# Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Outcome

on this chapter After you have read this chapter you should be able to: i. Understand the basic terms used in power system fault calculation. ii. Carry out symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault calculations. iii. Represent 2 and 3 windings transformers with sequence networks. iv. Understand the merits of different earthing methods v. Model the zero Sequence network of a 3 phase auto-transformer. vi. Carry out open circuited fault calculations. vii. Carry out simultaneous fault calculations. 2.1 Per Unit Values The per unit values of any quantity is defined as the ratio of the quantity expressed as a decimal to its base value. I V V pu= I pu = Vb Ib

MVA pu =

MVA MVAb
Z Zb IbZ Vb 3Vb I b Z 3Vb2 MVAb Z

MVA b = 3Vb ph I b ph

Z pu = = = =

where Z b =

Vb Ib

(Vb line )2
MVAb Z T pu

MVA SC = 3Vb I f =

2.1.1

Change of MVA base

Z pu new = Z pu old = Z pu new Z pu old =

MVAb new Z (Vb line ) 2 MVAb old Z (Vb line ) 2 MVAb new MVAb old

10

Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis 2.1.2 Change of voltage base

Z pu new = Z pu old = Z pu new
2.1.3

MVAb Z (Vb l new ) 2 MVAb Z (Vb l old ) 2 (Vb l old ) 2

Z pu old (Vb l new ) 2 Change of both MVA base and voltage base

=

Z pu new Z pu old
2.1.4

=

MVAb new (Vb l old ) 2 MVAb old (Vb l new ) 2

Example: For the system shown in Fig. 2.1, calculate: (i) the emf of G1 and G2 if the voltage magnitude at 11kV B/B is 11kV; (ii) the fault level of 11kV B/B; and (iii) the voltage of the 110kV B/B near T3 and T4 under fault conditions. (1.375pu or 14.3kV, 43.7MVA, 0.219pu or 24.05kV)
12.5kV 30MW 45% 12.5/132kV 45MVA 20% 110kV

X = j40Ω

110kV 110/11kV 20MVA 20% 11kV 30MW unity p.f.

Fig. 2.1

11

Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Usefulness of Fault Calculation in the Study of Power System Protection To understand the relay performance, you must know how severe is the fault. Fault calculation, mostly symmetrical fault, aided with the knowledge of unsymmetrical fault is required. This knowledge is required to find out the condition at the relaying point under fault conditions, for example, voltage at relaying point and current passing through relays. Based on this you can deduce what the relay will see.
2.2

2.3 2.3.1

Balanced Three Phase Faults Behaviour of synchronous machine under fault conditions Immediately after the application of the short-circuit the armature current endeavours to create an armature reaction M.M.F., but the main air-gap flux cannot change to a new value immediately as it is linked with low-resistance circuits consisting of, (a) the rotor winding which is effectively a closed circuit, and (b) the damper bars, i.e., a winding which consists of short-circuited turns of copper strip set in the poles to dampen oscillatory tendencies. As the flux remains unchanged initially, the stator currents are large and can only flow through the medium of the creation of opposing currents in the rotor and damper windings by what is essentially transformer action. Owing to the higher resistance, the current induced in the damper winding decays rapidly and the armature current commences to fall. After this the currents in the rotor winding and body decay, the armature reaction M.M.F. is gradually established, and the generated e.m.f. and stator current fall until the steady-state condition on short-circuit is reached. Here the full armature reation effect is operational and the machine represented by the synchronous reactance Xs. The oscillograms of the currents in the three phases of a generator when a sudden short circuit is applied is shown in Fig. 2.2. To represent the initial short-circuit conditions, two additional reactances are needed to represent the machine, the very initial conditions requiring what is called the Subtransient Reactance (X") and the subsequent period the Transient Reactance (X') [Fig. 2.3]. It is assumed that the generator is on no-load prior to the application of the short circuit and is of the round-rotor type.

Fig. 2.2 The currents in the three phases of a generator when a sudden short circuit is applied.

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3 Subtransient reactance (X”) and the transient reactance (X’) 2. 2. 2. ii. v.1) where Zs = self impedance per phase.3. iii. Transformer magnetising currents are negligible. (2. iv. Zm = mutual impedance between any phase pair.m.f.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Fig. All voltages sources remain balanced and constant (usually at 1 p.3 i. Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis V a= Zs Ia+ Zm Ib+ Zm Ic V b= Zm Ia + Zs Ib+ Zm Ic V c= Zm Ia + Zm Ib+ Zs Ic In a 3 phase system. 2. or [V]=[Z][I] (2.3.2) ⎡ ⎢ ⎢V ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎡V a ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ = ⎢V b ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎢V c ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡I a⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ I b⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ I c⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 13 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢Z ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ Z s Z m Z m⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ = ⎢Z m Z s Z m⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢Z m Z m Z s ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . Line capacitances are neglected. All transformers are at normal taps. Hence all Vpfn becomes equal and in phase with the source e.4 Simplification by making assumption Load impedances and hence load currents neglected. the actual fault current in any branch (by Superpositon Theorem) becomes the phasor sum of pre-fault load current in that branch and the fault current calculated from above.u.2 Effect of load If the effect of load is taken into consideration.) and they are all in phase.

[ A ]-1 [ Z ] [ A ] = [ Zs ] (2.10) .7) (2.5) (2.6) Is ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Io = 1/3 ( Ia + Ib + Ic ) I1 = 1/3 ( Ia + a Ib + a2 Ic ) I2 = 1/3 ( Ia + a2 Ib + a Ic ) Now.9) ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡ Z s Z m Z m ⎤ ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ 1⎢ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ Z m Z s Z m ⎥ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ 3⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ Z m Z m Z s ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡Z o 0 0⎤ ⎡Z s + 2 Z m ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ 0 Zs .Zm 0⎥ = ⎢ 0 Z 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 Z s .8) (2.3) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Vo = 1/3 ( Va + Vb + Vc ) V1 = 1/3 ( Va + a Vb + a2 Vc ) V2 = 1/3 ( Va + a2 Vb + a Vc ) Similarly -1 ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎡ I o ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎢ 2 ⎢ A ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ = 3 ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎢ I b ⎥ = ⎢ I 1⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎢ I 2 ⎥ ⎢ _ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ (2.4) (2.Z m⎥ ⎢ 0 0 Z 2⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 14 (2.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis ⎡ ⎤ ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ A ⎥ = ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ -1 ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎢ A ⎥ = ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ 3⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where a = 1 / 120° 1 + a + a2 = 0 [ V ] = [ Z ][ A ][ A ]-1[ I ] [ A ]-1[ V ] = [ A ]-1[ Z ][ A ] • [ A ]-1[ I ] Examining -1 ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡V a ⎤ ⎡V o ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎢ A ⎥ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢V b ⎥ = ⎢V 1⎥ = ⎢ V s ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢V c ⎥ ⎢V 2 ⎥ ⎢ _ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ (2.

representing the self-impedance and the mutual coupling between windings.5 2. the positive sequence network of the transformer may be represented by the series leakage impedance only (Fig. its equivalent circuit to negative sequence currents will be identical to the positive sequence network. 2. 2. as shown in Fig.1 Fig. 2.4.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Therefore ⎡V o ⎤ ⎡ Z o 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I o ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢V 1⎥ = ⎢ 0 Z 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ I 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢V 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 Z 2 ⎥ ⎢ I 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Also [ I ] = [ A ] [ Is ] ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡ I o ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ I b ⎥ = ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ I 1⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ I 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ (2. Their magnitudes are of the order of 10 % and 2000 % respectively.12) Similarly ⎡V a ⎤ ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡V o ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢V b ⎥ = ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢V 1⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢V c ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢V 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ (2. The total leakage impedance Zl is usually much smaller than the magnetization impedance Zm.11) (2.5.4 Equivalent circuit of a two winding transformer 15 .5). 2.13) Transformer Sequence Impedance Positive and negative sequence equivalent circuit of two winding transformer A two winding power transformer may be represented by an equivalent circuit. Thus. As the structure of the transformer is symmetrical. in fault calculations.

Can zero sequence currents circulate in the winding in question. possibly through an impedance).e. This is done for each side of the transformer in turn. Does a physical circuit exist by means of which zero sequence currents can be passed into the winding in question from the external circuit on that side (i. without flowing in the external circuit (i.6) and leaving these links open or close in accordance with the answers to the following questions: I.2 Zero sequence network of two winding transformer The transformer can still be considered as a three terminal network. In three phase. II. is there a neutral point on the transformer or elsewhere which is connected to earth or to a neutral wire. if not it is left open. 2.5. the link 'a' is closed.6 Zero sequence circuit connection of a two winding transformer 16 . the appropriate link 'b' is closed. Account may be taken of the method of interconnection of the windings and of the presence or absence of a neutral connection by considering that the transformer in the zero sequence representation is provided with sets of links 'a' and 'b' on both the primary and secondary sides (Fig. If so.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Fig. does a delta connection exist).e. Fig. three limb core type transformers this may be only of the order of 100 % to 400 % owing to the high reluctance of the flux path. 2. If so. 2.5 Simplified equivalent circuit of a two winding transformer 2. but it is necessary to remember that the exciting branch is now the exciting impedance to zero sequence voltages or currents which are identical in all three phases.

Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Fig. 2.7 17 .

Fig. 2.9 Equivalent circuit of a three winding transformer 18 . 2. 2.8 2. the positive and negative sequence network can be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of three star impedances (Fig.3 Positive and negative sequence network of a three winding transformer Provided that the magnetising impedance is neglected.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Fig.9).5.

Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis 19 .

usually the least important.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis It should be pointed out that the star point of the equivalent circuit is a fictitious point and does not represent the system neutral and that loads or short circuits can be applied only to terminals. Typical examples are shown Fig. All impedances must be expressed in the same MVA and voltage base.4 below: Zero Sequence Networks of Three Winding Transformer The same rule as the two winding transformers applies.10 20 . 2. 2. One of the branches.5. may exhibit negative impedance.

Overvoltage during earth faults is usually less than 0. 2. and vi) Insulated earthed. Earth fault protection is simple as the fault current is usually high. overvoltage in unfaulted phases is a minimum.8 times and full phase to phase voltage. The metallic grid is usually constructed using a cast or steel element.6. overvoltage in unfaulted phases may be produced during earth faults approaching to phase to phase voltage. Earthing the system by means of a resistor reduces both the fault current and transient overvoltages. In order to reduce the transient overvoltages to an admissible level the earthing reactance has to be reduced so that the earth fault current approaches that for a solidly earthed system.4 Earthing reactor Reactors are usually smaller and less expensive than resistors. Overvoltages during earth faults will be between 0. Both types of earthing resistor have a short time thermal rating of 30 seconds. system earthing becomes important.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis 2.6. The purpose of earthing is to: i) prevent damage to people. the fault current is high and the damage by fault current is considerable. It only influence the system for faults involving earth. If a high impedance is used to earth the system. The zero sequence impedance is a minimum. and ii) prevent or limit plant damage. v) Earthing transformer.2 Solidly earthed It is the simplest method of earthing. The liquid type earthing resistor consists of an electrode immersed in a tank containing a solution of sodium carbonate. it can reduce fault current but this is associated with a increase in transient overvoltages during earth faults. for high value of earthing resistance. ii) Reactance earthed. The temperature rise can be around 250°C. This type of resistor has a negative temperature coefficient.8 times phase to phase voltage. Transient overvoltages are a maximum when the value of earthing reactance is approximately one third of the value required for resonant earthing.6 System Earthing The method of system earthing does not influence system operations. the earth fault current is limited but it may cause transient overvoltage on unfaulted phases.6. iv) Resonant or Peterson Coil earthed. iii) Resistance earthed. 2. Resistance earthed There are two main types of earthing resistor. As the majority of faults in power systems are earth faults. 2. 2. metallic grid and liquid types. The earth fault current is highest.1 Earthing methods If a system is directly earthed or earthed through a low impedance.6.3 21 . The various earthing methods are: i) Solidly earthed. However. However.

the value of the grounding reactance should be altered.11). Under normal operating conditions the currents flowing through the windings are the magnetising currents of the earthing transformer. 2.7. In general.5 Resonant earthed – arc suppression coil (Peterson Coil) When the earthing reactance is equal to the total system capacitive reactance to earth.6 Insulated neutral The earth fault current is capacitive and if small may be self extinguished.11 2. Arcing earth faults are very likely and these can result in high transient overvoltages. otherwise the efficiency of this earthing method is greatly diminished.7 Earthing transformer In some cases where the neutral of the power transformer is not available. If the system is expanded. high impedance earthing is used in medium voltage networks up to around 33 kV. the system is earthed via a earthing transformer of zig-zag type (Fig. a break down between HV and LV winding may cause a severe overvoltage in the LV winding and it can cause a hazard for the plant and personnel safety in the LV distribution system. and the systems can be insulated to allow for overvoltages which 22 . The earthing transformer is designed to carry the maximum fault current for 30 seconds. 2. Automatic segregation of faulty zones is extremely difficult. arcing earth faults will be self extinguishing. For short time rated reactors. 2.6. 2. Overvoltages during earth faults may be greater than phase to phase voltage. Selection of Earthing Methods In unearthed distribution system. A minimum impedance is offered to the flow of zero sequence currents. if the fault has not extinguished after a certain time the reactor is shorted. The system capacitance must however remain fairly constant. The system can be run with an earth fault for long periods.6.6. The steady state voltages in the sound phases during a phase to earth fault is the full phase to phase voltage.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis 2. Fig. At these voltages insulation of the power system components is not too costly.

and these systems are normally solidly earthed or earthed via low impedance.2 System voltages from 660 V to 33 kV If the fault level is low the system may be solidly earthed. Generally. These have a high incidence of lightning strokes and transient earth faults caused by lightning can be extinguished by the Peterson Coil without the need for line outages. 2. Peterson coil earthing is used on overhead line systems up to around 132 kV.7.3 Systems above 33 kV The problems of overvoltages becomes more important than high fault currents. but requires high insulation and restricts the use of auto transformers.1 Variation of Healthy Phase Voltages for an Earth Fault Single phase to earth fault Let Z2 = K2 Z1 and Zo = Ko Z1 For A-E fault. these systems are resistance or reactance earthed.8 2.1 System voltages up to 660 V These are normally solidly earthed for safety reasons.14) (2.15) (2. I1 = I 2 = I 0 = V1 = E − I 1 Z 1 V2 = − I 2 Z 2 V0 = − I 0 Z 0 a 2 + aK 2 + K 0 Vb = a V1 + aV2 + V0 = Eb − E (1 + K 2 + K 0 ) a 2 Ea Z 1 (1 + K 2 + K 0 ) (2.7. Resonant earthing may be used where a system consists mainly of overhead lines and is particularly useful in areas having high iso-keraunic levels. For high and extra high voltage systems the cost of providing the necessary insulation can be very expensive. For this reason they are usually solidly earthed.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis can occur during earth faults. In some special cases. When resistance earthing is used.7. the system can be operated with insulated neutral.8.16) Vc = aV1 + a 2V2 + V0 = E c − a + a2K2 + K0 E (1 + K 2 + K 0 ) a 23 . 2. the earth fault current is limited to a value close to the rated load current. Isolated systems are only used where long lines are involved and alternative supplies not easily available. 2. where the continuity of supply is very important. 2.

therefore Vb = Eb − K0 −1 E (2 + K 0 ) a Vc = E c − K0 −1 E (2 + K 0 ) a Effectively earthed system Non-effectively earthed system A-E fault Fig.18) Va = E a Vres = Va (2. 2.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Vres = − − 3K 0 E (1 + K 2 + K 0 ) a (2.2 Phase to phase to earth fault For B-C-E fault.8.17) Usually.19) 24 . I1 = I2 = I0 = Ea Z 1 (1 + K 2 K 0 / (K 2 + K 0 )) − Ea K 0 Z 1 (K 2 + K 0 + K 2 K 0 ) − Ea K 2 Z 1 (K 2 + K 0 + K 2 K 0 ) 3K 2 K 0 3K 0 = Ea (K 2 + K 0 + K 2 K 0 ) (1 + 2 K 0 ) if K 2 = 1 (2. K2 = 1.12 2.

K0 may be approaching 0. Z2. For solidly earthed system and with a earth fault more distant from generation. In this case. In this case. the voltage to earth voltage of the sound phases does not exceed 80 % of the voltage between lines of the system”. a L-E fault will cause a fault current IF flowing through the earthing impedance ZE. 2. 32 defines effectively earthed system as that in which X0 / X1 < 3 and R0 / X1 < 1 A resistance earthed system will result in a value of K0 having an associated angle. distribution transformer earthing.9 25 . K0 may be approaching 1.0 0ºE. In BS 5311 – 1976.14 for K2 and K0 having zero angle. 2. Due to this angle. This is equivalent to the position of G shown on Fig.5 to 4. In general. effective earthing is defined as “During phase to earth faults.0. K2 may be assumed constant and approximately equal to 1. Neutral Displacement and Residual Voltages The neutral displacement voltage is the voltage between the system neutral and ground during earth faults. effective earthing includes direct earthing and low reactance earthing. the voltage of the lagging sound phase will be less than that of the leading sound phase. If all impedances (Z1.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis B-C-E fault Fig. the voltage in the sound phase equals the rated phase to neutral voltage. for a single phase to earth fault. 2. 2. the voltage in the sound phase is below rated phase to neutral voltage. For large values of earthing resistance where 3 RE >> Z1. Z0. can result in a value of K0 approaching 2.13 The above equations show how the healthy phase voltages are affected by the method of earthing. G will be on the phasor VAN at some point determined by the relative magnitudes. resonant earthing and insulated systems. The voltage in the sound phase will increase above the normal rated phase to neutral voltage.5.14. the voltages on the sound phases will be equal to or slightly greater than rated phase to phase voltage. & ZE) have the same angle. For solidly earthed system and with a earth fault close to generation. Even on a solidly earthed system a earth fault far away from the source of generation. Non effective earthing is characterised by a high Z0 / Z1 ratio (large K0) and includes resistance earthing. The voltage between the sound phases will remain at the rated value provided K2 = 1 for the duration of the fault.5. Let us consider a general case as shown in Fig. The AIEE Standard No.

3V AN ZE Z 1 (1 + K 2 + K 0 ) + 3Z E if K 2 = K 0 = 1 ZE V AN Z1 + Z E V AG = V AN + V NG V BG = VBN + V NG VCG = VCN + V NG V AG + VBG + VCG = 3V NG = 3V0 Fig.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis V NG = − I F Z E = − =− At the source.20) 26 . The residual voltage can be measured by using either a three phase five limb VT or three single phase VTs each with the secondary windings of the phases connected in series or open delta. 2.14 Therefore the neutral displacement voltage equals the zero sequence voltage V0 and can be obtained if necessary from the average of the phase to ground voltages or by measuring the voltage across the earthing impedance. Vres = V AG + VBG + VCG = 3V NG = 3V0 (2.

27 . 2. As this is only present during earth faults. On solidly earthed systems the value of K0 may be small and there may be insufficient neutral displacement to provide the necessary polarising quantities. where directional earth fault relays are used at generating stations where the system is solidly earthed. current polarisation is preferred to voltage polarisation. Ires is a good method of earth fault detection. the value of Vres will approach 3 times rated phase to neutral voltage. it can be shown that I res = 3K 2 I (K 2 + K 0 + K 2 K 0 ) 3ϕ (2.0. These are polarised from the residual voltage and will discriminate between faulty and non-faulty outgoing feeders. I res = I a + I b + I c = 3I 0 The residual current contains only zero sequence current. On resistance earthed systems Ires will normally be of the order of rated full load current and again can be measured using normal ring type CTs. graded insulation can be used with considerable reduction in cost. residual current will be measured on healthy and faulty feeders and therefore very sensitive directional relays are used. On high impedance earthed systems Ires will be very small and should therefore be measured using core type CTs or very accurate ring type CTs. As the voltage between the neutral of power transformers and earth is small during earth faults on solidly earthed systems. On insulated and Peterson Coil earthed system.22) It can be shown that for K2 = 1.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Residual voltage measurement can be used to detect earth faults on a system and to provide a polarising quantity for directional earth fault relays.21) where I3φ equals to the 3 phase fault current and equals to Ea / Z1 For a double phase to earth fault. It can be seen that the residual voltage Vres depends mainly on the value of K0 and ZE. it can be shown that I res = (1 + K 2 + K 0 ) 3 I 3ϕ (2.10 Residual Currents during Earth Faults The residual current is the sum of the phase currents and is obtained from the sum of CT output placed in each phase. On systems with high earthing impedance or insulated neutral. For a phase to earth fault. For this reason. On solidly earthed systems Ires will normally be large and can be measured with normal ring type CTs. the residual current for a double phase to earth fault is greater than that for a single phase to earth fault for values of K0 less than 1.

2. 2.17 28 .15. 2.16 Fig. 2.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis 2. Fig.11 Sequence circuit of 3 phase auto transformer The positive and negative sequence network of a 3 phase auto transformer is shown in Fig. 2.16 With the tertiary winding open circuited. let us consider the flow of zero sequence currents as shown in Fig. Fig. Basically it is identical to ordinary 3 winding transformer.15 The zero sequence network of a 3 phase auto transformer is shown in Fig.17. 2.

Z Y seems to be consists of : = ZL + 3 ⎛I −I ⎞ ' ' Z Y = Z H − 3Z n ⎜ L 0 H 0 ⎟ ⎜ I ⎟ L0 ⎝ ⎠ ' = Z H − 3Z n N Z Y = Z H − 3Z n N (1 + N )2 referring to LV side (2. Fig.18 29 . 2.18. Z X seems to be consists of : Z X = ZL + 3(I L 0 − I H 0 )Z n I L0 N Zn 1+ N ' Similarly.23) (2. on the HV side.24) Now consider the HV side open circuited but with the tertiary winding closed as shown in Fig. 2.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis I L 0nC = I H 0 (nS + nC ) I H 0= I L 0 = I L0 nC nS + nC 1 1+ N where N = nS nC E H n S + nC = = 1+ N EL nC 1 ⎤ ⎡ I L 0 − I H 0 = I L 0 ⎢1 − ⎣ 1+ N ⎥ ⎦ N = I L0 1+ N In the zero sequence network.

12 N 1+ N 1 Z Z = Z T + 3Z n 1+ N Z X = Z L + 3Z n (2. Z C −T = Z X + Z Z = Z L + Z T + 3 Z n As ∴.25) Open circuit fault – open circuit of phase conductor Fig.26) These conditions are satisfied by the following sequence network interconnection as shown in Fig. Then E xa = E ya + I a Z a E xb = E yb E xc = E yc and E x 0 = 1 and similarly E x1= E y1+ I a Z a 3 1 E x2= E y 2+ I a Z a 3 1 (E ya + I a Z a ) + E yb + E yc 3 1 = (E ya + E yb + E yc ) + I a Z a 3 1 E x0= E y0+ I a Z a 3 [ [ ] ] That is. 2.19 Consider the less extreme case where an impedance is connected in series with one phase open as shown in Fig. 2.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis This is equivalent to a short circuit test between the common and tertiary winding. 30 .20. 2. 2. the voltage drops in the three sequence networks are each equal to: 1 1 I a Z a = Z a ( I1 + I 2 + I 0 ) 3 3 (2.19.

21 and the positive sequence network of this fault is shown in Fig.20 In the extreme case of one phase being open circuit then Za /3 becomes infinite and the above circuit with Za /3 removes becomes applicable. The physical line arrangement is shown in Fig. One side of the broken conductor will thus have an open circuited fault while the conductor on the other side falls to ground causing a line to earth fault. 2.13 Simultaneous fault –one phase open circuit on one side and phase to earth fault on the other side in the same phase It is very rare to have two faults happen in different locations simultaneously. 2.22.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Fig. Solving the simultaneous fault cannot be carried out superposition theory as the sequence network are not physical networks. The solution of this problem can only be carried out by using sequence network analysis and the analysis must fulfill the rules of both open circuit fault and one phase to earth fault analysis. 2. 2. 31 . The only simultaneous fault that is most likely to happen is the breakage of the overhead line conductor.

a 2 V a1−Va'1 + a V a 2−Va' 2 + V a 0−Va' 0 = 0 V c−V = 0 ∴. I a= 0 ∴.18) I c+ I = 0 ' ' ' ∴. a1 −V ' a1 ) = (V −V ' a2 ) = (V a0 ) (I For this to be true.22 For the open circuit fault at P side.21 G Fig. Va'1 + Va' 2 + Va' 0 = 0 I b+ I b' = 0 ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ' ' ' ∴. 2. 2.19) 32 . a V a1−V For the 1 phase to earth fault at Q side. I a1= −( I a 2 + I a 0 ) V b−Vb' = 0 ∴. a1 ' ' ' + I a1 = I a 2+ I a 2 = I a 0+ I a 0 ) ( ) ( ) (2. a I a1+ I a1 + a 2 I a 2+ I a 2 + I a 0+ I a 0 = 0 ( ' c ) (V For this to be true.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Ia Ib P Q Ia’ Ib’ Ic Ic ’ Fig. Va' = 0 ∴. a 2 I a1+ I a1 + a I a 2+ I a 2 + I a 0+ I a 0 = 0 ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ' c ' a1 ) + a (V a2 a2 −V ' a2 ) + (V −V ' a0 a0 −V ' a0 )= 0 (2.

Self Assessment Do you understand the physical meaning of positive and negative sequence components? What is the relationship between mutual coupling impedance and sequence impedance in the power system? How do you transform between the actual system voltages and currents into their corresponding sequence components? Do you understand why the actual system network can be transformed into sequence networks? How the sequence networks are connected under various unsymmetrical faults? Do you know how to form the positive and negative sequence networks? 2. 2.15 i. IEEE. 1995. iii. IEEE Press Power Systems Engineering Series. Anderson. 2.23.14 1. ‘Analysis of Faulted Power Systems’.23 2. vi. v. Fig. iv. ii. Further Reading Paul M. 33 .Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis The sequence network connections are shown in Fig.

15 p.0 pu • R 400 kV Z1=Z2=j10Ω Z0=j40Ω Fig. 3 phase alternator which is connected in star and solidly earthed. calculate the fault current and the fault MVA if: i) The 400 kV busbar has a short circuit level of 35 GVA. -2451 + j 1769A. a 3 phase fault occurs at the end of the line. the fault current. a current limiting reactor is connected to the neutral of the generator.u.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis vii. Determine the inductance required to limit the sub-transient line current for a single-line-to-earth fault current to that of a three-phase fault.85kA..1 0. viii.1 p.u.81GVA) Z1=Z2 Z0=2Z1 G E=1. A 10 MVA. when a B-C phase to earth fault occurs at the far end of the cable.05 Cable 0.1 0. 4. 3. Determine the current in each phase. By using a MVA base of 600 MVA. and ii) The 400 kV busbar has a short circuit level of 5 GVA. is connected directly to a cable.98GVA. xi. Q3 34 .u. -j5.5kA. j3538A. and the voltage between the unfaulted end of the cable and earth. 2. ix. 50 Hz generator has a direct-axis sub-transient reactance of 0. A 20 MVA. 11 KV. what value of resistance is required? (3. 10.5kV) The p.52 Ω) Q2. xiii. and a zero sequence reactance of 0. x.8 KV. In the single source system as shown in Fig Q3.3 0. a negative sequence reactance of 0. (-j15.03 mH. xii. If a resistor is used instead of the reactor.2 0. 2.16 Q3. (0 A.2 p. In order to reduce the short-circuit current in case of a fault to earth. phase sequence reactances are: Positive Negative Zero Generator 0. 13. 2451 + j 1769A.16 Why the zero sequence network of a power transformer is different and do you know how to form the zero sequence network of a power transformer? Now do you understand how to form the zero sequence network of the power system? Do you know how to solve tutorial questions from 1 to 10? Can you name the earthing systems that are used for power systems? Why the earthing methods will affect the voltage on unfaulted phases under earth fault condition? How do you connect the sequence networks for an open circuited fault? How to represent the simultaneous fault by sequence networks? Are you able to solve the open circuit and simultaneous fault problems from Q11 to Q15? Tutorials Q1.u.

Q5 100% Z1=Z2 Z0=2Z1 50% Z1=Z2 Z0=2Z1 A B G E=1. current in all three phases on the HV side of the transformer based on 20 MVA base if an A phase to earth fault occurs on the 11 kV side.u.238) What is the ratio of fault current contribution from both ends of the line? What causes that? What effect can you think of in this situation? Fig.68kA) (-13. An A-E fault occurs at the location shown in the figure. If a B-C phase fault happens on the LV side near the transformer terminals. In the two sources system as shown in Fig Q5. (-j6. 4. and ii) A phase to phase fault on B to C phase.74kA.0p Z1=Z2= j20Ω Z0= j80Ω (for the whole line) Q6.41. A 20 MVA 132/11 kV 3 phase transformer with winding connected in Dy11 is supplied from a source of negligible impedance.686) ii) the fault current contributing from both ends of the line. By using a MVA base of 600 MVA. 0. 0. j10) Q7.76kA) Q5.41. 0) 35 .Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q4.u. calculate the p. -j5.3. current in all three phases on the HV side of the transformer based on 20 MVA base. 3. (5.85kA. Calculate the p. -5. The leakage impedance of the transformer is 10 % and the neutral of the star connected winding is floating. Repeat Q3 to calculate the fault current for: i) A single phase to earth fault on A phase. the short circuit level of the 400 kV busbars in side A and B is 5 GVA and 35 GVA respectively. calculate: i) the total fault current.0p • ZLA ZLB • G E=1. (8. and (-j18.35. (-j5. If the transformer in Q6 is supplied from a source of fault level 2000 MVA and the star point is now solidly earthed.

If an A phase to earth fault occurs on one overhead conductor at a position 20 km from ‘B’. 1. 11/275 kV. 683 A.6 Ω/km. 1. the short circuit level of the 400 kV busbars in side X and Y is 30 GVA and 10 GVA respectively. if the source of Tx. 167 A. 167 A.43kA. 1. 0 A. The star-point of both transformers are solidly earthed and the symmetrical short circuit level at the input terminals of ‘A’ is 1000 MVA. side of the transformers. 7. calculate the fault current in each phase in side X and Y if i) the fault is a three phase fault. The neutral of the source on side X is solidly earthed while the neutral of the source on side Y is floating. Neglect the effect of load in the above calculations. 167 A. Fig. B is disconnected at the L. A fault occurs at the location shown in the figure.u.15 p. and (11. Q8 Q9. 993 A. 0 A.36kA.) Q10.8 Ω/km Xo = 1. In the two sources system as shown in Fig Q10.45kA) ii) the fault is a single phase to earth fault on A phase.78kA. based on rating Transmission line X1 = X2 = 0. side. each rated at 100 MVA. 167 A. (1689 A. while that at the input terminals of ‘B’ is 2000 MVA. 0 A. find the fault current flowing into the fault F and the current seen by protective relays installed on each phase of the HV side of the transformer windings. 36 . 167 A. 696 A.V.22kA. 0 A.22kA. 3 phase overhead transmission line 80 km long which is supplied from both ends through identical delta/star connected transformers ‘A’ and ‘B’. Q8 shows a 275 KV. By using a MVA base of 1000 MVA. 2.22kA. (6. calculate again. The relevant reactance are given below: Transformer X1 = X2 = Xo = 0. the total fault current and the current seen by relays on the H.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q8.V. For the same network as shown in Q8.22kA) Suggest a method to limit the earth fault current in this case. (850 A.) Fig. for an A phase to earth fault. 1.

The transformer takes a magnetizing circuit of 30A at 66 kV and the magnetizing reactance may be assumed constant.2 kV) 37 . Q11.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis 100% 50% Z1=Z2 X Y Z1=Z2 Z0=2Z1 G E=1. (14.0p • ZLA ZLB • G E=1. the steady state voltage which would appear across the break.95∠222°.32∠-7. and ii) voltage across the open circuit. calculate: i) magnitude of current in healthy phases. An unloaded 3 phase star connected bank of single phase transformers having the star point isolated is fed over a cable having a capacitance of 3μF/phase from a large 66 kV. 11 kV Z 01T = j 0.1°) Z 1T = j 0.0p Z1=Z2= j30Ω Z0= j80Ω (for the whole line) Fig. 0. If one conductor breaks between the cable and the supply.2 pu ⎬ referring to 10MVA. ‘A’ phase is open-circuited at load terminals.4 pu ⎫ ⎪ Z 2T = j 0.2 pu ⎪ ⎭ Fig.95∠102°. 0. (0. estimate. neglecting reactance. Q11 Q12. 50 Hz system having an earthed neutral point. Q10 Q11. In the distribution circuit shown in Fig.

Q13 Q14. If the source in Q13 is unearthed. Fig.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q13. Note: Voltages are phase voltage. √3 x 100 kV phase to phase. i. Q13.e. calculate the new current distribution.. For the circuit shown in Fig. All impedance referred to the 100 kV winding. 38 . calculate the current distribution in the transformer windings and the neutral currents at the source and transformer earthing points.

Q15. Q15 39 . Fig. find the current distribution in the primary and secondary circuit for: i) A L-E fault at P of If = 900A with delta opened.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q15. and iv) A L-E fault at Q of If = 900A with delta closed. In the generator / generator transformer circuit shown in Fig. iii) A L-E fault at P of If = 900A with delta closed. ii) A L-E fault at Q of If = 900A with delta opened.

9 Ω) The relay input currents are compensated by: I R = I ph + I n Where Z 0 − Z1 3Z 1 IR = Relay current Iph = phase current In = neutral current Z1 = line positive sequence impedance Z0 = line zero sequence impedance (c) Comment on the accuracy of distance relays due to the effect of remote end infeed and the fault resistance in the above case. (89. calculate the current and phase to ground voltage of the faulted phase at locations X of the 400kV line. 189.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q16. Neglect the effect of the load.5 kV) Fig. (1375A.6 + j 33. The zone 1 setting of the relay is set to cover 80% of the line length. calculate the impedance seen by the phase-earth fault distance relays at the faulted phase and comment on the result obtained. 40 . Q16. (a) An EHV transmission system is shown in Fig. An ‘A’ phase to earth fault occurs at 70% of the line length from the relaying point X with a fault resistance of 100Ω. Based on the above calculations. Q16 (b) Distance relays are installed at locations X to protect the 400kV line.

Based on the above calculations. 41 .Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q17. Each relay on both sides will set to cover 80 % of the line length. calculate the current and phase to ground voltage of the faulted phase at locations X and Y on both sides of the 400 kV line.0084.158-j0. During a typhoon.957-j0.6-j236Ω.015) XH= XL= XT=0. (42. Q17.809. (a) An e. The conductor on the other side (Y) fell to the ground forming a line to earth fault. 0. the A phase conductor at 70 % of the line length from the relaying point X was broken thus forming an open circuit fault. Does it affect the relay performance. what will be the transient voltage and current waveform that will appear at the relay location in the first few cycles. Nelect the effect of the load.8Ω) The relay input current is compensated by: I R = I ph + I n Z 0 − Z1 3Z 1 Where IR = relay current Iph = phase current In = neutral current Z1 = line positive sequence impedance Z0 = line zero sequence impedance (c) When a fault happens in the power system.h.9+j10. 0.v. 0.05 Fig. calculate the impedance seen by both phase-earth fault distance relays at the faulted phase and comment on the result obtained. 0. (0.085-j0. Q17 (b)Distance relays are installed at locations X and Y protecting the 400 kV line. transmission system is shown in Fig.

The relay is set to cover 80 % of the line length.2Ω.v. The relay input current is compensated by: I R = I ph + I n Z 0 − Z1 3Z 1 Where IR = relay current Iph = phase current In = neutral current Z1 = line positive sequence impedance Z0 = line zero sequence impedance Fig.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q18. (7.) at the other side of the line is opened.h. transmission System is shown in Fig.B. 14. Q18 Distance relays are installed at locations X to protect the 400 kV line.) at the other side of the line is closed.B. and (ii) the circuit breaker (C.2+j26. (a) Name the sources of error in impedance measurement in distance relays? (a) An e. calculate the impedance seen by the relay of the faulted phase at locations X when (i) the circuit breaker (C. An A phase to earth fault with a fault resistance of 10Ω occurs at 70 % of the line length from the relaying point X.8+j27Ω) Explain why the zero sequence impedance compensation does not give correct measurement in this case. Q18 42 . Neglect the effect of the load.

50% 275kV Y 275/33kV 500MVA X1= X2= X0 = 0. X Fig.u. the A phase conductor at 50% of the transmission line was broken.Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Electrical Engineering Modern Power System Protection Chapter 2 – Fault Analysis Q19.05p. A 275 kV transmission line is protected by two distance relays located at both ends of the line (X and Y) as shown in Fig.Q19.u.5Ω) The relay input current is compensated by: I R = I ph + I n Z 0 − Z1 3Z 1 Where IR = relay current Iph = phase current In = neutral current Z1 = line positive sequence impedance Z0 = line zero sequence impedance Use 500 MVA as the MVA base in your calculation. calculate the impedance seen by the distance relay of the faulted phase at Y. (j12.15p.07p. X2= 0. i) Sketch the sequence network and show how the fault current can be calculated.u. The conductor of the other side (X) remain open circuited.u.u.15p. Q19 43 . During a typhoon.125p. The conductor on side Y fell to ground thus forming a line to earth fault. X0= 0. ii) Neglect the effect of the load. 100% 25/275kV 750MVA X1= X2= X0 = 0. Z1= Z2= j 25Ω Z0= j 42Ω (for the whole length) 25kV 500MW X1= 0.