Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road pavements.

IKRAM can accept no responsibility for misappropriate use of this manual. Engineering judgement and experience must be used to properly utilise the principles and guidelines outlined in this manual taking into account available equipment, local materials and condition. performance under Malaysian climatic conditions will make it of interest to those engaged in the research aspects of road engineering and in teaching the subject. Some of the practical experiences on which the guide is based have been gained under

Photographs and drawings of equipment in this publication are for illustration only and do not imply preferential endorsement of any particular make by IKRAM.

PREFACE This guide is written primarily as an interim guideline for practising road engineers and those who are involved in road maintenance activities. An attempt has been made to draw together all the information required in the evaluation and rehabilitation of flexible road pavements within one volume. It is hoped that the background information given, together with the review of current research work carried out at IKRAM, particularly in relation to the pavement behaviour and
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Malaysian climatic conditions. However, due to limitations, some references were drawn from various overseas agencies in particular the Transport and Research Laboratory (TRL), U.K. Although it is the intention of the authors to make this guide as comprehensive as possible, it has not always been possible to do so as the performance of flexible road pavements in Malaysian environment is not yet fully understood. However, to facilitate the early understanding of the present practices, this interim guide has been produced. The authors are
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Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road pavements. felt thanks to the Director General of Public Works Malaysia for his permission to publish this guide. Thanks are also due to Tan Kee Hock and Mooi Jiann Liang for their assistance in preparing this guide. Finally, special thanks are due to C. R. Jones of the Overseas Centre, Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. for his advice on specific topics of the guide. CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

aware of the necessary work still needed to complete this guide and are, at present, undertaking research to make this possible. The chapters have been written so that they can be read and understood largely independent of each another, but where necessary cross-referencing to specific paragraphs should make the reader's task easier. This guide aims to be factual but some expression of opinion is inevitable where gaps in knowledge exist. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This guide is prepared by the Pavement Research Unit Head: Ir. Mohamed Shafii Mustafa lnstitut Kerja Raya Malaysia (IKRAM). The authors of this guide are : Mohd. Sabri Hasim Abd. Mutalif Abd. Hameed Ir. Koid Teng Hye Ahmad Fauzi Abdul Malek Ir. Mohamed Shafii Mustafa.

1.1. BACKGROUND 1.1.1 Brief history of Malaysian road pavements 1.1 1.1.2 The need for engineering evaluation of the road pavement


1.1.3 Economic analysis as a part of the engineering decision making process 1.2 1.2 SCOPE OF THE GUIDE 1.2.1 Limitation of the Guide 1.3 OBJECTIVES 1.3 1.4 1.4

This document forms part of a series of guidelines on the design, construction and maintenance of flexible road pavements which the Pavement Research Unit is producing as part of their studies. This guide was reviewed by a Committee headed by the Director of IKRAM : Ir Ng Chong Yuen. Other members of the Committee were : Ir Han Joke Kwang (IKRAM) Ir. Aik Siaw Kong Ir. Tai Men Choi Ir. Zainol Rashid Zainuddin

CHAPTER 2 : PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE 2.1 PAVEMENT COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS 2.1.1 Surfacing 2.1.2 Road-base 2.1.3 Sub-base 2.1.4 Subgrade 2.2 FUNCTIONS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 2.2.1 Road users requirements 2.2.2 Engineering requirements 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2

2.2 2.2 2.2
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Of Roads Branch (JKR Headquarters) and Ir Abdul Shokri Mohd. Dalian (JKR Selangor). The authors would like to express their heartCawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L


Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.5 3.1.6 Cost analysis 3.1.7 Implementation 3.2 INITIAL ASSESSMENT 3.3 3.3 3.3

2.3 FAILURE DEFINATIONS 2.3.1 Failure modes 2.3.2 Failure manifestation 2.3.3 Failure mechanisms 2.4 PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR 2.4.1 Behaviour of thin surfacing

3.2.1 Surface condition assessment 3.4 3.2.2 Drainage assessment 3.2.3 Prelirninarv analysis, sectioning 3.3 DETAIL ASSESSMENT 3.3.1 General 3.3.2 Choice of NDT devices 3.3.3 Choices of NDT analysis techniques 3.3.4 Test interval, variability and accuracy level for structural assessment 3.3.5 Surface evaluation 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.4


2.4.2 Behaviour of component lavers in a typical flexible pavement 2.5 2.5 PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE 2.9 2.5.1 Terminal condition 2.5.2 Users requirements 2.5.3 Engineers and managers requirements 2.5.4 Empirical interpretation of performance 2.5.5 Mechanistic interpretation of performance 2.5.6 Future undertakings 2.6 REFERENCES CHAPTER 3 : PAVEMENT EVALUATION 3.1 GENERAL 3.1.1 Project initiation 3.1 2.9 2.9



3.24 3.25


2.12 2.15

3.3.6 Other key factors to consider during evaluation 3.26 3.3.7 Detail material investigation 3.29 3.31



3.1.2 Physical condition assessment 3.1 4.2.1 Normal traffic 3.1.3 Non-destructive testing (NDT) 3.1 4.2.2 Generated traffic 3.1.4 Analysis and rehabilitation design 3.1.5 Selection of remedial measures
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L


4.2.3 Diverted traffic 4.2.4 Special traffic

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1 5.1 5.23 Decision making levels in road pavement maintenance 1.16 Reduction in deflection after overlay 3.4 4.1 Elements in pavement evaluation Figure 1.1 SELECTION PROCEDURE 5.4 Figure 2.19 Distribution of cracking and rutting 3.3 4.6 5.4 Figure 2.4 4.10 Figure 2.2 4.15 Schematics of the Falling Weight Deflectometer arrangements 3.6 5.2 Methods of predicting growth and compounding 4.1 Base data 4.3.8 1.20 Figure 3.2 Stresses and strains in a bituminous pavement (Asphalt Institute) 2.6 REFERENCES CHAPTER 5 : METHODS OF REHABILITATION 4.5 5.3.3 RESTORATION 5.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.5 RECONSTRUCTION LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.4.2 4.L Page 4 .2 Figure 3.4 4.7 Figure 2.3 Cutting and Patching 5.2 Schematics of Benkelman Beam 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 REHABILITATION OPTIONS 5.5 5.3. Figure 1.3.5 Surface recycling 5.1 5.4 4.10 Typical strain-life relationship for subgrade (SHELL) 2.4 RESURFACING 5.19 Figure 3.11 5.2 3.1 Rejunevating 5.4 A typical rate of binder hardening in service 4.4.1 Cross-section of a typical flexible 1.7 Figure 3.3.15 Figure 3.4 Thin asphalt overlay 5.3 5.6 Figure 2.4 FORECASTING FUTURE TRAFFIC 4.4 Figure 3. K.4.11 Schematics of the Road Rater 3.9 Deflection bowl and materials characterisation 3.4 Typical serviceability requirements for different class of road (AASHO Road Test) 2.2 Figure 2.10 Flow chart of pavement evaluation process Figure 3.3 2.7 Figure 3.5 Hardening of binder in the top 3mm of the road surfacing 2.7 Typical strain-life relationship for bituminous unixes 2.5 EXAMPLES 4.3 TRAFFIC AND AXLE LOAD SURVEYS 4.6 4.3 Cawangan Jalan.17 5.4 Sensitivity and accuracy 4.2 Crack Sealing 5.3 Estimating damaging effect 4.11 Schematics of the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer 3.1 Specific survey method 4.4 Figure 3.20 DCP test results 3.

28 4.2 Table 4.20 Plate 3. 4.4 Examples of formula and coefficients for strain-life relationship 2.5 4.6 3.27 3. manifestations and mechanisms 2.5 Table 4.9 TRRL Minitexture meter 3.10 The Friction Tester Table 3.4 Estimated values of structural coefficients for various conditions of asphalt. Micro and macro-lextUre 3.9 Figure 5. 4. Southbound.2 The Spectrum of Pavement Rehabilitation Alternatives 5.2 3.11 Surface condition survey form.5 The Heavy Weight Deflectometer Plate 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.5 Proper methods of cutting and patching 5.9 Surfacing Recycling Using Hot Milling Method 5. 3.3 Cawangan Jalan.1 Table 3.10.3 The Road Rater 3.23 Estimates of structural coefficients.3 Table 4.1 Figure 5.4 The Falling Weight Deflectometer Plate 3.15 3.25 Table 4. 3.6 Traffic count results for direction 1.2 Table 3.6 LIST OF PLATES 5.27 3.7 Figure 5.7 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.2 Figure 5.4 Table 4.3 3.1 General Process for Selecting Appropriate Rehabilitation Alternatives 5. Table 3.6 Summary of traffic counts results obtained from HPU.1 Axle load weighing 3.5 3.L Page 5 . K.5 Classification of cracks Material condition intrepetation 3.7 Figure 5. Distribution of yearly damaging effect Figure 3. Typical plot of the DCP results Figure 3.28 Table 3.6 Axle load survey results for direction 2.1 Rut depth measurement Plate 3.4 4.11.13 Table 2.3 Figure 5. 3.8 Sand Patch test Plate 3. Northbound.7 The Griptester Plate 3.6 Plate 3.12 3.16 Methods of Reducing Reflection Cracks Using Interlayers Full Reconstruction Options Table 4.6 Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester Plate 3.26 3.3 Axle load survey results for direction 1. based on DCP in-situ CBR values.1 Failure modes. Southbound.4.22 Typical HPU traffic survey results 4.23 Plate 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.8 Figure 5.2 Surface condition survey 5.3 Replacement of Loss Chemical Constituents by Rejuvenation 5.18 Plate 3.22 Plate 4.

1.1 Rejuvenating aged Asphalt Surfacings in Progress Plate 5. In the evaluation process. By using definitive and sound engineering decisions.21 1.5 Surface Dressing Plate 5.13 5. An engineering-based road management system was only introduced in Malaysia in 1974 when a Benkelman Beam survey of 2291 km of Federal and State roads was carried out by_ KAMPSAX International.4 Cold Milling Plate 5. The task becomes more difficult if the pavement has gone through a series Page 6 Plate 5. Most Cawangan Jalan.6 Slurry Seal Plate 5.1. K. Since the war.1 BACKGROUND 5. 1. of the upgrading works carried out were either not designed or designed using methodologies imported from the various western countries.21 5.11 5. Ibu Pejabat JKR.19 5. appropriate solutions for pavement maintenance problems can be found.9 Recycling for Base CHAPTER l : INTRODUCTION 1. the road networks along the main trade routes were given more attention than the others.8 5. Even though the roads were regularly maintained and upgraded.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. on the conditions of the roads and the type of maintenance carried out.13 5. there were. Field measurements are valuable practical tools in the evaluation of road performance and in the identification of the causes of failure. necessitates the need for full engineering evaluation to be carried out before the design of further road improvements or rehabilitation.7 Application of Geosynthetic Materials Plate 5.8 Reconstruction Works Plate 5. In those years.1). generally.L . The lack of proper engineering records on past construction and maintenance works now . This allows the most appropriate method of rehabilitation to be selected thus nninimising long term total expenditure. The rate of deterioration will depend on the severity of the traffic loads and the variability of the road materials. This construction method is still being practiced today.7 5.2 Crack Sealing Plate 5. In order to ensure that the road network is able to satisfy the ever increasing demand placed on it due to increased traffic. a lack of record keeping. road pavements have been constructed using crushed stones road bases and sand sub-bases with dense bituminous surfacings.10 5. Pavement engineers are faced with the difficult task of evaluating pavements that have been subjected to varying traffic loads under variable environmental conditions and material properties (Figrure 1.3 Cutting and Patching Plate 5. Comprehensive evaluation on distressed pavements can fulfill this requirement. After a new pavement is constructed.2 The need for engineering evaluation of the road pavements. Bituminous pavements were first constructed in Malaysia some time before the Second World War. the road pavements were constructed using block stone pitching on sand or laterite sub-bases covered with a layer of tar or bitumen stabilized aggregates. the identification and classification of the type of failure is necessary if correct remedial treatments are to be undertaken. both environmental and traffic stresses will cause it to deteriorate. Invariably. there is a need for a systematic approach to the maintenance of the road network. the road pavements have been constantly maintained and upgraded.1 Brief history of Malaysian road pavements. As such the road pavements along these routes are thicker than those along the minor roads. To ensure the smooth operation of the road network.

1 Elements In Pavement Evaluation Fugure 1.2 Decision Making Levels In Pavement Maintentenance Cawangan Jalan.L Page 7 . K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Figure 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

To ensure a good return on the investment in road construction. With the introduction of the Pavement Appraisal and Management Suite (PAMS) in 1992. road improvement projects are identified after due economic consideration are taken at the network level. 1. able solution is necessary.2 SCOPE OF THE GUIDE of previous unrecorded maintenance treatments. At all levels of decision making. a simple. a cost benefit analysis is needed to ensure that the most cost effective method of maintenance is employed. this was extended to balance the engineering and the economic needs of the country.1. K. This guide should be used in conjunction with other Fugure 1. then large sums of money may be wasted. 1. The considerations on economic needs are more important at the Network Level than at the Project Level. In most cases. performance and deterioration of flexible pavements subjected to local climatic and traffic conditions. If the future performance of the road is not correctly predicted.3 Cross-section Of A Typical Flexible Road Pavement Cawangan Jalan.3 Economic analysis as part of engineering decision malting process. The details to which the engineering and economic needs are considered are dependent on the level at which decisions are made (Figure 1-2). It subjected the evaluation process and discusses the most appropriate solutions in rectifying pavement deficiencies.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. systematic and work This guide covers the processes needed in carrying out an engineering evaluation on flexible pavements that allows a better decision to be made at the Project Level. It incorporates brief and relevant discussions of behaviour.L Page 8 . The introduction of the BS(M) Management System in 1983 was an attempt by the government to use engineering-based criteria to maintain and upgrade the road networks. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

3. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1.1. CHAPTER 2 PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE 2. IKRAM guidelines on road pavements and existing JKR Standard Specifications for Roadworks. (ii) To assist engineers in identifying primary modes of pavement deterioration. Limitations of the Guide Even though it is the intention of the authors to provide comprehensive and accurate information in this guide. systematic and workable solutions to the users. The behaviour and performance of the pavements addressed in this guide is for flexible pavements only. Currently constricted thin surfacings are surface dressings and slum seals. 1. Unbound crushed mixed aggregate has been widely used as a road base material throughout the country.1 Surfacing ]The surfacing is the upper layer of the pavement which fulfils the following requirements : a) To provide an even. bitumen and filler. They merely protect the pavement from water and provide a skid resistant riding surface. facing overlying the natural ground or subgrade. Most common types of plant mixed surfacings in Malaysia are asphaltic concrete or bituminous macadam.2 Road-base The road-base is the main structural layer of the pavement which spread the load from heavy vehicles thus protecting the underlying weaker layers. the users are cautioned that the procedures and remedial measures described in this guide are interim. On-going research work at IKRAM in this field will be able to add more information to the guide in the next revision. The objectives are : (i) To provide a systematic method of pavement evaluation. It is aimed at engineers at the project level. Thick bituminous surfacings nornally consist of crushed mixed aggregates. Its functions are to reduce the compressive stress in the subgrade and the subbase to an acceptable level and to ensure that the magnitude of the flexural stresses in the surfacing will not lead to cracking. A typical flexible pavement is as shown in Figure 1.2. road-base and the surCawangan Jalan. This guide is structured in a manner to provide simple. (iii) To assist engineers in selecting appropriate methods of rehabilitation. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Thin surfacings do not give direct additional strength.L .1.3 OBJECTIVES 2. 1.1. non-skidding and good riding quality surface b) To resist wear and shearing stress imposed by traffic c) To prevent water from penetrating into the underlying pavement layers d) To be capable of surviving a large number of repeated loading without distress e) To withstand adverse environmental conditions The form of bituminous surfacing commonly used can either be thick or thin. PAVEMENT COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS A flexible pavement is a layered structure consisting of the sub-base. 2. Thick bituminous surfacings provide additional strength to the pavement and seal the pavement from water ingress. Granite and limestone are readily available in most areas in Malaysia and have historically been the major sources of aggregate for roadPage 9 The aim of this guide is to provide a procedure for the engineering evaluation of flexible road pavements.

1 Road user requirements A safe and comfortable riding surface is what the road users nontially require. provide a safe and comfortable riding surface for the road users. This layer also serves as a separating layer preventing contamination of the roadbase by the subgrade and also acts as a preparatory layer for road-base construction. A terminal serviceability of 2. with a value of 5 as the highest index of serviceability and 0 as the lowest. The users requirement for a road pavement can be quantified in ternis of serviceability index (1).FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.2.4 Subgrade The subgrade refers to the soil under the pavement within a depth of approximately 1 meter below the subbase. K.1. 2. namely the users and the road engineers. It will nornally consist of lower grade granular material as compared to that of the road-base. It can also act as a drainage layer.1).2.1. bases. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5 mvas suggested by AASHO (Figure 2.3 Sub-base The sub-base is the secondary load-spreading layer underlying the road-base. 2. 2. Sand and lateftes are commonly used and are easily available. For the rehabilitation of minor roads. FUNCTIONS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT The general function of a road pavement is to Cawangan Jalan. a terminal serviceability of 1. The life of the pavement perceived by the users will be primarily relate to its riding quality. The aesthetic aspect of it is also a concern but will receive considerable attention only on heavily trafficked pavements.5 was suggested as the condition when major road rehabilitation works. The strength of the subgrade layer is important as the thicknesses of the upper layers are dependent on it.L .It can either be natural undisturbed soil or compacted soil obtained from elsewhere and placed as fill material. The terns serviceability was first introduced during the AASHO Road Test to represent pavement performance. Road pavements that do not provide a safe and comfortable riding surface will trigger the road users' awareness as to the increase in vehicle operating cost. Its condition with respect to these characteristics is normally assessed by two groups of people. Page 10 2. The road pavement was given a rating in terms of riding comfort by various drivers. It is the upper layer of earthworks prepared for subsequent construction of the pavement layers described above.

In evaluating and rehabilitating a road pavement in this country. The rate of deterioration is also a major concern.1. Failure Modes. A rapid rate of deterioration requires immediate intervention. Comman Mechanisms Excessive loading Repeated loading Moisture changes Age hardening Excessive loading Creep Densification Consolidation Moisture changes Lack of adhesion Chemical aggression Abrasion by traffic Degradation of aggregate.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road pavements. In contrast the engineer must be alert to such problems as early maintenance enhances the road performance. Manifestations And Mechanisms Figure 2.1 Failure modes The predominant failure modes are fracture. 2. there are dangers in applying those rehabilitation solutions that have been obtained elsewhere as they may not suit conditions in this country without some modification. Experience elsewhere has indicated that prompt maintenance can indeed save expensive reconstruction costs. K. 2. Frature Distortion Disintegration Cracking permanent Deformation Stripping and ravelling Table 2.2 Engineering requirements The engineer is mostly concern with whether the road will achieve its design life. where the environmental factors are different from Mode Manifestation Western nations.2. Stresses And Strains In A Bituminouns Pavement Cawangan Jalan.2.L Page 11 . The road user may not be aware of the occurrence of early deterioration since the riding quality may still be acceptable.3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Road user and engineering needs must be properly balanced to suit budget requirements and maximise benefit through appropriate methods of maintenance. It is thus necessary to understand the behaviour and performance of road pavement under Malaysian condition.3 FAILURE DEFINITIONS 2.

2. Field experiments from other authorities have shown significant relationships between deflection values and pavement life. the sub-base and the subgrade are mainly subjected to compressive stresses. soil characteristics and drainage. Failure in flexible pavements most commonly manifests itself as cracking or deformation.3 Failure mechanisms Extensive research has established the various mechanisms that cause road failures. The bituminous surfacing suffers from tensile strains at the bottom and the top of the layer (2). Loss of aggregates is a common manifestation of this failure mode. This deflection is usually referred to as the transient deflection. This condition exists only when the pavement materials are homogenous and isotropic and the adhesion between the component layers is perfect. The behaviour of individual pavement layers under traffic loadings can be very different. pavements will only behave as a composite material under go ideal condition.1. The most difficult task is to identify which layer is the cause of primary failures of the road. Some common mechanisms are : i) Repeated axle loading ii) Excessive loading iii) Thermal and moisture changes iv) Material densification v) Consolidation of subgrade vi) Shear in subgrade vii) Time dependent deformation (creep) viii)Abrasion by traffic ix) Chemical degradation x) Degradation of aggregate xi) Hardening of the bitumen Early detection of these mechanisms during the evaluation process can help in identifying the probable remedy. Ibu Pejabat JKR. are some factors that affect pavement behaviour. The road-base.4. Suitability and accuracy of evaluation procedures and analysis are dependent on accurate identification of actual modes of failure. The relationship between failure mode. tion methodology. Repeated axle loading. The temporary deflection will rebound after the load has been moved away from the spot.2 Failure manifestations Each component of the pavement layers may contribute to failures. their manifestations and probable mechanisms is as shown in Table 2. The elastic properties. Distortion manifests itself in any of the pavement layers and will normally appear on the bituminous surface as netting or other forms of deformation. Each has its own significant role in the overall behaviour of a pavement. the environment. A point on the pavement subjected to a moving load will deflect temporarily. K. Fracture nornially occurs in thick bituminous layers. an example of the latter being diurnal temperature changes (Figure 2. Stresses and strains are induced in the pavement layers by both the influences of traffic and environmental stresses.2). Deflection measurements had been used as an overall pavement strength indicator. 2. Disintegration will normally take place on the bituminous surfacing.1 Behaviour of thin surfacings distortion and disintegration.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. These defects can be visually identified and measured using appropriate techniques. Deflection test results can be used to predict the performance of pavement and to design overlay thicknesses.3. 2.3.4 PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR Before moving further into pavement evaluaCawangan Jalan. Theoretically.L Page 12 . it is necessary for a road engineer to understand pavement behaviour especially under local environmental conditions. 2. characteristics of the component materials and the loading nature and magnitude will determine the size of the deflection.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. testing temperature. have high bitumen contents that leads to high bitumen film thickness. if the road base layers can be made to spread the load imposed upon a pavement and meet the expected structural requirement. Thin bituminous seals. The condition of surface and side drainage will significantly affect the pavement behaviour and performance. The elastic behaviour of the bituminous mix is mainly governed by the properties of the bitumen. Water can have a deleterious effect on this type of construction. These surfacings do not provide direct structural strength to the pavement. Bitumen in the mix is visco-elastic and its behaviour is highly dependent on temperature and the rate of loading (3). Serviceability will be reduced if water is allowed to penetrate the surfacing. 2. K. The effective modulus is defined as the ratio of stress to strain at a particular temperature and loading time and is usually referred to as stiffness.2 Behaviour of the component layers in a typical flexible pavement. In practice. area that must be emphasised during evaluation on the performance of this type of road pavement. bitumen type. Under repeated loading this layer is liable to experience fatigue. The type of aggregate used is a secondary variable.4. high stress areas such as climbing lanes and junctions suffer long loading time at high temperature therefore reducing its modulus value (2). Bituminous laver The deflection experienced by the bituminous layers due to a loaded wheel induces tensile strains underneath the bituminous layer. Bituminous sealed road pavements are normally used in Malaysia for roads with low traffic volumes and axle loads (low class road). These properties cannot be obtained from thick bituminous mixes since stability. This is the adopted principle behind the successful use of surface dressings in developed countries. Apart from the test procedures (e. Furthermore. Deformation in the form of shear failure in the surfacing is normally prominent in these areas.g. they should be able to withstand environmentally induced stresses. then a thin layer is sufficient to fulfil the functional requirement of a good riding surface.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. and in particular surfacing dressings. Strong adhesion with the road-base is another important factor which determines the life of thin seals. The proper application and curing of the bituminous prime coat on the road base is therefore vital to its perfornance. skid resistance and texture depth decrease with increased bitumen content. Surface dressing have been used by many developed countries for highways and high class road pavements. loading method or cycles). They are very flexible and are able to withstand high pressures from heavy wheel loads if constructed properly.L . Laboratory tests have been carried out for various types of bituminous mixes under repeated loading to estimate fatigue failure. Permanent deformation of the subgrade and fatigue failure of the road surfacing are the two major characteristics that are normally used to predict flexible pavement performance. Therefore drainage is a major Cawangan Jalan. Bituminous surfacings with high bitumen contents will have improved resistance against age hardening. and is assumed to have negligible effect. Laboratory fatigue tests under fully controlled conditions Page 13 Surface dressings mid slurry seals are the common types of thin surfacings used to seal road pavements in Malaysia. bitumen content and air void content in the mix also influence the fatigue behaviour. The time lapse between loading cycles is also known to affect the test results. Theoretically. At low temperatures and short times of loading they are essentially elastic but at high temperatures and long loading times the material undergoes viscous flow. There is limited field experience and knowledge of the behaviour of thin surfacings constructed on high volume roads in the country.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. The modulus in the vertical direction can be different from that in the horizontal direction which suggest that it is anisotropic. At this point. This indicates that the behaviour of the individual materials under laboratory conditions is unfortunately not a good substitute for a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of the materials when combined within a pavement. polishing of the road surface by vehicle tyres is normally seen to be more severe on the off-side wheel-path. Page 14 Cawangan Jalan. The elastic characteristic of this layer under repeated loading is difficult to model. Another common factor that hasten the deterioration process significantly within the bitumen surfacing in the tropics is the hardening of the bitumen primarily at the surfacing (4). thicknesses and subgrade strength. i) ii) iii) iv) Oxidation Loss of volatiles Physical hardening Exudative hardening can produce more repeatable results compared to those observed in empirical experiments. On the other hand. cracking and rutting are usually more severe in. Mixes with high bitumen contents and are subjected to loading at high temperatures are liable to result in permanent deformation.L . The factors that affect fatigue failure in the field are loading pattern. channeling and material properties.2 log Poise. This form of failure slowly manifests itself in the form of crocodile cracking in the wheel-path and is easily identified by a surface condition survey.4 shows that the rate of hardening is more rapid during the first 20 months. This is common in surmy and hot regions where the oxidation process is rapid. Environmentally induced stresses and strains also affect bituminous surfacings. Figure 2. It is defined as the quotient of repeated axial stress in triaxial compression divided by the recoverable axial strain. cracks starting from the bottom of the bituminous layer due to repetitive tensile strain is normally called the traditional fatigue failure. The bitumen viscosity of the top few imillirnetres of the exposed surfacing changes rapidly in our environment (6). environmental ageing apparently ceases to have any further significant effect. the rate decreases until the binder viscosity reaches approximately 6. Figure 2. K. the stresses and strains induced will cause thermal cracking. Suitable considerations and allowances must be made to deal with this critical problem. Ibu Pejabat JKR. On bituminous roads. The intrinsic properties of the material and problems in setting up samples for laboratory tests have resulted in the use of the term 'resilient modulus' instead of the usual ‘modulus' for this material. Improvement in this area can only come from the study of the behaviour of bituminous surfacings using empirical tests. Temperature changes will cause the bituminous material to expand and contract. Laboratory fatigue values can shift between 20 to nearly 700 times when compared to those observed in the field (3). If the material is temperature susceptible. The principal causes of bitumen hardening are (5) : Oxidation is the main cause of hardening that can occur at storage. during mixing and on the road.the verge-side (nearside) wheel-path compared to the off-side (outer-side) wheel-path. Additional compaction under repeated traffic loading contributes to permanent deformation that is normally manifested as rutting. In the field. Unbound layer (road-base and sub-base) Vertical compressive stresses affect the unbound granular layer.3 shows a typical rate of hardening of binder in service. The hardening is more severe in the top 3 mm of the road surfacing and decreases with depth. The strength of this layer is dependent on its elastic properties. After this period. The top layer of the bituminous mix can become brittle and may crack easily under traffic loading or temperature changes.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan. Figure 2. surrounding properties affects actual field performance. The top one meter is the most critical since it suffers almost all the transmitted load.L Page 15 . The aim is to limit the compres sive stress to an acceptable level so that the subgrade will not fail or move under repetitive loading. Subgrade layer The subgrade layer bears the final compressive stress. The subgrade strength and the road-base layer thicknesses affect the actual field properties of the sub-base. K. It was found in the United Kingdom that nearly two thirds of the total permanent deformation of the combined layer was contributed by the surfacing and the unbound layer. Hardening Of Binder In The Top 3 mm Of The Road Surfacing In the laboratory repeated loading triaxial tests can be used to studv the individual deformation characteristic and resilient modulus of this layer. Properly designed and constructed road base and sub-base layers will spread the load and reduce the stresses induced by the vehicle on the subgrade.3. The Poisson ratio can also be obtained. A Typical Rate Of Binder Hardening In Service Figure 2. Apart From individual properties.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.4. This is common for all pavement layers.

At this level. 2. behaviour of the subgrade throughout its service life.2 Users requirements As mentioned in para.1. K. 2. In Malaysia. when the pavement is probably at its weakest.5. The residual life of a road pavement is dependent on the definition of the terminal condition. Pavements under condition (i) above.e cracking and rutting). However.5. the moisture conditions primarily govern assessment decision.3 Engineers and managers requirements Two forms of distress modes can normally be identified from the road pavement surface (i.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. 2. Measurements are best taken at the wettest time. Drainage is the most important factor that determines the Cawangan Jalan.5 PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE The strength of a road subgrade is commonly assessed in ternis of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR). Heavy rainfall during wet weather allows moisture to enter the pavement layers and the subgrade through the shoulder and at the edges. High standards of drainage provision govern the longevity of pavement life at these areas. These failure manifestations can be used as a criterion to quantify an empirical terminal con ii) Where the water table is far from the formation level but seasonal variation and drainage efficiency will influence its moisture conditions. Sealed road shoulders substantially reduce the ingress of water. The AASHO road test in the United States suggests a serviceability level of 2. A well-constructed pavement would have a subgrade in equilibrium moisture condition most of the time and there will be no change in behaviour.1.5. The subgrade is subjected to variable conditions in the Malaysian environment. A pavement will have a residual life if its condition has not reached terminal level.L Page 16 . This water table will influence the subgrade moisture content and also the pavement layers above it. the choice of this level to be used locally needs careful study. 2. The CBR and in general. During pavement evaluation. Only serious pavement failure can be felt or measured in relation to this. The degree of cracking or rutting or both are normally used as a general indicator of the overall pavement condition. This scenario however is not achievable in most areas in Malaysia. definition of terminal condition and prediction of residual life were very dependent on experience from other countries. Ibu Pejabat JKR. riding on the road will be uneconomical and uncomfortable. the soil strength is dependent on the type of the soil. This may happen diurnally (tidal change) or seasonally (monsoon season). This is more pronounced where earth shoulders are used. 2.1 Terminal condition Terminal pavement condition or the end of pavement life is used to describe its condition when major maintenance is needed.5 as the terminal condition (1). taking into consideration local pavement behaviour. It's popular use in Malaysia has prompted development of relationships to other useful soil-strength indicators. New pavements are mostly designed using subgrade CBR values as the primary soil strength indicator. Two most common conditions are : i) Where the water table is near or possibly higher than the formation level. its moisture content and its density.Nondestructive measurements that simulate pavement behaviour taken at these locations should consider this. the users' requirement is for safety and comfort. will be weakest when the water table is at the highest point. This condition is predicted to occur at the end of the design period. There are no standards on 'end of life' criteria for Malaysian pavements as yet.

2. K. Empirical interpretation of performance Cawangan Jalan. empirical terminal condition seems to be more realistic and therefore it is more reliable.5 and 2.5. Typical Strain-life Relationship For Bituminous Mixes Figure 2. Figure 2. Various authorities had perform similar tests and the formulae adopted are shown in Table 2.4. Theoretical or mechanistic terminal condition will be based on asphalt strain or subgrade strain criteria.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Typical Strain-life Relationship For Subgrade (SHELL) dition. At this juncture. One of the empirical terminal condition known (7).5. This terminal condition can be accepted if the mechanistic model used depict exact field behaviour. Allowance for this effect must be made if the above terminal criteria are to be used. The effect of age hardening in the field that induce top-down cracking is not included in those models.L Page 17 .6. The minimum permissible strain level is currently based on laboratory findings that can be reduced to mathematical formulae.2. suggests the existence of both the initial cracking and ten millimetres rutting as failure criteria.6. Typical examples are shown in Figures 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

However. Environmental effects The major constraint in using experimental results carried out from other countries is the existence of different soil types and environmental conditions. The empirical approach has been used widely to design new road pavements and to assess maintenance needs. Research work carried out at IKRAM shows that cracking is the major failure mode on asphaltic concrete overlays (8). K. The major assumptions used in the model are (9) : Page 18 Empirical definitions and constraints Predicting the field performance of visco-elastic materials under variable loading patterns and environmental conditions is not a simple and straight forward task. Observations made over four years on pavement o~7erlays throughout the Peninsular Malaysia have produced sufficient data to predict pavement performance in this country.5. Field behaviour and performance of bituminous material were studied with controlled repeated loading pattern under a specific environment. consisting of different materials. Studies carried out by TRRL had shown that common modes of failure in the tropics are often different from those encountered in temperate regions. The performance can be monitored and recorded. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The combinations of bitumen and aggregate. Adaptation of this methodology beyond its defined scope needs in-house verification and modification especially if the environment and materials used in the experiment are different. These points had been proven from the various findings from the AASHO road test. This principle had been extended and various other studies on bituminous road pavements relate to these findings. local field condition can be very different from what had been experienced in the road test. Results from this test have been accepted world-wide. The structural analysis is to consider the pavement. 2. These indicate that pavement behaviour and performance in Malaysia would be different and require different treatment and emphasis. The results are absolute but are only applicable locally and its usage is limited to similar materials and construction specifications. Many assumptions must be made to model field behaviour to a mechanistic model that can be computed mathematically. Fluctuations in moisture level within the pavement create further uncertainties. to be characterised' by their elastic parameters which are typical of dynamic load conditions.5 Mechanistic interpretation of performance The constraints of the empirical design approach have resulted in other methods being developed to make it possible to predict other modes of failure and possible usage of different material types. The layered system concept (or multilayer elastic system) is normally used. Local experience is still regarded as the best guide for the right solution.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Past experiments and findings The AASHO Road Test is perhaps the most comprehensive pavement experiment ever undertaken.L . One of the major findings of the road test was the pavement fatigue life definition in terms of repetition of a standard axle load. Most theoretical models assume an equilibrium moisture condition. the modes of failure in a particular Cawangan Jalan. The recorded experience can be used for future construction work or to assess existing pavement conditions provided similar materials and specifications are used. Rutting is not a major problem and only occurs on highly stressed areas. Material strength and behaviour are dependent on many variables and involve the combined effect of other materials. on top of other unbound layers makes the material difficult to model theoretically. Empirical experiments are best carried out where the variables can be measured and controlled.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. K.L Page 19 . Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

it has been suggested that a factor of 100 times is appropriate for condition in the U. the pavement acts as a composite structure. It has been found that the fatigue life of the bituminous materials under traffic condition in flexible pavements is considered longer than that found in the laboratory. Complete friction between layers at each interface iii. Theoretical modes of failure Page 20 i. the subgrade More detailed four layer models that separate the unbound layer into two layers can also be used. Field verification experiment governs the validity of the approach. i. normally required to analyse composite structures under loading. K.e. However. As an example. It is also very difficult to model climate related failure in this approach. In the multilayer model.L . when the pavement is subjected to a wheel load it will Cawangan Jalan. More effort should be given in handling variability in the analysis (thickness of material and subgrade condition) so that the accuracy of the interpretation can be improved. The deflection can be measured in the field by various means which will be discussed later in Chapter 3. Pavement response and model The most common model used to date is the three layer model. It must be emphasised that the theoretical model must be able to predict the actual failure mode in the field for it to be used with reasonable confidence. Comparing the theoretical deflections to the actual field deflection values is normally ternied 'backcalculation'. The elastic properties of component layers obtained are then used to estimate the condition of the material. The road pavement is divided into three component layers : i. Specialised laboratory test needs to be undertaken to support its proper use. the field fatigue life is 100 times that in the laboratory. Material fatigue problems have been investigated in great detail in the laboratory by various authorities and attention has now been directed to the relationship between these results and the fatigue performance of bituminous materials on the road. Convergence accuracy of the iteration can be chosen as required. If the measured deflection is similar to the theoretical deflection. At this juncture. The initial elastic properties for each laver have to be estimated.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.K. Surface shearing force are not present at the surface vi. This is an iterative process. The analyses use the method of equivalent thickness. then the elastic properties of the material in the model could be used as an estimate of its actual values in the field. It is believed that these resulted from the. the unbound granular layer and iii. The stress solutions are characterised by the materials Poisson Ratio and modulus values iv. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the bituminous surfacings ii. In theory. Each layer has a finite thickness and is in ideal condition v. Failure to do so may result in erroneous predictions. practical application of this approach may remain conjectural. differences between conditions in the road and the test procedure adopted in the laboratory. respond and produce a temporary deflection known as transient deflection. the practicality and accuracy obtained is still very subjective. The component layers are homogenous and isotropic (the property at a point is similar to that at another point and is the same in any direction) ii. The material is infinite in the horizontal direction These assumptions are made clear in this guide to caution users on indiscriminate use of the theoretical methods.

Uncertainty The major uncertainties using the mechanistic approach are : i. The above uncertainties can be overcome by full-scale experiments under local conditions. Computerised solutions The mechanistic approach demands extensive calculations and iterative computations whick require time.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. The limitation and validity of the assumptions used. Many computer programs exist in the market. otherwise a discrepancy of the length of rest period between loading will distort simulation. stresses or strains at these locations can be calculated using the method of equivalent thickness. The relationship between repeated load cycles and strain level at failure is plotted. The terminal conditions are predetermined from laboratory experiments. The Poisson Ratio can be assumed to be of a certain value based on laboratory and engineering experiences. A recent research finding indicates a rapid change in asphalt properties for the top layer that are exposed to the environment. thicknesses and elastic moduli are the main parameters to be considered. K.2 are measured by repeated loading cycles applied in laboratory conditions. ii. Materials characterisation In multilayer analysis the material characteristics namely Poisson Ratios. These impose another consideration in the testing.-1. ships. Additional failure on top of the unbound base is often included. Most stress-strain relationships available are for materials that were obtained overseas. The accuracy and reliability of estimates from the computerised solution still remain conjectural unless the problems in mechanistic interpretation as described earlier Page 21 The most common theoretical mode of failure adopted in the model are fatigue failure at the bottom of bituminous laver and deformation failure on top of the subgrade. There are many different variables in the Malaysian environment that must be simulated in order to present actual loading and material conditions. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Equations for the strain-life relationships of the particular material can be obtained. iii. Residual life is determined by comparing the strain estimated from the interpretation of deflection measurement with the allowable strain obtained from the laboratory relationCawangan Jalan.L . Theoretical deflections. The stresses and strains described in para 2. Local research work carried out shows that the top of the bituminous surfacing exposed to environmentally induced deterioration should be considered. which pre-detennined failure conditions occur and relationships established. Care must be taken in accepting these as the only failure criteria. The strain level closest to the allowable strain for a given type of material will indicate the critical residual life. in principle almost all will use the method of equivalent thickness and back calculation procedures to estimate the modulus values. iv. These failure modes were considered based on experience overseas. On-going research at IKRAM is looking into this problem. The Elastic modulus of each liver is the property that normally needs to be predicted. Research in the laboratory can be used to measure stresses and strains . The deficiency in the model that may ignore actual field condition. The validity of predicted failure conditions. The discrepancy between conditions in laboratory experiments compared to those in the field. Laboratory fatigue test should also simulate field loading frequency. Layer thicknesses can be obtained from construction as built drawings or measured directly in the field. Mechanistic terminal condition In the mechanistic approach the terminal condition will be based on the calculated stresses and strain levels. Some packages have advanced with full mechanistic bituminous overlay design.

1987. KENNEDY.K. Suitable field deflection testing equipment has been identified.E. Department of Transport. Prediction of pavement performance and the design of overlays. The Design and Cawangan Jalan. WITCZAK. Shell Bitumen U.. For the network level. J. C. Institute of Training and Research. The scope of evaluation methodology is described in detail elsewhere. 1989. However. Network Level and Project Level.6 REFERENCES PAVEMENT EVALUATION 1. M. YODER. Research Report 5. K. PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT.5. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.. London. TRRL Report LR 833. pavement evaluation requires a different methodology and equipment. Institute of Training and Research. Recent developments have found that the use of PHOENIX can produce reasonably practical estimation of modulus values. The Deterioration of Bituminous Binders in Road Surfacings. LISTER. DAVID CRONEY. Verification of mechanistic interpretation Controlled field experiment is the best method to verify mechanistics performance prediction methods. 2. 8. 2. 7. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures 1986. Long Term Performance Study of Overlays. Improvements in the interpretation and modelling methodology coupled with field verification is still in progress.6 Future undertakings There is understandable interest in the full mechanistic approach that will result in greater flexibility in the choice of materials. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Performance of Road Pavements. Page 22 . Crowthorne. London 1977. These was described earlier in Chapter 1 as the System Level. substantial differences in treatment recommendations and bituminous overlay thicknesses indicate a general uncertainty over the evaluation concepts. However. 1975. 4. JKR currently have a number of computer programs undergoing tests. THE SHELL BITUMEN HAND BOOK. this demands comprehensive laboratory and field experiments for Malaysian materials and environment. Department of Transport.. . CHAPTER 3 : can be overcome. 'Flexible Pavement Design Methods' Overseas Unit. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. Such work is now being undertaken by IKRAM. A study carried out by TRRL found that the moduli estimations using back-calculation procedure by four pavement consultants were nearly similar. Department of Environment.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. SHELL PAVEMENT DESIGN MANUAL. Berkshire. 1978.W. These values are sensitive to pavement layer thicknesses. Principles of Pavement Design. Shell Petroleum Company Inc. The task is to develope a realistic model depicting actual field conditions. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. Department of the Environment. ROLT.K. Crowthorne. 9. PWD Malaysia. United Kingdom. 3.W.L 3. 5.1 GENERAL The pavement evaluation processes practised in the JKR road pavement maintenance are at three levels. PWD Malaysia. HMSO. Washington D. 1990 6. and N. 1991. C. 2.J. 1978 (Transport and Road Research Laboratory). PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT.

3.5 Selection of remedial measures This can be the most important part of the evaluation exercise. Longtenn engineering solution should be chosen at this juncture. The selection of NDT devices is described in para 3. K. the time lapse between the evaluation exercise and the commencement of the rehabilitation construction must be minimised. 3. The main steps of the evaluation can be summarized as follows : i) To divide the road into suitable lengths of design sections ii) Predict the mode of failure iii) Identify failure causes and delimit the failure area iv) Select suitable short or long term reme dial solutions The above can be carried out efficiently by dividing the tasks into two assessment tiers.2. a detailed pavement evaluation is normally required to optimise the budget. Ibu Pejabat JKR.1. The first step is to understand and diagnose the pavement problem.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Suitable methods of analysis are applied to produce recommendations of remedial measures and the procedure of choosing the appropriate method is described in para 3.3 Non-destructive testing (NDT) Non-destructive testing is currently the state-of the-art method for detailed pavement investigation.3.3. If it is structurally sound. A decision should be made at this juncture whether the pavement is suffering from structural or non-structural failure. This chapter deals with pavement evaluation at project and detail level. 3. task. This can be done visually or using a simple and cheap methods. It is necessary not to miss any weak areas at this level of testing. 3.1.4 Analysis and rehabilitation design The base data from the NDT tests together with other information that was taken previously is compiled and analysed at this stage. initial and detail assessments. otherwise detail testing will be needed. This evaluation exercise is necessary as the condition of the pavement may have changed since it was evaluated during the network level pavement survey. Brief description of the flow of the work is given below. methods of analysis and techniques used are given. information quality requirement. This testing will provide the base data for analysis and rehabilitation design.L Page 23 . The correct solution is not always easy to achieve.1 Project initiation There are two normal mechanisms that initiate pavement evaluation at the project level : i) From network level priority listing ii) Specific evaluation request when a pavement requires upgrading due to special reasons After a specific budget has been allocated for a project in a network priority list. Additional tests may be required if the information is not sufficient. 3. NDT allows more data collection along the road and provides a more confident representation of the pavement condition. This will then help to provide the solution. A detailed description and interim guide for this task is explained in Chapter 5.1. its functional condition should be queried.3.2 Physical condition assessment Simple physical condition assessment of the pavement at the beginning of the evaluation exercise helps efficient organisation of this Cawangan Jalan.1.1. For accurate results. accuracy. The choice of equipment. A general condition of the pavement is recorded.1. The scope of work in the process is shown in Figure 3. If the pavement is both structurally and functionally adequate then the pavement is considered sound. It must be assumed that budget is not a constraint at this stage.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.1. If the cost of actual rehabilitation requirement exceed Cawangan Jalan. K. the balance between engineering or non-engineering driven solution must be considered carefully. The costing analysis should provide information to ascertain the budget requirements.L Page 24 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. This scenerio is common in Malaysia. A simple costing analysis of the remedial measures may provide sufficient answers to the problem. 3.6 Cost analysis With budget constraints.

Other information related to the surroundings of the pavement helps to ensure a comprehensive evaluation work. it is not mandatorv to have this data to accomplish the pavement evaluation task. More expensive and detailed tests can be scheduled if and when required. the extent of the failures can be classified and quantified. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The main parameters recorded are cracking and rutting as well as shoulder and drainage conditions.1. The estimates of remedial works normally increase if the time lapse between the evaluation period and the implementation phase is expected to be long. The final recommendation of rehabilitation measures should be adiusted to suit these individual sections. deflection and traffic data can influence the final selection of the design sections. At a later stage. A minimum length of a selected design section should not be less than one kilometre to allow for efficient construction operation. The engineer should carefully review all the available data to judge whether a particular treatment is suitable over the entire project length or whether shorter design sections using separate treatments are necessary. topography. Details of the information recorded is shown in Table 3. shoulder and drainage. K. The principle is to use cheap equipment and simple method of assessment.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. A standard surface condition survey method has been used in JKR. Other feasible remedial methods can be applied if the conventional method are not appropriate or slow.7 Implementation Projected actual time of implementation of the evaluation proposal should be considered during the evaluation exercise. where contractual arrangements are often lengthy. hydrology. It is easier to divide each section into short 10 metres block for accurate and efficient data collection. Visual assessment of cracks using a classification system simplified in Table 3. Engineers nonually carry out or supervise this work.1. Cawangan Jalan. Allowance for this problem should be considered in the evaluation exercise. Using appropriate techniques. 3. Changing remedial treatments too frequently may result in difficult and expensive construction. Historical data of the pavement would be very useful if available. Staged constriction is another option worth considering in order to reduce initial rehabilitation costs but still fulfills the engineering requirement.1 Surface condition assessment The surface condition survey provide a means of quantifying the failures of the pavement.2. A straight edge and a wedge are used to Page 25 tire allocated budget. Preliminary design sections are chosen first from the initial assessment results. 3.L . Short terns and long term remedial measures are selected depending on the allocated budget. The feasibility of various remedial measures may involve discussions with the appropriate authorities before the final options are selected.2 INITIAL ASSESSMENT Pavement evaluation at project level starts by carrying out an initial assessment of the physical condition of the pavement. the rehabilitation solution may require changes.2 provide sufficient information for further analysis. The results from this initial assessment will be used to : i) Decide preliminary lengths and loca tions of `design sections' ii) Plan for the frequency and interval of detailed tests Optimum and economical data collection and sampling can be carried out following the selection of the design sections. However. Alternative lengths of sections can be used. other information such as soil type. This is common in Malaysia. 3. The scope of work involves two main tasks : i) Surface condition assessment ii) Drainage assessment.

Statistical analysis can be used to define representative characteristics and homogeneity of key parameters within the sections. 3. Four persons are required to collect the data and two persons are needed to control the traffic flow. Prediction of moisture condition and the resulting variation in pavement response is still a major unsolved problem that has not deen defined precisely in any pavement design method. A full assessment of the drainage condition can be made separately if necessary. sectioning The existing pavement construction and the underlying condition of the pavement structure govern the initial selection of homogeneous sections within a road length having a uniform traffic loading. Police assistance is recommended at locations with very heavy traffic. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 26 . Observation is best carried out after or during rainfall when the road surfacing is still wet. It is important to remedy drainage problems before any pavement rehabilitation work is implemented.3 Preliminary analysis. Visual surface condition data and deflection results can be used to refine the sections. It should not be carried out at night unless proper lighting is provided. Surface drainage is judged by the ability of the pavement surface to drain water rapidly. measure the rut depth within the block (late 3. Safety jackets must be worn. Safety requirements vary from site to site.2 Drainage assessment The condition of surface and side drainage of the pavement will contribute significantly to its performance.2. Water is the most important environmental factor that influences pavement performance. The results of these observations should provide an indication whether it is necessary to improve the cross section profile of the pavement and the road shoulder. The personnel needed to carry out the surface condition survey vary depending on the traffic intensity of the site. The location of the maximum rut depth is estimated visually. The condition of shoulders and side drainage facilities are initially assessed by visual judgement. The maximum rut depth in the block is measured. Plate 3.2 shows the common personnel layout on a low volume road with fast traffic. Adequate provision of drainage facilities will minimise this area of uncertainty. The structural drainage condition is more difficult to assess. Some existing road pavements have been upgraded from previous construction that may not have emphasised on drainage provision. 3. side drains or interceptor drains or whether existing drains are sufficient and functioning properly to safeguard the pavement. Sometimes the drainage has disappeared through sequence of widening work.2. This assessment is more critical in hilly areas where the pavement is constructed on cut slopes. expected. The engineers need to judge with reasonable confidence by observation whether a particular area requires subsoil drainage. Past construction records will be helpful if available. This will be described in more detail in para.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. A classification of its condition will indicate whether this is the primary or contributory cause of damage to the pavement structure.2. not allowing water to pond either on the bituminous surfacing or on the road shoulder. This is critical if the probable maintenance measures would only need minor treatment such as sealing or cut and patch.1). Keeping water away from pavement materials is still the best solution especially where heavy rainfall is Cawangan Jalan. Comparison to similar pavement construction on adjacent areas that have good drainage provision can assist on the judgement of the drainage condition. Failure as a result of drainage deficiency would have been very obvious by the time the pavement undergoes investigation. 3.2. K. Surface condition surveys must be carried out during the day time.

Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.L Page 27 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.

Crocodile cracks 5 .2.Interconnected cracks 4 .2 Classification of cracks Plate 3.L Page 28 .3 mm > 3 mm > 3 mm and spalling Crack Extent <1m 1-5m >5m Crack Type 0 .1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan. Surface Condition Survey Confidence level of 85%. K.Many cracks 3 .Single crack 2 . Rut Depth Measurement Plate 3.No Cack 1 . Crack Width < 1 mm 1 .Crocodile cracks and spalling - Table 3.

Distinct formation types exist in hilly areas and are common in this country. Information on pavement layer thickness will help in the selection of the sections. cracking and other quantified failures highly influence the proposed method of treatment. Destructive testing can give a more accurate indication of the condition and performance of pavement materials at a specific location. However. The current interest world-wide is to use Non Destructive Testing (NDT) devices. The assessment can be either the structural condition or the surface characteristics of the road pavement. K. Drainage and ground water condition influence the performance and stability of cuttings. The distribution and population mean of the deflection. It is therefore more important to concentrate the evaluation effort in achieving accurate true mean characteristics of the materials from adequate sampling over the stretch concerned.3 DETAILED ASSESSMENT 3. Areas with uniform problems of material stability can be iden tified.L The next stage in the evaluation process is the detail assessment of the road pavement. This is a common situation along most roads in Malaysia. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Rutting normally indicates evidence of asphalt instability or weak underlying layers. The strength of the existing pavement needs to be measured. In most project level assessments that lead to major rehabilitation. Significant tests should be carried out to resolve this problem. The surface functional requirement may not be critical since major reconstruction requires the existing surface to be removed. Sectioning by rutting alone will suggest the predominant role of asphalt instability.1 General or more is recom mended for statistical representation. NDT surveys for the structural assessment Page 29 . Adjacent sections must not contain significantly similar attributes. Sectioning by evidence of cracking Cracking suggests that predominant failure mode is either by traditional fatigue or age hardening. rutting.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. If the road has been overlaid the cracking can often be reflective cracking from an overlaid surfacing. Putting emphasis on achieving an accurate single sample characteristics could distort the overall scenario. 3. Sectioning by formation type The contribution of the strength of the subgrade to road failure can result in variations in either cracking or rutting or both. The results from those tests will assist in identifying the mode of failure. the structural condition assessment is vital.3. it is likely that high variability of pavement layer thicknesses and material conditions over a long stretch of road exists. Pavement strength that is mostly defined by the layer thicknesses can influence the degree of cracking and its distribution. Sectioning by rutting severity Severity of rutting can sometimes be used to assist preliminary sectioning. Cracking and rutting normally appears in this area. This method of sectioning is not suitable for a road pavement that has been inadequately maintained and has extensively failed. Distinct differences in failure at different formation types indicates the suitability of sectioning by formation types. The primary mode of failure often dictates preliminary sectioning. Rutting alone is not the predominant failure manifestation where weak underlying layer exists. Fill areas are prone to construction deficiency where quality of imported subgrade Cawangan Jalan. may effect the pavement performance. Drainage deficiency could provide further evidence to justify division into sections. NDT is a preferred approach that is fast and reduces or eliminates laborious and expensive destructive testing (1).

It Cawangan Jalan. JKR had used this equipment for the last 1 years. this type of equipment can be very.2). they can be divided into two major groups : i) Deflection-based equipment ii) Non-deflection-based equipment There are three mechanised deflection-based systems most commonly used in Malaysia. reliability and case of use. No in-house study has compared the results produced by each device and its approach. nuclear devices. Broadlv. This equipment is included in this manual because it is accepted world-wide and had been use extensively over 30 Nears. ultrasonic devices. The simpler devices are the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) and the Benkelman Beam. Diurnal temperature variation must be considered as well. However.3. Over-emphasizing certain aspects of the elements can lead to uneconomical decisions. Non-deflection based systems are equipment using radar sensors. Different temperature corrections are required for different mixes. A moving test equipment (such as Deflectograph) could be preferred for such case. the confidence in its results is higher than others.L . Temperature correction becomes more significant as the pavement gets hotter during the day whereby the deflection response becomes more sensitive as the surfacing gets softer. Because of its simplicity. The sophisticated machines are the Falling Weight Deflectomcter (FWD) and the Road Rater. must be emphasised here that the accuracy of the results will depend on the experience of the user in handling all evaluation information described earlier including the NDT results. The background to the NDT approach of stnictural assessment was explained in Chapter 2. Deflection reading is best taken close to the standardised temperature of 40°C to reduce temperature correction error. For a start an assumption can be made that the pavement is at its weakest after the monsoon season. It inav be necessary to carry out costbenefit analyses when choosing the most suitable NDT equipment for the pavement evaluation.2 Choice of NDT devices Benkelman heam. cost of equipment.3. Relationships between environmental factors and deflections need to be established to know when the pavement will be at its weakest.2 below. K. It is not significant if the surface has severely cracked. Safety of the public during any testing on the road is of paramount importance. Preference in the choice of equipment will depend on speed of test. Description of this equipment and its usage is covered in para. The latest version can be modified such that it measures the complete dellectionn bowl. Comprehensive understanding of the elements involved in the detailed pavement assessment is critical. The principle used by this device is to iueasure the maximum relative pavement surface deflection under a moving wheel load. maintenance. 3. laser sensors and penetrometers such as die Dynamic Cone Penetrometer. The portability of the equipment is also an added advantage. Page 30 should be conducted at the time of the year when the pavement is at its weakest due to seasonal environmental condition. expensive and not easily maintained.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Direct measurements using an aluninium beam and dial gauge are made (Figure 3. Test vehicle sometimes may be disallowed from stopping on the road. Proper temperature correction relationships for different types of surfacing should also be established. This is the original NDT deflection device and was developed in the United States. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 3. Currently JKR uses four types of NDT equipment to evaluate structural condition of pavement. NDT equipment is available in many forms. safety. Another factor that could be important is the authority's requirements and emphasis for specific aspects of testing. Temperature susceptibility of bituminous mixes varies with mix types and conditions.

Therefore in principle.000-00 to RM70.000-00 to RM50. The rate of penetration is inversely proportional to the strength of the material. Where traffic is light the deflection beam can also be used to assess in-situ pavement strength. Dynamic Cone penetrometer (DCP) Before a DCP test is carried out coring of the Cawangan Jalan. In full operation. A loaded lorry is needed which add to another RM50.000-00. 1 skilled staff and 3 unskilled staff are required. suitable for road pavements with unbound granular bases. The frequency of the force function remains constant with depth. This is the main reason for JKR preference for other deflection devices. it can be accepted as an NDT since the damage caused by coring is minimal. Temperature. Maximum deflection is measured on the nearside wheeltrack. asphalt layer is required. The cost of a fully operational equipment costs ranges between RM50. A steady state harmonic vibration is applied to the road pavement by a dynamic force generator through a circular loading plate.00O-00 for a complete and operational equipment cost. rut depth measurement and visual inspection is also carried out simultaneously. However. The DCP can be used to establish : i) the strength of the granular pavement layers ii) pavement layer thickness The DCP is a penetrometer. The deflection values at those intervals can then be plotted along the test chainages to check the deflection profile.3).L Page 31 . A static pre-load is applied to the pavement to provide a reaction during the vibratory phase. The relationship between the rate of penetration and CBR enables the strength of granular pavement to be determined.00000 to RM3. Maintenance cost is low. 20 to 50 metre intervals can be chosen. the test could be considered as destructive.3). Road Rater The Road Rater is a vibratory NDT device (Plate 3.000-00. A coring machine and a light truck are needed if testing is done on existing asphalt pavement. The transient deflections are measured during the steady-state loading phase. Minimum of 2 more unskilled staff is needed to control traffic. namely the 'rebound' and the 'transient' method. The cost of a Benkelman Beam ranges from RM10. The use of Benkelman Beam is recommended in places where expensive equipment cannot be justified such as small rehabilitation projects. This deflection value is then compared to a prerecorded deflection history of similar pavements in similar environments. Maintenance cost is low depending mostly on the lorry efficiency. Deflection tests should be carried out at regular intervals. Simple stastistical calculations can be used to find a representative deflection over a selected section. The deflection is then corrected to a standard temperature of 40°C. Cost of testing per point is estimated between RM50-00 to RM150-00. A steel rod with a 60° cone is driven through the unbound pavement layers by using a steel hammer applied at constant force (Figure 3. The transient method is recommended.000-00 to RM10O.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Some fatal accidents involving the beam operators have occurred when using the Benkelman Beam on such roads in Malaysia. In a typical 8 hours day work on asphalt pavement more then 10 points can be carried out. A complete set of DCP costs between RM1. it may not be suitable for testing on a busy road. There are two ways io measuring the ntaximturt dellection using the Benkelman Beam. The residual life of the pavement can then be predicted and the required surfacing overlay thickness can also be determined. K. Only the cone needs frequent replacement. However.000-00.

L not require an external reference point for the measurement of deflection that is needed for FWD or Benkelman beam (Figure 3.2 Schematics Of A Typical Benkelman Beam Figure 3. The Road Rater produces a steady state harmonic loading and a static preload. It induces a stiffened response of the pavement subgrade Page 32 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. An analogue computer is used to convert the output of the velocity transducers into deflections using a measuring technique normally referred as inertial system. Figure 3. 600 and 900 millimetres. and at offset distances of 300.3 Schematics Of The Dynamic Cine Penetrometer Four velocity transducers are placed at the centre of the circular loading plate.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.4). K. This measuring system does Cawangan Jalan.

The mass velocity generates an output signal that is integrated to obtain a deflection. One geophone is normally placed at the centre of the loading plate. Falling Weight Deflectometer The FWD uses an impulse loading system. The relationship to convert the Road Rater deflection values is : FWD = 0. The Road Rater deflections and the FWD deflection are highly correlated. Similar to the FWD it must stop when taking measurements. A geophone has an internal mass that moves relative to the casing. The transient pavement response is recorded electronically. Therefore adequate traffic control must be provided during testing for maximum safety. The force is applied by a mass falling on a circular plate that is connected to a baseplate by a set of rubber springs. Previous direct use of the Road Rater has shown correct results where the deficient aspects of the pavement has been accurately identified and repaired.3. Allowance for this can be made with engineering judgement and field experience in using the device. Changing the spring constant (a linear spring constant is assumed) The force amplitude is measured by a load cell placed at the baseplated sandwiched between two steel plates.87 Road Rater At the time of writing. Changing the mass ii). A transient force is delivered to the pavement surfaces.0246 + 6. K. Changing the drop height iii).L . Moreover it is cheaper and faster than most FWDs and has the advantage of low operation cost. The other offset geophones can be adjusted according to one's own preferences or the manufactur Page 33 Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The transient deflection is measured by geophones.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Plate 3. The Road Rater system and can possibly overestimate its true strength. the Road Rater is not widely manufactured and has become less popular as compared to the FWD. There are three ways of changing the force amplitude : i). For this reason and for the purpose of standardising procedures it is recommended to convert the Road Rater deflection into an equivalent FWD deflection which is then used for the evaluation analysis.

combined with other related parameters can be used in structural analysis to determine such informations as the bearing capacity of a pavement. Other researchers have carried out field tests to verify the approach.5). This model is called the Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) (Plate 3. up to and including the effect of very heavy aircraft loads.L porating suitable allowance factors. Plate 3. Heavy Weight Deflectometer The principle behind this model is similar to that of the FWD except that it has been specifically designed to fully meet the needs of both highway and airfield pavement deflection testing. six sets of the DCP and 3 units of the Page 34 .4. The Institute is currently undertaking pavement research and evaluation prgjects. this fact must not be confused with the final requirement of the testing that the device must indicate accurate condition of the existing material. thus covering the half-axle load imposed by a moderately heavy truck upwards through the single wheel load of a loaded BOEING 747 aircraft. The estimated modulus values may indicate the current condition of the pavement materials.240 kN. Research Centre. There are 2 sets of Benkelman Beams. HWD generalised data. It is not necessary that accurate simulation of actual vehicle provide accurate indication of materials condition. The Falling Weight Deflectometer er specifications (Fir ure 3. extensive work by SHELL laboratories have presented a more convincing approach in the analysis which was supported by extensive laboratory testings. The results from the FWD are used to estimate the pavement layer moduli.5). K. Availability of equipment in Malaysia. Public Works Institute Malaysia (IKRAM). Ibu Pejabat JKR. Various approaches using the FWD deflection readings have been developed to design bituminous overlays. The equipment described above is available at the Pavement Unit. However.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. However. The pavement deflection induced by the FWD is typical of that produced by a single heavy vehicle which passed through a point on the pavement surface. 3 units of Road Raters. The result shows that reasonable estimates of the fatigue life of asphalt can be obtained from the SHELL fatigue curves incor Cawangan Jalan. None of these has been verified in the field or supported with sufficient laboratory test for confident use in the Malaysian environment. Bituminous overlay can be design from these estimated parameters. The HWD spans a loading range of 30 .

Schematics of the Road Rater light weight Falling Weight Deflectometer. A heavy duty version of the FWD is also available for further research and the evaluation of airport pavements. However. Page 35 .L range between RM30-00 to RM80-00 per test point and is capable of covering an estimated 250 points daily in a normal 8 hours working day. Plate 3.5. Road Rater testing costs between RM30-00 to RM5000 per point for an estimated 300 points per day work. Heavy Weight Deflectometer Figure 3.4. A Benkelman Beam test costs ranges between RMIO-00 to RM40-00 per test point.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The FWD testing costs normally Cawangan Jalan. Comparatively the FWD is the more costly to operate and maintain. it is gaining popularity world-wide with the growing interest in using the mechanistic engineering approach of pavement analysis.

Empirical structural assessment using the Standard deflection refers to FWD central deflection at the verge-side (near-side) wheelpath under 700 kPa pressure on a 150 mm radius plate at 40°C pavement temperature. These areas can easily be identified from the surface condition survey. The steps to be adopted for this approach are : Page 36 . Cawangan Jalan. FWD. K.3 Choices of NDT analysis technique An interim evaluation method using the Falling Weight Deflectometer or Road Rater and the DCP is given below. It is anticipated that changes to this methodology will be necessary in due course when comprehensive field test results are available. The curves depict real field situation of current material and construc tion standard of asphaltic concrete overlays throughout the country. The reduction in deflection before and after overlay indicate the improvement of strength if asphaltic concrete or similar overlay is used. The mechanistic or empirical approaches will bo improved by further research. Road Rater or Benkelman Beam maximum deflection readings. High deflections indi cate weak pavements whilst low deflections indicate strong pavements. Terminal condition is defined as crack type 2.L Deflection-life relationship can be developed from field experiments and historical measurements. The required strengtening overlay for the expected design traffic can be derive from the relationship as shown in Figure 3.6. Pavements with similar deflection levels and application of repetitive axle loading will reach terminal condition at the same time. Long term monitoring of pavement overlays in JKR roads has successfully resulted in the development of a deflection based performance prediction.3. Terminal conditions can be chosen that balance both users' and engineers' requirement. Ibu Pejabat JKR. It can also follow exactly the basic concept of overlaying.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. The observations and measurements of all failure manifestations take into account all the failure modes by default. Pavement with cracking more serious than this is deemed unsuitable for resurfacing. Deflections obtained from Benkelman Beam and the Road Rater requires conversion of their maximum deflection to standard deflection. that it is only applicable for non fractured or seriously deformed road conditions. The temperature is taken at 40 mm depth below the riding surface. Several design curves have been developed by IKRAM. 3. Standard deflection had been used as a basis of pavement performance prediction.

Deflection measurements should not be restricted to specific testing intervals. Historical observations ascertain all failure modes are included for better and more realistic prediction of performance. The reading must be reduced to the standard deflection values. Traffic would not influence the earlier selected sections. The survey was done at the right time depicted by the level of rutting and cracking. Step 2. The standard deflection data is plotted against the chainage. Traffic loading estimations have been explained in Chapter 4. Summary.L . The frequency and interval of tests may depend on the preliminary sections. Sectioning The road can be divided into representative sections with respect to the deflection levels and checked with the preliminary sections. K. Traffic survey records dates to more than 10 years back and is sufficient to estimate accurate past traffic loading. Preliminary sections were selected from the above results. Ministry of Works. Traffic is similar throughout the length of the road since there are no major intersections in between. Mean deflections from adjacent sections must not be significantly similar at 95% confidence level or else they have to be merge to make up a longer section. More tests may be needed at highly variable areas. The results of cracking and rutting survey was plotted as shown in Figures 3. The representative deflecPage 37 Step 1. This requires a review of past traffic data collected by the Highway Planning Unit (HPU). Deflection survey was carried out at 50 and 100 metres intervals depending on the condition of the pavements. Step 3. The maximum and minimum values in the group should not differ from the mean by one-third of the mean.7. The accuracy of the results largely dependent on the accuracy of the historical data. It is expected that an application of a suitable thickness of bituminous overlay is a reasonable solution provided pre-treatment is carried out in areas which have localised failure. Confidence level at 85% is normally used to select representative mean deflection values within a selected section. The pavement is suitable for application of bituminous overlay if it nearly reaches its end of life. Benkelman Beam or the Road Rater. The last rehabilitation exercise was carried out five years ago. the deflection measurements and the estimates of traffic loading. This procedure may reveal all possible weak and highly variable areas. Estimate residual pavement life Estimate the pavement residual life from the deflection life curve. Surface condition survey was carried out during an initial visit to the site. Other methods of treatment should be selected if the pavement has significantly past its life (Chapter 5 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. The simple approach of this method had made it practical and simple for use by engineers. Simple checks on the variability of the deflections should be made by comparing groups of ten consecutive values. Examples The road between Muar to Tangkak with a connection to the North South Expressway is to be upgraded. Deflection survey Deflection measurement is first carried out in the field using the FWD. Estimates of the load equivalency factor can be made using procedures described in Chapter 4. Inspection and statistical analysis of the deflection data normally result in a revision of the preliminary sections. Cracking is more prominant than rutting. Step 4. Traffic estimates Past traffic information provides estimates of the number of axle loadings that have traversed the pavement since the last major rehabilitation exercise. structural adequacy of the pavement respective to terminal failure conditions. The residual lives define Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.

the layer moduli satisfying this condition is taken as the estimated moduli of the layer. The moduli values can be translated to CBR using a relationship given by : CBR = E/10 . Poisson ratios. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Easier and clearer interpretation can be made if there are available relationship between modulus of asphalt against traffic damage.3. This calculation also requires traffic loading information that provides an estimate of the number of repeated axle loading. The predicted deflection bowl is compared to the actual deflection bowl measured by the FWD. When they are equal or within a predetermined identical range. The material with the lowest residual life is normally assumed to represent the residual life of the pavement.. (after SHELL International) Where. its approach must be correct for local environ Page 38 .. These modulus values can be used to estimate the condition of the materials in the pavement. Transform the layers to equivalent homogeneous structures using the Method of Equivalent Thickness (MET) Calculate a set of sound.. then the moduli values can be accepted. The tensile stress below the surfacing and the compressive stress on the subgrade are the two critical stresses normally consider. tion is estimated over a section by statistical calculation. An interim condition criterion is given in Table 3. If the differences in deflections are less than + 5 %. such as the moduli of each layer.. the interpretation with respect to the other shortcomings of the mechanistic model desribed earlier. Mechanistic structural assessment using the Falling Weight Deflectometer or the Road Rater The deflection readings at the various offsets when plotted. normally termed as the deflection more than 10. These programs need proper evaluation and verification for correct use and interpretation. The required overlay thickness can be design for each section from this deflection value. This response from the loading system is the basis of a theoretical approach that leads to the estimation of pavement layer moduli and residual life described earlier in Chapter 2. Research work by IKRAM is currently studying this aspect of Cawangan Jalan. Compare computed and measured deflections.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. otherwise repeat iteration from step 4 onwards. The calculated stresses in the analysis are compared to their respective allowable stresses pre-determined in the laboratory to estimate their residual life. In summary. base (E2) and sub-base (E3) and the sub-grade. the steps involved in determining the moduli are as follows : i) Input parameters are measured deflec tions. The materials characteristics.8. layer thicknesses are first estimated.000 MN/mm-. produced a bowl shape diagram shown in Figures 3. For the Federal Route Network it may be assumed that asphalt modulus greater than 3500 MN/mm. A deflection bowl is predicted using the multi-layer elastic theory. The stresses and strains in the pavement layers can also be calculated. CBR = California Bearing Ratio E = Modulus of material The modulus of asphalt surfacing may vary from as low as 500 MN/mm. It is important to bear in mind that the programmes demand full understanding of its input and output procedure.. Currently there are more than 10 available packages. K. The ratio of moduli of different layers in the pavement (modular ratio) may also be used to interpret its condition.L ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Many computer programs are available in dealing with the above computation. layer thicknesses and loading characteristics and geophone arrange ments Estimate the moduli of surfacing (El). Most importantly.

The output modulus values was found to be reasonable and practical for pavements in Malaysia. This program was design complete with moduli estimation. Further development and verification of the program are in progress. Reduction in deflection after overlay Figure 3. specific focus is given on the development of a cornputer package called SERF (System for Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Pavements) using local performance models. Ibu Pejabat JKR. At IKRAM. This package has two main modules on evaluation and rehabilitation. K.7. moisture. loading and actual field conditions are covered.L Page 39 . These models are derived from research at IKRAM and are verified against established computer packages. Figure 3. The evaluation module is currently in use while the rehabilitation module is being designed to incorporate the expert system. residual life prediction and overlay design.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Cawangan Jalan. Distribution of cracking and rutting ment and its limitations are clearly outlined. JKR is currently using the PHOENIX program that was purchased with the FWD and is fully documented.6. Areas related to local temperature.

5 .70 0.2.20 0.10 0. deviations occur under high temperature conditions Page 40 Cawangan Jalan.5 . However.23 0.5 1. Deflection bowl and material characterisation Pavement Layer Subgrade Strength Indication CBR < 5% (50MN/m2) 5 .0 Modular ratio (E2/Esg) < 1.85 0.5 1.0 Modular value (MN/m2) < 1500 1500 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. However. Ibu Pejabat JKR.23 0.0 > 2.10 % > 10 % (100 MN/m2) Modular ratio (E3/Esg) < 1.2500 2500 .32 0.L . There are lack of fatigue studies of Malaysian pavement materials that closely simulate field behaviour.8.2.3500 > 3500 Rating Poor Satisfactory Sound Poor Satisfactory Sound Poor Satisfactory Sound Very poor Poor Satisfactory Sound Estomated Structural Coeffecient 0. K. A reasonable and practical overlay thickness can be obtained by this method.0 > 2. it is still not certain whether the overlays can achieve the design life when age hardening effect govern the performance.95 Sub-base Gramular Base Bituminous Surfacing Table 3.3. Figure 3. Material condition interpretation The PHOENIX program produces estimated modulus values of each pavement layer and suggests an overlay thickness. There are several precautionary measures to be taken when using the multi-layer elastic theory to estimate pavement residual life.30 0.60 0.32 0.25 0. This theory can be used to estimate the dynamic behaviour of relatively stiff pavement. This is a subject of further research at IKRAM on the application of the multi-layer model.30 0.


Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. indicating its strength. Detailed methods of operating the DCP are given in a Guideline being prepared by IKRAM. The penetration resistance is measured in millimetres per blow (DCP number). The DCP number is often correlated to other established strength parameters commonly used in pavement engineering. Such parameters are the CBR values, structural number and unconfined compressive strength. It is necessary to calibrate the parameters to the DCP number for local condition. DCP Number relationship with in-situ CBR had been established for use in Malaysia. The following relationship was developed for quick estimate of the CBR at each layer :CBR = 269/DCP This estimate is limited for subgrade strength between 5 to 100 % CBR (6, 7, 8). Research in developing specific a DCP evaluation methodology for local use is still in progress. In this guide, the approach using the structural number to evaluate structural strength is considered. The procedures outlined below make use of the current Arahan Teknik (Jalan) on pavement design which uses a similar technique. The steps are : Step l. The road stretch is first divided into uniform sections determined by the visual survey results from the initial assessment. The test locations and intervals should be representative of the sections. Step 2. DCP tests are carried out on the near-side wheel track. The frequency of tests depends on the length of sections and the uniformity of the pavement. A typical DCP test result and DCP plot is shown in Figure 3.9 and 3.10. A summary plot of the results will show the variability of the pavement thickness and estimated strength. Similar simple variability check procedure can be used as described earlier in para. 3.3.3.

where it is difficult to establish an effective modulus for biturninous materials and for pavements that derive a large part of their structural stiffness from granular materials (2). Non-linear behaviour of pavement material is an added problem (3). The limitation of using multi-layer theory must be rnade clear and the engineer must not rely exclusively on results from the analysis alone. Reasonable results are achievable if four major areas listed below are covered and supported with adequate laboratory or field testings : i) Laboratory fatigue testing on various type of materials ii) Major evidence of failure indicated by traditional fatigue failure iii) Temperature effect on modulus values can be adjusted according to local con ditions iv) Field verification of fatigue perform ance. The first three areas are covered in the SHELL method. Accelerated field fatigue testing has been carried out elsewhere. The results suggest a factor of 10 or 20 is used when using the SHELL fatigue curves for estimating residual pavement life (4). However, there is evidence that age hardening may dominate actual field behaviour in hot climate (5). If these modes of failure are dominant the isotropicity and homogeneity of bituminous materials will slowly cease to exist thus distorting the multi-layer model. Cracked pavements also alter the above conditions. Application of the multi-layer theory to estimate residual life under this condition may deviate frorn the original assumptions and must be treated with caution. These problems are now under study at IKRAM. At present, the PHOENIX program is considered applicable but it should be supported by adequate engineering judgement. Structural assessment using the DCP The DCP is portable and lightweight and can be operated easily. It is a penetration test equipment that directly measures the ability of the material to resists penetration thus indirectly
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Structural Coefficient 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.4 Laboratory test need to be carried out on the asphalt layer. A 100 mm size core is normally extracted at the verge-side wheel-path. The asphalt core can be tested to estimate its existing structural coefficient. Resilient modulus test, if available, is recommended to estimate structural coefficients. The condition of the core sample can also be used to estimate the layer coefficient. This coefficient can be used to calculate the structural number of the pavement (Table 3.4 . If the above method is used, it is best to include an estimate or a measure of the void content in the mix. High void content may reduce the Step 4. Estimate the existing layer thicknesses and the respective CBR values. The procedures given in the IKRAM DCP guideline, includes methods of determining the layer thicknesses and CBR values. A uniform section consists of significantly similar layer thicknesses. If the layer thicknesses are significantly different, the sectioning may be adjusted. Pavement layer thicknesses are normally critical in selecting the remedial measures.

Condition 1. Sound, stable, uncracked. Little deformation in the wheel path. 2. Crack type 1 and < 5mm rutting. 3. Crack type 2 - 3, 5 -10 mm rutting 4. Crack type 4 or greater, > 10 mm rutting.

Table 3.4. Estimated values of structural coefficients for various conditions of asphalt

CBR Sub-base > 30 % 20 - 30 % < 20 % Road-base > 100 % 80 - 100 % < 80 %

Estimated of structural coefficients

0.3 0.2 0.1 0.32 0.30 0.25

Table 3.5. Estimates of strictural coefficients, based on DPC in-situ CBR values.

ROUTE NUMBER : 1 SECTION NUMBER : 238 DIRECTION : UP No. No Blows 0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Step 3.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

DATE : 1/1/1993 METREAGE : 50 CORE THICKNESS : 120 mm No. No Blows 10 10 10 20 10 5 5 10 10 (sum) Blow 90 100 110 130 140 145 150 160 170 Pen. Pen ( mm ) 180 190 200 220 250 280 320 350 380 No. No Blows 10 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 (sum) Blow 180 185 187 189 190 191 192 193 194 Pen. Pen ( mm ) 420 443 486 525 590 643 695 748 800

(sum) Blow 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Pen. Pen ( mm ) 0 20 50 90 90 105 120 140 160

Figure 3.9. DPC test results Page 42


Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.

Figure 3.10. Typical plot of the DPC results Step 5. Estimate the base and sub-base structural coefficient based on the in-situ CBR values from the DCP test. Their in-situ CBR obtained is indicative of the structural coefficient of the base and sub-base layers. Available estimates are based on overseas research. Verification of the values suiting localmaterial is in progress. The estimate can be made using Table 3.5. Step 6. Calculate the existing pavement structural number. The structural number of the existing pavement can be found by using structural number equation as follows : SN = h I x C I + h2 x C2 + h3 x C3 Where hl, h2 and 10 are the thicknesses of the asphalt, base and sub-base respectively. Cl, C2, and C3 are their respective structural layer coefficient. Step 7. Calculate the desired design traffic level. The design traffic loadings for the required design period should follow the examples given in Chapter 4. Step 8. Estimate the design subgrade CBR that is expected to represent the worst condition the pavement will experience within the design period. The CBR values from the DCP tests can be used as a basis of selection. Step 9. Estimate the required structural number and overlay thickness using the design chart in Arahan Teknik (Jalan) on pavement design. The required structural number should be higher than the existing pavement structural number. The difference is converted to asphalt layer thickness taking" structural coefficient of asphalt as 1.0. The accuracy of this approach relies very much on the accuracy of the structural number concept and estimation of the structural coefficient of each material. Field testing of the material has an advantage of determining actual condition of each layer. A low CBR values indicates a weak layer. This evidence provide valuable clues in determining the deficiency and failure causes of the pavement. 3.3.4 Test interval, variability and accuracy level for structural assessment The frequency and accuracy level needed for this assessment is primarily based on the results from the initial assessment. Poorly deteriorated pavements may require closer intervals of data collection compared to a sparsely deteriorated
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Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Figure 3. Sampling interval of 10 to 100 metres are normally selected. Surface texture It is important for the engineer to know that skid resistance is critical not only for low speed driving but also for high speed driving.K. This value simulates the wet tyre resistance of a vehicle travelling at 50 kph.11 Micro and macro-texture Cawangan Jalan.L .7 Studies in U.5 Surface evaluation General Pavements without structural deficiency or do not need crack sealing require only surface evaluation. The final selection of sampling frequency depends also on the uniformity of failure conditions. standard deviation. Figure 3. Extravagant tests frequencies could result in wasted expensive deflection or other NDT testings. K. The selected testing interval will determine the sample sizes that should be sufficient to produce at unbiased estimate of the population mean of parameters under study. The road surface can be assessed by testing two attributes of the surfacing that relates to slipperiness : i) The wet skidding resistance ii) The surface texture The micro-textures of the surfacing contribute largely for skidding resistance at low speed. Both the micro and macro texture are relevant for high speed skid resistance. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The other device that is available to meet this need is the Griptester (Plate 3. it has limitations in accuracy of testing at difficult road geometries (9). The choice of assessment approach must be made with due regards to these problems. The accuracy of the structural assessment depends on the engineers experience in handling and interpreting available data. Each length of road under study may have unique problems. but the role of rnacro texture is critical under wet conditions.11 shows the micro and macro-texture. Less samples need be taken from a more uniformly failed pavement. the skid resistance of a road surface can be assessed by using the Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester (PSRT) developed by TRRL (8) (Plate 3. Slipperiness of the surface is the guiding criteria for road surface evaluation.6 . If this is not achieved a phe Page 44 pavement. Simple variability checks described earlier allows variation of test frequency. To date. Useful basic statistical calculation such as mean.3. Surface texture of the surfacing plays a more important role for high speed driving under wet conditions.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. variance and range improve interpretation of each parameter along the road under study. The engineers need to employ suitable statistical technique to analyse the data and make useful interpretation of the information. The tester yields Skid resistance values (SRV) standardised at 35°C for local inservice pavement condition. have shown that the Griptester could produce accurate results if used correctly. The variable standards of previous construction method could pose further difficulties. However. Each preliminary section requires a uniform interval of testing. A variation in sampling interval allows more data collection at uncertain areas with dominant failure manifestations. Adequate surface texture is needed to provide channels for the bulk water trapped between the road surface and tyre to drain quickly to reinstate contact between the tyre and road surface. 3.

The Friction Tester is an example of such equipment that can measure skid resistance under such conditions (Plate Figure 3. Bituminous material is known to be sensitive to temperature and other environmental factors.9). rainfall and humidity.11 Micro and macro-texture Skid resistance 3. The texture measurements define indirectly the probability of the removal of bulk water trapped between the tyres for safe high speed driving under wet condition. There is at present no mandatory minimum surface texture requirement for new or in-service road surfacings in Malaysia. drainage and shoulder. 3. There are circumstance where the water film thickness under the Malaysian condition can reach a level where even the best surface texture will still be flooded with water. Ibu Pejabat JKR.6 Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester nomenon called aquaplaning is highly likely to occur and will cause skidding. The sand patch is cheaper. A review of the subject is being undertaken by IKRAM whereby an interim specification will be prepared. rainfall. K. for old pavement. rainfall intensity. Surface texture can be measured conventionally using the Sand Patch method (Plate 3. Seasonal variation plays a major part in the estimation and prediction of performance. In Malaysia. Direct skidding test simulating this condition at high speed may be required. humidity The main environmental elements perculiar to each country that can affect pavement performance are temperature. Heavy rainfall would normally lead to this phenomenon. IKRAM will be equiped with this equipment in the near future which can measure the Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.6 Other key factors to consider during pavement evaluation Moisture variation.8 or the more advanced TRRL Minitexture meter (Plate 2. new road pavement would normally have these features.3. easily available and simple to use.10). seasonal variation Pavement cross section should be design to eliminate water from entering the component pavement layers at any time. temperature.L slipperiness of both highways and airport runways (10). Most laboratory standards of testing for this material are at 25°C depicting moderate service Page 45 . However. this seldom happens and consideration of moisture variation in the pavement layers during the evaluation period should be noted. Environmental effects. Investigation measurements have to be corrected for seasonal variations. Plate 3.

K.L Page 46 .8 Sand Patch Test Plate 3. Plate 3.9 TRRL Minitexture Meter Cawangan Jalan.7 The Griptester Plate 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

Hardening by oxidation plays a more critical role in the ageing process. The materials are sampled for laboratory testing. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Within the country itself there are differences in rainfall intensity. This scope of works falls under the category of detail material investigation that usually arise from premature pavement failures or very serious failures. Detailed requirements of material standard should also follow this specification. UV radiation is thought to accelerate the rate of Cawangan Jalan. Accelerated deterioration of the surfacing in these areas can be expected with the presence of more water.L bitumen hardening at the surface.10 The Friction Tester temperature conditions. Little is known of the effect of humidity on pavement performance. The rate of change of deterioration is also expected to be faster especially those related to cracking.7 Detailed Material Investigation General Direct material assessment is only necessary if the non-destructive approaches fail to provide sufficient information that confidently guides treatment selection. However it is predicted that the effect of heavy rainfall and temperature are more to performance rather than humidity. at this juncture the combined effect of environment in relation to ageing is the best and most practical to consider. The JKR Standard Specifications for pavement material govern the suitability criteria of existing material. Hilly areas and the eastern region of the country are known to have high rainfall especially in the monsoon. The average yearly rainfall in Malaysia is 2000 millimetres. Research is still in progress to understand and quantify its role. This should have been 35°C or 40°C that realistically depicts local conditions. Insitu tests that could indicate actual material condition on site can also be carried out. Ultra Violet (UV) radiation is an additional factor contributing to pavement deterioration. Plate 3. However there is insufficient recorded experience in field performance prediction above 35°C. Due recognition of this must be made. However. higher than any other country known to have full research in pavement performance. covering the Malaysian range of pavement service temperature. Research findings by TRRL have shown that there is a significant increase in the rate of pavement deterioration during the summer period. Surfacing The strength and weakness of bituminous surPage 47 . The usual approach to this is to dig a test pit in the pavement at selected locations determined from results of the initial assessment. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.3. 3. With this difficulty in hand the use of the simplified approach must be carefully reviewed with experience in the field.

The viscosity and the penetration value of the bitumen can provide sufficient information on the condition of existing asphalt. apart from other requirements given in the standard specifications. Ibu Pejabat JKR. In-situ density test can be carried out to measure the field density of the road base layer. Adequate samples should be taken for laboratory CBR test to check the material properties. Bitumen penetration grade 80/100 is normally specified for use in JKR road pavements. The specifications and requirements for strength have been described fully in the standard specifications. thickness is important. Compliance to the requirements laid down in the Standard Specifications is sufficient to judge the suitability of the material. In-situ tests such as density determination. DCP tests provide a simpler and cheaper alternative to estimate the in-situ bearing capacity of the road-base. The primary functions of the bitumen are : i) ii) iii) iv) Binding agent Waterproofing Stable Durability and oxidation resistance The condition of the existing mix may indicate deficiency of some of the above requirements. It should also have adequate polishing resistance. Unbound crushed stone. It must be strong and sufficiently thick. Apart from bitumen. In-situ CBR Of the sub-base can provide an accurate indication of its existing strength. Granite and limestone has been the major type of aggregates used for road construction in Malaysia.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. the aggregates used in the surfacing mix should be sufficiently strong to withstand traffic loading and construction operations. Road base The primary function of the road base is for Cawangan Jalan. In summary. There has been no experimental evidence stating the better types for use as a roadbase. The bitumen used in the mix is the main controlling factor that determine the properties of the mix. DCP tests can also be used to estimate the bearing capacity of the sub base layer. the key information related to the surfacing that may be required during evaluation are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Type and composition of mix Thicknesses of each layer Properties and percentage of bitumen Temperature adjustment conditions Fatigue or deformation relationship with repeated loading vi) Hardening characteristics of the mix vii) Aggregate grading. Laboratory tests can be carried out to investigate the condition of the bitumen in the existing mix. Sub-hase facing are its behaviour sensitivity with temperature. K. CBR and the DCP Page 48 . Subgrade The subgrade material that mainly consists of compacted soil is best studied using conventional soil testing procedures. Laboratory tests could indicate its properties and suitability as a sub-base material. properties and pol ishing resistance The condition of the existing pavement and the choice of evaluation techniques govern the necessity of the above information. drybound macadam and wet-bound macadam have been the major types of granular road base materials used in Malaysia. investigation of the density and aggregate grading of the material may be sufficient to check the quality of the roadbase material used. The thickness of the road-base layer is the most important information that must be known in pavernent evaluation.L As a secondary load-spreading layer. During the evaluation. It is mandatory if a mechanistic analysis is used. Requirements of the Standard Specifications should be met. spreading the traffic load.

Kuala Lumpur 1990. The DCP can be used to measure the penetration resistance of the subgrade. Laboratory compaction test. Bulk samples can be taken for laboratory tests. Crowthorne 1986.W LISTER. SHAFII M. Rutting and cracking intensities are best used as a guiding criteria. Illinois 1982. The Deterioration of Bituminous Binders. HASNUR I. Phil Thesis.. In-situ CBR is slow an expensive. Mechanistic interpretation of nondestructive pavement testing deflections. The field density can be compared to the maximum density achieved in the laboratory. neering judgement is required before digging a trial pit which is normally not recommended. Selection of appropriate remedial action should consider the condition of the existing soils. Deflection mesurements and road strengthening. G. Summary Detailed material investigation is only necessary when NDT has failed to provide answers to remedy the ailing pavement. moisture content. YEO. Vol. Overseas Unit Information Note. 2. 32. This will be explained further in Chapter 5. 5. soil classification and CBR provide a clearer indication of the soil compliance to requirements in the Standard Specification. 16th ARRB Conference. 1.WJAMESON. Page 49 test may not be sufficient to asses the quality of the soil. 7. M. N. SHABRI S. Soil density measurement by the sand replacement method is normally used. K. Localised reconstruction area could be identified from experience and historical evidence. M. Samples for moisture determination can be taken at various depths below the formation level to check for the existence of any moisture gradient. Laboratory measurements Undisturbed samples can be taken to the laboratory for density tests or the CBR tests. Illinois Cooperative Highway and Transportation. OVERSEAS UNIT. 1990. Quick in-situ CBR for Road engineering from Insitu-CBR/DCP relationship developed in Malaysia.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. VERTESY..J. Poorly compacted soil can be found by this method. Transportation Engineering Series No. K. ZAIN A. (Overseas Unit TRRL) 4. Sufficient engiCawangan Jalan. N. FAUZI A. In-situ measurements hi-situ density of the soil indicates the field condition of the compacted soil. Australia 1992. M. (Part 2). The testing procedure and the quality requirements are stated in the JKR Standard Specifications. University of Birmingham. 3.L . Proceedin. Full reconstruction normally requires justification to proof that existing soil is unacceptable and needs replacement. Department of Transport. The CBR values can be estimated using established DCP in-situ/CBR relationship. Proceeding 6th REAAA Conference. Proceeding. DCP/CBR Relationship for soft soils in Malaysia. Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. Proceeding of the 3rd Int. London. Determination of the Atterberg's limit will further reveal the true properties of the existing soil. These properties will indicate the current condition of the soil.G.SHARP. Singapore 1992.4 REFERENCES 1.S HOFFMAN. 7th REAAA Conference. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 6. 3. R. The transient and long term performance of pavements in relation to temperature. 1972. The fatigue perform ance of asphalt and cement treated crushed rock under accelerated loading. SABRI M..R THOMPSON. Disturbed sample should undergo compaction and the CBR test for better representation of the soil condition.

L Page 50 . A standard axle has been defined as having an axle load of 8 160 kg (8. SAAB Friction Tester. MSc. Workshop Manual.W. London 1969 (H. (gross weight) will not cause any significant damage to the road pavement. University of Birmingham 1991 (unpublished).1 GENERAL The assessment of pavement performance and maintenance needs requires the use of traffic information. Ministry of Transport. Origin destination surveys can be used to estimate the amount of generated and diverted traffic. Normal traffic can be counted by traffic survey. WITCZAK M. Road Note 27. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 1993. 10.O). DAVID CRONEY. Shell Bitumen U. 3. Apart from normal traffic using die road. S-61181 Nykoping. it is necessary to achieve an accurate prediction of future pavement service life and performance. HMSO. The Design and Performance of Road Pavements. The extent of the final rehabilitation measures recommended depends on the expected usage of the improvement. 1975. Origindestination surveys coupled with axle load surveys are the best methods that can be used to predict the traffic volume and type and also the axle load spectrum within the study area. Although it is expensive and time consuming to perform this task.J. Department of Transport..S. The repetition of this standard axle is used as the quantitative measure of damaging effect to the road pavement. Thesis. It is most desirable to have both current and historical traffic data. London 1977. Instructions for using the portable skid resistance tester. 9. BITUMEN HANDBOOK.16 Tonne). Research elsewhere has found that light vehicles weighing less than 1500 kg Cawangan Jalan.K. The number of axle loads depends on the commercial vehicle activities and types of goods transported along the road. YODER E. Heavier vehicles normally fitted with large axles will cause the damage. Principles of Pavement Design. 2. Pavement behaviour and performance are dependent on repeated axle loadings that can be derived from traffic and axle load information.2 TRAFFIC CATEGORIES It is highly likely that due to change in land use and other factors. The weight of an individual axle is called an axle load. This manual covers structural and surface evaluation aspects. Prediction of the accumulated standard axle load requires high degree of accuracy. CHAPTER 4 : TRAFFIC LOADING ASSESSMENT 4.1990. It should be carried out if resources are available. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. The changes in traffic movements will determine the future life of the pavement. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Road Research Laboratory. 4. K. ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY.M. THE SIIEL1. therefore the main focus will be given to heavy vehicle traffic. the traffic using the road will change once the pavement is upgraded. SABRI M.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. SAAB Car Division. there will also be generated and diverted traffic. Accurate traffic assessment is needed to study and forecast the impact resulting from the road improvement. The magnitude and number of individual wheel load passes both cause deterioration to the road pavement. 8. Skid Resistance and Surface Texture of Wearing Courses. It was shown that the pavement life is dependent substantially on the amount of heavy axle load passes. Department of Environment. Effects of traffic volume and loading to the pavement service life have been established since the AASHO road test.

2. traffic counts can be car 4.2. it includes the amount of possible deviated traffic. 4. road transportation activities. For specific surveys. It will only be significant if the reduction in transport cost is high. specific surveys need to be carried out. 4. In certain cases. it is necessary to carry out origindestination surveys that could provide data on the traffic diversions likely to take place. In Malaysia.1 Specific survey methods To reduce errors in estimating traffic and axle loading.4 Special traffic In Malaysia. 4. However. However. generated traffic on the existing Federal road networks can be ignored.3. K.2 Generated traffic Road improvement will increase the efficiency in transportation and would result in additional traffic. A representative daily traffic volume or loading can be calculated from this method of sampling. are improved. 4. the origin-destination survey can be ignored. This is. in view of the higher quality of service provided by road. If this is too difficult or costly. This survey should be carried out for projects with large sums of money allocated for improvements. Rail services have the capacity to carry heavy loads and possibly reduced pavement important consideration in the design. For immediate and effective traffic information for pavement evaluation. In many cases. a 16-hour count or weighing can be carried out coupled with at least a full 24-hour count or weighing so that adjustments can be made to gross up the 16hour values. Ibu Pejabat JKR. only small allowance can be made. If the development can be forecast or known earlier. it is recommended that for specific surveys.1 Normal traffic This category of traffic will pass along existing road even if no improvement is carried out. there will be traffic diverted from another route (or mode of transport) preferring to use the improved facility. However. a specific direction of travel has a very large difference in damaging effect compared to the other direction. Most traffic survey would not only measure normal traffic.3 TRAFFIC AND AXLE LOAD SURVEYS The Highway Planning Unit (HPU) carries out two traffic counts yearly at designated road links throughout the whole country in the months of April and October. Rehabilitation design must consider this phenomenon especially if the probable damaging effect is very significant.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. These specific surveys may include origindestination surveys and axle weighing. otherwise they will remain using the same route or mode. Heavy materials or goods in transit have significantly increased the damaging effect to the pavement. The 24-hour count is preferred since heavy vehicles are more active after dusk. changing modes of transport as a result of road improvement is negligible since the choice of other modes of transport is limited. it is best to include some of this future effects in the design.2. there has been cases where new economic development has introduced extra Cawangan Jalan. Assumptions can be made that all vehicles will divert to the improved facility if time or money can be saved. consecutive seven-day counts or weighing during normal period be carried out. More accurate results can be obtained if this procedure is repeated several times during the analysis year. especially railways. if generated or deviated traffic is predicted to be small. 4. This category of traffic is difficult to forecast accurately.3 Diverted traffic When the pavement condition has improved. axle loading and origin-destination information are not included. Results of the counts can be obtained in the following year. The existing traffic count by the Highway Planning Unit (HPU) consists primarily of this category of traffic.L Page 51 . It can be significant if other main transportation modes. In this case.

2 4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.4 11.9 13.5 2.0 2.0 26. Vans & Medium Heavy Buses M'cycles Heavy Trucks Utilities Lorries Lorries Vehicles Section No.0 2.5 22.3 DISTRICT KELUANG 0042 (JR305) 12100 1024 (1800 .8 8.5 DISTRICT MUAR F42R (JR61 I) 6016 452 OF-41 (JR601) 10596 881 S26R (JR609) 5055 410 DISTRICT SEGAMAT 0038 (JR801) 6444 0052 (JR802) 5614 0039 (JR803) 6583 OS22 (JR804) 4444 488 442 556 416 (1400 (1700 (1400 (1900 .2000) 40.1900) 42.3 15.8 5.3 14.5 14.9 18.1500) .1 26.1 13.2 12.0 17.3 21.8 6.0 12.5 16.1 35.0 12.7 14.6 F54R (JR306) 26695 2111 (1700 .9 15.3 4.4 15. Plate 4.5 3.1 29.5 7.1900) 51.9 11.2 11.2 0043 (JR304) 1164 7878 (1700-1800) 43.2 10.1 Axle load weighing 16 HOUR TRAFFIC COMPOSITION BY VEHICLE TYPE OCTOBER 1990 Percentage Vehicle Compositions (Period) Cars & S.9 4.0800) 45.8 3.1600) 39.4 Table 4.6 25.0 24.0 34.2 3.6 3.3 12.0 26.4 12.5 10.0 1.2 9.3 S28R (JR107) 18121 1703 (1300 .0 10.8 12.3 20.1 17.4 30.3 (1800 .8 7.1500) . Ibu Pejabat JKR.1400) 38.5 21.8 17.7 8.8 9.3 (1700 .8 8.7 23.1 3.6 9.7 42.3 43.4 OS29 (JR105) 11510 1381 (0700 .7 12. K.4 (1500 .0 12.0 18.L Page 52 .1 2.3 12.1 6.0 6.7 2.6 1.9 21.8 15.8 6.4 44.1800) 44.4 19.1 Typical HPU Traffic Sutiey results Cawangan Jalan.1800) 18.1 16.5 10. (Old) (New) 16-IIr Peak Hr Trailic Traffic DISTRICT BATU PAHAT OS29 (JR105) 9630 845 (1700 .3 40.8 21.1800) 50.1800) .

4.1) 4. the growth rate of normal traffic can be estimated.16 is the standard axle load in Tonnes The axle equivalency exponent of 4. estimates of the damaging effect can be chosen from past studies of similar survey. It is sufficient to use this value to assess the damaging effect. Both types of equipment normally measure the wheel load of each axle.4 Sensitivity and Accuracy The errors in traffic estimation for pavement evaluation will come from areas described below. Weigh-inmotion techniques could Page 53 . CESA = YESA x {( 1 + r )" .55 ried out manually using hand-held traffic counters. Ibu Pejabat JKR. If this is not available.4.3.1 Base data The base data for forecasting future traffic can be taken from the specific traffic and axle load survey results.L Where : N = Axle load (in Tonnes) EF = Equivalent factor of the damaging effect 4. If axle load surveys are not possible. To reduce these errors some guidelines are provided: i).16)4. future traffic can be accumulated over the design period using the standard compounding formula. The estimates can also be made using procedures given in Arahan Teknik (Jalan) on pavement design. ii) Axle weighing and estimation The accuracy in weighing will depend on the type of equipment used. The axle load will be twice the wheel load. traffic information from the HPU can be used (Table 4. This value was recommended for use in Malaysia based on overseas experience (2).1 is used. The weigh-pad must be made level with the surrounding test area otherwise a small tilt of the vehicle could introduce large errors.4.5 can be used as an interim value. Static weighing is more accurate but slow and only small samples can be obtained.1 Weigh-in-motion technique is also available and this could be a better choice since full sampling of heavy vehicles can be made. Refering to past historical traffic data. 4. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. 4.55 is the load equivalency exponent 8. Traffic counts If the method of counting as described in para 4. equivalence single axle load factor for each axle weighed is calculated using the relationship : EF = (N/8.4.1 }/r Where CESA = Cumulative equivalent stan dard axles YESA = Equivalent standard axle of base year r = Growth rate n = Design life 4.4 FORECASTING FUTURE TRAFFIC 4. The counting operation can be divided into a few groups to count specific vehicle types in both directions of travel. The Cawangan Jalan. A specific survey is better than relying on periodic count.2 Methods of Predicting growth and Compounding The year of survey is normally taken as the base year. Portable axle weighing devices can be used to weigh the axle loads of heavy vehicles Plate 4. Estimating Damaging Effect (Load equivalent factor) The axle load survey data is used to estimate the damaging effect of heavy vehicles. The baseline traffic can be calculated after making allowances for possible generated and diverted components. From the baseline traffic. then error in obtaining representative daily traffic volume can be minimized especially if it is repeated a few times.3.

Thus. othenvise. can sometimes be adopted. Ibu Pejabat JKR. traffic flow or damaging effect due to heavy vehicles travelling in one direction can be very different to that of the opposite direction. As a broad estimate an assumption can be made that the growth rate is similar or twice the growth in Gross National Product (GNP). There are cases when upgrading are needed for specific activities such as the construction of huge projects that requires transportation of heavy materials at using identified routes within specific or non-specific periods of time. Some economic knowledge of the country is thus helpful. Seasonal variation Traffic flow and transportation of goods in Malaysia in general have very small seasonal effect. 6. Conversion to damaging effect The equivalency formula given in para 4. Special allowances Cawangan Jalan. need to be made for these cases. etc. Care must be taken not to cam. Small allowances can be made to adjust these effects. The mean equivalent factor for each vehicle class can then be determined by dividing the total equivalent factor by the total number of vehicle in that class. Staged rehabilitation may be more appropriate in such cases where the risk can be reduced. quarries. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. 7.3 is subject to changes when more local research results are available. out any stirvev at this time. The growth rate of heavy vehicles is dependent on economic activities and transportation of goods especially for semi-agricultural country like Malaysia. are heavily loaded when they leaves these areas but are mostly empty when coming in.5. in certain regions of the country seasonal variation due to the rice harvest may be significant. Directional difference On certain roads. Estimating growth Estimating the growth rate of heavy vehicles can be the most difficult part and could change the overall estimate drastically. v). Using the results from the heavily loaded lane only. Lorries using roads connecting logging areas. EXAMPLES Problem 1 In the year 1989. Due consideration must be made if it is too excessive and becomes uneconomical. a road stretch from Muar town to Tangkak leading to the North-South Expressway was to be upgraded. A typical case is shown in Problem 2 of the following examples.L Malaysia being a multiracial nation has many festive seasons the dates of which change yearly. the result will not be representative. The majority of the national agricultural and industrial products are available throughout the year. Information on the quantity of materials to be transported and the type of vehicles to transport the materials will enable estimates of the increase in damaging effect to be made. Each axle weight should be converted individually using the relationship and totalled for a specific class of vehicles. iv).. This is the best available estimate of damaging effect being used by many countries. 4. In most evaluation cases. Abnormal cases be faster and produced more samples but it may not be accurate. it requires skillful calibration.4. Advice and discussions with economists are invaluable. The Expressway terminated at the Tangkak interPage 54 . steel factories. docks. Any weigh ing method can be used provided the above considerations with respect to accuracy are carefully noted. iii). However. error with respect to this can be considered insignificant and ignored.

513.2 can be used.F. Page 55 . southbound.337 x 12.05 = 429. K.717 standard axles. Solution 1: A specific 24 hour classified axle load survey was carried out where all the heavy vehicles were weighed.86 2.3.L (sum) Equivalent Factor 7.16 1.717 x 12.4. If the diversions were not considered the fol Cawangan Jalan. the calculations shown below are for each year. Northbound. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Heavy Vehicle Group A B C D Table 4.5 msa. The above table shows that the vehicle loading is critical in producing the difference in damaging effect.5778 = 1..2 change and vehicles travelling southbound would exit there.4 million standard axles (msa) Northbound : CESA = 120.38 1000 270 200 (sum) Vehicle 225 350 125 450 Mean E.28 2.F.586 = 1.11 0. This method of calculation is also suitable for estimating past traffic when each yearly damaging effect will be known more accurately.4. A similar trend of loading and damaging effect is assumed in the 10 years' design period.33 Axle load survey results for direction 1.86 0.5778 = 5.35 Axle load survey results for direction 2.25 (sum) Vehicle 112 135 80 75 Mean E. to sho. In this case commercial vehicles travelling southbound were more heavily loaded. was projected to be completed in late 1992 where 50 per cent of southbound heavy vehicles using the road was expected to divert to that part of the NorthSouth Expressway. Seven consecutive 24-hours count was carried out and the summary of heavy vehicles are shown in Table 4. Estimate the damaging effect for rehabilitation design for ten years for each direction taking the diversion into consideration and compare the average loading if the diversion was ignored. The next portion of the Expressway. Southbound.32 116.1}/0. It is highly likely that these vehicles contained raw products that are normally heavier than processed products. the yearly damaging effect of the southbound direction was 429.05)'° . To calculate the cumulative loading for that period.934 = 5. lowing traffic will be estimated :Southbound : CESA = 429.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. 1. The expected increase in northbound heavy vehicle traffic was 20 % due to increase activity towards the highway. the relationship in para.717 x { (1 + .3 (sum) Equivalent Factor 124. Heavy Vehicle Group A B C D Table 4. 4.404. The results obtained were as shown in Table 4.10 40 26. The expected growth rate is 5 per cent throughout the design period.50 0. However. 3. In 1989.N the effect of diversion.2 and 4. 257 °" higher than the northbound traffic.

477 End of analysis period North-south Expressway (Completed) Base year YEAR 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 TOTAL COMMENTS Average cumulative yearly standard axles (CESA) = 2. Southbond COMMERCIAL VEHICLE Southbond 429.300 193.28 VEHICLE (SA/CV) CUMULATIVE YEAR166410 LY S.33 22816 North bound 41 51 64 59 57 42 5 46 0.219 1. E HEAVY VEHICLES GROUP A GROUP B South Bound 212 255 189 156 178 119 120 176 2.018 235.444 333. Traffic Count Results For direction 1.35 5877 Directions Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 South Bound 125 186 172 144 131 122 91 North bound 112 156 190 124 123 132 77 131 1.L Page 56 .516 203.220 287. K.69 msa Table 4.351 224. Distribution Of Yearly Damaging Effect Cawangan Jalan.11 53075 AVERAGE 139 VEHICLES STANDARD AXLE PER COMMERCIAL 3.982 3.354 132.717 Total yearly Northbond cumulative standard axles = 120.5.86 183726 North bound 202 215 172 144 128 111 122 156 0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.50 12410 GROUP D South Bound 45 56 62 52 55 49 12 47 1.798 Northbond 120.328 317.827.86 48968 GROUP C South Bound 95 72 88 86 67 66 30 72 2.548.552 184.305 175. Ibu Pejabat JKR.16 56765 North bound 76 82 98 66 67 56 43 68 0.671 139.191 213.4.762 497.451 261.202 473.717 451. AXLE Total yearly Southbond cumulative standard axles = 429.162 274.337 Table 4.931 302.316 349.337 126.

This additional commercial activity will increase the damaging effect to the existing pavement. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Solution 2 : Without specific traffic or axle load survey results From the HPU traffic survey results in 1988. K.0 Survey Date Total Daily Commercial Vehicles 442 Damaging Effect 1326 April Table 4. For the purpose of estimating the damaging effect of this additional commercial Cawangan Jalan.3. The estimated maximum gross weight per vehicle that will be used is 45 tonne.45 msa The average design accumulated loading is nearly 30% higher if the diversion is ignored. the average values should be used.23 and remains similar for lower or higher gross load.20:0. The specification and dimension of the vehicle are available.000/(37) = 24.L The gross weight of each vehicle was found to be 45 tonnes with maximum axle loads of more than 10 tonnes. ii. several assumptions were made.990 standard axles. Gross weight of each vehicle = 45 tonnes pay load = 37 tonnes Maximum axle load will be 10.23:0. iv.14:0.8 were obtained from a recent count in April. The damaging effect will depend on the configuration of the vehicles and the load that they will carry.23:0. If similar count is available in October.000 tonnes of goods yearly. percentage Commercial Vehicles 23 % Estimated equivalent Factor (Table 3. Estimate the increase in damaging effect on the pavement. The distribution ratio of axle loading on the five wheel arrangement is 0.23 on the five axles. 4.23:0.35 tonnes.14:0.20:0.4. as listed below :i.20:0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. The vehicle type is a five axle trailer. Only trucks with minimum of five axles will be used and trucks returning are ennpty resulting in negligible damaging effect. The damaging criteria considered was based on phenomenological theory of cumulative axle load damage only using equation given in para.20:0.20:0.000 tonnes.23 on the five axles and remains similar for lower or higher gross loads. from one end to the other. iii. The distribution ratio of axle loading on the five wheel arrangement is 0.14:0.324 The vehicle type is a five axle trailer that will have an estimated axle load distribution ratio of 0. Therefore number of vehicle trips per year = 900. Summary Of Traffic Counts Results Obtained From HPU Average CESA = 3. Solution : A road is to be upgraded to transport 900. It is Page 57 . This will be the base year traffic. Amount of goods to be transported yearly is 900. the traffic results as shown in Table 4.2) 3.6.20:0. Accumulation procedure can be done similarly as shown in the previous solution Problem 2: Abnormal traffic activity. The yearly damaging effect = 1326 x 365 = 483. The distribution of load in the trailer is uni form and distributed within the trailer length with no overhang. the loading that may be used.

The selection procedure depends heavily on engineering judgement but other factors such as costs. AASHO 2.227 msa. This is not favourable and due consideration must be made if the abhormal traffic is to utilise such roads. Transport and Road Research Laboratory (1978) Guide to the measurement of axle Cawangan Jalan. However for an existing pavement with low traffic loading and weaker pavement. The normal traffic using the route is already high.C. the sources of pavement problems. TRRL Road Note No 40. construction feasibility.1. and requirement of service life. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. D.943 or 0. Kuala Lumpur 1983. Report 5: Pavement Research. Highway Research Board.33 times standard axle weight of 8. the additional number of axle loading that will be experienced by the pavement is 0.L In the previous chapters. Other factors controlling the rate of damage will depend on the current structural condition of the pavement and distribution of the goods in the trailer. otherwise this figure may change significantly.. In this chapter. At this point.33. the results of the evaluation carried out on the pavement are used to establish the most appropriate method of rehabilitation. K. The existing condition of the pavement could be evaluated by proper pavement evaluation if deemed necessary (Chapter 3). effects on the gradeline and the road user should be considered as well.16 tons or the nunnber of equivalent standard axles per lorry is 9. an increase in the axle loading with the above magnitude will accelerate the rate of deterioration. YOJIRO MIYAOKA. Existing pavements which have high traffic loading inay not experience significant increase in axle loading or the damaging effect resulting from the values calculated above. a number of alternative methods of rehabilitation should be selected. construction constraints. 3. Cawangan Jalan Ibu Pejabat JKR. Port Kelang.6 REFERENCES 1. loads in developing countries using a portable weighbridge.33 = 226. These are tested against the feasibility of design. This additional loading will increase the rate of deterioration to the pavement. London. Stage 2: Identifying Prohahle Alternaties Based on the results of pavement evaluation.1 SELECTION PROCEDURE assumed that the distribution of goods in the lorry is uniform and distributed over the full length of the trailer. Axle load survey at Jalan Vantooren. The general process of selecting an appropriate treatment is as shown in Figure 5. For each year.324 x 9. The AASHO Road Test Report. Selangor. Stage l: Identifying Prohlein As a first step. therefore the percentage increase would be small. Washington. 1962 (National Academy of Science.Special Report 61E. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Publication No. 4. the damaging effect that this lorry would provide is 9. The accumulate yearly standard axle is therefore : 24. the mode of failure of the existing pavement needs to be identified. constraints on the projects such as the design life of the rehabilitated section should be identified.227 million standard axles (msa). For gross weight of 45 tonnes . ZAIN ARIFFIN. their failure modes and performance forecasting have been described. 954.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Stage 3: Selecting the Preferred Solution Those alternatives which pass these criteria are Page 58 . CHAPTER 5 : METHODS OF REHABILITATION 5. National Research Council).

Ibu Pejabat JKR. The Spectrum Of Pavement Rehabilitation Alternatives further analysed by considering their life-cycle costs and other non-monetary constraints. The engineer should not rule out using different techniques on one project. Each alternative technique is evaluated first on the merit of its design and construction feasibility. K. Finally. General process For Selecting Appropriate Rehabilitation Alternatives Figure 5. Stage 1 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS * Conduct pavement evaluation * Identify constraints Stage 1 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM ALTERNATIVES * Select possible rehabilitation treatmrnts * Chock design and constuction constraints Stage 1 * * * * * SELECTION OF PREFERRED SOLUTION Cost analysis Other constuctions Select preferred solution Detailed design Construction Figure 5.1. Care must be taken where roads Page 59 . Consideration should be given to the problems of construction during monsoon periods.L bilitation for the whole project.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.2. It may be more cost effective to do this than select a common method of reha Cawangan Jalan. for instance. the preferred rehabilitation alternative is selected for detailed design.

For traffic and safety purposes. decreases the rate of increase of roughness. As a general guide. the vertical clearance underneath a bridge should be maintained and this will limit the allowable overlay thickness. it repairs the existing distress. the restoration rehabilitation option is warranted. 5. particularly when distress such as cracking and polishing of the aggregate become apparent.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Although other factors are involved. K. At this stage.2 where they are related to the life of the road. Restoration As the pavement condition deteriorates further. theperformance and cost-effectiveness of each type of rehabilitation technique will depends primarily on the existing pavement condition. This can be done by carrying out a pavement evaluation excercise to determine the structural integrity of the pavement. Structural improvement would then become a costeffective option. restoration works may not be cost-effective. the different pavement rehabilitation options can be summarised as shown in Figure 5. It is necessary to design the overlay thickness in order to achieve the desired design life.ural) iii) Reconstruction The choice of any specific rehabilitation technique depends on the condition of the existing pavement. rehabilitation techniques will change from one project to another or within one single project. It is therefore important to determine when a pavement requires structural improvements as opposed to restorative work. In the first phase of the pavement's life. Some techniques that maintain the serviceability of the pavement include : The surface recycling and cut and patch alternatives should be considered especially when the deterioration of the pavement is more advanced but has not reached the stage where a structural overlay is necessary. routine maintenance should be considered as it may be more cost-effective than carrying out major maintenance later in the life of the pavement. its condition is good and its rate of deterioration is normally low. When the pavement has suffered severe and extensive structural damage. Page 60 Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 REHABILITATIION OPTIONS The rehabilitation of flexible pavements encompasses a broad range of activities which could be grouped into three categories namely: i) Restoration ii) Resurfacing (strucl. Other factors to consider include traffic control requirements. Successful restoration work achieves one or more of the following. It involves the placement of fresh material on the existing surfacing which improves riding quality and provides additional structural strength. disturbance to the public. and slows down the subsequent pavement deterioration by arresting the mechanism causing the distress. For this reason. Resurfacing is currently the most popular method of rehabilitating distressed pavements in Malaysia. the need for staged construction. The conditions which apply for one project may be different from another. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) rejuvenating the aged surface using chemicals scaling the cracks blinding polished and flushed surfaces with hot aggregates applying thin bituminous overlays cutting affected areas and patching with new bituminous mixes recycling the affected surface pass under bridges.L . which eventually manifests itself in the form of cracking in the wheel path (crocodile cracking). and the availability of plants and materials. Resurfacing (Structural) As the cumulative traffic load increases the fatigue life of the surfacing is exceeded. For example crack sealing will preN ent water from entering the pavement thus preventing failure in the lower layers.

5. the road base can be recycled along with asphalt surfacing either by adding additional aggregate or cement to stabilise the new road base material.L of the existing pavement condition. The construction of recycled stabilised road bases requires specialised machinery. However. the pavement structure will have to be examined by carrying out an evaluation Cawangan Jalan.3 RESTORATION Restoration is designed to restore the surface to a suitable condition for placement of an additional stage of construction or otherwise to perform satisfactorily for a substantial period of time. This can be done using non-destructive methods or by digging trial pits to carry out a more direct examination of the conditions of the lower pavement layers. Partial reconstruction is carried out when only the road base or the subbase layers have deteriorated. Full reconstruction is needed when the existing subgrade has deteriorated and become unstable. Figure 5. In order to determine the extent of reconstruction required. Page 61 . Depending on the layers needing repair. crack sealing and surface recycling. cold milling. When the failure of the road base is very extensive. Reconstruction of the pavement layers will be necessary when any of the layers has deteriorated beyond economical repair. Standard plant are not not suitable for this type of construction. K. These techniques include rejuvenation. reconstruction can be categorised into full or partial reconstruction. Reconstruction A pavement that is allowed to deteriorate further will eventually reach a state where the deterioration is so advanced that even a thick overlay would be less cost effective than the reconstruction option. This will result in a depression on the road surface.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. digging trial pits should be avoided as much as possible because the reinstatement works usually do not bring back the pavement to existing conditions. Ibu Pejabat JKR. but pre-treatment is sometimes necessary before resurfacing is actually carried out. Replacement Of Loss Chemical Constituents By Rejuvenation The most commonly used resurfacing materials are: i) thick asphalt overlays ii) granular overlays Resurfacing cm be applied to all types of distressed surfacing.3. patching.

As such. The top few millimeters of the surfacing suffer the most severe hardening. fine sand or fine aggregates may be added to fill up larger cracks.1) Since the chemicals used tend to-leave a layer of residual oils on the road surface. should be compared to the increased life of pavement to establish its cost effectiveness. There is no special equipment needed for this work. Conditions of use : AgeHardening had been described earlier as a major cootributary factor to deterioration of bituminous surfacings. Rejuvenating chemicals are useful when used with other methods such as the surface recycling. Small or fine cracks (< 3mm wide) may be filled with crack fillers. stripping. Figure 5. Howevcr the correct choice of rejuvenating agent depends on careful study on the bitumen condition in the existing surface as it will dictate the type and amount of rejuvenating chemicals to be used.1 Rejuvenating Description: Hardened or aged bituminous surfacing can be restored by spraying a laver of bitumen or polymer modified bitumen to improve its existing condition. The cost of rejuvenating agents Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. where the chemicals are used to replenish the lost chemical constituents in the asphalt.2 Crack Sealing The restoration option is suitable for pavements with good structural integrity of standard deflection lower than l). polishing. For thick asphalt.00 to RM 4. 5. On a larger size job. ravelling. The major benefit to be gained from proper sealing is that it reduces water infiltration into the cracks. This is dependent on the density of the surfacing. Conditions of use : Crack sealing is normally carried out for environmentally induced block cracks where environment is the major controlling factor of Page 62 . Cost : Currently.00 per square metre depending upon the area to be rejuvenated. Laboratory tests are needed to identify the degree of improvement and thus the most correct use of rejuvenating chemicals. The price range for a rejuvenating job is about RM 2. It is best applied to pavanents with distress limited to the surfacing. Block cracking. in Malaysia there are not many rejuvenating chemicals being marketed.5 mm. Reliability : The performance of the rejuvenating chemicals depends upon how deep the chemicals are drawn down into the bituminous layer. Rejuvenating agents have been introduced as an alternative as they can restore the original properties of the bitumen. a slippery surface and weakening of existing asphalt. cracks. bleeding and aged surfacing are the typical types of failure suitable for restoration techniques.3. cracks may occur from the top where rejuvenating chemicals can be applied. Excess introduction of polymeric constituents may effect the bitumen properties. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3. The effect of rejuvenating agents has not been studied in the Malavsian environment. A dense mix such as the Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course will experience little draw down. precautions should be taken to eliminate the possible introduction of other problems such as bleeding. In addition. Thin surfacings which suffer from this effect will look dry. Currently the available products claimed that the rejuvenating agents could replace the polymeric constituents lost as a result of oxidation and loss of volatiles. K. it may be economical to use a mechanical sprayer (Plate 5. Construction : The application of the rejuvenating chemicals is simple to carry out. slowing down the traffic during the initial period is very important.3 shows the constituents of the bitumen in the bitumen suffering from hardening and the effects of adding lost constituents.L Description: Crack sealing is a cheap restoration alternative which would seal the cracks from ingress of water. 5.

5. Sealant materials available include rubber asphalt. Ibu Pejabat JKR. low modulus silicone and petroleumbase sealants.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.1. Only the top few millimetres are filled. placed and compacted to similar level to adjacent undeteriorated asphalt. The performance of crack sealants will depend on the age of the pavements and traffic loading. Care must be taken to ensure safety of vehicles before opening to traffic. There are several different types of crack sealants. the use of crack seals is limited to those cracks which have not propogated completely through the surfacing.3 Cutting and Patching Description : Cutting and patching is the replacement of deteriorated asphalt surfacing with suitable bituminous mix. These are done using air compressors. extensibility and other properties. Because of this. Excess filler material must be removed since this could reduce the skid resistance of the surface (Plate Cawangan Jalan. If sand is used as additional filler. and each has its own unique properties. Any loose material must be swept away. allowing slow moving traffic can help the embedment of the small particles into the cracks. Only the best available sealant should be used for long lasting performance.L Cost : The cost of sealing cracks depend on the type of sealants used and the size of the job. Fatigue related cracks which are sealed only provide short term benefits. It is also best done where the road is structurally strong. Reliability : Crack sealants will not completely fill the full depth of the cracks. Plate 5. composition and cost. The cost can range from as low as RM 0. Rejuvenating Aged Asphalt Surfacings in progress such failures. K.50 to about RM 3. bonding.50 per square metre. Construction:Before cracks are sealed it is better to remove dirt and loose materials from the cracks. Each of these materials has different durability. There are two types of bituminous patching materials which are commonly used : i) hot-mix asphalt ii) cold mix asphalt These mixtures vary widely in quality.3. Hot or cold bituminous products are generally used. Crack sealing should be carried out as a means of deterring ingress of water into the pavement layers. Bituminous patching mixtures must have suffi Page 63 .

All deteriorated areas should be included with allowance for joints.should stick to host material iii) Resistance to water . dry and free from loose material. These boundaries can be changed during cutting to allow for initially undetected damage.resist wear v) Workability . The 'cut and patch' method is also a means of pre-treating the existing pavements before a resurfacing resist shoving and rutting ii) Cohesiveness . For pavements with rutting caused by the instability of the wearing course mix. Cleaning and drying The surface under the new patch must be clean.easily handled and constructed vi) Storageability . It is designed to remove the existing cracks and thereby eliminate reflection cracks. Straight line markings are prefered.2. Construction : Even though the construction of patching does not require special equipment. The correct construction method is described below. On many ocassions. A vertical unbroken cut will enhance adhesion and promote efficient compaction. cutting out the failed areas and patching it with new bituminous mix should restore the pavement. This type of Cawangan Jalan. See also Figure -5. Plate 5.L failure is mostly found on climbing lanes and at junctions. the construction is not carried out properly causing the patched area to fail early. the cracks have to be removed totally as cracks in the lower layers will eventually cause reflection cracks on the new layer. the 'cut and patch' alternative is also suitable. K. Air blowing followed by vacuum cleaning is recommended for efficient cleaning and drying. proper construction technique is still important. Conditions of use : For pavements with localised surface failures.impermeable iv) Durable .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Cutting The area marked for patching should be neatly cut and removed using a proper asphalt cutting tools. The unstable layer must be removed prior to being replaced with a stiffer mix. Crack Sealing ciently good properties. The required properties are : i) Stability . However.can be stored xvithout deteriorating for immediate works The performance of a bituminous patch depends on quality of the materials and construction techniques. Page 64 . Marking The boundaries identified to be patched should be marked.4. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

Figure 5. Checking the finished product especially the joints should be carried out. Cleaning up and checking joints Cleaning up is essential for a comprehensive patching . By rolling the edges first the filling will pinch into the hole. Filling The material can be placed in several lifts. The roller should rest completely on the patched area and not partly on the old pavement. Hand tamping at edges and corners can also be carried out with a hand rammer. K.job. Cawangan Jalan. Tack coat materials available include : i) cut-back bitumen ii) bitumen emulsion iii) synthetic resin Tack coating should not be applied if cold-mix asphalt is used. Proper Methods For Cutting and Fatching Tack Coating A thin bituminous layer is normally sprayed uniformly on the prepared surface prior to patching hot-mix to promote adhesion between the new layer and the cut surface. The surrounding surface must be kept clean from spilled filling material. unless the patch surface is made of concrete. Shovels should be used and raking is not advisable to reduce segregation. Cold Milling If extensive patching is required or if the proposed patches are too close to each other. Ibu Pejabat JKR. A single lift should not exceed 100 min thick. low pressure hand sprayer can be used. For small jobs.4. The centre of the patch is rolled first. The life of the patch is often dependent on how well the joints are made. This will tighten the adhesion around the edges. then cold milling can be considered as an option. Filling is normally carried out manually. The edge or joints of the patch should be sealed using bituminous material similar to crack sealants described earlier.L Compaction Vibratory rolling is the best method for compacting patched area. whereas a bitumen sprayer is suitable for large areas. The tack coat can soften the coldmix and promote shoving and stripping. A Page 65 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. moving outwards towards the edges with each succeeding passes.

Reliability : The performance of a patched area depends heavily on the type of mix used and the construction standard. Apart from being able to restore the riding quality of the road surface. Patching should then be carried out using an asphalt paver. The cost ranges between RM 8. Cost : The cost of cutting and patching pavements is noNN.Cutting And Patching milling machine is required for this work.3. This will facilitate cohesion between the aggregates and the bitumen. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The potential use of the surface dressings to restore distressed bituminous pavement has not been fully demonstrated in Malaysia. If dusty aggregates are used. Surface Dressings Description : Plate 5. This will improve resistance to ageing making the surfacing more durable. It can also be used as a short term measure to address specific distress condition. It has also been used as a resurfacing technique to treat surface failure on these types of roads. Most commonly used thin asphalt overlays are : i) Surface Dressings ii) Slurry Seals (Thin seal mixtures) iii) Thin Hot Mix Overlays.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.L . At present. It improves the surface riding condition and can extend the service life of a pavement. this alternative would be able to last the life of the untreated sections. it has other advantages. In double surface dressings the larger sized stones are place in the first application with the smaller sized stones in the second application to fill in the voids in the first layer.00 to RM 10. The maximum depth and width depends on the machine type and specifications. this alternative can increase the roughness of the road section. This machine can cut the deteriorated surfacing to the depth and width as required. But if poorly constructed.3. 5. even though it is greatly used in Australia and the United Kingdom.00 per square metre. limited local experience in the use of surface dressings on asphaltic concrete surfaces restricts its application on high volume roads because of the Page 66 Cawangan Jalan. K. The high bitumen content of a surface dressings layer means thicker bitumen film will be coating the aggregates.4 Thin Bituminous Overlays Thin bituminous overlays provide a feasible alternative for low cost pavement surface restoration. If constructed properly. The milled material can be salvage or recycled. Conditions of use : Surface dressing has been commonly used as a wearing course on low volume roads.competitive. The aggregates used have to be cleaned and free from dust. A surface dressing is an application of bitumen followed with an aggregate cover in a single or multiple application. then pre-coating them first is more suitable.

The design guideline from the Transport Research Laboratory Overseas Road Note 3 specifies the rate of spray of the binder and the aggregates as important to the performance of the surface dressings. Reliability : If the surface dressings is constructed on a road that is structurally sound. This improved performance will increase its applicability on high volume roads.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.L requires the binder to be sprayed using a mechanical sprayer and the aggregates to be spread by a specially designed chipping spreader. Traffic control immediately after the surface dressings have been applied. The hardness of the existing asphaltic concrete surface and the flakiness of the aggregates are important considerations too. This period may be reduced if modified binders are used. Construction : The construction of the surface dressings Cawangan Jalan. When using surface dressings on asphaltic concrete surfaces. Cost : The cost of construction of surface dressings on laterite surfaces (usually in the rural areas) is less than half that for Asphaltic Concrete.00 to RM 8. Cold Milling worry that loose stones may pose hazards to the traffic. the cost ranges from RM 3. K. a suitable binder is needed to ensure the stones are not whipped off by traffic. is important. Plate 5. the speed of the traffic have to be low. But to construct it on existing bituminous pavements may cost more since the binders are different and the traffic control is more elaborate. This is due to the loose chippings which still need kneading by the traffic tyres. As such it is proposed that the use of surface dressings on asphaltic concrete surfaces be limited to low volume roads with Average Daily Traffic (ADT) < 5000. These are inexpensive and are easily available locally. Because Page 67 . it will last a long time.00 per square metre. a proper design needs to be carried out. The thicker bitumen film thickness ensures the flexibility of the layer and would reduce age hardening. The hard surface will not allow any penetration of the aggregates for embedment and because of this. The use of modified bitumen. fibres or special aggregate may improve the construction procedure and. At present. Ibu Pejabat JKR. at least 2 hours after application for normal bitumen. enhance the performance of surface dressing. Furthermore. During this period.4. the long construction period may cause traffic distruption.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. The aggregate size. it is not a structural layer. and mixed insitu prior to laying using specialized equipment. 11 and III as specified by the international Slurry Seal Association (ISSA). K.L Page 68 . There are three types of slurry seals.5. the surface dressings wearing course may last longer than a thin asphaltic concrete layer. namely. Type 1. the use of surface dressings as a restoration alternative should be encouraged. Surface Dressing Plate 5. Slarry Seal Cawangan Jalan. water and filler (usually cement) bound with bitumen emulsion. filler and the residual bitumen from the emulsion govern the classifica- of this.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Plate 5. Application of slurry seal is known to retard the hardening process of the top portion of asphaltic concrete surfacing. Slurry Seals Description: Slurry seals are a mixture of aggregates. It has potential for both corrective and preventive maintenance of asphalt surfacings. However.6. In Malaysia where the intense sunlight does create problems with the rate of ageing.

Reliability : Slurry Seals are effective in areas where the primary problem is excessive oxidation and hardening of the existing surface. Ibu Pejabat JKR. This is especially difficult to carry out in built-up areas. This additional binder in the mix will help in preventing ageing of the binder. the slurry seal will crack very quickly and should not be used. RM 4. To ensure stability of the mix. Rain water can wash away the emulsion. It is also desirable to have experienced contractors to do the job. Usaull_v. Slow setting cationic emulsion is normally used. Localized pavement defects such as cracks. Their conditions of use is similar to the surface dressings described above and may be extended to higher class of roads. fibres or special aggregates can improve the properties and performance of slurry seals. Any type of hot asphalt mix or modified mix can be used. Cost : The normal slurry seals costs about RM 2. The thin asphalt layer is mainly to correct surface deficiencies and will not add much structural strength to the road. It is not meant to correct structural failures and severe rutting. stripping. when used in areas where the pavement deflections are high and the surface is suffering from cracks (block and crocodile cracks).00 to Cawangan Jalan. Apart from the normal asphalt concrete. Conditions of use. The high voids are also able to absorb traffic tyre noise which makes it popular in built-up areas. whereas the modified slurry seal costs about RM 4. The long curing tirrnc of about 3 to 4 hours for the normal slurry seal makes it necessary for the provision of proper traffic control.5 mm for Type 11 and 111. Thin hot mixes can be applied at areas subjected to low deflection. the use of modified binders may be ncccssan-. Slurry seal should not be applied on structurally. Conditions of use : The nature of the existing surfacing and the expected traffic level govern the appropriate use of slurry seals. Nominal 4. The introduction of the fibres increases the fines in the mix. They may also be used to improve the friction characteristics of polished surfaces at low traffic levels. The inclusion of modifiers to the emulsion usually shortens the curing time to about 30 minutes. Surfacing that suffer from polishing. bleeding Page 69 tions. Modified emulsion. nits. This mix is designed with high void contents to allow for free draining of surface water. Construction : Constriction of the slurry seals require a special paving equipment. weak areas.00 per square metre. humps. The emulsion specified should be checked for compatibility with the aggregate and the desired setting time.75 mm aggregate size is specified for Type I whilst size 9. therefore application is not advisable when rain is expected. fibrereinforced ultra-thin mix and the porous asphalt mix fall into this category. Conventional slurry seals using slow setting emulsion need a long curing time. The fibrereinforced ultra-thin mix is popularly used in Europe with success.L .00 per square meter depending on the size of the job.00 to RM 8. K. A more powerful and faster mixer is required if the modified emulsions are used. It is not suitable for shape correction or for use at heavily loaded pavements with interconnected cracks or more advanced cracks. The porous asphalt mix is also popular in Europe. However.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Thin Hot Mix Description : Thin hot mix asphalt is an asphalt mix which is normally less than 40 mm thick. low pavement edges must be repaired before applying the slurry seals. sand is used to blind the areas where traffic may be travelling over the wet slurry. thereby allowing more binder to be added. breaking aggregate bondage and destroying the slurry.

For the normal asphaltic concrete thin mix. Reliability : The aggregate gradings and bitumen type and amount used in this mix will affect the performance of the layer. The fibre-reinforced ultra thin mix and the porous asphalt mix are applicable on road surfaces with good structural intensity. Ibu Pejabat JKR. But in the case of the porous asphalt. it is necessary to leave the mix Cawangan Jalan.00 per square metre. Tlie fibre-reinforced ultra thin mix costs about RM 6. In addition. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements.00 to RM 8. the cracks reflect through the new layer as early as within 3 months depending on the deflection and the traffic intensity of the road.00 to RM 18. Apart from that. The present practice of providing a thin overlay (up to 40 mm overlay) without giving due consideration to the structural needs is not a good practice. the porous asphalt mix can drain surface water fast. But for the porous asphalt mix the use of polymer modified binders can increase the cost to about RM 10. Suitable tack coats must be used prior to laying the thin overlays. These mixes are usually used to enhance the surface properties of the pavement. It is therefore very important that cracked surfaces must be treated before overlay. Surface Recycling Page 70 . Because of its thin nature. Strong adhesion with the existing surface is necessary. otherwise delamination and flaking can occur. In Malaysia pavement constructed with porous asphalt have performed very well. If laid on top of the existing asphalt layer without prior treatment to the cracked surface. Figure 5. Cost : The cost of constructing the thin hot mix vary according to the types and mix design.00 per square metre.3. Construction : No special equipment other than that used in the construction of normal hot mixes is necessary. The clogging of this type of mix with time may reduce its ability to drain water. 5.00 per square metre. Its reliability depends on the design of the mix and the type of binder used. Surfacing Recycle Using Hot Milling Method can be overlaid with thin hot mixes. the bitumen film thickness will influence the life of the layer. bigger sized aggregates would be crushed by the steel roller resulting in loose aggregates.L for a couple of hours before opening to traffic.5.00 to RM 8. Traffic can run on the mix as soon as the rolling is completed.5. it cost about RM 5.

Conditions of use : Surface Recycling can be applied for all types Cawangan Jalan. This is the critical portion where surface failures such as ravelling. will cause the condition of the bitumen in the asphalt to deteriorate further. The reshaping and mixing can be done in the Field or at a central plant. it is advisable to add rejuvenating chemicals to the remixed layer apart from the addition of bitumen. K. Cold recycling is the reworking of a pavement surface by pulverising the top layer using a milling machine followed by reshaping and compaction. while the more sophisticed ones can carry out the heating. Page 71 Description: Pavement surface recycling is the reworking of the pavement surface to improve its performance and correct surface failures particularly surface cracking. The operators of the equipment need to be specially trained. then there is a possibility the remaining cracks will reflect upwards through the new layer. It is a growing field in pavement rehabilitation but must be used with care. Surface recycling does not provide a substantial increase in the structural strength of the pavement. This method is only suitable for correcting surface distress.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. which restrict the depth of cut for a single pass. Suitability of its application will depend primarily on the structural conditions of the existing pavement. Available equipment in the market today is only capable of heating and softening the top few centimetres. The benefit from the use of the equipment is subject to field investigations of their actual pavement performance. Another method of recycling the pavement surface is termed as cold recycling. With this limitation. Normally it can be applied only when the pavement is structurally sound and the mode of failure is corned to the top of the surfacing. The structure of the pavement must be intact and capable of accepting an overlay with a standard life expectancy. Care should be taken to ensure that no pedestrians are allowed to come near the heating equipment. It is a known fact that heating of fresh bitumen during manufacture of the asphalt causes age hardening. Recycling the pavement surface using the hot milling method with the heat application being higher than 200 deg C. In this method. Effectiveness of its application is highly dependent on the accuracy of the pavement evaluation . the open flame heating or the radiant heating. polishing and weathering occurs. either in a continuous single pass or in separate operations (Figure 5. The usual depth per pass is approximately 25 mm. Various manufacturers have developed equipment for the above processes. Thus proper traffic control is needed during construction. some of which are used as a heating unit on its own. The top 25 mm is normally recycled. It is a method for treating the surface distresses. of surface failures provided the causes and extent are known. bleeding. remixing and laying in a single pass. and these are not removed. Stabilisers and additional materials can be included.5). If the cracks have gone down through the full depth of the surfacing layer. The size and cost of this equipment depend on the nature of the operations it can carry out. re-laving and addition of fresh mixes in a single pass. Ibu Pejabat JKR. the method would be able to eliminate cracks which are of the top-down nature and have progressed to a depth of 50 mm. Construction : Specialized equipment is necessary for the recycling of the pavement surface. The use of gases to heat the pavement surface and the intense heat generated during the operation may pose a hazardous situation to the road users.L . two types of heating devices are available ie. In using the hot milling method. and re-heating it during hot milling will induce further hardening. The scarified materials are mixed and relaid in a number of ways. The most expensive would be the plant which is capable of carrying out the recycling. the surfacing material is scarified or pulverized by using a hot milling (heater-planer or heater-scarifier) or coldmilling device. To counter this.

K.4 RESURFACING Description : Resurfacing is the placement of fresh material on an existing surfacing to enhance its structural strength.6. namely. Asphalt resufacing is the most popular method of pavement rehabilitation in Malaysia. Reliability : Surface recycling is a rehabilitation alternative suitable for restoring pavement surface distresses only. thick asphalt overlays with or without a prior granular overlay. There are two methods of resurfacing popularly used in Malaysia. Conditions of use : Resurfacing without a prior granular overlay can be applied to rectify many types of pavement failures. Methods Of Reducing Reflection Cracks Using Interlayers Cawangan Jalan. there is a possibility. Cost : The cost of recycling the pavement surface depends on the type of equipment used and the extent of work involved.5 mm. The use of granular overlays reduces the need for pretreatment works.L Page 72 . If used on full-depth cracked pavements and with pavement deflections in excess of 0. Ibu Pejabat JKR. It also improves riding quality.00 per square metre. It is necessary to carry out a proper design to establish the thickness of the surfacing. rutted. It ranges between RM 6. polished. The foriuer involves the construction of a crushed aggregate layer on the existing pavement before laying the asphalt layer. Resurfacing can be applied on surfacings that are cracked.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. pre-treatment works such as patching and reconstruction should be carried out at localised failed areas prior to resurfacing. ble of carrying increased traffic. 5. The thickness of the asphalt resurfacing depends on the strength of the existing pavement and the expected traffic. However. When done properly. of the crack reflecting early.00 to RM 13. this method is appropriate since the addition of new layers strengthens the road pavement making it capa Figure 5.

At 1KRAM studies are being carried out on the use of some of these interlayers. When this happens. These can be in the forms of aggregate interlayers (e.L . The high stresses imposed on the asphalt layer causes it to densify and with the reduction in Page 73 raelled. causing higher crack movements. the cracks from the concrete. causes the cracks to reflect through the new layer as early as within 3 months depending on the deflection of the road section and the traffic level. This results not only in delaying reflective cracking but it also gives a slight increase in the strengnh of the pavement. care should be taken to reduce the possibility of the picking up or stretching the grid by lorry tyres. Previously. In one of the trials constricted by IKRAM. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Proper evaluation of the existing pavement condition is neccessary to determine the extent of pretreatment required. Crushed aggregates have also been used as an interlayer. more expensive techniques such as using interlayers to absorb the stresses and strains of the crack tips can be used. Resurfacing on Rutted Surfaces Resurfacing ou existing pavements with surface nits require special considerations. But with this method. Dense bituminous surfacings nit when it loses its stability properties. These usually occur in areas where there are prolonged loading periods of slow moving or stopped heavy vehicles. Pavements with higher deflection. K. Another method of reducing reflection cracks is by introducing a separating layer (Figure 5. If used in excess. Other types of Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMI) are also available. surface dressings) or modified bitumen with or without chippings. Laboratory experiments are also being carried out on the manufacture of SAMIs using natural rubber blended into bitumen.g. the nonwoven material will become saturated and will lead to bleeding. if the non-woven materials are used. This method has perform positively even with crack movements of l. Resurfacing on Cracked Surfaces Cracks occur frequently on roads in Malaysia. the crushed aggregates were laid on top of segmented concrete pavement where the movements at the joints were substantial. There are basically two types of geosynthetic Cawangan Jalan. There are many types of geosynthetic materials available. It is therefore very important that cracked surfaces must be treated before overlay. The common practice of overlaying the cracked pavements without prior treatment to the cracked surface. However. tend to be the first to crack.joints have vet to come through after a couple of years. the grid and the non-woven geotextiles. asphalt overlays without prior treatment Nvould only last about 2 months.5mm. These cracks should be treated early to stop ingress of water into the road base layer thereby weakening it. and those that are bleeding. and most of them claimed to be effective in mitigating reflection cracks. the construction procedures have to be properly looked into to ensure that the geosynthetic materials are laid in accordance to the manufacturer's specifications. namely at climbing lanes and at intersections. If the bitumen tack coat is too soft the material can slide at the exsiting road/material interface. The rate of progression of the cracks reflecting through the new asphaltic layer depends on the structural strength of the pavements. care should be taken on the amount and type of tack coat used. One common pre-treatment method is to 'cut and patch' before overlay. An example of this stress-absorbing layer is the geosynthetic material. the grids will warp and the resultant displacement of the grids will lead to poor compaction of the asphalt layer. This leads to cracking. The following paragraphs describe some of the aspects that should be considered prior to resurfacing.6) to absorb the stresses from the crack movements. When using the grid. On the other hand. materials available in the market. Alternatively.

After nearly 3 years in service. the HCM Bituminous Surfacing has performed on par to the more expensive polymer modified wearing courses.00 to RM 20. If the existing pavement surface which needs strengthening is suffering from bleeding. 5. Reliabilitv : Structural resurfacing can last the design life if proper pre-treament work is carried out. no pre-treatment is necessary.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. it is advisable to consider the possibility of the excess bitumen migrating into the new layer. other mixes using polymers and additives were also tried. Resurfacing on Ravelling or Weathered Surfaces If the existing surface is experiencing ravelling and loss of aggregates. Cost : A major portion of the cost in carrying out a structural resurfacing job goes to the pretreatment works. This layer must be removed by milling prior to overlaying it with a fresh asphalt layer. Resurfacing on Corrugated Surface If corrugations are the result of unstable surfacing materials. However. polymer modified bitumen can be used in asphaltic concrete on climbing lanes and junctions. the mix becomes unstable. Most of the resurfacing works which show early signs of distress are due to improper pre-treatment works. The condition of thee Page 74 voids in the mix. The use of fabric geosynthetic materials would reduce the total construction cost as the fabrics may add about 30-40% more to the cost. K. The application of hot sand should be considered. it should be replace before resurfacing. called the HCM Bituminous Surfacing. Resurfacing on Bleeding Surface Cawangan Jalan.Karak Highway. The cost of the asphaltic concrete itself is around RM 10. the use of the polymer modified bitumen can increase the cost of the asphalt to double its normal cost. Pavements that have failed Beverly are usually those where deterioration has been allowed to occur without maintenance. Bituminous mixes designed by the Marshall method have been shown to perform poorly in high stress areas. In an effort to find a cheaper solution to the above problem. The mix was tried in a trial at the Bukit Tinggi climbing lanes along the Kuala Lumpur . To counter this. whilst the costs of pre-treatment such as the use of grid geosynthetic materials may push the cost up by between RM 8.00 per square metre.L .00 per square metre. The rate of rutting of these mixes are slower than the normal asphaltic nixes. Ibu Pejabat JKR. In the same trial. IKRAM has introduced a new mix for the surfacing.5 RECONSTRUCTION Description: Reconstruction is the removal and rebuilding of all (including subgrade) or part of the road pavement using fresh material and new construction specifications. If it is due to unstable granular pavement layers then partial reconstruction will be a better solution.

K. Recycling For Base lower granular layers of the pavement is best determined by destructive testing. The process breaks up the existing asphalt layer into small pieces thereby removing existing cracks and at the same time allowing addition of road base thickness. and replaced as a new road base layer. In full reconstruction. The deterioration can be due to a Page 75 . Reconstruction Works Plate 5. Base recycling is suitable where the deterioration of the surfacing has become so extensive that partial reconstruction option will not be economical. In this case the rebuilding does not include the subgrade. Ibu Pejabat JKR.9. In the case where the failure of the road base is extensive and conventional partial reconstruc Cawangan Jalan.L tion method is uneconomical.8. Full reconstruction is needed when the subgrade layer as well as the pavement layers has deteriorated beyond repair. Partial reconstruction is needed when the road base has been contaminated and it has lost its inherent stability. the rebuilding includes the subgrade. Recycling of the road base is a partial reconstruction alternative where the existing surfacing and/or part of the road base is pulverised.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. namely. It therefore can be used to eliminate reflective cracking problems and correct thickness deficiencies. There are two types of reconstruction. Plate 5. it is advisable to carry out recycling. full reconstruction and partial reconstruction.

without shoving. Among the common stabilisers suitable for base recyling are : i) cut-back bitumen ii) cement iii) bitumen emulsion The correct choice of stabilisers will depend on the existing pavement material type. Full Reconstruction Cawangan Jalan. i) Spalling and crocodile cracking with rut depth of less than 15 mm. i) Pavement surface which suffer from crocodile cracks with rut depths of more than 25 mm. ii) Shoving with rut depth less than 15 mm. K. areas: Identifying full reconstruction Full reconstruction may be needed for the following combination of failures. Identifying partial and base reconstruction Partial reconstruction may be needed for the following failures or combination of failures. Ibu Pejabat JKR. experience has shown that the following rule-of-thumb to be reasonably acceptable in identifying localised reconstruction Figure 5. poor road base layer or insufficient base thickness.L Page 76 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. ii) Pavement surface which suffers crack ing with rut depth of more than 15 mm and deep shoving. However.7. Condition or Use : Identifying areas needing reconstruction requires evaluation of the pavement conditions. its condition and compositions. Additional aggregates and stabilisers can be included in the mix to improve its performance.

Page 77 . The time taken for a partial reconstruction is less than that for the full reconstruction. Construction : Reconstruction requires more lane closure time than resurfacing. Cost : Reconstruction is an expensive option and should be considered only if the pavement has suffered beyond economic repair. as over-compacting cement stabilised base may overstress the surface. In fact. It can range between RM 40.00. K.00. it is expensive and should only be carried out where necessary. This task is critical in optimising the probability of success of the rehabilitation job. The pulverised materials should be inspected where all large pavement chunks and organic substances should be removed. removal and rebuilding of existing layers.00 to RM 45. Marking the areas to be reconstructed Marking of the areas to be reconstructed is best done a few days before construction. the DCP can be used to estimate the pavement layer strength and thus identify which materials needs to be removed. The works involved in base recycling are: Pulverisation or ripping Mechanical pulverisors can break up any of the the pavement layer and reduce it to uniform sizes. Marking is best carried out by experienced personnel in identifying serious pavement defects. Full reconstruction is more costly. Compaction Compaction can be carried out using normal vibratory rollers. Addition of stabilisers may_ be introduced at this stage. Confirmatory test using the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) If the site engineer is not certain of the extent of reconstruction required. Temporary marking can be used if contruction is to follow immediately otherwise permanent marking can be carried out. Partial reconstruction can cost between RM 35. it can be designed to any desired performance period. Standard construction method may not be suitCawangan Jalan.00 to RM 50. Construction of Base Recycling The construction ol` recycled stabilised base normally requires specialised machinery. water content and mixing process is critical for efficient stabilisation. Bitumen stabilised road base do not have this problem. since the work includes breaking up the pavement. Particular attention should be given to the provision of adequate drainage when reconstructing roads with high water table. The spread rate. Bituminous stabilisers are mechanically spread and are seldom used for base recycling. However.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Interim Guide To Evaluation And Rehabilitation Of Flexible Road Pavements. Stabiliser distribution iii) Crocodile cracking with block size less than 100 mm with shoving. able and can be expensive. Allowances should be made for the possibility of secondary compaction of the reconstructed areas by opening them to traffic for a period of time before applying the final overlay. Reliability : Reconstruction work done to a high construction standard will have a life surpassing all other rehabilitation options. It is advisable to extend the area needing reconstruction beyond the area over which it occurs. Partial reconstruction can be carried out if it is not necessary to replace the subgrade or the sub-base. The number of roller passes is critical. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Cement stabilisers can be spread by a bulk spreader or manually depending on the job size.

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