Blood Typing

By: Caraan, Cu, del Rosario, Dino, Dumangon, Otchengco

What is ABO Blood Group System?
Classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of the red blood cells. Determined by the presence of Antigens A and B. Most common blood group system.

Has four blood groups :
A, B, O, and AB blood groups. A blood type can either be Rh+ or Rh-

The people behind the ABO Blood Group System…

A. and O blood groups . B.Karl Landsteiner Austrian Scientist Discovered three of the four blood group system in the year 1900.

Alfred von Decastello & Adrian Sturli Discovered the AB blood group in the year 1900 .

von Dungern & Felix Burnstein Discovered the heritability of ABO Blood Groups in 1924. E. . Correct blood group inheritance pattern of multiple alleles at one locus.Ludwik Hirszfield.

N-acetylgalactosamine for Type A blood Galactose for Type B blood .Watkins & Morgan English scientists They discovered that the ABO epitopes were conferred by sugars.

Type O blood contains no antigens making it the universal donor.ABO Blood Group System Essential for blood transfusion Type AB blood does not contain antibodies making it the universal recipient. .

. Defined as Rh+ or Rh-. Incompatibility can cause Blue-Baby Syndrome of the new born.Rh Factor Presence or absence of the D antigen.

Methods of Blood Typing .

Three Manual Methods Glass slide or white porcelain tile Glass test tube Microwell plate or microplate .

Newer Techniques Column technique (sephadex gel) Solid phase tests .

.Slide or Tile Testing This technique is used for emergency ABO grouping tests It should always be supplemented with a cell and serum grouping using any one of the other above mentioned techniques.

Slide of Tile Testing Slide or tile testing is not recommended for routine use because it is not reliable for weakly reactive antigens on cells serum grouping with low titre anti-A or anti-B .

Add 1 drop of 20% test red cell suspension to each drop of the typing antiserum Mix the cells and reagent using a clean stick. Spread each mixture evenly on the slide over an area of 10-15 mm diameter. .Procedure Place 1 drop of anti-A and 1 drop of anti-B reagent separately on a labeled slide or tile.

Then rock again and look for agglutination.Procedure Tilt the slide and leave the test for 2 minutes at room temperature (22°-24°C). . Record the results.

.Disadvantages of Slide Method Less sensitive than the tube test Drying up of the reaction mixture can cause aggregation of cells. giving false positive results. Weaker reactions are difficult to interpret.

Cell grouping / forward grouping Serum grouping / reverse grouping .Tube Testing Test tubes either of glass or plastic may be used. The tube technique is more sensitive than slide technique for ABO grouping. of lOx75mm size.

Anti-B. Ac. Set up 6 tubes correctly labeled with donor/patient no.Cell and Serum Grouping Spin test sample to separate serum. Bc and Cc. . Prepare once washed 2-5% suspension of the test cells. Anti A. Anti-AB.

Cell and Serum Grouping Add I drop of anti-A in tube labeled A. anti-B in tube labeled B. and anti-AB in tube labeled AB. Add 1 drop of 2-5% test cell suspension in the three tubes A.B and AB. .

Add I drop each of reagents A cells in labeled tube Ac. .Cell and Serum Grouping Add 2 drops each of the test serum in tubes labeled Ac. Mix all the 6 tubes and centrifuge at 1000 rpm for 1 minute.Bc and Cc. B cells in labeled tube Bc and 0 cells in tube labeled Oc.

.Cell and Serum Grouping Resuspend cell button by gently shaking the tubes and read against well-lit background. Record results according to grades of agglutination.

Direct and Indirect… .

it can be performed on few drops of venous or capillary blood (i. It is a basic and simple test.Direct ABO Blood Typing This test detects the presence of A and B antigens on RBCs surface by means of agglutination utilizing commercial antisera.e. . obtained by finger pricks) .



Indirect “Serum” Blood Typing This test is used to confirm and must not substitute the front grouping that remains the pillar of ABO typing. .

.Indirect “Serum” Blood Typing Reverse grouping is useful in resolving the infrequent but possible dubious or weak results in the front typing. and it helps to identify the rare cases of false negative and false positive results.


Antigens and Antibodies… .




Inheritance of ABO Blood Types… .

Type O is the recessive allele. IB for Type B blood .Inheritance of ABO Blood Groups Controlled by the long arm of chromosome no. Type A and Type B are codominant. and i. 9 Composed of three alleles: IA. . and i for the Type O blood. IB. IA represents Type A blood.

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