Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s

Review Questions
10.1 What is motion study? Answer: Motion study is the analysis of the basic hand, arm, and body movements of workers as they perform manual work or other physical activity. 10.2 What is work design? Answer: Work design is the design of the methods and motions used to perform a task, the workplace layout and environment, and the tooling and equipment (e.g., workholders, fixtures, hand tools, portable power tools, and machine tools). Work design is the design of the work system. 10.3 What is a therblig? Answer: A therblig is a basic motion element, the basic building block of virtually all manual work. The 17 therbligs were defined by Frank Gilbreth, who devised the word therblig by spelling his own name backwards (except for the “th”). 10.4 Identify some of the ineffective therbligs. Answer: The eight therbligs classified as ineffective in the text are hold, pre-position, position, search, select, plan, unavoidable delay, and avoidable delay. 10.5 What is the term sometimes used for the kind of analysis involving therbligs in a task? Answer: Micromotion analysis. 10.6 What are the general objectives of micromotion analysis? Answer: The general objectives listed in the text are the following: (1) Eliminate therbligs that are ineffective if possible; for example, eliminate the need to search for parts or tools by positioning them in a known and fixed location in the workplace. (2) Avoid the use of the hand for holding parts; use a workholder instead. (3) Combine therbligs where possible; for example, perform right hand and left hand motions simultaneously. (4) Simplify the overall method; for example, by re-sequencing therbligs in the cycle. (5) Reduce the time required for the motion; for example, shorten distances of therbligs such as transport empty and transport loaded. 10.7 Name some of the principles of motion economy that deal with the use of the two hands. Answer: There are five principles given in the text that are identified as principles of motion economy that deal with the use of the two hands: (1) Design the work so that both hands are fully utilized. (2) The two hands should begin their motions at the same time and end their motions at the same time. (3) The motions of the hands and arms should be symmetrical and simultaneous. (4) The work should be designed to emphasize the worker’s preferred hand. (5) The worker’s two hands should never be idle at the same time. 10.8 Why are smooth continuous curved motions better than straight-line motions when performing manual work?
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Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

for example. during which he had to grasp and regrasp the fitting ten times due to the limited rotation ability of his own wrist. which require deceleration and acceleration.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s Answer: Smooth continuous curved motions are better because straight-line motions involve abrupt changes in direction. . reached for the monkey wrench in his tool kit. pushing around a few other tools before grasping the wrench and picking it up. All rights reserved. 10. 2 Work Systems and the Methods. kneeling on the floor next to the sink. These stop and start motions tend to cause greater fatigue for the worker than smooth continuous curved motions. Also. positioned it onto the pipe fitting. Inc.9 What is the lowest classification of hand and arm motions? Answer: The lowest classification of hand and arm motions is finger motions only. Solution: List of therbligs with descriptions. both the seat and back should be padded. 10. © 2007 Pearson Education. from one location in the workplace to another. for example. he put down the wrench and continued turning by hand. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 10. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Four rotations were required before the fitting was free of the mating pipe threads. Once loose. He then moved it to the pipe beneath the sink.. 10. Upper Saddle River. It generally allows for quicker acquisition of an item than a conventional tray. Groover. as well as a means of increasing and decreasing the amount of back support.10 What is the difference between eye focus and eye travel? Answer: Eye focus is when the eye adjusts to a change in viewing distance.12 What is a gravity feed bin and what is its advantage over a simple tray? Answer: A gravity feed bin is a container that uses gravity to move the items in it to a convenient access point for the worker. 10.11 What advantage does the use of the legs have over the use of the arms? Answer: The legs are stronger. The sequence begins with the plumber kneeling in front of the sink.14 Why are multiple-function tools better than separate tools for each function? Answer: Less time is usually required to reposition a multiple-function tool than to put one single-function tool down and pick another one up. Problems Therbligs 10. Write a list of the therbligs that comprise this motion sequence and label each basic motion with a brief description.13 What are the desirable adjustments on a chair designed for the workplace? Answer: The desirable adjustments usually include seat height and back height. but the eye focus distances are the same. NJ. Eye travel occurs when the eye must adjust to a line-of-sight change. Measurement. from 25 inches to 10 inches with little or no change in line of sight. 10.1 The plumber. and turned the fitting one-third of a rotation to loosen it. This might be helpful in lifting tasks. We assume the plumber is right-handed and the dominant motion elements are performed with the right hand.

1. Hold envelope 13. Upper Saddle River. the scanner audibly responded that it had successfully identified and recorded the item. 2. Hold envelope 14. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Hold envelope 10. 6. Left hand Therbligs TE G TE G H H H P H H H H H H TL RL TE G TL P U TL RL TE G TL Right hand Reach for envelope Grasp envelope Move envelope to left hand Release envelope Reach for letter opener Grasp letter opener Move letter opener Position blade under seal Use letter opener Lay the letter opener aside Release letter opener Reach into envelope Grasp the document Pull out the document 1. the clerk punched one of the buttons on the cash register to 3 Work Systems and the Methods. Grasp envelope 5. All rights reserved. Reach to exchange envelope 4. she laid the letter opener aside. Measurement. and reached into the envelope with her right hand. Position envelope 9. 7. Since this was the only item the customer had brought into checkout lane. © 2007 Pearson Education. 3. Inc. picked it up. 11. positioned the blade under the sealed lid of the envelope. Hold envelope 11. Still holding the envelope in her left hand. NJ. 4. Hold envelope 7. Hold envelope 10.. Therblig symbol TE Sh St G TL PP U TL RL TE G DA Therblig name Transport empty Search Select Grasp Transport loaded Pre-position Use Transport loaded Release load Transport empty Grasp Disassemble Description Reach for monkey wrench Search for monkey wrench in tool kit Select the monkey wrench Grasp the monkey wrench Move wrench to pipe beneath sink Position wrench onto pipe fitting Rotate wrench to loosen pipe fitting Move wrench away from pipe fitting Put down wrench Move hand back to pipe fitting Grasp pipe fitting Turn pipe fitting by hand to separate 10. Write a list of the therbligs that comprise this motion sequence and label each basic motion with a brief description. picked it up and exchanged it to her left hand. 9. 12. and proceeded to slit the top of the envelope open.3 The grocery store checkout clerk picked up the item from the checkout table and moved it across the bar code scanner. 10. pulled out the document. 2. Seq. Solution: List of therbligs. Hold envelope 12.2 The secretary reached for the envelope with her right hand. 5. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. She then reached for the letter opener with her right hand. Hold envelope 6. 3. and began to read. Immediately. . Groover. 8. Hold envelope 8.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s Seq.

Punch button on register 7. Left hand The TE G TL TE P U TE G TL H H RL H H H H H TL PP TE G TL RL Right hand Reach for item on checkout table Grasp item on checkout table Move item across scanner Hold item Hold item Hold item Hold item Hold item Move item toward bag Position item into bag Move to hold the bag Grasp bag Hand bag to customer Release bag to customer 1. Move to bag 8. Inc. Solution: List of therbligs. 4. 3. Solution: List of therbligs. the checkout clerk placed the item into an open plastic bag in front of him. . and read the sentence. While the register printed. Move toward cash register 5. Move bag toward item 10. the writer reached for the mechanical pencil. Release bag 13. picked up and closed the bag. 5. Seq. 9. and handed it to the customer. positioned it.4 Sitting at her desk. and then began to write on the pad of paper. 1. 10. 8. After finishing one sentence. and Management of Work by Mikell P. All rights reserved. Measurement. 2. picked it up. © 2007 Pearson Education. Position finger over key 6. she lifted the pencil. Grasp bag 9. she erased one of the words in the sentence. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Therblig symbol TE G TL U TL H I TL RL TE G Therblig name Transport empty Grasp Transport loaded Use Transport loaded Hold Inspect Transport loaded Release Transport empty Grasp Description Reach for mechanical pencil Pick up pencil Position pencil relative to paper Write on the pad of paper Lift the pencil Hold the pencil Read the sentence Move the pencil to put it aside Put pencil aside Reach for the rectangular eraser nearby Grasp the eraser 4 Work Systems and the Methods. 4. Seq. Groover. 14. Hold bag 12.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s print out the sales slip. 10.. Write a list of the therbligs that comprise this motion sequence and label each basic motion with a brief description. 11. 2. Write a list of the therbligs that comprise this motion sequence and label each basic motion with a brief description. She then put the pencil aside and reached for the rectangular eraser nearby. Grasping and positioning it. Upper Saddle River. NJ. Hold bag 11. 6. 7. 3.

ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Better yet. 4. he applied additional torque to tighten the vise. 5. Therblig symbol TE G TL P H TE G U Therblig name Transport empty Grasp Transport loaded Position Hold Transport empty Grasp Use Description Reach for the small part a short distance away Grasp the part Move part toward vice Position part in vice Hold part in vice with one hand Reach for vice handle with other hand Grasp vice handle Rotate screw handle to tighten vice (six times) 10. This allows much more precise control over the area to be erased. 6. Minimize the distance of the reach to the pencil and eraser by locating items in the workplace in close proximity to each other. 3. identify some areas for possible study that might improve the method. he had to grasp and regrasp the handle six times due to the limited rotation ability of his own wrist. identify some areas for possible study that might improve the method. NJ. 10. 13. indicating the nature of the improvement that might result. Instead of a pencil and paper pad. 3. 5 Work Systems and the Methods. 2.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. then put the eraser aside and pick up the pencil. Upper Saddle River. indicating the nature of the improvement that might result.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s 12. Solution: Areas for possible study to improve the method include the following: 1. . 1. Instead of using a rectangular eraser. 2.7 For the previous problem. © 2007 Pearson Education. 7. Seq. P U Position Use Position the eraser over the word Erase one of the words in the sentence 10. use a stick eraser. picked up the part. Solution: Areas for possible study to improve the method include the following: 1. use a personal computer equipped with word processor. 8. 4. In rotating the screw handle. The worker then rotated the screw handle of the vise three turns to hold the part between the vise jaws. equip the workstation with a fast-acting pneumatic clamp. use a pencil equipped with an eraser to avoid having to put the pencil aside and pick up the separate eraser. This allows for much easier editing than pencil and eraser. Inc. Write a list of the therbligs that comprise this motion sequence and label each basic motion with a brief description. Instead of a conventional vice with screw handle to close jaws. 2. Then the worker would position the part with one hand and actuate the clamp with the other in two quick motions. Measurement. On the final turn.5 For the previous problem. All rights reserved. Solution: List of therbligs. Groover.6 The worker reached for the small part a short distance away in the workplace. and placed it in a vise. Minimize the distance of the reach to and transport of the small part by locating items in the workplace in close proximity to each other.

hesitating momentarily while searching for the correct size from the group of Allen wrenches lying there. Better yet. Instead of using the conventional L-shaped Allen wrench. Solution: List of therbligs. At this point she gripped the Allen wrench handle with her hand and tightened the screw the last quarter turn. Measurement. 2. have only the correct size of wrench in the workplace. 11. © 2007 Pearson Education. Instead of having an entire set of Allen wrenches in the workplace. This would eliminate the need for the worker to search for the correct size from a group of Allen wrenches. Solution: Areas for possible study to improve the method include the following: 1. 5. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.8 The assembly worker reached for an Allen wrench in the workplace. Minimize the distance of the reach to the Allen wrench by locating items in the workplace in close proximity to each other. A screwdriver is generally easier to 6 Work Systems and the Methods. indicating the nature of the improvement that might result. she picked it up and positioned it into the hexagonal socket of a screw that had previously been hand-turned into a threaded hole in the work unit. 6. 10. All rights reserved. use a screwdriver equipped with a hexagonal tip of the particular size needed. Groover. Assuming the operation performed by the worker is a repetitive cycle. This would eliminate reaching “for the part a short distance away in the workplace. Seq. Finding the correct size. 3. the dispenser could be designed so that it also served as the workholder for the cycle.9 For the previous problem. 1. She then twirled the Allen wrench handle with one continuous finger and wrist motion until the screw had been rotated seven turns. 8. . 10. Upper Saddle River. 4. Inc. identify some areas for possible study that might improve the method.” before placing it in the vice. 3. It minimizes the requirement for hand-eye coordination during the reach. NJ. Write a list of the therbligs that comprise this motion sequence and label each basic motion with a brief description.. The part would already be in the workholder.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s 3. Therblig symbol TE St G TL P RL TE U TE G U Therblig name Transport empty Select Grasp Transport loaded Position Release Transport empty Use Transport empty Grasp Use Description Reach for the Allen wrench in the workplace Select the correct size Grasp the Allen wrench Pick up and move Allen wrench toward screw Position Allen wrench into hexagonal socket Release grip on Allen wrench Move wrist and finger in preparation for turning Twirl Allen wrench with one continuous motion (6 turns) Reposition wrist and hand Grip Allen wrench in preparation for tightening Tighten screw with Allen wrench (quarter turn) 10. 4. 2. the part could be presented to the worker using a dispenser that would locate the part in an exact position at the start of each cycle. 7. 9. Then the worker would not have to get the part and place it in a separate workholder.

although it might have been the contemporary writing tool of the times. Use a word processor on a PC. Thus. Principles of Motion Economy 10. Hand tools should be designed for operator comfort and convenience.. Dickens’ hand tool was not designed for maximum comfort. the only light provided by the lone candle in front of him on the desk. rather than rely on the judgment of the worker.1. 2. 4. we mention them anyway): 1. 2. the entire sequence of starting the screw into the hole. (b) Recommendations for improvement include the following (these improvements would not have been technologically possible during Dickens’ life. If the powered screwdriver also had a screw feeder.10 Charles Dickens continued working well into the night. (Recommended illumination levels are discussed in Section 25. (b) Make recommendations for improving the work method and workplace. 3. 4. the position of the candle (”in front of him on the desk”). probably causes glare. Although it was not technologically feasible in Dickens’ time. Adequate illumination is not provided by “the lone candle in front of him on the desk. Use overhead lighting that provides sufficient illumination for the task. turning it six times. The quill used by Dickens. . thus slowing down the writing process. 7 Work Systems and the Methods. The quill must be periodically dipped into an ink reservoir. The powered screwdriver could be set to deliver just the correct amount of torque.) Use a writing instrument other than a quill. 5. © 2007 Pearson Education. Adequate illumination must be provided for the workplace. Inc. Although he was not aware of it. and utility. 3. today the task of writing is largely performed using personal computers equipped with word processing software. All rights reserved. convenience.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s use than an Allen wrench. The light source would better be placed to the side so that it does not shine directly in Dickens’ face. Measurement. Manual operations should be mechanized or automated wherever economically and technologically feasible. Use a mechanical pencil or ballpoint pen instead. is not as efficient as modern writing instruments like mechanical pencils and ballpoint pens. the previous work element of hand turning the screw into the threaded hole could be eliminated. (a) Identify some of the principles of motion economy that seem to be violated by Dickens’ method of working and workplace. and then tightening it could be accomplished in one short element. writing with his quill on one piece of paper after the next. Solution: (a) Principles of motion economy that seem to be violated include the following: 1. Groover. The worker could perform the turning and tightening in one element rather than separating the “twirling” and “tightening” elements.” In addition. probably several times per sentence. A powered screwdriver equipped with the correct hexagonal tip could be used rather than a manual tool. Upper Saddle River. although it provides less than adequate illumination. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ.

The task description states that the worker “picks up the pegs from a tray about 10 inches away in front of her with her right hand and inserts them into the holes in the board. (a) Identify some of the principles of motion economy that are violated in this work cycle. one peg at a time. then she should acquire the top board with her left hand. Because she reaches for “the top board in the stack with her right hand” even though the board is located “on the left side of the worktable (about 15 inches away from center). ISBN 0-13-140650-7. “Because of delays by the material handling worker. Upper Saddle River.” The worker is idle and so are both of her hands. The method should be redesigned so that both hands are inserting pegs into the board while the board is being held in a workholder.11 The assembly worker is performing a repetitive manual task consisting of inserting 8 plastic pegs into 8 holes in a flat wooden board. A slight interference fit is involved in each insertion. 3. Groover. pick it up. one peg at a time. © 2007 Pearson Education. and Management of Work by Mikell P. where they are placed by a material handling worker). The work should be designed to emphasize the worker’s preferred hand. The lowest classification of hand and arm motions should be used.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s 10. NJ. Workholding devices should be designed for the task. 5. . the assembly worker is occasionally forced to stop working and wait for the pallet exchange to occur. 2. Design the work so that both hands are fully utilized. The worker’s two hands should never be idle at the same time. Inc. a worker’s hand should not be used as a workholder. carries it to a pallet located on the floor three feet away from the workplace. and exchange it to the left hand. Yet the starting boards are located on the left side of the workplace. and then placing the assembled board into a rack that is next to the starting stack. If there is some reason why the stack must be located on the left side of the workplace. When the rack is full. and places it onto the pallet. The rack holding the completed boards has a capacity of six assemblies. (b) What recommendations for improvement would you make? Solution: (a) and (b) Principles of motion economy that seem to be violated and corresponding recommendations for improvement include the following: 1. she picks up the pegs from a tray about 10 inches away in front of her with her right hand and inserts them into the holes in the board. Her first step in the work cycle is to reach for the top board in the stack with her right hand. While holding the board in her left hand. All rights reserved. The worker uses her left hand simply to hold the board. picks up the loaded rack. performing the 8 insertions. Measurement. 4. The pallet only holds four racks on one layer. the worker gets up from her worktable. Because the left hand is used only as a workholder. we can infer that the worker is right-handed. Because of delays by the material handling worker.. They should be located on the right side if the right hand is used. it is not fully utilized. A workholder should be designed for the task.” The implication is that the forearm and upper arm are used for each 8 Work Systems and the Methods. Each work cycle consists of her picking up a board from the stack of boards located on the left side of the worktable (about 15 inches away from center. the assembly worker is occasionally forced to stop working and wait for the pallet exchange to occur. A material handling worker riding in a forklift truck must periodically take the pallet away and replace it with an empty pallet.

Upper Saddle River. and places it onto the pallet. When the rack is full. Gravity feed bins should be used to deliver small parts. she erased one of the words in the sentence. (a) Identify some of the principles of motion economy that are violated in this work sequence. she lifted the pencil. (b) What recommendations for improvement would you make? 9 Work Systems and the Methods. She then put the pencil aside and reached for the eraser nearby. picks up the loaded rack. the author reached for her wooden pencil. A location closer to center would be an improvement. All rights reserved. carries it to a pallet located on the floor three feet away from the workplace.” This is very inefficient. she went and took a nap.. NJ. The time to acquire the pegs could be reduced if the tray were closer. Groover. Grasping and positioning it. 10. erasing. This mechanized method would also avoid requiring the worker to place the filled rack onto a pallet every six boards. are not optimally positioned in the workplace. A similar storage device could be designed to accept the assembled boards as they are completed. located 15 inches to the left of workplace center. 6. There are several violations of this principle: (a) The placement of the starting stacks and racks to receive the finished boards. positioned it. This would require finger and wrist motions for the insertions. If she could handle 4 pegs at a time in each hand. instead of requiring her to reach for the empty boards at the beginning of each cycle and then place the assembled boards in a rack at the end of the cycle. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Inc. The capacity of the gravity feed bin would probably be greater than the capacity of a tray. It is currently 10 inches away. (b) The same comment applies to the location of the tray holding the pegs. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 8. The worker should pick up several pegs at a time and insert them all before going back to the tray for more. correcting. Periodically. the worker gets up from her worktable. Tools and materials should be located close to where they are used. Instead of using a tray to hold the pegs. Such a system would achieve a much higher production rate because it would avoid (a) the irregular work elements to change racks and load pallets and (b) the forced delays when the material handler does not arrive on time. and read the sentence. Manual operations should be mechanized or automated wherever economically and technologically feasible.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s peg – reaching for the pegs “one at a time” in a tray that is 10 inches away. and then continuing to write. use a gravity feed bin.12 Sitting in front of her all-wooden desk in her all-wooden chair. she would repeat this sequence of writing. then all 8 pegs could be retrieved using two simultaneous upper arm trips to the tray rather than 8 trips using one hand to retrieve one peg each trip. and then began to write on the pad of paper. picked it up. She then laid the eraser aside. . Measurement. After working in this way for about two hours. picked the pencil up. An automated storage device could be designed to hold a large supply of starting boards and to feed them to the conveyor system. and continued writing. 7. After finishing one sentence. (c) “The rack holding the completed boards has a capacity of six assemblies. made a correction. The pallet should be in an elevated location much closer than three feet away so that the worker can move the rack more conveniently. © 2007 Pearson Education. A conveyorized workstation could be implemented to feed the boards to the worker one at a time.

After looking around. use a personal computer equipped with word processor. His final cleaning step is to pick up any trash items that may have been left in the room by the passengers. goes back into the hallway and walks down to the closet where the fresh bed linens are kept. Measurement. he walks into the room to look around. Manual operations should be mechanized or automated wherever economically and technologically feasible. (b) Besides the principles of motion economy. puts it into the hamper on his cart. he goes back out into the hallway. 10. the steward reaches for his master key in his pocket. picks up the used towels and carries them out to the cart hamper. His first cleaning step is to vacuum the room and adjoining bathroom. This allows for much faster creation of the document and easier editing than pencil and eraser. Instead of a pencil and paper pad. NJ. He then goes back into the hallway and walks down to the same closet as before to obtain fresh towels for the room. and pushes his cart into the room. . 3. Given no response.13 The Calm Seas Cruise Ship Line wants to analyze the method used by its stewards to clean each of the passenger cabins on its ships. Instead of using a rectangular block eraser.Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s Solution: (a) and (b) Principles of motion economy that seem to be violated and corresponding recommendations for improvement include the following: 1. Multiple tooling functions should be combined into one tool wherever possible. 4. what other deficiencies in the method can you identify? (c) What recommendations for improvement in the method would you make? Solution: (a) Principles of motion economy that seem to be violated include the following: 10 Work Systems and the Methods. Instead of a pencil and paper pad. © 2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The all-wooden chair does not have the adjustments necessary to fit the chair to the worker’s anatomy for the writing task. It allows much more precise control over the area to be erased. He picks out a set of linen. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. opens it slightly and yells “housekeeping. and proceeds to make the bed. and Management of Work by Mikell P. A proper chair should be provided for the worker. He then goes back into the hallway for his vacuum cleaner and carries it into the room. Design the work so that both hands are fully utilized. unlocks the door. carries them back to the room. use a stick eraser. Next. Groover. Inc. From his cart. he obtains fresh soap items for the bathroom. First the steward knocks on the cabin door with his right hand to determine if the room is empty. Upper Saddle River. then put the eraser aside and pick up the pencil. The current method used by a steward to clean one cabin is the following. 5. use a personal computer equipped with word processor. He then strips the bed linen. An adjustable chair should be provided. Use a pencil equipped with an eraser to avoid having to put the pencil aside and pick up the separate eraser. he walks into the bathroom.” If there is still no answer. Hand tools should be designed for operator comfort and convenience. 2.. (a) Identify some of the principles of motion economy that are violated in this method. Both hands are used to depress the keys in the keyboard. He brings the towels back and places them onto racks in the bathroom.

Solutions Manual: Ch10-Motion Study-s 1. so the cart and vacuum can be moved simultaneously. The fact that the towels and bed linens are located in the hallway closet violates this principle. Materials should be located close to where they are used. What is the purpose of walking into the room and looking around before going back into the hallway to obtain the cart? Why not just push the cart into the room after yelling “housekeeping. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.” In the work sequence. the steward vacuums before stripping the bed. 3. Why does the steward have to carry the vacuum cleaner into the room? It should be equipped with wheels that make it easy to maneuver into the room. 11 Work Systems and the Methods. they should both be obtained in one trip for each cabin. 4. 5. Groover. (c) Recommendations for improvement include the following: 1. Tools and materials should be placed in locations that are consistent with the sequence of work elements in the work cycle. 2. (b) Other deficiencies in the method include the following: 1. The bed linen should be stripped before using the vacuum cleaner to avoid items contained in the bed linens from dropping onto the freshly vacuumed carpet. Portable powered tools should be designed for operator comfort and convenience. All rights reserved. 3. The steward should not make two trips to the hall closet. NJ. The cart should include a space to hold the bed linens and towels so the steward does not have to make two trips to the closet to fetch them. 2. . The steward should collect the soiled bed linen and towels in one sweep of the cabin and put both into the cart hamper in the same step. 2. Include a holder on the cart to locate the vacuum cleaner. Tools should be located in fixed positions within the work area. The vacuum cleaner location seems to violate this principle because it is not attached to the cart. Multiple operations should be performed simultaneously rather than sequentially wherever possible. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Better yet. the towels and bed linens are located in a closet that is somewhere in the hallway away from the cabin. Upper Saddle River. If the bed linens and towels must be obtained individually for each cabin. Measurement. © 2007 Pearson Education. one for the linen and the other for the towels. rather than make two separate work elements. one to fetch the bed linens and the other to fetch the towels. Inc. In the current method. a supply of both items should be carried on the cart to minimize the trips back and forth to the closet..

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