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a low power recycling life support system
by Robert B. Dyck Ardeco Consulting Ltd.
recycled from dehumidifier and urine collection. CO2 removed with reusable sorbent – only half of oxygen breathed is recycled – other half of oxygen breathed is sequestered in CO2 and dumped .Purpose • A closed system that includes human metabolism Existing systems • Apollo and Shuttle carried bottled oxygen and lithium-hydroxide – fine for a few days supplies too great to last months • Mir and ISS use electrolysis of water.
Starch. Cellular respiration of monosaccharides is: 6 O2 + C6H12O6 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 Photosynthesis is the reverse of this: 6 H2O + 6 CO2 → 6 O2 + C6H12O6 . and dextrose are polysaccharides (C6H10O5)nC6H12O6 Human metabolism starts by hydrating to break into monosaccharide: (C6H10O5)nC6H12O6 + n H2O → (n+1) C6H12O6 We can use formuli for monosaccharides to analyze all carbohydrates. pectin.Carbohydrate model Carbohydrates are relatively simple to model.
Light reaction (Photophosporylation) – – – Capture light with chlorophyll Convert ADP into ATP.Replicating photosynthesis Photosynthesis in plants occurs in an chloroplasts. – – Dark reaction (Calvin-Benson cycle) ATP broken back into ADP. and oxygen released 2. This is a two step process: 1. and NADP+ into NADPH Water is broken up. NADP+ into NADPH Net reaction: CO2 and hydrogen make sugar .
Chloroplast structure • highly structured biochemical machine • Light reaction on surface of thylakoid • Dark reaction in stroma and intermembrane space .
H+.into NADPH ATP synthase converts ADP and Pi into ATP. and 2 e. 4 ecytochrome complex pumps 4 more H+ into thylakoid interior NADP reductase converts NADP+.Light reaction details • • • • • Chlorophyl act as antennae to collect light pheophytin cleaves 2 H2O into O2. 4 H+. releases H+ from thylakoid .
ATP Synthesis • • • • H+ to ATP ratio 8:3 F0 portion is a stepper-motor F1 has 3 binding sites: – produces 3 ATP per rotation Chloroplast F0 has 8 c-subunits: – releases 8 H+ ions per rotation • Granum of stacked thylakoids increases electrostatic force of H+ .
two are removed to make glucose. .Dark reaction details CO2 is added to RuBP That is broken into two molecules of 3PG ATP and NADPH used to attach phosphates and H to 3PG to create G3P From 12 molecules of G3P. The other ten are converted by ATP to reform 6 RuBP molecules.
6-diphosphate F6P = fructose 6-phosphate G6P = glucose 6-phosphate E4P = erythrose 4-phosphate X5P = xylulose 5-phosphate SDP = sedoheptulose 1.5-biphosphate 4 X5P .Calvin-Benson cycle The Calvin-Benson cycle can be summarized as: 6 CO2 + 18 ATP + 12 H2O + 12 NADPH + 12 H+ → C6H12O6 + 18 Pi + 18 ADP + 12 NADP+ 3 Pi 3 FDP 3 G3P 3 DHAP 3 F6P G6P Glucose 12 ADP 12 Pi 12 NADP+ 12 G3P 2 G3P 2 F6P 2 G3P Pi 12 ATP 12 NADPH 12 H+ 2 DHAP 2 X5P 2 E4P 12 3PG 2 G3P 2 E4P 2 DHAP 6 CO2 2 G3P 2 SDP 6 RuBP 2 Pi 6 ADP 2 S7P 2 G3P 6 ATP 6 Ru5P 2 R5P 2 X5P Key: 3PG = 3-phosphogycerate G3P = glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate DHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate FDP = fructose 1.7-diphosphate S7P = sedoheptulose 7-phosphate R5P = ribose 5-phosphate Ru5P = ribulose 5-phosphate RuBP = ribulose 1.
Light spectrum and filtration Solar Transmission Spectra of Commercial Glazing .
25 mM Hepes-NaOH. pH 7. and layer the suspension on to an equal volume of 40% Percoll (Pharmacia) in sorbitol buffer. Pour the suspension into 50 ml or 100 ml centrifuge tubes and centrifuge at 4000 g for 1 min. Homogenize the leaves with two 3 sec bursts of the polytron at 75% full speed. Centrifuge at 2500 g for 7 min (with the brake off). intact organelles appear bright green. often with a surrounding halo.4. pH 8. 2mM EDTA) Sorbitol medium (50 mM Hepes-KOH. The majority of the organelles (up to 95%) should be intact. .Harvesting Chloroplasts • • • • • • • • • • Grow pea seedlings in compost for 7-10 days at 18-22ºC – – Light intensity should be relatively low (40-50 μE/m2/s) Only young tissue (2-3 days after leaf emergence) should be used • Grid medium (0. Resuspend the pellet gently in a small volume (4-8 ml) of sorbitol medium using a cotton swab or small paint brush.33 M sorbitol) 40% Percoll in sorbitol buffer 80% aqueous acetone Harvest leaves from pea seedlings and mix with semi-frozen grinding medium at a ratio of 20 g leaves per 100 ml medium. Discard the supernat in one motion (the pellets are quite firm at this stage) and wipe the inside of tubes.6. Check the intactness of the organelles under phase-contrast microscopy. Intact chloroplasts are pelleted whereas lysed organelles fail to penetrate through the Percoll pad. Wash the pellet in 5 ml sorbitol medium and resuspend the pellet in 1 ml sorbitol medium. whereas broken chloroplasts appear darker and more opaque. Strain the homogenate gently through eight layers of muslin to remove debris. 0.35 M sucrose.
O2 masses 31.142g 4. or 41kcal @ 700nm 6 moles of O2 requires 2496 kcal @ 52kcal / mole of light quanta 2496 kcal = 2.68 kWh of light per person per day 1 mole of a subunit of polysaccharide (C6H10O5) masses 162.Capacity • • • • • • • • • • 2 light quanta to move one electron from H2O to NADP+ For each O2 molecule. so 8 light quanta To evolve six molecules of O2. 48 light quanta must be absorbed 1 mole of light quanta = 72kcal @ 400nm.8981 kWh Humans require 0.84kg O2 per day.9988g per mole 12.256kg of carbohydrate produced per person per day . 4 electrons.
Equipment Air filter Cabin air CO2 Sorbent Blower Return to cabin Compressor CO2 Storage Carbonation Potable water Reverse osmosis filter O2 release to cabin through semi-permeable membrane Pressure reducer Sunlight Chloroplast bag Water pump Starch outflow .
The semipermeable membrane would release it back to the cabin. • Water losses can be replenished by residual water in dehydrated food and water produced by metabolizing carbohydrates in stored food. • Only matter removed is carbohydrate. .100% Oxygen recycling. incinerated. 97% water recycling • Oxygen recycling enclosed within spacecraft • Inefficiency extracting CO2 from cabin air means air introduced into chloroplast bag.
mild flavour. 18% starch.1% fat Peas produce roughly 60% starch. 40% pectin Some carbohydrate fed to yeast to convert it to protein. 2. 1% ash.2% protein.Starch and Fermentation Pea chloroplasts convert sugar into starch and pectin: n C6H12O6 → (C6H10O5)nH2O + (n-1) H2O Potatoes: 78% water. 0. vitamin B Result: pudding consistency. lipids. similar to Hawaiian food poi Yeast nutrient: di-ammonium phosphate Minerals provided to yeast as ash from incinerated solid human waste .
Food nutrition from yeast Yeast extracts contain many nutrients.0 mg B6 2.1 mg ca-pantothenate 30.71% vitamins per 100 grams thiamine . autolysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Protein and free amino acids Asparaginic acid Threonine* Serine glutamic acid Glycine Alanine Cystein valine * methionine * Isoleucine * Leucine * Tyrosine Phenylalanine * Histidine * Lysine * Arginine * 6.53% 0.3 mg folic acid 3.17% 5.66% 3.83% 1.25 mg minerals per 100 grams Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Iron Phosphorus 120 mg 200 mg 3.51% 1.B 211.9 mg Niacin 68.28% 9.63% 5.45% 4.12% 3.20% 3.0 mg riboflavin .0 mg Biotin 0.09% 1.B 13.80% 1.18% 3.8 g * essential amino acids .92% 2.38% 4.3 g < 0.5 g 5 mg 1.
resulting in an increase in the stroma pH. When chloroplasts are illuminated. Increase in pH. H+ ions are transported from the stroma into the thylakoids. Mg+2. which enters the stroma as H+ ions leave when chloroplasts are illuminated. NADPH. CO2 fixation is a dark reaction. which stimulates the carboxylase. 2. located on the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane. but it is regulated by the light reaction . This enzyme is stimulated by three different changes that result from illumination of chloroplasts: 1. 3.Regulation of the Dark Reaction The rate-limiting step in the dark reactions is fixation of CO2 by the ribulose biphosphate carboxylase reaction to form 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG). which is generated by photosystem I during illumination.
.Photorespiration and C3 vs. By controlling CO2 levels. oxidation competes with carboxylation C4 precede the C3 pathway by fixing CO2 into a 4-carbon compound In C4 plants the CO2:O2 ratio remains high. C4 plants RuBP carboxylase can promote the reaction of RuBP with either CO2 or O2 When CO2 is low relative to O2. this favours carboxylation. Chloroplasts from C3 plants ensure we only need a single organelle. we can use chloroplasts from the energy efficient C3 plants without losses due to oxidation.
August 1996. oHG .htm Estrella Mountain Community College.com/jkimball. Deutsche Hefewerke GmbH & Co.ma.emc. ATP synthase.rcn.html Principles of Biochemistry.ht ml Lecture 10. 1983 A Nuclear-encoded RNA Polymerase in Corn Chloroplasts. http://www. http://www.ultranet/BiologyPages/L/LightReactions.life. http://www.S.html Photosynthesis: The Role of Light. Properties and Components. Rolf Sommer. Department of Energy.gov/fta/13_glazings/13_glazings. ISBN: 0-87901-136-X Plant Cell Biology. Worth Publishers Inc. http://users. Lehninger. 1994 Isolation of membranes and organelles from plant cells. Harris and Oparka.maricopa. 9th International Symposium on Yeasts.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.uiuc. Hall and Moore. Federal Technology Alerts. Sydney.References • • • • • • • • • U.edu/crofts/bioph354/lect10.pnl. Albert L. Rachel Howard Yeast Extracts: Production. University of Illinois.
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