1970, Serie på 4 plater)" (http:/ / www. lovefilm. no/ film/ 312078-The+ Brady+ Bunch+ -+ Sesong+ 2. do). Lovefilm.no. . Retrieved 2010-08-11. [10] "Brady World – Episode Guide" (http:/ / www. bradyworld. com/ episodes/ brides. htm). Bradyworld.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-11. [11] "CBS and Vince Vaughn Developing The Brady Bunch Reboot" (http:/ / www. ign. com/ articles/ 2012/ 07/ 31/ cbs-and-vince-vaughn-developing-the-brady-bunch-reboot). 2012-07-31. . [12] "CBS Developing 'Brady Bunch' Reboot With Vince Vaughn" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ live-feed/ cbs-brady-bunch-reboot-vince-vaughn-development-356419). 2012-07-31. . [13] "The Brady Bunch: Here’s the Story, of a Brand New Musical" (http:/ / tvseriesfinale. com/ articles/ the-brady-bunch-heres-the-story-of-a-brand-new-musical/ ). Tvseriesfinale.com. 2008-06-06. . Retrieved 2010-08-11. [14] Kings Island website – A Very Brady Reunion (http:/ / www. visitkingsisland. com/ events/ event_detail. cfm?event_id=510& ec_id=15)

External links
• • • • • • • • • The Brady Bunch (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0063878/) at the Internet Movie Database The Brady Bunch on TV Land (http://www.tvland.com/shows/brady_bunch/) Encyclopedia of Television (http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/B/htmlB/bradybunch/bradybunch.htm) Love to Love You Bradys (http://www.lovetoloveyoubradys.com) (book by Susan Olsen) The Brady Bunch Shrine (http://www.bradybunchshrine.com/) (fan site) Danielle's Brady Bunch House (http://bradybunchhouse.home.comcast.net/) (fan site) Bradyworld.com (http://www.bradyworld.com) (fan site) The Unofficial Brady Bunch Home Page (http://compuglobalhypermeganet.biz/ubbhp/) (archive of fan site) Interview with Barry Williams on "The Greg Brady Project" (http://daily.mahalo.com/2008/02/20/ md061-the-greg-brady-project/) • The Brady Bunch Cast:Where are they now? (http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/slideshow/ photos-brady-bunch-cast-now-11543817) (2010, carries some editorial errors)

Eischied

184

Eischied
Eischied
Genre Written by Crime drama Stephen Downing Ernest Tidyman Gary Nelson Joe Don Baker Eddie Egan Alan Fudge Alan Oppenheimer Suzanne Lederer United States English 1 13 Production Executive producer(s) Camera setup Running time David Gerber Single-camera 45–48 minutes

Directed by Starring

Country of origin Language(s) No. of seasons No. of episodes

Production company(s) David Gerber Productions Columbia Pictures Television Broadcast Original channel Audio format Original run NBC Monaural September 21, 1979 – January 20, 1980 Chronology Preceded by To Kill a Cop (1978)

Eischied (pronounced as "eye-shyed") is an American crime drama broadcast on NBC from September 21, 1979 to January 20, 1980. It was based on the starring character from the 1978 miniseries To Kill a Cop, which was based on the novel by Robert Daley.

Synopsis
The series stars Joe Don Baker as tough, brilliant, southern-bred New York City Police Department, NYPD Chief of Detectives Earl Eischied. His complimentary catchphrase was "Ya done good," which was usually directed at one of the younger detectives or officers in his command. His pet cat was named "PC" (as in probable cause). Eischied was tough and did not hesitate to work the streets with his detectives. He used a Smith and Wesson Model 10 .38 Special Caliber, snub nosed revolver which he carried "old school" style, inside his waistband, concealed by his vest and/or suit jacket. He was not afraid to bend the rules in pursuit of a case but would never break the law itself. His southern drawl concealed a sharp intellect and encyclopedic knowledge of criminology and police work. Although Eischied was physically imposing, he had great empathy and compassion for victims of crime and other less fortunates.

Eischied NBC reran episodes of Eischied in its original Friday night time slot during the summer of 1983 (including three previously unaired episodes), almost four years after it had been cancelled. The show was broadcast in the United Kingdom under the title The Chief of Detectives. In (Western) Germany the show ran in 1980 under the title Schauplatz New York.

185

External links
• Eischied [1] at the Internet Movie Database • Eischied [2] at TV.com

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0078609/ [2] http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ eischied/

Fantasy Island
This article is about the television series. For the amusement parks and other uses, see Fantasy Island (disambiguation)

Fantasy Island
Title card of the first installment of Fantasy Island. Format Created by Starring Drama/Fantasy Gene Levitt Ricardo Montalbán Hervé Villechaize Christopher Hewett Wendy Schaal Kimberly Beck United States 7 158 (including 1977 pilot) Production Running time 45–48 minutes

Country of origin No. of seasons No. of episodes

Production company(s) Spelling-Goldberg Productions Columbia Pictures Television Broadcast Original channel Audio format Original run ABC Monaural January 14, 1978 – May 19, 1984

Fantasy Island is the title of two separate but related American fantasy television series, both originally airing on the ABC television network.

Fantasy Island

186

Original series
Before it became a long-running original television series, Fantasy Island was introduced to viewers in 1977 through two highly-rated made-for-television films. Airing from 1978 to 1984, the original series starred Ricardo Montalbán as Mr. Roarke, the enigmatic overseer of a mysterious island somewhere in the Pacific Ocean, where people from all walks of life could come and live out their fantasies, albeit for a price. Roarke was known for his white suit and cultured demeanor, and was initially accompanied by an energetic sidekick, Tattoo, played by Hervé Villechaize. Tattoo would run up the main bell tower to ring the bell and shout "The plane! The plane!" to announce the arrival of a new set of guests at the beginning of each episode. This line, shown at the beginning of the show's credits, became an unlikely catchphrase because of Villechaize's spirited delivery and French accent (he actually pronounced it, "De plane! De plane!"). In later seasons, he would arrive in his personal go-kart, sized for him, and recklessly drive to join Roarke for the visitor reception while the staff scrambled to get out of his way. From 1980 to 1982, Wendy Schaal joined the cast as an assistant named Julie. In a highly unpopular move with both fans and the cast, the producers fired Villechaize from the series before the 1983–1984 season, which ended up being its last, and Tattoo was replaced by a more sedate butler type named Lawrence, played by Christopher Hewett. Lawrence's personality was exactly the opposite of Tattoo's in many ways. For instance, Lawrence was also responsible for the bell ringing, but instead of climbing to the tower he simply pushed a button outside to have the bell ring automatically. A Grumman Widgeon aircraft was used for the series.[1] As each visitor exited the plane Roarke would describe to Tattoo (or another assistant) the nature of their fantasy, usually with a cryptic comment suggesting the person's fantasy will not turn out as they expected. Roarke would then welcome his guests by lifting his glass and saying: "My dear guests, I am Mr. Roarke, your host. Welcome to Fantasy Island." This toast was usually followed with a warm smile but sometimes (depending on the nature of a guest or their fantasy) his eyes would show concern or worry for a guest's safety. Roarke's personal vehicle was an orange Dodge Aspen station wagon with a Safari top with the stance of a modern-day sport utility vehicle.

Mr. Roarke
Very little is known about the man known as Mr. Roarke and it isn't Mr. Roarke and Tattoo. clear if that's his first, last, or only name. Although most guests know him as "Mr." Roarke, many people close to him, including past lovers, have referred to him only as "Roarke", which suggests he may not have any other names. He is the sole owner and proprietor of Fantasy Island. Roarke's actual age is a complete mystery. In the pilot film, he comments how the guests who come to his island are "so mortal" and there are hints throughout the series that suggest Roarke may be immortal. In "Elizabeth", a woman from Roarke's past appears, but it's revealed that she died over 300 years ago. Another episode even suggests that he was once intimate with Cleopatra. However old he is, Roarke has come to know many seemingly-immortal beings over his time on Earth, including ghosts ("The Ghost's Story"), a genie ("A Genie Named Joe"), the mermaid Nyah ("The Mermaid", "The Mermaid Returns", "The Mermaid and the Matchmaker"), the goddess Aphrodite ("Aphrodite"), and even Uriel, the Angel of Death ("The Angel's Triangle"). In two episodes ("The Devil and Mandy Breem", "The Devil and Mr. Roarke"), Roarke even faces The Devil (played by Roddy McDowall), who has come to the island to challenge him for either a guest's immortal soul or his. It is mentioned this is not the first time they have confronted each other and Mr. Roarke has always been the winner. In the second story, the Devil himself was one of the island's guests, claiming he was only there to relax and had no interest in Roarke's soul at the time. However, this

Fantasy Island turned out to be yet another ruse. Roarke had a strong moral code, but he was always merciful. He usually tried to teach his guests important life lessons through the medium of their fantasies, frequently in a manner that exposes the errors of their ways, and on occasions when the island hosted terminally ill guests he would allow them to live out one last wish. Roarke's fantasies were not without peril, but the greatest danger usually came from the guests themselves; in some cases people actually got themselves killed due to their own negligence, aggression or arrogance. When necessary, Roarke would directly intervene when the fantasy became dangerous to the guest. For instance, when Tattoo was given his own fantasy as a birthday gift, which ended up with him being chased by hostile natives in canoes, Mr. Roarke suddenly appeared in a motorboat, snared Tattoo's canoe with a grappling hook and towed it away at high speed to help his employee escape. With only a few exceptions, Roarke always made it quite clear that he was powerless to stop a fantasy once it had begun and that guests must play them out to their conclusion. In later seasons, there were often supernatural overtones. Roarke also seemed to have his own supernatural powers of some sort (called the "Gift of the McNabs" in "Delphine"), although it was never explained how this came to be. In one episode, when a guest says "Thank God things worked out well", Roarke and Tattoo share a very odd look and Roarke says in a cryptic way "Thank God, indeed". In the same episode, Roarke uses some mysterious powers to help Tattoo with his magic act. Actor Ricardo Montalban would claim in interviews that he had a definite opinion in mind regarding the mystery of Mr. Roarke, and how he accomplished his fantasies, but he would never publicly state what it was. The usual format of each episode consisted of an introduction in which Roarke would describe to Tattoo (or another assistant) the nature of each person's fantasy, usually with a cryptic comment suggesting the person's fantasy will not turn out as they expected. The episode would then alternate between two or three independent story lines as the guests experienced their fantasies and interacted with Roarke. (A syndication of the original episodes on daytime TV in the 1980s reduced each hour-long original show to two separate half-hour shows in which only one guest's story was told in each half-hour episode. This made it obvious that the original episodes had been planned in such a way that each guest or family got off the plane separately, did not interact with the other guest or family, and was given almost exactly half the time of the original episode.) Often, the fantasies would turn out to be morality lessons for the guests (for example, one featured a man who clamored for the "good old days" to be taken back to the Salem witch trials), sometimes to the point of (apparently) putting their lives at risk, only to have Roarke step in at the last minute and reveal the deception. It is mentioned a few times that a condition of visiting Fantasy Island is that guests never reveal what goes on there. A small number of guests decided to make the irrevocable choice to stay permanently, living out their fantasy until death; one such person was an actor who had been in a Tarzan-type television series in the 1960s. Aside from a "clip show" ("Remember...When?") the only episode with a single storyline was "The Wedding", in which terminally ill Helena Marsh returned to Fantasy Island to spend her last days as Roarke's wife.

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The Fantasy
Cost In the first film, it was noted that each guest had paid $50,000 (about $185,000 in 2010 dollars) in advance for the fulfillment of their fantasies and that Fantasy Island was a business. In Return to Fantasy Island, Roarke told Tattoo that he sometimes dropped the price when a guest couldn't afford the usual fee because he believed everyone should be given a chance to have their fantasies fulfilled. Afterwards, it became clear that the price a guest paid was substantial to him or her, and for one little girl whose father was one of Roarke's guests, she had emptied her piggy bank—less than ten dollars—to have her fantasy with her father fulfilled. On numerous occasions, a guest had not paid for the trip at all but instead won it as a result of a contest. Those who came by winning contests were usually the unknowing beneficiaries of rigged contests in order to disguise to themselves and others the real reason for their coming as part of someone else's fantasy.

Fantasy Island Nature The nature of a fantasy varied from story to story and were typically very personal to each guest on some level. They could be as harmless as wanting to be reunited with a lost love to something more dangerous like tracking down a cold-blooded killer who murdered someone close to the guest. Usually, the fantasy would take an unexpected turn and proceed down a quite different path than the guest expected. He or she would then leave with some new revelation or renewed interest about themselves or someone close to them. Many times, Roarke would reveal in the end that someone they met during the course of their fantasy was another guest living a fantasy of their own. Both guests often left the island together. However, one guest (Don Knotts) had no particular fantasy and was simply there to relax and enjoy himself. Although some fantasies were rooted in the real world, many others involved supernatural (such as ghosts, demons, or witchcraft) or mythological (mermaids, genies, Greek goddesses) elements. Time-travel was often a required element - if not a specific request - to fulfill one's fantasy. Risk Often a fantasy might involve supernatural elements or even time-travel. Roarke often preceded particularly risky fantasies with a stern warning, word of caution, or even suggestion that the guest select another fantasy instead. He would then inform his guests that he was powerless to stop a fantasy once it had begun and must allow the fantasy to play out until its ultimate conclusion. However, in life-or-death cases, he would inevitably intervene and ensure his guests' safety.

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Production notes
The show was broadcast every Saturday night on ABC at 10 p.m., after The Love Boat, which was also produced by Aaron Spelling. Like several other series of the era, such as the previously mentioned The Love Boat and Murder, She Wrote, Fantasy Island employed many celebrity guest stars, often bringing them back repeatedly for different roles.

Filming locations
The series was filmed primarily in Burbank, California, with the opening scenes of the enchanting island coastline being that of Moorea, French Polynesia. The house with the bell tower, where Tattoo rings the bell, is the Queen Anne Cottage, located in the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden in Arcadia. The plane, "arriving" with the guests, was filmed in the lagoon behind the Queen Anne Cottage. Sometimes, outdoor scenes were filmed at the Arboretum.

1998 series

Fantasy Island

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Fantasy Island (1998)
Format Created by Starring Dramedy, fantasy Bob Josephon Malcolm McDowell Mädchen Amick Louis Lombardi Edward Hibbert Fyvush Finkel Sylvia Sidney United States 13 Production Running time 45–48 minutes

Country of origin No. of episodes

Production company(s) Sonnefeld Josephon Worldwide Entertainment Columbia TriStar Television (Sony Pictures Television) Broadcast Original channel Original run ABC September 26, 1998 – January 24, 1999

In 1998, ABC revived the series in a Saturday time slot. The role of Mr. Roarke was filled by Malcolm McDowell and, unlike in the first series, the supernatural aspect of his character and of Fantasy Island itself was emphasized from the start, along with a dose of dark humor.[2] Director Barry Sonnenfeld, known for his work on The Addams Family movies, was a chief creative force on the new series. Another departure from the original involved filming location, with the new series filmed in Hawaii, rather than in California. The remake followed the fantasies of at least two of Roarke's guests with an additional subplot involving members of his staff - usually Cal and Harry. Whereas the original series featured a separate writer and title for each subplot, the new series was written as several stories but featuring a unified theme and title. The supporting cast was also expanded for the new series. There was no attempt to reinstate Tattoo, with Roarke instead having a team of assistants — one of whom was a beautiful female shape shifter named Ariel — who were assigned to help create and maintain the various fantasy worlds created on the island. Apparently these assistants were imprisoned on the island in order to pay off some debt (or earn a second chance at life), sometimes hinting that they were in some kind of Limbo, with many parallels between the regulars and William Shakespeare's The Tempest. In this aspect, the show was similar to another short-lived series - Nightmare Cafe. It was strongly hinted that the island itself was the source of Roarke's mysterious powers as his assistants have been shown wielding its magic with varying degrees of success. Miranda, Roarke's adopted daughter was human but grew up on the island with the ability as well. The series was canceled midway through the season with the remaining episodes airing on the Sci Fi Channel. This version also aired on UPN. In an attempt to contrast this series with the original, the new Mr. Roarke usually wore black; in the first episode, he picked the single black suit out of a closet of white ones and ordered that the rest be burned. Also during the first episode, an assistant came into Mr. Roarke's office, shouting "The planes! The planes!" Mr. Roarke ordered the assistant to never do that again. Episodes of the revived series regularly opened and ended with a sequence set in a travel agency that actually books the fantasies, operated by two elderly travel agents played by Fyvush Finkel and 1930s silver screen leading lady Sylvia Sidney (in her final acting role). Roarke gave them their assignments by stuffing contracts into a pneumatic

Fantasy Island tube that somehow connected the island with the travel agency and the outside world.

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Characters
• Mr. Roarke - the enigmatic host and self-proclaimed "Master of Ceremonies" of Fantasy Island. Capable of working miracles and performing the impossible, he would bring people to the island under the pretense of fulfilling their deepest fantasy. However, ultimately his actions would lead to them receiving what their hearts really wanted or even showing them the error of their ways. While Roarke nearly always had the best intentions for his guests, he possessed a dark sense of humor and a dry wit with sarcastic undertones. He has an adopted daughter, Miranda, that was the only survivor of a shipwreck near the island. She left the island to live in the outside world after she turned eighteen. She became a doctor and eventually married but retained no memories of Fantasy Island or of Roarke while off-island. • Ariel - Roarke's second-in-command. While she is incredibly old, physically she appears to be quite young and attractive and has the ability to shape-shift into various women to help guests' fantasies along. She is quite fond of Roarke and appears to have been romantically involved with him sometime in the past. She claims to have been with as many men as there are grains in a fistful of sand. • Cal - While primarily introduced as the island's bellhop, he was also shown to have various other duties such as bartender, waiter, cook, and even helicopter pilot. In his former life, he was a small-time criminal but earned a chance to start life anew at the age of 10 near the end of the season. • Harry - the island hotel's concierge. He was apparently the concierge of a burning hotel Roarke rescued him from. • Fisher - a Travel Agent who arranges Fantasy Island trips for visitors at the start of each episode.

Syndication
In Canada, episodes of the original series are aired during primetime some evenings and again on the weekend on TV Land (as of January 15, 2009). In Greece, episodes are aired very early in the morning (sometimes 04.00-04.30) every day on Mega Channel. Selected episodes from the first, second and third seasons are available free at Hulu. Selected Minisodes from seasons one, three, four, five, and six are available free at Crackle, along with complete episodes from seasons one, two, and three.

DVD releases
Original series
In 2005, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released Season 1 of the original series on DVD in regions 1, 2 & 4. The release included the 1977 pilot Fantasy Island and 1978's Return to Fantasy Island. However, due to poor sales, no further seasons were released. In February 2012, it was announced that Shout! Factory had acquired the rights to the series in Region 1; they subsequently released the second season on DVD on May 8, 2012.[3] Season 3 was released on October 23, 2012.[4]

Fantasy Island

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DVD Name The Complete First Season The Complete Second Season The Complete Third Season

Ep # 18 25 23

Release Date November 15, 2005 May 8, 2012 October 23, 2012

Ratings
• • • • • • 1) 1978–79: #22 (20.8) 2) 1979–80: #28 (20.1) 3) 1980–81: #17 (20.7) 4) 1981–82: #30 (18.3) 5) 1982–83: Not in the Top 30 6) 1983–84: Not in the Top 30

Parodies and cultural references
• The animated TV series South Park has referenced Fantasy Island on three occasions. • In the season 6 episode of Wings, titled "The Waxman Cometh", Lowell buys a waxwork, and Mr. Roarke is sitting on a bench in the president's stand. Antonio asks "when was Ricardo Montalban the president?" to which Brian replies "wait a minute, where's vice president Tattoo? • Canada's comedy duo of Wayne and Shuster parodied Fantasy Island as Fantasy Motel. • The Micallef Program featured a sketch entitled 'Fantasy Traffic Island' in which Shaun and Francis asked a pedestrian what his wildest fantasy was. He just wanted to get to the golf shop across the road. • In the Looney Tunes compilation Daffy Duck's Fantastic Island, Daffy Duck found a wishing well, and started charging people to make wishes. When the business took off, he started wearing a white suit. Speedy Gonzales took on the role of Tattoo. • SCTV produced a parody of Fantasy Island. Eugene Levy played a Mr. Roarke-like character, & John Candy played Pattoo, a Tattoo-like character. • In "The Cryonic Woman", an episode of the animated TV series, Futurama, a reference is made to characters returning from Fantasy Planet, where "for one beautiful night". • In the entertainment TV show El Lavadero, on the Colombian TV network RCN, there is a segment called Su Isla de la Fantasía (Spanish for "Your Fantasy Island"), which is presented by "Señor Ron" (a Mr. Roarke-like character') and Pelotú (pronounced pell-o-TOO, an imitation of Tattoo). • In a MadTV sketch parodying the ABC drama Lost, Roarke and Tattoo emerge from the jungle at the end of the skit, with Roarke welcoming them, and announcing that the survivors are actually on Fantasy Island. Tattoo, on seeing their downed plane, exclaims, "The Plane! The Plane is in the ocean!". • In George Lopez, Vic is seen in a white tuxedo and George walks in and says, "Welcome to Fantasy Island," and making a series of remarks related to the show, such as, "Boss boss, de plane, de plane!" • In Robot Chicken, Mr. Roarke and Tattoo appear in an episode, with guests stating that they would like obscure, inappropriate fantasies, such as being able to have sex with a donkey or to administer a violent beating to Roarke. • In the 1998 film A Night at the Roxbury, Chris Kattan's character Doug Watabi yells to his father "Are you seeing planes?...Is your name Tattoo because I swear to God you're living on Fantasy Island" Then Will Ferrell's character Steve says "Man, that was a sweet show!" In which Doug adds "Yeah it was, wasn't it?"

Fantasy Island • In the Entourage episode "Fantasy Island", Turtle can be heard saying "Ze plane, ze plane" to Vince as a plane flies overhead. • In an episode of Bizarre, comedian John Byner plays Tattoo giving then-NBC executive Fred Silverman a wish. When Silverman asks for a decent line-up, Byner-as-Tattoo tells him "we only do fantasies, not friggin miracles!" • In the film Deep Blue Sea, Russell Franklin (Samuel L. Jackson) likens the research facility to Fantasy Island, and quotes "De plane, de plane!". When Thomas Jane's character Carter fails tot understand the reference, Russell remarks that he is getting too old. • In the Disney Channel show, Phineas and Ferb, produced an episode titled "de plane, de plane". • On the Gorillaz' Plastic Beach website, Tattoo can be found standing in front of the lift, saying "De lift, boss!". • In the Doug episode, "Doug's In The Money", Doug Funnie finds an envelope containing a large sum of money, and later daydreams that he used it to start his own island resort called Funnie Island. In the fantasy, Doug stands in for Mr. Roarke, and a miniature version of Roger is Tattoo. • The introduction to Dr. Dre's solo album The Chronic features Snoop Dogg referring to former N.W.A. manager Jerry Heller and rapper Eazy-E as Mr. Roarke and Tattoo. The metaphor was related to Dr. Dre being released from his contract with Ruthless Records.

192

Notes
[1] MARIANNE LOVE CORRESPONDENT. "PLANE LUMBERS INTO THE GOOD LIFE SERVICE IN WORLD WAR II GIVES WAY TO SPLASHY SUMMERS ON NORTH IDAHO LAKES :[SPOKANE Edition]. " Spokesman Review 27 Jul 1999, ProQuest Newsstand, ProQuest. Web. 23 Feb. 2010. [2] Rosenberg, Howard (September 26, 1998). "If Your Fantasy Is Fascinating Shows, Forget It; TV reviews: 'Fantasy Island' treads water; 'Martial Law,' 'Cupid' don't zing." (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1998/ sep/ 26/ entertainment/ ca-26449). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-11-05. [3] "Fantasy Island DVD news: Press Release for Fantasy Island - The Complete 2nd Season" (http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Fantasy-Island-Season-2/ 16517). TVShowsOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2012-08-15. [4] "Fantasy Island - My Dear Guests, Welcome, to The Complete 3rd Season on DVD!" (http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Fantasy-Island-Season-3/ 17195). .

External links
1978 series Fantasy Island (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077008/) at the Internet Movie Database Fantasy Island (http://www.tv.com/shows/fantasy-island/) at TV.com Fantasy Island (http://www.allrovi.com/movies/movie/v280666) at AllRovi 1998 series Fantasy Island (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0158408/) at the Internet Movie Database Fantasy Island (http://www.tv.com/shows/fantasy-island-1998/) at TV.com Fantasy Island (http://www.allrovi.com/movies/movie/v173475) at AllRovi Other Fantasy Island (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0076016/) at the Internet Movie Database (original pilot) The Queen Anne Cottage (http:/ / www. seeing-stars. com/ ImagePages/ QueenAnneCottagePhoto. shtml) at the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden, Arcadia, California (featured in the opening credits of the original series)

Corey Feldman

193

Corey Feldman
Corey Feldman

Corey Feldman at the Sugar Cane Club in Las Vegas, Nevada on January 8, 2010 Born Corey Scott Feldman July 16, 1971 Los Angeles, California, U.S. Actor 1974–present Vanessa Marcil (1989–1993; divorced) Susie Sprague (2002–2009; divorced; 1 child)

Occupation Years active Spouse(s)

Corey Scott Feldman (born July 16, 1971) is an American actor, former child actor, and singer. He became known during the 1980s, with roles in the films Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter, Friday the 13th: A New Beginning, The Goonies, Stand by Me, The Lost Boys, License to Drive, Dream a Little Dream, Gremlins, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and The 'Burbs. Feldman is also the lead singer for the rock band Truth Movement.

Corey Feldman

194

Early life
Feldman was born in the Chatsworth district of Los Angeles, California, the second of five children of Sheila (née Goldstein), his childhood manager, and Bob Feldman, a musician who eventually owned his own talent agency aimed at modeling other children's careers after his son's.[1] Feldman was raised Jewish.[2][3] He has an older sister Mindy, a younger sister Brittnie and two younger brothers, Eden and Devin.[4]

Career
Feldman started his career at the age of three, appearing in a McDonald's commercial. In his youth he appeared in over 100 television commercials and on 50 television shows, including Mork & Mindy, Eight is Enough, One Day at a Time. and Cheers. In 1981, he appeared in NBC's musical comedy children's special How to Eat Like a Child alongside other future child stars Billy Jacoby and Georg Olden. He debuted in the films Time After Time and Disney's The Fox and the Hound, and then went on to feature in several high-grossing movies (including a fair amount of number-one movies) in a row. These movies included Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter (1984), Gremlins (1984), The Goonies (1985), and Stand By Me (1986), alongside River Phoenix, Wil Wheaton, and Jerry O'Connell.
Feldman at the Academy Awards in March 1989

In 1987, Feldman appeared with Corey Haim in The Lost Boys. This film marked the first on-screen pairing of Feldman and Haim, who became known as "The Two Coreys". The pair went on to star in a string of films including License to Drive (1988) and Dream a Little Dream (1989). In 1989, Feldman appeared in The 'Burbs opposite Tom Hanks and Carrie Fisher. Feldman began the 1990s providing the voice of Donatello for the first Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles live-action film. After a public battle with drugs,[5] Feldman fought to re-establish his life and career by working with youths, starring in several lesser-known films, and branching out with an album of New Jack Swing music, entitled "Love Left". He returned to the big screen with Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III where he again did the voice of Donatello, and starred in the Richard Donner/Robert Zemeckis/Joel Silver film Tales From The Crypt Presents: Bordello of Blood, opposite Dennis Miller. He continued working with his friend Corey Haim on independent films, including a sequel to their last mainstream film together, Dream A Little Dream 2. In 1996, Feldman directed his first and thus far only motion picture, a slapstick comedy called 'Busted' where Haim played a leading role. This would be the last film that they would do as "The Two Coreys". In the late 1990s, Feldman starred in the CBS series Dweebs and then released his second album, Still Searching for Soul, with his band Corey Feldman's Truth Movement. In 1999, Feldman appeared in New Found Glory's "Hit or Miss" music video as Officer Corey Feldman. In 1999, he made an appearance in the TV show The Crow: Stairway to Heaven. In 2002, Feldman released a solo album, Former Child Actor, and promoted it with a second US tour. In 2003, he appeared in the first celebrity-driven reality series The Surreal Life on The WB. On the show, he publicly married Susie Sprague. The next year, he made a cameo appearance in the film Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star starring David Spade. He appeared in the Moby music video "We Are All Made Of Stars". In 2004, Feldman made a cameo appearance in the independent sci-fi comedy Space Daze which was distributed by Troma Entertainment in 2005, and starred in the made-for-TV slasher crossover film Puppet Master vs. Demonic

Corey Feldman Toys which aired 18 December 2004 on NBCUniversal's SyFy network. In 2005, Feldman made his stage debut in the positively reviewed off-Broadway play Fatal Attraction, a Greek Tragedy, a parody of the seminal 1987 film Fatal Attraction directed by Timothy Haskell. Feldman played the lead character, named Michael Douglas. Feldman appeared in the theatrical release My Date with Drew and was the voice of "Sprx-77" in the Toon Disney/ABC Family series Super Robot Monkey Team Hyperforce Go!. In 2007, Feldman and Corey Haim began a non-scripted[6] reality TV show entitled, The Two Coreys, on the A&E Network.[7] Haim and Feldman began taping on December 4, 2006. The show premiered on July 29, 2007. In the winter of 2007, Feldman's new film, Terror Inside, was released after the premiere of the A&E show. It was filmed in the Greater Orlando area by Minott Lenders, an independent film company based in Florida. In January 2008, Feldman, his wife, and Haim started production on the second season of the television show The Two Coreys. Feldman was also Executive Producer for both seasons. On July 29, 2008, Warner Premiere released Lost Boys: The Tribe, a sequel to the 1987 horror film The Lost Boys, on DVD and Blu-ray. In the film, Feldman reprises his role of vampire hunter Edgar Frog.[8] Feldman's other acting work for 2008 included Lucky Fritz and Operation Belvis Bash. In 2010, Feldman made an appearance in the music video for "1983" by Neon Trees.[9] In 2011, Feldman also cameoed in the music video for Katy Perry's single "Last Friday Night (T.G.I.F.)" In summer 2011, Feldman started shooting for the horror film Six Degrees of Hell in Saylorsburg, PA. The majority of the film was shot at the Hotel of Horror haunted attraction.[10] In January 2012, Feldman joined the U.K. television show Dancing on Ice with American pair skater Brooke Castile,[11] and was eliminated in the fourth week of the show.

195

Personal life
Feldman met Susie Sprague in a nightclub in January 2002. They married on October 30 that year, on the final episode of the first season of The Surreal Life. The ceremony was co-officiated by a rabbi and by M.C. Hammer, an ordained minister.[3] In October 2009, the couple split after seven years of marriage. Later that month, Sprague filed for divorce, citing irreconcilable differences. She sought full custody of their son, with Feldman having visitation rights. She also sought spousal support.[12] Feldman sought joint custody and wanted the court to block Sprague's spousal support demand.[13] Feldman is an advocate for animal welfare and animal rights and has adhered to a vegetarian diet since he was about thirteen years old. He appeared with his wife in a PETA ad campaign promoting vegetarianism.[14] He was awarded the Paws of Fame Award by the Wildlife Way Station for his dedication to animal rights.[15][16] In an August 2011 interview, Feldman said that Hollywood's biggest secret is pedophilia and that he was a victim of it in the 1980s.[17]

Michael Jackson
During February 2005, Feldman was subpoenaed to testify against Michael Jackson in his child molestation trial. The singer was accused of molesting a 15-year-old boy, believed to be a cancer survivor, who spent time at his Neverland Ranch and who appeared in Martin Bashir's 2003 British documentary Living With Michael Jackson. Feldman said, "I started looking at each piece of information, and with that came this sickening realization that there have been many occurrences in my life and in my relationship to Michael that have created a question of doubt."[18] Feldman accused Michael Jackson of damaging his childhood by befriending and then abandoning him. The two became close after Feldman found fame as a young star in Gremlins, The Goonies, and Stand by Me. Feldman admitted Jackson helped many children by becoming a friend and mentor – but claimed he did more harm than good, by dropping kids when he grew bored. The actor said, "He did real damage in my overall life. I was a 12-year-old

Corey Feldman boy who was hurt by his family and ignored by people at school. Michael would sit and talk to me for hours and he would listen. Then he would get bored. The biggest thing that Michael's done to children is befriending the ones that are in need and then abandoning them."[19] When Jackson died, Feldman dedicated a Los Angeles hospital concert with his rock band Truth Movement to the singer. Feldman told the crowd Jackson was watching over the show. "I didn't feel I could pull myself together to do a show tonight," Feldman told People magazine after the show. "It's been really difficult, honestly. I'm all shaken up right now. I had to do a lot of acting, basically, to get through the last 48 hours". Of the events of the week Jackson died, said Feldman, "It was shocking, and I think I'm still in shock, to an extent. I don't think I have fully, completely come to terms with it yet. I have waves and flashes. One moment, I feel fine and I'm myself. Then all of a sudden, it hits me, and I go, 'Wow, he's really gone.' It's very troubling."[20]

196

Filmography
Features
• Time After Time (1979) Boy at Museum • The Fox and the Hound (1981, voice) Young Copper • Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter (1984) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gremlins (1984) Pete Fountaine Friday the 13th: A New Beginning (1985) The Goonies (1985) Clark 'Mouth' Devereaux Stand by Me (1986) Teddy Duchamp The Lost Boys (1987) Edgar Frog License to Drive (1988) Dean The 'Burbs (1989) Ricky Butler Dream a Little Dream (1989) Bobby Keller Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990, Donatello's voice) Edge of Honor (1991) Rock 'n' Roll High School Forever (1991) Jessie Davis Blown Away (1992) Wes The Magic Voyage (1992, voice) Pico Meatballs 4 (1992) Round Trip to Heaven (1992) Stepmonster (1993) National Lampoon's Loaded Weapon 1 (1993) Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III (1993, Donatello's voice) Lipstick Camera (1994) National Lampoon's Last Resort (1994) Maverick (1994) Voodoo (1995) Dream a Little Dream 2 (1995) A Dangerous Place (1995) Bordello of Blood (1996) South Beach Academy (1996) Red Line (1996)

• Busted (1997, directorial debut) • Evil Obsession (1997) • The Waterfront (1998)

Corey Feldman • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Strip 'n Run (1998) Storm Trooper (1998) She's Too Tall (1998) Born Bad (1999) The Million Dollar Kid (2000) The Scarecrow (2000) Max the Mouse Citizen Toxie: The Toxic Avenger IV (2000) Seance (2001) Porn Star: The Legend of Ron Jeremy (2001, documentary) My Life as a Troll (2001) Bikini Bandits (2002) Pauly Shore Is Dead (2003) Mayor of the Sunset Strip (2003, documentary) Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star (2003) Serial Killing 4 Dummys (2004) My Date with Drew (2004, documentary) No Witness (2004) The Birthday (2004) Puppet Master vs Demonic Toys (2004) Space Daze (2005) Terror Inside (2007) Cluster (2008) Lost Boys: The Tribe (2008) Edgar Frog Hooking Up (2009) Lost Boys: The Thirst (2010) Edgar Frog Six Degrees of Hell (2012) Kyle Brenner[21] The Zombie King (2012) Kalfu[22]

197

Short subjects
• Project Redlight (2002) • American Fame Pt. 1: Drowning River Phoenix (2004) • Last Friday Night (2011; music video, cameo appearance)

Television work
• • • • • • • • • • Willa (1979) The Bad News Bears (1979–1980) Love, Natalie (1980) Father Figure (1980) How to Eat Like a Child (1981) The Kid with the Broken Halo (1982) Madame's Place (1982–1983) Cheers (1983, guest role as "Moose" in season 2 episode 8 "Manager Coach") Still the Beaver (1983) Exile (1990)

• Married with Children (1992, episode: "T-R-A Something, Something Spells Tramp") • Dweebs (1995; canceled after 10 episodes)

Corey Feldman • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sliders (1996, episode: "Electric Twister Acid Test") Legion (1998) Big Wolf on Campus (1999, episode: "What's the Story Mourning Corey?") Sonic Underground (1999, voice; canceled after 40 episodes) Lovesick (2001, unsold pilot) The Surreal Life (cast member in 2003) Super Robot Monkey Team Hyperforce Go! (2004–2007, voice) Puppet Master vs Demonic Toys (2004) Robot Chicken (2007, episode: "Federated Resources") The Two Coreys (2007–2008) Psych (2011, episode: "This Episode Sucks") Proving Ground (2011, episode: "Gadgets from The Goonies") Dancing on Ice (2012) Celebrity Juice (2012)

198

References
[1] "Corey Feldman Biography (1971–)" (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 37/ Corey-Feldman. html). Filmreference.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [2] "EXCLUSIVE: Corey Feldman Is One of The Two Coreys!" (http:/ / www. movieweb. com/ tv/ news/ 70/ 21270. php). Movieweb.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [3] Williams, Andrew (2008-09-08). "Lost Boys star says 'I was exploited'" (http:/ / www. metro. co. uk/ fame/ interviews/ article. html?Lost_Boys_star_says_'I_was_exploited'& in_article_id=298545& in_page_id=11). Metro. . Retrieved 2008-09-09. [4] "Superior Pics biography" (http:/ / www. superiorpics. com/ corey_feldman). Superiorpics.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [5] "Corey Feldman: No longer lost" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2003/ SHOWBIZ/ Movies/ 01/ 07/ people. watn. feldman). CNN. January 7, 2003. . Retrieved April 30, 2010. [6] "coreyfeldman.com – News/Updates Visit COREYFELDMAN.NET" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071015153318/ http:/ / coreyfeldman. com/ index. cfm?fuseaction=browse& id=272386& pageid=70). Web.archive.org. 2007-10-15. . Retrieved 2012-07-12. [7] Zap2It.com (2006-09-26). "'Lost Boys' Found: A&E Reunites The Coreys – If it's half as good as 'Blown Away,' we're there" (http:/ / www. zap2it. com/ tv/ news/ zap-thecoreysonaande,0,7651855. story). Zap2it. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [8] "Corey Feldman Talks Lost Boys 3: The Thirst" (http:/ / www. dreadcentral. com/ news/ 37902/ corey-feldman-talks-lost-boys-3-the-thirst). Dreadcentral.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [9] "Neon Trees premiere new music video" (http:/ / www. celebrityviplounge. com/ neon-trees-music-video-1983/ ). Celebrity VIP Lounge. . Retrieved 2011-01-17. [10] "Six Degrees Of Hell Movie Website" (http:/ / www. sixdegreesmovie. com/ ). Sixdegreesmovie.com/. . Retrieved 2011-07-31. [11] McGarry, Lisa (January 3, 2012). "Dancing On Ice 2012: Profile of Corey Feldman" (http:/ / www. unrealitytv. co. uk/ dancing-on-ice/ dancing-on-ice-2012-profile-of-corey-feldman/ ). UnrealityTV. . Retrieved January 3, 2012. [12] "Corey Feldman's wife Susannah Feldman files for divorce, citing irreconcilable differences" (http:/ / www. nydailynews. com/ gossip/ 2009/ 10/ 28/ 2009-10-28_corey_feldmans_wife_susannah_feldman_files_for_divorce. html). Nydailynews.com. 2009-10-28. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [13] "Feldman fights for custody of son" (http:/ / www. contactmusic. com/ news. nsf/ story/ feldman-fights-for-custody-of-son_1124352). Contactmusic.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [14] Watch "The Two Coreys" this Sunday (http:/ / www. peta. org/ b/ thepetafiles/ archive/ 2007/ 07/ 27/ watch-the-two-coreys-this-sunday. aspx) (2007-07-27), People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Retrieved 2012-05-11, Archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 67awoLG38) (2012-05-11), Archive2 (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ http:/ / www. peta. org/ b/ thepetafiles/ archive/ 2007/ 07/ 27/ watch-the-two-coreys-this-sunday. aspx) (2012-05-11) • Chareunsy, Don, Corey Feldman brings Lost Boys Ball, Truth Movement to House of Blues (http:/ / www. lasvegasweekly. com/ blogs/ luxe-life/ 2010/ oct/ 21/ corey-feldman-brings-lost-boys-ball-truth-movement/ ) (2010-10-21), Las Vegas Weekly, Retrieved 2012-05-11, Archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 67ax2V0gt) (2012-05-11), Archive2 (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ http:/ / www. lasvegasweekly. com/ blogs/ luxe-life/ 2010/ oct/ 21/ corey-feldman-brings-lost-boys-ball-truth-movement/ ) (2012-05-11) Reynolds, Brandy, Look To The Stars Exclusive: An Interview With Corey Feldman (http:/ / www. looktothestars. org/ news/ 2250-look-to-the-stars-exclusive-an-interview-with-corey-feldman) (2009-03-24), Look To The Stars, Retrieved 2012-05-11, Archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 67axEoVBo) (2012-05-11), Archive2 (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090531191757/ http:/ / www. looktothestars. org/ news/ 2250-look-to-the-stars-exclusive-an-interview-with-corey-feldman) (2009-05-31)

Corey Feldman
[15] coreyfeldman.com – News/Updates (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071015153325/ http:/ / coreyfeldman. com/ index. cfm?fuseaction=browse& id=272392& pageid=70), (2007-10-15) [16] " Corey Feldman Keeps Clothes on for PETA (http:/ / www. adweek. com/ adfreak/ corey-feldman-keeps-clothes-peta-15596)," Adweek, 16 July 2008. [17] "Paedophilia Hollywoods biggest problem alleges child star Corey-Feldman" (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-2025357/ Paedophilia-Hollywoods-biggest-problem-alleges-child-star-Corey-Feldman. html). Daily Mail. 12 August 2011. . Retrieved 12 August 2011. [18] "Corey Feldman Speaks Out Against Jackson – ABC News" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ 2020/ LegalCenter/ story?id=481709& page=1). Abcnews.go.com. 2005-02-10. . Retrieved 2012-07-12. [19] "Corey Feldman Slams Michael Jackson –" (http:/ / www. starpulse. com/ news/ index. php/ 2008/ 07/ 23/ corey_feldman_slams_michael_jackson_). Starpulse.com. 2008-07-23. . Retrieved 2012-07-12. [20] White, Nicholas (2009-06-28). "Corey Feldman Recalls Rocky Friendship with Michael Jackson – Corey Feldman, Michael Jackson" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ package/ article/ 0,,20287787_20288168,00. html). People.com. . Retrieved 2012-07-12. [21] Six Degrees of Hell official movie website (http:/ / sixdegreesmovie. com) [22] "The Zombie King - 7 Souls, 7 Steps, 7 Days to Hell!" (http:/ / thezombiekingfilm. co. uk/ ). Thezombiekingfilm.co.uk. . Retrieved 2012-07-12.

199

External links
• Official Corey Feldman website (http://www.coreyfeldman.net/) • Corey Feldman (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm397/) at the Internet Movie Database • When Young Stars Burn Out (http://entertainment.msn.com/celebs/article.aspx?news=132731) MSN Movies

Allison Fonte
Allison Fonte (born June 6, 1964 in Buena Park, California) is an American actor and pianists who was a cast member of the television show The New Mickey Mouse Club, a 1977-78 revival of the Disney television show that had originally aired between 1955 and 1959. By the time she was seven she was playing piano, dancing and appearing in commercials for Pacific Gas & Electric and Lawry's. At age nine she was performing at local shopping centers including regular shows at the "Old Town Mall" in Torrance, California. While doing some work at the Al Gilbert Studio in 1975 she was noticed by a talent scout who ended up inviting her to interview and later, audition for the show. After her stint with the New Mickey Mouse Club, Allison attended Stanford University and was a founding partner in a creative firm in New York called Pompei A.D. She spun off part of that company into Allison Fonte Public Relations, also in New York. Allison attended the New Mouseketeers' reunion in May 2001, along with eight other 1970's Mouseketeers.

Sources
The New Mickey Mouse Show [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. newmickeymouseclub. com/ allisonbio. html

Wayne Allwine

200

Wayne Allwine
Wayne Allwine
Born February 7, 1947 Glendale, California, U.S. May 18, 2009 (aged 62) Los Angeles, California, U.S.

Died

Cause of death acute diabetes, heart attack Resting place Nationality Occupation Years active Known for Spouse(s) Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale American Voice actor, sound effects editor, foley artist 1977–2009 The voice of Mickey Mouse Russi Taylor (1991–2009; his death) 4 1 grandson Disney Legend Award (2008)

Children Family Awards

Wayne Anthony Allwine (February 7, 1947 – May 18, 2009)[1] was an American voice actor, sound effects editor and foley artist for The Walt Disney Company. He was best remembered as the voice of Mickey Mouse for 32 years, narrowly the longest to date, and was married to voice actress Russi Taylor, who has voiced Minnie Mouse since 1986.

Career
Allwine was born in Glendale, California on February 7, 1947. In 1966, Allwine started work in the mailing room at the Disney studios, before working in the sound effects department under Jimmy MacDonald.[2] After auditioning for the role, Allwine became the voice of Mickey Mouse from 1977 until his death in 2009. He succeeded MacDonald, who in 1947 had taken over from Walt Disney himself, who had performed the role since 1928 as well as supplying Mickey's voice for animated portions of the original The Mickey Mouse Club television show (ABC-TV, 1955–59). Allwine's first appearance as Mickey was voicing the animated lead-ins for The New Mickey Mouse Club in 1977. His first appearance as Mickey for a theatrical release was in the 1983 featurette Mickey's Christmas Carol. In the same film, he voiced a Santa Claus on the street appealing for charity donations at the start of the movie, Moley (who appears with Basil) "collecting for the poor", and one of the two weasel undertakers in the Christmas future scene. He also starred in films such as Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), The Prince and the Pauper (1990) and Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers (2004), and the TV series Mickey Mouse Works (1999-2000), Disney's House of Mouse (2001-2003), and Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006-2009). He has provided Mickey's voice for nearly every entry in the popular Kingdom Hearts series of video games, which was done in collaboration with Japanese video game company Square Enix. In addition to his voice work, Allwine had also been a sound effects editor on Disney films and TV shows including Splash (1984) and Three Men and a Baby (1987); as well as Innerspace (1987), Alien Nation (1988) and Star Trek

Wayne Allwine V: The Final Frontier for other studios.

201

Personal life and death
In 1991, Allwine married Russi Taylor, who has voiced Minnie Mouse since 1986 and were named Disney Legends in 2008. Allwine died of acute diabetes and a heart attack on May 18, 2009,[3] he was survived by his children from previous marriages: Erin, Peter, Christopher, and Joshua, and a grandson named Isaac. His final performance was in the Mickey Mouse Clubhouse episode "Choo Choo Express" and the English-language version of Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days are dedicated to his memory.

References
[1] Disney Legends - Wayne Allwine (http:/ / legends. disney. go. com/ legends/ detail?key=Wayne Allwine) [2] McLellan, Dennis (May 21, 2009). "Wayne Allwine, voice of Mickey Mouse, dies at 62" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ obituaries/ la-me-wayne-allwine21-2009may21,0,3201049. story). Los Angeles Times. . [3] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ news/ 2009-05-21/ voice-of-mickey-mouse-dies/ 1690046

External links
• Wayne Allwine (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0021656/) at the Internet Movie Database • Wayne Allwine (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=37370431) at Find a Grave

Courtney Love

202

Courtney Love
Courtney Love

Love performing with Hole at SXSW Festival in Austin, Texas, March 2010 Background information Birth name Born Courtney Michelle Harrison [1]

July 9, 1964 San Francisco, California, U.S. Alternative rock Vocals, guitar, bass, keyboards 1982–present Sympathy for the Record Industry, Sub Pop, Caroline, DGC, Geffen, City Slang, Universal, Virgin, Mercury

Genres Instruments Years active Labels

Associated acts Hole, Babes in Toyland, Sugar Babydoll, Pagan Babies, Faith No More, Emilie Autumn Notable instruments [2] Rickenbacker 425 [3] Rickenbacker 360 [4] Fender Jazzmaster [5] Fender Squier Venus

Courtney Michelle Love (born Courtney Michelle Harrison; 9 July 1964)[1] is an American singer-songwriter, musician, actress and artist. Love initially gained notoriety in the Los Angeles indie rock scene as vocalist and rhythm guitarist of alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989, later receiving international critical and commercial acclaim for their albums Live Through This (1994) and Celebrity Skin (1998). Love had a brief solo career and then re-formed Hole with new members in 2010, a decade after the original band had broken up, and released Nobody's Daughter (2010). Love also had an intermittent acting career, debuting in Alex Cox's Sid and Nancy (1986) and later receiving a Golden Globe nomination for her portrayal of Althea Flynt in Miloš Forman's The People vs. Larry Flynt (1996). Love, who grew up primarily in Oregon, is the daughter of psychotherapist Linda Carroll, and writer and ex-Grateful Dead manager Hank Harrison. Love was married to Kurt Cobain, frontman of the grunge band Nirvana, with whom she has a daughter, Frances Bean Cobain.[6] Throughout her career, Love's wild stage antics and subversive feminist

Courtney Love attitude have polarized audiences and critics,[7][8] with Rolling Stone once calling her "the most controversial woman in the history of rock."[9][10]

203

Early life
Courtney Michelle Harrison was born in San Francisco, California to psychotherapist Linda Carroll and Hank Harrison, publisher and brief manager of the Grateful Dead; consequently Love was featured in a group photo on the back cover of the band's album Aoxomoxoa (1969).[11][12][13] Love's parents divorced in 1969 and Harrison's custody was withdrawn after Carroll alleged that he had fed LSD to Love.[13][14] Carroll moved the family to Marcola where they lived on a commune in what Love described as "a teepee".[15] Love struggled in school and was diagnosed as mildly autistic.[15] Through relationships with two other men, Carroll gave birth to Love's two half-sisters and adopted a son, and later two half-brothers; another male half-sibling of Love's had died in infancy of a heart defect when Love was 10.[16] In 1972, Carroll moved with her then-husband to New Zealand, and Love was left in Oregon with her former stepfather and various friends. At age 14, she was arrested for shoplifting a t-shirt and was sent to Hillcrest Youth Correctional Facility, a juvenile hall in Salem, Oregon.[17][18] She spent the following several years in and out of foster homes before becoming legally emancipated at age 16. Love moved to Portland, Oregon and lived in the Northwest District, supporting herself by working illegally as a stripper,[13][15][17][19][20] a DJ, and various odd jobs,[21] and intermittently took classes at Portland State University studying English literature.[22][23] In 1981, Love was granted a small trust fund through her adoptive grandparents, which she used to travel to England and Ireland; there, she was accepted into Trinity College due to high test scores, where she studied theology for two semesters.[24] She also became acquainted with musician Julian Cope in Liverpool and moved into his house briefly before returning to the United States.[25][26][27] Love has said that she "didn't have a lot of social skills",[28] and that she learned them while frequenting gay clubs with friends.[15][29] Love continued to relocate frequently, spending time in Portland and San Francisco (where she briefly studied at San Francisco State University and the San Francisco Art Institute),[22][30] and also took stint jobs illegally working at strip clubs in Japan and Taiwan.[17][31] In 1985, Love sent in an audition tape for the role of Nancy Spungen in the biopic Sid & Nancy (1986), and caught the attention of director Alex Cox, who wrote a small role for her in the film.[13] She was subsequently offered a lead part in his next film, a spaghetti Western titled Straight to Hell (1987), which starred an array of punk rock icons and other well known actors, although the film was poorly received. Love returned to Oregon, and then retreated to Anchorage, Alaska for several months where she returned to stripping to support herself.[13][17][32]

Music career
1980s
Love initially began several music projects in the 1980s, first forming Sugar Babydoll, and then having a brief stint as a singer in Faith No More.[13] Love later formed the Pagan Babies with friend Kat Bjelland, Jennifer Finch and Janis Tanaka, recording one 4-track demo before disbanding.[33][34] Love briefly played bass in Bjelland's group Babes In Toyland in 1987 before being ejected from the band.[35]

1990s
In 1989, Love taught herself to play guitar and relocated to Los Angeles, where she placed an ad in a local music zine, reading: "I want to start a band. My influences are Big Black, Sonic Youth, and Fleetwood Mac"[36] to which guitarist Eric Erlandson replied. Love named the band Hole, bought her neighbor Lisa Roberts a bass guitar, and recruited drummer Caroline Rue after meeting her at a Gwar concert.

Courtney Love Hole played their first show in November 1989 at Raji's after three months of rehearsal, and began making singles on the Long Beach, California, independent label Sympathy for the Record Industry. Their first single, titled "Retard Girl", was issued in early 1990. Disc jockey Rodney Bingenheimer jokingly said that Love would often "stalk him" at a Denny's restaurant, insisting that he should give "Retard Girl" air time on his station, KROQ.[17] One year later, the band debuted their second single, "Dicknail" through Sub Pop Records. Influenced by the style of no wave and noise rock bands, Love convinced Sonic Youth bassist Kim Gordon to produce Hole's first studio album. The album, titled Pretty on the Inside, was released in August 1991 on Caroline Records, produced by Gordon and Gumball's Don Fleming. The album gained a following in the United Kingdom, charting at 59 on the UK Albums Chart,[37] as well as its lead single, "Teenage Whore" entering the country's Indie chart at number one.[38] Pretty on the Inside received generally positive critical acclaim,[39] and was labelled one of the 20 best albums of the year by Spin Magazine.[40] The band toured the United States and Europe in support of the record. Hole recorded their second album, Live Through This, in late 1993 in Atlanta and released it in April 1994, just four days after Love's husband, Kurt Cobain, was found dead of a self-inflicted shotgun wound in their home. The album featured a new lineup, with Kristen Pfaff on bass and Patty Schemel on drums. In June 1994, Pfaff died of an apparent heroin overdose,[13] and Love recruited bassist Melissa Auf der Maur for the band's upcoming tour. Throughout the months preceding the tour, Love was rarely seen in public, spending her time in her home or visiting the Namgyal Buddhist Monastery in New York.[22] Meanwhile, Live Through This was an immense commercial and critical success, receiving rave reviews from major music periodicals[41] and going certified gold. By April 1995, it went platinum. It went on to be declared one of the best albums of all time by Rolling Stone magazine in their 500 Greatest Albums of All Time issue in 2003.[42] The live performances for Hole's 1994 and 1995 tours became notorious in the media due to Love's fraught emotional state,[13] with Love often altering hurtful song lyrics toward herself, dedicating songs to Cobain and Pfaff, provoking fans, throwing guitars into the audience,[43] and breaking into screaming fits onstage.[44] In 1997, the band released a compilation album, My Body, The Hand Grenade, which featured material from the band's earliest recordings in 1989 up until 1995, and, in September 1998, released their third studio album, Celebrity Skin, which featured a stark power pop sound as opposed to the group's earlier punk rock influences. Rolling Stone called the album "accessible, fiery and intimate—often at the same time [...] a basic guitar record that's anything but basic."[45] Celebrity Skin went on to go multi-platinum, and topped "Best of Year" lists at Spin, the Village Voice, and other periodicals.[46] The album garnered the band their first and only No. 1 hit single on the Modern Rock Tracks chart with the title track "Celebrity Skin". During the release and promotion of Celebrity Skin, Love and Fender designed a low-price Squier brand guitar, called Vista Venus.[47] The instrument featured a shape inspired by Mercury, Stratocaster, and Rickenbacker's solidbodies and had a single-coil and a humbucker pickup. In an early 1999 interview, Love said about the Venus: "I wanted a guitar that sounded really warm and pop, but which required just one box to go dirty (...) And something that could also be your first band guitar. I didn't want it all teched out. I wanted it real simple, with just one pickup switch. Because I think that cultural revolutions are in the hands of guitar players".[48] After touring for Celebrity Skin finished, Auf der Maur left the band to tour with The Smashing Pumpkins; Hole's touring drummer Samantha Maloney left soon after. Love and Erlandson continued to pursue with the band, and released the single "Be A Man"— an outtake from the Celebrity Skin sessions— for the soundtrack of the Oliver Stone film Any Given Sunday (1999). The group became dormant in the following two years, and on May 24, 2002, officially announced their breakup amid continuing litigation with Universal Music Group over their record contract.

204

Courtney Love

205

2000s
With Hole in disarray, Love began a "punk rock femme supergroup" called Bastard during autumn 2001, enlisting Schemel, Veruca Salt co-frontwoman Louise Post, and bassist Gina Crosley, whom Post recommended. Though a demo was completed, the project never reached fruition.[49][50] In 2002, Love began composing an album with Linda Perry; the record, America's Sweetheart, was released on Virgin Records in February 2004, was embraced by critics with mixed reviews. Spin called it a "jaw-dropping act of artistic will and a fiery, proper follow-up to 1994’s Live Through This" and awarded it eight out of ten stars,[51] while Rolling Stone suggested that, "for people who enjoy watching celebrities fall apart, America's Sweetheart should be more fun than an Osbournes marathon." The album sold 86,000 copies in its first three months, with the singles "Mono" and "Hold on to Me", both of which earned competent spots on album charts. Love has publicly expressed her regret over the record several times, calling it "a crap record", reasoning that her drug issues at the time were to blame.[52] Shortly after the record was released, Love told Kurt Loder on TRL: "I cannot exist as a solo artist. It's a joke."[53]
Love performing in London, England on her 43rd birthday (2007).

In 2006, Love started recording what was going to be her second solo album, How Dirty Girls Get Clean,[28][54] collaborating with again with Perry and Billy Corgan in the writing and recording. Love had written several songs, including an anti-cocaine song titled "Loser Dust", during her time in rehab in 2005.[55] Some tracks and demos from the album (initially planned for release in 2008) were leaked on the internet in 2006, and a documentary entitled The Return of Courtney Love, detailing the making of the album, aired on the British television network in the fall of that year. A rough acoustic version of "Never Go Hungry Again", recorded during an interview for The Times in November, was also released. Incomplete audio clips of the song "Samantha", originating from an interview with NPR, were also distributed on the internet in 2007.[56]

Courtney Love

206

2010s
On June 17, 2009, NME reported that Hole would be reuniting. Former Hole guitarist Erlandson stated in Spin magazine that contractually no reunion can take place without his involvement; therefore Nobody's Daughter would remain Love's solo record, as opposed to a "Hole" record. Love responded to Erlandson's comments in a Twitter post, claiming "he's out of his mind, Hole is my band, my name, and my Trademark".[57] Nobody's Daughter was released worldwide as a Hole album on April 27, 2010. For the new line-up, Love recruited guitarist Micko Larkin, Shawn Dailey (bass guitar), and Stu Fisher (drums, percussion). Nobody's Daughter featured a great deal of material written and recorded for Love's aborted solo album, How Dirty Girls Get Clean, including "Pacific Coast Highway", "Letter to God", "Samantha", and "Never Go Hungry", although they were re-produced with Larkin. The first single from Nobody's Daughter was "Skinny Little Bitch", which was the most added song on alternative rock radio in early March 2010.[58] Hole performed on the Late Show with David Letterman and

Love performing in Philadelphia, 2010

Jimmy Kimmel Live!. In an interview with Love, she stated that she remained celibate for nearly five years in the process of working on the album: "I needed to put all of my energy into this record. Like, all of it, and [sex and love] can be really distracting", she said.[59] The album received mixed reviews. Rolling Stone gave the album three out of five stars, saying that Love "worked hard on these songs, instead of just babbling a bunch of druggy bullshit and assuming people would buy it, the way she did on her 2004 flop, America's Sweetheart."[60] Slant Magazine also gave the album three out of five stars, saying "It's Marianne Faithfull's substance-ravaged voice that comes to mind most often while listening to songs like "Honey" and "For Once in Your Life." The latter track is, in fact, one of Love's most raw and vulnerable vocal performances to date. Co-penned by Linda Perry, the song offers a rare glimpse into the mind of a woman who, for the last 15 years, has been as famous for being a rock star as she's been for being a victim."[61] The album's subject matter was largely centered on Love's tumultuous life between 2003 and 2007, and featured a polished folk-rock sound with much more acoustic work than previous Hole albums. Love toured Europe, Japan, and the United States promoting the album in the spring and summer of 2010, ending the tour at Seattle's Bumbershoot festival in September. In the summer of 2011, the band played at several festivals in Russia, and toured in Australia and Brazil in early 2012. In October 2012, Love told Rolling Stone that she was dropping the Hole moniker and returning to a solo career. She stated she had just recorded a single, titled "This Is War", which was produced by James Iha. She also saId she was looking to release the song in February 2013: "I'd put it out right now because it's a two-minute, 59-second song and it's sick, slamming, great".[62] On December 29, 2012, Love performed an impromptu solo acoustic set at the Electric Room in New York City.[63] In January 2013, Love announced her first official solo performance after her Nobody's Daughter tour with Hole, which was scheduled for January 21 at the Star Bar in Park City, Utah for the Sundance Film Festival.[64]

Courtney Love

207

Acting career
Love worked with director Alex Cox on her first two films; she gained a small part in the Sid Vicious biopic Sid and Nancy (1986), and was then given the leading role in his following film, Straight to Hell (1987),[65] which caught the attention of artist Andy Warhol. That year, Love appeared in an episode of Andy Warhol's Fifteen Minutes with Robbie Nevil in a segment titled "C'est la Vie", in which she is dressed in vintage clothes and discussed "bag ladies".[66][67] She also had a part in the 1988 Ramones music video for "I Wanna Be Sedated", appearing as a bride among dozens of party guests.[68][69] In 1989, Love abandoned her career as an actress to pursue music. In 1996, Love began obtaining small acting parts again in Basquiat and Feeling Minnesota (1996), before landing the co-starring role of Larry Flynt's wife, Althea, in Miloš Forman's 1996 film The People vs. Larry Flynt, against Columbia Pictures' reluctance due to her low profile and "troubled" past.[70] Love received critical acclaim, a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress, and a New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actress,[71] for what film critic Roger Ebert called "quite a performance; Love proves she is not a rock star pretending to act, but a true actress".[72] She won several other awards from various film critic associations for the performance. Other roles include: starring opposite Jim Carrey in the Andy Kaufman biopic Man on the Moon (1999); as Joan Vollmer in Beat (2000) alongside Kiefer Sutherland; and a leading role in Julie Johnson (2001) as Lili Taylor's lesbian lover, for which she won an Outstanding Actress award at L.A.'s Outfest.[73] She followed with another leading part in the thriller film Trapped (2002), alongside Kevin Bacon and Charlize Theron.

Other projects
In 2004, Love collaborated with illustrators Misaho Kujiradou and Ai Yazawa to create a manga comic, Princess Ai.[74] The story is based in part on Love's life, and involves the main character's search for her place in the world; it was written by Stu Levy under the name D.J. Milky, and released by his publishing company Tokyopop.[75] Although Love said she would "never write a book",[76] she did publish a memoir in 2006 titled Dirty Blonde: The Diaries of Courtney Love. The memoir was diary entries, poems, letters, drawings, personal photos, and lyric compositions spanning from Love's childhood up until the year 2006, shortly after her release from a six-month rehab sentence. The book was generally well reviewed by critics,[77] and Love did book readings in promotion for it.

Love with Terry Richardson during New York Fashion Week 2011

Love has also expressed interest in fashion, having modeled for Versace[78] and Givenchy,[79] and has also frequented numerous fashion shows over the years. In October 2010, Love and Michael Mouris created an animated short film detailing Love's "kooky" fashion sense, titled The Dark Night of the Soul. Love also started a fashion blog in 2010, titled "What Courtney Wore Today". In May 2012, Love debuted an art show at Fred Torres Collaborations in New York titled "And She's Not Even Pretty", which contained over forty drawings and paintings by Love composed in ink, colored pencil, pastels, and watercolors.[80] The works feature various women in different emotional states, some accompanied by poems and song lyrics.[81]

Courtney Love

208

Influences and artistry
Love has mentioned an array of artists as being influences throughout her career, and has most often cited new wave and post-punk musicians. Such musical acts as Echo and the Bunnymen, The Smiths, Neil Young,[82] Patti Smith,[13] Swans,[83] The Germs, and Joy Division have been mentioned by Love, including songs by several of them being covered by Hole in live performances and, in some cases, studio recordings.[84][85] While traveling in Ireland as a teenager in 1979, Love attended a Virgin Prunes concert and, in retrospect, called them "one of the most important, Love performing a duet with Gavin Friday and The Virgin Prunes at precious figures and bands and siren call that framed Carnegie Hall, October 2009. my rock and roll life for better or for worse".[86] Love's varying genre interests were illustrated in a 1991 interview, in which she stated: "There's a part of me that wants to have a grindcore band and another that wants to have a Raspberries-type pop band."[82] Over the course of Hole's career, the band experimented with several different styles, from punk to noise rock as well as more mellow alternative rock, power pop, and folk techniques. In a 1995 interview with Kurt Loder, Love divulged that in the late 1980s, guitarist Joe Strummer of The Clash told her that she was "the worst guitar player he'd ever heard",[87] but she insisted she had improved by the early 1990s: "I'm fine... I have my style... and, you know what's funny, is most of the songs [from Pretty on the Inside] are complete Bauhaus rip-offs." During the same interview, Love said she was greatly influenced by guitarists Will Sergeant of Echo and the Bunnymen and Johnny Marr of The Smiths.[87] Love's song lyrics are predominantly told from a female's point of view, and her earlier work, particularly on Hole's first two albums, was noted for being highly aggressive and critical toward cultural definitions of women.[88] Common themes and references present in Love's lyrics from her early career included body image, rape, suicide, misogyny, conformity, elitism, pregnancy, prostitution, and death. According to Love, her main focus in the band from very early on was on lyrics: "For me, I was just about lyrics and performance. I didn't really care about hooks or finesse."[89] Her later work was more introspective in its lyrics as opposed to aggressive; Hole's Celebrity Skin and Love's solo album, America's Sweetheart, focused more on celebrity life, Hollywood, and drug addiction, while also carrying on past themes of vanity and body image, and Nobody's Daughter was lyrically reflective of Love's past relationships and her struggle to sobriety, with the majority of its lyrics having been written while Love was in rehab in 2006.[90] Although Hole's sound changed over the course of the band's career, the pretty/ugly dynamic has often been noted as a consistent theme in Love's music, most prominently in Hole's first two studio albums.[91] In conjunction with the extremes between beauty and ugliness, Love's musical style has also been remarked for its layering of harsh and abrasive riffs which often bury more sophisticated musical arrangements.[91] Love has been often noted by critics for her unique husky vocals, and was, in Hole's earliest years, noted for her screaming abilities and punk singing.[92] Her vocals have been compared to those of Johnny Rotten,[93][94] and Rolling Stone described them as "lung-busting" and "a corrosive, lunatic wail".[93] Upon the release of Hole's 2010 album, Nobody's Daughter, critics compared Love's raspy, unpolished vocals to those of Bob Dylan.[95] Over the years Love gained considerable notoriety for her unpredictable live performances, distinguished by subversive, confrontational behavior and verbose interaction with the audience.[96][89][97][98][99] In the mid-'90s, Love was known to stage dive frequently, wearing dresses and slips which would often be torn off of her by the

Courtney Love crowd, and resulted in her losing teeth and sustaining other injuries.[100] Love's fraught state during Hole's 1994 and 1995 tours drew significant media attention from MTV and other music outlets due to her erratic behavior, which included throwing instruments and equipment, breaking into screaming fits, and provocation both to and from audiences.[101] During sets, it was not unusual for Love to go on monologist rants between songs, or to bring fans onstage and give impromptu guitar lessons.[97][102] On the opening date of Lollapalooza in 1995, Love notoriously got into a physical fight backstage with Kathleen Hanna and punched her in the face.[98] In retrospect of those tours, Love said: "I was completely high on dope, I cannot remember much about it."[97][103] Love's aesthetic image, particularly in the 1990s, often consisted of "thrift shop" babydoll dresses, and her face adorned with smeared makeup;[104][105] MTV reporter Kurt Loder described her as looking like "a debauched rag doll".[102] The style, widely popularized by Love, was dubbed the title "kinderwhore".[106]

209

Personal life
Love has been a practicing Buddhist since 1989,[13][107][108][109] and has studied and practiced both Tibetan and Nichiren Buddhism.[28] She is a member of Sōka Gakkai, an international lay Buddhist organization.[110] In 1999, Love stated that she was a Democrat,[111] and has advocated for stricter gun control laws[112][113] and gay rights.[114][115] Love is a self-identified feminist,[116][117] and has been noted throughout her career for her subversive feminism and "self-conscious parody of female sex roles".[7] Love has struggled with substance abuse problems for a great deal of her life. She experimented with various opiates in her early adult years, and tried cocaine at age 19.[31] In 1992, Vanity Fair published an article by journalist Lynn Hirschberg which alluded that Love was addicted to heroin during her pregnancy.[118] Love claimed she was misquoted, and asserted that she immediately quit using the drug during her first trimester after she discovered she was pregnant.[13][119] Nonetheless, the publication of the article led to a lengthy battle with the Los Angeles County Court in which custody of newborn Frances was taken away from Love and Cobain and placed with Love's sister, Jamie, for several months.[13] After Cobain committed suicide in 1994, Love began using heroin again regularly, but quit using the drug in 1996 at the insistence of director Miloš Forman when she landed a starring role in The People vs. Larry Flynt. Love was ordered to take multiple urine tests under the supervision of Columbia Pictures while filming the movie, and passed all of them.[70] Between 2004 and 2006, after making several public appearances clearly intoxicated (namely on the Late Show with David Letterman and the Comedy Central Roast of Pamela Anderson)[120][121][122] and suffering drug-related arrests and probation violations,[123][124] Love was sentenced to six months in lock down rehab due to struggles with various prescription drugs and cocaine.[122][125] [126] She made a public statement after her release, saying: "I would just like to thank the court for allowing me these 90 days... [It] helped me deal with a very gnarly drug problem, which is behind me... I've been really inspired and have remained inspired."[55] Love claimed to have been sober as of 2007, and in May 2011, insisted her sobriety, saying: "That's not the way I live anymore. I try to work a good program. I don't do smack. I don't do crack anymore."[127]

Relationships
When Love was 17, she began an on-and-off relationship with Rozz Rezabek of the band Theatre of Sheep after the two met at The Metropolis in Portland, Oregon, where Love occasionally worked as a DJ.[15] The two bonded over barbiturate use and eventually stopped seeing one another. Love was briefly married to James Moreland (vocalist of The Leaving Trains) in 1989 for several months, but has said that Moreland was a transvestite and that their marriage was "a joke", ending in an annulment filed by Love.[128][129][130]

Courtney Love After forming Hole in 1989, Love and bandmate Eric Erlandson had a relationship for over a year,[131] though it was kept a secret. Love also briefly dated Billy Corgan in early 1991,[132] but her most celebrated relationship was undoubtedly with Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain. Although there are conflicting dates as to when they met (some sources state that they met in January 1989 at the Satyricon nightclub),[133] Love stated that the two first encountered one another in January 1988 at a Dharma Bums show where she was doing a spoken word performance,[59] and Erlandson stated that both he and Love were formally introduced to Cobain in a parking lot after a Butthole Surfers concert at the Hollywood Palladium in 1991.[131] They later became reacquainted through Jennifer Finch, one of Love's longtime friends and former bandmates, who was dating Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl at the time.[133] Love and Cobain officially began dating in 1991, and were married on Waikiki Beach in Honolulu, Hawaii, on February 24, 1992. Love wore a satin and lace dress once owned by actress Frances Farmer, and Cobain wore green pajamas. Six months later, on August 18, the couple's only child, a daughter named Frances Bean Cobain, was born. In April 1994, Cobain committed suicide in their Seattle home. In 1996, Love began a relationship with actor Edward Norton and were at one point engaged,[107] but separated in 1999.[134] Love was also romantically linked to British comedian Steve Coogan in the mid-2000s.[135][136]

210

Discography
Hole • • • • Pretty on the Inside (1991) Live Through This (1994) Celebrity Skin (1998) Nobody's Daughter (2010)

Courtney Love • America's Sweetheart (2004)

Filmography
Film Year 1986 Sid and Nancy 1987 Straight to Hell 1988 Tapeheads "I Wanna Be Sedated" 1991 1991: The Year Punk Broke 1995 Not Bad for a Girl 1996 Basquiat Feeling Minnesota The People vs. Larry Flynt Big Pink Rhonda Althea Leasure Flynt Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Most Promising Actress Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actress Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress (2nd place) New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actress Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture Nominated — Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best Breakthrough Performance Film Gretchen Velma Norman's Spanker Bride Herself uncredited role Ramones music video, uncredited documentary Role Notes

Courtney Love

211
Lucy Lynne Margulies Herself voice-over narration

1999 200 Cigarettes Man on the Moon Clara Bow: Discovering the "It" Girl 2000 Beat

Joan Vollmer Burroughs Claire Cheryl Herself documentary L.A. Outfest Award for Best Actress

2001 Julie Johnson 2002 Trapped 2003 Mayor of the Sunset Strip 2011 Hit So Hard

References
[1] Love has given her birth name as "Love Michelle Harrison", and said that her name was changed to Courtney after her parents split when she was three.Marks, Craig (Feb 1995). "Endless Love" (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=oJSpnH7TRHsC& pg=PA46#v=onepage& q& f=false). SPIN (SPIN Media LLC) (Vol. 10, No. 11). . Retrieved 2011-10-29. Other sources give her birth name as "Courtney Michelle Harrison" True, Everett. Nirvana: True Story (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=YzQAzRBuycIC& pg=PT375& dq#v=onepage& q& f=false). Music Sales Group. p. 46. . Retrieved 2011-10-29. which matches the California Birth Index. "Courtney Michelle Harrison – California Birth Index, 1905–1995 – Ancestry.co.uk" (http:/ / search. ancestry. co. uk/ cgi-bin/ sse. dll?db=cabirth1905& rank=1& new=1& so=3& MSAV=0& msT=1& gss=ms_db& gsfn=Courtney+ Michelle+ & gsln=Harrison& msbdy=1964& msmns0=Carroll& uidh=000& msbdd=9& msbdm=7& _83004003-n_xcl=m). search.ancestry.co.uk. 2011 [last update]. . Retrieved 2011-10-29. [2] McCormack, Peter. "Hole's Courtney Love with a 425 Fireglo" (http:/ / www. rickresource. com/ rrp/ hole. html). RickResource.com. . Retrieved 2011-11-11. [3] "Courtney Love's New Rickenbacker" (http:/ / www. chicagomusicexchange. net/ blog/ 2010/ 07/ 20/ courtney-loves-new-rickenbacker/ ). Chicago Music Exchange. July 20, 2010. . Retrieved 2011-03-10. [4] "Courtney Love (Hole) Jazzmaster Fender Guitar – Hard Rock Cafe NYC" (http:/ / www. flickr. com/ photos/ rustysheriff/ 4373963261/ ). Flickr. . [5] "Secrets Of Celebrity Skin" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 19991127194234/ http:/ / void. simplenet. com/ articles/ guitar/ guitar1. html). web.archive.org. January 1999. Archived from the original (http:/ / void. simplenet. com/ articles/ guitar/ guitar1. html) on 1999-11-27. . Retrieved 2011-10-29. [6] Peterson, Karla (October 22, 2004). "Courtney Love is back from the brink and hoping music will be her saving grace" (http:/ / www. signonsandiego. com/ news/ features/ 20041022-9999-lz1c22love. html). SignOnSanDiego.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-14. [7] Nicolini, Kim (April 1995). "Staging the Slut: Hyper-Sexuality in Performance" (http:/ / bad. eserver. org/ issues/ 1995/ 20/ nicolini. html). bad.eserver.org (20). . Retrieved 2011-10-29. [8] "Courtney Love's Trip Back From the Bottom" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ GMA/ story?id=2618266& page=1). NBC News. October 31, 2006. . Retrieved 2010-02-15. [9] Barton, Laura (December 11, 2006). "Love me do Rock | Guardian Unlimited Music" (http:/ / music. guardian. co. uk/ rock/ story/ 0,,1969245,00. html). London: Music.guardian.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-05-16. [10] Sirota, Peggy (November 13, 1997). "Women of Rock: Courtney Love". Rolling Stone (773): 163. [11] McLeod, Kembrew (2002). "Courtney Love" (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_g1epc/ is_bio/ ai_2419200753). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. . Retrieved 2012-06-07. [12] Eric Segalstad, Josh Hunter (2009). The 27s: The Greatest Myth of Rock & Roll (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=ykLfChaPoRcC& pg=PA197). Samadhi Creations. p. 197. . Retrieved 2011-10-30. [13] v=s5cfYb1l994 "Courtney Love" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?). Behind the Music. June 21, 2010. Vh1. v=s5cfYb1l994. [14] Jung, K Elan (2010). Sexual Trauma: A Challenge Not Insanity (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=uQ2I9cpJWYIC& pg=PA188#v=onepage& q& f=false). The Hudson Press. pp. 188–189. . Retrieved 2011-10-30. [15] Brite, Poppy Z. (1997). Courtney Love: The Real Story. Simon & Schuster. pp. 44–46. [16] Carroll, Linda (2005). Her Mother's Daughter. Doubleday. ISBN 9780385512463. [17] "Courtney Love". The E! True Hollywood Story. October 5, 2003. E!. [18] Dirty Blonde: The Diaries of Courtney Love. Simon & Schuster. pp. 29–31. [19] "History" (http:/ / www. marysclub. com/ history. php). Mary's Club. . Retrieved 2011-03-10. [20] Sessums, Kevin (June 1995). "Love Child" (http:/ / m. vanityfair. com/ hollywood/ features/ 1995/ 06/ courtney-love-199506). Vanity Fair. . Retrieved 3 May 2012.

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Melissa, Melinda and Melody. I ended up going through the juvenile system with them because I got arrested shoplifting a Kiss T-shirt.' She was 13." [25] Love, Courtney. "So, he [Hank Harrison] said he'd get me into Trinity in Dublin [Ireland]. So, I took two semesters there. And I started taking photos for Hot Press, and I met eh, Julian Cope one night, and uh, and uh, and uh... these crazy things happened. And he said, "come live in my house" and he gave me his keys." Interview on Later... with Jools Holland on May 2, 1995. [26] Cope, Julian (2000). Head-On/Repossessed. Thorsons Publishers. ISBN 0-7225-3882-0. Cope doesn't use her name in the book, only referring to Love as "the adolescent". [27] Cope, Julian. "Julian Cope Presents Head Heritage: Drudical Q&A Miscellaneous" (http:/ / www. headheritage. co. uk/ drude/ qa/ misc. php). HeadHeritage.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-10-03. "Q: Is Courtney Love the adolescent??? (Jeanette) A: Oh yes." [28] "The Return of Courtney Love". 2006. 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Archived from the original (http:/ / www. katbjelland. com/ paganbabies/ indexpaganbabies. html) on 2007-09-05. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. [35] "Babes in Toyland Biography" (http:/ / arts. enotes. com/ contemporary-musicians/ babes-toyland-biography). Arts.enotes.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. [36] Who Killed Kurt Cobain?: The Mysterious Death of an Icon (pg. 54) [37] "Hole – Pretty on the Inside" (http:/ / www. chartstats. com/ albuminfo. php?id=10997). Chart Stats. . Retrieved 2011-11-19. [38] "Indie Charts: September 28, 1991" (in English). The ITV Chart Show. 28 September 1991. Channel 4. (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=FfnOji_bk_M) [39] Brite, Poppie Z (1998). Courtney Love: The Real Story. Touchstone. p. 117. ISBN 0-684-84800-7. [40] Spencer, Lauren (December 1991). "20 Best Albums of the Year". SPIN: p. 122. [41] Browne, David (April 15, 1994). "Live Through This" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,301841,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved 2011-03-06. [42] "Live Through This (#466): Rolling Stone's Greatest Albums of all Time" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ music/ lists/ 500-greatest-albums-of-all-time-20120531/ hole-live-through-this-19691231). Rolling Stone. . Retrieved 2011-01-03. [43] Masley, Ed (September 9, 2010). "10 most memorable moments of the MTV Video Music Awards – Living through this (1995)" (http:/ / www. azcentral. com/ thingstodo/ music/ articles/ 2010/ 09/ 09/ 20100909mtv-vmas-memorable-moments. html?page=4). azcentral.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-17. [44] Anderson, Lance (April 20, 2010). "Cypress Hill: Interview" (http:/ / www. beatweek. com/ music/ musicianinterviews/ 4499-cypress-hill-the-beatweek-cover-story-interview/ ). Beat Week. . Retrieved 2011-02-28. "“Those were really great shows. It was opening us up to a whole different deal…it provided the background for some funny-ass stories at times too. Getting to play with Hole at that time. She’s always been a controversial figure obviously…she’s definitely punk rock…there were times she was getting carried off the stage on that tour. Fighting with fans. People were throwing shot gun shells at her feet. It was a spectacle.” Despite Courtney Love’s outrageous behavior and her smack talk about Cypress Hill early on the tour, B-Real respects Courtney Love as an artist, “Nobody could take that away from her."" [45] (Posted: Sep 1, 1998) (September 1, 1998). "James Hunter reviews Celebrity Skin" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ music/ albumreviews/ celebrity-skin-19980901). Rolling Stone. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. [46] "Erlandson also declared that Patty" (http:/ / www. celebrityhollywoodnews. com/ erlandson-also-declared-that-patty/ ). Celebrity Hollywood News. October 10, 2008. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. [47] "Fender Squier Vista Venus" (http:/ / drownsoda. free. fr/ vistavenus. htm). Drown Soda. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. 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[82] "Flipside Interview from issue #68, September/October 1990". The First Session (Album notes). Hole. Sympathy for the Record Industry, Flipside Magazine. 1995. [83] Wuelfing, Howard (6 January 1997). "Swans Song". Addicted To Noise. "The group count the likes of Metallica's Kirk Hammet, Henry Rollins, Courtney Love and even Jeff Buckley among its admirers." [84] Jones, Craig (May 5, 2010). "Hole/Little Fish – Brixton Academy" (http:/ / www. egigs. co. uk/ index. php?a=13490). EGigs. . [85] Doll Parts single. 1995 DGC/Geffen Records. "Do It Clean" lyrics by Echo and the Bunnymen [86] "Courtney Love's Introduction to The Virgin Prunes" (http:/ / gavinfriday. com/ 2009/ 10/ 12/ courtney-loves-introduction-to-the-virgin-prunes/ ). GavinFriday.com. 2009-10-12. . Retrieved 2012-11-20. [87] Love, Courtney (September 1, 1994). The Hole Story. Interview with Loder, Kurt. MTV Networks. [88] Morris, Matthew (November 11, 2009). "Writing (Courtney) Love into the History of Rhetoric: Articulation of a Feminist Consciousness in Live Through This" (http:/ / citation. allacademic. com/ meta/ p_mla_apa_research_citation/ 3/ 2/ 9/ 6/ 4/ p329640_index. html). National Communication Association. . Retrieved 2010-11-15. [89] Interview with Hole on Nulle Part Ailleur in Paris, France. 21 June 1999. [90] Heller, Jason (April 27, 2010). "Hole: Nobody's Daughter" (http:/ / www. avclub. com/ articles/ hole-nobodys-daughter,40501/ ). The A.V. Club. . Retrieved 2011-09-20. [91] Von Furth, Daisy (October 1991). "Hole Lotta Love". Spin: p. 32. [92] {[citeweb|url=http:/ / community. sparknotes. com/ 2012/ 01/ 10/ the-history-of-rock-part-3-amazing-female-rockers|work=SparkNotes|title=The History of Rock Part 3: Amazing Female Rockers|date=2012-01-10|accessdate=2012-12-02}} [93] Fricke, David (1994-04-12). "Live Through This" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ music/ albumreviews/ live-through-this-19940421). Rolling Stone. . Retrieved 2012-12-02. [94] "Browne, David" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,301841,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. 1994-04-15. . Retrieved 2012-12-02. [95] Kot, Greg (2010-04-22). "Album Review:Hole, 'Nobody's Daughter'" (http:/ / leisureblogs. chicagotribune. com/ turn_it_up/ 2010/ 04/ album-review-hole-nobodys-daughter-. html). Chicago Tribune. Turn It Up. . Retrieved 2012-12-02. [96] Schippers, Mimi A. (2002). Rockin' out of the Box: Gender Maneuvering in Alternative Hard Rock. Rutgers University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0813530758. [97] (DVD) Hit So Hard: The Life and Near Death of Patty Schemel (Motion picture). Well Go USA. 2011. [98] Smith, Ethan (28 July 1995). "Love's Hate Fest" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,298095,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved 15 September 2012. [99] France, Kim (June 3, 1996). "Feminism Amplified". New York Magazine: 34–39. [100] Walters, Barbara (August 1995). Interview with Courtney Love. The Barbara Walters Special. ABC. [101] Masley, Ed. "10 Most Memorable Moments of the MTV Music Video Awards" (http:/ / www. azcentral. com/ thingstodo/ music/ articles/ 2010/ 09/ 09/ 20100909mtv-vmas-memorable-moments. html?page=4). The Arizona Republic. . Retrieved July 11, 2011. [102] Loder, Kurt (22 April 2008). "Courtney Love Opens Up About Kurt Cobain's Death (The Loder Files)" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1585956/ courtney-love-opens-up-about-kurt-cobains-death-loder-files. jhtml). MTV. . Retrieved 15 September 2012. [103] Schippers, Mimi A. (2002). Rockin' out of the Box: Gender Maneuvering in Alternative Hard Rock. Rutgers University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0813530758. [104] Klaffke, Pamela (2003). Spree: A Cultural History of Shopping. Arsenal Pulp Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1551521435. [105] Baltin, Steve. "Courtney Love Is Learning to Rein In the 'Courtney Monster'" (http:/ / www. spinner. com/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ courtney-love-nobodys-daughter/ ). Spinner. . Retrieved 3 June 2012. [106] "Courtney Love successfully introduced the kinderwhore look: filmy Victorian nightgowns with fright-wig doll hair and heavy makeup." Cintra Wilson. You Just Can't Kill It (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 09/ 18/ fashion/ 18GOTH. html). NYTimes.com, 17 September 2008 (print version appeared in The New York Times 18 September 2008). Last accessed 18 September 2008. [107] Moran, Caitlin (November 9, 2006). "Love, actually" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ life_and_style/ article630036. ece). The Times (London). . Retrieved 2007-12-16. [108] "Enduring Love: Jolie Lash meets Courtney Love" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ music/ 2005/ nov/ 18/ popandrock1). The Guardian (London). November 18, 2005. . Retrieved 2011-01-05. [109] "Courtney Love: Chanting Buddhist" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2007/ 12/ 09/ courtney-love-chanting-bu_n_75961. html). Huffington Post. December 9, 2007. . Retrieved 2011-05-25. [110] "The Chanting Buddhas" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ nottingham/ content/ articles/ 2007/ 01/ 09/ buddhism_of_nichiren_daishonin_feature. shtml). BBC. 2007-01-10. . Retrieved 2012-09-08. [111] Love, Courtney. Interview with David Letterman promoting Celebrity Skin. CBS Broadcasting. 20 May 1999. (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=QI7SVbsCVoc) [112] "Courtney Love Among 'Million Moms' Calling for Tighter Gun Control" (http:/ / www. vh1. com/ news/ articles/ 872624/ 20000515/ index. jhtml). VH1. May 15, 2000. . Retrieved 2010-12-16. [113] Love, Courtney (May 14, 2000). "Courtney Love does the math (unedited speech transcript)" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ technology/ feature/ 2000/ 06/ 14/ love/ print. html). Salon. . Retrieved 2010-08-01. [114] "1997 VH1 Fashion Awards". October 28, 1997. VH1.

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[115] "Courtney Love supports you, in a kind of scary way" (http:/ / www. grrlplanet. com/ courtney-love-gay-marriage-butt-plug/ ). Grrl Planet. November 17, 2008. . Retrieved 2011-01-18. [116] Levy, Lisa (November 6, 2006). "The people vs. Courtney Love" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ life/ feature/ 2006/ 11/ 06/ courtney_scrapbook/ print. html). Salon. . Retrieved 2011-01-10. [117] Heywood, Leslie; Drake, Jennifer. Third Wave Agenda: Being Feminist, Doing Feminism. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3005-4. [118] Love, Courtney. MTV Interview, 1994: "If you read Vanity Fair, you probably think I swig Jack Daniel's first thing in the morning, after I smoke my crack and don't see my daughter for ten days." [119] Thoman, Sasa (January 2009). "Truly Madly Courtney: Up All Night With Rock's Coolest Blonde". Elle Magazine UK. [120] "Most Shocking Music Moments". VH1's 100 Most Shocking Moments. December 21, 2009. VH1. [121] Kaufman, Gil (April 28, 2010). "Courtney Love Recalls Hazy "Letterman Years"" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1637966/ courtney-love-recalls-hazy-letterman-years-on-late-show. jhtml). MTV. . Retrieved 2011-03-01. [122] Vineyard, Jennifer (March 18, 2004). "Courtney Love Arrested After Allegedly Striking Fan With Mic Stand" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1485823/ 20040318/ love_courtney. jhtml). Mtv. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. [123] "Courtney Love Arrested in New York" (http:/ / today. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 4553516). MSNBC. March 25, 2004. . [124] "Rock star Love arrested after gig" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ music/ 3523406. stm). BBC News. March 18, 2004. . Retrieved 2010-02-10. [125] "Courtney Love Says 'Letterman Years' Were Caused By Cocaine" (http:/ / newsroom. mtv. com/ 2010/ 04/ 28/ courtney-love-letterman/ ). MTV. April 28, 2010. . Retrieved 2011-12-23. [126] Kaufman, Gil (October 24, 2003). "Courtney Love Trades Blows With Kurt Cobain's Mom, Admits to Oxycontin OD" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1479936/ courtney-lovetrades-blows-with-kurt-cobains-mom. jhtml). MTV. . Retrieved 2011-05-25. [127] "Courtney Love: Stop calling me a 'drug freak'" (http:/ / today. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 43174163/ ). US Weekly/MSNBC. May 25, 2011. . Retrieved 2011-05-25. [128] Apter, Jeff. "Courtney Love: The Life of Love" (http:/ / www. nyrock. com/ features/ courtneylove. htm). NY Rock. . Retrieved 2011-05-13. [129] "The Courtney Love and James Moreland Divorce" (http:/ / www. recordssitereviews. com/ divorcerecords/ courtney-love-james-moreldivorce. html). Public Records Site. . Retrieved 2011-03-10. [130] Bush, John. The Leaving Trains (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p4738/ biography) at Allmusic [131] Erlandson, Eric. Letters to Kurt. Akashic Books. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-61775-083-0. "My girlfriend and bandmate at the time, Courtney Love, and I were introduced to him in the parking lot after a Butthole Surfers show at the Hollywood Palladium [...] We had kept our relationship a secret. Courtney did not want our band to lose its sex appeal. She believed that couple bands were too unavailable. The fact was, for more than a year, we had shared a deep and powerful, if codependent, bond." [132] "Courtney Love: The Life of Love (NY Rock Book Review)" (http:/ / www. nyrock. com/ features/ courtneylove. htm). Nyrock.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-16. [133] Green, Joey. How they met: fateful encounters of famous lovebirds, rivals, partners in crime. Black Dog Publishing. pp. 69–70. [134] Rush & Molloy (March 14, 2010). "Courtney Love Says Edward Norton is Mediator Between her and Daughter Frances Bean" (http:/ / www. nydailynews. com/ gossip/ 2010/ 03/ 14/ 2010-03-14_courtney_love_says_edward_norton_is_mediator_between_her_and_daughter_frances_be. html). NY Daily News (New York). . Retrieved 2011-01-19. [135] Kirkham, Sophie (August 22, 2005). "Courtney Love 'expecting Steve Coogan's baby'" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2005/ aug/ 22/ film. arts). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 2011-02-16. [136] Alan Carr: Chatty Man. Courtney Love Interview. February 25, 2010. Channel 4 (UK)

215

Bibliography • Brite, Poppy Z.. Courtney Love: The Real Story, Simon & Schuster, 1998 • Davies, Steven Paul. A-Z of cult films and film-makers (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=La0S3EZ0uysC& pg=PA187#v=onepage&q&f=false), Batsford, 2003 • Green, Joey. How they met (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ciwR-zDq-wIC&dq), Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2003 • Heywood, Leslie; Jennifer Drake. Third Wave Agenda: Being Feminist, Doing Feminism (http://books.google. com/books?id=K-0qcLb7ir8C&pg=PR4&lpg=PR4&dq=ave+Agenda:+Being+Feminist,+Doing+ Feminism&source=bl&ots=UOVKDl2FkV&sig=lpFFQBZVgrUovYJfz1ogwutSwnE&hl=en), University of Minnesota Press, 1997 • Love, Courtney. Dirty Blonde: The Diaries of Courtney Love, Macmillan, 2007. Google Books (http://books. google.co.uk/books?id=UxVbS2J7KAwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false)

Courtney Love • Mitchell, Claudia; Jacqueline Reid-Walsh. Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Greenwood Publishing, 2008 • Schippers, Mimi A.. Rockin' out of the Box: Gender Maneuvering in Alternative Hard Rock (http://books. google.com/books?id=D8hKTzRbepEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=rockin+out+of+the+box&source=bl& ots=fyAfWQZ7qj&sig=FX_aYXw-2RJdeNLK4GEerEFZ1kM&hl=en#v=onepage&q=rockin out of the box& f=false), Rutgers University Press, 2002 Journals • Nicolini, Kim (April 1995). "Staging the Slut: Hyper-Sexuality in Performance" (http://bad.eserver.org/issues/ 1995/20/nicolini.html). bad.eserver.org (20).

216

External links
• Official Hole website (http://www.holerock.net) • Courtney Love (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1482/) at the Internet Movie Database • What Courtney Wore Today (http://whatcourtneyworetoday.tumblr.com/), a Tumblr blog created by Love focusing on fashion • Salon.com: Courtney Love does the math (http://www.salon.com/2000/06/14/love_7/), a transcription of a speech Love gave in 2000 comparing piracy to the corruption of record companies in the music industry • Hole (http://www.mtv.com/artists/hole/) on MTV Artists • Hole (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/hole-mn0000680476) on AllMusic.com

Christina Aguilera

217

Christina Aguilera
Christina Aguilera

Aguilera attending the launch of the Montblanc John Lennon edition, September 2010. Background information Birth name Born Christina María Aguilera December 18, 1980 Staten Island, New York, U.S. Wexford, Pennsylvania, U.S. Pop, R&B, soul, dance, electronic Singer-songwriter, Vocals 1993–present RCA [1][2][3] record producer, dancer, television personality, [4] actress

Origin Genres Occupations Instruments Years active Labels

Associated acts The New Mickey Mouse Club, Linda Perry Website www.christinaaguilera.com [5]

Christina María Aguilera (born December 18, 1980) is an American singer-songwriter, television personality, and actress. Born in Staten Island, New York, she appeared in television shows as a child before signing with RCA Records in 1998. Her debut studio album Christina Aguilera (1999) became an international success, with singles "Genie in a Bottle", "What a Girl Wants", and "Come On Over Baby (All I Want Is You)" all topping the Billboard Hot 100. Despite commercial success with her second and third albums Mi Reflejo (2000) and My Kind of Christmas (2000) and numerous collaborations, Aguilera was displeased with her lack of input in her music and image. She parted ways with her management and assumed creative control for her fourth album Stripped (2002); its second single "Beautiful" helped the album's commercial performance amidst controversy over her image. While Aguilera's jazz, soul and blues-inspired fifth album Back to Basics (2006) was met with positive critical and commercial feedback, her sixth album Bionic (2010) had trouble maintaining commercial success. Later that year, she made her feature film debut in the musical Burlesque which was released to mixed reviews. Aguilera served as the soundtrack's executive producer earning positive reviews and substantial sales. Aguilera's seventh album Lotus (2012) garnered mixed reviews and poor sales. She served as a coach and judge for the first three seasons of The

Christina Aguilera Voice from 2011 through 2012. Aguilera includes themes of dealing with public scrutiny, her childhood, and female empowerment in her music. She has been noted for her vocals, music videos and constantly reinventing her image and music. Aguilera has dedicated much of her time as a philanthropist for charities, human rights and world issues, including her work as a UN ambassador for the World Food Programme. As one of the top selling artists of the early 2000s, Billboard named Aguilera as the top female artist of 2000 and 2003.[6][7] Her work has earned numerous awards and accolades, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, a Golden Globe Award nomination for songwriting, four Grammy Awards and one Latin Grammy Award, amongst seventeen and three nominations respectively. Rolling Stone ranked Aguilera number fifty-eight on their list of the 100 Greatest Singers of All Time, ranking as the youngest and only artist on the list under the age of thirty. She has earned five number number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100. "Genie in a Bottle" and the collaborations "Lady Marmalade" and "Moves like Jagger" are one of the best-selling singles of all time. She was ranked the 20th Artist of the 2000–09 decade by Billboard[8] and is the second top selling single artist of the 2000s behind Madonna.[9] Aguilera's albums sales are estimated at over 50 million units worldwide.[10] In 2012, she was ranked #8 in VH1's listing of 100 Greatest Women in Music.[11]

218

Life and career
Early life and career beginnings
Christina María Aguilera was born in Staten Island, New York in December 18, 1980.[12] Her father, Fausto Xavier Aguilera, was a soldier in the United States Army, while her mother, Shelly Loraine (née Fidler),[13] was a violinist and pianist.[14] Her father is Ecuadorian[15] and her mother, who is American, is of German, Irish, Welsh, and Dutch ancestry.[16] Aguilera has stated that she is "proud of [her] Latino roots and proud of [her] Irish roots."[17] Throughout her father's service in the Army, her family moved to various locations such as New Jersey, Texas, New York, and Japan.[18] Aguilera lived with both her father and mother, up until their divorce when she was six years old. Aguilera then lived with her mother, and her younger sister Rachel, at her grandmother's home in Rochester, Pennsylvania, a town outside Pittsburgh.[15] According to both Aguilera and her mother, her father was very controlling, as well as physically and emotionally abusive, while she used music as an escape from the abuses.[19] Even though he has made several attempts to reconnect with her, Aguilera ruled out any chance of a reunion.[20] Since then, her mother has married again, and has changed her name.[21] As a child, Aguilera aspired to be a singer. She was known locally as "the little girl with the big voice",[20] singing in local talent shows and competitions. At the age of 8, Aguilera won her first talent show performing Whitney Houston's "I Wanna Dance With Somebody".[18] On March 15, 1990, she appeared on Star Search singing "A Sunday Kind of Love", but lost the competition at number 2. Soon after losing on Star Search, she returned home and appeared on Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV's Wake Up With Larry Richert to perform the same song. Throughout her youth in Pittsburgh, Aguilera sang "The Star-Spangled Banner" before Pittsburgh Penguins hockey, Pittsburgh Steelers football and Pittsburgh Pirates baseball games, including during the 1992 Stanley Cup Finals.[22] She attended Rochester Area School District and Marshall Middle School near Wexford.[20] Her talent was kept a secret to avoid bullying of other children. Following her television appearances Aguilera experienced resentment and bullying including an incident in which her peers slashed the tires on her family's car.[23] She attended North Allegheny Intermediate High School briefly until she was home schooled following several incidents.[20] Aguilera recalls, "doing what I did and maybe being a little smaller, I was definitely picked on and bullied for the attention that I got. It was definitely unwanted attention and there was a lot of unfairness about it."[24] In 1991, Aguilera auditioned for a role on The Mickey Mouse Club; however, she did not meet the age requirements. Two years later, she joined the cast, performing musical numbers and sketch comedy, until the show's cancellation in 1994.[25] Her co-stars included Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears, Ryan Gosling and Keri Russell where they nicknamed her "the Diva"[14] for her performance style and voice. At the age of fourteen, Aguilera recorded her first

Christina Aguilera song, "All I Wanna Do", a hit duet with Japanese singer Keizo Nakanishi.[26] In 1997, she represented the United States at the international Golden Stag Festival with a two-song set.[27] Aguilera entered talent contests on "teen night" at the Pegasus Lounge, a gay and lesbian nightclub in Pittsburgh.[28] In 1998, Aguilera sent in a demo of her Whitney Houston's "Run to You" cover to Disney who were looking for a singer to record the song "Reflection" for their animated feature film Mulan (1998).[29] The demo caught the attention of producer and label executive Ron Fair who would later mentor her throughout her career and led to Aguilera earning a contract with RCA Records the same week.[30] "Reflection" peaked within the top twenty on the Adult Contemporary Singles Chart, and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.[12][31]

219

1999–2001: Christina Aguilera, Mi Reflejo and new management
Aguilera's self-titled debut album was released on August 24, 1999. The album was received to positive reviews from critics; Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic wrote that the album "remains firmly within the teen-oriented dance-pop genre, but done right", describing it as "lightweight in the best possible sense – breezy, fun, engaging, and enjoyable on each repeated listen."[32] The album reached the top of the Billboard 200 and Canadian album charts, shipping eight million copies in the United States[14] and over seventeen million copies worldwide.[33][34][35] The album is also included in the Top 100 Albums of All Time list of The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) based on US sales.[36] Her debut single, "Genie in a Bottle", was an instant hit reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and several countries worldwide.[37][38] Additionally, "Genie in a Bottle" was the top selling debut single of 1999 with over 1.4 million sold in the US.[39] The follow-up singles, "What a Girl Wants" and "Come On Over Baby (All I Want Is You)" also topped the Hot 100 during 1999 and 2000, while "I Turn to You" reached number three, making Aguilera one of the few artists to have multiple number one singles from a debut album in Billboard history.[40][41] "What a Girl Wants" was also the first number one hit of the millennium.[42] Aguilera made a cameo appearence on Beverly Hills, 90210,[43] appeared at 1999's Lilith Fair, and performed during the Super Bowl XXXIV halftime show alongside Enrique Iglesias. Aguilera wanted to display the range and audacity in her voice, performing acoustic sets and appeared on television shows accompanied only by a piano.[44] At the 42nd Grammy Awards, Aguilera won the Grammy Award for Best New Artist.[45] On her win Aguilera said she was "in utter and complete shock. I was not expecting it at all, just like I wasn't expecting the nominations, but winning it is actually a different story. So, I had no speech prepared, nothing, and I was trembling like I don't know what, but it feels amazing."[45] On September 12, 2000, Aguilera released her second album and first Spanish-language album, Mi Reflejo, containing Spanish versions of songs from her previous album and new Spanish material. According to producer Rudy Pérez, with whom Aguilera recorded the album in Miami, Aguilera was only semi-fluent while recording, but understood the language, having grown up with her Ecuadorian father.[46][47] The album peaked at number twenty-seven on the Billboard 200 and topped the Billboard Latin charts for a record 20 weeks making Aguilera the highest female debut of all time.[48][49] Additionally, it made Aguilera the only artist in history to have back-to-back number one debuts with an English language album followed by a Spanish language album.[49] The album has Aguilera performing during her My Reflection since sold over 2.2 million copies worldwide,[50] and was certified concert special in 2000. Gold in the US selling over 480,000 copies.[51][52] Aguilera won the World Music Award and Billboard award as the best selling Latin [6] artist that year. In 2001, it won Aguilera a Latin Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Album.[53] She also

Christina Aguilera released a Christmas album, My Kind of Christmas, on October 24, 2000, and performed its only single, "The Christmas Song", at the White House that year.[14] The song made Aguilera one of three artists to take the song into the top twenty on the Billboard Hot 100.[54] The album was certified platinum in the US.[55] Her first concert tour, Christina Aguilera in Concert, began in the summer of 2000 in the United States and ended early 2001, where she toured South America and Asia.[56] An ABC concert special, My Reflection, was released to DVD and certified Gold in the US.[57] Aguilera was Billboard's top selling female artist of 2000.[6] Aguilera was rumored to have dated MTV VJ Carson Daly.[58] Rumors of their relationship were fueled after the release of Eminem's song, "The Real Slim Shady", in which he also insinuated a romance between her and rocker Fred Durst. Aguilera responded saying the lyrics were "disgusting, offensive and, above all, not true."[59] Their feud ended two years later backstage at the Video Music Awards after Aguilera presented the rapper an award onstage.[60] Aguilera dated Puerto Rican dancer Jorge Santos, who appeared on her tour and music videos throughout 2000. They dated for nearly two years until the relationship ended on September 11, 2001.[61] He remained her dancer into 2002.[62] Ricky Martin asked Aguilera to duet with him on "Nobody Wants to Be Lonely" from his album Sound Loaded, released in 2001 as the album's second single. The song reached number thirteen in the United States.[12] In 2001, Aguilera, Lil' Kim, Mýa, and Pink remade Labelle's 1975 single "Lady Marmalade" for the film Moulin Rouge! and its accompaining soundtrack. The song ultimately peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 for five weeks[63] and became the first airplay-only track in history to stay number one for more than one week.[64] It was the year's top selling single worldwide, reaching number one in eleven other countries with over 5.2 million copies sold making it one of the best-selling singles of all time.[65] "Lady Marmalade" earned all four performers a Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals. The video won two MTV Video Music Awards, including Video of the Year in 2001.[66] Later in 2001, "Just Be Free", a song from one of Aguilera's demos recorded when she was fifteen years old, appeared in record stores. When RCA Records discovered the single, they advised fans not to purchase it.[67] Months later, Warlock Records was set to release Just Be Free, an album containing demo material. Aguilera filed a breach of contract and unfair competition suit against Warlock and the album's producers to block the release.[68] The two parties came to a confidential settlement to release the album, where Aguilera lent out her name, likeness, and image for an unspecified amount of damages.[69] Despite her international success, Aguilera was dissatisfied with the music and image her management had created for her, having been marketed as a bubblegum pop singer because of the genre's upward financial trend.[70] She mentioned plans for her next album to have more musical and lyrical depth.[71] Aguilera's views of Steve Kurtz's influence in matters of the singer's creative direction, the role of being her exclusive personal manager, and over-scheduling had in part caused her to seek legal means of terminating their management contract. In October 2000, Aguilera filed a breach of fiduciary duty lawsuit against her manager Kurtz for improper, undue and inappropriate influence over her professional activities, as well as fraud. According to legal documents, Kurtz did not protect her rights and interests. Instead, he took action that was for his own interest, at the cost of hers. She petitioned the California State Labor Commission to nullify the contract.[72][73] Aguilera revealed while recording her then upcoming album, "I was being overworked. You find out that someone you thought was a friend is stealing money behind your back, and it's heartbreaking. I put faith in the people around me, and unfortunately, it bit me in the butt."[71] After terminating Kurtz's services, Irving Azoff was hired as her new manager.

220

2002–05: Stripped, new image, and marriage
Aguilera's fourth studio album, Stripped was released on October 26, 2002. It peaked at number two on the Billboard 200, with first-week sales of 330,000 copies.[74] Unlike her previous work, the album showcased Aguilera's raunchier side. She co-wrote much of the album, as Aguilera had recently signed a global music publishing contract with BMG Music Publishing, and was influenced by many different subjects and music styles, including R&B, soul, pop rock and hip hop.[75] The majority of the album was produced by Scott Storch and singer-songwriter Linda

Christina Aguilera Perry, who produced her more personal records. Rockwilder and singer Alicia Keys also contributed a track each. The album was well received by critics, although Aguilera's vocals were overlooked as she began to cultivate a more sexually provocative image,[76] having taken part in nude and semi-nude photoshoots, notably her cover for Rolling Stone,[77] featuring Aguilera wearing only boots and an electric guitar. She denied that the change was a matter of publicity, claiming that it better reflected her true personality than her previous image. She dyed her hair black, began referring to herself as "Xtina", got a tattoo of the nickname on the back of her neck, as well as several piercings.[78] Initially, the raunchy image had a negative effect on Aguilera in the United States, especially after the release of her controversial "Dirrty" music video.[79][80] She defended the video, stating it was about power and control, adding, "I'm also at the forefront. I'm in the power position, in complete command of everything around me."[14] While the video became popular on MTV, it disappointed on the US singles chart.[81] However, the single was a hit worldwide, reaching number one in the UK and Ireland. The second single, classically-influenced ballad "Beautiful", received critical praise, reaching number one in several countries and peaking at number two in the US.[81] The song earned Aguilera the Grammy for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. Three more singles: "Fighter", "Can't Hold Us Down" featuring Lil' Kim, and Aguilera performing during Stripped "The Voice Within", were released in the following two years, helping the album Live... on Tour in 2003 stay on the charts for the next two years. Stripped stayed on the US and UK album charts into 2004, and went on to be certified four-times platinum in the US[51] with over ten million copies sold worldwide.[50] It appeared at number ten on Billboard's year-end album chart and Aguilera was the top female artist for 2003.[7] Kelly Clarkson's second single, "Miss Independent", was co-written by Aguilera, having been half-finished for Stripped. Aguilera joined Justin Timberlake that June on the final leg of his international Justified tour in the United States, becoming the Justified & Stripped Tour. In August, an overhead lighting grid collapsed from the ceiling of the Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing major damage to the sound and video equipment below hours before a show. Few stagehands were injured, though some shows were canceled or postponed.[82] In the fourth quarter of the year, Aguilera continued to tour internationally without Timberlake on the Stripped Live... on Tour. It was one of the top-grossing tours of that year, and sold out most of its venues. Rolling Stone readers named it the best tour of the year.[83] That same year, Aguilera hosted the 2003 MTV Europe Music Awards and was a special guest performer with the Pussycat Dolls' dance troupe performing at the Roxy Theatre and Viper Room in Los Angeles. She also appeared on a Maxim Aguilera performing during Stripped spread alongside them, her second Maxim cover that year set record sales making Live... on Tour in 2003 it the top selling issue to date. By the end of the year, she topped the annual Hot 100 list, saying, "we had fun working with certain clothes, or the lack thereof."[84][85][86] Aguilera's first DVD live-recording, Stripped Live in the U.K., was released in November 2004. In light of the tour's success, another U.S. tour was scheduled to begin in mid-2004 with a new theme, though it was scrapped due to vocal cord injuries Aguilera suffered shortly before the opening date.[87] In a tribute to Madonna's performance at the inaugural 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, Aguilera and singer Britney Spears kissed the singer-actress during the ceremony in August, during the opening performance of Madonna's songs "Like a Virgin" and "Hollywood".[14] Also in 2004, she hosted a Saturday Night Live episode, which included a Sex & The City skit where she portrayed Samantha Jones revealing to everyone she was a man the entire time.[88]

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Christina Aguilera Aguilera later decided to embrace a more mature, Marilyn Monroe-like image, dying her hair flaxen blonde and cutting it short. She is one of the main proponents (along with Dita Von Teese, Gwen Stefani, and Ashley Judd) in bringing back the 1920s–1940s Hollywood glamour look.[89][90] Aguilera later dyed her hair cherry blonde and recorded a jingle, "Hello", for a Mercedes-Benz ad. In late 2004, Aguilera released "Car Wash", a remake of the Rose Royce disco song as a collaboration with rapper Missy Elliott for the soundtrack to the film Shark Tale. She voiced a small singing part in the film, playing a Rastafarian jellyfish in the film's closing musical number. She was featured in Nelly's "Tilt Ya Head Back", from his album Sweat. Both singles failed commercially in the US, but did considerably better in other parts of the world. Aguilera collaborated with jazz artist Herbie Hancock on a cover of Leon Russell's "A Song for You", recorded for Hancock's album Possibilities, released in August 2005. They were later nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals. She helped open the 50th Anniversary for Disneyland performing "When You Wish upon a Star", and also collaborated with Andrea Bocelli on the song "Somos Novios" for his album Amore. Aguilera began dating music marketing executive Jordan Bratman in 2002. Their engagement was announced in February 2005,[91] and they married on November 19, 2005, in a Napa Valley estate.[92]

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2006–09: Back to Basics and motherhood
Aguilera's fifth studio album, Back to Basics, was released on August 15, 2006. It debuted at number one in the US, the UK, and eleven other countries. It has since sold 4.5 million units worldwide,[93] with over 1.7 million sold in the US.[94] She described the double CD as "a throwback to the 20s, 30s, and 40s-style jazz, blues, and feel-good soul music, but with a modern twist."[95] It received positive reviews,[96] although many critics commented on the album's length saying, "At one disc, this would have been nothing short of masterful."[97] A review in AllMusic adds, "Back to Basics also makes clear that Stripped was a necessary artistic move for Christina: she needed to get that out of her system in order to create her own style, one that is self-consciously stylized, stylish, and sexy."[98] The critically acclaimed lead single, "Ain't No Other Man", was a substantial success, reaching number two on the World Chart, number six in the US, and number two in the UK. Producers on the album included DJ Premier, Aguilera performing during the Kwamé, Linda Perry, and Mark Ronson. The follow-up singles did well in Sanremo Story festival in 2006 various regions, "Hurt" in Europe and "Candyman" in the Pacific. She co-directed both music videos, the former with Floria Sigismondi who directed her "Fighter" video, and the latter, "Candyman", with director/photographer Matthew Rolston which was inspired by The Andrews Sisters.[99] "Slow Down Baby" was released as the fourth single in Australia only, while "Oh Mother" was released as the fourth single in selected European countries. In late 2006, Aguilera collaborated with Diddy on "Tell Me", from his album Press Play. She also began the Back to Basics Tour in Europe[100] followed by a 41-date North American tour in early 2007.[101] After this, she toured Asia and Australia, where it was supposed to end on August 3, however she canceled her dates in Melbourne and her final two in Auckland due to an illness.[102] Her extravagant arena tour included cabaret, three-ring circus and juke joint sets and 10 piece costumes designed by Roberto Cavalli.[103] She released her concert DVD Back to Basics: Live and Down Under the following year. The tour grossed nearly 50 million by the end of the year in North America and an additional 40 million worldwide in her Europe and Australia dates, grossing almost 90 million by the end of the tour.[104][105] It was the most successful US tour by a female in 2007.[106] At the 49th Grammy Awards, Aguilera again won the Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "Ain't No Other Man". She made a noteworthy performance at the ceremony paying tribute to James Brown with her rendition of his song "It's a Man's Man's Man's World".[107] In January 2007, she was named the 19th richest woman in

Christina Aguilera entertainment by Forbes, with a net worth of US$60 million.[108] Aguilera performed "Steppin' Out With My Baby" with Tony Bennett on his NBC special Tony Bennett: An American Classic and on Saturday Night Live. They performed at the 59th Primetime Emmy Awards where both specials received Emmys. "Steppin' Out" was nominated for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 50th Annual Grammy Awards. Aguilera confirmed she was pregnant on November 4, 2007,[109] though Paris Hilton accidentally revealed her pregnancy several weeks prior during a party Aguilera hosted.[110] She gave birth to her son, Max Liron Bratman, in Los Angeles on January 12, 2008, and held a bris for him with Bratman, who is of Jewish descent, where the baby was circumcised in accordance with Jewish practice.[111] Aguilera was reportedly paid $1.5 million by People for her son's baby pictures—the sixth most expensive celebrity baby photos ever taken.[112] In 2008, Aguilera appeared in the Martin Scorsese documentary Shine a Light which chronicles a two day Rolling Stones concert in New York City's Beacon Theatre. The film features Aguilera performing "Live With Me" alongside Mick Jagger. Shine a Light premiered at the Berlin Film Festival and was released worldwide on April 4, 2008. She also had a brief cameo in the comedy film Get Him to the Greek,[113] and appeared as a guest judge on the sixth season of Project Runway on Lifetime Television. She and designer Bob Mackie were the inspiration for the challenge in which they had to design a stage outfit for Aguilera. To commemorate Aguilera's ten years in the music industry, RCA Records released, Keeps Gettin' Better: A Decade of Hits on November 11, 2008, exclusively at Target stores in the US. The greatest hits included her first three number one singles, and other songs released from her previous three albums. "Lady Marmalade" and several Spanish singles from Mi Reflejo were included in the worldwide releases. The album's only single, "Keeps Gettin' Better", was premiered at the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards, which debuted and peaked at No.7 on the Billboard Hot 100, her highest debut on the chart. Following the greatest hits, Aguilera took over a year hiatus in 2009 to work on her then-upcoming album and film. She was one of Billboard's Top 20 Artists of the Decade in their year-end charts.[114]

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2010–11: Bionic, Burlesque, and The Voice
Aguilera's sixth studio album Bionic was released on June 8, 2010. The album's producers included Tricky Stewart, Samuel Dixon, Polow da Don, Le Tigre, Switch, Ester Dean, songwriters Sam Endicott, Sia Furler, Claude Kelly, Linda Perry and collaborations with M.I.A., Santigold, Nicki Minaj, and Peaches. Bionic's material consisted of many mainstream and pop records along with electronic and dance music. Two of the album's four singles, "Not Myself Tonight" and "You Lost Me" peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play Charts[115] but were unsuccessful elsewhere. "Woohoo", featuring rapper Nicki Minaj, was also released as the album's second single, while "I Hate Boys" was a promotional single. Jon Pareles of The New York Times wrote that the singer's new music direction "makes her sound as peer-pressured as a pop singer can be."[116] Allison Stewart of The Washington Post described the album as being "noisy, robotic and overstuffed" adding that the disc's "greatest disappointments" is its "virtual abandonment" of Aguilera's voice.[117] She concluded that Aguilera attempts "to do it all," which was to try to "revel in her newfound domesticity, to wrest her crown from Gaga and to reestablish her sex kitten bona fides."[117] Because the album marked her foray into the electropop genre,[118][119][120] Bionic was considered "misunderstood" by music journalist Charles Decant. Sales of Bionic were underwhelming in the US compared to her previous releases selling 110,000 copies in its first week landing at No.3.[121][122] It has since sold 310,000 copies in the US.[123] Shortly after the album's release, further promotion ended and a scheduled summer tour for the album was canceled due to "inadequate rehearsal time".[124] Responding to the album's performance, Aguilera says, "I was really proud of that record. I think there was a lot of promotion issues, coming from a standpoint of how everything resulted. Nothing is ever a setback. If anything, it just motivates you for what’s next."[125]

Christina Aguilera

224 Aguilera announced that she and Bratman had separated, saying in a statement, "Although Jordan and I are separated, our commitment to our son Max remains as strong as ever."[126][127] Aguilera filed for divorce from Bratman on October 14, 2010, seeking joint legal and physical custody of their son, and specifying September 11, 2010, as the date of separation.[128][129] They later reached a settlement agreement and custody deal, details of their agreement were private.[130] Their divorce was finalized on April 15, 2011.[131] The following month, Aguilera appeared as herself on the Entourage season seven finale as a client/friend of Ari Gold.[132] On November 15, 2010, Aguilera received a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[133]

In November 2010, Aguilera appeared in her first feature film, the musical Burlesque. She portrayed a small town girl, Ali Rose, who finds love and Aguilera's star on the Hollywood success in a Los Angeles neo-burlesque club.[134] The film was written and Walk of Fame, which she received in 2010.. directed by Steve Antin who wrote the part of Ali specifically with Aguilera in mind.[135] Aguilera performed eight of the musical numbers on the film's soundtrack released on November 22, 2010, and co-wrote a number of the tracks working with producers and writers including Tricky Stewart, Sia Furler, Samuel Dixon, Linda Perry, Claude Kelly, Danja, and Ron Fair. The remaining two tracks were sung by Cher, who co-starred alongside Aguilera. The soundtrack debuted in the top 20 in the US and was certified Gold selling over 600,000 copies in the US.[136][137][138] Aguilera's co-stars also included Cam Gigandet, Eric Dane, Kristen Bell and Stanley Tucci. Several critics praised Aguilera's performance. A review in TIME states, "Aguilera might not be to your taste, or mine, but in terms of sheer power, she's impressive. If Ali were real, she'd have already been discovered on American Idol."[139] While Variety wrote, "Aguilera, while undeniably entertaining when her character is onstage, cannot spin the slight backstory into anything resembling a full-blooded person."[140] Though Burlesque was released to mixed reviews from critics,[141][142] the film received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Picture – Musical or Comedy and earned Aguilera, writer/producer Sia Furler and Samuel Dixon, a nomination for Best Original Song for the track "Bound to You". The soundtrack also earned Aguilera a Grammy nomination for Best Compilation Soundtrack. Burlesque grossed $90 million worldwide.[143] Aguilera collaborated with rapper T.I. on the track "Castle Walls" from his album No Mercy.[144] During Super Bowl XLV, Aguilera performed the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", and created embarrassment when she omitted a line of the anthem and messed up the song's lyrics.[145] She later apologized, telling CNN that "I got so caught up in the moment of the song that I lost my place. I can only hope that everyone could feel my love for this country and that the true spirit of its anthem still came through."[146] The following week, Aguilera, alongside Jennifer Hudson, Martina McBride, Yolanda Adams, and Florence Welch opened the 53rd Grammy Awards paying tribute to Aretha Franklin.[147] Aguilera began dating musician and production assistant, Matt Rutler whom she met during the filming of Burlesque. Her appearance[148] and personal life were the subject of scrutiny;[149] with reports over out of control behavior, excessive drinking,[150][151] and a reported confrontation with her co-star Julianne Hough.[152][153] On March 1, 2011, Aguilera was arrested for public intoxication in West Hollywood as her boyfriend was arrested for DWI.[154] She was later released on bail and no charges were filed.[155][156] Rutler's DWI charge was dismissed due to insufficient evidence, after his BAC was determined as below the legal limit.[157] Aguilera signed to be a judge on The Voice, which debuted on NBC in April 2011. Aguilera, alongside other musicians Adam Levine, Blake Shelton and Cee Lo Green serve as judges and coaches, with Carson Daly as the show's host. The show's first episode was well-received, and delivered the strongest ratings for a series premiere on a major network since Undercover Boss debuted after the Super Bowl in February 2010.[158][159] The show's first season was a ratings success for NBC following its debut.[160][161] Aguilera performed "Moves like Jagger" on The Voice – the single with Maroon 5 on which she is featured, from their album Hands All Over. The song was an instant hit reaching number two in the UK, and earned Aguilera her fifth number one single on the Billboard Hot

Christina Aguilera 100, a decade after her last number one single, "Lady Marmalade".[162] It also made Aguilera the second female artist to achieve number one hits in the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. The single sold over 8 million copies worldwide, establishing itself among the best-selling singles of all time.[163][164] "Moves like Jagger" marks the first time two former Best New Artist Grammy Award winners have collaborated on a Hot 100 hit[54] and was nominated for Best Pop Duo/Group Performance at the Grammy Awards.

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2012–present: Lotus
Aguilera's seventh studio album, Lotus, was released on November 13, 2012. Producers on the album included Alex da Kid, Max Martin, Lucas Secon, Steve Robson and Shellback, among others and incorporated elements of electropop that Aguilera experimented with on Bionic.[118][119][120] The album received mixed reviews from critics. MTV News commented that Lotus "was supposed to signify her return to prominence, a high-powered collection of songs penned by the biggest hitmakers in the business", adding, "it wasn't a triumphant comeback album".[165] The album debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200 selling just under on 73,000 copies making it her lowest first-week sales in the US[165] and was less successful worldwide.[166] The lead single, "Your Body", debuted and peaked at number 34 on the Billboard Hot 100 and was a moderate hit worldwide. The second single "Just a Fool", a country pop duet with Blake Shelton, was less successful. At the 2012 ALMA Awards, Aguilera was honored with a Special Achievement Award for her career and work in philanthropy. She also recorded her first Spanish-language track in over a decade titled "Casa de Mi Padre" which was released as the title song for the soundtrack and film of the same name.[167] Following the second season and third season of The Voice, it was announced that Usher and Shakira will join the show as new coaches for The Voice's fourth season to replace Aguilera and Green, who will take a break from the show. Adam Levine and Blake Shelton will remain for the fourth season, and Aguilera and Green will return for the fifth.[168] Aguilera collaborated with Cee Lo Green on the classic Christmas song "Baby, It's Cold Outside" from his album Cee-Lo's Magic Moment, and with rapper Pitbull on the track "Feel This Moment" from his album Global Warming.[169][170]

Artistry
Vocal ability
Aguilera, a soprano[171][172] has been referred to as the "voice of her generation" and a blue eyed soul singer.[173][174] She possesses a four octave vocal range.[175] Aguilera also topped COVE's list of the 100 Best Pop Vocalists with a score of 50/50[176][177] and came fifth in MTV's 22 Greatest Voices in Music.[178] Her rendition of "It's A Man's Man's Man's World" at the 49th Grammy Awards ranked third in the Grammy's Greatest Moments List behind Celine Dion's performance of "My Heart Will Go On" and Green Day's performance of "American Idiot". In an interview, Dion described Aguilera as "probably the best vocalist in the world."[179] Aguilera's distinct style of singing has been praised by critics and noted as influential.[180] The People's Choice Awards honored Aguilera with the People's Voice award, recognizing her vocals and "ability to reach millions of people across a number of genres including pop, soul and R&B".[181] Rolling Stone ranked Aguilera at 58 as their 100 Greatest Singers of All Time, the youngest singer on the list.[180]

Aguilera performing during her Back to Basics Tour in 2006

Since her debut in 1999, Aguilera has been compared to Mariah Carey and Whitney Houston.[182] David Browne of The New York Times writes, "Aguilera has been one of the foremost practitioners of the overpowering, Category 5

Christina Aguilera vocal style known as melisma. Ms. Carey, Ms. Houston and Ms. Aguilera, to name its three main champions, are most associated with the period from the late ’80s through the late ’90s."[183] A review in the Los Angeles Times compared Aguilera's vocal style to Barbra Streisand, Gladys Knight, and Aretha Franklin adding, "Aguilera's Streisand-esque tendencies are a good thing; they're helping her figure out how to become the "great singer" she's been dubbed since she released her first single, the wise-beyond-its-years "Genie in a Bottle", at 18."[184] Vocal coach Cari Cole, called Aguilera the "Queen of riffing", adding that her vocals are rooted in soul music.[185] Although praised for her vocals, Aguilera has been labeled for oversinging in her songs and concerts.[186] The Huffington Post named Aguilera a main proponent for "oversouling", described as the "gratuitous and confected melisma." The term was coined by producer Jerry Wexler who said, "I have found that flagrantly artificial attempts at melisma are either a substitute for real fire and passion or a cover-up for not knowing the melody."[187] The majority of Aguilera's songs are characterized by her loud vocals, though she has used breathy and soft vocals.[188] Aguilera co-wrote "Sing For Me" from her album Lotus, a response to critics who labeled her for oversinging. In the song, Aguilera explains why she sings the way she does, saying "I don’t even care what the world thinks about how I sound."[189] Aguilera admits to oversinging in her early years adding, "Before, to make up for the kind of music I didn't want to be doing, I would over-riff, to prove that I have talent. It was too much".[190] Longtime producer and writer, Linda Perry, commented on working on the track "Beautiful", saying, "I tried to keep it straight. I told her to get rid of the finger waves. Every time she'd start going into "hoo-ha", I'd stop the tape. I'm like, 'You're doing it again.'" Perry ended up using the first take saying, "She had a hard time accepting that as the final track. It's not a perfect vocal – it's very raw. She knows her voice really well, and she knows what's going on. She can hear things that nobody else would catch."[191]

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Themes and musical style
The constant theme in Aguilera's music and lyrics is love, although she has written on other subjects including spirituality, motherhood, female empowerment, and grief. Aguilera has also written about her childhood in two of her records which dealt with domestic abuse. In an interview Aguilera admitted she feels responsible to reveal her most vulnerable feelings and to share the darker sides of her life adding "People that can relate might not feel as alone in the circumstance."[192] Originally marketed as a teen pop singer during the late '90s, Aguilera received commercial success but was displeased with her debut album's musical content.[71] She wrote the hook for "Genie in a Bottle", but did not receive a writing credit[17] and had no input during the album's production. Her fourth single, "Come On Over Baby (All I Want Is You)" was re-recorded with elements of R&B and hip-hop from its original dance pop version. Aguilera was given credit writing the song's sexually suggestive "rap".[193] Wanting to showcase her vocals, Aguilera went on a small venue tour performing acoustic sets for music critics and industry executives across the country. She turned down offers to tour with Backstreet Boys and 'N Sync in order to appear at 1999's Lilith Fair.[44] After leaving her management, Aguilera took creative control of her music and lyrical content; departing into a broad range of musical genres for her follow-up album Stripped such as soul, pop rock, R&B, and hip-hop. After recording Stripped Aguilera said, "You get signed to a label, people decide what you're going to be, but you're so excited to be doing it, period. Then you realize, 'Man, I don't know if this is what I really want.' Now I'm getting to do my own material and let people know that there's an artist behind the singer".[190] A review in Billboard called the album a "creative breakthrough",[75] and was noted as helping distance Aguilera from her then pop contemporaries.[194]

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227

Aguilera has often said that she prefers working with producers that are not in popular demand, saying "I don't necessarily go to the main people that are the No.1 chart-toppers in music."[195] Her 2006 release, Back to Basics included producer DJ Premier. The New York Times exclaims, "Her decision to work with the low-key DJ Premier was also a decision to snub some of the big-name producers on whom pop stars often rely."[196] The album included live instrumentation and samples of past jazz and soul records. Some tracks on the album included non-traditional forms of pop music such as swing jazz and big band, Marilyn Monroe in the film Gentlemen Prefer drawing comparisons to Madonna's I'm Breathless and the musical film Blondes. A song of this film, "Diamonds Are A Cabaret.[197] Her first feature film, Burlesque, influenced by Cabaret, Girl's Best Friend", was performed by Aguilera in featured several established songs that were updated and worked into Burlesque. dance numbers, a style similar to 2001's Moulin Rouge! The film included renditions of "A Guy What Takes His Time" introduced by Mae West in 1933 and "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend", a musical number also performed by Nicole Kidman in Moulin Rouge!. Aguilera was the soundtrack's executive producer working with well-known producers Tricky Stewart and Danja, many critics compared the film's music to her previous album Back to Basics.[198] Additionally, Aguilera's recent albums Bionic and Lotus, featured mainstream producers including Shellback and Max Martin. On working with Martin, Aguilera added, "He's known about me but we haven't crossed paths. Those records were the kind I wanted to stray apart from. If you look at what I did in the past (after my debut), I always try to do things that will challenge me and challenge the listener, too. Could this have worked 10 years ago? I'm not sure. It's taken us a decade in the same business for us to come together, respect each other's work ethic and how we like to be heard and making a marriage out of it."[194] Both albums however received mixed reviews and criticized Aguilera for the album's material,[117][165] a review in The Tampa Bay Times adds, "Aguilera is too talented, and hopefully too smart, to continue down this wasteful path. And yet, it's troubling that she wants to compete with the unworthy Ke$has of the world. Drop the grudges and the desperate party cuts, Christina, and let's get back to basics."[199]

Influences
Aguilera's major influence and idol is blues singer Etta James, whose classic song "At Last" has been covered by Aguilera throughout her career. Aguilera says, "Etta is my all-time favorite singer. I've said it for the last seven years – since I had my first debut record out – in every interview. I mean, all of Etta's old songs, countless songs I could name, I grew up listening to."[200] Following James' death in 2012, Aguilera was asked to perform "At Last" at her funeral.[201] Prior to performing Aguilera stated, "There's a line in this song that says 'I found a dream that I could speak to.' And for me that dream, all my life, has been Etta James."[202] The majority of her album, Back to Basics, pays tribute to James and other pop standard singers who many originated from the 1950s. In her early years she listened to vintage jazz, blues, and soul music.[203] The album includes the song, "Slow Down Baby", which sampled a Gladys Knight & the Pips song. A review in The Guardian declared, "Practically everything recorded before Aguilera was born blurs into one amorphous genre, which she categorises, somewhat inadequately, as 'fun music'".[204] Aguilera said early in her career that Mariah Carey was another influence.[205] According to author Pier Dominguez, Aguilera stated that it was Carey and her debut single, "Vision of Love", who had the biggest influence on her vocal style.[206] Aguilera has also named Madonna and Janet Jackson as two of her biggest influences "for being re-inventive and being brave as strong females, to explore whatever, even if they do get bad press. It's just like they were fearless."[207] Her other musical influences include Aretha Franklin,[208] Whitney Houston,[209] and Nina Simone.[210] Aguilera cites the musical The Sound of Music and its lead actress, Julie Andrews as her first inspiration for singing and performing.[211] At the age of six, the film helped Aguilera cope with her violent childhood adding, "Bad things

Christina Aguilera happened in my home; there was violence. The Sound of Music looked like a form of release. I would open my bedroom window to sing out like Maria. In my own way, I’d be in those hills."[212] She mentioned the "Golden age of Hollywood" as another inspiration in which she says, "I'm referencing Marlene Dietrich, Marilyn Monroe, Carole Lombard, Greta Garbo, Veronica Lake".[213] Her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame is located near that of Julie Andrews and is next to Greta Garbo's.[214] In her music video for "Ain't No Other Man" she plays her alter ego, "Baby Jane" in reference to the film Whatever Happened to Baby Jane?.[215] The film's stars included actresses Bette Davis and Joan Crawford. The third single from Back to Basics, "Candyman" was inspired by the 1941 song, "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" by The Andrews Sisters which was played during World War II. She was also inspired by pin-up girls and several paintings by Alberto Vargas. Aguilera has expressed interest in cultural icons Nico, Blondie and artists Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol.[216] She has often worked with photographer and close friend, David LaChapelle who once worked with Warhol. Chapelle has shot many of Aguilera's music videos, magazine shoots and advertisements. She is also a fan of graffiti artist Banksy. In 2006, she purchased three of Banksy's works during a private art exhibition; one of them included a pornographic picture of Queen Victoria in a lesbian pose with a prostitute.[217] She has mentioned in several interviews that she is a fan of actress Angelina Jolie,[218] Lucille Ball;[219] and her Burlesque co-star, Cher.[125] Fashion has also been a part of Aguilera's music career and image which she has used as a form of expression during performances and music videos. In 2003, she became the muse and inspiration for Donatella Versace's 2003 fall line. Versace also designed pieces for her tour the following year. Aguilera is also a fan of Roberto Cavalli, John Galliano, Marc Jacobs, and Alexander McQueen whose designs she has worn throughout her career.[220][221]

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Other ventures
Products and endorsements
In 2000, Aguilera was the face for make-up line Fetish where she worked in choosing colors and packaging for the line. She ended her contract the following year.[222] Throughout her career Aguilera has endorsed several brands, including Skechers, Mercedes-Benz, Verizon Wireless, Versace,[223] and soft drink giants Coca-Cola and Pepsi in 2001 and 2006, respectively.[224] In 2004, Aguilera earned £200,000 (about $300,000) for opening the summer sale at London's Harrods store.[225] In 2005, she was reportedly paid $3.6 million[226] to sing a three song set for Russian billionaire Andrey Melnichenko's wedding. Aguilera signed a contract with European cell phone operator Orange to promote the new Sony Ericsson Walkman phone during the 2006 World Cup. In 2010, Aguilera was paid $1 million by investor Charles Brandes to perform at a private party.[227] In 2008, jewelry designer Stephen Webster and close friend of Aguilera released "Shattered", a collection of sterling silver pieces, through Neiman Marcus and Bergdorf Goodman. Aguilera, who inspired the collection, was featured as a Hitchcock heroine saying, "Working together on this campaign and collection has been an incredible experience. I am honored to be a part of it all."[228][229] They reprised their work together for Webster's 2009 spring line.[230] In 2011, Aguilera attended São Paulo Fashion Week to premiere her new line of clothing for Brazilian department store C&A which launched in April.[231] Aguilera released two fragrances throughout Europe, the first one Xpose, was released in late 2004 and sold relatively well.[232][233] Through Procter and Gamble Aguilera released her signature fragrance, Simply Christina in 2007.[234] In Christmas 2007, the fragrance became the number one perfume in the UK,[235] and later in 2009 it became the 4th best selling perfume in the UK,[236] and Germany where it topped sales for the year.[237] The perfume won as the people's choice for favorite celebrity fragrance at the annual UK Fifi Awards 2008.[238] She released her third fragrance, Inspire, accompanied with a body care collection, on September 1, 2008.[239] The perfume hit shelves in the US, Canada, Latin America, Asia and Northern and Eastern Europe. It was Aguilera's first fragrance released outside of Europe.[240] Her worldwide ad campaign included a television ad shot by David LaChapelle and was released in the US through Macy's department stores. The release coincided with Macy's 150th

Christina Aguilera anniversary which featured Aguilera in commemorative photos.[241] She released her fourth fragrance By Night in October,[242] which became the third best selling fragrance in the UK in 2009.[236] Both “By Day“ and “By Night“ were nominated for Best Perfume of the Year at the FIFI Awards 2011.[243] The range was further augmented by Royal Desire in 2010[244] and Secret Potion the following year.[245]

229

Philanthropy
Throughout her career, Aguilera has been involved with several charities. She signed a letter from PETA to the South Korean government asking that the country stop its alleged killing of dogs for food.[246] During her 2007 tour she wore a fur stole during the beginning of her tour, which designer Roberto Cavalli provided without informing her. After receiving a video from PETA Vice President Dan Mathews on the treatment of foxes, she replaced the stole with synthetic fur for the remainder of her tour. Aguilera was reportedly upset adding, "I only ever wear fake fur".[247] In 2010, Aguilera auctioned off tickets for her upcoming tour for Christie's A Bid to Save the Earth. Proceeds benefited nonprofit environmental groups Conservation International, Oceana, Natural Resources Defense Council, and The Central Park Conservancy.[248] Aguilera also supports Defenders of Wildlife, Missing Kids, National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations,[249] Women's Cancer Research Fund,[250] and Cedars-Sinai Women's Cancer Research Institute.[251] She has also worked alongside nonprofit organization Do Something saying, "Every individual has the power to inspire young people across the country."[252] In 2010, Aguilera was nominated for a VH1 Do Something Award for her work with the organization and her efforts in the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[253] Aguilera is still a major contributor in her hometown of Pittsburgh contributing regularly to the Women's Center & Shelter of Greater Pittsburgh. According to her official website, she toured the center and donated $200,000 to the shelter. She also has auctioned off front row seats and back stage passes for the Pittsburgh-based charity.[254] She has continued her donations and visits to the shelter, and plans to open an additional one.[255] She also supports the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Refuge UK.[249] Since then she has worked with Lifetime Television's 'End violence against women' campaign. Her work there included a public service announcement which aired on the network and during her Back to Basics Tour.[256] Regarded as a gay icon, Aguilera was honored at the GLAAD Awards for using gay and transgender images in her music video for "Beautiful". When accepting the award Aguilera said, "My video captures the reality that gay and transgender people are beautiful, even though prejudice and discrimination against them still exists."[257] In 2005, she appeared on a compilation album, Love Rocks, proceeds benefit the Human Rights Campaign, an organization dedicated to promoting equal rights for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered Aguilera on a promotional poster for World people. In 2008, she spoke out against California's Proposition 8 which Hunger Relief eliminates same-sex marriage in California saying, "Why you would put so much money behind something [aimed at] stopping people from loving each other and bonding together? I just don't understand it. It's hard for me to grasp. But I would've been out there with my rally sign as well."[258] In 2011, Aguilera was honored at The Abbey, a gay club in West Hollywood, for her contributions to the gay community as the first honoree on their Gay Walk of Fame joining Dame Elizabeth Taylor in being immortalized forever.[259] Aguilera contributes in the fight against AIDS, by participating in AIDS Project Los Angeles' Artists Against AIDS "What's Going On?" cover project. In 2004, Aguilera became the new face for cosmetic company M·A·C and spokesperson for M·A·C AIDS Fund. Aguilera appeared in advertisements of the M·A·C's Viva Glam V lipstick and lipgloss, and was featured on Vanity Fair in recognition of her campaign work. In addition, Aguilera contributed to YouthAIDS by posing for a joint YouthAIDS and Aldo Shoes campaign for "Empowerment Tags" in Canada, the U.S. and the UK. She was featured with one of three ubiquitous slogans,

Christina Aguilera "Speak No Evil?" and stated, "HIV is something that people don’t want to talk about, hear about, or face."[260][261] Singer Elton John featured Aguilera in his charity book titled 4 Inches benefiting the Elton John AIDS Foundation.[262] John also picked Aguilera, for his annual "Fashion Rocks" charity concert which accompanies music and fashion to benefit the fight against AIDS/HIV.[263] In the run-up to the 2004 United States presidential election, Aguilera was featured on billboards for the "Only You Can Silence Yourself" online voter registration drive run by the nonpartisan, non-profit campaign "Declare Yourself". In these political advertisements, shot by David LaChapelle, Aguilera was shown with her mouth sewn shut to symbolize the effects of not voting. She appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show to discuss the importance of voting. In late 2007 Aguilera became the spokesperson for "Rock the Vote" where she urged young people to vote in the Hillary Clinton (center) and David Novak (right) presented Aguilera 2008 presidential election.[266] In partnership with (left) with the George McGovern Leadership Award in October 2012 "Rock the Vote", she appeared in a public service for her outstanding contributions to the United Nations World [264][265] Hunger Relief effort. announcement which aired in mid-2008. The advert showed Aguilera with her son, Max Bratman, wrapped in an American flag, while singing "America the Beautiful". In November 2005, all of her wedding gifts were submitted to various charities around the nation in support of Hurricane Katrina victims.[267] That year she also performed at "Unite of the Stars" concert in aid of Unite Against Hunger in Johannesburg, South Africa and at the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund at the Coca-Cola Dome.[268] In March 2007, Aguilera took part in a charity album (remaking Lennon's "Mother"), proceeds benefit Amnesty International's efforts to end genocide in Darfur. The album, Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur, was released June 12, 2007, and featured various artists.[269] In 2008, she headlined London's Africa Rising charity concert at Royal Albert Hall which raises awareness for finding substantial issues facing the continent.[270] Later that year she appeared on the Turkish version of Deal or No Deal, Var mısın? Yok musun?, where proceeds were donated to a charity program for orphans.[271] In 2009, Aguilera became the global spokesperson for World Hunger Relief appearing in advertisements, online campaigns and a public service announcement.[272] Aguilera and her then-husband traveled to Guatemala with the World Food Programme to bring awareness to issues such as the high malnutrition rate in that country. She met with families of the villages and some of the beneficiaries of WFP's nutrition programs. Aguilera adds, "The people of WFP do such a great job helping hungry children and mothers. I'm thankful for the opportunity to be part of such a wonderful project."[273] Since becoming a global spokeswoman Aguilera has helped raise over $22 million which helped provide over 90 million meals.[274] She was honored at Variety's annual "Power of Women" luncheon in late 2009 alongside other women in entertainment for her contribution to philanthropic and charitable causes.[275] In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Aguilera donated a signed Chrysler 300 which was auctioned for relief efforts.[276] She was one of the many artists who appeared on the Hope for Haiti telethon on January 22, 2010, donations directly benefited Oxfam America, Partners In Health, Red Cross and UNICEF. She later appeared on a second public service announcement alongside former boxer Muhammad Ali to raise funds for the World Food Programme's efforts to bring food to survivors of the earthquake.[277] Later that year Aguilera made her first visit to Haiti as an ambassador against hunger where she visited two schools in the town of Léogâne. During her time there she assisted in the ongoing efforts to help the badly damaged town where she served meals and highlighted reconstruction efforts in the country.[278] That year, Aguilera was appointed UN ambassador for the WFP.[149] At the 2012 ALMA Awards, Aguilera was awarded the Special Achievement Award for her career and humanitarian

230

Christina Aguilera efforts.[279] That year, Hillary Clinton also awarded Aguilera the George McGovern Leadership Award, making her the first singer to receive the award.[280] In 2012, after Hurricane Sandy ripped through New Jersey, New York and other parts of the Northeast, Aguilera performed "Beautiful" to open the Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together benefit telethon. She introduced the song by saying that she had been born in the devastated borough of Staten Island; all proceeds went to the American Red Cross.[281]

231

Discography
• • • • • • • Christina Aguilera (1999) Mi Reflejo (2000) My Kind of Christmas (2000) Stripped (2002) Back to Basics (2006) Bionic (2010) Lotus (2012)

Filmography
Year Title Role Film 2004 2008 2010 Shark Tale Shine a Light Get Him to the Greek Burlesque Herself (voice/animated) Herself Herself [282] Cameo appearance Documentary Cameo appearance Notes

2010

Alice Marilyn "Ali" Rose

Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song Nominated—ALMA Award for Favorite Film Leading Actress – Comedy or Musical Nominated—Grammy Award for Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media Also executive music producer Television

1993—1995 The Mickey Mouse Club 1999 Beverly Hills, 90210 Al salir de clase

Herself/Various Roles

Season 6–7

Herself

"Let's Eat Cake" (Season 10, Episode 2)

2000

Herself

"El día que no existe" (Season 5, Episode 42) "Augurios" (Season 8, Episode 72) "Christopher Walken/Christina Aguilera" (Season 25, Episode 16) "Salma Hayek/Christina Aguilera" (Season 28, Episode 15) "Christina Aguilera/Maroon 5" (Season 29, Episode 13) "Alec Baldwin/Christina Aguilera" (Season 32, Episode 5) "Hulk" (Season 2, Episode 10) "Ryan Pinkston – VH1 Big in 2002 Awards" (Season 1, Episode 1) "Sequins, Feathers and Fur, Oh My!" (Season 6, Episode 9) "A Prayer for Dick Butkus" (Season 1, Episode 9) "Lose Yourself" (Season 7, Episode 10)

2000—2006 Saturday Night Live

Herself/Various Roles/Host/Musical Guest

2003 2003 2009 2010 2010

Player$ Punk'd Project Runway Conan Entourage

Herself Herself Herself / Guest Judge Herself Herself

Christina Aguilera

232
Herself (Coach and Judge) Seasons 1—3 Won—ALMA Award for Favorite TV Reality, Variety, or Comedy Personality or Act (2012) Nominated—ALMA Award for Favorite TV Reality, Variety, or Comedy Personality or Act (2011) Nominated—Teen Choice Award for Choice TV: Female Personality (2011, 2012)

2011—2012 The Voice

Concert tours
• • • • Christina Aguilera in Concert (2000–01) Justified & Stripped Tour (2003) (with Justin Timberlake) Stripped Live... on Tour (2003) Back to Basics Tour (2006–07)

Notes
[1] "Bionic by Christina Aguilera Songfacts" (http:/ / www. songfacts. com/ detail. php?id=19834). . Retrieved 2011-06-29. [2] "Christina Aguilera" (http:/ / www. wfp. org/ content/ christina-aguilera-ambassador). . Retrieved 2011-06-29. [3] "Christina Aguilera to Sing the National Anthem at Super Bowl" (http:/ / www. theblogismine. com/ 2011/ 01/ 25/ christina-aguilera-to-sing-the-national-anthem-at-super-bowl/ ). . Retrieved 2011-06-29. [4] "The Voice Judges: Christina Aguilera, Cee Lo Green, Blake Shelton and Adam Levine" (http:/ / www. starsofreality. com/ Voice-Judges-Christina-Aguilera-Cee-Lo-Green-Blake-Shelton-Adam-Levine-16052675). . Retrieved 2011-06-29. [5] http:/ / www. christinaaguilera. com/ [6] "Christina Aguilera awards" (http:/ / www. bignoisenow. com/ christina/ awards. html). Big Noise Now. 2000. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [7] "Top Pop Artists - Female" (http:/ / www1. billboard. biz/ bbbiz/ charts/ yearendcharts/ 2003/ hsitlpfeml. jsp). Billboard. 2003-27-12. . Retrieved 2013-08-01. [8] Staff, Billboard (2010). "Artists of the Decade" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ #/ features/ artist-of-the-decade-1004053060. story). Billboard. Nielsen Company. . Retrieved 2010-05-03. [9] "Single Sales Artist" (http:/ / www. billboard. biz/ bbbiz/ charts/ decadeendcharts/ 2009/ singles-sales-artists). Billboard.biz. Prometheus Global Media. . Retrieved 2010-12-06. [10] Levine, Stuart (2011-04-09). "Can 'The Voice' be heard?" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118035166). Variety. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [11] Staff, VH1 (2012). "VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Music (the complete list)" (http:/ / www. vh1. com/ music/ tuner/ 2012-02-13/ vh1s-100-greatest-women-in-music-complete-list/ ). VH1. VH1. . Retrieved 2012-01-24. [12] "Christina Aguilera > Biography" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ features/ christina-aguilera-billboard-cover-story-1007955332. story#/ artist/ christina-aguilera/ bio/ 325726). Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. . Retrieved 2012-10-01. [13] "Christina Aguilera - Biography" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ christina_aguilera/ biography). People.com. Time Inc. . Retrieved 2012-11-02. [14] "Christina Aguilera Biography" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ christina_aguilera). People.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-08. [15] Scott Gregory, Sophfronia (1999-09-27). "Uncorking the Genie" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ archive/ article/ 0,,20129327,00. html). People magazine. . Retrieved 2012-11-19. [16] Dominguez, Pier (December 2002). Christina Aguilera: A Star is Made: The Unauthorized Biography. Amber Communications Group, Inc.. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-9702224-5-9. [17] Elaine Rivera (2001-09-15). "What A Woman Wants" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1000774,00. html). TIME. . Retrieved 2007-12-03. [18] Richard Harrington (2000-02-13). "Christina Aguilera's Fast Track" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ WPcap/ 2000-02/ 13/ 003r-021300-idx. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2012-12-09. [19] Thompson, Paul (2009-09-23). "Christina Aguilera talks about childhood hell at the hands of her violent father" (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-1215346/ Christina-Aguilera-talks-childhood-hell-hands-violent-father. html). Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. . Retrieved 2012-12-03. [20] "Christina Aguilera Biography" (http:/ / movies. yahoo. com/ movie/ contributor/ 1800409839/ bio). Yahoo!. . Retrieved 2011-02-17. [21] Helligar, Jeremy; Majewski, Lori (2003-02-03). "Christina's World". Us Weekly. [22] Grupp, John (2009-05-06). "Anthem singer fires up Mellon crowd" (http:/ / www. pittsburghlive. com/ x/ pittsburghtrib/ sports/ penguins/ s_623827. html). Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. . Retrieved 2010-02-05. [23] USMagazine.com Stars who were bullied (http:/ / www. usmagazine. com/ celebritynews/ photos/ celebs-who-were-bullied-2010510/ 10466) Retrieved on December 9, 2010.

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[24] Goldberg, Lesley (2010-11-17). ""Beautiful," Bullied and "Burlesque" – our interview with Christina Aguilera" (http:/ / www. afterellen. com/ people/ 2010/ 11/ christina-aguilera?page=0,0). After Ellen. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [25] Goldstein, Rob (1999-05-15). "Dreaming Of Genie" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070401032341/ http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ read/ interview/ 12043048). Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original (http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ read/ interview/ 12043048) on 2012-12-04. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [26] "Christina Aguilera Biography" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p357293). Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [27] Dinca, Alma Boghitoiu. "An Interview with Christina Aguilera" (http:/ / www. brasovtravelguide. ro/ en/ brasov/ events/ golden-stag-festival/ 1997. php). Brasov travel guide. . Retrieved 2007-05-25. [28] "Pegasus Lounge to close for good" (http:/ / www. pittsburghlive. com/ x/ pittsburghtrib/ news/ breaking/ s_650758. html). Tribune-Review. 2009-10-30. . Retrieved 2009-01-17. [29] Willman, Chris (2010-10-11). "Club Kid" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,84715,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc.. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [30] Smith, Andy (1998-08-15). "One talented teen". The Providence Journal (The Providence Journal Co.). [31] Dominguez 2003, p. 45 [32] Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Christina Aguilera - Christina Aguilera" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ christina-aguilera-mw0000244313). Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [33] "Christina Aguilera Musician Coach of ‘The Voice’" (http:/ / www. dutchdailynews. com/ christina-aguilera-the-voice/ ). [Dutch Daily News]. 2011=03-04. . [34] "Christina Aguilera Net Worth" (http:/ / www. celebritynetworth. com/ richest-celebrities/ singers/ christina-aguilera-net-worth/ ). [Celebrity Networth]. 2012. . [35] McLean, Craig (2010-05-07). "Christina Aguilera's 'eye on the prize'" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ culture/ music/ rockandpopfeatures/ 7682705/ Christina-Aguileras-eye-on-the-prize. html). The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). . Retrieved 2012-09-11. [36] Gold and Platinum: Top 100 Albums (http:/ / riaa. com/ goldandplatinum. php?content_selector=top-100-albums) Page 2, Retrieved December 5, 2012" [37] "UK Singles Chart - Number One" (http:/ / www. number-ones. co. uk/ Christina-Aguilera-number-ones/ Genie-In-The-Bottle. html). Number Ones UK. 1999. . Retrieved 2012-12-07. [38] "Christina Aguilera - Genie in a Bottle" (http:/ / www. spanishcharts. com/ showitem. asp?interpret=Christina+ Aguilera& titel=Genie+ in+ a+ Bottle& cat=s). SpanishCharts.com. 1999. . Retrieved 2012-12-07. [39] "Best Selling Records of 1999 Singles - (More Than 500,000)" (http:/ / www. billboard. biz/ bbbiz/ charts/ archivesearch/ article_display/ 849310). Billboard.Biz. Billboard. 1999-12-31. . Retrieved 2007-12-08. [40] "Stripped for all the world to hear" (http:/ / www. smh. com. au/ articles/ 2003/ 08/ 31/ 1062268467251. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 2003-09-01. . Retrieved 2007-05-25. [41] Billboard chart beat Fergie Scores Third Solo No. 1 On Hot 100 (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ column/ chartbeat/ ask-billboard-kylie-fever-1004104865. story#/ news/ fergie-scores-third-solo-no-1-on-hot-100-1003633227. story) Retrieved on February 16, 2010. [42] Gelman, Jason (2001-05-15). "'What A Girl Wants' Wins BMI Award" (http:/ / www. bignoisenow. com/ christina/ bmiaward. html). Daily Yahoo! News. . Retrieved 2012-10-12. [43] IMDB.com Season 10, Episode 2 Let's Eat Cake (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0522852/ ) Retrieved on December 5, 2012 [44] Christophe John Farley (2000-03-07). "Christina Aguilera - Building 21st Century Star" (http:/ / articles. chicagotribune. com/ 2000-03-07/ features/ 0003070036_1_lilith-fair-electric-artists-rca). Chicago Tribune. . Retrieved 2012-12-09. [45] Rosen, Craig (2000-02-24). "Christina Aguilera Wins Best New Artist" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080528131603/ http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ read/ story/ 12051721). Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original (http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ read/ story/ 12051721) on 2012-12-04. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [46] Teri vanHorn (2000-08-16). "Christina Aguilera Delves Into Latin Roots On Spanish LP" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1424794/ 20000816/ aguilera_christina. jhtml). MTV News. . Retrieved 2008-08-01. [47] Colleti, Roger (2000-04-18). "Christina Aguilera To Record With Her Idol" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1424808/ 20000418/ aguilera_christina. jhtml). MTV News. . Retrieved 2008-08-01. [48] "Mi reflejo - Christina Aguilera" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ #/ album/ christina-aguilera/ mi-reflejo/ 443534). Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [49] "Mi Reflejo sales" (http:/ / www. bignoisenow. com/ christina/ latincdbillboard. html). Big Noise Now. November 2000. . Retrieved 2012-12-05. [50] Newman, Melinda (2006-06-29). "Christina Aguilera Gets Inspired by 30s and 40s Idols for her Upcoming Album" (http:/ / books. google. ca/ books?id=JhYEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA26& lpg=PA26& dq=christina+ aguilera+ stripped+ 12+ million+ worldwide& source=bl& ots=Fy0U0cCXVv& sig=09hOZe7zS7OpOmK876MdC6FjrhI& hl=en& sa=X& ei=NpVQUOOtGKbwyQH4hYCgCg& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage& q=christina aguilera stripped 12 million worldwide& f=false). Billboard (magazine) (Prometheus Global Media). . Retrieved 2012-09-19. [51] Gary Trust (September 24, 2012). "Ask Billboard" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ column/ chartbeat/ ask-billboard-who-s-the-hot-100-s-king-elvis-1007955992. story?utm_source=most_recent#/ column/ chartbeat/ ask-billboard-who-s-the-hot-100-s-king-elvis-1007955992. story?page=2). Billboard. . Retrieved 2012-09-24.

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[52] "RIAA Mi Reflejo certification" (http:/ / www. riaa. com/ goldandplatinumdata. php?artist="Mi+ Reflejo"). RIAA. . Retrieved 2012-12-06. [53] Saraceno, Christina (2001-10-30). "Christina Wins Latin Grammy" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ music/ news/ christina-wins-latin-grammy-20011030). Rolling Stone. Jann S. Wenner. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [54] Grein, Paul (2011-10-30). "Week Ending Oct. 30, 2011. Songs: Eleven For Rihanna" (http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ blogs/ chart-watch/ week-ending-oct-30-2011-songs-eleven-rihanna-002531232. html). Yahoo! Music. . Retrieved 2011-11-06. [55] RIAA Certifications for Christina Aguilera RIAA Gold and Platinum certifications (http:/ / riaa. com/ goldandplatinumdata. php?artist="Aguilera,+ Christina") Retrieved on December 4, 2012 [56] "Christina Aguilera Kicks Off Her First Headlining Tour on July 31" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ christina-aguilera-kicks-off-her-first-headlining-tour-on-july-31-sears-and-levisr-present-christina-aguilera-in-concert-72584432. html). PR Newswire. 2000-07-31. . Retrieved 2012-12-07. [57] Search My Reflection RIAA RIAA Gold and Platinum certifications (http:/ / www. riaa. com/ goldandplatinumdata. php?table=SEARCH) Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5mr9q5hMa) 17 January 2010 at WebCite [58] Merin, Jennifer (February 11, 2000). Fleshing out the vital details (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ music/ lmds924. htm). USA Today. Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [59] Helling, Steve May 12, 2009 People Magazine Eminem and His Many Feuds (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20278448,00. html) Retrieved on November 9, 2010. [60] Moss, Corey August 30, 2002 MTV.com Eminem Hugs Christina: Backstage At The VMAs (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1457267/ 20020830/ eminem. jhtml) Retrieved on November 9, 2010. [61] USA Today October 24, 2002 Aguilera's image is 'Stripped' (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ music/ news/ 2002-10-23-christina-aguilera_x. htm) USA Today Music Retrieved on July 3, 2009. [62] US magazine. Christina Aguilera (http:/ / www. usmagazine. com/ node/ 112). Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [63] "Christina Aguilera Album & Song Chart History" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ #/ artist/ Christina+ Aguilera/ chart-history/ 325726?f=379& g=Singles). Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [64] "Lady Marmalade chart history" (http:/ / www. bignoisenow. com/ christina/ ladycharthistory3. html). 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[257] Gelman, Jason (2003-03-07). "Christina Aguilera Video Recognized By Gay & Lesbian Alliance" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20110629150744/ http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ read/ story/ 12027755). Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original (http:/ / music. yahoo. com/ read/ story/ 12027755) on 2012-12-04. . Retrieved 2012-12-04. [258] Harris, Chris MTV.com November 7, 2008 Christina Aguilera Speaks Out Against Proposition 8 (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1598837/ 20081107/ aguilera_christina. jhtml) MTV online Retrieved on November 7, 2008. [259] "Christina Aguilera honored at debut of The Abbey's Gay Walk of Fame" (http:/ / chicago. gopride. com/ news/ article. cfm/ articleid/ 18110025/ christina-aguilera-honored-at-debut-of-the-abbeys-gay-walk-of-fame-photos). ChicagoPride.com. April 21, 2011. . Retrieved April 21, 2011. [260] Hear No Evil? (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ statistics/ images/ charities_youthaids. jpg). Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [261] Christina Multimedia (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ picturearchive/ index. php?catID=16& subcatID=7064). Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [262] "Paris and Nicky Hilton, Kimora Lee Simmons, Christina Aguilera, Rebecca Romijn, Elle Macpherson, Heidi Klum Among 44 Celebrities To Bare All For New Book To Benefit The Elton John AIDS Foundation" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ paris-and-nicky-hilton-kimora-lee-simmons-christina-aguilera-rebecca-romijn-elle-macpherson-heidi-klum-among-44-celebrities-to-bare-all-for-new-book-to-bene html). PR Newswire. United Business Media. 2005-06-05. . [263] Cohen, Jonathan (July 6, 2006). Elton Curating Fashion Rocks, Busy With New CD (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ bbcom/ news/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1002800867). Billboard. Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [264] "Hillary Clinton Busted Staring At Christina Aguilera’s Chest In Photo" (http:/ / www. ibtimes. com/ hillary-clinton-busted-staring-christina-aguileras-chest-photo-815195). International Business Times. Etienne Uzac, Johnathan Davis. . Retrieved 2 November 2012. [265] "Christina Aguilera honoured by Hilary[sic (http:/ / www. ok. co. uk/ celebrity-news/ view/ 54686/ Christina-Aguilera-honoured-by-Hilary-Clinton-for-hunger-relief-work/ ) Clinton for hunger relief work"]. OK!. Northern & Shell. . Retrieved 2 November 2012. [266] Channel 4 News(November 14, 2007). Aguilera back voting campaign with Rock the Vote (http:/ / www. channel4. com/ news/ articles/ arts_entertainment/ aguilera+ backs+ voting+ campaign/ 1047562). Retrieved on November 14, 2007. [267] Watson, Donna (October 21, 2005). Chrissie Presents (http:/ / www. dailyrecord. co. uk/ news/ tm_objectid=16275053& method=full& siteid=66633& headline=chrissie-presents--name_page. html). Daily Record. Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [268] MTV News staff (October 26, 2005). For The Record: Quick News On Christina Aguilera (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1512314/ 20051026/ aguilera_christina. jhtml). MTV. Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [269] USA Today (March 11, 2007). Aguilera takes part in All-Star charity project. (http:/ / blogs. usatoday. com/ listenup/ 2007/ 03/ allstar_darfur_. html). Retrieved on May 25, 2007. [270] Virgin Media August 22, 2008 Christina's mother of a performance (http:/ / musicnews. virginmedia. com/ news/ ?news_id=83415) Virgin music Retrieved on August 22, 2008. [271] Altinsas, E. Baris (2008-10-26). "A loving family for children in need of protection" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20110520083051/ http:/ / www. todayszaman. com/ newsDetail_getNewsById. action?load=detay& link=156957& bolum=101). Today's Zaman. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. todayszaman. com/ tz-web/ detaylar. do?load=detay& link=156957& bolum=101) on 2012-12-04. . Retrieved 2008-10-31.

Christina Aguilera
[272] Business Wire Christina Aguilera Lends Powerful Voice in Fight to End Hunger as Global Spokesperson Aguilera Raises Awareness of Hunger Issue by Appearing in PSA, Advertising, Posters (http:/ / www. businesswire. com/ portal/ site/ google/ ?ndmViewId=news_view& newsId=20090715006146& newsLang=en) July 15, 2009 Retrieved on July 15, 2009. [273] Relief Web September 23, 2009 Christina Aguilera sees hunger first hand in Guatemala (http:/ / www. reliefweb. int/ rw/ rwb. nsf/ db900SID/ EGUA-7W6MTE?OpenDocument) Relief Web press release Retrieved on September 23, 2009. [274] World Food Programme official site Christina and the World Food Programme (http:/ / www. wfp. org/ christina-aguilera) Retrieved on May 13, 2010. [275] McNiece, Mia Variety online September 1, 2009 Variety to celebrate Power of Women (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118007957. html?categoryId=13& cs=1) Retrieved on September 10, 2009. [276] PRNewswire January 17, 2010 The Chrysler Brand Joins Forces With 'The 67th Annual Golden Globe Awards' to Contribute Relief Efforts to Haiti (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ the-chrysler-brand-joins-forces-with-the-67th-annual-golden-globe-awards-to-contribute-relief-efforts-to-haiti-81918812. html) Retrieved on January 18, 2010. [277] WFO (http:/ / www. wfp. org/ content/ sneak-peek-christina-aguilera-and-muhammad-alis-haiti-psa) Retrieved on January 31, 2010 [278] World Food Programme May 12, 2010 Haiti Is First Stop For New WFP Ambassador Christina Aguilera (http:/ / www. wfp. org/ stories/ haiti-first-stop-new-ambassador-against-hunger-christina-aguilera) Retrieved on May 12, 2010. [279] "Tributo y entrega de Premio a Christina Aguilera - (ALMA Awards 2012)" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=WfLRhDx9cuA). YouTube. . Retrieved 2012-11-01. [280] Posted: 10/04/2012 1:17 pm Updated: 10/04/2012 3:00 pm. "Hillary Clinton Honors Christina Aguilera At United Nations Ceremony, Stares At Her Breasts (PHOTO)" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2012/ 10/ 04/ hillary-clinton-christina-aguilera-world-food-programme-boobs-breasts-photo_n_1939733. html). Huffingtonpost.com. . Retrieved 2012-11-01. [281] "Stars perform to help victims of Sandy" (http:/ / entertainment. nbcnews. com/ _news/ 2012/ 11/ 02/ 14888295-stars-perform-to-help-victims-of-sandy?lite). 2012-11-02. . Retrieved 2012-12-07. [282] Jennifer Vineyard September 24, 2004 Christina Aguilera Is Poisonous In Video With Missy Elliott: Singer animated as jellyfish in 'Car Wash' clip from 'Shark Tale.' (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1491393/ x-tina-soaking-wet-car-wash-clip. jhtml) MTV Networks Retrieved on November 08, 2012.

242

References
• Dominguez, Pier (2002). Christina Aguilera: A Star is Made: The Unauthorized Biography. Amber Communications Group, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9702224-5-9.

External links
• • • • • ChristinaAguilera.com (http://www.christinaaguilera.com/) – Christina Aguilera official website Twitter (http://www.twitter.com/TheRealXtina) – Official Twitter account Christina Aguilera (http://www.myspace.com/christinaaguilera) on Myspace Christina Aguilera (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm4694/) at the Internet Movie Database Christina Aguilera (https://www.facebook.com/christinaaguilera) on Facebook

Lindsey Alley

243

Lindsey Alley
Lindsey Alley
Born Lindsey Erin Alley December 6, 1977 Lakeland, Florida, U.S. Actress/Singer

Occupation

Years active 1988–present

Lindsey Erin Alley (born December 6, 1977) is an American actress and singer, who for several years lived in New York City and is now residing in Los Angeles. Alley was born in Lakeland, Florida.[1] She began acting at the age of six. In her first starring role, she played the role of Patsy in the movie Ernest Saves Christmas in 1988. In 1989-1996, she was cast as a Mouseketeer in The Disney Channel's 1989-1996 revival of the Mickey Mouse Club (later known as MMC), on which she remained until the show was canceled in 1996. Two years after the show ended, Alley graduated from Lakeland Senior High School in 1996. Alley continued her education at the University of Missouri, receiving her Bachelor of Arts in theater with honors in 2000. Alley also had a brief stint in an on-screen character role of Lisa Seltzer on The New TNN's roller derby program WSL RollerJam in 2002 from midway through the season to the end of the series. Alley appeared in her own play, a one-woman show titled Look, Ma...No Ears![2] (A Show for One-Woman and the Voices in Her Head), a play on which she collaborated with Robert Stein and Stephen Winer. The play premiered in April 2006.

References
[1] "Most Popular People Born in Lakeland/Florida/USA" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ search/ name?birth_place=Lakeland, Florida, USA). IMDb. . Retrieved 2010-09-19. [2] Broadway World (http:/ / www. broadwayworld. com/ viewcolumn. cfm?colid=9651), Saturday May 13, 2006 .

External links
• Official Web Site of Lindsey Alley (http://www.lindseyalley.com/) • Lindsey Alley (http://www.myspace.com/70313491) on Myspace • Lindsey Alley (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0021298/) at the Internet Movie Database

Rhona Bennett

244

Rhona Bennett
Rhona Lynn Bennett

Rhona Bennett performing in concert Background information Born May 10, 1976 Chicago, Illinois, U.S. R&B, soul, neo soul, hip hop soul

Genres

Occupations Singer-songwriter, actress, record producer, model Website http:/ / rhonabennett. com/

Rhona Bennett (born May 10, 1976)[1] (also known as Miss R&B) is an American singer, actress and model, best known for her recurring role as Nicole on The Jamie Foxx Show. She joined American R&B super-group En Vogue in 2003 until August 2008, after which she embarked on solo singing career. Bennett started out doing voice overs and industrial films, before moving into professional theatre and television. Before joining the cast of The Jamie Foxx Show, Rhona was a cast member of the Disney Channel's variety show The All-New Mickey Mouse Club.

Career
In 1991, Bennett became a Mouseketeer on the '90s revival of The Mickey Mouse Club. She was also part of a spin-off dramedy titled "Emerald Cove" on the Disney Channel. After the show was cancelled in 1994, Bennett moved to California to continue her career as an actress, landing several shows, including "Living Single" and "Martin". She also garnered a regular role in the mid-1990s in which she played Loquatia on the sitcom "Homeboys in Outer Space". In early 2000, Bennett had a recurring role on the WB sitcom The Jamie Foxx Show, in which she played Nicole, Jamie's co-worker and singing partner. Later, Bennett signed with producer Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins. Her debut album titled Rhona was released under his Darkchild Records imprint for Sony Music Entertainment in 2001. The first single, "Satisfied", shipped gold to Japan. It also became a U.S. Hot Dance Club Play number-one in 2001.[2] Bennett landed a leading role in the stage play "Men Cry In The Dark" (2002). In 2003, Bennett joined En Vogue for a five-year tenure until leaving the group in 2008 with the return of original member Dawn Robinson. Bennett performed at the American Airlines Center on July 27, 2008, under the Miss R&B moniker. She sang solo from her upcoming album, hosted, and helped to raise funds for a new charity for the homeless. Bennett met back with the members of En Vogue to perform at the American Music Festival on August 29, 2008. Bennett restarted her solo career in early 2009. Since that time, Bennett has worked on a new solo album and wishes the original members of En Vogue all the best. In June 2012, Bennett rejoined the group En Vogue for their tour.

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Discography
Albums • 2001: Rhona • 2012: Miss R&B's sophomore album

Singles
• 2001: Satisfied • 2010: Letting You Go

Other Songs
• • • • B Side (featuring 40 Glocc) The One (with 40 Glocc & Lil Boo) First Lady (featuring Brandy) No Mistake (featuring Terry Ellis and Cindy Herron of En Vogue)

References
[1] Rhona Bennett (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0071991/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [2] (http:/ / www. mediawars. ne. jp/ ~mundo/ collect/ file/ rhona. html) Mediawars.ne.jp Retrieved on 05-11-07

External links
Rhona Bennett (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0071991/) at the Internet Movie Database

JC Chasez

246

JC Chasez
Joshua Chasez

Background information Birth name Also known as Born Joshua Scott Chasez JC Chasez August 8, 1976 Washington, D.C., United States Bowie, Maryland Pop, dance-pop Singer-songwriter, dancer, record producer, actor 1988–present Jive/Zomba (1999-2007)

Origin Genres Occupations Years active Labels

Associated acts 'N Sync America's Best Dance Crew, ABDC, Kristina Maria

Joshua Scott "JC" Chasez (born August 8, 1976) is an American singer-songwriter, dancer, entertainer, record producer, and occasional actor, best known as one of the lead vocalists in the former pop group 'N Sync. In 2004, Chasez released a solo album, Schizophrenic, and has gone on to write and produce for music acts such as Girls Aloud, Basement Jaxx, David Archuleta, Matthew Morrison, and the Backstreet Boys. He also served as a judge for America's Best Dance Crew.

Early life
Chasez was born in Washington, D.C. At age five, he was adopted by Roy and Karen Chasez. He always danced when he was a kid.[1] His biological mother entrusted her son's care to her former foster parents Roy and Karen, hoping that they would be able to JC giving an autograph provide him with an education and a stable family life.[2] Chasez has said that he does not know who his biological father is, and has no plans to search for him.[2] After being adopted, Chasez was raised in Bowie, Maryland as a Mennonite.[3] He has a younger brother named Tyler and a younger sister named Heather.[2] Chasez attended the former Robert Goddard Middle School and then Bowie High School.

JC Chasez

247

Career
Early career
As a child, Chasez was extremely shy, but when a friend bet him $20 to enter a talent show, he won the contest and soon realized he had a knack for performing and that he really enjoyed singing. Before, him and his friends would dance. In 1990, his mother Karen Chasez noticed a small ad in the Washington Post announcing auditions for Disney's The Mickey Mouse Club, and encouraged Chasez to try out. He chose to audition, selecting the song "Right Here Waiting" by Richard Marx. Chasez was soon cast as a performer in the fourth season and stayed until the show's cancellation in 1995. Since there was another Mouseketeer named Joshua, Chasez went by his first and last initials, "JC", to avoid confusion. It was during his time as a Mouseketeer that Chasez befriended future bandmate Justin Timberlake, along with other future entertainers including Britney Spears, Ryan Gosling, Tony Lucca, Keri Russell, and Christina Aguilera. He wrote the song "Give In To Me" (a.k.a. "Give Me The Love I Need") when he was 18 in 1994 and he sings the lead on it on Euge Groove's debut CD.

'N Sync
JC Chasez and Justin Timberlake were the two lead singers of what would become the popular boy band 'N Sync. The group officially formed in 1995, and became popular in Europe in 1996. In 1998, the band released its debut album *NSYNC which sold 11 million copies, and became very popular in America. After the band had its series of legal struggles with manager Lou Pearlman, they signed with Jive Records. They released their second studio album No Strings Attached in 2000, which became the fastest selling album of all time selling 2.4 million copies in the first week alone, making it the most albums sold in one week, and had the #1 hit single "It's Gonna Be Me". Other singles from the No Strings Attached Album included Bye Bye Bye, This I Promise You, and I'll Never Stop. The band went on to produce their third studio album, Celebrity in 2001, which sold 1.8 million copies in the first week. After the group's Celebrity Tour in 2002, the band decided to take a hiatus. During this time, Chasez produced his own album, Schizophrenic. They never officially disbanded, but since 2004, they have never reunited for any musical purposes, and there have been mixed reactions as far as whether the reunion would happen. So far, JC has been the most neutral about it, saying that "it's just not in the cards right now".[4] Chris Kirkpatrick remarked in August 2008, and again in 2009, that the five remain friends, and he believed a reunion was possible. In September 2008, Lance Bass also made conciliatory comments. In recent years, Timberlake has been reluctant to talk about it and has avoided questions about a reunion and the band in general during interviews.

Solo career
During 'Nsync's scheduled hiatus, Chasez pursued work as a songwriter and producer. His first solo single, "Blowin' Me Up (With Her Love)", co-produced by Dallas Austin, was released on the 2002 Drumline soundtrack. In 2004, Chasez's debut album Schizophrenic was released on Jive Records. The album was produced by Chasez, Dallas Austin, and contributing artists Basement Jaxx, BT and rapper Ol' Dirty Bastard, under the pseudonym Dirt McGirt. Promotion for the album was affected by former band mate Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson's Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy, after which Chasez was unceremoniously dropped from his halftime-show performance at the 2004 Pro Bowl. The NFL feared lyrics of the album's first single, "Some Girls Dance with Women", expressed too much sexuality.[5] In 2007, Chasez parted ways with Jive Records,[6] indefinitely stalling the release of his second album, The Story of Kate. Two singles from the album, "Until Yesterday" and "You Ruined Me" have been released online. Chasez continues to work as a song-writer and producer, with songs written for David Archuleta[7] and Backstreet Boys.

JC Chasez Chasez was a judge on Randy Jackson's America's Best Dance Crew on MTV. He stayed on the panel for all seven seasons from 2008 to 2012, until its cancellation. In November 2010, the song "If U C Kate" written by Dallas Austin, Taio Cruz, Alan Nglish, and Chasez was featured on the British band McFly's album, Above the Noise. In February 2012, Chasez announced via his website[8] that he is holding auditions, together with the producer and songwriter Jimmy Harry, to form an all girl group with ages between 18 and 24. Most of the band members have been selected as of November 2012, and the group has been dubbed Girl Radical[9] Longtime friend and co-worker, Justin Timberlake helped produce a few songs on Chasez' album, said "In my opinion, he had the best voice out of all of us...Out of all the boy bands, call 'em what you will, he was the one that could out-sing all of us. And I've known him since I was 10, so it was fun to sit behind the board and push him."[10]

248

Discography
Albums
Schizophrenic

• Released: February 24, 2004 • • • • Label: Jive/Zomba Label Group Chart position: #17 US, #46 UK Sales: 170,000 (US) Singles: "Blowin' Me Up", "Some Girls", "All Day Long I Dream About Sex"

Singles
All regularly released singles and their chart peak position in U.S. Billboard Hot 100 (US 100), U.S. Top 40 Mainstream (US Main), UK Singles Chart (UK), Canadian Singles Chart (CAN), Australian Singles Chart (AUS), New Zealand Top 40 (NZ), Irish Top 50 (IRE) and in the Belgian UltraTop 50 (BEL).
Year Single Chart positions U.S. U.S. UK[11] CAN AUS NZ IRE BEL GER SWI 100 Pop 2000 "Bring It All to Me" (Blaque featuring JC Chasez) 2003 "Blowin' Me Up (With Her Love)" 1 2004 "Some Girls (Dance with Women)" 1 "All Day Long I Dream About Sex" 2006 "Until Yesterday" 2007 "You Ruined Me" 4 35 88 — — — 15 14 30 — — — — 13 13 59 — — 9 24 — — — — — — — 25 — — 16 — — 32 — — — 20 20 — — — — — — 44 — — 67 — — — — — 53 — — — — — The Story of Kate Blaque Schizophrenic Album

Notes:

1

"Some Girls" was released as a double A-side with "Blowin' Me Up"

JC Chasez

249

Guest appearances
Year Artist 1999 Blaque 2000 Euge Groove 2002 Various artists 2003 Basement Jaxx BT Song "Bring It All to Me" "Give in to Me" Album Blaque Euge Groove

"Blowin' Me Up (with Her Love)" Drumline Soundtrack "Plug it In" "Force of Gravity" "Somnambulist" Kish Kash Emotional Technology

2005 The Stone Movement "Slow Songs" 2006 Carlos Santana Girls Aloud 2007 Backstreet Boys Jonatha Brooke "If I Don't" "Watch Me Go" "Treat Me Right" "Careful What You Wish For" "Beautiful Girl" 2008 David Archuleta 2010 A.J. McLean "Don't Let Go" "Teenage Wildlife" "Love Crazy" McFly 2011 Matthew Morrison "iF U C Kate" "Hey" "Don't Stop Dancing" 2012 Richard Marx Cady Groves Kristina Maria "This I Promise You" "Ugly" "FML X2" "Animal" Various Artist Various

Unreleased Unreleased Chemistry Unbreakable Careful What You Wish For

David Archuleta Have It All

Above the Noise Matthew Morrison

A Night Out With Friends This Little Girl(EP) Tell The World

Rock of Ages Soundtrack

Filmography
Films
Year Title Role Notes

2009 21 and a Wake-Up Dr. Tom Drury 2008 Killer Movie Ted Buckley

JC Chasez

250

Television
Year Title Role Seasons 4-7 Notes

1991-1996 The All-New Mickey Mouse Club (TANMMC) Himself 2000 Saturday Night Live

Himself/Musical Guest (along with N Sync) Himself William Himself Samson Himself Jay Dugray Himself Himself Judge "I Could Eat a Horse" (Season 5, episode 12) "Confidence" (episode 2) "The Curse of the Ninth" (Season 2, episode 9) A Scooby-Doo Valentine "Home Sweet Home" (Season 1, episode 18) "Spa Day" (Season 1, episode 2) Episode: "New Kids on the Blecch"

2008–2012 America's Best Dance Crew 2008 2008 2006 2005 2003 2002 2001 Las Vegas Girlicious Ghost Whisperer What's New, Scooby-Doo? Greetings from Tucson What I Like About You The Simpsons

References
[1] "Who Does JC Chasez Think He Is?" (http:/ / www. blender. com/ guide/ articles. aspx?id=714). Blender Magazine. . Retrieved April 14, 2003. [2] "MP3 of Chasez Interview on 104.7 KISS FM" (http:/ / a1135. g. akamai. net/ f/ 1135/ 18227/ 1h/ cchannel. download. akamai. com/ 18227/ podcast/ PHOENIX-AZ/ KZZP-FM/ JC_CHASEZ_1-24-08. mp3?CPROG=PCAST& MARKET=PHOENIX-AZ& NG_FORMAT=chrrhythmic& SITE_ID=1096& STATION_ID=KZZP-FM& PCAST_AUTHOR=Johnjay_and_Rich& PCAST_CAT=Arts_& _Entertainment& PCAST_TITLE=Johnjay_and_Rich_at_Their_Best). 2008-01-24. . [3] "The Religion of JC Chasez, singer with 'N Sync" (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ people/ pc/ JC_Chasez. html). Adherents.com. January 9, 2001. . Retrieved 2007-09-11. [4] http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ earshot/ jc-chasez-nsync-boy-band-wanted-one-direction-319623 [5] "Chasez Out of Pro Bowl, Rips NFL" (http:/ / www. eonline. com/ uberblog/ b46780_chasez_out_of_pro_bowl_rips_nfl. html). E! Online. 2004-02-05. . Retrieved 2012-05-07. [6] Vozick, Simon (2007-09-10). "Chasez Says 'Bye Bye Bye' to Jive" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20055434,00. html). EW.com. . Retrieved 2012-05-07. [7] "N Sync | Chasez Helps Idol Archuleta" (http:/ / www. contactmusic. com/ news. nsf/ story/ chasez-helps-idol-archuleta_1087775). Contactmusic. . Retrieved 2012-05-07. [8] "Singers/Dancers Wanted" (http:/ / www. jcchasez. com). Jc Chasez. . Retrieved 2012-05-07. [9] http:/ / www. girlradical. com [10] http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1538753/ justin-opens-up-about-britney-lance. jhtml [11] Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 101. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.

External links
• JC Chasez (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p451817) at Allmusic • JC Chasez (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0153871/) at the Internet Movie Database

Braden Danner

251

Braden Danner
Braden Danner
Born Braden Barret Tarkington Danner 13 July 1975 Indianapolis, Indiana, United States University of Southern California, School of Cinematic Arts Actor, Director, Writer, Producer

Alma mater Occupation

Years active 1981–1989, 2001-present

Braden Danner (pron.: /ˈbreɪdɛndænnər/ BRAY-den DAN-ner;[1] born July 13, 1975) is an American actor, writer, director and producer who has worked in theatre, television, and film. He is a graduate of The USC School of Cinematic Arts.[2] He gained critical acclaim for his performances on the stage and screen in such roles as Oliver in Oliver! on Broadway, Gavroche in the Original Broadway Cast of Les Miserables, and Buddy McGillis in ABC’s One Life to Live, for which he was nominated for The Young Artist Award. While performing in Les Miserables, he also originated the role of Control in Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Starlight Express, making him the first young actor in history to star in two Broadway shows at once.[3] He later starred in the original cast of The All-New Mickey Mouse Club (1989-1996), the Disney television series that launched the careers of such superstars as Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake and Ryan Gosling.[4] In 2004, he graduated from The USC School of Cinematic Arts, where he first began writing, directing and producing short films. He has worked on a wide range of productions, including music videos, television news, educational programs, and reality television. He has also partnered with Google and Insights Entertainment, producing numerous television, radio and interactive media commercials.[2][4]

Early life and family
Danner was born on July 13, 1975 in Indianapolis, Indiana.[4] His mother, Cheryl Danner, performed in Los Angeles at The Comedy Store and The Improv’s open mic nights, and later in Indianapolis with such improvisational comedy groups as Laff Staff with comedians Ray Combs and Robert G. Lee.[5] As a boy, Danner often accompanied his mother to her comedic rehearsals. Inspired by her performances, he soon began singing and acting at home for family and friends. He has two sisters,[5] photographer Diane Danner[6] and Broadway and film actress Demaree Catherine Hill.[7][8] He is a relative of two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author, Booth Tarkington, and was given his 2nd middle name in the author’s honor.[4]

Career
Early work
At age six, Danner began acting professionally in television commercials in Indianapolis. He soon appeared in regional theatre productions such as The Music Man and Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol.[5] In 1983, he played the comedic role of Top Man with screen legend Ginger Rogers in Miss Moffat, directed by Joshua Logan, Pulitzer Prize-winning creator of South Pacific and Annie Get Your Gun.[9] A few weeks after finishing Miss Moffat, Danner met talent agent Nancy Carson who invited him to New York City to audition for the Tony Award-winning musical Nine, directed by Tommy Tune. After winning the role, Danner, his mother and two sisters moved to New York City.[5] He made his Broadway debut at the age of seven as Young Guido’s Schoolmate in Nine.[10]

Braden Danner

252

Critical success
In 1984, Danner starred in the title role of Oliver! on Broadway with Patti LuPone and Ron Moody.[11][12] This was Danner’s first production with musical magnate Cameron Mackintosh and original Oliver! director Peter Coe. Cameron Johann was originally cast in the title role, while Danner began rehearsals as a member of the ensemble cast. Upon arriving from London, however, Coe and Mackintosh agreed, "'That's not Oliver [referring to Johann], he is,' and pointed at Braden Danner."[13] Patti LuPone relates the story in her memoir: "The first day of rehearsal the director fired the Oliver!! I left the room, clutched my throat, and thought, "I'm next!""[11] Danner and Oliver! opened on Broadway to a warm critical and popular reception. Critics called Danner "an appealing little Oliver"[14] and celebrities such as Michael Jackson and Mark Hamill (of Star Wars) came to see the show.[15] While Oliver! only received one negative review; it was enough to prompt one of the main backers to pull out, causing the show to close in spite of its overall popularity.[11][12] Later that year, Danner made his theatrical television debut on As the World Turns as Paul Ryan.[5] Danner continued to work in stage, radio and television productions, appearing as Kurt in The Sound of Music with Jenna von Oÿ, and John Henry in The Berkshire Theatre Festival’s Member of the Wedding with Carrie Hamilton, Frances Foster and David Schramm.[16] In 1986, Danner worked with Academy Award-winning writer Ted Allen when he performed as David in Lies My Father Told Me. Of his performance, theatre critic Peter Wynne wrote, “Danner...exhibits a greater emotional range than does that of many a grown-up performer,”[17] and Richard F. Shepard of the New York Times wrote: “Braden Danner…does a remarkably impressive job of portraying a boy of many moods, who can turn from wonderment and passion to resentment and tears; it is a formidable achievement.”[18]

From Les Misérables to The Mickey Mouse Club
In 1986, Danner won the role of Gavroche in the Original Broadway Cast of Les Miserables.[10] Working again with Cameron Mackintosh, Danner rehearsed with directors Trevor Nunn and John Caird and originated the role of Victor Hugo’s young hero. Danner first performed the role at the Opera House of The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington D.C.[19] While in Washington D.C., he began working simultaneously on Nunn’s next Broadway production, originating the role of Control in Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical Starlight Express.[20] When Les Miserables and Starlight Express both opened on Broadway in March 1987 to commercial success,[21] Danner became the first young actor in history to accomplish the “dual feat”[3] of starring in two “hits on Broadway”[5] at the same time. Danner garnered critical acclaim for his performances from writers such as Frank Rich, then chief theatre critic of the New York Times, who wrote, “Braden Danner…tower[s] over most child actors.”[22] Critics often noted the connection that Danner shared with the audience, writing: “Braden Danner…is embraced by the audience,”[23] eliciting “sobs from a willing audience,”[24] as he walks “away with the most heart-tugging scene of all.”[25] Starlight Express became the newest Andrew Lloyd Webber success, and Les Miserables went on to win eight Tony Awards, including Best Musical, and has become one of the most successful and most performed musicals in history.[26] The success of the original West End and Broadway productions of Les Miserables created the momentum for thousands of subsequent productions of the same musical around the world,[27] including the film version starring Hugh Jackman and Russell Crowe.[28] Danner performed eight shows a week for over a year before leaving Les Miserables in early 1988 to create the role of Buddy McGillis in One Life to Live,[29] for which he was nominated for The Young Artist Award.[4] While performing a lead role on One Life to Live for the better part of 1988, Danner worked with actors such as Loyita Chapel, Robert S. Woods, Erika Slezak, Clint Ritchie, Brenda Brock and Ken Jenkins[30] After leaving One Life to Live, Danner began performing at The New York Shakespeare Festival (now The Public Theater) as Isaac in Joseph Papp and A.J. Antoon’s production, Genesis.[31] In 1989, Danner starred in the original cast of The Mickey Mouse Club (also known as “The All New Mickey Mouse Club” and “MMC”). Described by the media as the most “seasoned”[32] and “the most impressive of all,”[33] Danner

Braden Danner launched the Disney television series that would give rise to recording artists Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, and Justin Timberlake and actors Keri Russell and Ryan Gosling.[34] The Disney Channel continued to rebroadcast Danner’s Season One performances from 1989 to 1995.[29]

253

Education and filmmaking
In 2001, Danner moved to Los Angeles to continue to study filmmaking at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts.[2] While in film school at USC, he began creating music videos, commercials, and short films. He made his theatrical debut as a filmmaker, screenwriting, directing, producing and starring in the short film Sincerely Hollis (2003).[35] Danner earned his degree from the USC Film School in December 2003 and graduated with his class in May 2004.[4] He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Cinematic Arts. After film school, Danner began working on a wide variety of productions. He worked as a producer on several educational television programs such as The Profiles Series with Lou Gossett, Jr. and The National Report Series with Hugh Downs for public television.[36] Danner’s other television credits include reality television programs such as Jury Duty, and music videos with recording artists such as Master P and MIGGS.[4] Partnering with Insights Entertainment and Google, he has written, directed and produced over twenty television, radio and interactive media commercials for such clients as Variety Children's Charity, Stern Environmental Group, iBank and the U.S. Airforce.[37]

Personal life
Philanthropy
Throughout his career, Danner has worked with nonprofit organizations to further charitable works in The United States and around the world. In the 1980s, Danner began supporting organizations such as The Ronald McDonald House and The Muscular Dystrophy Association, participating in celebrity charity events such as The MDA Labor Day Telethon (previously known as The Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon). In 1987, he participated in the first Easter Bonnet Competition for what would later become Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS.[38] In the 1990s, Danner began working and traveling with nonprofit organizations to give humanitarian aid to people in areas of Kenya, Uganda, and Mexico where medical and dental care was not readily available. Danner helped build medical facilities at La Esperanza Medical Clinic[39] in San Quintín and worked as a dental assistant in a free dental clinic near Tororo, Uganda.[4] In the 2000s, he became a supporter of The Gwendolyn Strong Foundation,[40] a nonprofit organization dedicated to increasing global awareness of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). In the 2010s, he began working with many charitable organizations to fight human trafficking, sexual abuse and homelessness. His efforts to fight homelessness were concentrated in Los Angeles, the city with the highest concentration of homelessness in the United States.[41] In 2011, he began working with The GEANCO Foundation,[42] a nonprofit organization dedicated to saving and improving the lives of Nigeria's women and children through the development of world-class medical, education and recreational facilities and programs.

World Travel
Danner began traveling at an early age, performing in television and stage productions that provided opportunities for international travel such as The 1987 World Tour Production (also known as the "Australasian Tour") of Starlight Express beginning in Japan and a Norwegian Cruise Line commercial filmed in The Bahamas.[31] He continued to travel to other countries throughout high school and college while working with nonprofit organizations.[4] After graduating from USC in 2004, Danner took a gap year to circumnavigate the globe using a round-the-world ticket. As he traveled, he worked producing short films and interactive media projects such as Give Me Scotland (2004).[43] Over the course of nine months, he lived in Europe, Asia and Oceania, shooting a documentary of his journey to eighteen countries, before returning to Los Angeles in 2005.[44]

Braden Danner

254

References
[1] Say How? (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ nls/ other/ sayhow/ efgh. html#g) – NLS/BPH, [2] Carson, Nancy (2005). Raising A Star: The Parent's Guide To Helping Kids Break Into Theater, Film, Television, Or Music (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=LcOqBtbx_HAC& pg=PA22& dq="braden+ danner"+ "usc"+ "film+ school"+ "cameron"& hl=en& sa=X& ei=1BbdT8adLcrG6gH77vGUCw& ved=0CEoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="braden danner" "usc" "film school" "cameron"& f=false). Macmillan. pp. 22. ISBN 0312329865, 9780312329860. . [3] United Press International (28 Mar 1987). "Personal Mention". Houston Chronicle. [4] "Braden Danner - IMDb" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0200394/ ). http:/ / www. imdb. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [5] Burns, Veronica (1 Jun 1987). "Sitting Pretty in Two Hits on [[Broadway theatre|Broadway (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ archive/ article/ 0,,20096424,00. html)], Braden Danner Looks Like a Waif of the Future"]. People Magazine. . Retrieved 16 June 2012. [6] "Diane Danner Photography" (http:/ / www. facebook. com/ Diane. Danner. Photography). www.facebook.com. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [7] Grigware, Don. "BWW Reviews: Demaree Alexander Bows @ Sterling's" (http:/ / losangeles. broadwayworld. com/ article/ BWW_Reviews_Demaree_Alexander_Bows_Sterlings_20110322). http:/ / losangeles. broadwayworld. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [8] "Demaree Catherine Hill - IMDb" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4489685/ ). http:/ / www. imdb. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [9] "Ginger Rogers to be in IRT play" (http:/ / newspaperarchive. com/ kokomo-tribune/ 1982-12-11/ page-18). Kokomo Tribune. 11 Dec 1982. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [10] "Braden Danner - Broadway Theatre Credits, Photos, Who's Who - Playbill Vault" (http:/ / www. playbillvault. com/ Person/ Detail/ 110824/ Braden-Danner). http:/ / www. playbillvault. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [11] Patti LuPone: A Memoir. http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=W3JSLygBREoC& printsec=frontcover& dq=patti+ lupone& hl=en& sa=X& ei=gDPdT8GLNPG36QG6mtSVCw& ved=0CD0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=patti%20lupone%20%22Braden%20Danner%22& f=false: Random House Digital, Inc. 2010. ISBN 0307460738, 9780307460738. [12] "Oliver! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Oliver!#1983_London_and_Broadway_revivals). http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Main_Page. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [13] LaRue, Michele. "KIDS ON STAGE AND SCREEN: Growing Pains" (http:/ / www. backstage. com/ bso/ esearch/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=711113). http:/ / www. backstage. com/ bso/ index. jsp. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [14] Beaufort, John (7 May 1984). "Revival of 'Oliver!' continues to charm people of all ages". Christian Science Monitor, The (Boston, MA). [15] "Signing...Autographs" (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?nid=1346& dat=19840513& id=o6dOAAAAIBAJ& sjid=YvsDAAAAIBAJ& pg=3322,5137190). Lakeland Ledger. 13 May 1984. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [16] Goblenz, Eleanor (25 Jun 2985). "Theater Alive and Well at Berkshire Festival" (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?nid=1917& dat=19850625& id=pwkhAAAAIBAJ& sjid=a3IFAAAAIBAJ& pg=3016,1896439). Schenectady Gazette. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [17] Wynne, Peter (22 Jun 1986). "`LIES': UNCLEAR TRANSLATION". The Record (New Jersey). [18] Shepard, Richard F. (19 June 1986). "STAGE: 'LIES,' BY ALLAN" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1986/ 06/ 19/ theater/ stage-lies-by-allan. html?pagewanted=all). New York Times. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [19] "The Program". Stagebill, Vol. XV, No. 6. Feb 1987. [20] Rich, Frank (16 Mar 1987). "STAGE: ANDREW LLOYD WEBBER'S 'STARLIGHT EXPRESS'". New York Times. [21] Curry, Jack (13 Mar 1987). ""Les Mis" sends spirits soaring" (http:/ / www. colm-wilkinsononline. net/ article28. html). USA Today. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [22] Rich, Frank (13 Mar 1987). "STAGE: 'MISERABLES,' MUSICAL VERSION OPENS ON BROADWAY". New York Times. [23] Vadeboncoeur, Joan E. (24 May 1987). "`LES MISERABLES' OFFERS DOUBLE DELIGHT IN NYC". Syracuse Herald American (NY). [24] Harrison, Thomas B. (12 Jul 1987). "A theater seat's view". St. Petersburg Times. [25] Harrison, Thomas B. (22 Oct 1988). "Call them Les Kids.". St. Petersburg Times. [26] "Songs from Les Miserables" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Songs_from_Les_Misérables). http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Main_Page. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [27] "Les Miserables: About The Show - General Information" (http:/ / www. lesmis. com/ about/ general-information/ ). http:/ / www. lesmis. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [28] "Les Miserables: Official Movie Site" (http:/ / www. lesmiserablesfilm. com/ ). . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [29] "Braden Danner - TV.com" (http:/ / www. tv. com/ people/ braden-danner/ ). http:/ / www. tv. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [30] "List of One Life to Live characters" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ List_of_One_Life_to_Live_characters). http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Main_Page. . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [31] "Braden Danner Theatre Credits" (http:/ / broadwayworld. com/ people/ Braden-Danner/ ). http:/ / broadwayworld. com/ . . Retrieved 17 June 2012. [32] Amoroso, Mary (23 Apr 1989). "MICKEY'S NEW CLUB DISNEY UPDATES FORMULA TO CAPTURE YOUNG AUDIENCE". The Record (New Jersey). [33] Winfrey, Lee (24 Apr 1989). "'M-I-C, K-E-Y, M-O-U-AGAIN'". Philadelphia Inquirer, The (PA). [34] ""The All New Mickey Mouse Club" (1989)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0096641/ fullcredits#cast). http:/ / www. imdb. com/ . . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [35] "HOLLIS" (http:/ / www. backstage. com/ bso/ esearch/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1805523). http:/ / www. backstage. com/ bso/ index. jsp. . Retrieved 18 June 2012.

Braden Danner
[36] "KCM Selected to Be Featured on Hugh Downs National Report - PBS" (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ apps/ news?pid=newsarchive& sid=a. jOoUTqUzjE). http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ . . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [37] "News Room Press Information Stern Environmental Group" (http:/ / www. sternenvironmental. com/ about/ news-room. php). http:/ / www. sternenvironmental. com/ index. php. . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [38] "26th Annual Easter Bonnet Competition - Broadway Cares" (http:/ / www. broadwaycares. org/ easterbonnet2012). http:/ / www. broadwaycares. org/ home. . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [39] "Mexican Medical Ministries" (http:/ / www. mexicanmedical. com/ loc_detail. php?id=37). http:/ / www. mexicanmedical. com/ index. php. . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [40] "Gwendolyn Strong Foundation: This is SMA" (http:/ / thegsf. org/ this_is_sma). http:/ / thegsf. org/ home. . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [41] "Homelessness in the United States - Wikipedia" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Homelessness_in_the_United_States#Los_Angeles). http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Main_Page. . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [42] "GEANCO" (http:/ / www. geanco. org/ partners. html). http:/ / www. geanco. org/ index. html. . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [43] "Give Me Scotland" (http:/ / www. calvarymotherwell. org/ video/ VTS_01_1. wmv). http:/ / www. calvarymotherwell. org/ about/ missions/ . . Retrieved 18 June 2012. [44] "Braden Danner's List of Top Ten Most Beautiful Places" (http:/ / www. circletheplanet. com/ stories-014. asp). http:/ / www. circletheplanet. com/ stories-013. asp. . Retrieved 18 June 2012.

255

Nikki DeLoach

256

Nikki DeLoach
Nikki DeLoach

Background information Birth name Born Ashlee Nicole Deloach September 9, 1979 Waycross, Georgia, U.S. Pop Actress, singer 1991–present RCA Innosense

Genres Occupations Years active Labels Associated acts

Ashlee Nicole DeLoach (born September 9, 1979) is an American actress known as Nikki DeLoach.

Life and career
DeLoach was born in Waycross, Georgia. DeLoach made her first public performance as a preschool child at the annual talent show at Pierce County High School in Blackshear, Georgia. As a child, she was heavily involved in the pageant world, winning numerous state and national titles. DeLoach secured an agent for modeling at a young age and landed several jobs for print ad modeling. She and her mother spent one summer in New York City to pursue modeling jobs. DeLoach was a member of the Georgia 4-H Performing Arts group Clovers & Company from 1991 to 1994. She then joined the The New Mickey Mouse Club in 1993. When the Mickey Mouse Club was cancelled in 1996, DeLoach returned to her local high school for a short time before moving with her grandmother to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career. Her work included television appearances in Misery Loves Company and movie roles in Gunfighter's Moon and The Traveller. In 1998, she became a member of the girl group Innosense. The group was managed by Justin Timberlake's mother, Lynn Harless. Innosense was an opening act for both *NSYNC and Britney Spears, and it had lukewarm success in Europe and minimal impact in the U.S. The group had a cameo in the movie Longshot before calling it quits in 2001. After leaving Innosense, DeLoach focused on acting. Her movie work includes the sequel of the Sandra Bullock thriller The Net, called The Net 2.0, and a role in the series Emerald Cove, alongside some of her fellow

Nikki DeLoach Mouseketeers. On television, she starred in the series North Shore on Fox and Windfall. She also has made guest appearances in Grounded for Life, Walker: Texas Ranger, Cold Case, and CSI: NY. DeLoach currently plays Lacey Hamilton, the mother of the main character Jenna Hamilton, on MTV's Awkward.. She dated JC Chasez of *NSYNC for several years and was mentioned by her nickname Peaches in the liner notes of the group's first American album. DeLoach is working on a sociology degree from UCLA through online classes. She married Ryan Goodell, who was a member of the boyband Take 5 in September 2009. She played in the French comedy Hollywoo with Florence Foresti.

257

Filmography
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • MMC aka The All New Mickey Mouse Club (1993–1996), herself – TV show Never Give Up: The Jimmy V Story (1996) – TV movie Traveller (1997) Gunfighter's Moon (1998) Longshot (2001) North Shore (2004–2005) – TV series, 21 episodes The Net 2.0 (2006) Windfall (2006) – TV series, 11 episodes Days of our Lives (2007–2009) – TV series, 12 episodes Love and Other Drugs (2010) Mask Maker (2010) Awkward (2011) -TV Series Hollywoo (2011) Ringer (2012) - TV series, 3 episodes

External links
• Nikki Deloach [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm217645/

Albert Fields

258

Albert Fields
Albert Fields
Birth name Also known as Born Genres Albert Jeunepierre Fields Jeune March 3, 1975 Hip hop

Associated acts The Party

Albert Jeunepierre Fields (born March 3, 1975) is an American actor and pop singer. He was a Mousketeer on The All New Mickey Mouse Club and a member of the pop group The Party. After The Party disbanded, Albert went under the moniker Jeune (which is half of his middle name) and released a solo album in 1995 titled Back to Reality. The song "I'm da Man" was featured in the Wesley Snipes/Robert De Niro film The Fan. Jeune continues to record and perform on the indie circuit. Albert had recently reunited with his old friend, former Mouseketeer/Party bandmate Damon Pampolina to form their own group, N'Decent Proposal.

External links
• Albert Fields [1] at the Internet Movie Database • Indiana Jeune [2] on Myspace

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0276183/ [2] http:/ / www. myspace. com/ indianajeune

Dale Godboldo

259

Dale Godboldo
Dale Godboldo
Born Dale Eugene Godboldo III July 5, 1975 Dallas, Texas, U.S.

Other names Dale Godboldo, Jr. Occupation Years active Actor 1991 – 2008

Dale Eugene Godboldo III (born July 5, 1975) is an American television and film actor.

Life and career
Born in Dallas, Texas, Godboldo began his career as a teen on the 1990s revival of The Mickey Mouse Club. After leaving the series in 1995, Godboldo appeared in guest roles on Moesha and had a recurring role on the short-lived UPN series Goode Behavior. He made his film debut in the 1999 film Dirt Merchant, followed by roles in ER and Promised Land. In 1999, he co-starred in another short-lived UPN series Shasta McNasty. After the series was canceled in 2000, Goldboldo had a role on the NBC series Kristin, starring Kristin Chenoweth. In 2003, he portrayed Keith Townsend on the Fox sitcom Wanda at Large. Since its cancellation in 2003, he has guest starred on Courting Alex, Commander in Chief, and Women's Murder Club. In 2008, he had a role in the thriller Lakeview Terrace, starring Samuel L. Jackson.

Filmography
Film Year 1999 Dirt Merchant Cold Hearts 2000 2001 2002 The Young Unknowns Firetrap The Sum of All Fears Random Shooting in L.A. New Suit 2003 2007 2008 Timecop 2: The Berlin Decision Year of the Dog Lakeview Terrace Film Role Zeke the Geek Connor Franklin Vincent Rudy Todd Power Agent #1 Tech #1 Don Dale Television Year Title Role Notes Seasons 4-7 1 episode 4 episodes Direct-to-DVD release Notes

1991-1996 The All-New Mickey Mouse Club Himself 1996 Moesha Donny Eric

1996–1997 Goode Behavior

Dale Godboldo

260
1997 Mad About You Jenny 1998 1999 Smart Guy Caroline in the City ER Promised Land 1999–2000 Shasta McNasty 2001 Kristin The Drew Carey Show 2002 2003 2004 2006 Judging Amy Wanda at Large Method & Red Courting Alex Commander in Chief 2007 Women's Murder Club Logan Young Professor Tomassi's Student 1 episode Cooper Victor Hairbrush Guy Hiltzik Nolan Edwards Randy Tyrique Kimbrough Gerard Richie Cunningham Keith Michael Townsend Keith Debeetham Mark/Big Dog Unknown episodes 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 10 episodes 11 episodes 1 episode 1 episode 6 episodes 1 episode 2 episodes 1 episode 1 episode

External links
• Dale Godboldo [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4964/

Ryan Gosling

261

Ryan Gosling
Ryan Gosling

Gosling at the premiere of Gangster Squad in 2013 Born Ryan Thomas Gosling November 12, 1980 London, Ontario, Canada Actor, musician, restaurant owner 1993–present

Occupation Years active

Ryan Thomas Gosling (born November 12, 1980) is a Canadian actor, director, writer and musician. He began his career as a child star on the Disney Channel's Mickey Mouse Club (1993–95) and went on to appear in other family entertainment programs including Are You Afraid of the Dark? (1995), Goosebumps (1996), Breaker High (1997–98) and Young Hercules (1998–99). His first serious role was as a Jewish neo-Nazi in The Believer (2001), and he then built a reputation for playing misfits in independent films such as Murder by Numbers (2002), The Slaughter Rule (2002), and The United States of Leland (2003). Gosling came to the attention of a wider audience in 2004 with a leading role in the romantic drama The Notebook, for which he won four Teen Choice Awards and an MTV Movie Award. His performance as a drug-addicted teacher in Half Nelson (2006) was nominated for an Academy Award and his performance as a socially inept loner in Lars and the Real Girl (2007) was nominated for a Golden Globe Award. Also in 2007, he starred in the courtroom thriller Fracture. After a three-year acting hiatus, Gosling starred in Blue Valentine, earning him a second Golden Globe nomination. 2011 proved to be a landmark year for the actor as he appeared in three mainstream films – the romantic comedy Crazy, Stupid, Love, the political drama The Ides of March and the thriller Drive – and received two Golden Globe nominations. In 2013, he starred in the period crime feature Gangster Squad, and will next appear in the generational drama The Place Beyond the Pines and the revenge drama Only God Forgives. Gosling's band, Dead Man's Bones, released their self-titled debut album and toured North America in 2009. He is a co-owner of Tagine, a Moroccan restaurant in Beverly Hills, California. He is a supporter of PETA, Invisible Children and the Enough Project and has travelled to Chad, Uganda and eastern Congo to raise awareness about conflicts in the regions.

Early life
Ryan Thomas Gosling was born in London, Ontario.[1] He is the son of Thomas Ray Gosling, a traveling salesman for a paper mill,[2] and Donna, a secretary who qualified as a high school teacher in 2011.[3][4] His father is of part French-Canadian descent.[5] Gosling's parents were Mormons,[6] and Gosling has said that the religion influenced every aspect of their lives.[7] Because of his father's work, they "moved around a lot"[2] and Gosling lived in both Cornwall, Ontario,[8] and Burlington, Ontario.[9] His parents divorced when he was a child, and he and his older

Ryan Gosling sister Mandi lived with their mother,[3] an experience Gosling has credited with programming him "to think like a girl".[10] Gosling was educated at Gladstone Public School,[11] Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School and Lester B. Pearson High School.[12] He "hated" being a child,[7][13] was bullied in elementary school[14] and had no friends until he was "14 or 15".[15][16] In Grade 1, having been heavily influenced by the film First Blood, he took steak knives to school and threw them at other children during recess. This incident led to a suspension.[13] He was unable to read[17] and was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), prescribed Ritalin, and placed in a class for special-needs students.[18] Consequently, his mother quit her job and homeschooled him for a year.[18] Gosling has said that homeschooling gave him "a sense of autonomy that I've never really lost".[7] Gosling performed from an early age. He and his sister sang together at weddings; he performed with Elvis Perry, his uncle's Elvis Presley tribute act,[19] and was involved with a local ballet company.[20] Performing boosted his self-confidence as it was the only thing he received praise for.[16] He developed an idiosyncratic accent because, as a child, he thought having a Canadian accent didn't sound "tough". He began to model his accent on that of Marlon Brando.[21] He dropped out of high school at the age of seventeen to focus on his acting career.[22]

262

Acting career
Child actor (1993–1999)
In 1993, at the age of twelve, Gosling attended an open audition in Montreal for a revival of Disney Channel's Mickey Mouse Club.[23] He was given a two-year contract as a mouseketeer and moved to Orlando, Florida.[22] He appeared on-screen infrequently because other children were considered more talented.[24] Nonetheless, he has described the job as the greatest two years of his life.[22] Fellow cast members included Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera and Gosling has credited the experience with instilling in them "this great sense of focus."[25] He became particularly close friends with Timberlake and they lived together for six months during the second year of the show. Timberlake's mother became Gosling's legal guardian after his mother returned to Canada for work reasons.[26] Gosling has said that, while he and Timberlake are no longer in touch, they are still supportive of each other.[25] Following the show's cancellation in 1995, Gosling returned to Canada and continued to appear in family entertainment television series including Are You Afraid of the Dark? (1995),[27] Goosebumps (1996)[28] and Breaker High (1997–98).[29] At the age of eighteen, he moved to New Zealand to film the Fox Kids adventure series Young Hercules (1998–99).[30] While he initially enjoyed working on the series, he began to long for an opportunity to play a variety of characters and decided not to accept any more television work.[22]

Move to independent film (2000–2003)
At the age of nineteen, Gosling decided to move into "serious film". He was dropped by his agent and initially found it difficult to secure work because of the "stigma" attached to children's television.[31] After a supporting role in the football drama Remember the Titans, Gosling secured a lead role as a young Jewish neo-Nazi in 2001's The Believer. Director Henry Bean has said he cast Gosling because his Mormon upbringing helped him understand the isolation of Judaism.[32] Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times praised an "electrifying and terrifyingly convincing" performance[33] while Todd McCarthy of Variety felt his "dynamite performance" could "scarcely have been better".[34] The film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival[35] and Gosling has described it as "the film that kind of gift-wrapped for me the career that I have now."[19] Because of the controversial nature of the film, it was difficult to secure financial backing for a full theatrical release[36] and the film was instead broadcast on Showtime.[36] The film was a commercial failure, grossing just $416,925 worldwide from a production budget of $1.5 million.[37] In 2002's Murder by Numbers,[38] Gosling and Michael Pitt portrayed a pair of high school seniors who believe they can commit the perfect murder. Sandra Bullock starred as a detective tasked with investigating the crime. Lisa

Ryan Gosling Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly described him as "a phenomenal talent even in junk like this"[39] while Todd McCarthy of Variety felt that the "strong and "charismatic" young actors were "let down by the screenplay".[40] The film was a minor commercial success, grossing $56 million worldwide from a production budget of $50 million.[41] His second screen appearance of 2002 was in The Slaughter Rule which explores the relationship between a high school football player and his troubled coach in rural Montana. Gosling has said that the opportunity to work with David Morse made him "a better actor".[42] Stephen Holden of The New York Times described Gosling as "major star material" with a "rawness and an intensity that recall the young Matt Dillon"[43] while Manohla Dargis of the Los Angeles Times was won over by his "raw talent".[44] The film was released in just three US theaters and grossed $13,411.[45] In 2003, Gosling starred in The United States of Leland as a teenager imprisoned for the murder of a disabled boy. He was drawn to the role because it was unusual to find a character that was "emotionally disconnected for the whole film."[46] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times felt that the "gifted actor does everything that can be done with Leland, but the character comes from a writer's conceits, not from life."[47] A.O. Scott of The New York Times noted that he "struggles to rescue Leland from the clutches of cliché"[48] while David Rooney of Variety felt that his "one-note, blankly disturbed act has none of the magnetic edge of his breakthrough work in The Believer".[49] The film grossed $343,847 in the United States and was not released overseas.[50]

263

The Notebook and Half Nelson (2004–2009)
Gosling came to the attention of a mainstream audience in 2004 after starring opposite fellow Canadian Rachel McAdams in the romantic drama The Notebook, a film adaptation of Nicholas Sparks' novel.[51] Gosling portrayed Noah Calhoun and commented on the role: "It gave me an opportunity to play a character over a period of time – from 1940 to 1946 – that was quite profound and formative."[52] Gosling sought to imbue his character with "quiet strength" and was inspired by the performance of Sam Shepard in Days of Heaven.[53] Filming took place in Charleston, South Carolina, in late 2002 and early 2003.[54] Although Gosling and McAdams became romantically involved in 2005, they had a combative relationship on set.[55] "We inspired the worst in each other," Gosling has said. "It was a strange experience, making a love story and not getting along with your co-star in any way."[56] At one point, Gosling asked director Nick Cassavetes to "bring somebody else in for my off-camera shot" because he felt McAdams was uncooperative.[55] The New York Times praised the "spontaneous and combustible" performances of the two leads and noted that, "against your better judgment, you root for the pair to beat the odds against them."[57] Desson Thomson of The Washington Post praised Gosling's "beguiling unaffectedness" and noted that "it's hard not to like these two or begrudge them a great love together".[58] The film grossed over $115 million worldwide and, with adjustments for inflation, it remains the most commercially successful film of Gosling's career as of 2012.[59] Gosling won four Teen Choice Awards[60] and an MTV Movie Award.[61] Entertainment Weekly has said that the movie contains the All-Time Best Movie Kiss[62] while the Los Angeles Times has included a scene from the film in a list of the 50 Classic Movie Kisses.[63] The Notebook has appeared on many Most Romantic Movies lists.[64][65][66][67]

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In 2005, Gosling appeared as a disturbed young art student in Stay, a psychological thriller co-starring Naomi Watts and Ewan McGregor. In an uncomplimentary review of the film, Manohla Dargis of The New York Times said that Gosling "like his fans, deserves better."[68] Todd McCarthy of Variety felt that the "capable" McGregor and Gosling "deliver nothing new from what they've shown before".[69] The film grossed $8 million worldwide.[70] Gosling was unfazed by the negative reaction: "I had a kid come up to me on the street, 10 years old, and he says, 'Are you that guy from Stay? What the f--- was that movie about?' I think that's great. I'm just as proud if someone says, 'Hey, you made me sick in that movie,' as if they say I made them cry.”[71] Gosling next starred in 2006's Half Nelson as a drug-addicted junior high school teacher who forms a bond with a young student. To prepare for the role, Gosling moved to New York for one month before shooting began. He lived in a small apartment in Brooklyn and spent time shadowing an eighth grade teacher.[72] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times described "a mesmerizing performance ... that shows the kind of deep understanding of character few actors manage."[73] Ruthe Stein of the San Francisco Chronicle drew comparisons with Marlon Brando and Gosling at the 2007 Toronto declared that "nobody who cares about great acting will want to miss his International Film Festival performance".[74] Roger Ebert felt the performance "proves he's one of the finest actors working in contemporary movies."[75] He was nominated for an Academy Award.[17] The film grossed $4 million at the worldwide box office.[76] In 2007, he was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[77] Gosling played an introvert who falls in love with a sex doll in the gently comedic 2007 film Lars and the Real Girl. He drew inspiration from James Stewart's performance in Harvey.[78] Roger Ebert felt "a film about a life-sized love doll" had been turned into "a life-affirming statement of hope" because of "a performance by Ryan Gosling that says things that cannot be said".[79] Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post described his performance as "a small miracle ... because he changes and grows so imperceptibly before our eyes."[80] However, Manohla Dargis of The New York Times felt "the performance is a rare miscalculation in a mostly brilliant career."[81] He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.[82] The film was a box office failure, failing to recoup its $12 million production budget.[83] Gosling starred opposite Anthony Hopkins in the 2007 courtroom thriller Fracture. He originally turned down the role, but changed his mind when Hopkins signed on.[84] He spent time shadowing lawyers and observing courtroom proceedings in preparation for the role.[85] Claudia Puig of USA Today declared that "watching a veteran like Hopkins verbally joust with one of the best young actors in Hollywood is worth the price of admission".[86] Manohla Dargis of The New York Times felt it was a treat to watch "the spectacle of that crafty scene stealer Anthony Hopkins mixing it up with that equally cunning screen nibbler Ryan Gosling ... Each actor is playing a pulp type rather than a fully formed individual, but both fill in the blanks with an alchemical mix of professional and personal charisma."[87] The film grossed over $91 million worldwide.[88] Gosling was due to begin filming The Lovely Bones in 2007. However, he left the production two days before filming began because of "creative differences" and was replaced by Mark Wahlberg.[89] Gosling had been cast as the father of the murdered teenage girl and initially felt he was too young for the role. The director Peter Jackson and the producer Fran Walsh persuaded him that he could be aged with hair and make-up changes.[90] Before shooting began, Gosling gained 60 pounds in weight and grew a beard in order to appear older.[90] Walsh then "began to feel he was not right. It was our blindness, the desire to make it work no matter what."[90] Gosling later said, ""We didn't talk very much during the preproduction process, which was the problem ... I just showed up on set, and I had gotten it wrong. Then I was fat and unemployed."[90] He has said the experience was "an important realisation for me: not to let your ego get involved. It's OK to be too young for a role."[91]

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265

Widespread recognition (2010–2012)
Following a three-year absence from the big screen, Gosling starred in five movies in 2010 and 2011. "I’ve never had more energy,” Gosling has said. “I’m more excited to make films than I used to be. I used to kind of dread it. It was so emotional and taxing. But I’ve found a way to have fun while doing it. And I think that translates into the films.”[31] He has also spoken of feeling depressed when not working.[16] In 2010, he co-starred with Michelle Williams in Derek Cianfrance's directorial debut, Blue Valentine. The low-budget marital drama was mainly improvised and Gosling has said "you had to remind yourself you were making a film".[92] Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle felt he "brings a preternatural understanding of people to his performance"[93] while A.O. Scott of The New York Times found him "convincing as the run-down, desperate, older Dean, and maybe a bit less so as the younger version".[94][94] Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly noted that he "plays Dean as a snarky working-class hipster, but when his anger is unleashed, the performance turns powerful."[95] However, Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe felt the performance was an example of "hipsterism misdirected".[96] He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama.[97] The film was a box office success, grossing over $12 million worldwide from a production budget of $1 million.[98] Gosling's second on-screen appearance of 2010 was in All Good Things, a mystery film based on a true story. He played the role of New York real-estate heir Robert Durst, who was investigated for the disappearance of his wife (played by Kirsten Dunst).[99] Gosling found the filming process to be a "dark experience" and did not undertake any promotional duties for the film.[100] When asked if he was proud of the film, he replied, "I'm proud of what Kirsten does in the movie."[100] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone felt he "gets so deep into character you can feel his nerve endings."[101] Mick La Salle of the San Francisco Chronicle found the "chameleonic Gosling is completely convincing as this empty shell of a man".[102] Betsy Sharkey of the Los Angeles Times felt that the film belonged to Dunst, but noted that Gosling "is good too".[103] The film grossed $644,535 worldwide.[104] Also in 2010, Gosling narrated and produced ReGeneration, a documentary that explores the cynicism in today’s youth towards social and political causes.[105][106] 2011 saw Gosling expand his horizons by appearing in three diverse, high-profile roles. He appeared in his first comedic role in Crazy, Stupid, Love opposite Steve Carell and Emma Stone.[107] Gosling took cocktail-making classes at a Los Angeles bar in preparation for his role as a smooth-talking ladies' man.[108] Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post said his "seductive command presence suggests we may have found our next George Clooney".[109] Peter Travers declared him "a comic knockout"[110] while Claudia Puig of USA Today felt he reveals a "surprising" "knack for comedy."[111] He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.[112] The film was a box office success, grossing over $142 million worldwide.[113] With adjustments for inflation, it is the second most successful of Gosling's career.[114] Gosling's first action role was in Drive, based on a novel by James Sallis.[115] Gosling portrayed a Hollywood stunt performer who moonlights as a getaway driver and he has described the film as a "violent John Hughes movie": "I always Gosling at the 2011 Cannes Film [116] Festival. thought if Pretty in Pink had head-smashing it would be perfect". Roger Ebert compared Gosling to Steve McQueen and stated that he "embodies presence and sincerity ... he has shown a gift for finding arresting, powerful characters [and] can achieve just about anything.[117] Joe Morgenstern of the Wall Street Journal pondered "the ongoing mystery of how he manages to have so much impact with so little apparent effort. It's irresistible to liken his economical style to that of Marlon Brando."[118] The film was a box office success, grossing $70 million worldwide from a production budget of $15 million.[119] In his final appearance of 2011, Gosling was directed by George Clooney in the political drama The Ides of March, in which he played an ambitious press secretary.[120] Gosling partly decided to do the film to become

Ryan Gosling more politically aware: "I'm Canadian and so American politics aren't really in my wheelhouse."[121] Joe Morganstern of the Wall Street Journal said that Gosling and Philip Seymour Hoffman "are eminently well equipped to play variations on their characters' main themes. Yet neither actor has great material to conjure with in the script."[122] In a generally tepid review, Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times asserted that it was "certainly involving to see the charismatic Gosling verbally spar with superb character actors like Hoffman and [Paul] Giamatti."[123] Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle felt there was "one aspect to the character that Gosling can't quite nail down, that might simply be outside his sphere, which is idealism."[124] He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama.[112] The film grossed $66 million worldwide.[125]

266

Gangster Squad and upcoming projects (2013)
In 2013's Gangster Squad, a crime drama, Gosling portrayed Sgt. Jerry Wooters, a 1940s LAPD officer who attempts to outsmart mob boss Mickey Cohen. He was reunited with Emma Stone as his love interest, after their earlier pairing in Crazy, Stupid Love. Stone has said she hopes they will find more projects to work together on.[126] A.O. Scott of The New York Times described the film as a excuse for the cast "to earn some money trying out funny voices and suppressing whatever sense of nuance they might possess."[127] Christy Lemire of the Boston Globe criticized Gosling's "weird, whispery voice" and his "barely developed, one-note" character.[128] However, Betsy Sharkey of the Los Angeles Times felt that there was a "a seductive power" in the scenes shared by Gosling and Stone: "But like too much else in the film, it's a scenario that is only half played out."[129] Gosling has three other films awaiting release. In March 2013, he will star in The Place Beyond the Pines, a generational drama directed by Blue Valentine 's Derek Cianfrance.[130] He will portray Luke, a motorcycle stunt rider who robs banks in order to provide for his family.[131] The shoot has been described by Gosling as "the best experience I have ever had making a film."[20] Gosling has also completed shooting Only God Forgives,[132] directed by Drive's Nicolas Winding Refn. The story revolves around Gosling's mother, played by Kristin Scott Thomas, who orders her son to avenge his brother's death. Gosling undertook Muay Thai training in preparation for the role[133] and has described the script as "the strangest thing I’ve ever read".[133] Gosling also filmed an appearance in an as-yet-untitled Terrence Malick film.[134] The film costars Christian Bale, Cate Blanchett, Rooney Mara and Haley Bennett.[135] When asked to provide details of the film or his role, Gosling replied, "I can't comment. A 'Chatty Cathy' that one."[136] Gosling had previously signed up to work with Malick in 2004 on the biographical film Che.[137] However, Malick left the project to direct The New World and Gosling later dropped out with scheduling conflicts.[138] In the spring of 2013, Gosling will film his directorial debut How To Catch A Monster, a "fantasy noir" which is his own original screenplay. Christina Hendricks and Ben Mendelsohn are attached to star in the project.[139]

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Music career
In 2007, Gosling made a solo recording called "Put Me in the Car" available for download on the Internet.[140] Also that year, Gosling and his friend Zach Shields formed indie rock band Dead Man's Bones. The two first met in 2005 when Gosling was dating Rachel McAdams and Shields was dating her sister, Kayleen.[141] They initially conceived of the project as a monster-themed musical but settled on forming a band when they realized putting on a stage production would be too expensive.[141] They recorded their self-titled debut with the Silverlake Conservatory's Children's Choir and learned to play all the instruments themselves.[141] Gosling contributed vocals, piano, guitar, bass guitar and cello to the record.[142] The album was released through ANTIRecords on October 6, 2009.[143] Pitchfork Media was won over by the "unique, catchy and lovably weird record"[144] while Prefix felt the album was "rarely kitschy and never inappropriate".[145] However, Spin felt the album "doesn't reverse the rule that actors make dubious pop musicians"[146] and Entertainment Weekly criticized its "cloying, gothic preciousness".[147]

Gosling at a 2009 Dead Man's Bones concert

In September 2009, Gosling and Shields had a three-night residency at LA's Bob Baker Marionette Theater where they performed alongside dancing neon skeletons and glowing ghosts.[148][142] They then conducted a thirteen-date tour of North America in October 2009, using a local children's choir at every show.[149][150] Instead of an opening act, a talent show was held each night.[151] In September 2010, they performed at Los Angeles' FYF Festival. In 2011, the actor spoke of his intentions to record a second Dead Man's Bones album. No children's choir will be featured on the follow-up album because "it's not very rock 'n' roll".[152]

Charity work
Gosling is supportive of various social causes. He has worked with PETA on a campaign to encourage KFC and McDonalds to use improved methods of chicken slaughter in their factories.[153][154] Gosling volunteered in Biloxi, Mississippi in 2005, as part of the clean-up effort following Hurricane Katrina.[155] He is a supporter of Invisible Children Inc, a group that raises awareness about the LRA in Central Africa.[156] In 2005, Gosling travelled to Darfur refugee camps in Chad.[157][17] He was a speaker at Campus Progress's National Conference in 2008 where he discussed Darfur.[158] As part of his work with the Enough Project, he visited Uganda in 2007[159] and eastern Congo in 2010.[160]

Personal life
Gosling lives in New York City.[161] He co-owns Tagine, a Moroccan restaurant in Beverly Hills, California.[162] He bought the restaurant on an impulse and said he spent "all [his] money" on it.[163] He spent a year doing the renovation work himself and now oversees the restaurant's menus.[163][164] Gosling was arrested by LAPD officers on March 17, 2005. Gosling pleaded "no contest" to a misdemeanor charge of "exhibiting speed", despite being originally charged with "driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs" and "driving with a blood alcohol content of 0.08 or greater." He was sentenced to two years of probation and ordered to pay $849 in fines.[165][166]

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Relationships
Gosling dated American actress Sandra Bullock for a year from 2002 to 2003.[167] He had a two-year relationship with fellow Canadian actress Rachel McAdams from mid-2005 to mid-2007.[168][169] They briefly reunited in the summer of 2008.[170][171][172] Following their split, he described McAdams as "one of the great loves of my life".[173] He dated American actresses Kat Dennings in late 2009, Blake Lively in late 2010 and Olivia Wilde in early 2011.[174][175][176][177] Gosling has been in a relationship with American actress and model Eva Mendes since September 2011.[178]

Filmography
Film
Year Title Kenny Josh Alan Bosley Danny Balint Richard Haywood Roy Chutney Role Notes

1997 Frankenstein and Me 1999 The Unbelievables 2000 Remember the Titans 2001 The Believer 2002 Murder by Numbers 2002 The Slaughter Rule

2003 The United States of Leland Leland P. Fitzgerald 2004 The Notebook 2005 Stay 2006 Half Nelson 2007 Fracture 2007 Lars and the Real Girl 2010 Blue Valentine 2010 All Good Things 2011 Crazy, Stupid, Love. 2011 Drive 2011 The Ides of March 2013 Gangster Squad Noah Calhoun Henry Letham Dan Dunne Willy Beachum Lars Lindstrom Dean Pereira David Marks Jacob Palmer The Driver Stephen Meyers Sgt. Jerry Wooters Best Actor Satellite Award Best Actor Satellite Award

2013 The Place Beyond the Pines Luke Glanton 2013 Only God Forgives Julian

Television

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269

Year 1993–1995 Mickey Mouse Club 1995 1996 Are You Afraid of the Dark?

Title

Role Himself Jamie Leary Adam

Episode(s) & Notes Television series Episode 5.02 "The Tale of Station 109.1" Episode 1.01 "Dream House/UFO Encounter" Episode 4.09 "Dragon's Lair" Episode 7.09 "From Away"

PSI Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal

1996 1996

Kung Fu: The Legend Continues Road to Avonlea

Kevin Bret McNulty Greg Banks Sean

1996 1996

Goosebumps The Adventures of Shirley Holmes

Episode 1.15 "Say Cheese and Die" Episode 1.01 "The Case of the Burning Building"

1996

Flash Forward

Scott Stuckey Episode 1.11 "Double Bill" and 1.21 "Skate Bait" Matt Kalinsky Sean Hanlon Tommy Hercules Zylus Ilya Gerber Episode 4.05 "I Do, I Don't"

1996

Ready or Not

1997–1998 Breaker High 1998 1998–99 1998–99 2005 Nothing Too Good for a Cowboy Young Hercules Hercules: The Legendary Journeys I'm Still Here: Real Diaries of Young People Who Lived During the Holocaust

Television series Television film Television series Episode 5.17 "The Academy" Television documentary

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[156] "Kristen Bell, Ryan Gosling, Pete Wentz, Many More Help Invisible Children Pass U.S. Legislation" (http:/ / www. pastemagazine. com/ blogs/ giving_back/ 2010/ 07/ after-years-of-artist-activism-invisible-children-legislation-passes-in-us. html). Paste. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [157] "INT: Ryan Gosling" (http:/ / www. joblo. com/ movie-news/ interview-ryan-gosling). JoBlo.com. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [158] Argetsinger, Amy; Roberts, Roxanne (July 9, 2008). "Supporting Roles: Ryan Gosling as Darfur Activist and Humble Star" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 07/ 09/ AR2008070900046. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [159] "At War in the Fields of the Lord" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ International/ story?id=2915362& page=1#. TvMr9JiHi20). ABC News. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [160] "Ryan Gosling Makes Charity Trip to Eastern Congo" (http:/ / www. looktothestars. org/ news/ 6207-ryan-gosling-makes-charity-trip-to-eastern-congo). Looktothestars.org. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [161] "Ryan Gosling's Crazy, Stupid, Puppy Love" (http:/ / www. peoplepets. com/ people/ pets/ gallery/ 0,,20513463,00. html#20993900). People. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [162] "Los Angeles: Top 10 Celebrity-Owned Hotspots" (http:/ / www. blackbookmag. com/ article/ los-angeles-10-best-celebrity-owned-hotspots/ 5194/ ). BlackBook. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [163] "Calamari Fan Ryan Gosling" (http:/ / entertainment. stv. tv/ showbiz/ 274907-calamari-fan-ryan-gosling/ ). STV. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [164] "Ryan Gosling Believes in Hard Work" (http:/ / www. musicrooms. net/ showbiz/ 36956-ryan-gosling-believes-in-hard-work. html). Musicrooms.net. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [165] "Ryan Gosling's Secret DUI Arrest Revealed" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ entertainment/ 2011/ 09/ 22/ ryan-goslings-secret-dui-arrest-revealed/ ). Fox News. September 22, 2011. . Retrieved February 4, 2012. [166] "Ryan Gosling's 2005 DUI Arrest Revealed" (http:/ / www. nypost. com/ p/ pagesix/ ryan_gosling_dui_arrest_revealed_dJIJLKdJLFe5hAAxHAeolO). New York Post. September 22, 2011. . Retrieved February 4, 2012. [167] "Celebrity Central – Sandra Bullock" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ sandra_bullock/ biography/ 0,,20053788_10,00. html). People. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [168] Dagostino, Mark (November 7, 2005). "Insider" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20144788,00. html). People. . Retrieved February 4, 2012. [169] "Scoop" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20062031,00. html). People. April 30, 2007. . Retrieved February 4, 2012. [170] Jones, Oliver (August 18, 2008). "Scoop" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20221731,00. html). People. . Retrieved February 4, 2012. [171] "Star Tracks – Friday, August 22, 2008 – The Hot Seat – McAdams and Gosling" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ gallery/ 0,,20220603_20499150,00. html). People. August 22, 2008. . Retrieved February 4, 2012.

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[172] Willard, Chris (December 16, 2008). "Source: Ryan Gosling Still Loves Rachel McAdams" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20247055,00. html). People. . Retrieved February 4, 2012. [173] Lehner, Marla (October 17, 2007). "Ryan Gosling Consoled Fans after Rachel McAdams Split" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20152855,00. html). People. . Retrieved January 26, 2012. [174] Shone, Tom (September 11, 2011). "In the Driving Seat: Interview with Ryan Gosling" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ culture/ film/ film-news/ 8750070/ In-the-driving-seat-interview-with-Ryan-Gosling. html). The Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved February 15, 2012. [175] "Are Kat Dennings and Ryan Gosling Dating? We Try To Get Her To Admit It" (http:/ / hollywoodcrush. mtv. com/ 2009/ 09/ 22/ are-kat-dennings-and-ryan-gosling-dating-we-try-to-get-her-to-admit-it/ ). Hollywoodcrush.mtv.com. September 22, 2009. . Retrieved February 27, 2012. [176] "Blake Lively & Ryan Gosling Get Cozy in New York – Couples, Blake Lively, Ryan Gosling" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20448518,00. html). People. December 9, 2010. . Retrieved February 27, 2012. [177] Messer, Lesley (March 2, 2011). "Ryan Gosling, Olivia Wilde Dating?" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20470291,00. html). People. . Retrieved February 27, 2012. [178] Mikelbank, Peter (November 26, 2011). "Gosling and Mendes in Paris" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20548903,00. html). People. . Retrieved January 26, 2012.

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External links
• Ryan Gosling (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm331516/) at the Internet Movie Database • Ryan Gosling (http://movies.yahoo.com/movie/contributor/1804035474) at Yahoo! Movies • Ryan Gosling (http://www.people.com/people/ryan_gosling) at People.com

Tiffini Hale

276

Tiffini Hale
Tiffini Hale
Born July 30, 1975 Associated acts The Party (1989-)

Tiffini Talia Hale (born July 30, 1975) is an American actress and pop singer. She was a Mousketeer on The All New Mickey Mouse Club in 1989-1990 and 1994-1996 and a member of the pop group the Party since 1989. After MMC finished its run, she disappeared from the public eye.

External links
• Tiffini Hale [1] at the Internet Movie Database

References
[1] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0355020/

Chase Hampton

277

Chase Hampton
Chase Hampton
Born Chasen Cord Hampton January 12, 1975 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S. Actor, Performer, Singer, Songwriter, Musician, Mentor

Occupation

Years active 1989–present

Chasen Cord "Chase" Hampton (born January 12, 1975) is an American actor, performer, singer, songwriter, musician, and mentor.

Early life and career
Born of Cherokee and Sac-Fox Native American descent in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Hampton is the only child of parents Bill and Kenyan and is a 5th generation American roots soul singer. He has been singing since age 2, and by age 15 signed his first recording contract with Disney's Hollywood Records. Chasen has performed his music on stages all over the world, as well as appeared on MTV, VH1, E! channel's The E! True Hollywood Story, A&E's Biography, and starred on serial television shows like Fox network's The X-Files and HBO's Big Love, among others. Now co-founder of Buzzfly Rec. with producer Mike Vizcarra, Chasen has the freedom to write and perform with some of the most talented players in the industry. Hampton began his career as a Mousketeer on The All New Mickey Mouse Club. He starred on the show for a total 7 seasons, hosting it in its final season (1995). As a member of the teen pop group The Party, Hampton also released four albums with Disney's Hollywood Records, charting five hit singles on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.[1] The remake of the Dokken track "In My Dreams" was the highest charting single, reaching #34, and is perhaps the best known hit from The Party. Hampton has acted in several serial television shows and feature films and currently is the vocalist of the rock band Buzzfly, as well as a solo artist. He has been employed as a performing artist, mentor, and performance coach, mentoring and grooming talent, at a leading Performing Arts school in the Los Angeles, California area; he held residency as the Music Director for two of the school's locations. Chasen has shared the stage with some of the biggest talents and names in the entertainment industry. His music has been produced by Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, and Teddy Riley. Over the years, he's appeared with film stars including Ryan Gosling, Keri Russell, and Jessica Biel, and music artists including Justin Timberlake, Christina Aguilera, Britney Spears, Taylor Dayne, Color Me Badd, and mostly recently (2010) Davey Johnstone and Nigel Olsson of the Elton John Band, and guitar god icon Slash of Guns N Roses/Velvet Revolver. 2007 saw the debut of Chasen's first solo effort album, Something to Believe, released on his own Buzzfly Rec. label. Beginning February 2011, Chasen is set to tour the southeastern US in support of his 2010 solo release, Drugstore Girls EP. The first tour date, February 7, is set for Orlando, Florida. It is interesting to note, the cover model for the EP is American model, actress, and former adult film star Kendra Jade Rossi.

Filmography

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278

Film Year 1989 2001 2002 Offerings They Crawl The Rules of Attraction Film Ben Dover Brian "Bean" Gage Townie Television Year 1989-1990 and 1994-1996 Title The All-New Mickey Mouse Club 1997 Buffy the Vampire Slayer 1998 USA High Malibu, CA 1999 2000 The X-Files 18 Wheels of Justice 7th Heaven 2001 Sabrina, the Teenage Witch Himself Friends 'Til the End Elliot Aaron Ty Donald Pankow - Hungry Guy Waiter Clerk #2 Birdbrain Role Notes Seasons 1-3 and 7 Emcee #2 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode 1 episode Television movie Alternative title: Crawlers Role Notes

Discography
With The Party
• • • • • The Party (1990) In the Meantime, In Between Time (1991) Free (1992) The Party's Over...Thanks for Coming (1993) Greatest Hits (1997)

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279

With Buzzfly
• no official releases

Solo
• Something To Believe EP (May 16, 2007) • Drugstore Girls EP (August 20, 2010)

References
[1] ""In My Dreams" Chart History" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ #/ song/ the-party/ in-my-dreams/ 2102166). billboard.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-02.

External links
• • • • Chase Hampton (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0358956/) at the Internet Movie Database Chasen Hampton's Buzzfly band web site (http://www.buzzfly.com) Buzzfly (http://www.myspace.com/buzzfly) on MySpace Chasen Hampton (http://www.facebook.com/chasen) on Facebook

• Chasen Hampton (http://www.reverbnation.com/chasenhampton) on ReverbNation • "ActorsE Chat Show" (http://actorsentertainment.com/actorse/ september-19th-2011-actorse-chat-with-chasen-hampton-of-the-elton-john-band-and-ben-babylon/) Chase Hampton and Ben Babylon, with host Judith Jones on Actors Entertainment

Tony Lucca

280

Tony Lucca
Tony Lucca

Background information Birth name Born Anthony James Lucca January 23, 1976 Pontiac, Michigan, United States Waterford, Michigan Rock, folk, acoustic, singer/songwriter Vocals, guitar, piano, bass 1991–present 222 Records, Rock Ridge Music, Lucca Music

Origin Genres Instruments Years active Labels

Associated acts TFDI Website Official Web Site [1]

Anthony James "Tony" Lucca (born January 23, 1976, in Pontiac, Michigan), is an American singer, songwriter, producer, and sometime actor. He is perhaps best known for starting his career on the Mickey Mouse Club. After the Mickey Mouse Club, Lucca went to LA for a brief career as an actor, then became a full-time musician, releasing over seven studio albums and five EPs. He is a consistent touring artist and has toured with a multitude of acts, including *NSYNC, Marc Anthony, Josh Hoge, Sara Bareilles,[2] the late Chris Whitley, Matt Duke and Tyrone Wells. He was the second runner-up on the second season of the American reality talent show, The Voice.

Early life
Lucca was born in Pontiac, Michigan, the son of Sally and Tony Lucca.[3] Lucca is of Italian, Welsh, French and English descent.[3] Lucca grew up around a large and musical extended family,[4] as his mother Sally was tenth of twelve children of the Detroit jazz piano player James "Jimmy" Stevenson.[5][6][7] Lucca grew up in Waterford, Michigan and began singing at age 3[8] and child modeling at age 9.[3] When he was 12, he began playing in Detroit-area bands with his cousin, Cole Garlak.[5][8][9][10]

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281

Professional and musical career
1991-95: Mickey Mouse Club
When Lucca was 14, he went to Detroit to audition for the Disney movie Newsies, only to find out that the audition was for the Mickey Mouse Club instead.[4] Encouraged by his sister, he auditioned for the show and was picked for callbacks in Los Angeles.[3][4] In Los Angeles, he was selected along with 8 other kids to join the cast for the fourth season of the show. Lucca moved to Orlando, Florida with his mom and lived in an apartment complex with other castmates and traveled back to Michigan between seasons.[3] He remained with the show for four seasons until being let go during the seventh season when the show was canceled.

1995-97: Hollywood
After the cancellation of the Mickey Mouse Club, Lucca moved to Los Angeles to begin an acting career in 1995.[8] He lived with fellow Mickey Mouse Club castmate Keri Russell, his girlfriend at the time. Russell and Lucca were cast and played leads together on the Aaron Spelling-produced Malibu Shores,[11][12] a teen drama which lasted for one season. During this time he filmed commercials for Levi Jeans, J.C. Penney and Blockbuster Video.[3] He had minor success in movies, appearing in an NBC movie of the week, Her Last Chance with Kellie Martin and Jonathan Brandis,[13] as well as two independent features.[14] He left acting in 1997 to pursue music.

1997-2003: Independent music
In 1997 Lucca self-released his first CD, So Satisfied that he co-produced.[5] In 1998 he started his website www.tonylucca.com and began to sell the CD and its self-released follow-up, Strong Words Softly Spoken through the website and at his live shows. Lucca also released two EPs and a limited series of Live & Limited CDs through his site; each CD sold was numbered and signed. In 2001 and 2002 he served as an opening act for 'N Sync, a boy band that featured fellow Mickey Mouse Club co-stars Justin Timberlake and JC Chasez.

2004-Present: Lightyear and Rock Ridge Music
Lucca's third full-length album and his first commercially-distributed, Shotgun was released in 2004 in conjunction with Lightyear and New Vibe Records, and was executive co-produced by JC Chasez, who Lucca toured with to support the album.[15] Following that release was 2006 album Canyon Songs, recording in both Laurel and Beachwood Canyons,[16] and in that same year a live concert album Live In Hollywood both of which were distributed by Rock Ridge Music. Come Around Again was released in 2008. Lucca also participated in a cooperative tour with Jay Nash and Matt Duke, which resulted in the 2009 EP entitled TFDI. The collaboration, which stands for "Totally Fuckin' Doing It"[17] was recorded in the Evanston, Illinois studio SPACE during an impromptu visit to the studio, after the three artists formed a friendship during the tour.[8][18] Lucca's sixth album was released in 2010, entitled Rendezvous With the Angels, on Rock Ridge Music. Solo, an acoustic CD composed of b-sides and previously unreleased recordings was released in November 2010, and given away for free in conjunction with Amazon.com's MP3 web store. Lucca has recorded a second collaborative CD with Jay Nash and Matt Duke, TFDI II, which was released in the summer of 2011. On February 5, 2012, Lucca appeared on the NBC show The Voice and chose Adam Levine as his voice coach.[19]

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282

Other Ventures
Many of Lucca's songs have been featured in various TV shows, including Friday Night Lights, Brothers & Sisters, Shark and Felicity and in the movie Open Range. He appeared in an episode of the E! True Hollywood Story series, covering his time spent on The Mickey Mouse Club in 2007.[20] He has performed numerous times on NBC's Last Call with Carson Daly as a part of the show's band.[10] He briefly returned to acting in 2010, starring in a 901 Silver Tequila commercial, which was directed by the brand founder Justin Timberlake.[21] He also played himself on an episode of Parenthood, appearing as a performing musician.[22]

Contestant in The Voice (2012)
On February 5, 2012, Tony appeared on the Blind Auditions of the American reality talent show The Voice in its second season. He sang "Trouble", a Ray LaMontagne song. All four judges (Adam Levine, Cee Lo Green, Christina Aguilera and Blake Shelton) hit the red "I Want You" button for him. He chose to join Adam Levine's team. It was also in this show that he reunited with fellow Mouseketeer Christina Aguilera. Initially, she showed no sign of recognition, but then realized who he was after he left the stage and followed him to congratulate him, also revealing that when they were young, Britney Spears, another fellow Mouseketeer, had a crush on Lucca. He advanced to the semi-finals, which he performed "How You Like Me Now" by The Heavy and moved on to the final round. For the final round on May 7, he performed Hugo's country-styled version of the Jay-Z song, "99 Problems". While enjoying his performance overall, Aguilera criticized Lucca for singing a song that she saw as being derogatory towards women, as the song contains the line "I got 99 problems but a bitch ain't one." (Lucca did not sing the word "bitch" during this performance, but does on the studio recording.) This prompted Lucca's coach Levine to defend his performance, stating that he and Lucca discussed the content of the song and decided to go on with it, but used Hugo's version to change the tone and be taken less seriously, as well as revealing a black t-shirt with a sparkling pink "Team Xtina" logo on it. During that night since Lucca's performance, Aguilera made more jabs at him by stating that her finalist Chris Mann was "a real [gentle]man" who respects women, as well as appearing to ignore Lucca's other performances that night. On May 8, 2012, he made his last performance on the show duetting with fellow contestant Jordis Unga formerly of Team Blake on the Fleetwood Mac song, "Go Your Own Way". Later that night, it was announced that he had come in third place in the competition, barely placing ahead of Mann by one quarter of a percentage point and coming behind winner Jermaine Paul from Team Blake and first runner-up Juliet Simms from Team Cee Lo. Lucca was later signed to Adam Levine's record label, 222 Records.

Personal life
Lucca dated fellow Mouseketeer (and eventual Malibu Shores co-star) Keri Russell on-and-off for eight years[23][24] On July 7, 2007 Lucca married single mom Rachel, adopting her son Liam. They live in Detroit, Michigan and have a daughter, Sparrow Jane Lucca (born October 17, 2009).

Discography
Albums
• 1997: So Satisfied • 1997 (Re-issued 1999): Strong Words, Softly Spoken • 2004: Shotgun • 2006: Canyon Songs • 2008: Come Around Again • 2010: Rendezvous With the Angels

Tony Lucca • 2010: Solo • 2011: Under the Influence Live albums • 2006: Live in Hollywood

283

EPs
• • • • • • 2001: So Far 2002: Simply Six 2006: Through The Cracks 2008: Close Enough 2009: TFDI collaboration with Jay Nash and Matt Duke 2011: TFDI II collaboration with Jay Nash and Matt Duke

Singles
Year Single Peak positions US 2012 "Trouble" "Beautiful Day" "In Your Eyes" "...Baby One More Time" "How You Like Me Now?" "99 Problems" "Yesterday" (with coach, Adam Levine) 117 58 68 Non-album releases by The Voice Album

Selected filmography
• • • • • • • • • 1991-1996 The All New Mickey Mouse Club as Himself 1993 Emerald Cove as Jeff Chambers 1996 Her Last Chance as Cody 1996 Malibu Shores as Zack Morrison 1997 Take a Number as Todd 1998 Too Pure as Jared 2004 The Wayne Brady Show as Himself 2007 E! True Hollywood Story: The Mickey Mouse Club as Himself 2012

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284

References
[1] http:/ / www. tonylucca. com [2] "Blackbird bio" (http:/ / blackbirdartistsagency. com/ artists/ tony-lucca/ ). Blackbird Artist Agency. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [3] Evan Amos (19 May 2011). "Evan Amos interview" (http:/ / commons. wikimedia. org/ wiki/ User:Evan-Amos/ Interviews/ TonyLucca1). . Retrieved 2 June 2011. [4] Brian Lush. "Rockwired interview" (http:/ / www. rockwired. com/ tonylucca. html). Rockwired. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [5] "Lightyear bio" (http:/ / www. lightyear. com/ music/ pop/ lucca/ TONY LUCCA BIO. pdf). . Retrieved 2 June 2011. [6] Sam Stephenson (11 January 2010). "Jimmy's Last Jam" (http:/ / www. jazzloftproject. org/ blog/ general/ jimmys-last-jam). Jazz Loft Project. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [7] Chris Smith (7 January 2010). "Obituary: James "Jimmy" Stevenson" (http:/ / www. pressdemocrat. com/ article/ 20100107/ OBITS/ 100109609?p=3& tc=pg). Press Democrat. . Retrieved 2 June 2011. [8] "Tony Lucca Bio" (http:/ / www. tonylucca. com/ bio. php). tonylucca.com. . Retrieved 2010. [9] Vanessa Setteducato (20 August 2006). "Artist Interview: Tony Lucca 8.20.06" (http:/ / www. 7duckets. com/ artist-interview-tony-lucca-8-20-06/ ). 7duckets. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [10] "IMDb bio" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0524331/ bio). IMDb. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [11] "'Extreme Couponing' gone too far? Expert offers tips on how to save big without obsessing" (http:/ / www. nydailynews. com/ archives/ entertainment/ 1995/ 12/ 19/ 1995-12-19__late_show__lagging_locally_. html). Daily News (New York). . [12] Todd Everett (7 March 1996). "Malibu Shores Review" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ review/ VE1117905024?refcatid=31). Variety. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [13] Carole Horst (7 April 1996). "Her Last Chance Review" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ review/ VE1117905137. html?categoryid=31& cs=1& query=tony+ lucca). Variety. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [14] Emanuel Levy (29 March 1997). "Take A Number Review" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ review/ VE1117341863?refcatid=31). Variety. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [15] "Shotgun Album Listing" (http:/ / www. lightyear. com/ music/ pop/ lucca/ index. htm). Lightyear. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [16] "Rock Ridge Store bio" (http:/ / rockridge. hasawebstore. com/ artist/ 38328). Rock Ridge Music. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [17] Joe Lawler (15 December 2010). "Tony Lucca: Beyond the TV sing-alongs" (http:/ / desmoines. metromix. com/ music/ article/ tony-lucca-beyond-the/ 2360756/ content). Des Moines Metromix. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [18] Courtney Devores (1 December 2010). "Singer gives up solo standing for tour" (http:/ / www. charlotteobserver. com/ 2010/ 12/ 01/ 1877536/ singer-gives-up-solo-standing. html#ixzz16sSPSasE). Charlotte Observer. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [19] Lisa Torem (29 July 2010). "PennyBlack interview" (http:/ / www. pennyblackmusic. co. uk/ MagSitePages/ Article. aspx?id=5642). pennyblackmusic. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [20] "IMDB actor lsiting" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0524331/ ). IMDb. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [21] "901 Silver Tequila "Improved by Use"" (http:/ / www. adweek. com/ news/ advertising-branding/ 901-silver-tequila-improved-use-130432). Adweek. 28 July 2010. . Retrieved 11 May 2011. [22] "Charlotte Today feature" (http:/ / www. wcnc. com/ charlotte-today/ videos/ Singersongwriter-Tony-Luca-117802578. html). WCNC. 11 March 2011. . Retrieved 3 June 2011. [23] John J. Moser (5 December 2009). "Indie music takes Tony Lucca beyond Mickey Mouse career" (http:/ / articles. mcall. com/ 2009-12-05/ features/ 4487787_1_cd-baby-indie-music-night-lights). The Morning Call. . Retrieved 2 June 2011. [24] "Keri Russell bio" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ keri_russell). People Magazine. . Retrieved 3 June 2011.

External links
• Official website (http://www.tonylucca.com/) • Official Tony Lucca Myspace Page (http://www.myspace.com/tonylucca) • Tony Lucca (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0524331/) at the Internet Movie Database

American Idol (season 3)

285

American Idol (season 3)
American Idol
Season 3 Broadcast from Judges January 19, 2004 – May 26, 2004 Paula Abdul Simon Cowell Randy Jackson Ryan Seacrest Fox Broadcasting Company Kodak Theatre Winner:

Host(s) Broadcaster Finals venue

Fantasia Barrino

Fantasia Barrino in The American Idol Experience motorcade at Walt Disney World. Origin Song Genre(s) High Point, North Carolina, U.S. "I Believe" R&B, pop, soul Runner-up Diana DeGarmo Chronology ◀ 2004 ►

The third season of American Idol premiered on Monday, January 19, 2004 and continued until May 26, 2004. The third season was won by Fantasia Barrino, who defeated Diana DeGarmo by an approximate margin of 2% (1.3 million votes); the vote total (65 million votes) was the highest recorded vote total in the show's history until the May 23, 2007 finale of American Idol 6. This season also featured Jennifer Hudson, who would subsequently win the 2006 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Season 3 is the first season where both the winner and the runner-up had been in the bottom 2 or 3 prior to the finale, being followed by season 8. It is the first (and so far only) season to have a finale with two female contestants, while the second, seventh and eighth seasons had a finale with two male contestants. It is also the first season where a Wild Card contestant, Leah LaBelle, is eliminated in the first episode of the finals. It is the first season to have a gender imbalance among the finalists, followed by season 8, each having eight finalists of the dominant gender. Season 3 has eight female finalists, whereas season 8 has eight male finalists.

American Idol (season 3) Both Fantasia and Diana DeGarmo released a single after the finale. Fantasia's first single, released in June 2004 on the RCA record label, entered the Billboard Hot 100 at number one, making Fantasia the first artist in the history of Billboard to debut at number one with their first single. In addition to Fantasia and DeGarmo, Jasmine Trias, LaToya London, George Huff, Jennifer Hudson, and Camile Velasco have all released albums since the season ended. Leah LaBelle was signed by Epic Records.[1]

286

Regional auditions
Auditions were held in the following cities:[2]
Episode Air Date January 19, 2004 January 20, 2004 January 21, 2004 January 27, 2004 Audition City Date of audition August 25, 2003 August 20, 2003 August 13, 2003 August 3, 2003 First Audition Venue Callback Date Callback Venue Golden Tickets [3] 29

New York, New York Atlanta, Georgia

Jacob K. Javits Convention Center Georgia Dome

August 29, 2003

Waldorf-Astoria Hotel

September 2003

Atlanta Convention Center at [4] AmericasMart InterContinental Houston [6]

24

Houston, Texas

Minute Maid Park

September 4–5, [5] 2003 September 2003

13

Los Angeles, California San Francisco, California

Rose Bowl

Renaissance Hollywood Hotel

[7]

25

September 22, 2003 September 30, 2003

Pac Bell Park

September 2003

Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel

[8]

10

January 28, 2004

Honolulu, Hawaii

Aloha Stadium

October 4–5, 2003

Sheraton Waikiki Hotel

[9]

17

Total number of tickets to Hollywood

118

In this season over 80,000 attended the auditions in 6 cities. Paula Abdul was absent from the Los Angeles audition. A prominent auditioner was William Hung, a University of California, Berkeley student, who became a surprise cult figure following his tuneless rendition of Ricky Martin's "She Bangs" at the San Francisco audition.[10] He was later invited back to perform on a special edition Uncut, Uncensored and Untalented. His appearance on the show landed him a record deal with Koch Records and he released an album soon afterwards.[11] He became one of the most successful contestants to emerge from this year.[12] During the audition round in Houston, Texas, auditioner Jonathan Rey threw a cup of water at Simon, who moments earlier commented that he was terrible and "there's not a song in the world you could sing." Security quickly escorted Jonathan out, and Houston police questioned him, but released him after Simon decided against pressing assault charges on him. Other prominent auditioners that year were "scooter girl", Nicole Tieri, and Alan Ritchson who sang to Paula Abdul alone.

Hollywood week
There were 117 contestants in the first Hollywood round which was held at the Pasadena Civic Center in Pasadena, California. The contestants first came onto the stage in groups but each performed solo and talked briefly about themselves. Simon Cowell was not impressed with their performances. They were also asked to write original lyrics and melody for one of ten song titles given and perform their song the next day. After their performance, they were divided into four groups and one groups is eliminated. In the next round, the remaining 87 contestants performed in groups in three. The girls and boys were separate and they were each given 3 different songs to choose - Girls with The Supremes' You Can't Hurry Love, Vonda Shepard's "Tell Him", Candi Staton's Young Hearts Run Free, the boys with Billy Joel's Tell Her About It, Rick

American Idol (season 3) Astley's Never Gonna Give You Up, The Drifters's Up on the Roof. 30 contestants were cut and 57 then advanced to the next stage where they performed solo. The contestants were then divided into 3 group and placed in separate rooms, with one group sent home. 32 contestants remained for the semi-finals. Hollywood rounds contestant Taryn Southern later appeared on the Project My World series and wrote and performed the 2007 "Hott4Hill" viral video.

287

Semifinals
The contestants who reached this stage were referred to in the show as the Top 32 finalists. This is the first time that two contestants who previously tried out for American Idol (Matthew Metzger and Lisa Leuschner) made it to the top 3 of their semifinals group. Both contestants were eliminated during Hollywood round in the previous season. George Huff replaced Donnie Williams in Semifinal Round 4 after Williams was disqualified following a DUI arrest.[13] Unlike previous seasons, this season the contestants performed in front of a small studio audience, with orchestra accompaniment on backing tape. As with Season 2, in these rounds, two from each group were selected by public vote to proceed on to the Top 12, and those who failed at any of the previous stages were given a second chance in the wild-card show. In the wild card show, four contestants in the wildcard round were eliminated by the judges before they had the chance to sing: Lisa Leuschner, Eric Yoder, Tiara Purifoy, and Marque Lynche. The judges each chose one of their favorites to join the Top 12, and Jon Peter Lewis advanced to the top 12 after receiving 22% of the public vote.

Group 1
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Contestant Diana DeGarmo Marque Lynche Ashley Thomas Katie Webber Erskine Walcott Jennifer Hudson Matthew Metzger Fantasia Barrino Song (original artist) I've Got the Music in Me" (Kiki Dee) "Wind Beneath My Wings" (Roger Whittaker) "Crazy" (Willie Nelson) "Orange Colored Sky" (Nat King Cole) "Open Arms" (Journey) "Imagine" (John Lennon) "Walking in Memphis" (Marc Cohn) "Something to Talk About" (Bonnie Raitt) Result Advanced Eliminated Eliminated Wild Card Eliminated Wild Card Top 3/Wild Card Advanced

Group 2

American Idol (season 3)

288

Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Contestant Matthew Rogers Briana Ramirez-Rial Noel Roman Kara Master Lisa Leuschner Jesus Roman Camile Velasco Marisa Joy

Song (original artist) "What You Won't Do for Love" (Bobby Caldwell) "Don't Know Why" (Norah Jones) "This I Promise You" (*NSYNC) "I'm Outta Love" (Anastacia) "Sweet Thing" (Chaka Khan) "Back at One" (Brian McKnight) "One Last Cry" (Brian McKnight) "Some Kind of Wonderful" (Soul Brothers Six)

Result Advanced Eliminated Eliminated Eliminated Top 3/Eliminated Eliminated Advanced Eliminated

Group 3
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Contestant Song (original artist) Result Wild Card Eliminated Advanced Top 3/Wild Card Eliminated Eliminated Wild Card Advanced

Elizabeth LeTendre "I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)" (Whitney Houston) Eric Yoder Amy Adams Jon Peter Lewis Charly Lowry Jonah Moananu Leah LaBelle LaToya London "In the Still of the Night" (The Five Satins) "The Power of Love" (Jennifer Rush) "Tiny Dancer" (Elton John) "Chain of Fools" (Aretha Franklin) "I Wish" (Carl Thomas) "I Have Nothing" (Whitney Houston) "All By Myself" (Eric Carmen)

Group 4
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Contestant Suzy Vulaca John Preator Heather Piccinini John Stevens Jasmine Trias George Huff Lisa Wilson Tiara Purifoy Song (original artist) "Un-Break My Heart" (Toni Braxton) "That's What Love Is All About" (Michael Bolton) "New Attitude" (Patti LaBelle) "She's Always a Woman" (Billy Joel) "Run to You" (Whitney Houston) "Always and Forever" (Heatwave) "Come to My Window" (Melissa Etheridge) "I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)" (Whitney Houston) Result Wild Card Eliminated Eliminated Advanced Advanced Top 3/Wild Card Eliminated Eliminated

Wild Card

American Idol (season 3)

289

Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Contestant Jon Peter Lewis

Song (original artist) "A Little Less Conversation" (Elvis Presley)

Result Public Vote Eliminated Eliminated Simon's Choice Eliminated Eliminated Paula's Choice Randy's Choice

Elizabeth LeTendre "The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face" (Peggy Seeger) Katie Webber George Huff Suzy Vulaca Matthew Metzger Leah LaBelle Jennifer Hudson "So Emotional" (Whitney Houston) "Lean on Me" (Bill Withers) "I Will Survive" (Gloria Gaynor) "When I See You Smile" (Bad English) "Let's Stay Together" (Al Green) "I Believe in You and Me" (Four Tops)

Finalists
• Fantasia Barrino (born June 30, 1984 in High Point, North Carolina, aged 19 on the show) auditioned in in Atlanta, Georgia. Her audition songs were Lauryn Hill's "Killing Me Softly with His Song" and Tina Turner's "Proud Mary". She has performed from a young age with her family who had released a CD. She performed Aretha Franklin's Think in the Hollywood rounds. • Diana DeGarmo (born June 16, 1987 in Birmingham, Alabama, age 16 on the show) is from Snellville, Georgia, and auditioned in Honolulu, Hawaii with Aretha Franklin's Chain of Fools. She was on the show America's Most Talented Kid in 2002 as well as other TV shows. She performed Ike & Tina Turner's A Fool in Love in the Hollywood rounds. At 16 years, 7 months and 26 days old, she was the youngest contestant reach into the finals until Thia Megia and Lauren Alaina made to the finals in season ten. • Jasmine Trias (born November 3, 1986 in Honolulu, Hawaii, 17 on the show) is from Mililani, Hawaii and auditioned in Honolulu. She is the first Filipino-American contestant in American Idol who made it to the final three. • LaToya London (born December 29, 1978 in San Francisco, California, 25 on the show) is from Oakland, California and auditioned in San Francisco with Aretha Franklin's Chain of Fools. • George Huff (born November 4, 1980 in New Orleans, Louisiana, aged 23 on the show) auditioned in Houston, Texas with Joe Cocker's You Are So Beautiful. He performed Luther Vandross' Here And Now in the Hollywood rounds. • John Stevens (born July 28, 1987 in Buffalo, New York, 16 on the show) is from East Amherst, New York and auditioned in New York City with Fred Astaire's "The Way You Look Tonight". He performed Tony Bennett's I Left My Heart in San Francisco in Hollywood. He remains the youngest male contestant reach into the finals. • Jennifer Hudson (born September 12, 1981, in Chicago, Illinois, aged 22 on the show) auditioned in Atlanta with Aretha Franklin's "Share Your Love with Me. • Jon Peter Lewis (born November 7, 1979 in Lincoln, Nebraska, aged 24 on the show) is from Rexburg, Idaho and auditioned in Honolulu with Van Morrison's "Crazy Love". He was dubbed the 'pen salesman' by Simon Cowell. He performed The Jackson 5's I Want You Back. • Camile Velasco (born September 1, 1985 in Makati City, Philippines, 18 on the show) is from Haiku, Maui and auditioned in Honolulu with Fugees' "Ready or Not". • Amy Adams (born July 25, 1979 in Kansas City, Kansas, aged 24 on the show) is from Bakersfield, California and auditioned in Atlanta, Georgia with Fontella Bass' "Rescue Me". She performed Jennifer Rush's The Power of Love in Hollywood. • Matthew Rogers (born September 16, 1978 in Rancho Cucamonga, California, 25 on the show) auditioned in Los Angeles with James Ingram's "Just Once".

American Idol (season 3) • Leah LaBelle (born September 8, 1986 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, aged 17 on the show) is from Seattle, Washington and auditioned in New York with Whitney Houston's "I Believe in You and Me". She auditioned with her birth name Leah Vladowski. Her family was originally from Bulgaria who defected to U.S. She performed Diana Ross' Theme from Mahogany at the Hollywood rounds. In 2011, LaBelle signed to Epic Records.

290

Finals
In this season, guest judges may be introduced in some episodes, and sometimes the mentor joined as judges. During Top 10 was the first time where are there were five judges when the duo Ashford & Simpson joined as judges. In the result shows, the bottom two vote-getters may reprise their performances before the elimination was announced, or only the eliminated one may perform after the result is revealed, or they may performed before and after their elimination as in Top 5 when George Huff reprised both his songs from the performance night.

Top 12 – Soul
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Contestant LaToya London Amy Adams Matthew Rogers Camile Velasco Jon Peter Lewis Song (original artist) "Ain't Nobody" (Chaka Khan) "You Make Me Feel Brand New" (The Stylistics) "Hard to Handle" (Otis Redding) "Son of a Preacher Man" (Dusty Springfield) "Drift Away" (John Henry Kurtz) Result Safe Bottom 3 Safe Safe Safe Safe Safe Bottom 2 Safe Eliminated Safe Safe

Fantasia Barrino "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours" (Stevie Wonder) George Huff Jennifer Hudson John Stevens Leah LaBelle Jasmine Trias Diana DeGarmo "(Sittin' On) the Dock of the Bay" (Otis Redding) "Baby, I Love You" (Aretha Franklin) "Lately" (Stevie Wonder) "You Keep Me Hangin' On" (The Supremes) "Inseparable" (Natalie Cole) "Think" (Aretha Franklin)

• Group Performance: Soul Medley

Top 11 – Country
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Contestant Diana DeGarmo George Huff Fantasia Barrino John Stevens Camile Velasco Jennifer Hudson Jon Peter Lewis Jasmine Trias Matthew Rogers Song (original artist) "A Broken Wing" (Martina McBride) "I Can Love You Like That" (John Michael Montgomery) "Always on My Mind" (Brenda Lee) "King of the Road" (Roger Miller) "Desperado" (The Eagles) "No One Else on Earth" (Wynonna Judd) "She Believes in Me" (Kenny Rogers) "Breathe" (Faith Hill) "Amazed" (Lonestar) Result Bottom 3 Safe Safe Safe Bottom 2 Safe Safe Safe Eliminated

American Idol (season 3)

291
LaToya London Amy Adams "Ain't Goin' Down ('Til the Sun Comes Up)" (Garth Brooks) "Sin Wagon" (Dixie Chicks) Safe Safe

10 11

Top 10 – Motown
• Guest judges: Nick Ashford and Valerie Simpson
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Contestant Camile Velasco Jon Peter Lewis LaToya London Amy Adams John Stevens Jennifer Hudson Jasmine Trias Diana DeGarmo Fantasia Barrino George Huff Song (original artist) "For Once in My Life" (Stevie Wonder) "This Old Heart of Mine" (The Isley Brothers) "Ooo Baby Baby" (The Miracles) "Dancing in the Street" (Martha & the Vandellas) "My Girl" (The Temptations) "(Love Is Like a) Heat Wave" (Martha & the Vandellas) "You're All I Need to Get By" (Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell) "Do You Love Me" (The Contours) "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" (The Miracles) "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" (The Temptations) Result Safe Safe Bottom 3 Eliminated Safe Bottom 2 Safe Safe Safe Safe

• Group Performance: "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" (Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell)

Top 9 – Elton John
• Guest Mentor: Elton John
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Contestant Song Result Safe Safe Bottom 2 Safe Eliminated Safe Bottom 3 Safe Safe

Fantasia Barrino "Something About the Way You Look Tonight" Jon Peter Lewis Jasmine Trias John Stevens Camile Velasco George Huff Diana DeGarmo LaToya London Jennifer Hudson "Rocket Man" "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me" "Crocodile Rock" "Goodbye Yellow Brick Road" "Take Me to the Pilot" "I'm Still Standing" "Someone Saved My Life Tonight" "Circle of Life"

• Boys: "Daniel" • Girls: "Bennie and the Jets" • Group: "Saturday Night's Alright for Fighting"

American Idol (season 3)

292

Top 8 – Movie Soundtracks
Guest judge: Quentin Tarantino
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Contestant George Huff Jennifer Hudson Jon Peter Lewis Song (original artist) "Against All Odds" (Phil Collins) "I Have Nothing" (Whitney Houston) "Jailhouse Rock" (Elvis Presley) Featured Movie Against All Odds The Bodyguard Jailhouse Rock Titanic Porgy and Bess Sleepless in Seattle Casablanca West Side Story Result Safe Safe Eliminated Bottom 3 Safe Safe Bottom 2 Safe

Diana DeGarmo "My Heart Will Go On" (Celine Dion) Fantasia Barrino Jasmine Trias John Stevens LaToya London "Summertime" (Abbie Mitchell) "When I Fall in Love" (Doris Day) "As Time Goes By" (Dooley Wilson) "Somewhere" (Reri Grist)

Top 7 – Barry Manilow
• Guest Mentor and Judge: Barry Manilow
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Contestant Diana DeGarmo George Huff Jennifer Hudson Jasmine Trias LaToya London John Stevens Fantasia Barrino Song "One Voice" "Tryin' to Get the Feeling Again" "Weekend in New England" "I'll Never Love This Way Again" "All The Time" "Mandy" "It's a Miracle" Result Safe Safe Eliminated Safe Bottom 3 Safe Bottom 2

• Group Performance: "Let Freedom Ring" feat. Barry Manilow

Top 6 – Gloria Estefan
Mentor and guest judge - Gloria Estefan Guest band - The Miami Sound Machine
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 Contestant Fantasia Barrino George Huff Song "Get on Your Feet" "Live for Loving You" Result Safe Bottom 2 Safe Eliminated Bottom 3 Safe

LaToya London "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You" John Stevens Jasmine Trias Diana DeGarmo "Music of My Heart" "Here We Are" "Turn the Beat Around"

• Group Performance: Gloria Estefan medley

American Idol (season 3)

293

Top 5 – Big Band
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fantasia Barrino Jasmine Trias LaToya London George Huff Contestant Diana DeGarmo Song (original artist) "Someone to Watch Over Me" (Gertrude Lawrence) "Get Happy" (Ruth Etting) "Cheek to Cheek" (Fred Astaire) "What a Wonderful World" (Louis Armstrong) "Too Close for Comfort" (Eydie Gormé) "Don't Rain on My Parade" (Barbra Streisand) "The Way You Look Tonight" (Fred Astaire) "Almost Like Being in Love" (Nat King Cole) "Crazy Little Thing Called Love" (Queen) "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life? (Julie Andrews) Safe Bottom 2 Safe Eliminated Result Safe

Top 4 – Disco
Guest judge: Donna Summer
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Contestant Jasmine Trias LaToya London Fantasia Barrino Diana DeGarmo Jasmine Trias LaToya London Fantasia Barrino Song (original artist) "Everlasting Love" (Carl Carlton) "Love You Inside Out" (The Bee Gees) "Knock on Wood" (Eddie Floyd) "This Is It" (Melba Moore) "It's Raining Men" (The Weather Girls) "Don't Leave Me This Way" (Thelma Houston) "Holding Out for a Hero" (Bonnie Tyler) Result Safe Eliminated Bottom 2 Safe Safe Eliminated Bottom 2 Safe

Diana DeGarmo "No More Tears (Enough Is Enough)" (Donna Summer and Barbra Streisand)

• Group Performance: "Bad Girls"/"Hot Stuff"/"Heaven Knows"/"She Works Hard for the Money"

Top 3 – Idols' Choice, Judges' Choice, Clive's Choice
Guest judge: Clive Davis
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Contestant Jasmine Trias Fantasia Barrino Song (original artist) "Saving All My Love for You" (Whitney Houston) "Chain of Fools" (Aretha Franklin) Result Eliminated Safe Safe Eliminated Safe Safe Eliminated Safe Safe

Diana DeGarmo "Ain't No Mountain High Enough"(Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell) Jasmine Trias Fantasia Barrino Diana DeGarmo Jasmine Trias Fantasia Barrino Diana DeGarmo "Mr. Melody" (Natalie Cole) - Paula Abdul "A Fool in Love" (Ike & Tina Turner) - Simon Cowell "Because You Loved Me" (Celine Dion) - Randy Jackson "All by Myself" (Eric Carmen) "Greatest Love of All" (George Benson) "Don't Cry Out Loud" (Melissa Manchester)

American Idol (season 3)

294

Top 2 – Finale
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 Contestant Diana DeGarmo Fantasia Barrino Diana DeGarmo Fantasia Barrino Diana DeGarmo Fantasia Barrino Song (original artist) "I Believe" "All My Life" (K-Ci & JoJo) Result Runner-Up Winner

"No More Tears (Enough Is Enough)" (Donna Summer and Barbra Streisand) Runner-Up "Summertime" (Abbie Mitchell) "Don't Cry Out Loud" (Melissa Manchester) "I Believe" Winner Runner-Up Winner

• Note 1: The song was rewritten by Paul Anka specially for the episode as a recap for the season.
Finale Result Show Performer Tamyra Gray Song "The Star-Spangled Banner" Richard Kiley Artist

Top 2 with "The Impossible Dream" Kelly Clarkson, Ruben Studdard Kelly Clarkson Top 12 "Beautiful Disaster" "Reach Out I'll Be There" "1-2-3" "Heaven Knows" "She Works Hard for Her Money" "Solid" "It Don't Mean A Thing" "I'm Still Standing" "I Made it Through the Rain"

Kelly Clarkson The Four Tops Gloria Estefan Donna Summer Donna Summer Ashford & Simpson Duke Ellington Elton John Barry Manilow Ruben Studdard Fantasia Diana DeGarmo Aretha Franklin/ George Michael Fantasia

Ruben Studdard "What If" Diana DeGarmo "I Believe" Fantasia Barrino "Dreams" Top 2 "I Knew You Were Waiting"

Fantasia Barrino "I Believe"

After a nationwide vote of more than 65 million votes in total—more than the first two seasons combined--Fantasia Barrino won the "American Idol" title beating out Diana DeGarmo. The third season was also shown in Australia on Network Ten about half a week after episodes were shown in the US. Leah LaBelle is the first contestant to advance to the finals via Wild Card then get eliminated in the first week of the finals. As a nod to the "Did Clay see the card?" controversy in AI2, Ryan Seacrest was instructed to memorize the winner's name and the vote margin and was given a blank card to hold while reporting the results. However, in a post-show interview with USA Today, Diana DeGarmo admitted that she had figured out that she had not won when the contestants were going over the schedule for the finale and she saw she would be singing "I Believe" (the winner's single) before the results were announced. Realizing that she would not be scheduled to sing a song she would have to sing again minutes later if she were announced as the winner, she correctly deduced that she had lost and Fantasia had won.

American Idol (season 3) At the time of the finale many celebrities voiced their support for Fantasia: Frankie Muniz, Sharon Osbourne, Ray Romano, Amy Yasbeck, Nicole Kidman, Lori Loughlin, Patti LaBelle, Andy Richter, Jennifer Love Hewitt, Holly Robinson Peete, Giuliana Rancic, Toni Braxton, Ben Stiller, Redman (TV Guide), Method Man (TV Guide) Richard Schiff, Kate Hudson (On The Tonight Show), Lea Thompson and Mo'Nique. Henry Winkler said "You've got incredible judges, Simon speaks the truth, I always agree with him. And Ryan is really good at what he does, but Fantasia," he smiles, "there's something in her that is bigger than anything. We voted for her about 250 times!" Kelly Clarkson is quoted in the June 14th, 2004 People Magazine as saying she voted for Fantasia: "I just hit redial, redial." Prior to the results show, the governors of Georgia and North Carolina—the home states of DeGarmo and Barrino respectively—announced a friendly bet between them over which state's resident would prevail, each wagering a VIP NASCAR ticket package and a shipment of his state's signature fruit. The bet participants were Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue, a Republican, and North Carolina Governor Mike Easley, a Democrat.[14]

295

Elimination chart
Did Not Perform Top 32 Wild Card Top 12 Winner

|+ Legend
Safe Bottom 3 Bottom 2 Eliminated

Stage:

Semi-Finals

Wild Card 3/10 3/17 3/24 3/31 4/7 4/15*

Finals

Week: 2/11 2/18 2/25 3/3 Place 1 Contestant Fantasia Barrino Diana DeGarmo Jasmine Trias LaToya London George Huff 1st 1st

4/21

4/28

5/5

5/12

5/19

5/26

Result Bottom 2 Bottom 3 2nd Bottom Bottom 3 3 Bottom 2 Bottom 3 3rd Top Wild 12 Card 1st Bottom 2 Top Bottom 12 2 3rd 1st Bottom 2 Elim Elim Bottom 3 Bottom Elim 2 Bottom Bottom 3 2 Elim Elim Bottom 2 Winner

2

2nd

Runner-Up

3

4

5

6

John Stevens Jennifer Hudson Jon Peter Lewis Camile Velasco Amy Adams 1st Wild Card

Elim

7

8

9

Bottom 2 2nd Bottom 3 Elim

Elim

10

American Idol (season 3)

296
2nd Elim

11

Matthew Rogers Leah LaBelle Elizabeth LeTendre Matthew Metzger 3rd Wild Card

12

Wild Card Wild Card

Top 12 Elim

Elim

Wild Card

Suzy Vulaca

Wild Card Wild Card Elim

Katie Webber Semi-Final 4 Heather Piccinni John Preator Tiara Purifoy Lisa Wilson Semi-Final 3 Charly Lowry Jonah Moananu Eric Yoder Semi-Final 2 Lisa Leuschner Marisa Joy Kara Master Briana Ramirez-Rial Jesus Roman Noel Roman Semi-Final 1 Marque Lynche Ashley Thomas Erskine Walcott

Elim

3rd

Elim

Elim

Paul Anka made an appearance in the Season Finale.
* During the week of April 15, the week got delayed for White House press conference on Tuesday, April 13, 2004. The performance show was moved to Wednesday, April 14. Jon Peter Lewis was sent home on Thursday, April 15.

American Idol (season 3)

297

Controversies
Viewers raised many complaints when, during the semifinals Wild Card round, four of the contestants were inexplicably eliminated on the spot without having had the chance to sing and compete first, leaving only eight out of twelve contestants eligible for selection. Marque Lynch, who was one of the 4 contestants brought back for the Wild Card show but not allowed to sing, walked out after he was told that he wouldn't be performing on the show. The other 3 stayed in the audience for the duration of the show. Both Jennifer Hudson and LaToya London, part of final twelve, were eliminated, despite high praises from the judges. After Hudson was eliminated, Sir Elton John, who was a mentor for that season criticized the vote as 'incredibly racist' in a press conference.[15] The elimination of both Hudson and London has been pointed out as a classic demonstration of vote-splitting in the American Idol vote, in which the presence of similar choices reduces the votes for each of the similar choices. Hudson, London and Barrino (who would eventually go on to win the competition) were female, African-American, highly praised singers—all appealing to the same demographic bloc of voters. All three of these previously popular singers ended up in the "bottom three" the night Hudson was eliminated—the three having the lowest individual vote counts.[16] Questions were nevertheless raised about the inadequacy of the phone voting system when it was revealed that the state of Hawaii with a population of just 1.2 million managed to log more calls than every states apart New York and California.[17] Jasmine Trias' fans from Hawaii, which is on its own time zone, enjoyed a far less crowded calling period and were able to get more of their votes through.

US Nielsen ratings
This season the show was ranked second overall in total viewer for the 2003-2004 TV seasons, with its Tuesday episodes taking the top spot, averaging 25.73 million viewers, while the Wednesday episodes ranked third with 24.31 million.[18] It became the top-rated show for the 18-49 demographic for the season.,[19] a position it has held for all subsequent years up to and including 2011. Episode list
Show Episode Air date Week 18-49 Viewers rank rating (in millions) 2 3 1 3 4 8 1 3 2 4 2 6 12.9 12.5 12.7 13.0 12.0 9.7 13.1 12.6 11.1 10.5 10.9 9.8 29.0 28.6 29.4 29.6 28.3 21.1 30.1 28.8 26.2 24.5 25.2 22.1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

"Audition: New York" "Audition: Atlanta"

[20]

January 19, 2004 January 20, 2004 January 21, 2004 [21] January 27, 2004 January 28, 2004 [22] February 2, 2004 February 3, 2004 February 4, 2004 February 10, 2004

[20]

[20] "Audition: Houston" "Audition: Los Angeles and San Francisco" "Audition: Hawaii" [21]

"Road to Hollywood, Best and Worst of the Rest" [22] "Hollywood Week: Part 1" [22] "Hollywood Week: Part 2" "Top 32: Group 1" [23] [23]

"Top 32: Group 1 Results" "Top 32: Group 2" "Top 32: Group 2 Results"

February 11, 2004 February 17, 2004 February 18, 2004

American Idol (season 3)
[24] [24] [25]

298
February 24, 2004 February 25, 2004 March 1, 2004 March 2, 2004 [25] March 3, 2004 March 9, 2004 [26] March 10, 2004 March 16, 2004 March 17, 2004 March 23, 2004 March 24, 2004 March 30, 2004 March 31, 2004 April 6, 2004 April 7, 2004 April 14, 2004 April 15, 2004 April 20, 2004 April 21, 2004 April 27, 2004 April 28, 2004 [33] May 3, 2004 May 4, 2004 May 5, 2004 May 11, 2004 May 12, 2004 May 3, 2004 May 18, 2004 May 19, 2004 [35] May 23, 2004 May 25, 2004 May 26, 2004 2 4 27 2 1 4 5 6 1 7 2 4 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 4 3 8 1 3 1 3 22 6 7 3 5 11.3 10.3 8.5 11.1 8.5 10.7 9.7 11.3 9.7 11.5 8.8 8.8 9.4 10.1 8.9 9.7 6.2 10.1 9.3 10.4 9.3 4.8 9.0 8.8 9.6 10.0 4.2 10.0 9.8 3.7 10.6 12.0 23.6 22.4 10.8 25.1 28.8 26.6 23.0 19.7 25.5 19.3 24.6 22.0 26.7 22.9 27.0 20.4 25.9 21.9 23.5 20.6 23.1 15.3 23.4 21.2 23.4 21.2 11.7 22.8 21.2 23.2 22.3

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

"Top 32: Group 3"

"Top 32: Group 3 Results"

"Special: Uncut, Uncensored and Untalented" "Top 32: Group 4" [25]

"Top 32: Group 4 Results" "Wildcard" [26]

"Wildcard Results"

[27] "Top 12 Perform" "Top 12 Results" [27]

[28] "Top 11 Perform" "Top 11 Results" [28]

[29] "Top 10 Perform" "Top 10 Results" [29]

[29] "Top 9 Perform" "Top 9 Results" [29]

[30](1) "Top 8 Perform" "Top 8 Results" [30](1)

[31] "Top 7 Perform" "Top 7 Results" [31]

[32] "Top 6 Perform" "Top 6 Results" [32]

"Special: The Final Five" [33] "Top 5 Perform" "Top 5 Results" [33]

[34] "Top 4 Perform" "Top 4 Results" [34]

[35] "Special: The Final Three" [35] "Top 3 Perform" "Top 3 Results" [35]

"Special: The American Idol Phenomenon" [36] "Top 2 Perform (Finale)" [36] "American Idol Season 3 Finale"

American Idol (season 3) Note 1: The Top 8 shows were shifted to Wednesday and Thursday due to a presidential address on Tuesday.

299

Music Releases
Major releases
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • American Idol Season 3: Greatest Soul Classics "I Believe" (Fantasia Barrino) "Dreams" (Diana DeGarmo) Free Yourself (Fantasia Barrino) Blue Skies (Diana DeGarmo) My Christmas EP! (George Huff) "Come Fly with Me" (John Stevens) Red (John Stevens) "Love Ko To" (Jasmine Trias) Jasmine Trias (Jasmine Trias) Love & Life (LaToya London) "Appreciate/Every Part of Me/All By Myself" (LaToya London) Miracles (George Huff) Fantasia (Fantasia Barrino) Stories from Hollywood (Jon Peter Lewis) "And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going" (Jennifer Hudson) "Spotlight" (Jennifer Hudson) "Jennifer Hudson" (Jennifer Hudson) "All Dressed in Love" (Jennifer Hudson) Back to Me (Fantasia Barrino) TBA (Leah Labelle)

Minor or independent releases
(This list does not include pre-Idol releases) • • • • • • • • • • Love, Lipstick and Poetry (Kiira Bivens) Love, Lana (Lana Phillips) Sing Me Home (Lisa Leuschner) Str8up Band (Dina Lopez) I'll Be Seeing You (John Preator) This Is Next Time (Alan Ritchson) Sun Shiney Day (Lisa Wilson) "If I Go Away" / "Man Like Me" (single) (Jon Peter Lewis) Just Like Magic (Donnie Williams) Reality (Lisa Leuschner)

Sources: Idolsmusic.com [37], CD Baby [38]

American Idol (season 3)

300

References
[1] http:/ / singersroom. com/ content/ 2012-04-20/ Pharrell-Williams-Jermaine-Dupri-Partner-to-Launch-Leah-Labelle/ [2] "American Idol auditions" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20030801080757/ http:/ / idolonfox. com/ audition-popup. htm). idolonfox.msn.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / idolonfox. com/ audition-popup. htm) on August 10, 2003. . Retrieved September 4, 2011. [3] They came. They sang. But only a handful will get to the big show. (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,96258,00. html) [4] 10/8: Later Idol auditions back in the ATL (http:/ / www. palmbeachpost. com/ blogs/ content/ shared-blogs/ accessatlanta/ idol/ entries/ 2007/ 10/ 08/ 98_later_idol_a. html) [5] Making the cut is 'American Idol' dream (http:/ / www. chron. com/ default/ article/ Making-the-cut-is-American-Idol-dream-2128357. php) [6] "'American Idol' hopefuls go before Simon, Paula and Randy" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20030906153239/ http:/ / www. chron. com/ cs/ CDA/ ssistory. mpl/ front/ 2082844). Houston Chronicle. September 5, 2003. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. chron. com/ cs/ CDA/ ssistory. mpl/ front/ 2082844) on September 6, 2003. . Retrieved September 12, 2011. [7] Idol Dreams (http:/ / www. schizophreniadigest. com/ e107_plugins/ szproducts/ images/ articles/ 2006_spring_story1. pdf) [8] Paly's Own American Idol (http:/ / voice. paly. net/ node/ 14743) [9] 'Idol 3' auditions plan September stop in state (http:/ / the. honoluluadvertiser. com/ article/ 2003/ Jul/ 31/ ln/ ln20a. html) [10] Go, Jesamyn., He's a loser, baby (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 4305972), MSNBC.com, 2004-02-24, Retrieved on 2007-03-02. [11] William Hung 'Bangs' Latin Lovers, R. Kelly Cover On Inspiration (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1486042/ william-hung-bangs-classic-tunes. jhtml) [12] "Top 24 American Idols of All Time" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ features/ top-24-american-idols-of-all-time-1004088662. story#/ features/ top-24-american-idols-of-all-time-1004088662. story). Billboard. . Retrieved February 24, 2011. [13] Donnie Williams pulled from 'Idol' following arrest, replaced by George Huff (http:/ / www. realitytvworld. com/ news/ donnie-williams-pulled-from-idol-following-arrest-replaced-by-george-huff-2305. php) [14] San Diego Union-Tribune: Governors place bets on 'American Idol' winner (http:/ / www. signonsandiego. com/ news/ features/ 20040525-1508-tv-americanidol-bets. html), May 25, 2004 [15] Elton John Says 'American Idol' Vote Is 'Racist' (http:/ / au. news. yahoo. com/ 040427/ 11/ oqwi. html), Reuters via Yahoo.com, 2004-04-28, Retrieved on 2007-03-02. [16] American Idol voting (http:/ / www. votefair. org/ americanidol. html), Votefair.org, Retrieved on 2007-03-02. [17] Calls Waiting: 'Idol' Voters Finally Get Through to Fox (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ articles/ A56037-2004May25_2. html) [18] I. T. R. S. Ranking Report (http:/ / abcmedianet. com/ web/ dnr/ dispDNR. aspx?id=060204_11) [19] Jasmine Trias exits 'American Idol', Fantasia Barrino and Diana DeGarmo to compete in final showdown (http:/ / www. realitytvworld. com/ news/ jasmine-trias-exits-american-idol-fantasia-barrino-and-diana-degarmo-compete-in-final-showdown-2574. php) [20] AI week 1 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ jan04/ jan26/ 3_wed/ news3wednesday. html) [21] AI week 2 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20312226_587215,00. html) [22] AI week 3 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ feb04/ feb09/ 3_wed/ news4wednesday. html) [23] AI week 4 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20312226_592253,00. html) [24] AI week 6 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,597973,00. html) [25] AI week 7 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,600319,00. html) [26] AI week 8 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ mar04/ mar15/ 3_wed/ news3wednesday. html) [27] AI week 9 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ mar04/ mar22/ 3_wed/ news4wednesday. html) [28] AI week 10 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20312226_606210,00. html) [29] AI week 12 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ apr04/ apr05/ 3_wed/ news3wednesday. html) [30] AI week 13 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ apr04/ apr19/ 3_wed/ news4wednesday. html) [31] AI week 14 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20312226_630562,00. html) [32] AI week 15 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ may04/ may03/ 3_wed/ news2wednesday. html) [33] AI week 16 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ may04/ may10/ 3_wed/ news4wednesday. html) [34] AI week 17 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ may04/ may17/ 3_wed/ news4wednesday. html) [35] AI week 18 (http:/ / www. medialifemagazine. com/ news2004/ may04/ may24/ 3_wed/ news3wednesday. html) [36] AI week 19 (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,20312226_645336,00. html) [37] http:/ / www. idolsmusic. com/ america. htm [38] http:/ / www. cdbaby. com/

American Idol (season 3)

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External links
• Official American Idol Contestants Website (http://www.americanidol.com/contestants/season3/) • American Idol (Season 3) (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0319931/) at the Internet Movie Database • American Idol (Season 3) (http://www.tv.com/shows/american-idol/) at TV.com

Deedee Magno

302

Deedee Magno
Deedee Magno Hall
Born Deedee Lynn Magno April 2, 1975

Occupation Actress Spouse(s) Children Clifton Hall Kaeden Ryley Hall

Deedee Lynn Magno Hall (born April 2, 1975) is an American actress and singer, formerly a member of the pop group The Party. She also lent her voice to the Disney show The All New Mickey Mouse Club. She also appears as Jasmine on the Aladdin a Musical Spectacular Soundtrack. She is credited as one of the students in the 1993 film 'Sister Act 2'. After The Party, Deedee went on to perform in musical theater, most notable was her role of Kim in the Broadway production of Miss Saigon. A role in which she later reprised on the national tour. She later played the role of Nessarose on the first national tour of Wicked, from December 12, 2006 until November 16, 2008. She most recently reprised the role in the San Francisco sit-down production at the Orpheum Theatre. Performances began January 27, 2009 with an opening night of February 6, 2009.[1] She played her final performance on September 5, 2010, when the production closed. Deedee is married to Cliffton Hall, who has starred opposite her in both Miss Saigon and Wicked national tours, and most recently in the San Francisco production of Wicked. They have an older son named Kaeden Ryley Hall,[2] and were expecting their second son in August 2011.

References
[1] "Wicked the New Broadway Musical: San Francisco Company" (http:/ / www. wickedthemusical. com/ page. php#WickedCitiesSanFranciscoCompany). . Retrieved 2010-01-04. [2] Harada, Wayne (2005-09-23). "Castle alums stage own revue" (http:/ / the. honoluluadvertiser. com/ article/ 2005/ Sep/ 23/ en/ FP509230308. html). . Retrieved 2008-05-20.

External links
• Deedee Magno (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0536281/) at the Internet Movie Database

Matt Morris (musician)

303

Matt Morris (musician)
Matt Morris

Morris in June 2008 Background information Birth name Born Genres Matthew Burton Morris May 9, 1979 alternative, pop, rock

Occupations singer-songwriter, musician, recording artist, performer, religion blogger Instruments vocals, guitar, piano, bass Years active 1991–present Labels Website unsigned mattmorris.net [1]

Matt Morris (born May 9, 1979) is an American pop artist, songwriter and religion blogger. He is the son of country music star Gary Morris. He achieved early fame when he appeared on the Disney Channel television series The Mickey Mouse Club in the early 1990s, where he was a cast member from 1991 to 1995 (Seasons 4–7). Here he met future collaborators Justin Timberlake and Christina Aguilera, along with future celebrities Britney Spears, Ryan Gosling, Chasen Hampton, Keri Russell, and JC Chasez. Morris first experienced success as a songwriter in the early 2000s. Morris collaborated with Aguilera on her 2002 RCA Records, "Stripped", co-writing five songs with Aguilera and producer Scott Storch, including the hit "Can't Hold Us Down";.[2] Another of their collaborations, "Miss Independent", went on to become a number one hit for American Idol winner, Kelly Clarkson. Morris continued his success in songwriting by co-writing with Timberlake the song "Another Song (All Over Again)" for Timberlake's second solo album, FutureSex/LoveSounds (2006). The track was produced by Rick Rubin, and the album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart. Morris co-wrote with Timberlake a song for Reba McEntire's Reba: Duets album,[3] which McEntire sang with Timberlake. Most recently, Morris co-wrote the song, Woman's World, the first single from Cher's upcoming 2013 release. Morris' January 2010 performance of Leonard Cohen's "Hallelujah" with Justin Timberlake and Charlie Sexton on the Hope For Haiti Now telethon became the most downloaded song from the international broadcast's digital release and went to #1 on the iTunes music chart and #13 on the Billboard Hot 100 During the same month, Morris released

Matt Morris (musician) When Everything Breaks Open on Timberlake's Tennman Records. The release gained wide distribution through Interscope Records, garnering much praise in the press.[4] Morris was let go from his deal with Tennman and Interscope in 2011, and continues to write songs for other recording artists.[5] Morris changed his legal name to Teo Bishop in 2012,[6] and writes the blog Bishop In The Grove. [7]

304

Early life
Matt Morris was born and raised in Denver, Colorado by his mother and stepfather, and had no intention of being a country singer like his father, Gary Morris, an American country music artist who charted a string of countrypolitan-styled hit songs throughout the 1980s. However, Morris learned much about songwriting from his father, Gary.[8] Morris biological parents divorced while he was still an infant. Morris was raised in Denver by his mom, Teri Hernandez, and his stepdad, Ken. They lived in the Barnum neighborhood of Denver until Morris was in the fourth grade, when they moved to Bear Valley.[9] In 1991, when Morris was in 6th Grade, he joined the cast of The Mickey Mouse Club.[9] His castmates included future collaborator and pop superstars Justin Timberlake and Christina Aguilera. The show ended in 1994, when Morris was 15. Morris returned to his home in Denver, Colorado with the intention of distancing himself from the entertainment industry and reconnect with his friends and family.[10] Morris attended John F. Kennedy High School[11] and starred in a number of high school plays, including South Pacific and The King and I.[12]

UnSpoken
In 2003, Morris released the independent album UnSpoken. To support the album, Morris toured colleges around the U.S. and gave an interactive session and dialogue with audiences called "Reflections on Artistry and the Business of Music: A Dialogue with Matt Morris." The event consisted of a discussion of Morris' experiences in the music industry, as well as his thoughts about file sharing.[13]

Backstage at Bonnaroo and Other Acoustic Performances EP
Morris performed at the 2008 Bonnaroo Music Festival. While at the festival, Morris and producer, Charlie Sexton, recorded a series of acoustic performances backstage in the Music Allies recording studio. The songs were compiled as the 5 song EP, Backstage at Bonnaroo and Other Acoustic Performances, and released by Tennman Records September 23, 2008.[14][15]

When Everything Breaks Open
On January 12, 2010, Morris released When Everything Breaks Open on Justin Timberlake’s label, Tennman Records.[16] In support of the album, Morris performed on a number of television shows, including the Late Show with David Letterman, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, and Lopez Tonight. When Everything Breaks Open was co-produced by Charlie Sexton and Justin Timberlake.[8] The album was recorded largely at Public Hi-Fi, a recording studio in Austin, Texas founded by Spoon’s Jim Eno.[17]

Matt Morris (musician)

305

Chart (2010)

Peak [18] Position 99 13 31 25

Billboard 200 (U.S.) Billboard Top Independent Albums Billboard Top Rock Albums Billboard Top Alternative Albums

Hallelujah
On January 22, 2010, Morris performed the Leonard Cohen song, "Hallelujah", with Justin Timberlake and Charlie Sexton during the Hope For Haiti Now telethon. The recording of the song became the most downloaded track from the album, and it charted in the top 20 of the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

Live Forever video
The first video from When Everything Breaks Open was for the song, "Live Forever." The video was directed by Matt Stawski, with art by Serge Gay, Jr.. The video takes place in a non-descript suburban neighborhood and is rich with animation.[19]

Shlomo
Morris was offered the lead role alongside India.Arie in a Broadway production produced by Daniel Wise entitled “Shlomo”. The musical is based on the life of Shlomo Carlebach, also known as the Singing Rabbi.[11]

Songwriter credits
2002
• "Can't Hold Us Down",[20][21] "Walk Away",[22] "Infatuation",[23] "Loving Me 4 Me",[24] "Underappreciated"[25] on Christina Aguilera's Stripped

2003
• "Miss Independent" on Kelly Clarkson's Thankful

Matt Morris (musician)

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2006
• "(Another Song) All Over Again" Justin Timberlake's FutureSex/LoveSounds

2007
• "The Only Promise That Remains" on Reba McEntire's Reba: Duets[3]

2011
• "Need Someone" on Mary J. Blige's My Life II... The Journey Continues (Act 1)

2012
• "Woman's World" on Cher's upcoming 2013 release.

Performing credits
2010
• performed "Hallelujah" live with Justin Timberlake and Charlie Sexton. "Hallelujah" was written by Canadian singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen and released on Cohen's seventh studio album, Various Positions (1984). • featured on "Infatuation" by Flobots. "Infatuation" is co-written by Morris and included on Flobots second studio album, Survival Story (2010).

Personal life
Morris is openly gay and married Sean Michael Morris when same-sex couples were allowed to do so in California.[26] His husband was his inspiration for the song "Love" found on his debut album.[26] He has three mixed breed dogs named Max, Rupert, and Elliott. He has various tattoos and his favorite one is a sacred heart on his chest, drawn by the late artist Lee Ball. Morris lives in Denver. Morris is a practicing pagan and a member of Ár nDraíocht Féin, a modern Druid organization. He has blogged about his religious journey under the name Teo Bishop since 2009. In 2012 he legally changed his name to Teo Bishop, and in July 2012 revealed that Bishop and Morris are the same person.[6]

Discography
• 2003: UnSpoken • 2008: Backstage at Bonnaroo and other Acoustic Performances EP • 2010: When Everything Breaks Open

References
[1] http:/ / www. mattmorris. net [2] "Christina Aguilera Album & Song Chart History" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ artist/ christina-aguilera/ chart-history/ 325726#/ song/ christina-aguilera-featuring-lil-kim/ can-t-hold-us-down/ 4271732). Billboard.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [3] Up for Discussion Jump to Forums. "Reba Outmuscles Kanye, 50 To Score First No. 1" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ bbcom/ news/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1003646687#/ song/ reba-mcentire/ the-only-promise-that-remains/ 10594038). Billboard.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [4] Swami, The (2010-01-20). "Colorado Music Buzz Magazine Daily Blog: Matt Morris Video links to David Letteman and Ellen DeGeneres (look for our CMBer Dave Preston playing guitar!)" (http:/ / coloradomusicbuzz. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 01/ matt-morris-video-links-to-david. html). Coloradomusicbuzz.blogspot.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [5] "Everything Breaks Down and Becomes Something New" (https:/ / www. facebook. com/ notes/ matt-morris/ everything-breaks-down-and-becomes-something-new/ 10150942456051035). Facebook.com. . Retrieved 2012-07-23.

Matt Morris (musician)
[6] "Semi-Famous Pagan Blogger/Semi-Famous Recording Artist" (http:/ / www. bishopinthegrove. com/ archive/ semi-famous-pagan-blogger-semi-famous-recording-artist/ ). BishopInTheGrove.com. . Retrieved 2012-07-13. [7] http:/ / www. bishopinthegrove. com [8] Fusilli, Jim (April 14, 2010). "From Mouseketeer To Balladeer" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB10001424052702303828304575180200699947066. html). The Wall Street Journal. . [9] Johnson, Ru (2010-02-25). "Matt Morris is more than Justin Timberlake's protege" (http:/ / www. westword. com/ 2010-02-25/ music/ matt-morris-is-more-than-justin-timberlake-s-protege/ ). Westword. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [10] Johnson, Ru (2010-02-25). "Matt Morris is more than Justin Timberlake's protege" (http:/ / www. westword. com/ 2010-02-25/ music/ matt-morris-is-more-than-justin-timberlake-s-protege/ 2/ ). Westword. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [11] "Broadway's "Shlomo" would have Denver ties" (http:/ / www. denverpost. com/ entertainmentlastold/ ci_15129087). The Denver Post. May 23, 2010. . [12] Baca, Ricardo (January 11, 2010). "The Reverb Interview: Matt Morris" (http:/ / www. heyreverb. com/ 2010/ 01/ 11/ interview-matt-morris/ ). The Denver Post. . [13] "Grammy-nominated artist Matt Morris to perform at MUW Wednesday" (http:/ / www. muw. edu/ publicaffairs/ 2004_prnews/ 040224_mattmorris. html) (Press release). Mississippi University for Women. 2004-02-24. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [14] "Club Notes: Ex-Muskateer Matt Morris" (http:/ / www. dailycamera. com/ ci_12950394?IADID=Search-www. dailycamera. com-www. dailycamera. com). Dailycamera.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [15] "Matt Morris : News" (http:/ / www. tennmanrecords. com/ news/ mattmorris. aspx). Tennmanrecords.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [16] Fusilli, Jim (April 14, 2010). "From Mouseketeer To Balladeer" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB10001424052702303828304575180200699947066. html). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved January 15, 2012. [17] Caldwell, Patrick (2010-03-16). "Austin TX music: Music listings, bands, music news, reviews, SXSW and ACL" (http:/ / www. austin360. com/ blogs/ content/ shared-gen/ blogs/ austin/ music/ entries/ 2010/ 03/ 16/ sxsw_preview_matt_morris. html). Austin360.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [18] Billboard Charts (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ #/ artist/ matt-morris/ chart-history/ 608151) [19] Herrera, Dave (2010-07-09). "A first look at the new Matt Morris video for "Live Forever"" (http:/ / blogs. westword. com/ backbeat/ 2010/ 07/ a_first_look_at_the_new_matt_m. php). Blogs.westword.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [20] Up for Discussion Jump to Forums. "Sex Therapy – Robin Thicke" (http:/ / www. billboard. com/ song/ robin-thicke/ sex-therapy/ 16009835#/ song/ christina-aguilera/ can-t-hold-us-down/ 4271732). Billboard.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [21] ChristinaMultimedia Staff. "Christina Statistics – Can´t Hold Us Down Lyrics" (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ statistics/ lyrics_display. php?songID=stripped_02& songTitle=Can´t Hold Us Down). ChristinaMultimedia. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [22] ChristinaMultimedia Staff. "Christina Statistics – Walk Away Lyrics" (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ statistics/ lyrics_display. php?songID=stripped_03& songTitle=Walk Away). ChristinaMultimedia. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [23] ChristinaMultimedia Staff. "Christina Statistics – Infatuation Lyrics" (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ statistics/ lyrics_display. php?songID=stripped_06& songTitle=Infatuation). ChristinaMultimedia. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [24] ChristinaMultimedia Staff. "Christina Statistics – Loving Me 4 Me Lyrics" (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ statistics/ lyrics_display. php?songID=stripped_08& songTitle=Loving Me 4 Me). ChristinaMultimedia. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [25] ChristinaMultimedia Staff. "Christina Statistics – Underappreciated Lyrics" (http:/ / www. christinamultimedia. com/ statistics/ lyrics_display. php?songID=stripped_10& songTitle=Underappreciated). ChristinaMultimedia. . Retrieved 2011-12-14. [26] Tsai, Catherine (January 12, 2010). "Matt Morris – Colorado's Justin Timberlake?" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2010/ 01/ 12/ matt-morriscolorados-just_n_420584. html). The Huffington Post. Associated Press. . Retrieved August 2, 2010.

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External links
• • • • • • • Official website (http://www.mattmorris.net) Matt Morris (http://www.myspace.com/mattmorris) on Myspace Matt Morris (http://www.allmusic.com/artist/mn0000784264) at Allmusic Biography for Matt Morris (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0606786/bio) at the Internet Movie Database TeoBishop.com (http://www.teobishop.com) Bishop In The Grove (http://www.bishopinthegrove.com) Teo on HuffPost Religion (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/teo-bishop)

The Party (band)

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The Party (band)
The Party
Origin Genres Orlando, Florida, USA Pop Dance R&B Tiffani Hale and Chasen Hampton - 1989–1996 Albert Fields, Deedee Mango, and Damon Pampolina - 1989-1994 Hollywood/Elektra Records

Years active

Labels

Associated acts MMC (1989-1996) Past members Albert Fields Tiffini Hale Chase Hampton Deedee Magno Hall Damon Pampolina

The Party was an American pop band. The group was composed of Albert Fields, Tiffini Hale, Chase Hampton, Deedee Magno, and Damon Pampolina, all of whom were cast members of The All New Mickey Mouse Club.

History
In 1990, the Disney Channel formed a pop band composed of then-current cast members of the 1989 Mickey Mouse Club (also known as MMC). As part of the promotion for the band, a name-the-band contest was held. The result was the Party, which is a backronym for "Positive Attitude Reflecting Today's Youth."[1] The group was also the first signing to the Walt Disney Company’s pop-music-oriented label Hollywood Records, which, at the time, was distributed by Elektra Records.

Success
The self-titled debut album was released in August 1990 on Hollywood Records. The first single, “Summer Vacation,” was moderately successful, peaking at #72 on the Billboard Hot 100. The following singles, "I Found Love" and "That's Why" (which brought the group into a much bigger audience), peaked at #79 and #55, respectively. The album also charted at #116 on the Billboard 200 Album Chart. During this time, the Disney Channel produced a special titled "The Party: In Concert." The group’s success landed it opening-act spots on major concert tours with the likes of Taylor Dayne and Vanilla Ice. The group also appeared on various shows, such as Live with Regis and Kathie Lee, Into the Night starring Rick Dees, and The Party Machine with Nia Peeples. In the summer of the following year, "Summer Vacation" was re-released in remixed form. In 1991, the covers and remixes EP In the Meantime, in Between Time was released, which was supposed to have kept fans occupied until the group finished its next album, but the EP took on a life of its own. The cover of the Dokken song "In My Dreams" ended up being the band's biggest hit on the charts, peaking at #34 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #16 on R&R (Radio and Records Chart Top 100). The song would also score the group appearances on shows such as Club MTV, a return to MMC, a Disney Channel special titled "Go Party!" and another concert tour — this time with the R&B band Hi-Five. In 1992, with the release of the group’s second studio album, Free, the band had shown growth with its changing sound and more adult-oriented lyrics. Teddy Riley wrote three songs for this album including the New Jack

The Party (band) Swing-tinged title song, "Free," which was also remixed by house-music artists E-Smoove and Steve "Silk" Hurley. Dr. Dre produced the song "Let's Get Right Down to It," and the group itself also got involved in the writing and producing of the album, which would once again land it another concert tour — this time opening for Color Me Badd. Promotion included its last special for the Disney Channel, "All About the Party" and an appearance on the Blossom episode "The Best Laid Plans of Mice & Men" in which they performed their song "All about Love". However, the album was not as successful on the charts as previous ones, which prompted Damon Pampolina to leave the group. In 1993, the group disbanded, and Hollywood/Elektra Records released The Party's Over...Thanks for Coming with little advance notice. This farewell album consisted of outtakes from the Free recording sessions coupled with other songs recorded prior the group's disbanding. In 1997, Hollywood/PolyGram Records released a greatest-hits album of The Party; it had little chart success and was not promoted by the band themselves.

309

After The Party
Albert Fields
Albert JeunePierre Fields (b. March 3, 1975) recorded a solo album under the moniker Jeune (which is half of his middle name), titled Back to Reality. He later married. Albert continues to perform and record on the indie circuit.

Chasen Hampton
In 1994, Chasen Cord Hampton (b. January 12, 1975) returned to host the final televised year of the 1989-era Mickey Mouse Club. After relocating residence from Orlando, Florida, to Los Angeles, California, his acting continued with roles in both television and film. He also continued to perform music, fronting the rock band Buzzfly along with musician Mike Vizcarra; incidentally, Vizcarra was one of the producers of the Party's 1993 farewell album. In May 2007, Chase released Chase Hampton: Something To Believe and, in August 2010 came Drugstore Girls (under the name Chasen Hampton); both are solo effort EP albums on which he again worked in collaboration with Vizcarra. The latest album was released in late February 2011.

Deedee Magno
Deedee Lynn Magno-Hall (b. April 2, 1975) is currently married and has two sons. After the Party, she went on to perform in musical theater, most notably as Kim in Miss Saigon on Broadway. After playing the role of Nessarose in the first national tour of the hit musical Wicked, she went on to originate the role in the San Francisco company. Her husband, Cliffton Hall, also in the production, played the role of Fiyero. She is rumored to be working on her first solo album.

Tiffini Hale
In 1994, Tiffini Talia Hale (b. July 30, 1975) returned to host the final televised year of the 1989-era Mickey Mouse Club. She has since remained out of the public eye.

Damon Pampolina
Damon Philip Pampolina (b. April 4, 1975) dabbled in acting for a few years. He left show business for a while to work in real estate in Southern California. According to Pampolina on the recent E! True Hollywood Story chronicling MMC, he is also behind StreetNetwork TV, a Myspace-inspired Web site for artists waiting to be discovered. He also wants to get back into acting on a network show and has appeared in several commercials. In a February 2011 interview with OK! Magazine, he revealed that he had a 10-year-long relationship with former MMC

The Party (band) cast member Brandy Brown. He also reteamed with Albert to perform as the hip hop duo NDecent Proposal.[2] He's currently living in Texas with his wife Jennifer and son Roman Valentino Pampolina and works for PRP Entertainment, where he is a host and is a co-owner with his father.[3][4]

310

REUNION
Announced in mid-2012, The Party is set to release new music and potentially embark on a reunion tour in 2013. Twitter updates by Fields and Hampton in January 2013 indicate that final preparations are being made for the reintroduction of The Party into the music scene. Although not officially confirmed, it appears as though the formation is incomplete, with Tiffini Hale opting not to participate at this time. It remains unclear what record label (Hollywood Records being the former) the newly reconvened group has been signed to.

Discography
Albums
Title [5] Chart positions U.S. UK CAN AUS GER FRA JPN The Party • • 1st studio album Released: August 31, 1990 77 116 -

In the Meantime, In Between Time • • EP/Remix album Released: September 17, 1991

Free • • 2nd studio album Released: August 25, 1992

163

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The Party's Over...Thanks for Coming • • Outtakes/Unreleased material album Released: November 23, 1993

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Greatest Hits • • Compilation album Released: August 19, 1997

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-

-

-

-

Singles
Year Single Album Peak positions U.S. US Dance 1990 "Summer Vacation" "I Found Love" "That's Why" "Sugar Is Sweet" 1991 "In My Dreams" "Private Affair" "Peace, Love And Understanding" In The Meantime, In Between Time The Party 72 79 55 — 34 — — 21 — — — 35 — — [6]

The Party (band)

311
1992 "Free" 1993 "All About Love" Free — — 40 —

Music videos
Year Video Director

1990 "Summer Vacation" "I Found Love" "That's Why" "Sugar Is Sweet" 1991 "In My Dreams" "Private Affair" "Peace, Love And Understanding" 1992 "Free" 1993 "All About Love"

Footnotes
[1] "This Day in Disney History: August 31" (http:/ / thisdayindisneyhistory. homestead. com/ Aug31. html). . Retrieved 2008-08-01. [2] Valerie Nome (2011-02-28). "Teen Idol Reflects on His Justin Bieber Days" (http:/ / www. okmagazine. com/ 2011/ 02/ teen-idol-reflects-on-his-justin-bieber-days/ #more-2383532). OK! Magazine. . Retrieved 2011-03-22. [3] Valerie Nome (2011-02-28). "Teen Idol Reflects on His Justin Bieber Days" (http:/ / www. okmagazine. com/ 2011/ 02/ teen-idol-reflects-on-his-justin-bieber-days/ #more-2383532). OK! Magazine. . Retrieved 2011-03-22. [4] None (2011-03-22). "PRP Entertainment - About Us" (http:/ / www. prpentertainment. com/ about-us. htm). PRP Entertainment Official Site. . Retrieved 2011-03-22. [5] The Party's albums chart positions: Editors from Allmusic.com. "The Party — Billboard Albums" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p3128). Billboard magazine. . Retrieved 2008-03-13. [6] The Party's singles chart positions: • Editors from Allmusic.com. "The Party — Billboard Singles" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p3128). Billboard magazine. . Retrieved 2008-03-13. •

External links
• The Party (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm2957163/) at the Internet Movie Database

Keri Russell

312

Keri Russell
Keri Russell

Russell at the Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 premiere, November 2010 Born Keri Lynn Russell March 23, 1976 Fountain Valley, California, U.S. Actress, dancer 1991–present Shane Deary (m. 2007) 2

Occupation Years active Spouse(s) Children

Keri Lynn Russell (born March 23, 1976) is an American actress and dancer. After appearing in a number of made-for-television films and series during the mid-1990s, she came to fame for portraying the title role of Felicity Porter on the series Felicity, which ran from 1998 to 2002, and for which she won a Golden Globe Award. Russell has since appeared in several films, including Mad About Mambo (2000), We Were Soldiers (2002), The Upside of Anger (2005), Mission: Impossible III (2006), Waitress (2007), August Rush (2007), Bedtime Stories (2008) and Extraordinary Measures (2010).

Early life
Russell was born in Fountain Valley, California, the daughter of Stephanie (née Stephens), a homemaker, and David Russell, a Nissan Motors executive.[1] She has an older brother, Todd, and a younger sister, Julie. The family lived in Coppell, Texas; Mesa, Arizona; and Highlands Ranch, Colorado, moving frequently because of the father's employment. Although Russell is best known for her acting, she studied at Starstruck dance studio in a suburb of Denver. Russell's dancing earned her a spot on the Mickey Mouse Club.[2]

Keri Russell

313

Career
1991–2002
Russell first appeared on television at age 15 as a cast member of the All-New Mickey Mouse Club variety show on the Disney Channel.[3] She was on the show from 1991 to 1994 (Seasons 4-6) and co-starred with future actor Ryan Gosling and future pop stars Christina Aguilera, Britney Spears, JC Chasez, Justin Timberlake.[4] In 1992, she appeared in Honey, I Blew Up the Kid alongside Rick Moranis and in 1993, had a role on the sitcom Boy Meets World as Mr. Feeny's niece. Russell appeared on Married with Children in a 1995 episode ("Radio Free Trumaine", production 9.24). She subsequently starred in several film and television roles, including the 1996 made-for-television film The Babysitter's Seduction.[2] That year she also had a role on the short-lived soap opera series Malibu Shores.[2] In 1994, she appeared as the "other woman" in Bon Jovi's music video "Always" with Jack Noseworthy, Carla Gugino, and Jason Wiles.[5] In 1997, she appeared in two episodes of Roar alongside Heath Ledger.[2] From 1998 to 2002, Russell starred as the title character on the successful WB Network series Felicity; she won a Golden Globe for the role in 1999. Russell's long and curly hair was one of her character's defining characteristics. A drastic hairstyle change at the beginning of the show's second season was thought to cause a significant drop in the show's television ratings.[6] During the show's run, Russell appeared in the films Eight Days a Week, The Curve, and Mad About Mambo, all of which received only limited releases in North America. Her next role was in the film We Were Soldiers (2002),[2] playing the wife of a United States serviceman during the Vietnam War. The film was released two months before the end of Felicity's run.

2003–present
When Felicity ended, Russell moved to New York City and made her off-Broadway stage debut in 2004, appearing opposite Jeremy Piven, Andrew McCarthy, and Ashlie Atkinson in Neil LaBute's Fat Pig.[7] In 2005, she returned to television and film, beginning with an appearance in the Hallmark Hall of Fame television movie The Magic of Ordinary Days, theatrical film The Upside of Anger (alongside Kevin Costner, Joan Allen and Evan Rachel Wood), and the television miniseries Into the West. Directing Mission: Impossible III in 2005, Abrams asked Russell to join the cast and she accepted. She was screen tested for the role of Lois Lane in Superman Returns but lost the role to Kate Bosworth.[8] She played "Melody" on the NBC show Scrubs in 2007. She starred as "Jenna" in Waitress, which marks the fourth time Russell had played a pregnant woman.[9] Russell's performance was positively received by critics,[10] with Michael Sragow of The Baltimore Sun writing that Russell's performance had "aesthetic character" and "wields tenderness and fierceness with quiet heat".[11] She has completed roles in Butterfly: A Grimm Love Story (titled Rohtenburg for its German release), in which she plays Katie Armstrong, a graduate student who writes a thesis paper on an infamous cannibal murder case, and the thriller The Girl in the Park, opposite Sigourney Weaver, Kate Bosworth and Alessandro Nivola. Russell next appeared in August Rush, released in

Russell at the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival

November, 2007. She also appeared on the cover of the New York Post's Page Six magazine on November 11, 2007.[12] Russell later appeared in Bedtime Stories.[13] In an appearance on The View on December 15, 2008, Russell

Keri Russell said she got the part because Sandler's wife Jackie had seen Russell in Waitress and suggested her for the movie. She starred alongside Brendan Fraser and Harrison Ford in the Tom Vaughan-helmed Extraordinary Measures[14][15] for CBS Films. The drama, which started filming on April 6, 2009 and was released on January 22, 2010, was the first film to go into production for the new company.[2][16] Russell played Aileen Crowley, a mother who tries to build a normal home life for her sick children while her husband, John (Fraser), and an unconventional scientist (Ford) race against time to find a cure.[17] Russell played Emmy Kadubic in the premiere season of Running Wilde, a Fox comedy series cancelled in May 2011.[18] In the summer of 2006, Russell was chosen to be a celebrity spokeswoman for CoverGirl Cosmetics.[19] In the summer of 2007, Russell appeared in The Keri Kronicles, a reality show/sitcom sponsored by CoverGirl and airing on MySpace; the show was filmed at Russell's home in Manhattan and spotlighted her life.[10] Russell portrayed Wonder Woman in a direct-to-video animated feature released March 3, 2009.[20] Russell has worked with the FX network twice, the first time on their original series Running Wilde, from 2010 to 2011,[21] and most recently in The Americans, playing a KGB spy.[22]

314

Personal life
Russell and Shane Deary, a carpenter she met through mutual friends,[9] became engaged in 2006 and were married on February 14, 2007 in New York.[23] The couple have two children: son River Russell Deary (born June 9, 2007)[24] and daughter Willa Lou Deary (born December 27, 2011).[25]

Filmography
Film
Year Title Role Notes

1992 Honey, I Blew Up the Kid Mandy Park 1997 Eight Days a Week 1998 The Curve 2000 Mad About Mambo 2002 We Were Soldiers 2005 The Upside of Anger 2006 Mission: Impossible III 2006 Grimm Love 2007 Waitress 2007 The Girl in the Park 2007 August Rush 2008 Bedtime Stories 2009 Wonder Woman 2009 Leaves of Grass 2010 Extraordinary Measures 2012 Goats 2013 Austenland 2013 Dark Skies Erica Emma Lucy McLoughlin Barbara Geoghegan Emily Wofmeyer Lindsey Farris Katie Jenna Hunterson Celeste Lyla Novacek Jill Wonder Woman (voice) Video Janet Aileen Crowley Judy Jane Hayes Post-production AKA, Dead Man's Curve

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315

Television
Year 1993 1993 1994 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 Title Boy Meets World Emerald Cove Daddy's Girls Married... with Children Clerks. The Babysitter's Seduction Malibu Shores The Lottery When Innocence Is Lost 7th Heaven Roar Jessica Role Notes Episode: "Grandma Was a Rolling Stone"

Andrea McKinsey TV series Phoebe Walker April Adams Sandra Michelle Winston Chloe Walker Felice Dunbar Erica French Camille Claire Felicity Porter Princess Main role (3 episodes) Episode: "Radio Free Trumaine" TV film TV film Main role (10 episodes) TV film TV film Episode: "Choices" Episodes: "Pilot", "Banshee" Main role (84 episodes) TV film TV film Episode: "Manifest Destiny" Episodes: "My Turf War", "My Cold Shower" Main role (13 episodes)

1998-2002 Felicity 1999 2005 2005 2007 CinderElmo

The Magic of Ordinary Days Livy Into the West Scrubs Naomi Wheeler Melody O'Hara Emmy Kadubic

2010-2011 Running Wilde 2013 The Americans

Elizabeth Jennings Main role

Awards/Nominations
Awards
Year Award Category Outstanding Young Ensemble Cast in a Youth Series or Variety Show Production The All New Mickey Mouse Club Honey, I Blew Up the Kid Result Nominated

1993 Young Artist Award 1993 Young Artist Award 1999 Golden Globe 1999 Teen Choice Award 1999 Teen Choice Award 2000 Teen Choice Award 2001 Teen Choice Award 2002 Teen Choice Award

Best Young Actress Co-Starring in a Motion Picture

Nominated Won Nominated

Best Performance by an Actress in a TV Series - Drama TV - Choice Actress

Felicity Felicity

TV - Breakout Performance

Felicity

Won

TV - Choice Actress

Felicity

Nominated

TV - Choice Actress

Felicity

Nominated

TV - Choice Actress, Drama

Felicity

Nominated

Keri Russell

316
Outstanding Actress in a Miniseries or a Motion Picture Made for Television Movies - Choice Actress: Drama/Action Adventure The Magic of Ordinary Days

2005 Satellite Award

Nominated

2006 Teen Choice Award 2006 Camie 2008 Teen Choice Award

Mission: Impossible III

Nominated Won Nominated

The Magic of Ordinary Days Choice Movie Actress: Drama August Rush

References

[1] Myers, Chuck (2000-08-16). "1st Person: Keri Russell" (http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1G1-64359874. html). Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. . Retrieved 2007-12-09. [2] "Keri Russell- Biography" (http:/ / movies. yahoo. com/ person/ keri-russell/ biography. html;_ylt=AoR7BeOqLIXyjrZydOu4nTn3TssF;_ylu=X3oDMTI2ajBnaDlrBG1pdANQZXJzb24gRW50aXR5IEFib3V0BHBvcwMxBHNlYwNNZWRpYUVudG Yahoo! Movies. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [3] "Six Massive Stars who Started out in the Mickey Mouse Club" (http:/ / www. disneyfanclub. org/ disney-stars/ 2009/ 06/ six-massive-stars-who-started-out-mickey-mouse-club. html). DisneyFanClub.org. 2009-06-11. . Retrieved 2009-07-30. [4] Wells, Rachel (2007-10-07). "Waiting game" (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ news/ film/ waiting-game/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ 1191091279389. html). TheAge.com.au. . Retrieved 2007-10-06. [5] "Keri Russell:Five Fun Facts" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ keri_russell/ 0,,,00. html). People.com. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [6] Walters, David (2008-12-01). "There's Something about Keri" (http:/ / men. style. com/ details/ features/ full?id=content_7604). Style.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-07. [7] King, Susan (2007-05-09). "Life follows fiction for Keri Russell" (http:/ / www. denverpost. com/ movies/ ci_5854250). DenverPost.com. . Retrieved 2007-05-09. [8] "Keri Russell: Biography" (http:/ / www. tvguide. com/ celebrities/ keri-russell/ bio/ 160519). TV Guide. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [9] Bonnelli, Winnie (2007-05-16). "Waitress Serves Up Keri Russell" (http:/ / www. indyeastend. com/ Articles-i-2007-05-16-67914. 113117-Waitress_Serves_Up_Keri_Russell. html). IndyEastend.com (The Independent). . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [10] Gould Keil, Jennifer (2007-05-13). "Covergirl Keri Russell Shoots Web" (http:/ / www. nypost. com/ p/ news/ business/ item_K7eyThWvyv6nk9Xv4gPRrK). NYPost.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [11] Sragow, Michael (2007-05-25). "Keri Russell is a delight in scrumptious 'Waitress'" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070930044728/ http:/ / www. baltimoresun. com/ features/ lifestyle/ bal-to. waitress25may25,0,4638515. story?coll=bal-artslife-today). BaltimoreSun.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. baltimoresun. com/ features/ lifestyle/ bal-to. waitress25may25,0,4638515. story?coll=bal-artslife-today) on 2007-09-30. . Retrieved 2007-05-25. [12] Long, April (2007-11-11). "'Breastfeeding is miraculous'" (http:/ / www. keri-russell. info/ articles/ page_six_111107. htm). . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [13] "Keri Russell helps tell Bedtime Stories" (http:/ / www. totalfilm. com/ movie_news/ keri_russell_helps_tell_bedtime_stories). TotalFilm.com. 2007-11-29. . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [14] "Extraordinary Measures (2010)" (http:/ / us. imdb. com/ title/ tt1244659). IMDb. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. [15] "News and Culture: Brenden Fraser’s Untitled Crowley Project Now Has (Another) Terrible Title" (http:/ / blogs. wweek. com/ news/ author/ amesh). Willamette Week. 2009-09-24. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. [16] "Keri Russell's "Extraordinary" Role" (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ 2100-500184_162-6091677. html). CBS. 2010-06-18. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [17] By (2009-02-12). "Keri Russell nurses CBS film role" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118000105. html?categoryid=14& cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [18] "Exclusive: FX to Burn Off FOX's "Running Wilde" Beginning Thursday, April 28" (http:/ / thefutoncritic. com/ news/ 2011/ 04/ 18/ exclusive-fx-to-burn-off-foxs-running-wilde-beginning-thursday-april-28-632312/ 9227). TheFutonCritic.com. 2011-04-18. . Retrieved 2011-04-19. [19] "Keri Russell takes a turn as Cover Girl" (http:/ / usatoday30. usatoday. com/ life/ people/ 2006-07-11-russell_x. htm). USA Today. 2006-07-11. . Retrieved 2012-10-05. [20] "Keri Russell To Voice Wonder Woman For DVD Feature" (http:/ / forum. newsarama. com/ showthread. php?t=143151). Forum.Newsarama.com. 2008-01-14. . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [21] ‘Running Wilde’ Races for an Audience (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 10/ 05/ arts/ television/ 05wilde. html?pagewanted=all& _r=0) [22] "Keri Russell to Star in FX's 'The Americans'" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ news/ keri-russell-star-fxs-americans-297400). The Hollywood Reporter. . Retrieved 2013-01-12. [23] Jordan, Julie (2007-02-15). "Keri Russell Marries in New York" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20011987,00. html). People. . Retrieved 2007-05-16.

Keri Russell
[24] "Keri Russell Gives Birth to a Boy" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/ 0,,20042985,00. html). People. 2007-06-18. . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [25] "Keri Russell Welcomes Daughter Willa Lou" (http:/ / celebritybabies. people. com/ 2012/ 01/ 05/ keri-russell-welcomes-daughter-willa-lou/ ). People. 2012-01-05. . Retrieved 2012-01-05.

317

External links
• Keri Russell (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm5392/) at the Internet Movie Database

Justin Timberlake

318

Justin Timberlake
Justin Timberlake

Timberlake at the premiere of Shrek The Third in May 2007 Background information Birth name Born Justin Randall Timberlake January 31, 1981 Memphis, Tennessee Pop, dance, R&B Actor, businessman, singer-songwriter Vocals, keyboards, guitar, beatboxing 1993–present Jive, RCA

Genres Occupations Instruments Years active Labels

Associated acts 'N Sync, The Y's Website [justintimberlake.com justintimberlake.com]

Justin Randall Timberlake (born January 31, 1981) is an American actor, businessman, and singer-songwriter. He achieved early fame when he appeared as a contestant on Star Search, and went on to star in the Disney Channel television series The New Mickey Mouse Club, where he met future bandmate JC Chasez. Timberlake became famous in the late 1990s as the lead singer and youngest member of the boy band 'N Sync, whose launch was financed by Lou Pearlman. In 2002, he released his debut solo album, Justified, which sold more than seven million copies worldwide. The album was a commercial success, spawning the hits "Cry Me a River" and "Rock Your Body". Timberlake continued his success with his second solo album, FutureSex/LoveSounds (2006), debuting at number one on the Billboard 200 chart, and produced the US number-one hit singles "SexyBack", "My Love", and "What Goes Around... Comes Around". Timberlake has won six Grammy Awards and four Emmy Awards. His first two albums made him one of the most commercially successful singers in the world, each selling in excess of 7 million copies. He also has an acting career, having starred in films such as The Social Network, Bad Teacher and Friends with Benefits. His other ventures include record label Tennman Records, fashion label William Rast, and the restaurants Destino and Southern Hospitality.

Justin Timberlake

319

Early life
Timberlake was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of Lynn Harless (née Bomar) and Randall Timberlake.[1][2] His paternal grandfather, Charles L. Timberlake, was a Baptist minister, and Timberlake was raised Baptist, though now considers himself more "spiritual than religious".[3] Timberlake's parents divorced in 1985, and both have remarried. His mother, who now runs an entertainment company called Just-in Time Entertainment, remarried to Paul Harless, a banker, when her son was five. His father, a choir director at a Baptist church, has two children, Jonathan (born c. 1993) and Steven Robert (born August 14, 1998), from his second marriage to Lisa Perry. Timberlake's half-sister, Laura Katherine, died shortly after birth on May 14, 1997, and is mentioned in his acknowledgments in the album *NSYNC as "My Angel in Heaven."[4] Timberlake grew up in Shelby Forest, a small community between Memphis and Millington. His first attempts at a singing career were country music songs on Star Search as "Justin Randall."[5] In 1993, Timberlake joined the cast of The Mickey Mouse Club. His castmates included future girlfriend and pop superstar Britney Spears, future tourmate Christina Aguilera, future bandmate JC Chasez, and future movie actor Ryan Gosling.[6] The show ended in 1994, but late in 1995 Timberlake recruited Chasez to be in an all-male singing group organized by boy band manager Lou Pearlman[7] that eventually became 'N Sync.

Career
1995–2002: 'N Sync
Timberlake and JC Chasez were the two lead singers of the popular 1990s boy band 'N Sync.[8] The group formed in 1995, started its career in 1996 in Europe, and hit it big in the United States in 1998 with the U.S. release of its debut album *NSYNC, which sold 11 million copies.[9] The album included a number of hit singles, including "Tearin' Up My Heart". For the next two years, encouraged by similar developments with the Backstreet Boys, 'N Sync engaged in a lengthy legal battle with manager Lou Pearlman. Eventually the band signed with Jive Records.[10] In March 2000, 'N Sync released a long-awaited album, No Strings Attached, which became the fastest-selling album of all time with 2.4 million copies sold in its first week[11] and produced a #1 single, "It's Gonna Be Me". The release was followed by the band's third album, Celebrity, which was the second-fastest selling album of all time. In 2002, after the completion of a Celebrity Tour and the release of "Girlfriend", the third single from Celebrity, the group decided to take time off, at which point Timberlake began work on his first solo album and the group went into a hiatus. In its lifetime, 'N Sync was internationally famous and performed at the Academy Awards,[12] the Olympics,[13] and the Super Bowl,[14] as well as selling more than 50 million copies worldwide,[15] becoming the third-best selling boy band in history.[16] In late 1999, Timberlake made his acting debut in the Disney Channel movie Model Behavior. He played Jason Sharpe, a model who falls in love with a waitress after mistaking her for another model. It was released on March 12, 2000.[17] As a member of 'N Sync, Timberlake developed into a major celebrity in his own right in addition to achieving respect as a musician, since he was the writer or co-writer of all three singles from Celebrity. The rise of his own stardom and the general decline in the popularity of boy bands led to the dissolution of 'N Sync. Band member Lance Bass has stated that he believes the group is finished,[18] and is openly critical of Timberlake's actions in his memoir Out of Sync. JC has also stated several times that the reunion will probably never happen,[19] and he went on to repeat this statement in 2011 and 2012.[20][21][22] On the other hand, Chris Kirkpatrick remarked in August 2008 that the five remain friends, and he believed a reunion was possible.[23] He repeated that opinion in October 2009.[24] In September 2008, Bass also made conciliatory comments.[25] Joey Fatone has said in 2012 that anything could happen[26] and that a reunion would be a great idea for later down the road.[27]

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2002–04: Justified and Super Bowl incident
In August 2002, after months of recording Justified, his debut solo album, Timberlake performed at the 2002 MTV Video Music Awards. He premiered his first single, "Like I Love You", a sparse dance track produced by The Neptunes.[28] The song reached #11 on the Billboard Hot 100.[29] Following the single, Timberlake released Justified on November 5, 2002.[30] The album sold fewer copies than previous 'N Sync efforts. It debuted at #2 on the Billboard 200 album chart, selling 439,000 copies in its first week of release. It eventually went on to sell more than three million copies in the U.S. and more than seven million copies worldwide.[31] The album also received critical acclaim, thanks to its heavy R&B influence provided by hip-hop producers The Neptunes and Timbaland.[32] It spun off hits throughout late 2002 and 2003, including the top ten singles "Cry Me a River" and "Rock Your Body".[29] Timberlake supported the album by co-headlining the Justified/Stripped Tour with Christina Aguilera in the summer of 2003.[33] At the end of the year, Timberlake recorded a song entitled "I'm Lovin' It". It was used by McDonald's as the theme to its "I'm Lovin' It" campaign. The deal with McDonald's earned Timberlake an estimated $6 million. A tour entitled Justified and Lovin' It Live was included with the deal as well.[34] Timberlake was featured on Nelly's song, "Work It", which was remixed and included on Nelly's 2003 remix album.[35] In February 2004, during the halftime show of the Super Bowl XXXVIII broadcast on the CBS television network, Timberlake performed with Janet Jackson before a television audience of more than 140 million viewers. At the end of the performance, as the song drew to a close, Timberlake tore off a part of Jackson's black leather costume in a "costume reveal" meant to accompany a portion of the song lyrics. According to CBS, "both Jackson and Timberlake had confirmed they planned it 'independently and clandestinely' without informing anyone."[36] Part of the costume detached, and Jackson's breast was briefly exposed.[37] Timberlake apologized for the incident, stating he was "sorry that anyone was offended by the wardrobe malfunction during the halftime performance of the Super Bowl...."[38] The phrase "wardrobe malfunction" has since been used by the media to refer to the incident and has entered pop culture.[39] As a result of the controversy, Timberlake and Jackson were threatened with exclusion from the 2004 Grammy Awards unless they agreed to apologize on screen at the event.[40] Timberlake attended and issued a scripted apology when accepting the first of two Grammy Awards he received that night (Best Pop Vocal Album for Justified and Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for "Cry Me a River").[41] He had also been nominated for Album of the Year for Justified, Record of the Year for "Cry Me a River", and Best Rap/Sung Collaboration for "Where Is the Love?" with The Black Eyed Peas.[42] In 2004 American Idol judge Simon Cowell described Timberlake in People Magazine as "just some white kid who's tried to act black over the last several years".

2004–07: Acting and FutureSex/LoveSounds
After the Super Bowl controversy, Timberlake put his recording career on hold to act in several films, having starred in a few feature films earlier in his music career.[6] The first role he took during this time was as a journalist in the thriller Edison Force, which was filmed in 2004 and received a direct-to-video release on July 18, 2006.[43] He also appeared in the films Alpha Dog, Black Snake Moan, Richard Kelly's Southland Tales, and voiced Prince Artie Pendragon in the animated film Shrek the Third, released on May 18, 2007.[44] He also appeared as a young Elton John, in the video for John's song "This Train Don't Stop There Anymore".[45] Timberlake was considered to play the role of Roger Davis in the film version of the rock musical Rent, but director Chris Columbus had insisted that only the original Broadway members could convey the true meaning of Rent.[46] He continued to record with other artists. After "Where Is the Love?", he again collaborated with the Black Eyed Peas on the 2005 track "My Style" from their album Monkey Business.[47] When recording the 2005 single "Signs" with Snoop Dogg, Timberlake discovered a throat condition.[48] Nodules were subsequently removed from his throat in an operation that took place on May 5, 2005.[49] He was advised not to sing or speak loudly for at least a few months.[50] In the summer of 2005, Timberlake started his own record company, JayTee Records.[51] Timberlake made a cameo in the video for Nelly Furtado and Timbaland's single "Promiscuous", released on May 3, 2006.

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Timberlake released his second solo album, FutureSex/LoveSounds, on September 12, 2006.[52] The album, which Timberlake created from 2005 to 2006, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 album chart, selling 684,000 copies its first week.[52] It is the biggest album for pre-orders on iTunes, and beat Coldplay's record for the biggest one-week sales of a digital album.[53] The album was produced by Timbaland and Danja (who produced a bulk of the album), will.i.am, Rick Rubin and Timberlake himself, and features guest vocals by Snoop Dogg, Three 6 Mafia, T.I. and will.i.am.[54] A studio representative described it as being "all about sexiness" and aiming for "an adult feel".[49] The album's lead single, "SexyBack", was performed by Timberlake at the Timberlake at a concert in St. Paul, opening of the 2006 MTV Video Music Awards and reached number one on the Minnesota (2007) Billboard Hot 100, where it remained for seven consecutive weeks.[55] "My Love", the album's second single, also produced by Timbaland and featuring rapper T.I., reached number one on the Hot 100, as did third single "What Goes Around.../...Comes Around Interlude". The song is reported to have been inspired by the break-up of his childhood friend and business partner, Trace Ayala, with actress Elisha Cuthbert.[56] In October 2006, Timberlake said that he would focus on his music career rather than his film roles, specifying that leaving the music industry would be a "dumb thing to do at this point".[55] He was the special guest performer at the 2006 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show for being where he sang SexyBack. In January 2007, Timberlake embarked on the FutureSex/LoveShow tour. "Summer Love/Set the Mood Prelude" was the fourth U.S. single off the album, and the next single in the UK was "LoveStoned/I Think She Knows Interlude". The song "Give It to Me", a Timbaland single on which Timberlake guests with Nelly Furtado, reached the Hot 100 number-one spot.[57] In February 2008, Timberlake was awarded two Grammy Awards. At the 50th Grammy Awards ceremony, Timberlake won the Male Pop Performance Award for "What Goes Around...Comes Around", and the Dance Recording Award for "LoveStoned/I Think She Knows".[58]

2007–2012: Musical hiatus and focus on acting
The song "4 Minutes", was first played by Timbaland at Philadelphia's Jingle Ball on December 17, 2007.[59] When released on March 17, 2008, "4 Minutes" was revealed to be a duet between Timberlake and Madonna, with backing vocals by Timbaland. It was lead single from Madonna's eleventh studio album Hard Candy, which featured four other song-writing collaborations with Timberlake. The single was an international hit, topping the charts in over 21 countries worldwide.[60] Timberlake also appears in the music video, which was directed by Jonas & François. On March 30, 2008, Timberlake performed the song at Madonna's Hard Candy Promo Show at Roseland Ballroom in New York City.[61] On November 6, 2008, Timberlake performed the song with Madonna on the Los Angeles stop of her Sticky & Sweet Tour.[62] Around June 2007 Timberlake co-wrote, produced and provided vocals for the songs "Nite Runner" and "Falling Down" for Duran Duran's album Red Carpet Massacre, released on November 13, 2007. "Falling Down" had been released as a single in the UK on the previous day.[63] Also in 2007, Timberlake made an appearance on 50 Cent's third album, Curtis. Timberlake, along with Timbaland, is featured on a track called "Ayo Technology", which was the album's fourth single. Also, another possible collaboration was to occur with Lil Wayne for his album Tha Carter III with Nelly Furtado and Timbaland.[64] With the wrapping up of the FutureSex/LoveSounds tour of Australasia and the Middle East in November 2007, Timberlake resumed his film career. Projects underway early in 2008 were starring roles in Mike Myers' comedy The Love Guru (released June 20, 2008) and Mike Meredith's drama The Open Road (released August 28, 2009). In March 2008 it was announced that he was to be an executive producer in an American adaptation of the hit Peruvian comedy My Problem with Women for NBC.[65] On November 20, 2008, TV Guide reported that Timberlake’s next single, "Follow My Lead", which also featured vocals by Timberlake’s

Justin Timberlake protégée, former YouTube star Esmee Denters, would be available for exclusive download through MySpace. All proceeds would go to Shriners Hospitals for Children, a charity dedicated to improving pediatric care for sick children.[66] In 2008 a collaboration between Timberlake and T.I., "Dead and Gone" featured on T.I.'s sixth studio album, Paper Trail, and was released as its fourth single late in 2009. In November 2008, it was confirmed that Timberlake would make a guest appearance and produce some tracks on R&B/pop singer Ciara's upcoming album Fantasy Ride due out May 5, 2009. Timberlake featured on Ciara's second single "Love Sex Magic", the video being shot on February 20, 2009.[67] The single became a worldwide hit, reaching the top ten in numerous countries and peaking at number one in several countries including Taiwan, India, and Turkey. The single was nominated for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 52nd Grammy Awards. Timberlake and his production team The Y's, along with Mike Elizondo, produced and co-wrote the song "Don't Let Me Down" for Leona Lewis's second studio album, Echo, released (in the US) on November 17, 2009. Timberlake also co-wrote and performed on "Carry Out", the third single from Timbaland's album Shock Value II, released on December 1, 2009.[68] From 2010, Timberlake increased his acting work. He played Sean Parker, the founder of Napster, in the acclaimed film The Social Network (2010). He also appeared at the 2010 MTV VMAs on Sept. 12, 2010.[69] In 2011, he starred alongside Cameron Diaz in Bad Teacher and then alongside Mila Kunis in Friends with Benefits, and played Will Salas, the protagonist of In Time, a science fiction film by Andrew Niccol.[70] He provided a feature and appeared in the music video for the song Motherlover from The Lonely Island's second album Turtleneck & Chain,[71] and directed and made a cameo in the Free Sol music video "Hoodies On, Hats Low" which was released in August 2011.[72]

322

2013- Return to music and The 20/20 Experience
Timberlake is working on new music.[73] His third studio album, The 20/20 Experience, will be released through RCA Records due to the disbandment of Jive Records.[74][75] On January 14, 2013 he released his first single off the new record entitled, "Suit & Tie" featuring Jay-Z. Timberlake says he began work on the record in June 2012, saying he went into the studio with "no rules and/or end goal in mind".[76] The release date of The 20/20 Experience was revealed as March 19 in the "Suit & Tie" lyric video.[77] Timberlake, after four years not performing in concert, will appear the night before the 2013 Super Bowl. He signed to perform during "DIRECTV Super Saturday Night," on February 2, 2013 in New Orleans.[78]

Artistry
During the production of FutureSex/LoveSounds, Timberlake was interested in rock music.[79] This inspiration was used in his approach in recording the songs, rather than in composing them. Timberlake reveals, "I wanted to sing the song like a rock and roll singer, not an R&B singer."[80] On the influences he drew from, he said that if Justified was "characterized" by Michael Jackson and Stevie Wonder, FutureSex/LoveSounds is more like David Bowie and Prince.[81] Other influences include late INXS-frontman Michael Hutchence,[82] Arcade Fire, David Byrne, The Killers, The Strokes, and Radiohead.[79] Unlike his previous record that was intended to focus on R&B and pop genres,[83] FutureSex/LoveSounds is less concentrated on one particular sound,[84] thus representing a wider range. Timberlake explains, "It's more broad as far as the styles I wanted to mix in to my own type of thing."[84] A musically "complex" album, FutureSex/LoveSounds is a fusion of rap, rock, funk, soul, gospel, new wave, opera, and world music.[81] Entertainment Weekly noted that the album's sound is a "sonic departure" from both 'N Sync and Justified.[85] Although "What Goes Around" sounds similar to Justified, Timberlake admitted that it is the only song in the new album to have such similarity.[83]

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Other ventures
Near the end of 2002, Timberlake was the first celebrity to appear on Punk'd, a "candid camera" type show created by Ashton Kutcher to trick celebrities.[86] Timberlake, who cried during the episode, later admitted to being under the influence of marijuana when he was pranked. Three episodes later, he set up Kelly Osbourne to be "punk'd", thus making him the first celebrity to appear on the show more than once.[87] Timberlake later spoofed Ashton Kutcher and Punk'd in a 2003 episode of NBC's Saturday Night Live.[88] Timberlake has co-owned or provided celebrity endorsement for three restaurants in the United States: "Chi" opened in West Hollywood, California in 2003,[89] and "Destino" and "Southern Hospitalty" in New York opened in 2006 and 2007, respectively.[90] He also has his own brand of tequila called 901; the name comes in part from the area code of his hometown of Memphis.[91] In 2005, Timberlake launched the William Rast clothing line with childhood friend Juan ("Trace") Ayala. The 2007 line contained cord jackets, cashmere Timberlake golfing in 2006. sweaters, jeans and polo shirts.[92] The pair reports inspiration from fellow Memphis native Elvis Presley: "Elvis is the perfect mixture of Justin and I," Ayala says. "You can go back and see pictures of him in cowboy boots and a cowboy hat and a nice button-down shirt, but then again you can see him in a tux and a collared shirt with rhinestones on it and slacks. We like to think 'If he was alive today, what would he be wearing?'"[93] Target has announced that a William Rast collection, including denim, outerwear and sportswear for men and women, would launch in December and be available for a month.[94] hosted many music events, including the European MTV Music Awards in 2006. On December 16, 2006, Timberlake hosted Saturday Night Live, doing double duty as both host and musical guest for the second time. During this appearance, he and Andy Samberg performed an R&B song for a skit entitled "Dick in a Box", which some radio stations have aired as an unofficial single from Timberlake and has become one of the most viewed videos on YouTube. The song was later featured on The Lonely Island's debut album Incredibad. Timberlake provides celebrity endorsement for many commercial products, this aspect of his business being managed by IMG Sports & Entertainment since April 2008.[95] Major endorsements in 2009 included Sony electronic products,[96] Givenchy's men's fragrance "Play",[97] Audi's "A1",[98] Callaway Golf Company products,[99][100] and in 2011, MySpace.[101][102] An avid amateur golfer, in 2007 Timberlake purchased the run-down Big Creek Golf Course in his home town of Millington, Tennessee, which he redeveloped as the eco-friendly Mirimichi Golf Course at a cost of some $US16 million. It was reopened on 25 July 2009 but closed again on 15 January 2010 for further improvements expected to take six months.[103] In October 2011, Timberlake received the Futures Award at the Environmental Media Awards for his green-conscious golf course.[104] Timberlake appeared on Jimmy Fallon's debut as host of Late Night with Jimmy Fallon on March 2, 2009.[105] Timberlake is the executive producer on the MTV reality series The Phone, which premiered on April 21, 2009. According to People Magazine, the series "thrusts contestants into a heart-stopping action adventure worthy of a summer blockbuster. In six hour-long episodes, a mysterious stranger on the phone invites four strangers into the dangerous game. If they accept, they're paired into two teams and dared to perform physical and mental challenges reminiscent of Matt Damon's The Bourne Identity or Shia LaBeouf's Eagle Eye."[106]

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Charitable causes
Timberlake has been active in several charitable pursuits, initially through 'N Sync's "Challenge for the Children" aimed at a range of charities, and since 2001 through his "Justin Timberlake Foundation," which initially funded music education programs in schools, but now has a much broader agenda.[107] In October 2005, the Grammy Association presented Timberlake with an award for his humanitarian efforts in Tennessee, alongside writer/director Craig Brewer, also a Memphis native.[108] In November 2007 he donated A$100,000 from takings from his Australian tour to Wildlife Warriors founded by Steve Irwin.[109] On March 23, 2008, he donated $100,000 to the Memphis Rock 'n' Soul Museum and another $100,000 to the Memphis Music Foundation.[110] On November 12, 2007, the PGA Tour announced that Timberlake, an avid golfer who plays to a 6 handicap,[111] would become the host of the tour's Las Vegas tournament starting in 2008. With Timberlake's agreement to host the tournament, its name was changed to the Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open. He played in the celebrity pro-am on the day before the competitive tournament and hosted a charity concert during the week of the tournament.[112] The activity was a success, and was repeated in 2009. A review of the value of celebrities to fundraising concluded that Timberlake's contribution to Shriners Hospitals for Children was the single most valuable celebrity endorsement in the US during 2009, and worth over $US9 million.[113]

Personal life
Timberlake stated in 2008 that he has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.[114] Timberlake was given Sexiest Man titles by Teen People and Cosmopolitan magazines.[115] On February 17, 2009, Timberlake was named the "Most Stylish Man in America" by GQ magazine.[116] In 2011, he ranked No. 46 on AskMen's annual rundown of the 49 Most Influential Men.[117] Timberlake & Jessica Biel are also minority owners of Memphis Grizzlies.[118] In July 2011 United States Marine and Timberlake fan Kelsey De Santis uploaded a YouTube video asking him to be her date to that year's United States Marine Corps birthday ball; he accepted the invite, and they attended the event on November 13, 2011 in Richmond, Virginia.[119][120]

Timberlake with Marine Cpl. Kelsey De Santis at the Instructor Battalion Marine Corps Ball in November 2011. Timberlake attended as De Santis' date after she issued an invitation via YouTube.

Relationships
Early in 1999, Timberlake began what eventually became a high-profile celebrity relationship with fellow pop singer Britney Spears, with whom he had worked on The New Mickey Mouse Club. This ended abruptly in March 2002. The breakup influenced the lyrics and theme of Timberlake's hit "Cry Me a River", one of the most popular singles from Justified.[121] Timberlake began dating actress Cameron Diaz soon after they met at the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards in April 2003. Regular rumours of break-ups reported in the tabloid press were either ignored or occasionally denied.[122][123] On the December 16, 2006 episode of Saturday Night Live, Diaz introduced Timberlake as the night's musical guest, and the couple officially split shortly afterwards. After the tabloid press alleged an affair between Timberlake and Scarlett Johansson, with whom he had shot the video for his single "What Goes Around.../...Comes Around Interlude",[124] Diaz and Timberlake issued a joint statement on January 11, 2007:[125]

Justin Timberlake It has always been our preference not to comment on the status of our relationship, but, out of respect for the time we've spent together, we feel compelled to do so now, in light of recent speculation and the number of inaccurate stories that are being reported by the media. We have, in fact, ended our romantic relationship and have done so mutually and as friends, with continued love and respect for one another.[126] Later in January 2007, Timberlake was linked to actress Jessica Biel when pictures surfaced of the two snowboarding in Park City, Utah during the Sundance Film Festival. On May 12, 2007, romantic pictures of Timberlake and Biel on multiple dates were published.[127][128] In the August 9–15, 2008 edition of Heat magazine, when Timberlake was asked to describe his perfect woman, he replied "About 5ft. 7in.–5ft. 8in., nice butt, Midwestern American, kind-of-German last name, green eyes, big pouty lips, fair skin, ahhh....sinewy bod..."[129] However, during an appearance on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on June 11, 2008 when Jay Leno questioned him about anything related to rumors of engagement and pregnancy, Timberlake jokingly responded that he "is engaging in a conversation with Leno" and "everybody in general can get pregnant".[130] In March 2011, after four years together, Timberlake and Biel announced that they had broken up.[131][132] However, by fall 2011, the couple appeared to have reunited, and in late December 2011, Timberlake proposed to Biel in the mountains of Jackson, Wyoming.[133][134][135] The couple married on October 19, 2012 at the Borgo Egnazia resort in Fasano, Italy.[136][137]

325

Discography
• Justified (2002) • FutureSex/LoveSounds (2006) • The 20/20 Experience (2013)

Tours
• Justified World Tour (2003–04) • Justified & Stripped Tour (2003) • FutureSex/LoveShow (2007)

References
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