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Chapter Four Heating and Cooling Distribution System Outlines: Type of Distribution Systems Typical components of Distribution System Pressure drop & Design of distribution system

Design consideration Type of Distribution Systems The transfer of heat from Source to sink. Require conveying energy - agent. Thermal energy transferred by means of: Air, Water and Refrigerant. Typical Distribution Systems: All-air systems: Clean & Conditioned air is supplied to the room that has a demand All-water systems: Heated/ chilled water is supplied in pipes to the room. The heat is transferred to the room by a heat exchanger (known as a heater). Refrigerant systems: Heat is absorbed / supplied by the refrigerants that circulate in pipes to the room by evaporator. Typical components of Distribution System 1. Air Distribution System basic components :

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Fan, Air separator and filters, Ducts, heating / cooling coil, humidifier, dampers, Control system .etc

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2. Hydronic Distribution System components Boiler or chiller, pump(s), Heating/ cooling load (radiators, convectors), piping system, fill water, control system.

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Pressure drop and Design of distribution systems Heaters Radiative heaters (Radiators) More than 50 % of the heat is transferred by radiation. Wall mounted Ceiling mounted Convective heaters (Convectors) Wall mounted Floor mounted

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Example : Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger if the heat transfer coefficient on the inside and the outside of the heat exchanger is inside=100 W/(mK) and outside= 10 W/(mK) respectively and the thickness of the wall is 1.5 mm and the wall thermal conductivity is 50 W/(mK).

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So, is this a good heating system? Procedure for heating system design Divide the system into different parts & often Remember that the total pressure drop is the called runs. sum of all pressure drops

from the pump to the critical heater and back to the pump again. The summation always follows ONE FLOW PATH. Never add parallel runs!

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No single loss and neglect height differences

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Design consideration and Selection Several factors must be considered prior to selection of a suitable heating system. They include the following: Whether it is a separate heating system or part of the air conditioning An open or enclosed space, or a space with high infiltration Size of heating system (small, medium, or large) Available existing heat source, such as hot water or steam Cost of fuel (gas, oil.. ) or electricity Design criteria and local customs system

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