DYNAMICS BEHAVIOR OF a 30 kW CAPSTONE MICROTURBINE

Written by E.A Setiawan Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V (ISET) University of Kassel, Germany

Abstract Investigation of electrical performance 30 kW microturbine during dynamics condition could be very importance. The investigation was operated under grid connected mode. In this mode, several tests were conducted with different set points; ramp up, ramp down, start up, shut down and automatic restart. The result from these tests can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of microturbine, create models that could be used in simulation studies and it will be incorporated into current study of control distributed generation, particularly study of virtual power plant and microgrids concept. Keywords: microturbine, ramp up, ramp down, start up, shut down, automatic restart

I.Introduction Distributed Generation (DG) are expected to play an increasingly significant role in power generation in coming years. Microturbine is a part of new technology of DG. It may offer one of the best short-term distributed power production options because of their simplicity and no major technological breakthroughs are required for their deployment. However with increasing use of microturbine technology in power system distribution, investigation of performance and behavior of microturbine is needed to manage the affect on system control, power quality and protection. The behavior and performance of microturbine was investigated under grid connected mode. In this mode, several tests were running by set points changed up and down. Result data was recorded by computer control centre and measurement device data logger. This paper focused on microturbine performance at electrical point of view, during several operating dynamic conditions; ramp up, ramp down, start up, shut down and automatic restart. In addition, corelation between electrical parameters performance with speed (mechanical) and turbine temperature were presented also. I.1 General microturbine description The microturbine was tested is composed of high speed microturbine with a permanent magnet generator attached to the same shaft. The turbine uses a recuperator to increase efficiency. Power is produced by generator as high frequency alternating current (AC). This variable frequency AC is transformed to direct current (DC) and then converted to utility grid grade AC by an inverter (figure 1).

. The shaft rotates at up to 96. The rotating components are mounted on a single shaft supported by air bearings. II. and a Digital Power Controller (DPC). Test methode. In this mode. and generator. the turbine shuts down automatically 2.000 RPM. several power set points were entered from computer control centre of microturbine.Figure 1. During the microturbine’s start up. is composed of the following subassemblies: a fuel system. a turbogenerator.2 The Capstone Microturbine The Capstone Microturbine generator. The generator is cooled by the air flow into the microturbine. recuperator. Laptop computer was running with required special software (DAMON software) and data were recorded during the tests (see figure 2). variable-frequency AC power. During microturbine start up. If the grid voltage and/or frequency fall outside a preset range. Microturbine was connected to the utility grid and operated on grid connected mode. I. The variable-frequency power from the rotating generator is converted to constant-voltage DC that is then inverted to constant-frequency AC. Grid power is used to rotate the turbine during start-up and cool down. It operates on high-pressure natural gas or low-pressure gas with optional gas compressor. The turbine generated only the selected amount of power regardless of the load on the system. the DPC operates as a variable-frequency drive supplying power to the turbine until sufficient power is available from the generator. the generator is used as the starter motor. The turbogenerator includes a compressor. The DPC controls the microturbine operation and all power conversion functions. General diagram of modern microturbine architecture 1. The output of the generator is variable-voltage. combustor. turbine.

206. phase B. . 168. phase B. The start up operation was started from turn on the microturbine (at cold temperature) until each phase of the microturbine started to export power into the utility grid.Figure 2. And the elapsed time from turn on the microturbine to peak full power export (complete start up) was 199 seconds with amount power export in phase A. 10234 W and phase C.9 W. 29. The start up operation was captured with data taken at one second intervals and the power output was setting at full power output (30 kW). Test setup configuration III.1 The dynamic performance of electrical parameters during start up operation. 10219 W (see figure 3 below).7 W and phase C.3 W. Result III. 9998 W. Elapsed time for this event was 51 seconds with amount power export in phase A.

Figure 3. Reactive power in each phase . Start up time of microturbine Figure 4.

concurrently the reactive power which was exported by microturbine increased dramatically to appoximatly 2. variation of voltage and frequency were within the normal accepted range. Similiarly the voltage profile output moved around 229 V (min) to 237 V (max). Frequency and Voltage profile In figure 5.During start up operation. grid power was used to rotate the turbine and it consumed total active power maximum 3. In these range levels. The indication has been shown in figure 4.68 kVar (at peak). Since the active power was injected to the grid and moved steadily for 53 seconds. . the frequency fluctuated in range from 49. On the other hand. contrariwise the reactive power bottomed out gradually (see figure 4 above). the active power fall suddently at point X. Hz Figure 5.03 Hz (max). the reactive power also in a steady hold. Afterwards the active power surged gradually to the top.76 kW.97 Hz (min) to 50.

and it was increasing to 55 A whilst the power output was ramping up (see figure 6).55 A 10 A 5A 10 seconds Timing of turn on the microturbine Timing of start power export Timing of peak power export Figure 6. Transient current profile of phase 1 The behavior of transinet current is also recorded with time length 10 seconds. At area 3. During start up operation. power output command was adjusted from full power output down to 20 kW power output. It indicated that the microturbine absorbed active power from the grid for cooling down sequence. the amplitude of transient current at each phase was 5–10 A. Ramping down power output command from 20 kW to 15 kW power output was applied for area 2. The ramp down and ramp up were performed to measure the response of transition time during setting of power output command. However. 15 kW power output command was decreased to 10 kW. III. At area 4 automatic restart was accured. . because the microturbine was difficult for running stable at 10 kW power output. at area 4 the ramping down sequence was recorded from 10 kW power output down to (minus) -0.42 kW. The dynamic performance of electrical parameters during ramp down and ramp up. 2. Ramp down sequences were devided into four areas (see figure 7). At area 1.

12 sec/kW.26 0. Table 1.74 End power output (kW) 19.12 2.10 -0.09 10.24 0. transition time of each ramp down area was calculated.86 and 4.6.75 14.Figure 7.98 15.36 Transition time (sec/kW) Transition power (kW/sec) 0.4.66 . At area 2 and 3.86 4.70 9. the power output command was changing circa 5 kW .80 3.4.42 Power output change (kW) .44 .60 -10.16 Time to change power output (sec) 18 18 19 24 2. Ramp down times Area Start power output (kW) 1 2 3 4 26.42 19.and the transition time was consistent at 3. Ramp down sequences In table 1.36 0.42 .

power output command was adjusted at 15 kW power output from automatic restart operation.73 power output (sec) 49 19 19 3.18 0.12 sec/kW). Area 2.65 2.51 3.02 + 13.Figure 8. And area 3 from 20 kW up to full power output.86 – 4.27 0.28 0.95 + 5. Ramp up times Area Start power End power Power output Time to change Transition time changing (kW) 1 2 3 0.63 28. At area 1.3.44 19.48 14. Ramp up sequences The ramp up sequences were devided into three areas.43 19. power output command was changing from 15 kW up to 20 kW. The result of transitions time of ramping up of each area is listed in table 2.19 + 8. Because of the amount power output changing is circa 5 .29 14.46 (sec/kW) Transition power (kW/sec) output (kW) output (kW) When table 2 at area 2 is compared with table 1 particularly at area 2 and 3. Table 2. the transition times are nearly consistent (3.65 .

performance of microturbine was not stable.6 kW inside of 2 seconds. 3 The dynamic performance of electrical parameters during automatic restart Since the power output command was changing ramp down from 15 kW to 10 kW power output.18 and 2. In this periode.kW. suddenly the power output drop dramatically to 4. the elapsed time for automatic restart until export power to the grid is about 5 minutes.36 sec/kW (with amount power changing output between 9 – 10 kW). elapsed time from automatic restart to power export. After 22 seconds operation with producing power output circa 10 kW. Figure 9. Likewise the result of transition time at area 4 in table 1 and at area 3 in table 2 is not far different at 2. Several interesting events during automatic restart were investigated i.e. restart procedure was operating automatically until the microturbine exporting power to the grid. III. And it takes 5 minutes 48 seconds to export power output 15 kW to the utility grid. . Elapsed times during automatic restart According to graphs in figure 9 above. and elapsed time until producing power output 15 kW (see figure 9).

On the other hand. Dynamic performance of reactive power during automatic restart The reactive power increased significantly during automatic restart (see figure 10) from 515 Var to 668 Var.Figure 10. at the same time the frequency was down slightly. because the active power output was decreasing from 9.75 kW down to 4. Nonetheless the frequency fluctiation was still on tolerance. .6 kW.

shutdown procedure was started by turned off the switch at the microturbine’s power panel. full power output (25. the power output decline gradually per 1 second until the microturbine absorbed active power to the grid. several sequences were accured fastly (see figure 12). After that. 4 The dynamic performance of electrical parameters during shutdown operation When the microturbine was on steady state operation at the full power output. It needs 26 seconds until the microturbine did not export power to the grid (the microturbine start to absorb power from the grid). First sequence. And after 1 second the power output fall dramatically to 8.8 kW.4 kW.Figure 11.4 kW) drop sharply to 16. During shutdown operation. . The microturbine was shutdown completely in 10 minutes 27 seconds (see figure 13). Dynamic performance frequency and voltage during automatic restart III.

Shutdown time of microturbine .Figure 12 . Shut down sequences Figure 13.

On the other hand. Figure 15. the voltage profile slide gradually. Dynamic performance of voltage and frequency during shutdown During shutdown operation. the frequency was relative constant in range 50 Hz to 49.98 Hz (see figure 14).Figure 14. Dynamic performance of reactive power during shutdown .

the reactive power during shutdown sequence was moving flat out. . Current transient during shutdown The transient current was also decresing during shut down sequence. 50 A 20 A 15 A Timing of turn off the microturbine Timing of no export power Figure 16. the amplitude of transient current at each phase was changing from circa 50 A down to 20 A – 15 A and it was decresing whilst the power output was ramping down (figure 16).As shown in figure 15.810 Var. And the microturbine inverter was still feeding reactive power to the grid with total amount circa 1.

5 Power factor performance Figure 17. The power factor (PF) was consistent (PF ≈ 1) and the PF value decreased very slightly when the power output ramped down. .III. Microturbine power factor Figure 17 shown average power factor at 30 kW. 20 kW and 15 kW power output command.

The dynamic performance of turbine speed and thermal parameters. .III. When the power output was established at full power operation. Figure 18. The turbine speed increased sharply during start up operation. the speed turbine rotated at 94936 rpm. 7. The speed could reach 23663 rpm in 25 seconds after turned on the power switch on the microturbine. the turbine temperatur increased sharply to 679. And after 70 seconds start up operation.000 rpm) and turbine exhaust temperatur settled at around 593 degrees celcius (see figure 19 below).4 degrees celcius. During start up operation the maximal turbine speed was recorded at 96363 rpm inside of 168 seconds after switch on (see figure 18 below). And at the peak power output.9 degrees celcius. the turbine rotation stabilized at a higher speed (circa 96. Turbine speed and power output during cold start up to full power output Before start up operation the microturbine temperatur was recorded 53.

Watt o C Figure 19. Dynamic behavior of turbine exit temperature during measurement . Dynamic behavior of temperature output Figure 20.

the temperature was rising to approximatly 660 degrees celcius. voltage (V) and power factor (PF) are stable.Future investigation should be continued.US DOE DER road shows. May. Yinger.J. 5.Hanau and Eichhof for supporting and facilites of this work.. VI.12 seconds per kW).2001. (70 seconds to reach 680 degrees celcius and 199 seconds to reach peak power output). the turbine exit temperature was increasing to circa 630 degrees celcius during ramp down sequence and at automatic restart operation the temperature was decreasing rapidly to bottom at about 320 degrees celcius.p3 . Microturbine what they are and how they’re used. July. 3. automatic restart 5-6 minutes (until export 15-30 kW) and 10 minutes 30 seconds for shutdown operation.V in Kassel. start up operation needs around 3 minutes 20 seconds.According to figure 20 above. Acknowledgements The autors would like to thank the Institute Solare Energieversorgungtechnik e. the rate was about 2. Capstone. Behavior of capstone and honeywell microturbine generators during load changes. During shut down operation.p13 [2].During continuing test. California Energy Commission.18 – 2. particulary when the microturbine will be supplied with better fuel gas quality.36 seconds per kW). And for ramping down/up 9-10 kW. And it moved down slightly to stable at 600 degrees celcius at full power output. This research was also part of PhD dissertation for chapter three. the elapsed time to reach maximum temperatur is faster than elapsed time to reach peak electrical power output. 2.Robert.2003. Conclusion 1. The microturbine was able to operate on grid connected mode and follow the dynamic operation. During the test. the value of transition time (sec/kW) is nearly consistent (the rate was about 3. IV. When the power output moved to ramp up. the temperature decreased sharply from 600 to 500 degrees celcius and it plunged gradually to 200 degrees celcius. performance of frequency (f). When the microturbine was ramped down/up circa 5 kW.65 – 4. 4. References [1]. During start up operation. V.

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