INTRODUCTION

Ceramic materials are best able to mimic the appearance of natural teeth. However, two obstacles have limited the use of ceramics in the fabrication of dental prostheses: 1) brittleness leading to a lack of mechanical reliability and 2) greater effort and time required for processing in comparison to metal alloys and dental composites. Recent advances in ceramic processing methods have simplified the work of the dental technician and have allowed greater quality control for ceramic materials, which has increased their mechanical reliability. As a result, the proportion of restorative treatments using allceramic prostheses is rapidly growing.

EVOLUTION IN ADVANCES IN ALL CERAMICS •Dental ceramics are materials that are part of systems designed with the purpose of producing
dental prostheses that in turn are used to replace missing or damaged dental structures.

•Ceramics and glasses are brittle, which means that they display a high compressive strength
but low tensile strength and may be fractured under very low strain (0.1%, 0.2%).

•As restorative materials, dental ceramics have disadvantages mostly due to their inability to
withstand functional forces that are present in the oral cavity. Hence, initially, they found limited application in the premolar and molar areas, although further development in these materials has enabled their use as a posterior long-span fixed partial prosthetic restorations and structures over dental implants. All dental ceramics display low fracture toughness when compared with other dental materials, such as metals.

•Metal ceramic systems combine both the exceptional esthetic properties of ceramics and the
extraordinary mechanical properties of metals. Some metals used as restorative materials in dentistry may constitute a problem for some patients. These problems may reveal themselves as allergies, gum staining and release of metallic ions into the gingival tissue and the gingival fluid. These drawbacks, as well as the search for more esthetic materials by patients and dentists, have stimulated research and development of metal-free ceramic systems. For the last ten years, the application of high-technology processes to dental ceramics allowed for the development of new materials such as heat-pressed, injection-molded, and slip-cast ceramics and glass-ceramics. These advances include improved processing techniques and greater mechanical properties. An overview of the processing techniques available for allceramic materials is given, including • Sintering • Casting

PA) is a mica-based machinable glass-ceramic. This material can be used for anterior and posterior crowns. ALUMINA-BASED CERAMICS Alumina-based ceramics include ProceraTM (Nobel Biocare). HYDROXYAPATITE BASED CERAMICS Cerapearl (Kyocera. The fabrication of Procera framework uses CAD/CAM technology. including • leucite • Alumina • Zirconia • Mica • Hydroxyapatite • Lithium disilicate • Spinel.. York. CA) is a castable glass ceramic in which the main crystalline phase is oxyapatite. transformable into hydroxyapatite when exposed to moisture (HoboandIwata. onlays. These systems have been in use since the late 1980s. Leucite-reinforced ceramics are monolithic restorations. meaning the material is the same throughout the restoration.1985). and single unit anterior and premolar crowns. This material possesses flexural strength of approximately 160 MPa and is used for fabricating veneers. There is no additional veneering ceramic on top of a coping. San Diego. inlays. and In-Ceram SpinellTM (VITA Zahnfabrik). Alumina restorations have a high-strength aluminum oxide core that is veneered with the same type of porcelain used with metal ceramic crowns. 3/4 crowns. The leucites scatter light naturally and have a translucent and lifelike appearance but lack strength when used in certain clinical situations. The machinability of Dicor glass-ceramic is made possible by the presence of a tetrasilicic fluormica(KMg25Si4O10F2) .• Machining • Slip-casting • Heat-pressing The most recent ceramic materials are reviewed with respect to their principal crystalline phases. MICA BASED CERAMICS Dicor (Dentsply Inc. DIFFERENT ADVANCE MATERIAL IN ALL CERAMIC RESTORATION LEUCITE-REINFORCED CERAMICS The most common leucite material is IPS EmpressTM (Ivoclar Vivadent). In-Ceram AluminaTM (VITA Zahnfabrik).