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About Above Across After Against Along Alongside Around At Before Behind Below Beneath Beside Besides Between Beyond By Despite Down During Except For From In Inside Into Near Of Off On Onto Opposite Out Outside Past Round
Since Through Throughout To Towards Under Underneath Until Up Upon With Within Without
Prepositions of Place
English Grammar Rules
When the teacher writes on the whiteboard.The chart demonstrates some of the most common prepositions of place in English. It answers the question "Where?" Below we have some more examples of Prepositions of Place: In front of A band plays their music in front of an audience. Across From / Opposite Across from and Opposite mean the same thing. Who is that person behind the mask? I slowly down because there was a police car behind me. It is similar to saying that someone (or a place) is on the other side of something. . the students are behind him (or her). There are mountains between Chile and Argentina. The number 5 is between the number 4 and 6. The teacher stands in front of the students. The man standing in the line in front of me smells bad. It means at the back (part) of something. Behind Behind is the opposite of In front of. There is a sea (The English Channel) between England and France. It usually refers to something being in front of something else BUT there is normally something between them like a street or table. Between Between normally refers to something in the middle of two objects or things (or places). Prepositions of Place are used to show the position or location of one thing with another. Teenagers normally squeeze their zits in front of a mirror.
He put the food on the table. It usually refers to a thing (or person) that is at the side of another thing. It is similar to next to / beside but there is more of a distance between the two things. I can see a spider on the ceiling. We couldn't park the car close to the store. the bride stands next to the groom. Planes normally fly above the clouds. covering or attached to something. (= They are in front of each other and there is a table between them) Next to / Beside Next to and Beside mean the same thing. The both mean "at a higher position than X" but above normally refers to being directly (vertically) above you. The clock on the wall is slow. At a wedding. We were told not to walk on the grass. Near / Close to Near and Close to mean the same thing. Above / Over Above and Over have a similar meaning. He walked beside me as we went down the street. Our house is close to a supermarket. In this part of town there isn't a footpath beside the road so you have to be careful. I live across from a supermarket (= it is on the other side of the road) The chess players sat opposite each other before they began their game. Guards stand next to the entrance of the bank. This building is near a subway station. . On On means that something is in a position that is physically touching. The receptionist is near the front door.
How long can you stay under the water? Miners work below the surface of the Earth.IN . Monsters live under your bed.) We put a sun umbrella over the table so we wouldn't get so hot. There is a halo over my head. Under / Below Under and Below have a similar meaning. There is a ceiling above you. Your legs are under the table. . Over is often used as a Preposition of Movement too. They mean at a lower level. A river flows under a bridge.Prepositions of Time English Grammar Rules AT We use AT with specific times (hour / minutes): I get up at 7 o'clock. Sometimes we use the word underneath instead of under and beneath instead of below.ON . There water all over the floor. Our neighbors in the apartment above us are rally noisy. AT . Over can also mean: physically covering the surface of something and is often used with the word All as inAll over. . There is no difference in meaning those they are less common nowadays. (Something is above it). I accidentally spilled red wine all over the new carpet. Under is often used as a Preposition of Movement too. My English class starts at 10am.
My birthday is in January. (I don't mention the date. Compare: .15 I left the party at midnight. They got married on Friday the 13th. We get paid on the 20th of every month. 12am = midnight 12pm = midday / noon We use AT for a holiday period of two or more days: Do you normally get together with your relatives at Christmas? Did you eat a lot of chocolate at Easter? ON We use ON for specific days and dates: I will return it to you on Wednesday. The river near my house is dry in Summer. seasons. just the month) My grandmother was born in 1927. Remember that for dates. centuries and lengths of time. We need to have this report ready in 15 minutes. the First of September (not the one of September) IN We use IN for specific months. The company was founded in the 19th century. we use ordinal numbers. She finishes work at 6. I drank too much on New Year's eve. E. Midnight (and midday) is a specific hour which is why we use AT.g. years.
The New Zealand National day is in February. (I mention the day . (I don't mention the day .the order is not important) .only the month) The New Zealand National day is on February 6th.
1. In 7. in or the with the following expressions: Today. On 15. They are both correct. At 10. On 27. In 4. X 26. At 13. In 21. tonight. X 3. this morning. X 6. last. On 24. In 22. on. put X. On 17. If a preposition isn’t used. On 11. At 8. tomorrow. At 5. On . In 25. At 19. X 9. X 23. ON the weekend is used in United States. Where did you go on the weekend? (US) Where did you go at the weekend? (British) We don't use Prepositions Remember! We do not use at. next. X 16. 1. In 14.The Weekend Sometimes you will here ATthe weekend and sometimes ON the weekend. X 28. every. At 2. In 12. At/On 30. yesterday. At 29. On B) Circle the correct preposition of time. Work sheet A) Write the preposition of time for the following. In 20. At 18.
at 3. X 4. 8. 5. 10. in 5. Fred’s birthday party is on Saturday night. Hurry up! We have to leave in ten minutes. The flight arrives in half an hour. I have a dentist appointment tomorrow morning. 7.2. Life was a lot more difficult in the 18th century. 4. She loves to go skiing in winter. 9. . My alarm went off at 8 o’clock. I graduated from university in 1999. 6. at C) Write sentences using a preposition of time and the following words: (Possible Answers – Your answers will probably be different) 1. We’re going on vacation next month. at 6. Humans will probably be living on other planets in 2918. 3. 2.
Subject + to be + adverb They are never pleased to see me. I sometimes forget my wife's birthday. Subject + adverb + main verb I always remember to do my homework. She isn't usually bad tempered. I seldom read the newspaper. . I usually have cereal for breakfast.ADVERB We use some adverbs to describe how frequently we do an activity. An adverb of frequency goes after the verb To Be. The Position of the Adverb in a Sentence An adverb of frequency goes before a main verb (except with To Be). These are called adverbs of frequency and include: Frequency Adverb of Frequency Example Sentence 100% 90% 80% 70% 50% 30% 10% 5% 0% always usually normally / generally often* / frequently sometimes occasionally seldom hardly ever / rarely never I always go to bed before 11pm. I hardly ever drink alcohol. I often surf the internet. I normally go to the gym. He normally gets good marks in exams. I occasionally eat junk food. I never swim in the sea. * Some people pronounce the 'T' in often but many others do not.
twice a year . can. We can also use the following expressions when we want to be more specific about the frequency: . sometimes. the adverb is placed between the auxiliary and the main verb. would. I would hardly ever be unkind to someone.every day . I like to eat Thai food. They never say 'thank you'. We use hardly ever and never with positive. might.once a month . not negative verbs: She hardly ever comes to my parties. They might never see each other again. They could occasionally be heard laughing. (The same as 'I have never been Switzerland'). must. normally. etc. rarely. BUT we cannot use the following at the beginning of a sentence: Always. will. We use ever in questions and negative statements: Have you ever been to New Zealand? I haven't ever been to Switzerland. frequently.). We can also use the following adverbs at the start of a sentence: Usually. occasionally Occasionally.four times a day . hardly. ever. Subject + auxiliary + adverb + main verb She can sometimes beat me in a race. could. never. This is also true for to be.every other week . seldom. often.When we use an auxiliary verb (have.
F. AN is used before a word that begins with a vowel. D. When we are explaining things. In English we normally use articles before singular nouns. cities and countries. L. I. T. C. H. X. K.Noun + To Be + Noun English Grammar Rules Nouns are words that name things. J. we use Noun + To Be + Noun: English is a language. countries. R. Q. (Noun + To Be + Noun) A chicken is a bird. O. W. food. Europe is a continent. Some common nouns include those used for animals. (Noun + To Be + Noun) Singular Noun + IS + Singular Noun We use IS between the two singular nouns. V. Z. Note that we normally use an article (A / AN) before a singular noun. E. French is a language. P. languages. A is used before a word that begins with a consonant. Champagne is a drink. Vowels: A. (A before consonant) . Consonants: B. Articles + Nouns 'A' or 'AN' are articles. G. U. Paris is a city. Y. N. S. M. France is a country. (A before consonant) Santiago is a city. For example: Chile is a country.
(AN before vowel) Qantas is an airline. (plural) Countries are states. (AN before vowel) A mosquito is an insect. An apple is a fruit (A before consonant) A dog is an animal. See our grammar notes about making Plural Nouns . (singular) Spanish and Italian are languages. (plural) Cities are places. (singular) Dogs are animals. Singular Plural car house book bird pencil cars houses books birds pencils However: . (plural) Spanish is a language.Regular & Irregular. For example: A dog is an animal. (AN before vowel) Plural Noun + Are + Plural Noun Singular Noun + IS + Singular Noun Plural Noun + ARE + Plural Noun Note that we do not use an article (A / AN) with a plural noun. (plural) Plural Nouns English Grammar Rules In general the plural of a noun is formed by adding -S to the noun.
SH. I have three boxes in my bedroom. we add -ES to the noun. Singular Plural kiss wish match box fox kisses wishes matches boxes foxes I have a box in my bedroom. we remove Y and add -IES to the noun. Singular Plural party lady story nanny city parties ladies stories nannies cities 4. we add -S to the noun. When the noun ends in a CONSONANT + Y. When the noun ends in a VOWEL + Y.1. CH or X. Singular Plural boy holiday key guy boys holidays keys guys 3. If the noun ends in F or FE. we remove the F/FE and add -VES to the noun. When the noun ends in SS. Singular Plural . 2.
There are some nouns in English that are the same in the singular and the plural. If the noun ends in IS. we change it to ES. Singular Plural fish sheep fish sheep . Singular Plural analysis basis crisis analyses bases crises 6. There are a number of nouns that don't follow these rules. They are irregular and you need to learn them individually because they don't normally have an S on the end. Singular Plural man woman child foot tooth goose mouse men women children feet teeth geese mice There is a child in the park.life leaf thief wife lives leaves thieves wives 5. There are many children in the park. 7.
I can see ten sheep in the field.deer moose aircraft deer moose aircraft I can see a sheep in the field. Sometimes you will hear the word fishes (especially in songs) though it is grammatically incorrec .
Parties 5. Dwarves 5. 1. Days 4. Loaves E) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns. Foxes 3. Calves 2. Tables 3. Cities D) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns. Books 2. Babies 2. Quizzes 5. Thieves 6. Watches 2. Buses C) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns. 1.ANSWER OF WORK SHEET PLURAL ) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns. Bodies 3. Dictionaries 6. 1. Cars B) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns. Glasses 4. Elves 4. . Classes 6. 1. Monkeys 4. Hooves 3.
Tomatoes 4. Oxen 9. Mice F) Change each of the singular nouns below into plural nouns 1. Geese 3.1. Moose 7. Boxes 10. Potatoes 2. A goose is to a flock as a dog is to a pack. . People 5. A key is to a door as a password is to a computer. Houses 5. Mosquitoes G) Change the following sentences to singular. Men 4. Deer 8. 4. A girl is to a boy as a woman is to a man. A paw is to a cat as a foot is to a human. Children 3. Heroes 12. Sheep 11. 2. 3. 1. Cherries 6. Feet 6. Teeth 2.
Past and Past Participle form: Verb bet cut hit hurt let put quit read set shut spread Past Simple Past Participle bet cut hit hurt let put quit read set shut spread bet broadcast cut hit hurt let put quit read set shut spread broadcast broadcast part Two The following verbs can be regular or irregular: Verb burn learn smell Past Simple burned OR burnt learned OR learnt smelled OR smelt Past Participle burned OR burnt learned OR learnt smelled OR smelt dream dreamed OR dreamt dreamed OR dreamt .Part Three Verbs that have the same form in Present.
A singular or plural noun when it is clear/obvious which person or thing we are talking about. a child an elephant a television 2. 2. The Definite Article – The We use THE with: 1. There is only one exit from the airport. animal or thing. 3. 3.ARTICLE The Indefinite Article – A / An We use A/AN with: 1. the flute. Singular nouns and the first time we refer to a person. demonstratives or cardinal numbers. Anything which we identify immediately. We use ONE (or more) instead of A/AN when the number is important. There is a lamp in my bedroom. the piccolo). My shirt is dirty. One person is in the reception. the drums. . the guitar. We watched the new Brad Pitt movie last night. This car is expensive. She plays the piano. Musical instruments (the violin. (we mention the lamp for the first time) The lamp is next to the desk. We don't use A/AN with possessive pronouns.
the west the south-east the north-west. 2. mountain ranges and deserts (always in capitals). I have read Romeo and Juliet. states and countries. Names of rivers. seas. When we refer to general ideas. 3. Directions (cardinal points). the sun the moon the internet. Something that is unique or there is only one. Names of people. No Article We use no article with: 1. (NOT The Mexican food is spicy). (NOT The religion is an important issue) Mexican food is spicy. Towns. The Mississippi River The Black Sea The Andes The Sahara Desert 6. Religion is an important issue. books and plays (unless it is part of the title). 5.4. Cape Town Montana Vietnam . oceans. cities. plurals or uncountable nouns we do not use THE.
single islands. continents or mountains.(Exceptions – The USA. Lake Victoria Jamaica Asia Mt Fuji 5. The Czech Republic. The UK. 4. Planets Mars Jupiter Saturn 6. The Netherlands. Lakes. Meals breakfast lunch dinner supper . The Philippines). Sports or games soccer tennis skiing monopoly 7.
For . Uses of For Example sentence They exercise for two hours every day. (Correct) I live here for ten years. They are exercising for three hours today.Since English Grammar Rules The use of FOR We use For when we measure the duration – when we say how long something lasts. How long are you here for? (Until when) How long have you been here for? (Since when) In reality. we don't use For with expressions such as all day or all the time. Past tense He will be in hospital for at least a week. (Incorrect) . For + a period of time To measure a period of time up to the present. we can use all verb tenses with For. I was there all day. (Incorrect) I have lived here for ten years. Verb Tense Present tense Present continuous Present perfect He has been living in Turin for three months. Future tense However. (Correct) I know her for a long time. I have known her for a long time. we use the present perfect tense and not the present tense. He has lived in Moscow for a long time. Present perfect continuous I worked at the service station for five years. (Incorrect) The present tense with For refers to a period of time that extends into the future. (Correct) I was there for all day.
I've been waiting since 7 o'clock. It has been three years since the last earthquake. I have been a doctor since 1992. It refers to when things began. I have been a doctor for fifteen years. Since + a point in time (in the past). (starting point = 1994) She has been pregnant since her first child was born. I had been working since 5 o'clock and I was getting tired. I have known him since January. Since can also be used in the structure It has been + period of time + since. (duration = 15 years) She has been a mother for six months. Both For and Since are most commonly used with the perfect tense . until now. SINCE to mention the starting point of a period of time (continues to now). I have been here since 5 o'clock and I am getting tired. FOR to mention a specific period (or duration) of time. My sister has lived in Frankfurt for nine months. Since Knowing when to use FOR and when to use SINCE is important.we don't use these expressions in the present tense. For vs. With since we use the present perfect tense or the past perfect tense. .The use of SINCE Since gives the starting point of actions. events or states. My sister has lived in Frankfurt since the beginning of March. It has been two months since I last saw her. Therefore it is useful to look at a summary of the contrast between FOR and SINCE.
He walked his cat since four hours.Correct I have learnt Russian for three years. Correct She went to Japan for three years. He owns his dog since his cat dies. While we can use For in the simple past tense we can't use Since in the simple past tense. He has owned his dog since his cat died. It should be remembered that both For and Since have other meanings in English that are not associated with time. Incorrect I learn Russian for three years. Since can only be used in the perfect tense. They have taught geography since last year. This is for you. They teach geography since last year. . I studied in New Zealand since one month. Incorrect She went to Japan since 2003. I'll say yes. Is this the train for London? Since you asked. I studied in New Zealand for one month. Since he didn't study he didn't pass the exam. He walked his dog for four hours.
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