# 5.5.4.

2 Calculation of first-order moments around mid height The first-order moment (Myi or Mzi ) at about mid-height of a braced column should be the greater of: either 0.6 M2 + 0.4 M1 or 0.4 M2 Where: M1 is the numerically smaller end moment from first order analysis M2 is the numerically larger end moment from first order analysis Algebraically, M1 and M2 will commonly have opposite signs. 5.5.4.3 Calculation of the ultimate deflection The ultimate deflection in mm is given by: e2 = fyk Where: fyk l0 d l02 10- 6 mm d

is the characteristic strength of the reinforcement in MPa is the effective length of the column in direction considered is the effective depth of section in direction considered.

The expression for e2 has been derived assuming fck = 30 MPa. EC21 requires an increase in the second order eccentricity for higher strength concretes to allow for creep. In order to take this into account e2 for an edge or corner column should be increased by: 10% for fck = 35MPa and • • 20% for fck = 40MPa. The above value for e2 may be reduced by multiplying by the factor K, which is obtained iteratively, and given by: K= Where: Nu Nbal (Nu - N) G 1 alternatively, K may conservatively be taken as 1. (Nu - Nbal) is the ultimate axial load of column = 0.567 fckAc + 0.87As fyk is the balanced load i.e. the axial load that when applied to a section maximizes the ultimate moment capacity. For a symmetrically reinforced section, Nbal = 0.267 fckAc.

Initially the area of reinforcement should be obtained by assuming K = 1. The value of Nu and hence a new value of K should then be determined leading to a reduced area of reinforcement. This process can be repeated as necessary.

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IStructE Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2 Amendment - March 2009