Q. What do you mean by Industrial Sickness? What are its revival techniques? Ans.

Introduction: Industrial development is identified as the effective means to attain economic growth in any country. Industrial sickness has become a common feature of the large scale sector as well as the small scale sector. In spite of the enactment of the special legislations and various steps taken by the government & RBI to deal with the problem, industrial sickness is growing at an alarming pace. The liberalization of the economy resulting into increased competition had added to the problem of industrial sickness. Many objectives have been imputed to the corporate entity but perhaps the most important is that of survival. To survive, a firm needs to be profitable and financially sound. The consequences of failure are experienced by shareholders, employees, financial institutions, suppliers, customers and the society as a whole. The reasons like technological development, industrial recessions and international trade policies make some uncompetitive and tardy progress in some related sectors shrink markets for others which results in closing down of units.

Definition of Sick Industrial Companies: Sec 2(46AA) of the Companies Act 1956 says “Sick Industrial Company” means an Industrial Company which has 1) The accumulated losses in any financial year equal to 50% or more of its average net worth during four years immediately preceding such financial year, or 2) Failed to repay its debts within any three consecutive quarters on demand made in writing for its repayment by a creditor or creditors of such Company. “Net Worth” here means the sum total of the paid up capital and free reserves after deducting the provisions or expenses as may be prescribed.

2. Overestimation of demand which may lead to higher production which will then lead to higher stock turnover days. 9) Decline in the price of equity shares & debentures. The cost of production may be very high. Locational Disadvantage. Some of the common symptoms are: 1) Delay or default in payment to banks and financial institutions. 6. The following causes will lead to Industrial Sickness. 6) Poor maintenance of Plant & Machinery. 3.Symptoms of Sickness: Sickness does not occur overnight. . 7. The quality of the product may be poor. 8. Usage of outdated production process which won’t be useful for generating revenues. Higher cost of inputs in the production process. 5) Frequent requests to banks and financial institutions for additional credit.e. 7) Excessive turnover of personnel. 10) Low Turnover of Assets i. but develop gradually over time. Internal Causes: 1. Causes of Industrial Sickness: Factually. Inadequate product mix may lead to industrial sickness as the demand for the goods which are produced may be very less in the market. 4) Non Submission of information to banks and financial institutions. no single factor is responsible for the growing problem of industrial sickness. 5. 8) Resort to “Creative Accounting” which seeks to present a better financial picture from what it really is. 2) Irregularity in the bank Account. Inadequate Technical know-how. assets don’t generate the revenue which is actually expected. 4. 3) Delay or default in payment to banks and financial institutions.

4. . 10. Shortage of key inputs like power and basic Raw materials. 20. 18. Lack of professionalism in the organization. Sudden decline in orders from government. Dependence on single or a limited number of products. 14. Changes in governmental policies with respect to excise duties. Excessive manpower i. 21. 2. 23.9. Inadequate working capital which may lead to slowdown in the day to day activities. 15. External Causes: 1. 17. Development of new technology which may not be used in the organization because of its high cost or unawareness of such technology. 5. Excessively high wage structure. 11. Dishonest Management.e. 7. 25. Export duties etc. Excessive expenditure on Research and development activities. Poor Resource management and resource planning. 16. 24. Lack of feedback to management. customs duties. Inefficient handling of labour problems which may lead to strikes and lockouts. Reduced lending by financial institutions. Emergence of huge competition in the market. 13. Consumers may change their tastes and preferences. 6. 12. Lack of knowledge of marketing techniques. Lack of trained / skilled labour or technically competent personnel. Liberal dividend policy which will lead to high cash flow outside the company. 3. Inadequate maintenance and replacement of the plant and machinery used for production process. Dependent on a single customer or a limited number of customers. 22. Lack of effective collection machinery due to which there is high threat of bad debts. 19. which leads to huge wages and less productivity. Lack of control of the management on its employees.

conversion of debt into equity. The viability study may suggest one of the following: 1) The unit can be revived by adopting one or more of the following measures: debt restructuring correction of functional deficiencies etc. If the viability study indicates that the unit is “better dead than alive” steps must be taken to liquidate it.Additional capital has to be provided on concessional term to avoid debt burden on the Co. a suitable plan for revival must be formulated. Plant & Machinery may have to be modernized. payment of arrears in installments etc should be done for its revival. 4) Divestment and Disposal: . 2) Provision of Additional Capital: . -This is essential for competing effectively in the market place. a viability study should be conducted to assess whether the unit can be revived.This may involve divestment of unprofitable plants and operations and disposal of slow moving and obsolete stocks. Of the study suggests that the unit can be revived.To improve manufacturing efficiency.This may be required for modernization and repair of plant and machinery etc. waiver of interest.Revival of a Sick Unit: When an industrial unit is identified sick. . -Rescheduling of principal and interest payment. . Renovated and repaired.This implies that the benefits expected from remedial measures are less than the cost of such remedial measures. 5) Modernization of Plant & Machinery: . 2) The unit is not potentially viable. Revival Programme: The revival programme usually involves the following: 1) Settlement with Creditors: -A sick unit is usually not able to pay back their outstanding amount to their creditors.

8) Streamlining of Operations: -Manufacturing. -This leads to higher manufacturing efficiency and productivity. . -Value engineering.Environmental Monitoring. motivation and morale. -Review should be done to eliminate programmes and activities which are a drain on finances of the firm. 11) Change of Management: -Management should be changed where the present management is dishonest or incompetent.Budgetary Control. -Sick units will be benefited from participation of workers. purchasing and selling operations have to be examined so that they can be streamlined. . -So the revival programme must seek to reduce surplus manpower. simplification etc should be exploited fully to improve the efficiency of the operations.Organizational Structure. 9) Improvement in Managerial Systems: -Attention should be paid to: . -We can say that the work is less and the people working are more. . -Firm should be given in right hands who will work for the profitability of firm and not for his own profits. 10) Workers Participation: .Workers participation enhances employee’s commitment.6) Reduction in Manpower: -Generally Sick units are said to be overstaffed. standardization. 7) Strict Control over costs: -Sick units cannot afford to have high costs and expenditures.

. In these ways a sick unit can be turned into a healthy unit which is also known as “Turnaround Management” which reverse the negative trends in the performance indicators of an industrial sick unit or the firm can be handed over to the Board of Industrial & Financial reconstruction which may help to convert the sick unit into a healthy one by providing help to that unit or handing over that unit to any of the profitable firm. -The healthy firm can leverage its resources to revive the sick firms. Further Delay INCIPIENT SICKNESS (Performance deteriorate further Timely corrective and preventive measures taken. SICKNESS (Functional areas become inefficient) i DEATH Inefficient) (Closure of the unit) Timely corrective and preventive measures taken.12) Merger with a Healthy firm: -If sick units are not able to revive itself then it should be merged with some healthy firm. Progress Deterioration and non viability. Diagrammatic representation of how a firm turns into a sick unit: HEALTY UNIT (All functional areas perform efficiently) eee eff Neglect and inaction TENDING TOWRDS SICKNESS (Initial aberration in functional areas Timely corrective and preventive measures taken.

BHEL is now one of the rare profit making PSUs.Examples: 1) The case of Hindustan Machine Tools: HMT was formed to manufacture machine tools with a foreign collaborator. 2) The case of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited The company was started with the objective of producing power generating equipments and virtually enjoyed monopoly. The effect of this diversification was felt only after 57 years when the main business of HMT crashed and the company started incurring losses. But as the years went by because of the inability of the State Electricity Boards and private sector to set up new power plants. The watch division came to the rescue and it generated cash profits to keep the company going. its capacity utilization fell down tremendously. To offset this depression. After nearly a decade of operation. . it decided to diversify into Watch industry. Due to this timely diversification. Metropolitan Transportation and Defense production. BHEL ventured into Telecommunications.

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