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Classification of Pumps
Continuous energy addition Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity) Conversion increased velocity to increase in pressure
Periodic energy addition Added energy forces displacement of fluid in an enclosed volume Fluid displacement results in direct increase in pressure
API 610 Centrifugal Pump Classification
Centrifugal Pump Overhung Between Bearing Vertically Suspended Submersible Motor 5 .
Flexible Coupling Overhung Pumps Flexibly Coupled Horizontal Foot Mounted Centerline Mounted Flexible Coupling Thrust Bearings Vertical In-Line Bearing Frame 6 .
Overhung Pumps Rigidly Coupled Vertical Rigid Coupling No thrust bearings! In-Line 7 .
Overhung Pumps Close Coupled Horizontal Vertical In-Line High Speed Integral Gear
Overhung Pumps Seal less
Between Bearing Pumps 1 & 2 Stage Multistage (more than 2 stages)
Between Bearing Pumps 1 & 2 Stage Axially Split Radially Split
Between Bearing Pumps Multistage Radially Split Single Casing Double Casing Axially Split 12 .
Vertically Suspended Pumps Single Casing Double Casing 13 .
Vertically Suspended Pumps Single Casing Discharge Through Column Diffuser Volute Tubular Casing (Axial / Mixed Flow) Seperate Discharge Line Shaft Cantilever 14 .
V ertically S uspended P ps um D ouble C asing D se iffu r V olute 15 .
Working of a Centrifugal Pump Main Parts are – Impeller Volute casing 16 .
Working of a Centrifugal Pump Impeller rotates exerting centrifugal force on the liquid Kinetic energy is created Centrifugal force throws the liquid out Creating low pressure at the suction eye This forces new liquid into the impeller inlet Liquid thrown out of the impeller is met with resistance to flow 17 .
Working of a Centrifugal Pump The first resistance is created by the volute As the liquid moves in the volute towards the outlet it slows down due to increasing cross sectional area As the liquid slows down its velocity (kinetic energy) is converted into pressure 18 .
Relation between Head and Velocity Head = pressure in terms of height of liquid v2 Head (m) = 2xg v = velocity at periphery of impeller (m/s) g = Gravitational acceleration (m/s2) NxD v (m/s) = 2.748 N = Impeller RPM D = Impeller diameter (mm) 19 .
higher will be the liquid velocity at the vane tip. A centrifugal pump neither creates pressure nor does it suck.Working of a Centrifugal Pump The impeller is offset in the volute to create a close clearance between the impeller and the volute at the cut water The kinetic energy given to the liquid is proportional to the velocity at the edge of the impeller vane tip. Faster the impeller rotates or bigger the impeller is. Pressure is just an indication of the amount of resistance to flow! 20 . it only provides flow.
4 kg/cm2 30 m 3 kg/cm2 30 m 3.6 kg/cm2 Kerosene Sp. 1.0 Brine Sp.gr.8 Water Sp. 0.2 21 .gr.Why Head is used to measure the energy of a centrifugal pump? 30 m 2.gr. 1.
Why Head is used to measure the energy of a centrifugal pump? Pressure at any point in a liquid is caused by a vertical column of liquid due to its weight. Height of this column is called Static head and is expressed in meters of liquid. Pressure is dependent on the specific gravity of a liquid but head is not. Head is a measurement of the height of a liquid column that the pump could create from the kinetic energy imparted to the liquid. A given pump with a given impeller diameter and speed will raise a liquid to a certain height regardless of the weight of the liquid! 22 .
Pressure – Head conversion Head (m) = Pressure (kg/cm2) x 10 Specific Gravity 23 .
Various Heads Static Suction Head (hs) Static Discharge Head (hd) Friction Head (hf) Vapour Pressure Head (hvp) Pressure Head (hp) Velocity Head (hv) Total Suction Head (Hs) Total Discharge Head (Hd) Total Differential Head (HT) Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHr) Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHa) Exit Various Heads & Continue 24 .
Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Next Back 25 .Static Suction Head (hs): Vertical distance between the pump centerline and the liquid surface in the suction tank.
Static Suction Head (hs): Vertical distance between the pump centerline and the liquid surface in the suction tank. Suction Lift (-hs): Liquid level is below pump center line. Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Next Back 26 .
Ps Pd Vs hd hs Datum Level Pump Center Line Pvp Vd Back 27 .Static Suction Head (hs): Vertical distance between the pump centerline and the liquid surface in the suction tank. Suction Head (+hs): Liquid level is above pump center line.
Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Next 28 .Static Discharge Head (hd): Vertical distance between the pump centerline and the point of free discharge or liquid surface in the discharge tank.
Back 29 .Static Discharge Head (hd) and Static Suction Head (hs) change as the liquid flows.
Friction Head (hf): Head required to overcome resistance to flow in the pipe and fittings. Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Back 30 . condition and type of pipe & fittings. flow rate and nature of liquid. “ hf ” depends upon the size.
Vapour Pressure Head (hvp): is the vapour pressure converted into head. hvp increases with increase in temperature hvp acts opposite to the surrounding pressure acting on the liquid (atmospheric pressure) Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps Pvp Vs hs Back 31 .
Pressure Head (hp): is the absolute pressure (Ps or Pd) acting on the liquid in the suction or discharge tanks. If tank is open to atmosphere. Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Back 32 . hp = atmospheric pressure head.
Velocity Head (hv): refers to the energy of the liquid as a result of its motion at some velocity. “ hv ” is relatively small in high head systems and relatively large in low head systems Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Back 33 . It is the equivalent head in meters through which the liquid would have to fall to acquire the same velocity.
Total Suction Head (Hs) = Pressure head in suction reservoir (hps) + static suction head (hs) + velocity head at the pump suction flange (hvs) – friction head in the suction line (hfs). Hs = reading of the gauge on the suction flange converted to meters of liquid. Pd Vd hd Hs Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Back 34 .
Total Discharge Head (Hd) = Pressure head in discharge reservoir (hpd) + static discharge head (hd) + velocity head at the pump discharge flange (hvd) + friction head in the discharge line (hfd). Hd = reading of the gauge on the discharge flange converted to meters of liquid. Pd Vd hd Hd hs Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps Pvp Vs Back 35 .
Total Differential Head (HT) = Total Discharge Head (Hd) Total Suction Head (Hs) Pd Vd Hs hd Hd hs Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps Pvp Vs Back 36 .
we shall understand Parts of a Pump Flow through Pump Inlet Cavitation 37 .Net Positive Suction Head Before we jump to the term NPSH.
Parts of a Centrifugal Pump Discharge Flange (outlet) Pump Casing Bearing Bracket Vent Plug Bearing Cover Suction Flange (Inlet) Shaft Bearing Bracket Support Mechanical Seal / Gland Packing 38 Pump Feet (support) .
Parts of a Centrifugal Pump Heating/ Cooling Jacket Outlet(Discharge) Discharge Flange Seal Flushing Pipe Bearing Bracket Lantern Bearing Bracket Pump Casing Radial Bearing Casing Wear Ring Thrust Bearing Bearing Cover Impeller Inlet (Suction) Suction Flange Impeller nut Casing Cover Bottom Feet Casing Drain Connection Key Shaft Splash Ring Mechanical Seal Shaft Protection Sleeve Oil Seal Oil Chamber Bearing Bracket Support 39 .
Impeller Nomenclature Front Shroud Back Shroud Vane Outer Hub Vane Suction Edge Impeller Eye Shaft Suction Eye Diameter Inner Hub Back Vane Vane Discharge Edge 40 .
Liquid velocity increases as its pressure decreases not only due to Venturi effect but also frictional loss.Flow Through Pump Inlet Liquid moves through decreasing cross-section area (as in a Venturi). 41 . Results in creation of low pressure around the impeller eye and beginning of impeller vanes. Pressure drops down further due to shock & turbulence as the liquid strikes the edges of impeller vanes. At the point of minimum cross-section (impeller eye) velocity is max and pressure is min.
If the pressure drops below the vapour pressure of the liquid at the operating temperature. the liquid will vaporize. 42 .
Formation of Bubbles inside the liquid New bubbles continue to form and older ones grow in size Bubbles get carried by liquid at high velocity from impeller eye towards impeller exit Bubbles eventually reach the regions of high pressure within the impeller The pressure outside of the bubble exceeds that inside of the bubble Hundreds of bubbles collapse by bursting inwards (implosion. not explosion!) When bubbles collapse surrounding liquid rushes to fill the void forming a liquid microjet Creates highly localised hammering effect. pitting the impeller An audible shock wave emanates outward from the point of collapse Bubble Collapse pressures greater than 1GPa (10.003 seconds! 44 .000 bar) have been reported! Life cycle of a bubble has been estimated to be in the order of 0.
This dynamic process of formation of bubbles inside the liquid.Heart Attack of the Pump Obstruction to flow Impair performance – reduce capacity and head Abnormal noise and vibrations Damage impeller and other sensitive components A Centrifugal pump can handle air in the range of 1/2 % by volume. 45 . their growth and subsequent collapse is called CAVITATION. Cavitation can be of two types Vaporous: due to vaporisation of the liquid Gaseous: due to formation of gas bubbles in a liquid containing dissolved gas Cavitation . Cavitation begins if this value is increased to 6%.
Impeller Cavitation Regions 46 .
Cavitation Pitting 47 .
ft. not vapours 1 cu. to pump a liquid effectively.NPSH Pumps can only pump liquid. it must be kept always in liquid form Rise in temperature and fall in pressure induces vaporisation The pump always needs to have a sufficient amount of suction head present to prevent vaporisation at the lowest pressure point in the pump NPSH as a measure to prevent vaporisation The NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD is the total head at the suction flange of the pump less the vapour pressure converted to fluid column height of the liquid 48 . ft. of water at room temperature becomes 1700 cu. of vapour at the same temperature ! Hence.
NPSHr is the positive head in meters absolute required at the pump suction to overcome the pressure drop in the pump and maintain the majority of the liquid above its vapour pressure. NPSHr increases as capacity increases NPSHr is independent of liquid specific gravity 49 .NPSH NPSHr .Net Positive Suction Head Required NPSHr is a function of the pump design NPSHr is determined based on actual pump test by pump manufacturer. “Net” refers to the actual pressure head at the pump suction flange and not the static suction head.
“Net” refers to the actual pressure head at the pump suction flange and not the static suction head.NPSH NPSHa . NPSHa is independent of liquid specific gravity 50 .Net Positive Suction Head Available NPSHa is a function of the system design NPSHa is calculated based on the system or process conditions NPSHa is the total suction head corrected to the centerline of the first stage impeller less the vapour pressure head.
pumping temperature (hvp) Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line Ps hs Pvp Vs Back 51 .NPSHa = Pressure head in suction reservoir (hpi) + static suction head (hs) + velocity head at the pump suction flange (hvi) – friction head in the suction line (hfi) – vapour pressure head at the max.
viscosity Pump size.Capacity Flow rate with which liquid is moved by the pump Measured in m3/hr or GPM or LPM Capacity depends on Liquid characteristics – density. inlet & outlet sections Impeller size Impeller rotational speed RPM Size & shape of cavities between vanes Pump suction & discharge temperature and pressure conditions 52 .
m h = Efficiency. m Pump Efficiency (h) W KW BKW BKW = WKW + Mechanical Losses + Hydraulic Losses 53 .Power and Efficiency Brake Kilo Watt (BKW) • Mechanical power delivered to the pump shaft Q H Specific Gravity BKW 367 η Hydraulic Kilo Watt (WKW) Q = Capacity. m3/hr H = Total Differential Head. m3/hr H = Total Differential Head. % • Liquid power delivered by the pump WKW Q H Specific Gravity 367 Q = Capacity.
Pump Performance Curve Shutoff Head Point Best Efficiency Point 70 60 14 Run Out Point 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 50 40 30 20 10 0 Capacity (m3/hr) Pump Input (BKW) / NPSHr (m) Head (m) / Efficiency (%) 54 .
Radial Thrust Radial Force acting on Impeller = Flow (=constant) x Area (=varying) 55 .
in the direction of shaft rotation. Francis vane impellers (the most popular shape) deflect at approximately 60 and 240 degrees measured from the cutwater.Radial Thrust The exact points at which the forces will be generated is determined by the Specific Speed (shape) of the impeller. Axial flow impellers deflect close to 180 and zero degrees from the cut water 56 . Radial vane impellers deflect at close to 90 and 270 degrees.
Continuous Stable Flow Capacity (m3/hr) Radial Thrust Allowable operating range .Pump Performance Curve & Radial Thrust Shutoff Head Point Best Efficiency Point 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Preferred operating range Run Out Point Head (m) / Efficiency (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 57 Min.
Single Volute Vs Double Volute 58 .
Effect of Impeller Diameter 70 60 50 Head (m) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 59 40 30 20 10 0 Capacity (m3/hr) Efficiency (%) .
Pump Performance Curve 60 .
Typical H-Q with Iso-Efficiency Curves Iso-Efficiency Curves Head Capacity 61 .
) + Ps Pvp Vs hs 62 . (zloss coeff. kg/m3 g = gravitational constant.hvs ) + ( hfd + hfs ) ( Vd2 – Vs2 ) + ( hfd + hfs ) 2xg Pd Vd hd Datum Level Pump Center Line ( Discharge Static Head .System Resistance Curve Total System Head = = Static System Head + Dynamic System Head ( Discharge Velocity Head . if suction lift hs = +ve. m/s2 hf = z x V2 2xg .+ Suction Static Head) + (Discharge Pressure Head Suction Pressure Head ) ( hd – hs ) + ( hps – hpd ) + ( hd – hs ) + ( Pd – Ps ) rxg = = hs = -ve.Suction Velocity Head + Discharge Friction Head + Suction Friction Head ) ( hvd . if suction head suffix “s” = suction suffix “d” = discharge r = density.
System Resistance Curve 70 60 50 Head (m) 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Dynamic System Head Static System Head Capacity (m3/hr) 63 .
Operating Point Best Efficiency Point 70 Operating Point 60 Head (m) / Efficiency (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 64 Dynamic System Head Static System Head Capacity (m3/hr) .
is the speed in RPM at which a geometrically similar impeller would operate if it were of such a size as to deliver 1 m3/hr against 1 m head. is primarily used to describe the geometry (shape) of a pump impeller N Q Ns 3 Ns.) Q = Capacity in LPM at the best efficiency point H = The total head per stage in meters at the best efficiency point 65 .Specific speed (Ns) is a non-dimensional design index Ns. is used as an4index to predict certain pump characteristics Η Specific Speed (Ns) N = The speed of the pump in revolutions per minute (rpm. Ns.
This ratio becomes 1.0 for a true axial flow impeller Values of Specific Speed. decreases. D2. Di. Ns 66 .Specific Speed (Ns) As the specific speed increases. the ratio of the impeller outlet diameter. to the inlet or eye diameter.
Impeller Types Based on Flow Radial Flow Impeller Mixed Flow Impeller Axial Flow Impeller 67 .
Impeller Types Based on Flow
Head Develoved by Flow Vs Head Nature of H-Q Curve Power Input Specific Speed Centrifugal Force Axial Force
Low Flow High Head
Lesser Steep (More Flatter) Increases with flow Lower Specific Speed
High Flow Low Head
More Steep Decreases with Flow Higher Specific Speed
Radial Flow Impeller
Axial Flow Impeller
Mixed Flow Impeller
Typical Performance of a Radial Impeller
Typical Performance of a Mixed Impeller
Typical Performance of a Axial Impeller
Effect of Speed on Pump Performance
System Resistance Curve
Keeping Impeller diameter D constant
H1 H2 B3
N1 N2 N3
N2 2 x H1 N1 N2 3 x P1 N1
N - Speed B - Operating Point
Effect of Impeller Diameter on Pump Performance
System Resistance Curve
Keeping Speed N constant
H1 H2 B3
D1 D2 D3
D2 2 x H1 D1 D2 3 x P1 D1
N – Speed (constant) B - Operating Point
Effect of Viscosity on Pump Performance
HW HZ BW BZ
Q Z = fQ x QW HZ = fH x QH hZ = fh x Q W
D1 D2 D3 fQ – Capacity Correction Factor fQ – Head Correction Factor fh– Efficiency Correction Factor
B – Operating Point W – Water Z – Viscous Liquid
slurries.not to use for gels.not to use for axial.Viscosity Correction Chart .use for viscosity greater than or equal to 4. open or closed impellers .do not extrapolate 75 .0 cst . paper stock (non Newtonian liquids) . mixed flow or special hydraulic design . in normal operating range.use for pumps with conventional hydraulic design.
Effect of Valve Closing on the Operating Point System Resistance Curve B4 B3 Q-H Curve B2 B1 Head H B .Operating Point Capacity Q 76 .
Operating Point 77 .Characteristics of Performance Curve Drooping Curve (unstable) DH Flat Curve Head H DQ DQ Steep Curve Capacity Q B .
Parallel Operation Two or more pumps operating in parallel Common method for meeting variable capacity requirement Pumps with unstable characteristics may be troublesome unless operation only on the steep portion No pump should be operated at flows less than pump minimum flow 78 .
Parallel Operation 50 45 40 H1= H2 35 System Head Curve Head H 30 Combined 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 Q2 Q1 Q1+ Q2 Pump 1 Pump 2 40 50 60 70 79 Capacity Q .
Series Operation Two or more pumps operating in series Common method for meeting variable head requirement 80 .
Series Operation 90 80 70 60 Head H System Head Curve 50 Pump 1 Combined 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 81 Pump 2 H2 H1 Capacity Q H1 + H2 .
Types of Impellers Closed Radial Flow Impeller Closed Mixed Flow Double Entry Impeller Closed Mixed Flow Impeller Open Mixed Flow Impeller Open Mixed Flow Impeller Axial Flow Entry Impeller 82 .
Types of Impellers (Non-Clog) Closed One Vane Impeller Closed Two Vane Impeller Closed Three Vane Impeller Open One Vane Impeller Open Two Vane Impeller Open Three Vane Impeller Used for liquids containing solids More free passage 83 .
Types of Impellers (Special) Free Flow Impeller 84 .
Types of Impellers (based on the no. of inlets) Single Suction Double Suction 85 .
Axial Thrust (Single Suction Impeller) Discharge Pressure Discharge Pressure Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure Discharge Pressure 86 .
Axial Thrust (Double Suction Impeller) Discharge Pressure Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure Suction Pressure Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure Suction Pressure Discharge Pressure 87 .
Axial Thrust Discharge Pressure Balanced Forces Un-Balanced Forces Un-Balanced Forces Balanced Forces Discharge Pressure The Unbalanced Axial Thrust on an impeller is counterbalanced by Thrust Bearings 88 .
Axial Thrust Methods to Reduce Unbalanced Axial Thrust Back Vane 89 .
Axial Thrust Methods to Reduce Unbalanced Axial Thrust Balancing Hole Back Wearing Ring Balancing Hole 90 .
Axial Thrust Methods to Reduce Unbalanced Axial Thrust Counter Balancing Disc Balancing Disc Balancing Disc 91 .
Axial Thrust Methods to Reduce Unbalanced Axial Thrust Expansion chamber Balancing water line to the suction casing of the pump or to the feedwater tank Oil-lubricated thrust bearing Balancing Drum (Single Piston) Balancing Piston 92 .
Axial Thrust Methods to Reduce Unbalanced Axial Thrust Expansion chamber Balancing water line to the suction casing of the pump or to the feedwater tank Oil-lubricated thrust bearing Balancing Drum (Double Piston) Balancing Double Piston 93 .
vibration & cavitation Pumps with Low NPSHR is more susceptible to cavitation when operating in the regions of recirculation flows Suction Specific Speed (NSS) is a guide to predict how close the pump is to be operated to the BEP to avoid recirculation and thus cavitation Suction Recirculation Discharge Recirculation 94 .Internal Recirculation Recirculation is a flow reversal at the suction and or discharge tips of impeller vanes Recirculation depends on impeller design Every impeller has a critical flow at which recirculation occurs Recirculation can cause noise.
000 US units(348 metric units) then it is better to use an axial flow impeller ahead of the centrifugal impeller. If the available NPSH is low enough to require a pump with NSS of 18. rpm (or 232 m3/s. the closer will be the beginning of recirculation to the capacity at best efficiency Guideline: NSS should not exceed 12.000 USGPM. is used as a non-dimensional index to predict cavitation due to suction recirculation flow Nss N Q at BEP 3 4 NPSH at BEP N = The speed of the pump in revolutions per minute (rpm.Suction Specific Speed (NSS) Nss. Lower the NSS safer the pump against cavitation. 95 .) Q = Capacity in GPM (m3/s) at the best efficiency point of top impeller NPSH = The NPSH in feet (meters) at the best efficiency of top impeller Higher the NSS. m. ft. rpm).
50 Multistage 0.70 1. For hydrocarbons the min. operating flows can be reduced to 60% of the suction recirculation values shown for continuous operation & 25% for intermittent operation. For water pumps rated at 2500 gpm & 150 feet total head or less the min. operating flows can be reduced to 50% of the suction recirculation values shown for continuous operation & 25% for intermittent operation 2.Initial recirculation *Typical h1/D2 ratios are as follows Double suction 0.50-0.35-0. 96 .
Diffuser Impeller Impeller Diffuser Volute Casing without Diffuser Volute Casing with Diffuser 97 .
Diffuser Comparison of Radial Forces acting on an impeller inside a volute casing and inside a diffuser casing 98 .
in vertical turbine (axial flow) pumps and seldom applied to a single stage radial flow pump.Diffuser A diffuser consists of a number of vanes set around the impeller Flow from a diffuser is collected in a volute or circular casing and discharged through the outlet pipe A diffuser does the same function as the volute casing in energy conversion A diffuser converts vortex flow at the exit of an impeller into a vortex-free flow with minimum loss A diffuser reduces the unbalanced radial forces acting on an impeller Diffuser is used in high pressure multistage pumps. 99 .
Common Suction & Discharge Configurations End Suction / Top Discharge Top Suction / Top Discharge Side Suction / Side Discharge 100 .
Between Bearing.Axially Split Casing Pump Single Stage. Single Suction. Between Bearing. Double Suction. Side Suction / Side Discharge Multistage Stage. Side Suction / Side Discharge 101 .
Top Suction / Top Discharge 102 . Ring Section.Radially Split Casing Pump Single Stage. Single Suction. Overhung. End Suction / Top Discharge Multi Stage. Between Bearing. Single Suction.
Barrel Casing & Ring Section Multi Stage. Single Suction. Top Suction / Top Discharge Barrel Casing Multi Stage. Ring Section. Single Suction. Top Suction / Top Discharge 103 . Between Bearing. Between Bearing. Double Casing.
Vertical (Can) Barrel Casing Pump Thrust Bearing Column Pipe Guide Bearing Line Shaft Bowl Casing Impeller Pump Shaft Barrel Casing 104 .
End-Suction. Back Pull-out Arrangement with Spacer Coupling Discharge Pipe Suction Pipe Coupling with Spacer 105 .
End-Suction. Back Pull-out Arrangement with Spacer Coupling Remove Spacer 106 .
End-Suction. Back Pull-out Arrangement with Spacer Coupling Pump Suction & Discharge nozzles remain connected to piping! 107 .
End-Suction. Back Pull-out Arrangement with Spacer Coupling Back Pull-out assembly lifted! 108 .
Back Pull-out Arrangement with Spacer Coupling 109 .End-Suction.
Advantage of a Double (Barrel) Casing Pump Discharge Pipe Cartridge Barrel Casing Suction Pipe Cartridge Removal Tools 110 .
Pump Priming Earth‟s atmosphere is approx. 80. 8000 times that of air 111 .000 m above the earth. resting on the earth with a weight equivalent to a layer of water 10 m deep at sea level The weight of water is approx.
the pump must produce a discharge head of approx. but only at a pressure equivalent to the rated head of the pump. it is necessary to fill the waterways in a pump with liquid before starting it. for every 1m water that has to be raised to fill the pump. 8000 m. A centrifugal pump is said to be PRIMED when the waterways of the pump is completely filled with liquid to be pumped. which is impossible! Hence. Centrifugal pump can produce only 1/8000 of its rated water pressure when handling air In other words.Pump Priming Centrifugal pumps can pump air at their rated capacity. 112 .
Methods of Pump Priming Foot Valve 113 .
Methods of Pump Priming Priming Chamber 114 .
Methods of Pump Priming To Vacuum Pump 115 .
Methods of Pump Priming Self Priming Pump 116 .
Impeller Inducer Inducer 117 .Inducer Inducer is an axial flow impeller fitted ahead of the centrifugal impeller to reduce the NPSH of the pump or to permit the pump to operate at higher speeds.
Inducer Inducer is mounted on the same shaft as that of the centrifugal impeller and rotates at the same speed Inducer increases the suction pressure of a conventional impeller Although the efficiency of the inducer is low. it will not reduce the pump overall efficiency significantly Inducers have typically 2 but not more than 4 vanes NPSHr NPSH without Inducer NPSH with Inducer Capacity Q 118 .
Methods of Reducing Pump NPSH Double Suction Arrangement 119 .
Methods of Reducing Pump NPSH Impeller Inducer Inducer Arrangement 120 .
Methods of Reducing Pump NPSH Increase Impeller Eye Area 121 .
TYPICAL MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 122 .
TYPICAL MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 123 .
Torque – Speed Characteristics 124 .
Bearing Bracket Radial Bearing Shaft Deflector Oil Seal Oil Seal Thrust Bearings 125 .
It includes pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power recovery turbines. • Why is API 610 Published? API 610 has been written to ensure a minimum standard for: Safety Reliability Maintainability • Pump Types Covered 126 API 610 covers all types of centrifugal pumps. heavy duty chemical and gas industry services.•REQUIREMENTS OF API 610 Scope API 610 is a standard that covers the minimum requirements for centrifugal pumps for use in petroleum. .
000 kPa-g or an ANSI 300#127 flange rating (2.2.1). between bearings radially split pumps.2).1. multi-stage pumps and vertical double case pumps are to be designed with a pressure rating equal to the lesser of 4. – Overhung pumps. • Casing Design – The pump pressure casings must be designed using the stresses.2. welding and inspection practices given in the pressure vessel code (2. In practice there are many API 610 pumps in industry that have been operating for in excess of 40 years and many oil refineries are now reporting MTBF figures in excess of 7 years.• Long Reliable Life FEATURES OF API 610 – API pumps must be designed and constructed for a minimum service life of 20 years and at least 3 years of uninterrupted operation (clause 2. .1).
• Rotors – Default impeller design is closed and constructed as a one piece casting.5.6).001 inch (2. and still give satisfactory performance. Case distortion and shaft misalignment are considered when assessing satisfactory performance (2.5.6). Except on vertical suspended pumps.1). – The pump must meet these requirements without any bearing housing support (3.3) – Shaft runout is limited to 0.4.3. 128 – Shaft stiffness must limit the deflection at the .FEATURES OF Moments • External Nozzle Forces andAPI 610 – API 610 lists the maximum forces and moments.5. 2.5.2. 2. which in turn must have a positive mechanical locking method (2. which the pump nozzles must be able to take.1. impellers must be keyed to the shaft and secured by a cap screw or cap nut.
3).0 (2. – Multi-stage pumps: impellers and major components balanced to grade G1.2.5. In practice most API 610 pumps will have an L10 bearing design life far in excess of this figure.1. External Nozzle Forces and Moments – API 610 specifies maximum allowable vibration levels – nominally 3.5 (5. • Rotors . • Balancing • Bearings – Single stage and two stage pumps: impellers dynamic balanced to Grade G1. which in turn must have a positive mechanical locking method (2. impellers must129 be keyed to the shaft and secured by a cap screw or cap nut. – Both API 610 and API 682 specify seal chamber dimensions. – Default impeller design is closed and constructed as a one piece casting. These dimensions help ensure an ideal environment for the mechanical seal. at rated conditions (table 2.1). 2. API 682 (2. – Bearing housings must have constant level oilers fitted. at the bearing housing (2.7).0. Except on vertical suspended pumps.4.2) – Minimum L10 design bearing life is 18.104.22.168.0 mm/s RMS unfiltered.5.7).8.000 hours. rotors balanced to G2.• Mechanical Seals FEATURES OF API 610 • Vibration – There is now an API standard for mechanical seals.
magnetic particle.3. – The purchaser should specify which parts are to be subjected to surface and subsurface examination. – Baseplates must be single piece drain rim or drain pan design. liquid penetrant.1.1). 3. Values are specified for measuring compliance (3.3.3. – Pump and drive train components must have mounting pads. 130 – The standard lists the appropriate procedure and acceptance FEATURES OF API 610 • Inspections • Material Inspections . These design criteria ensure minimal misalignment of pump and driver shafts (3. radiographic or ultrasonic) (4. to ensure that any leakage is contained within the baseplate (3.3).1. fully machined flat and parallel.2).5).2.3).e.2.• Drivers • Baseplates – Driver power ratings must be at least equal to the following (table 22.214.171.124): – Motor kW Percentage of Rated Pump Power <22 125% 22-55 115% >55 110% – Strict guidelines are given for baseplate design. – The manufacturer must keep quality records for at least 20 years (4. and the type of examination required (i.
• SUMMARY FEATURES OF API 610 – Heavy duty casing design – Centerline supports – Low shaft stiffness ratio – Low shaft deflection at the seal faces – Long design bearing life – Low vibration levels – High allowable forces and moments on nozzles – Stringent testing requirements 131 .
Need to Seal a Pump 132 .
Stuffing Box / Seal Chamber Shaft Protection Sleeve Impeller Shaft 133 .
Need to Seal a Pump Pump Wall Shaft Process Fluid Leakage Environment 134 .
Seal Types Gland Packing Mechanical Seal 135 .
Gland Packing Stuffing Box Gland Shaft Lantern Ring (Seal cage) Shaft Sleeve Packing 136 .
Mechanical Seal Secondary Sealing Element Stuffing Box (Seal Chamber) Mating Ring Shaft Primary Ring Secondary Sealing Element 137 .
A secondary sealing element 4. A stationary seat. A mechanical loading device to press face and seat together.Mechanical Seal Principle Components 1. Auxiliary components 138 . and 5. A rotating face (primary ring) 2. (mating ring) 3.
Mechanical Seal Primary Ring Snap Ring O-Ring Disk Springs O-Ring Mating Ring Mating Ring Assembly (Stationary) Retainer Set Screw Seal Head (Rotating) Shaft 139 .
Mechanical Seal Process Fluid Acts as Lubricant Between Faces Pump Housing Gland Process Fluid Primary Ring Mating Ring Invisible Leakage: 140 Fluid Evaporates Upon Reaching Atmosphere .
Mechanical Seal Without Lubrication. Faces Run Dry And Overheat Pump Housing Gland No Fluid Or Dry Running Primary Ring Mating Ring 141 .
Mechanical Seal Heat Transfer • • Conduction Convection 142 .
Mechanical Seal Flushing • • • Removes Heat Replenishes Cool Clean Lubricating Liquid Removes any solids Injection 143 .
Mechanical Seal Single Seal Flushing By .pass Line from Pump Discharge to Seal Gland Flow Suction 144 .Pass from Discharge (API Plan 11) Discharge By.
Mechanical Seal Balance Ratio Balance ratio is used to control the face load. Closing Force Opening Force 145 .
A A c o Closing Area Balance Ratio = Opening Area 146 .Mechanical Seal Balance Ratio Balance ratio is the ratio of the closing area to the opening area.
Mechanical Seal Balance Ratio An Unbalanced Seal Fc = p x Ac P = Fc / Ao = (p x Ac) / Ao A c Fc A o 147 .
Mechanical Seal Balance Ratio A Balanced Seal Ac Ao 148 .
Mechanical Seal Secondary Sealing Element Pusher Seal O-ring must move axially 149 .
Mechanical Seal Secondary Sealing Element Non Pusher Seal Static O-ring 150 .
Mechanical Seal Secondary Sealing Element Elastomeric Bellows Half Convolution Teflon Bellows Welded Metal Bellows V Rings U Cup Wedge Encapsulated O Ring O Ring 151 .
Non-Pusher O-ring secondary seal must slide along shaft as seal face wears Bellows secondary seal expands to accommodate face wear. Bellows tail is stationary against shaft 152 .Mechanical Seal Pusher vs.
Mechanical Seal Multiple Seal Arrangements Classical “Tandem” Process seal Backup seal Classical “Double” Process seal Barrier fluid seal 153 .
Mechanical Seal Un-Pressurised Arrangement Unpressurised (Tandem) Pressure Process Buffer Atmosphere 154 .
Mechanical Seal Pressurised Seal Arrangement PRESSURISED (double) Pressure Barrier Process Atmosphere 155 .
Mechanical Seal Categories of Mechanical Seal – Pusher / Bellows – Cartridge / Conventional – Wet Seals / Gas seals – Split / Whole – Single / Double 156 .
Mechanical Seal Merits of Pusher & Non-Pusher Seals PUSHER SEALS (NON BELLOWS) • O ring seals • Wedge seals NON PUSHER SEALS (BELLOWS) • Metal Bellows • Rubber Bellows • PTFE Bellows • No „hang up‟ • Better abrasive handling • More tolerant to misalignments • More material options • Higher Pressures • Easier to manufacture 157 .
Mechanical Seal Cartridge Seal O-Ring Metal Bellows Elastomer Bellows 158 .
reliable • Factory set – reliable • Less downtime in replacement 159 .Mechanical Seal Merits of Cartridge Seals & Conventional Seals CARTRIDGE SEALS CONVENTIONAL (COMPONENT) • Less expensive • Adaptable • Easier to fit .
the need to condition the liquid before being used as a seal flushing liquid for satisfactory seal operation . Hence.Mechanical Seal Need for Flushing Plans & Sealing Systems Pumped Liquid may be … • Too hot • Too cold • Too viscous • Prone to solidify or crystallise • Abrasive • Close to boiling point • Contains dissolved gases • The liquid can not get to the seals • Dangerous liquid • Sensitive liquid 160 Such a liquid if used for seal flushing may damage the seal and cause seal failure.
These systems are used to dissipate this generated heat and cool the seal faces thus extending the seal life 161 .API PLANS • Seals generate heat and require lubrication while face sealing.
Flushing Liquid Fluid which is introduced into the seal chamber on the process fluid side in close proximity to the seal faces typically used for cooling & lubricating the seal faces .
PROVIDES LUBRICATION.FLUSHING REMOVES HEAT GENERATED BETWEEN RUBBING FACES.FLUSHING DOES NOT ALLOW ABRASIVES TO REACH SEAL FACES. KEEPS LIQUID INSIDE STUFFING BOX IN CONSTANT CIRCULATION. IN CASE OF EXTERNAL FLUID FLUSHING . . INCREASES MARGIN BETWEEN VAPOUR PRESSURE AND STUFFING BOX PRESSURE.
Plan 01 .
Plan 01 (if possible to provide in the stuffing box) is superior to Plan11 for the liquids. A connection is made from an area behind the impeller.No control on the flush flow rate. . which may become viscous or freeze at lower temperature. near discharge to seal chamber. Disadvantage . This minimizes the risk of freezing of the fluids in the piping. Recommended for clean fluids.Plan 01 Integral (internal) re circulation is from discharge to seal.
Plan 02 .
Care should be taken to vent the stuffing box properly. . One 5 mm diameter hole at the topmost position of the throat should be provided for venting purpose. For liquids at self ignition temperature API Plan 02 is not recommended. Depending on the requirement cooling or heating is provided in the stuffing box jacket. This plan is preferred plan for the clean and relatively cool liquids having sufficient (at-least 1 kg/cm2) margin between vapour pressure and stuffing box pressure.Plan 02 The stuffing box is dead-ended (with no circulation of fluid).
Plan 11 .
Plan 11 A line with flow control orifice is connected from the discharge side of the pump into the gland flush connection. . Orifice must be sized properly. It is default seal flush plan. For larger pressure drop multiple orifice is recommended instead of reducing the size of orifice. Minimum orifice size recommended is 3 mm.
Plan 13 Horizontal Pump Orifice From Seal Suction .
Plan 13 Vertical Pump From Seal Orifice Suction .
In this plan liquid moves away from the seal face instead of impinging on to it ( API Plan 11) and the stuffing box pressure reduces making the seal more comfortable. Whenever stuffing box pressure is more than suction pressure. through a flow control orifice. It is standard flush plan for vertical pumps where stuffing box pressure is equal to discharge pressure. API PLAN 13 is better than API PLAN 11.Plan 13 A line is connected from the gland. to the suction piping. .
MEDIA FROM DISCHARGE TO SEAL CHAMBER THRU ORIFICE.
MEDIA FROM SEAL CHAMBER TO SUCTION THRU ORIFICE.
It is combination of Plan 11 and Plan13. It is mostly used for vertical pumps handling volatile liquids. In Plan 13 because of throat bush, pressure in the seal area may drop and liquid may vaporise. Plan 11 provides cool fluid to the seal area whereas Plan 13 provides complete venting in the seal area.
A line with orifice is connected from the discharge side of the pump through a flow control orifice and cooler into the seal chamber. It provides cool flush to the seal. This plan is the best for liquids at self ignition temperature. In the event of seal leakage, cool liquid will continue to reach seal faces as long as the pump is running ,ensuring that hot liquid does not come out. The disadvantage is that heat loss is more, also cooling water requirement is high.
Plan 23 .
Therefore cooler size reduces drastically as compared to Plan 21 cooler. Use of an internal circulating device to circulate the fluid through a closed loop cooler allows the cooler to continuously cool a recirculated stream rather than a continuous (hot) stream from discharge to seal (Plan 21). The cooler is required to cool the liquid in the loop. A Plan 23 flushing system is most effective way of providing a cool flush to the seal faces. In this arrangement fluid in seal chamber is isolated from that in the impeller area of the pump by a throat bush. .Plan 23 In this plan process fluid is recirculated with the help of a pumping ring in the seal chamber through a cooler and back in to the seal chamber. Also the cooling water requirement is much less than Plan 21.
Coolers for API Plan 21 & 23 .
Air Fin Coolers NATURAL DRAUGHT .
Plan 23M: Process liquid through shell & cooling liquid through coil .Plan 23M Modified API plan by ESSIL Plan 23: Process liquid through coil & cooling liquid through shell.
Advantages: Vapour Lock : Plan 23 is not self venting Friction loss: More in Plan 23 Heat transfer rate: The pot area is sufficient to carry away heat generated by the seal and soaked heat.Plan 23M It is shell and tube type heat exchanger. In majority of the cases if proper thermal barrier is provided at the bottom of the throat bush cooling water coil is not required. .
Gravity should be at least 2 times media Sp. . Gravity.Plan 31 Solid Sp.
Plan 31 Process liquid is recirculated through a cyclone separator to the seal. The Plan is specified for services containing solids with a specific gravity at least twice that of the process fluid. Even if the efficiency of cyclone separator is 92%. The finer particles can enter between the seal faces and cause damage to the seal. Normally cyclone separators do not remove the solids effectively and cause seal failure.about 8% of the finer particles reach to the seal faces. Solid particles are centrifuged through cyclone separator and sent back to suction. .
Cyclone Separator .
Plan 32 PRESSURE GAUGE STRAINER EXTERNAL FLUSH TO SEAL ORIFICE .
. This plan is excellent for liquid containing solids/ abrasives.Plan 32 Flushing product is brought from an external higher pressure source to the seal. A close clearance throat bush restricts the product to come to the seal area and also increases the pressure margin. The flushing fluid mixes with the product. Flushing fluid dilutes the product. Therefore unnecessarily more liquid should not be circulated . Therefore it must be ensured that the flushing fluid is compatible with the product. .
Gravity. .Plan 41 Solid Sp.Gravity should be at least 2 times media Sp.
Plan 41 It is combination of Plan 21 and Plan 31. it may choke the cooler. Process liquid is recirculated through a cyclone separator and cooler to the stuffing box. If the process liquid is very dirty or is slurry. The plan is recommended for hot liquids containing solids. Solid particles are centrifuged through cyclone separator and sent back to suction. Specific gravity of the solid particles should be at least twice that of the process fluid. .
Plan 51 In this plan an external reservoir provides a dead ended blanket for the fluid to the quench connection of the gland. .
Plan 52 .
Barrier Fluid Properties One of the most important properties of a good buffer or barrier fluid is its viscosity. The fluid must be compatible with the metallurgy. elastomers and other materials of the sealing system. A good buffer or barrier fluid should be a good heat transfer fluid. . A good barrier or buffer fluid should not present any potential danger whether equipment is running or stationary.
Foaming risks are to be avoided. . Fluid stability must be ensured for a longer maintenance cycle time.Barrier Fluid Properties The fluid should also be highly compatible with the process pumpage being sealed.
During operation an internal pumping ring provides circulation. . Plan 52 works best with clean.Plan 52 In this plan external reservoir provides buffer fluid for the outer seal of an un-pressurized dual seal arrangement ( Arrangement 2). nonpolymerising pure products that have vapour pressure more than the buffer system pressure. The reservoir is connected to a vapour recovery system and is maintained at a pressure less than the pressure in the seal chamber. Leakage of the process fluid will mix with the buffer fluid and contaminate the buffer fluid over a time. Therefore the buffer fluid must be compatible with the process fluid. Leakage of higher vapour pressure process liquid into buffer system will flash in the seal pot and escape into the vent system. It is normally used for the applications where process fluid leakage to atmosphere must be minimised and contained.
Plan 53 .
Inner seal leakage (if any) will be barrier fluid into the product and no process fluid will be allowed to leak in to barrier fluid area. abrasive or polymerising products which may either damage the seal faces or cause problem with the buffer fluid system if Plan 52 was used. The Plan 53 is for double back to back seal (Arrangement 3). During operation an internal pumping ring provides circulation. The barrier fluid must be pressurised to about 1. It is normally used for the applications where process no fluid leakage to atmosphere is permitted.Plan 53 In this plan external pressurised barrier fluid reservoir provides fluid for to the seal chamber. Plan 53 is selected over Plan 52 for dirty. .5 to 2 kg/cm2 above the pump seal chamber pressure.
Plan 53A .
. Cooler outside the reservoir.Plan 53B Pressurised barrier fluid circulation with bladder accumulator.
Plan 53C Pressurised barrier fluid circulation with piston accumulator. For Dynamic tracking of system pressure .
Plan 54 .
Where these systems are properly engineered they provide most reliable system. . A properly engineered barrier fluid system is typically complex and expensive. Plan 54 is used for the fluids where the process fluid is hot. A contaminated system may cause seal failure. The supply pressure must be at-least 1. contaminated with solids or both.Plan 54 In Plan 54 cool clean product from an external source is supplied.5 kg/cm2 greater than the pump seal chamber pressure. In Plan 54 care should be taken of barrier fluid system.
. FLUIDS WHICH DECOMPOSE IN CONTACT WITH ATMOSPHERE FLUID HAVING TENDENCY TO BECOME VISCOUS IN CONTACT WITH ATMOSPHERE ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES KEEPS AREA OUTSIDE SEALS CLEAN PROVIDES HEATING / COOLING TO SEAL FACES.QUENCHING KEEPS ATMOSPHERE AWAY TOXIC FLUIDS CRYSTALLIZING PRODUCTS CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS HIGH FREEZING POINT FLUIDS HIGH TEMP.
.Plan 61 Tapped and plugged connect for purchaser’s use.
Plan 62 .
steam or low pressure Nitrogen. Quenching is provided to keep atmosphere away. The quench fluid can be clean water. . In following conditions atmosphere must be kept away from the seal face. a quench stream is brought from an external source on atmospheric side of the seal faces.Plan 62 In Plan 62.
Plan 62 1) Toxic fluids 2) Crystallising products. 4) High Freezing point fluids. 5) High temp. 6) Fluid having tendency to become viscous in contact with atmosphere. which decompose in contact with atmosphere. 3) Cryogenic Application. Fluids. Quenching fluid keeps area outside seals clean and provides heating / cooling to seal faces .
5 kg/cm2 .Plan 62 Recommended flow rates: Media: Water Flow: 1 lpm Pressure: 0.5 kg/cm2 Media: Steam Flow: 1 m3/hr Pressure: 0.
52 and 54. 72. 72 and 74 are similar to Plan 51. 74. . Plan 71. Plan 75 and 76 are for single seal as well as for containment seals. 75 and 76 are for the dry containment seal.Plans for dry containment seals and single seals Plan 71.gas is provided between the two seals. Plan 75 is for non volatile liquids and Plan 76 is for volatile liquids.The leakage collection. Instead of liquid .
but it is not specified. Buffer gas may be needed to sweep inner seal leakage away from the outer seal into a connection system or to dilute the leakage. .Plan 71 This is used in Tandem (Arrangement 2) un pressurized dual seals. which utilize a dry containment seal and where no buffer gas is supplied but the provision to supply a buffer gas is desired.
Plan 72 .
. The buffer gas can be used to sweep inner seal leakage away from the outer seal to a collection system and /or dilute the leakage so the emissions from the containment seal are reduced. which utilize a dry containment seal and where buffer gas is supplied.Plan 72 Plan 72 is used Tandem (Arrangement 2) un-pressurized dual seals.
Plan 74 .
The most common barrier gas is nitrogen The supply pressure to the to the seal is typically at least 0.7 bar) (25 ps) greater than the seal chamber pressure. They are the gas barrier equivalent to the traditional plan 54 liquid barrier system.Plan 74 The system is used on dual pressurized seals (Arrangement 3). . This arrangement should never be used where the barrier gas pressure can be less than the sealed pressure If this were to happen the entire barrier gas system could become contaminated with the pump fluid. with most of the gas barrier leakage to atmosphere.where the barrier medium is a gas.17 Mpa (1. This results in small amount of gas leakage into the pump.
Plan 74 may also be used to obtain very high reliability. . leakage to the system is eliminated under normal conditions. since solids or other materials which may lead to premature seal failure cannot enter the seal faces.Plan 74 Plan 74 systems are typically used in services which are not too hot (within elastomer property limits) but which may contain toxic or hazardous materials whose leakage cannot be tolerated. Because they are pressurized dual seal systems.
Plan 75 .
which also utilize a dry containment seal and where the leakage from the inner seal may condense. The Plan 75 system is intended to perform this collection for pump fluids that may form some liquid (condense) at ambient temperature .Plan 75 Systems are typically used on Arrangement 2. unpressurised dual seals. They may be used with a buffer gas (Plan 72) and without a buffer gas (Plan 71) If an unpressurised dual seal is installed. usually it is because leakage of the pumped fluids to the atmosphere must be restricted more than can be done with an arrangement 1 seal. Therefore a mean is needed to collect the leakage and route it to a collection point.
Plan 76 .
The Plan 76 system is intended for services where no condensation of the inner seal leakage or from the collection system will occur.Plan 76 System is typically used on arrangement 2. unpressurised dual seals. Therefore a means is needed to route the leakage to the collection point. usually it is because if leakage of the pumped fluid into the atmosphere must be restricted more than can be done with an Arrangement 1 seal. They may be used with a buffer gas (plan 72) or without a buffer gas (Plan 71). . If an unpressurised dual seal is installed. which also utilize a dry containment seal and where leakage from the inner seal will not condense.
PUMP VIBRATIONS • BASIC SOURCES OF VIBRATION – MECHNAICALLY INDUCED – SYSTEM INDUCED – OPERATION INDUCED 220 .
PUMP VIBRATIONS – MECHNAICALLY INDUCED • BAD BEARINGS • BENT SHAFT • UNBALANCED ROTOR • CHECK VALVE INSTALLED BACKWARDS • MISALIGNMENT • LOOSENESS • SOFT FOOT • MAXIMUM SIZE IMPELLER 221 .
PUMP VIBRATIONS – SYSTEM INDICED • PARTIALLY / PLUGEGD STARINER • CLOGGED IMPELELR OR SUCTION LINE • INSTALLATION – OPERATIONALLY INDICED • CAVITATION • FLOW • SPEED • INSUFFICIENT IMMERSION OF SUCTION PIPE OR BELLMOUTH 222 .
PUMP VIBRATIONS – ACCEPTABLE LIMITS AS PER API 610 • 223 .
PUMP VIBRATIONS – API 610 REQUIREMENTS 224 .
PUMP VIBRATIONS 225 .
PUMP VIBRATIONS 226 .
Trouble shooting • • • • • • Classification of Failure causes Common Problems in Centrifugal Pumps Specific Failure Cases Troubleshooting Modern methods of Troubleshooting Pump Troubleshooting Software .
• Operation Related The problems related to the operation of the pump at site/shop due to reasons dependent/independent of its design.Classification of Failure Causes • Design Related The problems related specifically to the design parameters of the pump which are specified by the Process Engineer / Machinery Engineer / Vendor’s Counterpart in the Pump Mechanical Datasheet. .
Common Failures in Centrifugal pumps • • • • • Insufficient Capacity / Insufficient Head Internal recirculation Cavitation Excessive Power Consumption Excessive Noise and Mechanical Vibrations .
The Suction side c.Insufficient capacity • The problem is in a. The Pump b. The Discharge side Insufficient Head • The problem is in a. The Suction side c. The Pump b. The Discharge side .
Cause and Effect Discharge Recirculation .Internal Recircultion • • Suction Recirculation .Cause and Effect .
Air Ingestion .Flow Turbulence .Vaporization .Vane Passing Syndrome .Internal Recirculation .Cavitation • • What is Cavitation? Causes of Cavitation .
change in product .too much axial thrust .increase in bearing loading .Excessive Power Consumption • Reasons could be due to .starting procedure could be a problem .use of oversized pump .
• • • • • • • • • Excessive Noise and Mechanical Vibrations Unbalance Critical Speed Resonance with natural Frequencies Misalignment Hydraulic Disturbances Cavitation Surging Water Hammer Other Reasons .
flow.Troubleshooting • • • • • • • • Skill takes time to develop Pump may be a cause of a symptom Regulations may have additional safety precautions Make sure suction and discharge gages are available Verify pump speed Verify motor amps. duty Noise? • . temperature. speed. liquid. viscosity. voltage and power factor Make sure drivers are locked before doing any inspection Information gathering – What is different from when it ran fine? – When was the last maintenance work done? What was done? – How do things look? – Get the basics: inlet and discharge pressure.
vibrations. noise Amps and power Hydraulics. mechanics.Troubleshooting • • • • • • • • Rotation Loss of suction Loss of developed head Wear Viscosity Pulsations. electrics .
THANK YOU 237 .
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