Coyrt, I@gz¿ by ÅHoÌd Shonb
Co}lg ·asie I@gz¿ to L. Sin e, Inc.
. Copyght, 1943, by L. She, Inc.
Intenadon Copyrght Secued
PiJ íb Uc Ü. ð. A.
I .
This is the second, revised and enlarged version of a syllabus which I prepared
beginners in composition in a summer session of six weeks at the University of Californi
Los Angeles.. Though the frst version was done in a great hurry and at a time wh.
was o�cupied with other afair (composing, for instance, which is not a mere avoca
of mine), and though I anticipated that I could perhaps teach some theoretical know IE
but not much technical skill, I was surprised by the success of this syllabus. It he]
my students to such an extent that even those with little creative ability and music
ship could write a small minuet or even a scherzo that was not quite impossible.
This success induced me to interrupt my work, again to sacrifce compsing to te�
ing, in order to produce this second version, hoping to make it more useful and efectivt
The main objectives of this syllabus are: ea-tang, development of a sens
for, and understanding of the techque and logic of musical construction.
Students who wish to become music teachers in colleges, high schools, or element
schools are required to study composition. But, according to my experience, very
write without the aid of the piano and even fewer possess a sense of the relation bet\
meloy and accompaniment. Besides, many of these students who might b good
strumentalists have no creative imagination, while often those who have talent th
that today one may write everything: they have heard even in popular music unrela
dissnances and think they can apply them as well in their attempts at composing ôf
but logically constructed forms.
Considering all these facts, I introduced several years ago a new method o achie\
coordiation of melody ad· hony, which makes composing easier even to such studE
as have. no desire or ability for musical creation, and which has also proved to contrit
considerably to ear-training.
Great stress is laid in this syllabQs upon the concept of variation, because this is
most important tool for producing logic in spite of variety. Even a beginner who has
Ü considerable creative talent will be able tQ write at least as well as is needed for a "pass
grade" if he studies the manifold ways by which variation is applied to simple basic for
and if he then tries to employ similar methods in his own attempts.
He will observe that even a change of the harmony-successions demands adaptat
and thus produces new motif-forms. H� should study very thoroughly the Model�
Harmonies for Two-Measure Phrases. They reveal many ways of enriching the harmo
and if he understands the principles involved there, he will be able to apply these meth
not only to phrases, but also to many other segments. This knowledge is very import
in producing cadences to various degrees and, in the "elaboration"-sectior of the SChE
(see p. 11), in working out the "modulatory" harmony of the "models" and squent
The student should become familiar with the "root progressions". which produce "rovil
Of coure, not all those technical problems are within the reach of a beginner. J
studying and analyzing the examples will make him acquainte with such proceures ¡
might stimulate a future compser to write in a more dignifed manner.
The student will als have to study the same forms in works of the classic mast.
At frst the 'study of Beethoven's piano sonatas is recommende, becaus his forms
[ 3 ]
generally simpler even than Mozart's or Haydn's. But the student must not be startle
if he fnds in the works of these master features that are not disusse in this syllabus:
in a brief course like this, it seems impssible to teach everything a maSter's imagnation
and fantasy might invent. Ther are "irregularities" which are only accesible to a really
great';"talent, a higher technique, and-perhaps-nly to genius. Besides, the student
should realize that these models show merely one way of approach to the technique of .
compsing. .ut he should not in any case think that a composer would work in such a
mechanical manner. Wat produces ral music is slely and exclusively the inventive
capacity, imagination, and inspiration of a crtive mind-if and when a creator "ha
smething to express".
N one the les, a student should never write mere dry notes. At all times he should
try to "express smething". Marking temp and character by such terms as cantabil,
agitato, con spwito, grazioso, playful, gay, 'vace, grave, ·etc., he may fnd that his imagina­
tion has been stimulated to make him produce pieces of a defnite character such as a
sng, an agitated allegro, .a witty scherzo, a graceful gavotte, or even a nocture or a
rhapsody of vague, unidentifable Ilo. Very early a student can thus write with more
spntaneity, which nee not excude conscious appiication' of his technical knowledge.
Îu qÞct t0 obtaÌu CoÞÎuatÎ0u o mclOÿ au0 bæ onÿ tbc 9twcnt wÎll Îu bÎ9 0Mt
uæ oulÿ tbc t0uæ0Î tbc udely hODY_
¯onæ ÎoÞÎgu t0tbc �n0MÎgÎug bæm0uÿ mu9t b a00o t0 tbc touæ oÎ thc 0ÞKcu-
cboÞ l0N9 0nlÿ W pssi'�ots, ssons, gce ntes, an0 ote ajr notes,
aOÞÎug t0Ibc a0VÎæ gÎVcu uu0M [c]au0 [0].
ÎÞm the VcQ bÎnuÎng aÎÎcXctCÎæ 9bouÎ0 Dc Cæo 0ut În severa keys. ¯hu8
tbc 9tudMt wÎlÎ Dc atbomc Îu cVcQ Kcÿ Îu a 9botttÎmc.

(A) BuUdln. To-Mesur M�tve8, or Ph on a SIAe Hny
(a) ÎuËXX. 1-4 onlÿ DÞKcu-CboÞ l0tm9 0l tbc tonÎC atc uæ Îu baÎÎ- aud guattM-
u0tæ. Ãbc 8tudcnt Would D to 0u0 a9 mauÿ 0ÎÊÐnt waÿ9 o brM . chor a9 bc
[b] Îu Ex. 5-11 thc æmc an0 9ÌmÎlat0ÞKcu-CboÞlotm9 atcCattÎooutÎn cereat
rh,s ¯onc ÞgtÌDou9 CouttÎ0utc to rhytc vaet an0 oltcn QÞuæ Chat8fº
tcN9tÎc ÎætuÞ.
[c] A�dD of ps not. Îu tbc DÎnuÎng thcÿ_äboul0 gæctaDlÿ D uÆoulÿ
ou tbc wæk 0t (Ex. 12-15).
[0] Au notes an00tbct embeJet aÞad0o t 0a9ÎC lotm9 [ËX� 1619).
A 9tudcut Noul0 alwaÿ9 tQ Îot tbÿtbmÎC VatÎctÿ. Î t maý wcll Dc that not cVcQ-
ÚÌug Î8 `DautÎlul´´, ot ¨mcÎUÎou9¯, ot `QHtlÿ DaÎanCo¨.¯ ¯hc tcaCbct wÍll CotÆt
ÖI C out tbc Womt ol hÌ8 cXctCÎæ a wglaÎu wbÿ thcÿ aÞ to gt ot oVMCtowdÐ.
Ât bmtthcoulÿÎmQttætthÎngÎ9t0ÒnttÎVca9manÿdÎdMcntloN9 a8 gäÎ0lc. ÎnOt�
gmtÎug tbu9 thc OnCcgt ol VatÎaDon an0 Ît9 tcCbnÎæl g0ÎÎÎtÎæ Îu onc´9 mÎnd WÎÎ'b
0Î gt a0Vantagc whcn thc 9tu0cnt latct ttÎæto ÎnVcut tcal mclOÎæ, În9tÎnCtÎVcÎÿ au0
L0Mc tbc ter�e bte tbc ft an0 tbc second mæ9uÞ oÎm0t oÎ tbc
gbmæ. LncmÎlÿ thc Mon0 wÌlÎ Ontæu lcwct lætuæ8 aud Îcæ moVcmcnt thau tbc
�t mæ8uÞ (Ex. 6, 8, 9,: 10. 12, 13, 16, 18).
(B) BuUdln. To-Mesur Ps on To HÑonies
on Î-V Cx. 20-29)
ηVÏ ( 303)
ηÎV ( 17-43)
Î-ÎÏÎ (U 45)
.. Î-ÎÎ ( ` 51-57)
Îu Ex. 3 an0 36; CbÞmatÎæ Ñ Îuætto.
În Ex. 41 an0 42. Øaci dont sevent Cbom cmQbæÎzæ thc gt0gtæäton
t0watd9 ÎV.
Ex. 4-50 uæ m il te fo of Ñ aci dn (sevent) chor. ¯hÎ9 Î9
ægCÌallÿ a0VW0lc ÎÎ tbc mt mæuw 8boul0 st ou VÎ ot, Dÿ a 0ogtÎVc ædcnCc,
on ÎVotÎÏ(�. 47a 48a, 49).
- a o ti QWwÑ wWMÎmw0M, Ü Ñ 00 n0t æw miu Tey & 00tmae Íæ
but, B0tt gWÎ8auvy I0ÆWte apJt, 0ÎMB0mmMm8
The n appears more frequently in its fst iverion or as a I, t, or 2 chord. Beware
of paallel fs if using the root position.
(C) To-Measure Phrases Based on Three Haonies.
These should als be practised as
systematically as the preceding eercise. Some­
time, however, a student, even at t�is early stage, may have tried to "invent" such
forms instinctively. In any case, the rhythmical and motival features and fonations
should stimulate him to produce material similar to that shown in the models.
Obsere some of the rhythmic features, for instance the syncopatons in Ex. 59,
6, 65, 79, and �3, and the augmentation of rhythmic features in Ex. 58, 61, 62, 67, 67a,
69, 75, and 76. Some of them are exact, some are free.
Again the teatet of te 'second mease should be studied. It relation to the
frst measure might be compard to the relation of a strong to a wek beat. But just as
a weak beat smetimes carries an accent, so a second measure of a phrase nee
not always
repreent a decline. Here one fnds the augmentations mentioned abov�, and also re-
ductions-that is, the omission of subordinate features (Ex. 60; 66, 78, 80, 81).
Watch further the multiple use of motival featurs, marked a, ai, at, etc. Advce for
this technique might be' given as follows: I te rhyt is excty or aproxately te
sae, the interal may be ched feely, bcause rhythm is more noticeable than int�r­
val. Often a rhy i "shifed" from a strong to a weak beat and vice versa (Ex. 59,
65, 76, and 79).
(D) Two-Mesure Phrases on more than Three Hamonies
A few examples are given in Ex. 86-93. It would be too dificult for a beginner to
write such exercisef in the mechanical manner of the preeing assignments. It will be
easier that when he has digested the ways of, inserting "passing" harmonies shown
in Exx. 167-188. In studying all these models the student should realize that the basic'
assumption for richer harmony is a semi-contrapuntal movement of the bass, in -which
the other accompanying voices cannot fail to participate. It is the tendency of indepen­
dentvoices that produces a richer movement of the harmony. The alteratives 86a, 90a,
91a, and 93a show that even fewer harmonies would sufice.
Observe the (imitative) use of motival features in the accompaniment of Ex. 90
and 92.
In phrases, motival features usually appear more than once. Thus a motive might
. .
be established which in the continuation will appear in more and richer variations, develop-
ing more and other phrases and other segments of various size and function.
(A) Most of these phrases are merely variations of the primitive examples of the
beginning. Thus 94 is built from 12; 95, 96, and 97 ate built from 13; etc�
(B) Various other Ways of Utilizing Motival Featres
The student wHI obsere that all these examples contain in one way or another the
beginning three notes (or their rhythm) of Ex. 119. They appear in simple repetitions,
in transpositions, in inversions, in augmentations, shifted to other be;ts, etc.
The student should apply all these treatments to his own exercises.
Many (f these examples are unbalanced, at least without a proper accompaniment.
But Ex. 132, a variation of Ex. 131, is use later (Ex. 226 and 231) to build a sentence
and a perio. It pays to tr changes and variations of the kind indicated even if the
rsult is very por.
Th�examples 147 to 150 derive fom the forms 140 and 141. There they are based
on I-V. But Ex. 148-150 us a much richer harmony, though they also begin on I and
end on V. But even examples like 130 and 144, distinctly overcrowded, can be of some
usfulness if treate like 130a and 144a.
(C) Some Models of'Accompaniment
In pio stle the harmony need not be present in full at every beat. On the
contrary, if it is not for t�e expresion of a certain character, the insertion of pauses in one
or more vo�ces will provide transparncy and often produce a ch�racteristic "motve of
te ac�ompament", i.e., a'rhythmic pattern that should be used, with slight accommo­
dating alterations� in the continuation. Not only can such a model, even within one small
phrse, consist of diferent elements, e.g: Exx. 152, 155, 156·, 157, etc; but also one elment
alone can be useful, e.g. the "march-like" forms of Exx. 158, 159, 161, and 163. Ide­
ovement of one or more
voices-if it does not interfere with the harmony· .
and even obscure it-is always valuable, for instance in Exx. 159, 164 (of which later d
sentence. and a perod are built, Exx. 224 and 230), 165, and 166. Mostly the independence
of those voices is not considerable. They merely follow the movement of the melody.
Ex. 162a shows that this model could also be accompanied without such movement, but
Ex. 162b shows a freer treatent.
(D) Models of Harmonies for Two-Measure Phases
Ex. 161 showsin the beginninl systematically-some of the most dependable har-
successions. Attention is directed to the use of inversions of triads and seventh
chords and to the use of "transformations" of the chords on some degres: artifcial domi­
nats, diminished sevenths, etc. These transformations are prouced by the
use of "sub­
stitute tones" derive from "relate regions" of the key. The e�mpies are based on -
Ustrong'" or "ascending" and "super-strong" root-progressions according to the model
V-I: V-III, and V-VI, V-IV, respectively. Of course, not everything possible could be .
included, though weak progressions are avoided. In minor especially not every progres­
sion might be usable.
Exx . .172-�88 shbw how much such harmonies could be used in phraes. Much of
that will seem dificult to a beginner without a thorough knowledge of harmony. But
to understand the principles of such treatment will widen the-student's scope, even if only
Attention should be directed again to the accompaniment, to the frequently indepen­
dent movement of the voices, and to the fact that the rhythms of the haronic patter
might be altered.
(A) First Four Measures only
W�at is here called the "dominant form" (measures 3 and 4) is in the most simple
cases a repetition of meas. 1-2 accommodate to a contrasting harmony: Ex. 189, I con-'

traste with Vi Ex. 190 and 191 (and te alternatives 192-197)� I-V contrasted wit te
reversd succession V-I. Even here the dominat for should not beome merely tran
psd. This is primitive and monotonous. At least such alt�rations as have ben marke
Dÿ (+) are advisable. Of great interet are trarsformations like 193 to 197. Still mor
interesting are repetitions like Ex. 198, in which meas. 3-4 are based on (II) . V-I, a fre
repetition of the I-(IV)-V of meas. 1-2. Squential repetitions ae als smetme usul,
Exx. 200, 201, 205, �06. Of course, as there is here n� I-V relation, ,the term dominant
has to be understood in a metaphorical meaning.
(B) Completion of the Sentence (meas. 5-8)
The sentence-form which is taught here doe not pretend to be more, than a
"school-form"; a way of deling with an elemeJtary problem in Ü manner within reach of a
beginner. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that there are many similar examples
in Bethoven. Se, for instance, the Ex. 207-210, from his piano snatas; even the frst
theme of his Fifth Symphony uses this form.
I t will not be too dificult to construct this form according to the following suggestion:
Measure 5 is usually a reuced form of the content of the frst phrase. This
reduction is
achie�ed by omitting some features more or less subordinate (Ex. 212), or by connecting.
elements of the frst phrae in a diferent manner (Ex. 213) or in a diferent order (Exx. 214,
215, 216). Measure 6 is generally a kind of repetition of meas. 5: a strict repetition
(Exx. 210, 211), or an accommodation to another degree (Exx. 207, 212, 213, 214, 215), or a
strict (Ex. 220, 221, 222, 225) or fre sequential repetition. In contrast to that, in Ex.
223 only the motival "residues" of meas. 2 ae repeated along a chrmatic acent in the
melody: D-D#-E-E#-F#;and Ex. 224 elaborates elements of the basic measures above a
fowing succession of" h�onies.
Mesure 7 prepares for the cadence on I (Exx. 220,' 223, 225, and 226), or V (Ex.
220, �nd ending, 221, 224), or III (Ex. 220,
3rd ending, 222, 227).
Obsere the "condensaton" of te" hony i te cadent segment. Ther are
generally more harmonies used at this place than in the preceding measures.
Obsere· also the treatment of the main voice in this sement. In general, further
reuced basic elements, above a moving harmony, pass into less obligatory forms. '
It might help the student to approach a slution of
these technical problems by writing
at frst a great number of sketches, even mechanically, and then selecting the best ones.
Wile so doing he should often return to the methods of developing new motif-forms Dÿ
variation, as discussed in the beginning.
The main diference and also, to a beginner, the main dificulty in writing periods
lies in the necessity of using in meas. 3-4 "more remote'" motif-forms. To all of the four
periods in Exx. 228, 229, 230, and 231 are added two alternatives: all of thes periods end
on I, or on V, or on III. The use of basic intervals, marke j
l I

î l ¡
º º

etc., and of basic rhythms, marked A A A etc., illustrates the relation to the frst
phrase. The student shouid analyze in order to acknowledge the "destiny" of the motive,
and try as many similar developments himslf.
In E .. 228 the interal' of a fourth , ': is used in a "chain-like" construction in
measure 2-3 of the anteedent; the consquent use only the up-beat and the rhythm.
but employs many change of the interal. This period is built frm t motf No.8
on 'p. 41
Inversion of a melodic part of the phrase (meas. 2-3 of E. 228b) can Drecmmende.
Obsere in Ex. 230 and 230b, meas. 4, the shift of rhythm A: t the frst beat. ,
Similar shiftings of intervals and rhythms ar used in E. 231.
The caesua (meas. 4)
and the ending (meas. 8) H chiefy produce by the harmony.
While the end (meas.8) is always carrie out by a full cadence (IV-V-I or II-V . I, trans
ps to the region in which one is at that moment), the caesura in ,mes.· 4 cn
b approached by a half-cadence (IV-V·or II-V, or als VI-V). Generally in the meaur
before the f�al degre, one will already obsere an enrichment of the harmony: mor
harmonies are usually used there than in the beginning.
Th� melody in. those cadential segmen*.,moves with more rchnes than in the pr
ceing measures. The caesura, furhenore, is usually characterze by a rest, at least
in the accompaniment, producing the efect that a comma or semiclon prouce in
The consquent is usually a fre repetition of the anteceent. However, one, two,
or even three measures could be exactly repeated. But in higher art mechanical reptition
is not to dignife-variety should always be the aim of a go compser.
In Ex. 228, 228a, and 22Sb, only the up-beat is repeted exactly, while all the rest
shows a new use and a rearrangement.
In Ex. 229 one full measure is use, but the harmony is change.
Two measures are repeated in the consequent of Ex� 230a. But 'Ex. 231 and 231a
start at once with derivatives of the basic features.
In genel, in cental sments (e.g. Ex� 232, me. 7-8) the strct' us of motve
fors is abandone (UliquidateU) and Ñ f"f meoic contour cncude ts stoDi
generlly on V. smetmes on III.
of the Tera (a-b-al) For
The imprtant problem in writing this sction is to make it contst ad cohernt
The decisive contribution to the contrast is made by the harmony. For this purps
for-eight sheIes are to be found on pages 30-33. Some of them are to cmpliCated for
the frst attempts of a beginner, but might Dtrie by a student who pôÜ s cnsderable
skill in harmony. Some of them, which have been sta�e (*), can D use not only in
major but als in minor. A.nd some 'f the schemes given in minor (42-4) can phaps
even be'of us also in major (in C major or transpsed).
Structurally the contrast will be achieve by using the motive forms or even new
dervatives frm them in a diferent order. Obsere, for instance, in E. 236 the shifting
of the features
and 'A' of Ex. 229 to other beats, and the inverion of the intera1
lin meas. 10.

Ex. 238, 239, and 24 show more complicate forms in the harony and in the
motval elaboration. They als u� semi-contrapuntal imitations of a prominent rhythm
in the accompanying voices.
The recapitaton (a1) of te "au secton after the contrasting middle setion may
in primitive cases consist .of a mere repetition, on condition that the frst a-section
end on I. Thus a full a-b-al for could be composed' by adding to Ex. 220 (no matte
whether the frst, second� or third ending was used) one of te' two contrasting middle
sctions (Ex. 236 or 237) and thereafter simply repeating Ex. ·220 with the frst ending on I.
The same would be right if Ex. 221 or 222 would be used as an a-section. It would per­
haps be more interesting to use Ex. 22� as the ai-section in all these cases, becuse a varied
repetition is always more artistic than a ' literal one. Thus in masterpieces much variation, "
is often found in structure� harmony, accompaniment, and even in size, the segment being
smetimes reduced (to six, four, or an uneven number of measures, see Beethoven's piano .
snatas Ope 2, No.1, Adagio; Ope 2, No. 2, Rondo; Ope 7, Rondo; Ope 2, No.2, Largo,
sven measures), or b�ing extende (to ten measures, Ope 7, Largo).
If the period Ex. 230 should be the a-section and Ex. 239 its contrasting middle section,
the recapitulation has to be composed anew, in order to end on I. This is carried out in
E. 241.
The form of the minuet is in most cases ternary. Sometimes one fnds in claic
examples the contrasting middle section longer (6,8, or more measures) and more elaborate'
(Beethoven, Ope 2, No.2; Ope 10, No.3; Ope 22; etc.). Sometimes the recapitulation is
shortened (Op. 31, No.3). Sometimes one fnds the addition of one or more codettas in
the a-sections, or :of an episde ir the b-section. Irregular construction of phrases or
sgments will also be found. The accompaniment has often a "stylized" touch of dance
accompan�ment. But this migh. t also occur in every other kind of ternary form.
The model given in Ex. 242 is complicated, harmonically and motivally. Especially
the contrasting middle section, which turns in meas. 11 to the region of subdominant minor, ,
might be intereting. Ob5erve, furthermore, that the recapitulation is extended to ten
mesures and begins with a remote variation of th� frst phrase in the left hand, to which
the right hand adds a counter-melody (compare meas. 10 to meas. 13), and that in measure
18 the feature d1 is detached from b2 and is used three times as material for the extension.
The alternatives (a), (b), and (c) show how the a-section could end on I or III, or
(with a half-ca4ence) on V. The alterative (d) ofers' a diferent use of the material in
the contrasting middle section. The way in which this section is extended to eight
mesures i� interesting and emphasize� the "up-beat harmony" (V) in to mesures (15-
16). The following measures 13-20 bring a richly varied repetition of the a-section.
Ex. 243 shows that the antecedent, with slight harmonic changes, could end on V
instead of III, and that nevertheless meas. 5 could begin on VI.
Ex. 244 illustrates the use of a sequence (meas. 9-10 and 11-12) and, more interesting,
a procedure which is excellent in H:s efect: in meas. 13 and 14 the melody remains un­
changed while the harmony moves constantly.
The form of the scherzo is also terar and difers from the preceding a-b-a1 forms
only in its middle section, which is a modulator contrasting middle section and is called
the elaboration. Its harmony, though roving (that is, moying from region [generally
miscalle "key' '] to region), does not fail to establish at the beginning of each segment (calle
"model", "sequence", "reduction", etc.) at least temporarily the ton
c of a region or key.
Such pints are marked by stars (*) in"Ex. 245 at meas. 9� 14, 19; in Ex. 246 at meas. 9,
13,17,19,21; in Ex. 248 at meas.-9 and 11; and in Ex. 249 at meas� 17,21, 25, and 27.
A "school-form" of the elaboraton of the scherzo can be constructed by building a·
model of two or more measures, using motif-forms or·derivatives in a diferent order above
Ü preconceived' harmony-progresion which leds to a region other than that of its
beginning. Generally its ending harony should be suitable for introducing the sequence
which then follows (see Ex. 245, meas. 9-13; Ex. 246, meas. 9-12; Ex. 248, meas. 9-10; Ex.
249, meas. 17-20).
The sequence. if it deseres its name, must be a complete and exact transposition to
another degree. But in selec�ing the transpsition, the student should avoid deviati�g
too far from the related regions. For instance, in C major one would scarcely go to F#
major or B{ minor or B major. But Beethoven in the Scherzo of Ope 2, No: 2, arrives at
G# minor in A major, which is quite far. A master may do this; a student would better
avoid it. Generally the model now undergoes Hprocess of "liquidatiQl", which is a method
of getting rid of the obligations of the motif. Here it is done gradually, by at frst
omitting subordinate features and reducing the four measures to two (mostly followe here
by a sequence). The liquidation thereafter reduces the model to one measure and even
smaller units. In general, the place to approach the up-beat harmony (V) is at or after
the two-mesure model..
Often a little segment is added to mark the end of the roving section: a'standstill on V,
in many cases a pedal (Ex. 245, meas. 30 f., Ex. 246, meas. 25-28) .
The recapitulation often demands far-reaching new construction, especially if the
ending of the a-section starte early to 1ove tow3rds V or III (Ex. 246, meas. 5-8). End­
ings, on I, to the two alternatives, (a) and (b), are given at the end of Ex. 247.
It must be mentioned that �any scherzos contain codettas in the a- and a-1sections
and episodes in the b-sections. Cddettas are cadences primarily. If the end of any
section should be short ard not perfectly convincing, there would be reason to _establish
the fact of the ending mor f�ly. But'such an addition is the result of the resurce­
fulnes of an inspire composer rather than the problem of a beginner, struggling for form.
Therfore, it seems superfuous to illustrate it here, and better to advise the student to
study the examples of the masters.
This material can be used by the student if at some time he might not be able to build
a phras or another sgment himself. But they can als be prftably use for practce in
dealing with various prblems, such as producing sveral tpes of forms, building cadences
to various degrees, workng out harmonization and accompniment, etc.
All this material has been used in classes and at eaminations; and has proved to be
not to dificult, .and quite instructive.
May it als·be helpful to the students of this syllabus 1
În thÎ8 8ÿllabu8 a num0r oÍ tctm8 a u WhÎO mguÎM wgÎanatÎon, æmc bcOu8c thcÿ atc oÍtc0
uæÎÞ aVaguc manncrot wÍth amænÎng dÎÑctcnt Írom that hctc cmgloÿH, o�cr9beauMthcÿ atc not
cmmonlÿuæatalÎ,gartlÿowÎngtothcÍactUatthcÿ haVcDnÎntr0ucHbÿthÎ8author. ÎnaÍottb-
cmÎng tmt-bOk, ¯tundamcnWl8 oÍ %u8ÎOÎ LomQ8ÎtÎon¨, and a 8ÿlÎabu8, ´bttucturaÎ ÏunctÎon8 o
Matmonÿ¯, onc wÎll bnd mom and motc thoÞuµh æglanatÎon8.
Rot Î8 thctoncuQnWhÎOatrÎad [oraM½nUOnÎnthchoÞ] Î8buÎÎtbÿ8ugrÎmQ8Î�ÎonoÍ a thÎm
and a- hÍth [ot a MVcnth O a nÎnth]. ¯hc t0t cn b ÎdcntÎOÎ WÎth thc bæ¡ but, În c o În-
VcmÎon8, whÎÎc thc r0t mm8În8 thc æmc, thc bs uæ a dÎÑcÆnt tonc. Te dÎÑcÆnæ bctwMn thc
bæ and thc t0t On � se Î0 Uc ÍoÎloWÎng wamQÎc1
I;::: :::;::��:;:::I
J ^ ~ Ñ * J Ñ M J Ñ Ü¯ ܯ Ñ Ï U N I
* ¬
• •
ee arcmatktdbÿÑomannumctaÎ8,andthcbt8ts� oÎt�cmaÎæbætnamæ1 I, tonÎc¦II, 8ugt-
tonÎc} III, mHÎant}IV, 8ubomÎnant¦V, domÎnant¦ VI, 8u�mÐÎant¦VII hænothcr00ngve anamc.
¯hænum0t8 tcÍct to thc gÎaOwÎthÎn thc ælc and dcMmÎnc thc ÍunctÎom tcÎðtÎon8 oÍ thctOd8 (O
æVcnth ot nÎnth chom, ctc·] buÎlt on thcm.
¯o D OnNÎou8 oÍ thæ Íunctθ onaÎ mcanÎng8 Î8 æµaÎÎÿ ÎmQtUnt 0auM o thc WÎdc-8grW
mÎ8uæ oÍ caÎÎÎng a haNonÿ C·E-G C majot and Ü-Ï-Å Ü mÎnot ctc. C-E-G Î8I În C majO. but IV Î0
G majot, V În Ï major, III ÎnA�Jjnor,·VII În ÜmÎnot,aqd cVcnII (a næQlÎUn8ÎXU]În Ü majotan0
mÎnot. Ånd thæ æc deÎ8Îvc ÍunctÎ0naÎ dÎRcrcncc8. ÑcgÎaæmcnt oÍ natutæ tonW WÎth 800tÎtut0
tonæwÎÎÎgcncralÎÿ notchangcthc ÍunctÎonaÎgøaÎÎtÿ oÍthcd@tM [æcalæundMS.,iiu" t).
Rot,proeloD Î8 Ihc moVemcnt Írom onc r0t to aBothO Þ t· buO a moWmcnt pruc
stuu Oangæ În tbc harmonÿ and ÎW ÍunctÎonaÎ mænÎng, a8 Canb M n În tho�mgÎc.
1�2-3 no8uO OangcO, B thWatc mctc ÎuVcmÎon8oÍ onc ttÎad. ¯hcæmc Î8 tOc În45. ¯hc t0t
aÎæ dmnot moVc În 11-12 and 13-14, În 8gÎtcoÍthc 0hmmatÎc aÎtctaUon8 În tbc ugQ VoÎO. Üut În
7-8 æd 9-10 thMc'a Þt-gÞtWÎon8, though tbc uQQ V0ÎO do not moVc. Ånd În 16-17,' though
thc bæ dm not moVc, thctð Î8 aÎæa Þ t-gÞt�un.
¯cM am thrM dÎÑcrcnt kÎnd8 oÍ Þ t-QÞtmon81
(1) Stng ot 8Iandlng:
(a] al6ag oÍ th6t0ta ÍourU ug: I-IV, II-V, III-VI, IV-VII. V-I. VI-II, VII-III.
[b] a Îæg oÎ Uc ro a thÎrd doWn1 I-VI, II-VII, 111 . 1, IV-II. V-III. VI-IV VII-V [tbc ÎattM oÎ
QuætÎonabÎc VaÎuc].
ÅMndÎng N t-gÞtæon8a Uc mæt cÑOtÎW.
(2) We O DttOOlH dedlD:
[a] alep oÍ th6Þ ta 0Íthup: I-Y, II.VI, III-VII (1, IV-I. V-II, VI-III. VII-IV (?.
[b] a Îæg oÍ Uc r0t a tbÎÞ ug1 I-III, II-IV,'III-V. ·IV-VI, V-VII,(?,' VI-I. Vii
LWndÎngÞ t-gtgmon8ambæt u8H În 8uch UmbÎnatÎon8W0n8ÎΧpruc a0Mnt1 I-V-V
(I " V), otI-V-I (I-IV), ot1- III-VI (I-VI), ot I-Ill-I (i-IV). ctc.
(3) Sup-stn:
[a]a8tQoÎthc Þ t a ænd ug1 I-II, II-III, III-IV, IV-V, V-VI, VI-VII.
(b) a
p oÍUc tOIBænddmn! I-VII. II-I, 1I1-I1,.IV-III, V-IV, VÎ-V, VII-VI.
bug-8Ug rot·prri�8 'pru `'dwgUVc¯ CdcnO a0d hlf-ec. ÎÍ tb@ a not
uM Í0 a cec, ÚcÿMouÎ0 b OÎM ¯dMUVc gtQtmom¯.
113 J
Cadence is a progression of harmonie, seleted and arrange to prouce a movement towards ðD·
ending on a defnite degree. Cadences (usually in coperation with the melody) are designed to mark
endings of piece, Or divisions, sections, and even segment. A cadence generally ends on that degree
towards which the proresion aim�. But smetime, epeially in deCeptive cadences, an ending on 8
difere� degree ocurs.
Region is a term which was introduced by this author in order to sharpen the discrimination between.
extended tonality and modulation. One should speak of a modulation only if (a) the key has ben
abandone dist' indy and for a considerable time, and (b) if another key with all its characteristic functions
has been established. If such a defnite establishment is not present, i,e., if the halmony fails to settle
down to a defnite key, but rather uses chords which through their mUltiple mening can be understo
as belonging to several keys, one should speak of roving harmony.
The conceRt of regions derives from a principle of "monotnat", which aims at a unife appre­
hension of the whole movement of the harmony within one piece �f music. Extended tonality not only
permits the "inclusion in a key of everthing which formerly appeared in six independent modes, because
they are interrelated by using the same tones of the diatonic sale; but in more moem practice it als
permits the inclusi�n of many other and even more remote relations, which are based on the fuctons
of te deees.
Thus a region-even if it is'ucarried out like ð key"-is considere a relate product of a tonic. If,
accordingly, a period ends in its eighth measure on V or III of C major, one must not call this a moulation
to G major or E minor, but a change or movement to the dominant region or to the region of the mediante
These are the regions of a major key:
(a) derived from the six modes:
Dorian region (minor) II
Super tonic reion (minor) II
M ediant region I II
Subdominant region IV
Dominant region V
'Submeiant reion VI
(b) based on the relation of a tonic to its subdominant minor:
Neapolitan region *
Flat meiant region H
Subdominant minor region -
Flat submediant reion �
(c) derive from tonic minor:
Tonic minor region -"
V-minor reion ¥ .
(d) based on the interchangebilit of major and minor:
�ediant major region-
Submeiant major region-
The regions of a minor key can be derived partly from the 'relative major, partly from the tonic major,
and partly from te subdominant minor, excluding some which are too remote. At least in Clasical
music they have not been cnsidered as related.
(a) from relative major are derived:
Mediant region III; in C minor, on E[
Subom�!ant region IV "
V-minor tegion V " "
Submediant region VI "
(b) from tonic major can be derived:
... G (minor!)
Tonic major region -; in C minor, on C
Mediant minor reion
* M
Mediant major region - " "
Subdominant major reion - " "
Dominant region V
¡4 M
Submediant minor region �
Submediant major region
- U `
(c) from subdominant minor are derived:
" G
A (*)
A (*)
Neapolitan region - in C minor, on OJ
"" Mediant minor region -.
¯ II " Ej (*)
Submeiant minor region
" "
At (*)
Those starred (*) are more remotp, but are more or less often used in Classical musIc.
The following should be excluded, because they are to remote:
a major or minor region on II; in C minor, on, D (Dorian and supertonic)
a major or minor region on VII
; ``
° "
" Bq and B;
Changes from one region to another should be based on harmonies common to both reions or on cQords
with a multiple mcanin�, e.g. diminished sevenths, augmented triads, augmente 2 or � ch�rds, etc.
Substitute tones are tones foreign to the scale, "borrowed" from relate regions (or keys). They
produce "artifcial leading�tones up or down", principally in two ways:
(a) by chomatcaly flling out an interval of a major secnd up or down in one or more voice;
(b) quasi-diatonical y by replacing natural tones with such foreign tones as would make a melody
similar to the diatonic scale of the region in question.
, Generally, when substitute tones are used, the function of the degree is not changed; but smetime
"passing harmonies" assume a form which might be mistaken f�r a diferent degree. For instance, the
6�chord on B (mared?) should not be interpreted as IV of D major but as one of the three transformations
of the II of the mediant region.
lfI:: I:::: I:��
¯mCW. I V I M NÏ ' U
MÍabt¥ð. 1 M M M It "V I
Moti is a unit which contains one or more features of interval and rhythm. Its preence is mani­
fested in its 'constant use throughout a piece. Its usage consists of frequent repetitions, sme ot them
unchange, most of them varied. The variations of a motif produce new mot-fors, which are the
material for continuations, contrast, new. segments, new theme, or even new setions within a piee.
Not all the features are to be retaine in � variation; but sme, guaranteing coherence, will always be
present. Sometimes remotely related derivative of a motif might become independent and then be em-
ployed like a motif.
Variation is that kind of repetition which changes some of the features of a unit, motif, phrase,
segment. section, or a larger part, but presrve others. To change everything would prevent there being
any repetition at all, and thus might cause incoherence.
Obligations of the motif derive from a tendency or inclination inherent in a motif by which it
aims at developing variation. Obligator forms are those in which the.tendency of development has
qot been "neutralized". In meas. 1�-20 of Ex. 242, the constant neglect of the interval of this fgure of
three notes neutralizes the obligations of the basic interval, making the ,fgure fnally non�ob1igatory (se
also page 11).
There exists great confusion in the use of the terms phrase, period, and sentence. In this syllabus,
thee terms signify the following structural elements:
Phrses are here gven as schol-forms,·Iimite to two measures. In masterpieces, in rapid tempo,
the length is 'sometimes four measure. They usually-contain basic features more than once (see the
marks A andÍ in Ex. 58�150). In playing or singing them, one would not consider separating'
thæ8 tWO m888ur88 88 Ìl by 8 bt88th, but th8 8nd WOuld 8dmÌt th8 t8kÎng Ol 8 br88th Ot 8tOQQÌng btÎ8hg,
88 8t 8 Omm8 În QuBCJu8tÍOn.
Sentences Olt8n8QQæt În m88t8tQÎ8Cæ. ¯h8 OQ8nÎng Qht888 Í8 t8Q88t8d 8t OnC8 [WÎth Ot WÍthOut
V8tÎ8tÌOn]. ¯hÎ8 t8Q8tÌtÌOn m8kæ lutth8t 8X8Ct t8Q8tÍtÍOn8 unnUæ88rÿ, 8nd Q8tmÍt8 8 COntÎnu8tÍOn
wÍth 8Íth8t tOuC8d lOtm8 Ol th8 D88ÎC Qht888 Ot mOt8t8mOt8 mOtÍl-lOtm8. În th8 8h0Ol-lOtm dÌ8Cu88O
Ín tþÍ8 8yll8bu8, 8cnt8nCæ

8t8 t88trÎCtO tO8Îght m888utæ 8ndÎng WÌth 8 C8d8nC8. b8nt8nCæ 8tð u8u8llÿ
lOund 8t th8 b@ÎnnÍng Ol 8 QÍU8 Ot Ol 8n Ì�d8Q8nd8nt

88CtÌOn Ol Ìt.
Perios 8QQ88r În muCh th8 æm8 Ql8Cæ 88 dO 88nt8nC88. ¯h8 8Ch0l-lOtm Î8 8g8În r88ttÎCtO tO
8Îghtm888ur88. ¯h8 QOÎOd dÍd8r8 ltOmth888nt8nC8 QtÍm8rÍly Înth88b88nC8Ol8nÎmmOÍ8t8t8Q8tÎtÎOn
Ol tb8 hr8t Qht888, Ìn8t88d OlWhÍCh mOt8t8mOt8mOtÍl·lOtm88QQ88t, WhÍCh l88d [h8t8 8lW8y8Înm888.4),
8ÎdO by8 C8d8nC8 Ot h8ll-C8d8nC8, tO8caesura. ¯hÍ8 C88ut8Í888h8tQ8tÎnt8ttuQtÎOnth8nth8tWhÎO
lÍmÍt88 Qht888, 8ndCOuld b8 COmQ8t8d În Ît8 8dUt tO 8 88mÎCOlOn. Üy Îtth8WhOl8 8cCtÎOn Î88u0VÎdN
ÎntO tWO 88gm8nt8, atecedent 8nd consequent, th8 l8tt8t Qt0uCÎng 8 [mOt8 Ot l888 lt88] t8Q8IÎUO0
Ol th8 8ntHO8nt, u8u8lly COnCludÎng thÎ8

8cCtÍOnWÍth 8 lull C8d8nC8 On I, V, Ot ÎÎÎ.
Codettas 8r8 8ddÎtÍOn8 8lt0r th8 8ndÎng Ol 8 88CtÎOn. ¯h8y 8t8 8ttuCtut8lly Índ8Q8nd8nt, 8n0
OtdÎn8rÎly uÆ n8W 8nd t8th8r,mOr8 r8mOt8 mOtÍl-lOrm8. ³8tmOnÍC8lly th8y 8t8 8m8tÍmc8 V8ty 8ÎmQl6,
0C88ÎOn8llyu8Îng Onlyth8æm8 d8gt8e, Ot 8 m8t8 Ínt8rCh8ng8 Ol thÎ8 d8gt88 8nd Ít8 dOmÎn8nt} În Oth6t
C888 8 lull C8d8nC8 8nd 8V8n tÍCh8t h8tmOny mÎght 8QQ88r.
¯h8 t8tm8 section, sement, 8nd unit 8t8 u8O lOt Q8tt8 Ol V8lÎOu8 l8ngth. ¯b8 tbt08 Q8tt8 OÍ
8V8tÿ t8tn8Q lOtm, Ì0CludÎng th8 mÎnu0t 8nd sCh8tZO, 8r8 C8llO sections. ¯b8 t8rm sement t6l6t8
tOth88ntUO8ntOtOnæu8ntOl8 Q8rÍOd, tO8ÎmÎl8tQ8tt8Ol8 Ænt8nC8, 8ndtO8vChQ8rt8Înth8 8l80t8-
tÎOn-88CtÎOn Ol 8 8O8rZO 88 QOæc88 8 C6tt8În 8truCtut8l Înd8Qcnd8nC8. bm8ll8t Q8tt8, Ol 8 lm t d@tM
Ol Înd8Q8nd8nC8, 8t6 C8llO units, Îl th8Ít COntcnt8, lÍmÎt8tÎOn, Ot uæg8 ]u8tÎb88 th8Ît b8Îng COn8ÌdO
Elaboration t8Ql8C88tb8mÎ8l88ængt8tm¨dðV8lOQm8nt¯. Înmu8ÎClCOmQO8ÎtÎOnth8t8Î8 d8V8lOg
m8nt În 8V8Q Q8tt.
Liquidation, th8 m8thOd Ol g8ttÍng tÎd Ol th8 OblÍg8tÎOn8 Ol th8 mOtÍl, Î8 dÎ8Cu8Æd În On8 w8mQl6
8t Q8g8 1t.
A up-bet harony Î8 8 d8gt86 th8t QtOmOtæth8 ÎnttOduCtÎOn Ol tb8 bt8t d@tc6 Ol 8 n6w
MtÎOnOt8@m8nt. Üsu8llyth8tm8QÎtul8tÎOnOltb88-8UtÎOnÎ8Întt0uCcdbÿ8uCh8h8tmOnÿ. It Î8te
V ÎlUÎ88UtÍOnbcgÎn8OnÎ,Dut8m8tÎmOÎÎÎ8QQæmÎn8t68dOlV. Întb8bhctZO Ol ÜmthOV8B´8 QÎ800
æn8t8LQ. 26, th88-8mtÎOn b@În8OnVI.

³8t8th6 uQ-bc8tChOr0 Î8 8n8ttÎbCÎ8ldOmÍn8ntOn¬
Augentation, 8t6tmknOWntO8tudcnt8WhOh8V88 tudÎO COunt8tgÎnt,Î8th8t8Q8tÎtÎOnOl8u0Ît,
8@m6nt, Ot so [Ot 8VO Only8 Q8ttOl U8m] ÎnWhÎChth8dut8tÎOnOl 8V8tÿ nOt8 [Ot Q8u88) h& DM
0OublN, UglÐ, gu&uglO, 8tC., WhÎl8 th8 ÎntcOÎ8 t8m8În unCh8ngO.
" � � 1\


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