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Threshold Pion Photoproduction

Threshold Pion Photoproduction

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Published by Terry Pilling
An effective chiral lagrangian, including contributions from vector meson exchange, the spin-3/2 delta(1232) resonance, and the N(1440) resonance, is used to calculate the CGLN amplitudes and the low energy electric and magnetic multipoles. These results are then compared with experiment. Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory is also discussed.
An effective chiral lagrangian, including contributions from vector meson exchange, the spin-3/2 delta(1232) resonance, and the N(1440) resonance, is used to calculate the CGLN amplitudes and the low energy electric and magnetic multipoles. These results are then compared with experiment. Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory is also discussed.

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Sections

  • Introduction
  • 1.1 Field Theory and the S-matrix
  • 1.1.1 The S-matrix
  • 1.2 Observables
  • 1.3 Pion Photoproduction from Nucleons
  • 1.4 N(γ,π) Kinematics
  • 1.5 Photoproduction Amplitudes
  • The Kroll Ruderman, PVBorn and Pion pole Terms
  • 2.1 The Pseudovector Coupling Lagrangian
  • 2.2 The Kroll-Ruderman Term
  • 2.3 The Born Terms
  • 2.4 The Pion Pole Term
  • 2.5 The CGLN Amplitudes
  • 2.5.1 Born, Pion Pole and Kroll-Ruderman Amplitudes
  • 2.6 Results
  • The N(1440) Resonance
  • 3.1 The Lagrangian and Feynman Rules
  • 3.1.1 Coupling Constants
  • 3.2 The CGLN Amplitudes
  • 3.2.1 N(1440) Amplitudes
  • 3.3 Results
  • The ∆(1232) Resonance
  • 4.1 The ∆(1232) Wavefunction
  • 4.2 The Feynman Rules
  • 4.3 The CGLN Amplitudes
  • 4.3.1 Resonance Amplitudes
  • 4.4 Results
  • Vector Meson Exchange
  • 5.1 The Lagrangian and Feynman Rules
  • 5.2 The CGLN Amplitudes
  • 5.2.1 Vector Meson Amplitudes
  • 5.3 Results
  • Integrating Out the Resonance Fields
  • 6.1 The Decoupling Theorem
  • 6.2 Integrating Out the N(1440) Resonance
  • 6.3 Integrating Out the ∆(1232) Resonance
  • The ∆(1232) Off-shell Parameters
  • Results and Discussion
  • 8.1 Neutral Pion Production
  • 8.1.1 Photoproduction from the Proton
  • ranging to 170 MeV to take full advantage of the SAL data
  • 8.1.2 Photoproduction from the Neutron
  • 8.2 Charged Pion Production
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Units and conventions
  • A.1 General Definitions
  • A.2 Isospin
  • A.3 Fields
  • A.4 Interactions
  • Multipoles and observables
  • Introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory
  • C.1 Chiral Symmetry
  • C.2 Chiral Perturbation Theory
  • C.3 Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory
  • References

THRESHOLD

PION
PHOTOPRODUCTION
A Thesis
Submitted to the College of Graduate Studies and Research
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Science
in the
Department of Physics and
Engineering Physics
University of Saskatchewan
by
Terry Glenn Pilling
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
CANADA
Summer, 1998
c 1998 T. G. Pilling. All rights reserved.
In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Postgraduate
degree from the University of Saskatchewan, the author agrees that the Libraries of
this University may make it freely available for inspection. The author further agrees
that permission for copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for
scholarly purposes may be granted by the professor or professors who supervised the
thesis work or, in their absence, by the Head of the Department or the Dean of the
College in which the thesis work was done. It is understood that any copying or
publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed
without the author’s written permission. It is also understood that due recognition
shall be given to the author and to the University of Saskatchewan in any scholarly
use which may be made of any material in the thesis.
Requests for permission to copy or make other use of material in this thesis in
whole or part should be addressed to:
Head of the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0
Abstract
An effective chiral Lagrangian is used to calculate the near threshold contributions to
single pion photoproduction from nucleons. The effects due to Vector meson exchange
as well as ∆(1232) and N(1440) resonance excitations are also considered. The result-
ing observables are then compared with recent experimental data and some results
of chiral perturbation theory. Good agreement with the data is found for charged
pion production and moderate agreement with the data for neutral pion production
although corrections due to rescattering and other loop contributions are neglected.
This indicates that the higher order corrections, which may be individually large,
are comparatively small when taken as a whole. The effects of varying the ∆ reso-
nance off-shell parameters are investigated as an estimate of the uncertainty of the
model. It is found that the E
0+
multipole is especially sensitive. Disagreement still
exists for the E
1+
multipole in neutral pion production. This multipole is found to
be quite sensitive to the off-shell parameters but not enough to allow a fit with data
while remaining in the accepted ranges for the off-shell parameters. The possibility of
treating the resonances as very heavy particles, and thereby integrating them out of
the theory, is examined and found to be lacking for the lower mass resonances treated
here. The possibility still exists that one could treat higher mass resonances in this
way.
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my supervisors Dr. Dennis Skopik and Dr. Mohamed Benmer-
rouche. Dr. Skopik invited me to the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory, first as
a summer student and then as a graduate student. He has taught me to search for
an understanding of the deep physical concepts behind the abstract calculations and
his experience, constant guidance and encouragement, as well as his sense of humour
have made him a great source of inspiration for me from the beginning. Dr. Benmer-
rouche has always been available to discuss the intricacies of various calculations and
his knowledge of field theory has been invaluable to the completion of this work. Our
frequent philosophical discussions have been both interesting and stimulating.
Thanks also to the computing staff and scientists at SAL, who have provided
assistance with computing and programming difficulties and have made this work
much more manageable.
I am very grateful to my fellow graduate students for our weekly meetings at
the pub. In particular I would like to thank Trevor Fulton and Darren White for
their valued friendship and our countless interesting discussions and debates. Special
thanks to my officemate Dave Hornidge whose amazing sense of humour and positive
attitude has made our office an enjoyable place to work. It is impossible to overstate
his importance in keeping me motivated and helping me solve problems both work-
related and other.
Finally, I must thank my parents Glenn and Linda Pilling, my brother Rick Pilling
and my sister Tammy Schock for their love and support throughout.
Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Field Theory and the S-matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 The S-matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Pion Photoproduction from Nucleons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 N(γ, π) Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Photoproduction Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2 The Kroll Ruderman, PVBorn and Pion pole Terms 13
2.1 The Pseudovector Coupling Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 The Kroll-Ruderman Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 The Born Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4 The Pion Pole Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.5 The CGLN Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.5.1 Born, Pion Pole and Kroll-Ruderman Amplitudes . . . . . . . 23
2.6 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.6.1 γp →π
0
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.6.2 γn →π
0
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6.3 The Charged Pion Reactions γn →π

p and γp →π
+
n . . . . 29
3 The N(1440) Resonance 32
3.1 The Lagrangian and Feynman Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.1.1 Coupling Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 The CGLN Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2.1 N(1440) Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4 The ∆(1232) Resonance 43
4.1 The ∆(1232) Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.2 The Feynman Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3 The CGLN Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.1 Resonance Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5 Vector Meson Exchange 60
5.1 The Lagrangian and Feynman Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.2 The CGLN Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.2.1 Vector Meson Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6 Integrating Out the Resonance Fields 69
6.1 The Decoupling Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.2 Integrating Out the N(1440) Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.3 Integrating Out the ∆(1232) Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7 The ∆(1232) Off-shell Parameters 83
8 Results and Discussion 93
8.1 Neutral Pion Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
8.1.1 Photoproduction from the Proton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
8.1.2 Photoproduction from the Neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.2 Charged Pion Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
9 Summary and Conclusions 120
APPENDICES 122
A Units and conventions 122
A.1 General Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
A.2 Isospin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
A.3 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
A.4 Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
B Multipoles and observables 131
C Introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory 134
C.1 Chiral Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
C.2 Chiral Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
C.3 Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
References 141
List of Figures
1.1 Tree-level Feynman diagrams for γ + N →π + N . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1 The Kroll-Ruderman contribution to γ + N →π + N . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2 The γNN vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3 The πNN vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4 PVBorn S-channel diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5 PVBorn U-channel diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.6 The γππ vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.7 The pion pole, t-channel diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.8 Multipoles for the Born terms in the reaction γ + p → π
0
+ p. They
are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
. . 26
2.9 Multipoles for the Born terms in the reaction γ + n → π
0
+ n. They
are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
. . 28
2.10 Multipoles for the Born terms in the charged pion reactions. The top
four are π

production and the bottom four are π
+
production. They
are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
. . 30
2.11 Multipoles for the Born terms in the charged pion reactions. The top
four are π

production and the bottom four are π
+
production. They
are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
. . 31
3.1 The πNR vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 The γNR vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.3 Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the neutral pion reac-
tions. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4 Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the neutral pion reac-
tions. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.5 Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the charged pion reac-
tions. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.6 Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the charged pion reac-
tions. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.1 The πN∆ vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.2 The γN∆ vertices in g1 and g2 coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3 S-channel ∆(1232) resonance exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4 U-channel ∆(1232) resonance exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.5 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
0
+p.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
52
4.6 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
0
+p.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
53
4.7 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + n →π
0
+ n. 54
4.8 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + n →π
0
+ n. 55
4.9 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + p →π
+
+ n. 56
4.10 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + p →π
+
+ n. 57
4.11 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + n →π

+ p. 58
4.12 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + n →π

+ p. 59
5.1 The γπV vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.2 The V NN vertex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.3 The vector meson exchange contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.4 Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ+p →
π
0
+p. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.5 Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ+n →
π
0
+n. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5.6 Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ+p →
π
+
+n. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.7 Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ+n →
π

+p. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
,
and E
1+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6.1 Multipoles for the reaction γ + p → π
0
+ p with the integrated out
N(1440) resonance terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
6.2 Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ +p →π
0
+p. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4
and the dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated
out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.3 Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction
γ +p →π
0
+p. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4
and the dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated
out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.4 Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ+n →π
0
+n. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4
and the dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated
out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.5 Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction
γ+n →π
0
+n. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4
and the dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated
out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.6 Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ +p →π
+
+n (the g
2
integrated out multipoles are zero). The solid
line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the dashed line gives
the amplitude with the resonance integrated out. . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.7 Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ +n →π

+p (the g
2
integrated out multipoles are zero). The solid
line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the dashed line gives
the amplitude with the resonance integrated out. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.1 The total cross section for γ +p →π
0
+p. The solid line uses the Born,
N(1440), Vector Mesons and the ∆(1232) where we use the previous
values for the off-shell parameters (Chapter 4). The thick dashed line
(almost identical) is the same graph with the above values for the off-
shell parameters (see Table 7.1). The squares are data from SAL [1]. . 84
7.2 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
0
+p.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and
E
1+
. The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison
with the present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell
parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
7.3 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
0
+p.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and
E
1+
. The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison
with the present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell
parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.4 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ +n →π
0
+n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the
present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters. 87
7.5 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +n →π
0
+n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the
present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters. 88
7.6 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
+
+n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the
present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters. 89
7.7 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
+
+n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the
present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters. 90
7.8 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ +n →π

+p.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the
present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters. 91
7.9 Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +n →π

+p.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the
present calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters. 92
8.1 The total cross section for γ + p → π
0
+ p. The solid line uses the
Born, N(1440), Vector Mesons and the ∆(1232), the circles are data
from [2], the squares are from [3], the triangles are from [4] and the
stars are from [5]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
8.2 This figure shows an expanded view of the previous figure with energy
ranging to 170 MeV to take full advantage of the SAL data. . . . . . 95
8.3 The contributions to F
0
due to each of the channels separately and the
total given by the solid line. The data are taken from J. C. Bergstrom
et al.(1997) [4]. It is interesting to note the cancellation of the energy
dependence between the ∆(1232) and the Born terms. . . . . . . . . . 96
8.4 The above Feynman diagrams are examples of the 1-loop diagrams,
required by unitarity, in the reactions γ + N →π + N. . . . . . . . . 98
8.5 P-waves and E
0+
multipole for the reaction γ +p →π
0
+p. The data
are taken from J. C. Bergstrom et al.(1997) [4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
8.6 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p. . . . . . . 99
8.7 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p. . . . . . . 100
8.8 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p. . . . . . . 101
8.9 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p. . . . . . . 102
8.10 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p. . . . . . . 103
8.11 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p. . . . . . . 104
8.12 Total p(γ, π
0
)p multipoles (solid line) compared with dispersion rela-
tions [6] (dashed line). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
8.13 P-waves, E
0+
multipole and cross section for the reaction γ +n →π
0
+n.107
8.14 Total n(γ, π
0
)n multipoles (solid line) compared with dispersion rela-
tions [6] (dashed line). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.15 Total cross section for the reaction γ +p →π
+
+n. The data are taken
from Adamovich et al. [7] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.16 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p → π
+
+ n. The data
are taken from Adamovich et al. [8]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
8.17 P-waves E
0+
multipole for the reaction γ + p →π
+
+ n. . . . . . . . 112
8.18 E
0+
multipole (solid line) and dispersion relation result [6] (dashed
line) for the reaction p(γ, π
+
)n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
8.19 Total cross section for the reaction γ + n → π

+ p. The data are
calculated by Legendre polynomial fits to the angular distribution of
Hutcheon et al. [9] and from Adamovich et al. [8] . . . . . . . . . . . 114
8.20 Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + n → π

+ p. The data
are taken from Hutcheon et al. [9]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
8.21 P-waves E
0+
multipole for the reaction γ + n →π

+ p. . . . . . . . 116
8.22 E
0+
multipole (solid line) and dispersion relation result [6] (dashed
line) for the reaction n(γ, π

)p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Chapter 1
Introduction
Photoproduction of π mesons (pions) has been an important tool in the study of the
strong interaction as far back as the first accelerators and cosmic ray experiments. The
reason for this is the relative ease with which one can extract valuable experimental
information and also test theoretically the low energy effective theories resulting from
the fundamental Lagrangians of the standard model. In this thesis we will be studying
a fully relativistic effective theory, based on the linear sigma model, in which we
use chirally symmetric Lagrangians to model the pion, the nucleon and the nucleon
resonances.
Recently, there has been revived interest in pion photoproduction from nucleons
due to the advent of more precise data and more effective theoretical treatments of
pion production at low energies such as chiral perturbation theory (CHPT). Using
chiral perturbation theory, corrections can be derived to the low energy effective
theory presented in this thesis. They are found to be larger than expected. This
could indicate that the expansion is not rapidly converging for certain observables.
These corrections are due only to the higher order loop diagrams involving pions
and nucleons and do not contain vector mesons or nucleon resonances. This implies
that the theory presented in the following chapters will not be adequate to describe
the experimental data at tree level, since the corrections occur at higher order. The
mystery (or accident) is that the theory presented here is not far from the experimental
data at tree level when the exchange of baryon resonances and heavier vector mesons
are included. This may suggest that the loop corrections to the LET, although being
significant individually, may cancel each other somewhat when taken as a whole and
result in only a small net correction. In the following chapters we will explore this
question and others by detailing the calculation of the tree level result (the LET)
along with fairly significant corrections due to model dependent resonance and meson
exchange. We will make comparisons with recent experiments as well as some of the
CHPT results which contain the added loop corrections mentioned above.
In chapter 1 we will show the general technique involved in quantum field theory
calculations with effective Lagrangians, and further discuss the photoproduction of
charged and neutral pions in this context. We outline the multipole analysis that is
of common use in this field and discuss the appropriate kinematics for single pion
photoproduction. This is intended as an introduction to the formalism and the tools
that we will be using in later chapters and can easily be omitted by the reader
already familiar with the techniques. Chapter 2 contains the calculation of the low
energy theorem (LET) given by the tree level Born and Kroll-Ruderman terms (see
Figure 1.1). Following this, in Chapters 3, 4 and 5, the calculations of corrections to
the LET due to the short lived N(1440) resonance, the ∆(1232) resonance and the
t-channel exchange of the ρ(770) and ω(783) vector mesons are given. In Chapter 6 it
1
is shown how the resonances can be viewed as mass corrections to the vertices of lower
order diagrams by treating them as heavy static sources and thereby integrating them
out of the theory. It is interesting to estimate the accuracy of this technique for the low
lying resonances, since it follows that one could eventually include contributions from
all possible resonance excitations in a simple way. A similar technique is employed in
heavy baryon CHPT and it is useful to see the differences involved from our treatment
of them as explicit degrees of freedom. In chapter 7 we discuss the dependence of the
∆(1232) resonance amplitudes on the off-shell parameters contained in the resonance
Lagrangian. Chapter 8 gives a comparison of our results with experimental data
for both neutral and charged pion production reactions, concentrating mainly on
the reaction γ + p → π
0
+ p, since this has been the most actively studied and
debated reaction recently. We conclude this thesis in Chapter 9 with a summary of
our findings. Our definitions and conventions are defined in Appendix A and our
formalism in Appendix B. Appendix C gives a brief introduction to CHPT.
1.1 Field Theory and the S-matrix
We would like to predict physical observables measured in the lab from basic sym-
metries of nature. An elegant way of doing this has been developed in field theory.
Quantum field theory (QFT) has been found to be very successful in describing the
physical interactions between the fundamental particles in nature. In QFT one writes
the particles as fields composed of direct products of vectors in 4-dimensional space-
time and quantized vectors in other spaces, such as flavour space, which describes the
isospin of the particle. In this way, particles which have traditionally been thought
of as individuals can be grouped in flavour space as different components of the same
particle. For example, the proton and neutron can be thought of as the ‘up’ and
‘down’ components of a more general particle called a nucleon. Similarly, the pions
form an iso-triplet. These particles themselves are known to be different combinations
of even more elementary particles called quarks. The quarks can be grouped into a
single vector in flavour space with the individual quarks forming the basis vectors
which can be rotated into one another through interactions. The model of particles
and interactions between them, called the Standard Model, has been very successful
and thus we have a large amount of faith in its predictions of experimental mea-
surements. At the root of the standard model is a theory called chromodynamics,
which explains the motion and interactions of the quarks and gluons, believed (at
present) to be the fundamental point particles from which all (hadronic) matter is
made. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the force between the elementary parti-
cles (quarks) is carried by massless spin one gauge bosons, just like in electrodynamics
(QED). In QED the electromagnetic force between particles with electric charge is
carried by photons, and likewise in QCD the strong force between particles with color
is carried by gluons. Since quarks have electromagnetic charge in addition to color
they will also interact with each other and other charged particles via photons. The
strong force is completely independent of electric charge so that the quark can be
represented as a vector in flavour (charge) space. Each flavour of quark is the same
2
particle as seen by a gluon but is a different particle as seen by a photon. Although
the matter in the macroscopic world is in the form of bound states of these quarks,
the calculation of processes involving these bound states is prohibitively complicated
in QCD. It is therefore imperative that we develop theories which model QCD at low
energies. In the present thesis, we will be doing exactly this, modeling the strong
force through interactions with the quark composites called pions mentioned above.
Pions are made of quark-antiquark pairs and therefore interact strongly with nuclei.
In fact, the force between separate nucleons can be effectively modeled by the ex-
change of virtual mesons. We will be doing this through the use of ‘effective’ field
theory (see Section 1.3). Effective field theories are low energy approximations to
arbitrarily high energy physics, in that in the low energy, long wavelength region, our
probes cannot resolve the internal structure of nucleons and we can therefore treat
the nucleons as point-like elementary particles and simply use structure functions to
model the asymptotic effects of the nucleon substructure. To develop an effective
theory, we first introduce a momentum cutoff, meaning that we are deciding to treat
the effects of physics occurring above the cutoff as local

(i.e point-like). We then
add local interactions to the Lagrangian which mimic the effects of the true short
distance physics. Since a probe of wavelength λ is insensitive to details of structure
at distances d ≪λ we must renormalize or account for the effects of these small struc-
tures without explicitly including them. Renormalization is used when the particles
are embedded in a background space (very short distance structure) and to calculate
the real physical properties of the particle from the measured properties one must
subtract the effects of the background. For example, the mass of a particle traveling
inside a material (renormalized mass) will be different than if it were measured out-
side of the material (bare mass) because of (possibly unobservable) interactions with
the material. In field theory, all particles are traveling in a background space-time
and since there is no way to remove the particle from this background, we always
measure the renormalized mass, and the bare properties, which are the parameters of
the theory, are unobservable. A complicated current source of size d that generates
radiation with wavelengths λ ≫d is accurately modeled by a sum of point-like mul-
tipole currents (E1, M1, etc.). It is simpler to treat the source as a sum of multipoles
than to deal with the true current directly, because usually only the first few multi-
poles are needed for sufficient accuracy. The multipole expansion is a simple example
of a renormalization analysis [10].
To calculate real physical observables from our effective theory, we need to calcu-
late the scattering matrix. The scattering matrix is a measure of the probability for
a given interaction to occur, and it allows one to extract the predictions of a theory
in order to test them experimentally. One of the methods used to find the scattering
matrix (S-matrix) from the interaction Lagrangian describing a scattering process is
the Feynman path integral [10, 11].
In the path integral method, one writes down a generating functional in terms
of the complete Lagrangian for a theory and uses functional differentiation to find

For example, we will treat the nucleon as a point particle in our effective theory, since at low
energies the photon probe that we are using cannot ‘see’ the quarks residing inside it.
3
the Feynman rules of the theory. These Feynman rules are then put together to
correspond to whatever scattering process (diagram) we are considering. The result
is proportional to the S-matrix, or equivalently the M-matrix (scattering amplitude),
and contains all of the physics of the interaction. The M-matrix will be described in
greater detail in the next chapter. Once accustomed to how the method works, one
can almost write down the Feynman rules by inspection directly from the Lagrangian.
1.1.1 The S-matrix
In order to make the above comments more quantitative we will derive the generating
functional for photon-pion-nucleon interactions and describe how it can be used to
find the Feynman rules.
The generating functional is defined as the integral of all possible field configu-
rations in space-time weighted by the exponential of the action. For our fields of
interest, it is written as
Z[η
a
, η
b
, j
µ
, J
c
] =
_
DN DN DA Dπ exp
_
i
_
d
4
x
_
L
0
+ N
a
η
a
+ η
b
N
b
+ j
µ
A
µ
+ J
c
π
c
+L
int
¸
_
(1.1)
where we use lower case Latin indices, a, b and c as isospin indices for the nucleon
fields N and N and the pion field π respectively. Lower case Greek indices are
Lorentz indices (µ is the Lorentz index for the photon field A
µ
). L
0
is the sum of
all free particle Lagrangians and L
int
is the interaction Lagrangian. The nucleon
source currents η and η as well as the nucleon fields are now Grassmann numbers
that obey anticommutation relations whereas the pion and photon fields and currents
are commuting.
We now define the n-point function (or n-point Green’s function) to be the vacuum
expectation value of the time-ordered product of fields at n space-time points x
1
, ..., x
n
as follows
< 0|T (φ(x
1
) · · · φ(x
n
)) |0 >≡
_
1
i
δ
δJ(x
n
)
_
· · ·
_
1
i
δ
δJ(x
1
)
_
Z[J]|
J=0
(1.2)
where Z[J] is the generating functional (1.1) and the fields φ(x
i
) can be any of the
π, N, N or A
µ
fields. In particular for the N(γ, π) vertex we would write
< 0|T
_
N
a
(x
4

c
(x
3
)N
b
(x
2
)A
µ
(x
1
)
_
|0 >=
_
1
i
δ
δη
a
(x
4
)
__
1
i
δ
δJ
c
(x
3
)
__
1
i
δ
δη
b
(x
2
)
__
1
i
δ
δj
µ
(x
1
)
_
Z|
J=j=η=η=0
(1.3)
where we have explicitly indicated the isospin indices. We see by the form of the
generating functional (1.1) that an application of a particular functional derivative
will bring down a factor of the corresponding field. In this way we can construct any
polynomial in the fields by merely acting on the generating functional with functional
4
derivatives. In particular, we can expand a given interaction Lagrangian as a polyno-
mial in the fields and then re-write it in terms of the functional derivatives. We can
therefore re-write Z[J] as
Z =
1
N
exp
_
i
_
d
4
xL
int
(
δ
δη
a
(x)
,
δ
δη
b
(x)
,
δ
δj
µ
(x)
,
δ
δJ
c
(x)
)
_
Z
0
(1.4)
where Z
0
is the remaining terms in (1.1) after removing the interaction part. We have
divided by N = Z|
J=j=η=η=0
, which has the effect of cancelling all of the so-called
vacuum bubble diagrams which have no external lines and are hence unobservable.
To use this expression one applies well known methods [12, 13] to reduce the free field
generating functional Z
0
(which is simply a product of Gaussians) into the following
form
Z
0
= exp
_
−i
_
d
4
x d
4
y
_
η
a
(x)S
ab
F
(x −y)η
b
(y) +
1
2
j
µ
(x)D
µν
F
(x −y)j
ν
(y)
+
1
2
J
a
(x)∆
ab
F
(x −y)J
b
(y)
_
_
(1.5)
where the Feynman propagators have been defined in Appendix A. Finally we form
the generator of connected graphs by writing Z →−iln(Z), which removes all of the
diagrams that are disconnected.
In the path integral method, one uses this generating functional to find the prop-
agator, the vertex functions and, as a result, the Feynman rules of the theory. Rather
than going through the renormalization analysis that is involved in finding these
functions we will simply refer the interested reader to the many texts discussing it
[12, 13, 11].
1.2 Observables
We would like to use all of this analysis to find real physical observables and therefore,
as mentioned above, we need to form the S-matrix. First we find the Green’s function
for the theory using (1.3) and then remove the external legs by multiplying by the
inverse propagator for each leg. Finally, we multiply by the external free particle
wave functions. All of this can be accomplished through the reduction formula for
the S-matrix as follows
S
fi
=
_
dx
1
...dx
4
e
iq·x
2
e
ip

·x
3
U
s

(p

)

Kx
2

Dx
3
τ
µ
(x
1
...x
4

µ

D
x
4

Px
1
U
s
(p)e
ip·x
4
e
ik·x
1
(1.6)
where τ(x
1
...x
4
) is the 4-point Green’s function defined in (1.3),

Kx
,

Dx
and

Px
are the
Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Photon operators (inverse propagators), ǫ
µ
is the photon po-
larization vector and U
s

(p

) and U
s
(p) are the Dirac 4-spinors defined in Appendix A.
In what follows, rather than proceeding with the manipulations involved in (1.1)
to find the Green’s function, we will merely use the respective Feynman rules that
5
have been derived from each interaction Lagrangian and form the Green’s function
directly.
In calculating the S-matrix for a real process it is convenient to write it as a
perturbation expansion in powers of the coupling constant for a given interaction
Lagrangian, and then evaluate only the first few terms in this expansion. It is assumed
that the terms in the series diminish in strength rapidly as the power of the coupling
constant increases. The expansion is written as
< f|S|i >= S
fi
=< f|T(e
i

d
4
xL
int
(x)
)|i > (1.7)
where the T indicates the time-ordered product (ensuring causality).
When the vertex function has been found for a given process, the S-matrix [14]
can be written as
S
fi
= δ
fi
+ i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ q −k −P
i
) M
fi
(1.8)
The scattering cross-section for the process p
1
+ p
2
→f is given by
dσ(a
1
+ a
2
→f) =
ω(p
1
+ p
2
→f)
J
i
dN
f
(1.9)
where ω = (2π)
4
δ
4
(p
1
+ p
2

P
f
) |M
fi
|
2
is the transition probability per unit time,
dN
f
is the density of final states, and the flux factor J
i
can be written in the centre
of mass system (CM) as
J
i
= 2p
0
1
2p
0
2
|
p
1
p
0
1

p
2
p
0
2
| = 4|p
1
p
0
2
−p
2
p
0
1
| = 4|p
1
|(p
0
1
+ p
0
2
)
= 4[(p
1
· p
2
)
2
−m
2
1
m
2
2
]
1
2
.
(1.10)
Since J
i
is expressed in terms of a Lorentz-invariant quantity, it is valid in any refer-
ence frame. The cross section is then given by
dσ =
(2π)
4
δ
4
(p
1
+ p
2

P
f
)
4[(p
1
· p
2
)
2
−m
2
1
m
2
2
]
1
2
|M
fi
|
2
Π
♯bosons
j=1
d
3
p
j
(2π)
3
2p
0
j
Π
♯fermions
l=1
d
3
p
l
M
l
(2π)
3
p
0
l
S (1.11)
where, in this case S = Π
i
1
m
i
!
is the symmetry factor associated with m
i
identical
particles in the final state.
Now that we have found the S-matrix for a given process we form the M-matrix,
the scattering amplitudes and the various physical observables. We will do this in
Chapter 2 for single pion photoproduction.
1.3 Pion Photoproduction from Nucleons
Photoproduction

of mesons plays a significant role in the study of the hadrons and
therefore the nature of strong interactions. Familiarity with electrodynamics and

The production of mesons while using photons as a projectile.
6
thus the electromagnetic interaction between hadrons results in a very good tool for
these investigations and for providing important information about the structure of
matter over short distances. It is especially so due to the interaction coupling α
being small enough that we need only compute the lowest orders of a perturbation
expansion in it.
Pion photoproduction near threshold has been studied by many groups of both
theoretical [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21] and experimental physicists [2, 3, 4, 5, 22, 23].
The reason for this is relative ease with which both calculations based on theories, and
experiments to test those calculations, can be done. Hence extensive experimental
data has been accumulated on photoproduction of charged and neutral pions from
nucleons and light nuclei in the energy

region from threshold to about 500 MeV.
These experiments have shown that nucleons have finite size and a polarizability,
which indicates that they do indeed have substructure. As well, photoproduction of
mesons has also led to the discovery of nucleon resonances like the ∆∗ and N∗ isobars
and they measured the effects of heavier vector mesons as well.
For the reactions γ + N → π + N there are two particles in the final state so
that a measurement of the angle of scattering along with the energy of one of the
final particles will determine the energy of the incoming gamma ray. Alternatively, a
photon tagger can be used to match each photon with the electron that produced it,
allowing the photon energy to be determined from the energy of the corresponding
electron. In a typical experiment, detectors are set up around a target of protons
and neutrons, such as liquid hydrogen or deuterium. The detectors can be designed
to measure the energy distribution of the charged pions or the recoil particle at a
fixed scattering angle, or they can measure the angular distribution at a fixed energy.
Neutral particles can be detected via their decay products as in the case of photons
from the π
0
→2γ decay.
The radiation field is usually expanded into multipoles, or states of definite angular
momentum and parity. The photon has intrinsic spin 1, and hence the total angular
momentum j and the orbital angular momentum l of a multipole are related by
j = l, l ±1. The parity of the photon field (−)
l
can be either even or odd and we can
therefore separate the photon field into two types, those that have parity (−)
j
, called
electric multipoles (denoted Ej), and those that have parity (−)
j+1
, called magnetic
multipoles (denoted Mj). Assuming the initial nucleon is in an S1
2
state (l = 0, s =
1
2
)
we have final πN states for j = 1, 2 as shown in Table 1.1.
In the past few decades there has been theoretical development of model inde-
pendent predictions from the fundamental principles of physics that can be directly
compared to experiment.
In the 1950’s, Kroll and Ruderman [24] were the first to derive model-independent
predictions in the threshold region (called low energy theorems (LETs))

, by applying
gauge and Lorentz invariance to the reaction γ +N →π +N. The general formalism

We refer here to the incident photon energy in the laboratory frame.
§
This column gives the usual notation of photopion physics, E

and M

, where the E and M
denote the incident photon type and l± denotes the total angular momentum l ±
1
2
of the final state
pion (l = 0, 1, ...) and nucleon (s = ±
1
2
).
7
Table 1.1: Multipoles for j = 1 and j = 2
Multipole j Parity Final State Photopion Notation
§
E1 1 odd S1
2
, D3
2
E
0+
, E
2−
M1 1 even P1
2
, P3
2
M
1−
, M
1+
E2 2 even P3
2
, F5
2
E
1+
, E
3−
M2 2 odd D3
2
, D5
2
M
2−
, M
2+
for this process was developed by Chew, Goldberger, Nambu and Low [19],[20] (CGLN
amplitudes).
In 1965 Fubini et al. [25] extended earlier predictions of LET’s by including the
hypothesis of partially conserved axial current (PCAC). In this way they succeeded
in describing the threshold amplitude in a power series in the ratio µ =
m
π
M
up to
terms of order µ
2
.
Our Lagrangian, which will eventually include some of the nucleon resonances as
explicit degrees of freedom, is an effective Lagrangian, as mentioned above. It uses
the asymptotic fields (nucleons, pions, resonances) as the fundamental entities rather
than a ‘fundamental Lagrangian’ such as that of QCD (or QED) which describes the
quark (electron) fields and gauge field interactions. Using such an effective Lagrangian
provides a much simpler method of modeling reality, especially in lower energy, long
wavelength regions where the effect of the individual quarks is hidden inside the
composite particles. The couplings and other parameters of the theory are assumed
constant over a small energy range near pion production threshold and are fixed
phenomenologically. The resulting theory can then be used to make predictions.
We begin by developing the Lagrangians which describe the interactions between
pions, nuclei and photons as well as the contributions due to the nucleon resonances
∆∗ and N∗, and vector meson (ρ and ω) exchange currents.
In the next chapter we will use gauge invariant chiral Lagrangians to calculate the
CGLN amplitudes (1.22), and the multipoles, in a standard way (see Appendix B).
We will begin by examining the CGLN amplitudes for the nucleon Born terms, Vector
meson, Delta resonance exchange and Roper resonance exchange. We then compare
our findings with experiments performed at SAL [4, 23] and Mainz [22].
The tree-level contributions to the process of photoproduction are shown in Fig-
ure 1.1. In particular, the Born terms with nucleon and pion pole terms (singularity
for m
π
→0) and the seagull or Kroll-Ruderman term as well as resonance contribu-
tions in the s-channel (nucleon resonances N

and ∆

) and in the t-channel (heavier
mesons, ω and ρ) are shown.
Of the tree-level diagrams, the only one-particle irreducible (1PI) graph is the
Kroll-Ruderman graph. 1PI graphs are those Feynmann diagrams that cannot be

The conventional use of the term LET refers to model independent low energy predictions. We
warn the reader however that our full Lagrangian has the Kroll-Ruderman LET as a starting point
but the treatment of the resonance fields in Chapters 3 and 4 is not strictly model-independent and
it is therefore not a LET in this sense.
8
Figure 1.1: Tree-level Feynman diagrams for γ + N →π + N
separated into two different diagrams by cutting a single line. To calculate the re-
ducible graphs, like the Born terms, we merely have to calculate two separate 3-point
functions instead of a 4-point function and put the results together by inserting a
propagator, corresponding to the cut line, between the two vertex rules.
1.4 N(γ, π) Kinematics
In this section we work out the detailed kinematics of the γ + N →π + N reaction.
The notation we use is as in Appendix A; in particular, we define the energy and
momenta of the participant fields as E
p
= p
0
=
_
p
2
−M
2
where we use the symbols
P
i
and P
f
for the 4-momenta of the initial and final nucleon fields respectively, q for
the produced pion field and k for the incoming photon field.
In the lab frame, we can set the 3-momentum of the initial nucleon to zero, since
any motion that it does have should be negligible. Because it is a two body reaction,
we can define a plane by the incoming photon momentum k, the scattered pion
momentum q and the recoil momentum of the nucleon P
f
. The scattering angle
θ
π
is then defined as the angle subtending the incident photon and scattered pion
momentum.
We can write the conservation of 4-momenta in the following way
P
i
+ k = P
f
+ q
P
i
+ k ≡ W
(P
i
+ k)
2
= W
2
M
2
i
+ 2P
0
i
k
0
−2P
i
· k = W
2
M
2
i
+ 2M
i
k
0
= W
2
since P
i
= (M
i
, 0) in the lab frame. We have (with M
i
= M
f
= M)
W =
_
M
2
+ 2Mk
0
(1.12)
9
Since W
2
= s is an invariant Mandelstam variable

, we can evaluate it in any frame we
choose, so we will choose the center of momentum frame. In the center of momentum
frame the initial and final 3-momenta are related by P

i
= −k

and P

f
= −q

, where
the asterisk denotes the center of momentum frame. So, we can write W
2
as
s = (P
0∗
i
+ k
0∗
)
2
−(P

i
+k

)
2
= (P
0∗
i
+ k
0∗
)
2
= (P
0∗
f
+ q
0∗
)
2
.
This allows us to write P
0∗
i
= W −k
0∗
and P
0∗
f
= W −q
0∗
. The first of these leads to
(P
0∗
i
)
2
= W
2
+ (k
0∗
)
2
−2Wk
0∗
|P

i
|
2
+ M
2
= W
2
+|k

|
2
−2Wk
0∗
2Wk
0∗
= W
2
−M
2
which gives
k
0∗
=
W
2
−M
2
2W
(1.13)
for the photon center of momentum energy. The second relation leads to
(P
0∗
f
)
2
= W
2
+ (q
0∗
)
2
−2Wq
0∗
|P

f
|
2
+ M
2
= W
2
+ m
2
π
+|q

|
2
−2Wq
0∗
2Wq
0∗
= W
2
+ m
2
π
−M
2
which gives
q
0∗
=
W
2
+ m
2
π
−M
2
2W
(1.14)
for the pion center of momentum energy. Using these two expressions we can now
find the center of momentum energy for the initial and final nucleons respectively as
P
0∗
i
=
W
2
+ M
2
2W
P
0∗
f
=
W
2
−m
2
π
+ M
2
2W
.
(1.15)
The 3-momenta in the CM frame in terms of the invariant mass are found similarly
to be
|P

i
| = |k

| =
W
2
−M
2
2W
|P

f
| = |q

| =
_
[(W −M)
2
−m
2
π
] [(W + M)
2
−m
2
π
]
2W
.
(1.16)

The Mandelstam variable s ≡ W
2
is usually called the ‘invariant mass’ when written in this way
since s is a frame-independent Lorentz invariant.
10
At pion photoproduction threshold, q

= P

f
= P
i
= 0 we have
s = (P
i
+ k)
2
= (M
i
+ k)
2
= M
2
i
+ 2M
i
k
0
(P

f
+ q

)
2
= M
2
i
+ 2M
i
k
0
M
2
f
+ m
2
π
+ 2P
0∗
q
0∗
−2P

f
· q

= M
2
i
+ 2M
i
k
0
M
2
f
+ m
2
π
+ 2M
f
m
π
= M
2
i
+ 2M
i
k
0
(M
2
f
−M
2
i
) + m
2
π
+ 2M
f
m
π
= 2M
i
k
0
which gives k
0
as
k
0
=
(M
2
f
−M
2
i
) + m
2
π
+ 2M
f
m
π
2M
i
. (1.17)
For M
i
= M
f
= M being the average nucleon mass, this gives the threshold photon
lab energy as
k
0
thr
=
m
π
(2M + m
π
)
2M
. (1.18)
The threshold numerical values are given in Table 1.2.
Table 1.2: Incident photon lab energy and invariant mass at pion threshold.
Reaction Threshhold k
0
thr
(MeV) Invariant mass W
thr
(MeV)
γ + p →π
+
+ n 151.437 1079.14
γ + n →π

+ p 148.452 1077.84
γ + p →π
0
+ p 144.685 1074.54
γ + n →π
0
+ n 144.672 1073.25
γ + N →π
±
+ N 149.943
∗∗
1078.49
where we have used the masses tabulated in Appendix A.
1.5 Photoproduction Amplitudes
The M-matrix element M
fi
is given as a linear combination of the independent
Lorentz invariants M
i
iM
fi
=

j
A
j
U
f
(P
f
, s
f
)M
j
U
i
(p, s
i
)
=

j
A
j
(s, t, u)M
fi
j
.
(1.19)
∗∗
This value corresponds to the charged pion reactions where we use the average nucleon mass in
the calculations.
11
where the Ms are given by
M
1
= γ
5
k ǫ
M
2
= 2γ
5
(P
i
· ǫP
f
· k −P
f
· ǫP
i
· k)
M
3
= γ
5
((P
i
−P
f
) · ǫ k −(P
i
−P
f
) · k ǫ)
M
4
= γ
5
((P
i
+ P
f
) · ǫ k −(P
i
+ P
f
) · k ǫ) −2MM
1
(1.20)
A nice derivation of the above is found in [15], which is begun by decomposing the
most general Lorentz invariant pseudovector into a linear combination of eight basic
pseudovectors. Current conservation and the transversality condition for the photon
are then used to reduce them to six Ms, two of which are only applicable to elec-
troproduction which, upon setting k
2
= 0 for real photons, leaves us the above four
(1.20).
The dynamics of the process are therefore contained in the four scalar amplitudes
A
i
, which depend only on the coupling constants and the Mandelstam variables (in
CM frame)
s = (P
i
+ k)
2
t = (k −q)
2
u = (P
f
−q)
2
.
(1.21)
The isospin decomposition of the invariant amplitudes is
A
j
(s, t, u) = A
(+)
j

α
, τ
3
}
2
+ A
(−)
j

α
, τ
3
]
2
+ A
(0)
j
τ
α
(1.22)
which are related to the isospin amplitudes by
A
(+)
j
=
A
(1)
j
+ A
(3)
j
3
A
(−)
j
=
A
(1)
j
−A
(3)
j
3
.
(1.23)
The amplitudes for specific reactions can be expressed in terms of the isospin
amplitudes as
A
(
γp→π
+
n
)
j
=

2
_
A
(0)
j
+ A
(−)
j
_
A
(
γn→π

p
)
j
=

2
_
A
(0)
j
−A
(−)
j
_
A
(
γp→π
0
p
)
j
= A
(+)
j
+ A
(0)
j
A
(
γn→π
0
n
)
j
= A
(+)
j
−A
(0)
j
.
(1.24)
Once these amplitudes have been found, we can proceed by finding the multipoles,
cross section and polarization observables. The formalism for doing this, using the
invariant amplitudes above, is given in Appendix B.
12
Chapter 2
The Kroll Ruderman, PVBorn and Pion pole Terms
2.1 The Pseudovector Coupling Lagrangian
The pion is a Lorentz pseudoscalar, iso-vector field. It is grouped as a triplet in
isotopic spin space as mentioned in Chapter 1 and in Appendix A (A.23). Its pseu-
doscalar nature is known by the fact that it exhibits odd parity.
A Lagrangian for any interaction must be a true scalar, since it is related to the
energy of the field (which is a scalar quantity). Therefore any interaction with pions
must have an even number of odd parity objects in it so that the overall parity of the
Lagrangian is even. The nucleon is a Dirac spinor, Lorentz scalar and a doublet in
iso-spin space whose ‘up’ and ‘down’ components are the proton and neutron fields
respectively. To build a Lagrangian governing the interactions of pions and nuclei we
must have all of the Lorentz, Dirac spin and isospin indices contracted as well as even
overall parity.
Interactions between photons and nuclei come about naturally when one requires
the free Dirac Lagrangian to be invariant under U(1) symmetry

. We will use this
process, which is brought about by minimal coupling, when we want to add photon
interactions to a particular Lagrangian.
For pions, the same technique is used, only this time we require the free nucleon
Lagrangian to be invariant under chiral SU(2) gauge transformations where the chi-
ral nature of the transformations leads naturally to an interaction Lagrangian with
pions (called the sigma model) which has overall even parity. Using these constraints
we can devise two Lagrangians that describe nucleon-pion interactions, one involves
derivatives of pion fields and is hence called pseudovector coupling and the other,
called pseudoscalar coupling, doesn’t contain derivatives. We will use the pseudovec-
tor Lagrangian given by
L
PV
πNN
=
f
π
m
π

µ
γ
5
τ
i
N∂
µ
π
i
, (2.1)
since it is the usual choice in the realm of chiral symmetry and can more easily be
adapted to photon interactions via minimal substitution via a covariant derivative.
We realize that minimal coupling applies only to point-like Dirac particles and it is well
known that nucleons are not pointlike, but contain substructure. For our purposes
near threshold the incident photon energy is small and the long photon wavelength
is unable to resolve quark substructure, therefore the point-like approximation is a

U(1) symmetry corresponds to phase transformations and therefore it is not surprising that an
interaction term with photons comes about, since the effect of an electromagnetic potential on a
charged particle is a phase shift and hence for the Hamiltonian, which is essentially the energy, to be
invariant under these phase shifts we include interactions with the field that is adding or removing
energy, namely the photon.
13
good one and we can model the substructure via form factors. We also note that
the pseudovector Lagrangian gives a non-renormalizable theory since its index of
divergence

is 1 (due to the derivative coupling). Effective theories differ from
fundamental theories in that renormalization is not an issue, so we do not need to
concern ourselves with the non-renormalizability of our theory. When we want to
move to a region away from threshold we can move to a new effective theory (see
Appendix C).
2.2 The Kroll-Ruderman Term
Let us begin with the Kroll-Ruderman diagram which has no internal propagators.
We form the interaction Lagrangian L
γπNN
and the 4-point function as defined in
Chapter 1 (1.3). The Lagrangian L
PV
πNN
contains the product τ ·π where the isovectors
τ and π are defined in a Cartesian basis. In order to facilitate the physical pion fields
we will express this in an isospin basis defined by
π
+

1

2

1
+ iπ
2
)
π


1

2

1
−iπ
2
)
π
0
≡ π
3
τ
+

1
2

1
+ iτ
2
)
τ


1
2

1
−iτ
2
)
(2.2)
where π
+
and π

create π
+
and π

fields respectively and the τ
+
and τ

are the
isospin raising and lowering operators for the nucleon fields. The isospin dot product
then becomes
τ · ∂
µ
π = τ
1

µ
π
1
+ τ
2

µ
π
2
+ τ
3

µ
π
3
=

2 (τ


µ
π
+
+ τ
+

µ
π

) + τ
3

µ
π
0
.
(2.3)

The index of divergence (which is equal to the negative of the dimension of the coupling constant)
is given by I =
1
2
(d−2)B+
1
2
(d−1)F −d+D, where B, F and D are the number of external bosons,
fermions and the number of derivatives respectively. If I > 0 the theory is non-renormalizable and
the coupling constant has negative (mass) dimension. I = 0 gives a renormalizable theory with a
dimensionless coupling constant and I < 0 gives a super-renormalizable theory, the coupling constant
having positive dimension. The superficial degree of divergence of a diagram is given in terms of
the indices of divergences of each of its vertices (i) via ∆ = 4 − B −
3
2
F +

i
I
i
(see for example
Reference [12]).
14
Now we perform the minimal substitution ∂
µ
→ ∂
µ
− iqA
µ
where q is the charge of
the pion. Keeping only the terms that contain a photon field gives
τ · ∂
µ
π →−ie

2 (τ

π
+
−τ
+
π

) A
µ
= −ie
1
2
(2iτ
1
π
2
−2iτ
2
π
1
) A
µ
= −ie
1
2
_
τ
b
, τ
3
¸
π
b
A
µ
=
ie
2
_
τ
3
, τ
b
¸
π
b
A
µ
.
(2.4)
The γπNN Lagrangian then becomes
L
γπNN
=
ief
π
m
π

µ
γ
5
1
2
_
τ
3
, τ
b
¸

b
A
µ
. (2.5)
To make manipulations simpler we will define
C
b
µ
=
ief
π
m
π
γ
µ
γ
5
1
2
_
τ
3
, τ
b
¸
. (2.6)
We notice that the Kroll-Ruderman diagram is a low energy diagram and a theory
built with this interaction is non-renormalizable in the usual sense, since the superfi-
cial degree of divergence is equal to 1 in 4 dimensions. Therefore the coupling constant
has negative dimension, much like what one gets after integrating a heavy internal
particle out of a theory leaving a mass factor in the denominator (see Chapter 6).
Divergences result in effective theories when we form a point interaction between two
fermions and two bosons (which is nonrenormalizable) from the some renormalizable
interaction which has the same external states–for example, a diagram with an in-
ternal fermion resonance and two vertices, each having index of divergence of zero,
being approximated at low energy by a single vertex with the resonance integrated
out. This leaves an index of divergence of 1 and adds a negative mass dimension to
the coupling. This does not pose a problem presently since we are using it as a model
at very low energies. Therefore, the vertex only appears at tree-level and renormal-
ization is not an issue (the calculation of loop corrections does cause a problem and
this will be further discussed in Appendix C).
We would now like to use the above Lagrangian (2.5) to form the 4-point Green’s
function for the Kroll-Ruderman diagram (see Figure 2.1). The 4-point function is
given by
τ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
) =
δ
δη(x
1
)
δ
δj
λ
(x
2
)
δ
δJ
c
(x
3
)
δ
δη(x
4
)
Z[J, j, η, η]|
J=j=η=η=0
, (2.7)
where the nucleon, pion and photon currents are respectively η, J
c
and j
λ
and the
generating functional Z[J, j, η, η] is defined as
Z[J, j, η, η] =
exp
_
i
_
L
int
(z)dz
_
Z
0
[J, j, η, η]
_
i
_
L
int
(z)dz
_
Z
0
[J, j, η, η]|
J=j=η=η=0
=
1
N
exp
_
i
_
L
int
(z)dz
_
Z
0
[J, j, η, η]
(2.8)
15
Figure 2.1: The Kroll-Ruderman contribution to γ + N →π + N
and
Z
0
= exp
_
−i
_
dxdy
_
η(x)S(x −y)η(y) +
1
2
J
a
(x)∆
ab
F
(x −y)J
b
(y)
+
1
2
j
α
(x)D
αβ
(x −y)j
β
(y)
__
, (2.9)
with the propagators S(x − y), ∆(x − y) and D
αβ
(x − y) derived from the 2-point
functions which are given in Appendix A. The interaction Lagrangian in (2.8) is
written as an operator by replacing the fields by functional derivatives acting on Z
0
.
L =
_
−1
i
δ
δη(z)
_
C
b
µ
_
1
i
δ
δη(z)
__
1
i
δ
δJ
b
(z)
__
1
i
δ
δj
µ
(z)
_
. (2.10)
Now we expand the interaction Lagrangian in the generating functional (2.8)
keeping only the first order term to get the Kroll-Ruderman contribution.
Z
(1)
=
−i
N
_
dz
δ
δη(z)
C
b
µ
δ
δη(z)
δ
δJ
b
(z)
δ
δj
µ
(z)
Z
0
. (2.11)
We can perform the functional differentiations of Z
0
by using
δJ
α
(x)
δJ
β
(z)
= δ
αβ
δ(x − z).
This gives, for example,
δ
δj
µ
(z)
Z
0
= Z
0
δ
δj
µ
(z)
_
−i
2
_
dxdy
_
j
α
(x)D
αβ
(x −y)j
β
(y)
¸
_
= Z
0
_
−i
2
_
dxdy
_
g
αµ
δ(x −z)D
αβ
(x −y)j
β
(y)
+ j
α
(x)D
αβ
(x −y)g
βµ
δ(y −z)
__
= Z
0
_
−i
_
dx
r
j
α
(x
r
)D
αµ
(x
r
−z)
_
.
(2.12)
16
Similarly for the other functional derivatives we get
δ
δJ
b
(z)
Z
0
= Z
0
_
−i
_
dx
s
J
a
(x
s
)∆
ab
F
(x
s
−z)
_
δ
δη(z)
Z
0
= Z
0
_
−i
_
dx
t
S
F
(x
t
−z)η(x
t
)
_
δ
δη(z)
Z
0
= Z
0
_
i
_
dx
u
η(x
u
)S
F
(x
u
−z)
_
(2.13)
where we have used the Grassmann nature of the fermion fields and currents which
gives a minus sign in (2.13). Equation (2.11) now becomes
Z
(1)
=
−i
N
_
dz dx
r
dx
s
dx
t
dx
u
_
(iη(x
u
)S
F
(x
u
−z)) C
b
µ
(−iS
F
(x
t
−z)η(x
t
))
_
−iJ
a
(x
s
)∆
ab
F
(x
s
−z)
_
(−ij
α
(x
r
)D
αµ
(x
r
−z))
_
Z
0
. (2.14)
Now using the formula for the 4-point function (2.7) we have
τ =
−iZ
0
N
_
dz dx
r
dx
s
dx
t
dx
u
_
(iδ(x
u
−x
4
)S
F
(x
u
−z)) C
b
µ
(−iS
F
(x
t
−z))
δ(x
t
−x
1
)
_
−iδ
ac
δ(x
s
−x
3
)∆
ab
F
(x
s
−z)
_ _
−ig
λ
α
δ(x
r
−x
2
)D
αµ
(x
r
−z)
_
_
. (2.15)
Setting J = j = η = η = 0 sets Z
0
= N, and then completing the x
r
, x
s
, x
t
and x
u
integrations leaves
τ = i
_
dz [iS
F
(x
4
−z)C
c
λ
iS
F
(x
1
−z)i∆
F
(x
3
−z)iD(x
2
−z)] . (2.16)
We now use the reduction formula [13] to remove the external propagators, leaving
a momentum conserving delta function. Also attaching the initial and final nucleon
spinors and the photon polarization vector gives the M-matrix as
i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
+ q −P
i
−k)M
fi
= i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
+ q −P
i
−k)U(P
f
)C
c
λ
ǫ
λ
U(P
i
)
= i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
+ q −P
i
−k)U(P
f
)
ief
π
m
π
γ
λ
γ
5
1
2

3
, τ
c
] ǫ
λ
U(P
i
). (2.17)
The S-matrix element can be formed by adding certain factors for each external
particle from the definitions of the fields (Section A.3), giving
S
fi
= i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
+ q −P
i
−k)
¸
M
P
f
M
P
i
(2π)
12
4P
0
i
P
0
f
k
0
q
0
M
fi
. (2.18)
Now that we have the M-matrix for the Kroll-Ruderman diagram we could continue
to find the CGLN amplitudes and then the observables. Instead we will continue and
find the M-matrices corresponding to the other tree level diagrams and put everything
together at the end.
17
2.3 The Born Terms
In this section we will calculate the Feynman rules corresponding to the two vertices
shown in Figures 2.2 and 2.3. Once we have the Feynman rules then it is quite
straightforward to use them in forming the M-matrix for composite diagrams, as we
will soon show.
Figure 2.2: The γNN vertex
Figure 2.3: The πNN vertex
In addition to the pseudovector Lagrangian used in our derivation of the Kroll-
Ruderman Lagrangian in the above Section (2.1), we now need a Lagrangian that
describes the interaction between pions and nucleons. In order to facilitate the quark
substructure of the nucleon we include anomalous moments as follows
L
γNN
= −eNQγ
µ
NA
µ

e
4M
NK
N
σ
µν
NF
µν
≡ NC
µ
NA
µ
+ NC
µν
NF
µν
(2.19)
where Q =
_
1+τ
3
2
_
is the nucleon charge operator, σ
µν
=
i
2

µ
, γ
ν
}, F
µν
is the usual
electromagnetic field strength tensor and K
N
=
_
K
s
+K
v
τ
3
2
_
is the anomalous magnetic
moment of the nucleon ( K
s
+ K
v
= k
p
= 1.793 and K
s
−K
v
= k
n
= −1.913 are the
proton and neutron anomalous magnetic moments respectively). If we recognize
e
2M
as the nuclear magneton we can see that this term represents the magnetic moment
interaction (due to internal quark currents) between the nucleons and the electromag-
netic field. We can check the validity of this by noting that the magnetic moment
18
interaction term is of the form given in Appendix A (A.19) where we have the Dirac
bilinear combination
Γ = −eQγ
µ
A
µ

e
4M
K
N
σ
µν
F
µν
(2.20)
which can be reduced to two component form using the expressions given in Ap-
pendix A to give (keeping only the terms at leading order in
1
M
)
χ

s

M(P
f
, P
i

s
= −χ

s

eK
N
4M
σ
k
ǫ
ijk
F
ij
χ
s
,
= −χ

s

eK
N
4M
σ
k
ǫ
ijk
(∇
i
A
j
−∇
j
A
i

s
,
= −χ

s

eK
N
4M
σ
k
ǫ
ijk
(2∇
i
A
j

s
,
= −χ

s

eK
N
2M
σ · (∇×A)χ
s
,
= χ

s

(−µ
N
σ · B) χ
s
,
(2.21)
from which we see that it is indeed a magnetic moment interaction with nucleon
magnetic moment given by µ
N
=
eK
N
2M
.
The 3-point function is given by
τ
γNN
=
1
i
3
δ
δη(x
1
)
δ
δj
λ
(x
2
)
δ
δη(x
3
)
Z|
j=η=η=0
. (2.22)
For our diagram of interest we only need the linear term in the expansion of Z,
leaving
Z =
i
N
_
dz
_
−1
i
δ
δη(z)
C
µ
1
i
δ
δη(z)
1
i
δ
δj
µ
(z)

−1
i
δ
δη(z)
C
µν
1
i
δ
δη(z)
_
ik
µ
1
i
δ
δj
ν
(z)
−ik
ν
1
i
δ
δj
µ
(z)
__
Z
0
(2.23)
where we have used the Fourier transform of the photon field to make the replacement
F
µν
→−i(k
µ
A
ν
−k
ν
A
µ
).
We now insert this into the 3-point function giving
τ
γNN
=
−1
i
2
_
dz
_
S
F
(x
3
−z)C
µ
S
F
(x
1
−z)D
λµ
(x
2
−z)
−S
F
(x
3
−z)C
µν
S
F
(x
1
−z)
_
ik
µ
D
λν
(x
2
−z) −ik
ν
D
λµ
(x
2
−z)
¸
_
(2.24)
and removing the g
λν
and g
λµ
from the photon propagators gives
τ
γNN
=
_
dz S
F
(x
3
−z)D(x
2
−z) [C
λ
−C
µλ
(ik
µ
) + C
λν
(ik
ν
)] S
F
(x
1
−z) (2.25)
and changing the dummy index µ →ν in the last term gives
τ
γNN
=
_
dz S
F
(x
3
−z)D(x
2
−z) [C
λ
−(C
µλ
−C
λµ
) (ik
µ
)] S
F
(x
1
−z), (2.26)
19
with the antisymmetry of σ
λµ
we have C
λµ
= −C
µλ
and our 3 point function is then
τ
γNN
=
_
dz S
F
(x
3
−z)D(x
2
−z) [C
λ
+ 2C
λµ
(ik
µ
)] S
F
(x
1
−z). (2.27)
Now removing the factors of iS
F
(x
1
−z), iD(x
2
−z) and iS
F
(x
3
−z) as well as adding
the momentum conserving factor of (2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
− P
i
− k) gives the vertex Feynman
rule

λ
(γNN) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
−P
i
−k) [C
λ
+ 2iC
λµ
k
µ
]
= i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
−P
i
−k)
_
−eQγ
λ

ie
2M
K
N
σ
λµ
k
µ
_
.
(2.28)
Similarly, for the pseudovector pion-nucleon Lagrangian (2.1), we have the follow-
ing vertex Feynman rule
iΓ(πNN) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ q −P
i
)
_
if
π
m
π

5
τ
c
_
. (2.29)
With the above two Feynman rules (2.28, 2.29) we can form the S- and U-channel
matrix elements. The S- and U-channel diagrams are shown in Figures 2.4 and 2.5
below.
Figure 2.4: PVBorn S-channel diagram
Figure 2.5: PVBorn U-channel diagram
20
The M-matrix element for the S-channel diagram is given by
i(2π)
4
δ(P
i
+ k −P
f
−q)M
s
fi
= U(P
f
)
_
d
4
r
(2π)
4
iΓ(πNN)iS
F
(r)iΓ
λ
(γNN)ǫ
λ
U(P
i
)
(2.30)
which, upon insertion of the propagator and vertex rules becomes
i(2π)
4
δ(P
i
+ k −P
f
−q)M
(s)
fi
= U(P
f
)
_
d
4
r
(2π)
4
_
i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ q −r)
if
π
m
π

5
τ
c
_
i
r + M
s −M
2
_
−e
_
1 + τ
3
2
_
γ
λ

ie
2M
K
N
σ
λµ
k
µ
_
i(2π)
4
δ(r −P
i
−k)ǫ
λ
U(P
i
) (2.31)
and after performing the integration over the momentum of the internal line, using
one of the momentum conserving delta functions leaves
iM
(s)
fi
= U(P
f
)
−ef
π
m
π
(s −M
2
)

5
(P
i
+ k + M)
_
τ
c
1 + τ
3
2
ǫ −τ
c
K
N
2M
ǫ k
_
U(P
i
).
(2.32)
Similarly for the U-channel we have
iM
(u)
fi
= U(P
f
)
−ef
π
m
π
(u −M
2
)
ǫ
_
1 + τ
3
2
τ
c

K
N
2M
τ
c
k
_
(P
f
− k+M) qγ
5
U(P
i
). (2.33)
2.4 The Pion Pole Term
To represent pion-photon interactions, which will arise to leading order in the T-
channel pion pole diagram, we use the vector current derived from SU(2) invariance
of the sigma model Lagrangian.
L
γππ
= −eV
3
µ
A
µ
= −eǫ
3ab
π
a

µ
π
b
A
µ
= −e (π
+

µ
π

−π


µ
π
+
) A
µ
(2.34)
Note that the minus sign between the two terms in (2.34) is necessary or the La-
grangian would be equivalent to zero for real photons. To see this, integrate by parts
and use the gauge condition k
µ
ǫ
µ
= 0 for photons of 4-momentum k
µ
and polarization
vector ǫ
µ
. This interaction Lagrangian leads to the Feynman diagram in Figure 2.6.
The usual procedure gives the Feynman rule as

λ
(γππ) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(q

−k −q) [−ieǫ
3ac
(q
λ
+ q

λ
)] . (2.35)
The M-matrix element for the T-channel diagram shown in Figure 2.7 is found to be
i(2π)
4
δ(P
i
+ k −P
f
−q)M
(t)
fi
= U(P
f
)
_
d
4
r
(2π)
4

λ
(γππ)i∆
F
(r)iΓ(πNN)ǫ
λ
U(P
i
)
= (2π)
4
δ(P
i
+ k −P
f
−q)U(P
f
)
ief
π
m
π
ǫ
3cb
τ
b
2q
λ
−k
λ
t −m
2
π
ǫ
λ
(q− k)γ
5
U(P
i
). (2.36)
21
Figure 2.6: The γππ vertex
The gauge condition for transverse photons k · ǫ = 0 reduces the M-matrix to
iM
(t)
fi
= U(P
f
)
2ief
π
m
π
(t −m
2
π
)
ǫ
3cb
τ
b
q · ǫ(q− k)γ
5
U(P
i
). (2.37)
Figure 2.7: The pion pole, t-channel diagram
2.5 The CGLN Amplitudes
In this section we will show the formalism involved in combining the above M-matrix
elements for the Born S- (2.32) and U- (2.33) channels, the Kroll-Ruderman channel
(2.17) and the Pion pole channel (2.37) to form the CGLN amplitudes. These ampli-
tudes will then be used in the following section to find the various photoproduction
observables.
The CGLN amplitudes are defined from the M-matrix as follows:
iM
fi
= U(P
f
)
4

λ=1
A
λ
(s, t, u)M
λ
U(P
i
). (2.38)
22
where the M
λ
are the CGLN basis defined in (1.20) and A
λ
(s, t, u) are the CGLN
amplitudes and are functions of the invariant Mandelstam variables:
s = (P
i
+ k)
2
t = (q −k)
2
u = (P
f
−k)
2
= 2P
i
· k + M
2
= −2q · k + m
2
π
= −2P
f
· k + M
2
(2.39)
Beginning with the expressions for the M-matrices, we separate out the isospin
parts by using the commutation relations of the Pauli matrices (A.7, A.8) and then
reduce the remaining factors that depend on the Dirac gamma matrices by using their
commutation relations and the Dirac equation (A.18). For example, terms like

5
(P
i
+ k + M) ǫ
which is found in the S-channel electric part of the total M-matrix can be reduced to
−γ
5
_
[s −M
2
] ǫ + 4MP
i
· ǫ −2M ǫ k
_
by commuting the P
i
to the right and using the Dirac equation. This, combined with
the corresponding term in the U-channel
ǫ(P
f
− k + M) qγ
5
→γ
5
_
[u −M
2
] ǫ −4MP
f
· ǫ + 2M ǫ k
_
leads to the S + U channel electric M-matrix as
iM
(s+u)
fi
= U(P
f
)
−ef
π
m
π
_
τ
c
_
1 + τ
3
2
__
4M
(s −M
2
)(u −M
2
)
M
2
+ 2M
_
1
s −M
2
+
1
u −M
2
_
M
1
_


3cb
τ
b
u −M
2
.
_
γ
5
(u −M
2
) ǫ −4Mγ
5
P
f
· ǫ + 2Mγ
5
ǫ k
_
_
U(P
i
) (2.40)
2.5.1 Born, Pion Pole and Kroll-Ruderman Amplitudes
Continuing in the above fashion with the matrix elements for the other channels gives
the following expressions for the amplitudes.
23
A
1
=
ef
π
m
π
_
τ
c
K
N
M

1
2

c
, τ
3
]
_
k
v
M
+
2M
u −M
2
_
+ 2Mτ
c
_
1 + τ
3
2
__
1
s −M
2
+
1
u −M
2
__
A
2
=
ef
π
m
π
_
τ
c
_
1 + τ
3
2
__
4M
(s −M
2
)(u −M
2
)
_
+
1
2

c
, τ
3
]
_
4M
(s −M
2
)(t −M
2
)
__
A
3
=
−ef
π
m
π
_
τ
c
K
N
_
1
s −M
2

1
u −M
2
_
+
1
2

c
, τ
3
]
2k
v
u −M
2
_
A
4
=
−ef
π
m
π
_
τ
c
K
N
_
1
s −M
2
+
1
u −M
2
_

1
2

c
, τ
3
]
2k
v
u −M
2
_
.
(2.41)
These expressions separated into the isospin basis
A
j
= A
(0)
j
τ
c
+ A
(+)
j
1
2

c
, τ
3
} + A
(−)
j
1
2

c
, τ
3
] , (2.42)
give the amplitudes for the various reactions as follows
A
(0)
1
=
ef
m
π
_
k
s
M
+
M
s −M
2
+
M
u −M
2
_
A
(0)
2
=
ef
m
π
2M
(s −M
2
)(u −M
2
)
A
(0)
3
= −
ef
m
π
_
k
s
s −M
2

k
s
u −M
2
_
A
(0)
4
= −
ef
m
π
_
k
s
s −M
2
+
k
s
u −M
2
_
(2.43)
A
(+)
1
=
ef
m
π
_
k
v
M
+
M
s −M
2
+
M
u −M
2
_
A
(+)
2
=
ef
m
π
2M
(s −M
2
)(u −M
2
)
A
(+)
3
= −
ef
m
π
_
k
v
s −M
2

k
v
u −M
2
_
A
(+)
4
= −
ef
m
π
_
k
v
s −M
2
+
k
v
u −M
2
_
(2.44)
24
A
(−)
1
=
ef
m
π
_
M
s −M
2

M
u −M
2
_
A
(−)
2
= −
ef
m
π
_
2M
(s −M
2
)(u −M
2
)
+
4M
(u −M
2
)(t −m
2
π
)
_
A
(−)
3
= −
ef
m
π
_
k
v
s −M
2
+
k
v
u −M
2
_
A
(−)
4
= −
ef
m
π
_
k
v
s −M
2

k
v
u −M
2
_
.
(2.45)
The values used for the couplings and anomalous magnetic moments are given in
Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Couplings used for the Born and pion pole terms
Coupling Numerical value
e
2

1
137.036
f
π
m
π
7.134 GeV
−1
k
n
-1.91

k
p
1.79
K
s
-0.06
K
v
1.85
2.6 Results
In this section we will examine the various observables for each type of photopro-
duction reaction. The expressions for the amplitudes can be reduced in the center of
momentum (CM) frame as follows
U(P
f
)
4

λ=1
A
λ
(s, t, u)M
λ
U(P
i
) =
4πW
M
χ

f

i
(2.46)
where the χ
i
and χ

f
are the initial and final nucleon Pauli spinors respectively, W =

s = (E
i
+ k
0
) is the invariant mass, and with
F = iF
1
σ · ǫ +F
2
(σ · ˆ q)
_
σ · (
ˆ
k ×ǫ)
_
+ iF
3
(σ ·
ˆ
k) (ˆ q · ǫ) + iF
4
(σ · ˆ q) (ˆ q · ǫ) , (2.47)
one can calculate the multipoles and observables. The formulae for doing so can be
found in Appendix B.
We now graph the multipoles for each of the separate charge channels in pion
photoproduction. Certain combinations of the multipoles, called the p-waves (B.13),
have been found useful in comparing the energy dependence of the multipoles with

The anomalous magnetic couplings are all given with units of nuclear magnetons.
25
the experimental results. We will wait until Chapter 8 to graph the p-waves but we
will give the low energy expression for them below, along with a comparison with
chiral perturbation theory.
2.6.1 γp →π
0
p
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-7.00
-6.75
-6.50
-6.25
-6.00
-5.75
-5.50
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Born M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.030
0.035
0.040
0.045
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Born E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.50
-2.45
-2.40
-2.35
-2.30
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Born E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Born M
1+
Multipole
Figure 2.8: Multipoles for the Born terms in the reaction γ + p → π
0
+ p. They are
given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
For the following reasons, neutral pion photoproduction from protons is perhaps
the most interesting reaction that has been recently studied. In the late 1980s exper-
imental groups in Mainz [26] and Saclay [3] showed a large discrepancy between their
respective measured values for the E
0+
multipole
§
and the result due to the tree level
Born terms given here (the so-called low energy theorem). This discrepancy was dis-
comforting, since the low energy theorem is based only on symmetry principles such as
Lorentz and gauge invariance, with the coupling constants set phenomenologically via
decay widths. The theory is therefore model independent, and a discrepancy would
§
The E
0+
multipole is also called the electric dipole amplitude as well as the slope of the differ-
ential cross section at threshold (see B.11).
26
mean that there are large contributions being neglected. Firstly, these corrections are
model dependent and secondly, they are highly virtual (far off-shell) and therefore
shouldn’t be strong contributors at threshold. Fortunately, it was shown [27] that
the breakdown of the LET was not as bad as was suspected, although a smaller but
significant discrepancy still exists.
The currently accepted value for the electric dipole amplitude is E
0+
= −1.33 ±
0.08 ×10
−3
/m
π+
(we will henceforth suppress the natural units) from MAMI [2] and
SAL [4], and this indeed differs significantly from the value derived in the present
chapter (see Figure 2.8) of E
0+
= −2.458.
We will show in later chapters that this discrepancy begins to disappear when one
includes contributions due to other interactions. An interesting consequence of this
problem has been the opportunity to test the corrections due to chiral perturbation
theory (CHPT) [28, 29], which is another effective field theory of the standard model.
A cursory introduction to CHPT is given in Appendix C. Their recent results, which
show a close agreement with the data, will be discussed further in Chapter 8. For
now we will merely compare the expression for E
0+
given by CHPT (including their
corrections) with the one we derive using the amplitudes given in Section 2.5.1 along
with the formalism given in Appendix B. The threshold contribution to E
0+
due to
the above Born terms is given by
E
thr
0+
= −
eg
πN
8πM
µ
_
1 −
1
2
(3 + k
p
)µ +O(µ
2
)
_
= −2.261
10
−3
m
π
+
, (2.48)
where we have used the relation
f
π
m
pi
=
g
πN
2M
to relate the coupling constant from our
expression to that of the CHPT expression [30] which is
E
thr
0+
= −
eg
πN
8πM
µ
_
1 −
1
2
(3 + k
p
)µ −
_
M
4F
π
_
2
µ +O(µ
2
)
_
= 0.935
10
−3
m
π
+
. (2.49)
We immediately notice that the correction to our result occurs at order µ and is
dependent on the pion decay constant F
π
= 92.4 MeV.
The p-wave multipoles are given in this LET at threshold (144.67 MeV) by
1
|q|
P
1,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
1 + k
p
+ µ
_
−1 −
k
p
2
_
+O(µ
2
)
_
= 10.073 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
,
1
|q|
P
2,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
−1 −k
p
+
µ
2
[3 + k
p
] +O(µ
2
)
_
= −9.826 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
,
(2.50)
whereas CHPT [31] gives corrections leading to
1
|q|
P
1,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
1 + k
p
+ µ
_
−1 −
k
p
2
+
g
2
πN
(10 −3π)
48π
_
+O(µ
2
)
_
= 10.32 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
,
1
|q|
P
2,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
−1 −k
p
+
µ
2
_
3 + k
p

g
2
πN
12π
_
+O(µ
2
)
_
= −11.00 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
.
(2.51)
27
Comparisons of CHPT and experiment with the full theory including resonance
exchange will be given in Chapter 8, where we will discuss total and differential cross
sections and the p-wave multipole combinations.
2.6.2 γn →π
0
n
145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00
E
γ
(MeV)
-5.00
-4.80
-4.60
-4.40
-4.20
-4.00
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Born M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.00080
-0.00060
-0.00040
-0.00020
0.00000
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Born E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Born E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Born M
1+
Multipole
Figure 2.9: Multipoles for the Born terms in the reaction γ + n →π
0
+ n. They are
given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
Neutral pion photoproduction from the neutron is an important reaction, because
it allows us to test the isospin symmetry of the strong interaction. The problem with
this reaction experimentally is that it is impossible to obtain free neutron targets.
Therefore in order to study the photonuclear properties of the neutron we are
forced to consider charged pion production in the inverse reaction as discussed below,
or we can use more complex targets such as the deuteron and then extract the proton
amplitude by making some assumptions about the system.
The multipoles for this reaction due to the Born terms are shown in Figure 2.9.
Comparing these curves with those of the previous section we can see a similar
energy dependence, but the numbers are smaller. This is due to the fact that only the
28
terms involving the anomalous magnetic moments survive, due to the lack of neutron
charge (see Equations 1.24, 2.43 and 2.44).
Our expressions for the p-waves at threshold (144.69 MeV) are as follows
1
|q|
P
1,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
−k
n
+
µ
2
k
n
+O(µ
2
)
_
= 7.055 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
,
1
|q|
P
2,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
k
n

µ
2
k
n
+O(µ
2
)
_
= −7.055 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
.
(2.52)
However, CHPT [31] gives corrections leading to
1
|q|
P
1,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
−k
n
+
µ
2
_
k
n
+
g
2
πN
(10 −3π)
48π
_
+O(µ
2
)
_
= 7.393 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
,
1
|q|
P
2,thr
=
eg
πN
8πM
2
_
k
n

µ
2
_
k
n
+
g
2
πN
12π
_
+O(µ
2
)
_
= −8.360 10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
.
(2.53)
2.6.3 The Charged Pion Reactions γn →π

p and γp →π
+
n
The charged pion reactions differ significantly in magnitude from the neutral pion
reactions due to the Kroll-Ruderman term which doesn’t contribute to the neutral
pion reactions. The multipoles are given in Figures 2.10 and 2.11.
Experiments involving charged pions can be accomplished in two ways. Firstly, in
the case of a proton target, one can direct a photon beam and study the photopro-
duced pions. Secondly, one can form a beam out of the charged pions, as is commonly
done in the so-called “meson factory” accelerators, and use it to produce photons in
the inverse process. This can be directly related, by symmetry considerations, to the
process studied here.
29
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Born M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Born E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Born E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-9.0
-8.5
-8.0
-7.5
-7.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Born M
1+
Multipole
Figure 2.10: Multipoles for the Born terms in the charged pion reactions. The top
four are π

production and the bottom four are π
+
production. They are given from
top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
.
30
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-8.0
-7.5
-7.0
-6.5
-6.0
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Born M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-5.5
-5.0
-4.5
-4.0
-3.5
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Born E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-32.0
-31.5
-31.0
-30.5
-30.0
-29.5
-29.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Born E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Born M
1+
Multipole
Figure 2.11: Multipoles for the Born terms in the charged pion reactions. The top
four are π

production and the bottom four are π
+
production. They are given from
top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
.
31
Chapter 3
The N(1440) Resonance
In this chapter we will calculate the corrections to the Born terms given in Chapter 2
which are due to the excitation of the nucleon into a virtual resonance state. The
resonance is too massive to be produced as a real (on-shell) particle at near-threshold
energies and it is only felt as an internal, very short lived, bound state of the pion
and the nucleon. The excitation of a nucleon into a resonance can occur in various
spin states (see Table 1.1) and we will discuss two of them, namely the N(1440) (P
11
)
resonance in the present chapter and the more complicated ∆(1232) (P
33
) in the next.
3.1 The Lagrangian and Feynman Rules
The N(1440) resonance

is a spin-
1
2
, isospin-
1
2
field with a Lagrangian given by
L
πNR
=
f
πNR
m
π

µ
γ
5
τ
a
R∂
µ
π
a
+ H.c. (3.1)
for the vertex shown in Figure 3.1, and
L
γNR
= −
e
2(M + M
R
)
R(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

µν
NF
µν
+ H.c. (3.2)
for the the vertex shown in Figure 3.2.
These Lagrangians are seen to be the same as L
πNN
(2.1) and L
γNN
(2.19) except
for the coupling constants and anomalous magnetic moment. Notice that the electric
coupling in (2.19) does not contribute to the resonance Lagrangian. This is due to the
lack of gauge invariance. To see this we make the replacement ǫ →k in the M-matrix
element as follows
iM
fi
= −ieU(R)Qγ
µ
U(P
i

µ
= −ieU(R)Q kU(P
i
)
= −ieU(R)Q(R− P
i
) U(P
i
)
= −ieU(R)Q(M
R
−M) U(P
i
)
= 0
(3.3)
where we have used 4-momentum conservation in the third line and the Dirac equation
in the fourth line above. We can immediately see that the lack of gauge invariance
is due to the mass splitting between the resonance and the nucleon. Since this mass
difference was not present in (2.19) the interaction remained gauge invariant.

The N(1440) resonance is also sometimes referred to as the “Roper” resonance.
32
Figure 3.1: The πNR vertex
Figure 3.2: The γNR vertex
The propagator for the N(1440) resonance is the same Dirac propagator as for
any spin-
1
2
particle and the Feynman rules are derived in the same manner as the
other channels. They are given by
iΓ(RπN) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ q −R)
_
i
f
πNR
m
π
γ
µ
γ
5
τ
c
q
µ
_
,

λ
(γNR) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(R −P
i
−k)
_
−i
e(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3
)
2(M + M
R
)
σ
µν
(g
µ
λ
k
ν
−g
ν
λ
k
µ
)
_
.
(3.4)
3.1.1 Coupling Constants
The 3-point function which gave us the vertex rules can be used to find the decay
amplitudes of the N(1440) as per the process N

→ γ + N or N

→ π + N. These
partial decay widths can then be compared with experimental values and used to set
the numerical values of our coupling constants and anomalous magnetic moments.
Beginning with the decay into a photon and a nucleon, shown in Figure 3.2, we
33
form the S-matrix for the process as
S
fi
=
¸
MM
R
(2π)
9
2R
0
k
0
P
0
f
U(P
f

λ
(RγN)ǫ
λ
U(R) (3.5)
where Γ · ǫ is given by
Γ · ǫ = −(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ k −R)
ie
2(M + M
R
)
σ
µν

µ
k
ν
−ǫ
ν
k
µ
)
_
η

a

(K
R
S
+ K
R
V
τ
3

a
_
,
= (2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ k −R)
e
(M + M
R
)
ǫ k
_
η

a

(K
R
S
+ K
R
V
τ
3

a
_
.
(3.6)
Here we have separated the isospin part for a final nucleon of isospin projection
a

and an initial resonance of isospin a. We see that this factor will give (K
R
S
+ K
R
V
)
for a positive resonance (a =
1
2
) decaying into a proton, and (K
R
S
−K
R
V
) for a neutral
resonance (a = −
1
2
) decaying into a neutron. We will complete the analysis with this
factor labeled as K
R
, noting that it will mean either case as needed.
The decay width is then given by the usual formula as
dΓ =
1
N
|S
fi
|
2
V T
d
3
k d
3
P
f
, (3.7)
where the number of decay particles per unit volume is normalized to N =
1
(2π)
3
and
the 4-volume element is V T = (2π)
4
δ
4
(0). Putting in our expression for the S-matrix,
averaging over the initial resonance spin, summing over the final nucleon spin and
photon helicity, and integrating over the final state momenta we have
Γ =
e
2
K
2
R
MM
R
4(2π)
2
(M + M
R
)
2
_
d
3
P
f
d
3
k
R
0
k
0
P
0
f

s,s


|U
s
′ (P
f
) ǫ kU
s
(R)|
2
δ
4
(P
f
+ k −R). (3.8)
We now work out the spin part of the above as follows

s,s


|U
s
′ (P
f
) ǫ
(λ)
kU
s
(R)|
2
=

s,s


U
s
γ
0
k

γ
0
γ
0
ǫ
(λ)†
γ
0
U
s
′ U
s
′ ǫ
(λ)
kU
s
=

s,λ
(U
s
)
α
(kγ · ǫ
(λ)∗
)
αβ
Λ
+
βσ
(P
f
) (ǫ
(λ)
k)
σδ
(U
s
)
δ
=

λ
Λ
+
δα
(kγ · ǫ
(λ)∗
)
αβ
Λ
+
βσ
(P
f
) (ǫ
(λ)
k)
σδ
=

λ
1
4MM
R
Tr {(R + M
R
)(kγ · ǫ

)(P
f
+ M)(ǫ k)}
(3.9)
where we have used the properties of the γ matrices and those of the Dirac spinors in
forming the projection operator Λ
+
which is defined in Appendix A (A.17). Now we
34
refer to the trace formulae for the Dirac matrices (A.12) and reduce our expression
for the decay width to the following
Γ =
e
2
K
2
R
16(2π)
2
(M + M
R
)
2
_
d
3
P
f
d
3
k
R
0
k
0
P
0
f
_
−8R · kP
f
· k

λ
ǫ
(λ)∗
· ǫ
(λ)
_
δ
4
(P
f
+ k −R),
=
e
2
K
2
R
(2π)
2
(M + M
R
)
2
_
d
3
P
f
d
3
k
R
0
k
0
P
0
f
(R · kP
f
· k) δ
3
(P
f
+k −R)δ(P
0
f
+ k
0
−R
0
)
(3.10)
using

λ
ǫ

· ǫ = −2 in the second line. We now complete the integration above in
the resonance center of momentum frame by using the 3-momentum δ function for
the P
f
integration, and performing the change of integration measure
R
0
= M
R
= |k| +

k
2
+ M
2
dR
0
d|k|
= |k|
_
k
0
+ P
0
f
k
0
P
0
f
_
= |k|
M
R
k
0
P
0
f
d
3
k = k
2
d|k| dΩ →|k|
k
0
P
0
f
M
R
dR
0
to give
Γ
γ
=
e
2
K
2
R
k
2
(M
2
R
−M
2
)
2πM
R
(M + M
R
)
2
. (3.11)
The Particle Data Group (PDG) [32] gives the partial decay width for electro-
magnetic decay in terms of the helicity amplitude A1
2
as
Γ
γ
=
k
2
π
2M
(2J + 1)M
R
_
|A1
2
|
2
+|A3
2
|
2
_
, (3.12)
where in the case of the N(1440), there is no spin-
3
2
helicity amplitude and the spin
is J =
1
2
. The PDG gives the helicity amplitudes for the proton and neutron final
state respectively as
A
p
1
2
= −0.065 ±0.004 GeV

1
2
,
A
n
1
2
= +0.040 ±0.010 GeV

1
2
.
(3.13)
Putting these into the expression for the partial decay width (3.12) and equating
this to our expression (3.11), we find values of the anomalous magnetic moments
K
R
p
=
1
2
(K
R
S
+ K
R
V
) and K
R
n
=
1
2
(K
R
S
−K
R
V
) as
K
R
p
= 0.320 GeV,
K
R
n
= −0.197 GeV,
(3.14)
where the sign is found by noting that the helicity amplitude is proportional to the
matrix element for the electromagnetic operator (3.4).
35
In a similar fashion we use the vertex rule for the R →π + N vertex (3.1) to get
iM
fi
= U
N
(P
f
)
f
πNR
m
π

5
U(R) < Nπ|τ · π|R >
= U
N
(P
f
)
f
πNR
m
π

5
U(R) < Nπ|

2(τ
+
π

+ τ

π
+
) + τ
0
π
0
|R >
= U
N
(P
f
)
f
πNR
m
π

5
U(R) η

a

_

2(τ
+
+ τ

) + τ
0
_
η
a
(3.15)
where the η

a

and the η
a
are the nucleon and the resonance isospinors respectively.
We will henceforth drop the isospin part and simply note that the charged pion
production will give a factor of

2 over the neutral pion production decays

. As
well, the R

→π
0
n decay will have a minus sign with respect to the R
+
→π
0
p decay.
Now forming the decay rate from the M-matrix in the same fashion as we did for
the electromagnetic decay above we arrive at
Γ
π
0
N
=
f
2
πNR
4πm
2
π
M
R
|P
f
|(M + M
R
)
2
(P
0
f
−M), (3.16)
where |P
f
| and P
0
f
can be expressed as
|P
f
| =
_
(P
0
f
)
2
−M
2
,
P
0
f
=
M
2
+ M
2
R
−m
2
π
2M
R
.
(3.17)
The charged resonance decays are given in terms of this by recalling from our discus-
sion of the isospin that Γ
π
±
N
= 2 Γ
π
0
N
.
The PDG gives the full N(1440) decay width as Γ
π
= 350MeV, along with the
branching ratio as
Γ(πN)
Γ
π
= 0.60 (3.18)
so we have

π
0
p
+ Γ
π
+
n
) = 0.60 Γ
π
= (Γ
π
0
n
+ Γ
π

p
).
(3.19)
Using this equation along with the proper masses given in Table A.4, we arrive at a
numerical value for our coupling of
f
πNR
= 0.395. (3.20)

We have used the fact that, for example

a,a

η

a
′ τ
+
η
a
=<
1
2

+
| −
1
2
>= 1, since the raising
operator τ
+
gives zero for all other terms.
36
3.2 The CGLN Amplitudes
The M-matrix for our 4-point function with the resonance field as an internal propa-
gator is given as with the other channels as
i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ q −P
i
−k)M
fi
= U(P
f
)
_
d
4
R
(2π)
4
iΓ(RπN)iS
F
(R)iΓ
λ
(γNR)ǫ
λ
U(P
i
).
(3.21)
Performing the resonance momentum integration and removing the isospin part gives
iM
fi
=
_
ef
πNR
m
π
(M + M
R
)
η

N
τ
c
η
R
η

R
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

R
_
×
U(P
f

5
γ
ρ
q
ρ
P
i
+ k + M
R
s −M
2
R
k ǫU(P
i
). (3.22)
Let us now work out the isospin part
η

N
τ
c
η
R
η

R
(k
S
R
+k
V
R
τ
3

N
= η

N
τ
c
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

N
= η

N

c
k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
c
τ
3

N
= η

N
τ
c
k
S
R
η
N
+ η

N
k
V
R
1
2

c
, τ
3
} η
N
+ η

N
k
V
R
1
2

c
, τ
3
] η
N
(3.23)
where we have summed over the spin of the internal resonance giving the identity
matrix. The last line in the above equation is in the standard form as given in (1.22)
and allows us to separate the CGLN amplitudes into the various charge channels.
The final results are listed below.
3.2.1 N(1440) Amplitudes
The total S + U channel amplitudes are given by
A
(0)
1
=
ef
πNR
k
S
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
2 +
_
M
2
R
−M
2
_
_
1
s −M
2
R
+
1
u −M
2
R
__
,
A
(0)
2
= 0,
A
(0)
3
= −
ef
πNR
k
S
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
(M + M
R
)
_
1
s −M
2
R

1
u −M
2
R
__
,
A
(0)
4
= −
ef
πNR
k
S
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
(M + M
R
)
_
1
s −M
2
R
+
1
u −M
2
R
__
.
(3.24)
A
(+)
1
=
ef
πNR
k
V
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
2 +
_
M
2
R
−M
2
_
_
1
s −M
2
R
+
1
u −M
2
R
__
,
A
(+)
2
= 0,
A
(+)
3
= −
ef
πNR
k
V
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
(M + M
R
)
_
1
s −M
2
R

1
u −M
2
R
__
,
A
(+)
4
= −
ef
πNR
k
V
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
(M + M
R
)
_
1
s −M
2
R
+
1
u −M
2
R
__
.
(3.25)
37
A
(−)
1
=
ef
πNR
k
V
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
_
M
2
R
−M
2
_
_
1
s −M
2
R

1
u −M
2
R
__
,
A
(−)
2
= 0,
A
(−)
3
= −
ef
πNR
k
V
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
(M + M
R
)
_
1
s −M
2
R
+
1
u −M
2
R
__
,
A
(−)
4
= −
ef
πNR
k
V
R
m
π
(M + M
R
)
_
(M + M
R
)
_
1
s −M
2
R

1
u −M
2
R
__
.
(3.26)
The values used for the couplings and anomalous magnetic moments are given in
Table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Couplings used for the N(1440) resonance terms
Coupling Numerical value
f
πNR
0.395
k
V
R
0.1226
k
S
R
0.5174
3.3 Results
The contributions to the multipoles in the separate pion production reactions are
shown in Figures 3.3 through 3.6. We immediately notice that the effects on the
different multipoles due to the N(1440) resonance are quite insignificant as compared
to the Born terms of the previous chapter. The largest is the M
1−
multipole, due to
the fact that it is a P1
2
resonance (see Table 1.1). For neutral pion production we see
that the Roper contribution to M
1−
is ∼ 0.12 at threshold compared to ∼ −6.57 for
the Born terms. For the charged pions we have a contribution of ∼ 0.22 compared
with ∼ 5.80 from the Born terms (only a ∼ 4% effect). Hence the N(1440) resonance
is not a strong component in pion production and can easily be neglected. The
polarized photon asymmetry, on the other hand, is affected by this resonance and it
should be included in any theory which attempts to fit polarization data.
38
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.110
0.115
0.120
0.125
0.130
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.002300
-0.002250
-0.002200
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0060
0.0080
0.0100
0.0120
0.0140
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0510
0.0515
0.0520
0.0525
0.0530
0.0535
0.0540
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) M
1+
Multipole
Figure 3.3: Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the neutral pion reactions.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
39
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0700
0.0720
0.0740
0.0760
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
N(1440) M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.001400
-0.001380
-0.001360
-0.001340
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
N(1440) E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0040
0.0050
0.0060
0.0070
0.0080
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
N(1440) E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0315
0.0320
0.0325
0.0330
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
N(1440) M
1+
Multipole
Figure 3.4: Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the neutral pion reactions.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
40
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.2150
0.2200
0.2250
0.2300
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
N(1440) M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.001820
0.001840
0.001860
0.001880
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
N(1440) E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0320
0.0340
0.0360
0.0380
0.0400
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
N(1440) E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.0450
-0.0445
-0.0440
-0.0435
-0.0430
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
N(1440) M
1+
Multipole
Figure 3.5: Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the charged pion reactions.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
41
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.1620
-0.1600
-0.1580
-0.1560
-0.1540
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
N(1440) M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.003100
-0.003050
-0.003000
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
N(1440) E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.0320
-0.0310
-0.0300
-0.0290
-0.0280
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
N(1440) E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0700
0.0705
0.0710
0.0715
0.0720
0.0725
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
N(1440) M
1+
Multipole
Figure 3.6: Multipoles for the N(1440) resonance terms in the charged pion reactions.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
42
Chapter 4
The ∆(1232) Resonance
The ∆(1232) resonance is one of the most significant contributors to the photopro-
duction of pions. The reason for this is the relatively small mass of 1232 MeV as
compared to the threshold pion-nucleon invariant mass of ∼ 1078 MeV. The reso-
nance is therefore not very far off-shell at pion production threshold and it is found
that even at threshold, the resonance’s influence is quite strongly felt. Hence, it is
imperative to consider these resonance contributions in regard to any theory that
intends to accurately model the pion production observables.
In this chapter we treat the ∆ resonance as an explicit degree of freedom. This
means that we take it as being a true particle rather than simply a nucleon resonance.
The decay width of the ∆ ranges from 115 →125 MeV which gives its lifetime as
extremely short (∆t ∼
¯h
∆E
∼ 5.5 × 10
−24
s) and therefore it exists for only a fleeting
instant as a pseudo-particle before it decays into a pion and a nucleon. We will show,
however, that treating it as an explicit degree of freedom does in fact give results
consistent with data (see Chapter 8, esp. Figure 8.3).
4.1 The ∆(1232) Wavefunction
The ∆ resonance field Ψ
µ
is a vector spinor with even parity (P3
2
+
) and a free La-
grangian density given by
L = Ψ
µ
Λ
µν
Ψ
ν
, (4.1)
with
Λ
µν
=
_
(i ∂ −M

) g
µν
+ iA(γ
µ

ν
+ γ
ν

µ
) +
i
2
(3A
2
+ 2A + 1)γ
µ
∂γ
ν
−M
_
(3A
2
+ 3A + 1)γ
µ
γ
ν
¸
_
(4.2)
where A is an arbitrary parameter subject to the restriction that A = −
1
2
to en-
sure invertability (see Reference [33]). The Euler-Lagrange equation given by this
Lagrangian is the Rarita-Schwinger equation
(i ∂ −M


ν
= 0, (4.3)
with the constraints
γ
µ
Ψ
µ
= 0,

µ
Ψ
µ
= 0.
(4.4)
The Rarita-Schwinger spin-
3
2
wavefunction is constructed by combining a spin-
1
2
wavefunction with a spin-1 wavefunction in the following way
u
µ
(R, σ) =

s
u(R, s)C
1
1
2
3
2
λs σ
ǫ
µ
(R, λ) (4.5)
43
where u(R, s) is a Dirac spinor, C
1
1
2
3
2
λs σ
is a Clebsch-Gordon coefficient and ǫ
µ
(R, λ) is
the polarization vector for a massive particle which for the z direction is given by
ǫ
µ
(±1) =
1

2
(0, ∓1, −i, 0),
ǫ
µ
(0) =
1
M

(R, 0, 0, R
0
)
(4.6)
and satisfying the orthogonality relation

µ
ǫ
µ
(λ)ǫ

µ


) = −δ
λλ
′ . (4.7)
The spin summation is given by
u
µν
=

σ
u
µ
(σ)u
ν
(σ)
=
1
3
(R + M)
_
2
M
R
µ
R
ν
−g
µν
−γ
µ
γ
ν
+
γ
µ
R
ν
−γ
ν
R
µ
M
_
.
(4.8)
We write the Rarita-Schwinger spinor in the form
u
µ
(R, ρ) =
_
R
0
+ M
2M
_
I
σ·R
R
0
+M
_
S
µ
(R)χ
3
2
ρ
(4.9)
where the spinor, χ
3
2
ρ
, is given by
χ
3
2
3
2
=
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
, χ
3
2
1
2
=
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
0
_
_
_
_
χ
3
2

1
2
=
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
0
_
_
_
_
, χ
3
2

3
2
=
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
1
_
_
_
_
(4.10)
and from (4.5) we can see that we have made the definition

s
χ
1
2
s
C
1
1
2
3
2
λs σ
ǫ
µ
(R, λ) = S
µ
(R)χ
3
2
σ
, (4.11)
44
which can be solved to give the spin operator, S
µ
(R), as
S
µ
(R) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
0
2R

6M
0 0
0 0
2R

6M
0
_
_

1

2
0
1

6
0
0 −
1

6
0
1

2
_
_

i

6
0 −
i

6
0
0 −
i

6
0 −
i

6
_
_
0
2R
0

6M
0 0
0 0
2R
0

6M
0
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (4.12)
4.2 The Feynman Rules
The interaction Lagrangian and the propagator for the ∆(1232) resonance are found
in [33] and are given by
L

= L
πN∆
+L
g1
γN∆
+L
g2
γN∆
(4.13)
where the individual interaction Lagrangians are given by
L
πN∆
=
f
πN∆
m
π

µ
T
a
Θ
µν
(Z)N∂
ν
π
a
+ H.c.
L
g1
γN∆
=
ieg
1
2M

ρ
Θ
ρα
(Y )γ
ν
γ
5
T
3
NF
αν
+ H.c.
L
g2
γN∆
=
eg
2
4M
2

ρ
Θ
ρν
(X)γ
5
T
3
(∂
α
N)F
να
+ H.c.
(4.14)
and we now use ∆
µ
as the Lorentz vector, Dirac spinor, isovector field describing the
∆ resonance. T
a
is the isospin
1
2

3
2
transition operator and Θ
ρν
(X) = g
ρν
+ [
1
2
(1 +
4X)A + X]γ
ρ
γ
ν
for off-shell parameter X and we choose the arbitrary parameter
A = −1 for algebraic convenience

.
We have given two separate electromagnetic Lagrangians for photon-resonance
interactions. The reason for this can be seen through multipole analysis as follows.
The ∆ field is of spin
3
2
and even parity, which means that it can only be excited
by an M1 or an E2 photon

(see Table 1.1). The g
1
and g
2
couplings correspond to
these two possible transitions to the ∆. The final state pion-nucleon system produced
through the resonance excitation must therefore consist of M
1+
and E
1+
multipoles.

Notice that the matrices Θ
ρν
(c) where c =
1
2
(1+4X)A+X = −
1
2
(1+2X) form a group with the
multiplication given by Θ
αβ
(a)Θ
βδ
(b) = Θ
δ
α
(a +b + 4ab), the identity element being Θ(0), and the
multiplicative inverse element Θ(a)
−1
given by Θ(−
a
1+4a
) if we remove the element Θ(a = Z = −
1
4
).
This element does not have an inverse due to
_
Θ(−
1
4
)Θ(b) = Θ(−
1
4
) ∀ b ∈ R
_
but it can be removed
since if Θ(a)Θ(b) = Θ(−
1
4
) then either a = −
1
4
or b = −
1
4
.

For electroproduction one also needs a “g
3
” coupling due to the existence of L0 longitudinal
photons.
45
The propagator for the resonance field is given by
P
µν
(R) =
R + M

R
2
−M
2

_
g
µν

1
3
γ
µ
γ
ν

2R
µ
R
ν
3M
2

+
R
µ
γ
ν
−R
ν
γ
µ
3M

_
(4.15)
for resonance 4-momentum R
µ
.
We will now proceed to find the Feynman rules corresponding to the vertex dia-
grams shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2.
Figure 4.1: The πN∆ vertices
Beginning with the πN∆ vertices shown in Figure 4.1 we rewrite the Lagrangian
and its Hermitian conjugate as L
πN∆
= ∆
ρ
iC
c
ρν
q
ν

c
which gives the U-channel
and L
H.c
πN∆
= π
c
NiC
c
νρ
q
ν

ρ
which gives the S-channel. We have made the following
definition
C
c
ρν
=
f
πN∆
m
π
t
c
Θ
ρν
(Z). (4.16)
The Feynman rules are then derived respectively as

ρ
(πN∆) = i(2π)
4
δ(R + q −P
i
)
_
iC
c
ρν
q
ν
¸

ρ
(∆Nπ) = i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
+ q −R)
_
iC
c
νρ
q
ν
¸ (4.17)
The Lagrangian and its Hermitian conjugate for the γN∆ vertices shown in Figure
4.2 in g1 and g2 coupling give the following Feynman rules

ρλ
(g1, γN∆) = i(2π)
4
δ(R −k −P
i
) [C
ραν
(k
α
g
ν
λ
−k
ν
g
α
λ
)] ,

ρλ
(g1, γ∆N) = i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
−k −R)
_
˜
C
ανρ
(k
ν
g
α
λ
−k
α
g
ν
λ
)
_
,

ρλ
(g2, γN∆) = i(2π)
4
δ(R −k −P
i
) [C
ρν
R
α
(k
ν
g
α
λ
−k
α
g
ν
λ
)] ,

ρλ
(g2, γ∆N) = −i(2π)
4
δ(P
f
−k −R)
_
˜
C
νρ
R
α
(k
α
g
ν
λ
−k
ν
g
α
λ
)
_
,
(4.18)
46
Figure 4.2: The γN∆ vertices in g1 and g2 coupling
where we have made the following definitions
C
ραν
=
eg
1
2M
Θ
ρα
(Y )γ
ν
γ
5
T
3
,
˜
C
ανρ
=
eg
1
2M
γ
5
γ
α
Θ
νρ
(Y )T
3
,
C
ρν
=
eg
2
4M
2
Θ
ρν
(X)γ
5
T
3
,
˜
C
νρ
=
eg
2
4M
2
γ
5
Θ
νρ
(X)T
3
.
(4.19)
4.3 The CGLN Amplitudes
Now that we have the Feynman rules we can find the S- and U-channel ∆-resonance
exchange amplitudes. There are 4 diagrams that need to be computed, since there are
two possible electromagnetic couplings (g
1
& g
2
). We will begin with the S-channel
g
1
coupling diagram as shown in Figure 4.3.
The M-matrix is given by
iM
(g1)
fi
= U(P
f
)iC
c
νρ
q
ν
P
ρσ
(P
i
+ k)C
σαβ
(k
α
g
β
λ
−k
β
g
α
λ

λ
U(P
i
) (4.20)
for g
1
coupling and for g
2
coupling we have
iM
(g2)
fi
= U(P
f
)C
c
ρµ
q
ρ
P
µν
(P
i
+ k)C
νσ
P
α
i
(k
σ
g
λα
−k
α
g
σ
λ

λ
U(P
i
). (4.21)
The reduction of these matrix elements to form the CGLN amplitudes is now com-
pleted by first using the Dirac equation, the commutation relations and momentum
47
Figure 4.3: S-channel ∆(1232) resonance exchange
conservation to derive general relations like the following
U(P
f

5
q k ǫU(P
i
) = −(M
3
+ M
4
),
U(P
f
)R k ǫγ
5
U(P
i
) = M
3
+ M
4
+ MM
1
,
U(P
f
)2γ
5
(P
i
· ǫ k −P
i
· k ǫ)U(P
i
) = M
3
+ M
4
+ 2MM
1
,
U(P
f
)2γ
5
(P
f
· ǫ k −P
f
· k ǫ)U(P
i
) = M
4
−M
3
+ 2MM
1
,
U(P
f
)(A R + B)(P
i
· k ǫ −P
i
· ǫ k)γ
5
U(P
i
) =
_
A(P
i
· k + M
2
) + MB
¸
M
1
+
1
2
(AM + B)(M
3
+ M
4
),
U(P
f
)(A R + B)(P
f
· k ǫ −P
f
· ǫ k)γ
5
U(P
i
) =
_
A(P
f
· k + M
2
) + MB
¸
M
1
+
1
2
(AM + B)(M
4
−M
3
) −AM
2
,
U(P
f
)(A R + B) k ǫγ
5
U(P
i
) = (AM + B)M
1
+ A(M
3
+ M
4
).
(4.22)
Expressions found in the M-matrix are then reduced to one of the above forms through
judicious choices of the constants A and B.
Finally, after much algebra wherein we use the above identities, along with the
properties of the Mandelstam variables (s + t + u = 2M
2
+ M
2
π
, etc.), we arrive at
the expressions for the amplitudes (see below).
The CGLN amplitudes for the U-channel (Figure 4.4) can be derived from the
U-channel M-matrices for g1 and g2 coupling, using a similar method to the above.
Fortunately, we can simply use crossing symmetry [34, 35] to immediately write
down the U-channel contribution by noting that those As can be written in terms of
the S-channel As as follows.
A
(0)
1
(u) = +A
(0)
1
(s), A
(+)
1
(u)= +A
(+)
1
(s), A
(−)
1
(u) = −A
(−)
1
(s).
A
(0)
2
(u) = +A
(0)
2
(s), A
(+)
2
(u)= +A
(+)
2
(s), A
(−)
2
(u) = −A
(−)
2
(s). (4.23)
A
(0)
3
(u) = −A
(0)
3
(s), A
(+)
3
(u)= −A
(+)
3
(s), A
(−)
3
(u) = +A
(−)
3
(s).
A
(0)
4
(u) = +A
(0)
4
(s), A
(+)
4
(u)= +A
(+)
4
(s), A
(−)
4
(u) = −A
(−)
4
(s).
48
Figure 4.4: U-channel ∆(1232) resonance exchange
4.3.1 Resonance Amplitudes
The following are the As for the ∆(1232) resonance. The isospin decompostion is
formed as
A
(0)
i
= 0,
A
(+)
i
=
2
3
A
i
,
A
(−)
i
= −
1
3
A
i
,
(4.24)
The values we have used for the off-shell parameters are X = 2.275, Y = −0.2875
and Z = −0.3225

To simplify the expressions we define
C
1
=
ef
πN∆
g
1
2Mm
π
C
2
=
ef
πN∆
g
2
4M
2
m
π
a = −
1
2
(1 + 2Z)
b = −
1
2
(1 + 2Y )
c = −
1
2
(1 + 2X)
(4.25)
We give only the S-channel amplitudes, since the U-channel is given by crossing
symmetry to be A
i
(s, t, u) = +A
i
(u, t, s) for i ∈ {1, 2, 4} and A
3
(s, t, u) = −A
3
(u, t, s).

See Chapter 7 for a discussion of other possible choices.
49
∆ g
1
S Channel Amplitudes
A
g
1
,1

= −
C
1
s −M
2

_
t
2
+
M
2
6
+
MM

6
+
Mm
2
π
3M


M
3
6M

+
M
4
6M
2

+
M
2
m
2
π
6M
2

_

C
1
6M
2

_
s + (1 + 4b)m
2
π
+ MM

+ (s −M
2
)(4b + 2a + 8ab)
_
(4.26)
A
g
1
,2

=
C
1
s −M
2

(4.27)
A
g
1
,3

=
C
1
s −M
2

_
M
6
+
M

2

M
2
6M

+
M
3
6M
2


Mm
2
π
6M
2

_

C
1
6M
2

_
M −M

−4bM

−4aM

−8ab(2M

+ M)
_
(4.28)
A
g
1
,4

= −
C
1
s −M
2

_
5M
6
+
M

2
+
M
2
6M


M
3
6M
2

+
Mm
2
π
6M
2

_

C
1
6M
2

_
M −M

−4bM

−4aM

−8ab(2M

+ M)
_
(4.29)
∆ g
2
S Channel Amplitudes
A
g
2
,1

=
C
2
12(s −M
2

)
_
−6Mt +4Mm
2
π
+2M
2
M

+m
2
π
M

+
M
2
m
2
π
M


M
4
M

−M
3

_
+
C
2
12M
2

_
M

s + M

m
2
π
−M
3

+ 2c
_
(M

−2M)s −M
2
M

+ 2M
3
−2Mm
2
π
_
+ (s −M
2
) (2aM

+ 4ac(2M

−M))
_
(4.30)
A
g
2
,2

=
C
2
s −M
2

_
M −M

2
_
(4.31)
A
g
2
,3

=
C
2
12(s −M
2

)
_
−3t + 2m
2
π
−5M
2

+ 5M
2
+ MM


M
3
M

+
Mm
2
π
M

_
+
C
2
12M
2

_
MM

−5M
2

−2c(s −M
2
+ m
2
π
) −4ac(s −M
2
)
_
(4.32)
A
g
2
,4

=
C
2
12(s −M
2

)
_
−3t + 2m
2
π
+ M
2

−M
2
+ MM


M
3
M

+
Mm
2
π
M

_
+
C
2
12M
2

_
MM

+ M
2

−2c(s −M
2
+ m
2
π
) −4ac(s −M
2
)
_
(4.33)
50
Now that we have the CGLN amplitudes, we can proceed to form the observables
via the same expressions used for the Born and Roper amplitudes in Chapters 2 and
3.
The values used for the couplings are given in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Couplings used for the ∆(1232) resonance terms
Coupling Numerical value
f
πN∆
2.16
g
1
5.05
g
2
6.71
X 2.275
Y -0.2875
Z -0.3225
4.4 Results
The multipoles for the different reactions in both g
1
and g
2
coupling are given below
(Figures 4.5 through 4.12). We have also shown in Chapter 7 the same graphs using
the different off-shell parameters recommended by Bernard et al. in [36] to show the
dependence of the multipoles on the choice of off-shell parameters.
In the figures below we note that the ∆(1232) contributes substantially to the
p-wave multipoles and even has a noticeable effect on the electric dipole amplitude
near threshold. The E
1+
multipole is particularly sensitive to this resonance in that
the separate g
1
and g
2
contributions to E
1+
are the largest contributions of any of
the channels we consider in the present thesis. The g
1
and g
2
contributions have the
opposite sign and hence the overall contribution is of the order of that of the Born
terms. The E
1+
multipole is, therefore, a particularly useful tool in the study of the
∆ resonance in neutral pion production and the differences between the magnetic
dipole and the electric quadrupole parts.
The ∆ is also the main contributor to the M
1+
in both of the neutral pion produc-
tion reactions. This makes the M
1+
multipole very useful for study. The two couplings
(g
1
and g
2
) have contributions on the same order which destroys the multipole’s use
in examining the differences between the two couplings.
51
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.940
1.960
1.980
2.000
2.020
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.200
-0.190
-0.180
-0.170
-0.160
-0.150
-0.140
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.090
-0.080
-0.070
-0.060
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
4.00
4.10
4.20
4.30
4.40
4.50
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.5: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + p → π
0
+ p.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
52
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.190
0.200
0.210
0.220
0.230
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.100
0.110
0.120
0.130
0.140
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.200
-0.190
-0.180
-0.170
-0.160
-0.150
-0.140
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.6: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + p → π
0
+ p.
They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
53
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.940
1.960
1.980
2.000
2.020
2.040
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.200
-0.190
-0.180
-0.170
-0.160
-0.150
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.090
-0.080
-0.070
-0.060
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
4.00
4.10
4.20
4.30
4.40
4.50
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.7: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + n →π
0
+ n.
54
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.190
0.200
0.210
0.220
0.230
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.100
0.110
0.120
0.130
0.140
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.200
-0.190
-0.180
-0.170
-0.160
-0.150
-0.140
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.8: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + n →π
0
+ n.
55
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.460
1.480
1.500
1.520
1.540
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.055
0.060
0.065
0.070
0.075
0.080
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.60
-2.50
-2.40
-2.30
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.9: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + p →π
+
+ n.
56
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.120
0.125
0.130
0.135
0.140
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.075
-0.070
-0.065
-0.060
-0.055
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.80
-1.70
-1.60
-1.50
-1.40
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.10: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +p →π
+
+n.
57
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.540
-1.530
-1.520
-1.510
-1.500
-1.490
-1.480
-1.470
-1.460
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.080
-0.075
-0.070
-0.065
-0.060
-0.055
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.50
-1.40
-1.30
-1.20
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.11: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ +n →π

+p.
58
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.140
-0.135
-0.130
-0.125
-0.120
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.050
0.055
0.060
0.065
0.070
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.035
-0.030
-0.025
-0.020
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 4.12: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ +n →π

+p.
59
Chapter 5
Vector Meson Exchange
The photoproduction and electroproduction of mesons via ρ and ω exchange has been
studied by several authors [17], especially in the so-called “vector meson dominance”
models. The ρ and ω mesons are Lorentz vector bosons. The ρ has mass 768.1 MeV
and is an isospin-
1
2
field. The ω has mass 781.95 MeV and is an isoscalar field. We will
study the contribution of these mesons in the T-channel exchange (see Figure 5.3).
5.1 The Lagrangian and Feynman Rules
The Lagrangian for the vertex shown in Figure 5.1 is given as
L
γπV
=
f
γπV
2m
π
ǫ
σλµν
F
σλ

ν
π
a
V
µ
a
(5.1)
where V
µ
a
= δ
a3
ω
µ
+ ρ
µ
.
Another form for the γπρ vertex Lagrangian is given in the literature [37] as
L
γπV
=
N
c
eg
ρ
24π
2
f
π
ǫ
σλµν
π
a
ρ
µν
a
F
σλ
(5.2)
where N
c
is the number of quark colours, and
ρ
µν
a
= ∂
µ
ρ
ν
a
−∂
ν
ρ
µ
a
+ gǫ
abc
ρ
µ
b
ρ
ν
c
. (5.3)
It can be shown that this Lagrangian is the same as the above (5.1) for single
vector meson exchange (i.e. neglecting the double vector meson term). To see this,
note that the ∂
µ
ρ
ν
a
and the ∂
ν
ρ
µ
a
bring down a (q − k)
µ
and a (q − k)
ν
respectively
using momentum conservation. Now, with the F
σλ
bringing down k
σ
and k
λ
, we see
that the resulting terms that involve two factors of the photon momentum will vanish
due to the antisymmetric tensor ǫ
σλµν
, leaving only terms with the pion momentum,
which is the same result as the the other Lagrangian (5.1). In our analysis we will
therefore use the first version.
The Lagrangian for the vertex shown in Figure 5.2 is given as
L
V NN
= −g
v

µ
V
µ
N +
g
t
4M

µν
V
µν
N (5.4)
where V
µ
= ω
µ
+ τ
a
ρ
µ
a
and V
µν
= ∂
µ
V
ν
−∂
ν
V
µ
.
60
Figure 5.1: The γπV vertex
Figure 5.2: The V NN vertex
We can immediately write down the corresponding Feynman rules:

λσ
(γωπ) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(q −k −v)
f
γπV
m
π
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
δ
c3

λσ
(γρπ) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(q −k −v)
f
γπV
m
π
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
δ
d3

σ
(NωN) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ v −P
i
)
_
−g
v
γ
σ
+
ig
t
(M + M
V
)
σ
µσ
v
µ
_

σ
(NρN) = i(2π)
4
δ
4
(P
f
+ v −P
i
)
_
−g
v
γ
σ
+
ig
t
(M + M
V
)
σ
µσ
v
µ
_
τ
d
.
(5.5)
The propagator for the vector mesons is simply the usual Klein-Gordon propagator
with a Kronecker delta function linking the isospin index over the two vertices.
61
5.2 The CGLN Amplitudes
The M-matrix for the vector meson exchange diagram (Figure 5.3) is given by
iM
fi
= U(P
f
)
i
t −M
2
V
_
g
v
f
γπV
T
2
m
π
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
+
ig
t
f
γπV
T
1
T
2
m
π
2M
σ
σα
v
α
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
_
U(P
i
) (5.6)
where we have defined T
1
= δ
dc
, δ
c3
and T
1
T
2
= τ
d
δ
dc
, δ
c3
for the ρ, ω respectively.
This means that the ρ will only contribute to the A
(0)
amplitude and the ω will only
contribute to the A
(+)
amplitude.
Figure 5.3: The vector meson exchange contribution
We can reduce this matrix element to a more manageable form through
σ
σα
v
α
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
=
i
2

σ
v− vγ
σ

µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
=
i
2
(2v
σ
−2 vγ
σ

µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
= iǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
v
σ
−i vǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
.
Now use the fact that q
ν
= (P
i
+ k −P
f
)
ν
= (k −v)
ν
to write the above as
σ
σα
v
α
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
q
ν
ǫ
λ
= iǫ
µνλσ
(k
µ
k
ν
ǫ
λ
(v
σ
−k
µ
v
ν
ǫ
λ
v
σ
) −i vǫ
µνλσ
(k
µ
k
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
−k
µ
v
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
)
= i vǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
v
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
where we used the antisymmetry of the ǫ
µνλσ
to get rid of terms that were symmetric
in two indices.
62
Now we can re-write our M-matrix as
iM
fi
= U(P
f
)
_
(A + B v)ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
v
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
_
U(P
i
) (5.7)
with
A =
g
v
f
γπV
T
2
m
π
(t −M
2
V
)
B = −
g
t
f
γπV
T
1
T
2
2Mm
π
(t −M
2
V
)
.
(5.8)
Now to further reduce the M-matrix we use the following identities which can be
derived via properties of the totally anti-symmetric symbol
ǫ
µνλσ
γ
σ
= −
i
2

µν
γ
ρ
+ γ
ρ
σ
µν

5
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
v
ν
ǫ
λ
γ
σ
= (v · k ǫ −v · ǫ k− v k ǫ)γ
5
ǫ
µνλσ
k
µ
v
ν
ǫ
λ
v
σ
= 0.
(5.9)
This gives us
M
fi
= U(P
f
)(A + B v)(v · k ǫ −v · ǫ k− v k ǫ)γ
5
U(P
i
)
= U(P
f
)
_
A((P
i
−P
f
) · ǫ k −(P
i
−P
f
) · k ǫ) γ
5
−a v k ǫγ
5
+ B(v · k v ǫ −v · ǫ v k −t k ǫ)γ
5
_
U(P
i
)
= AM
3
−AMM
1
+ BMM
3
−BtM
1
−U(P
f
)
_
A k ǫ P
f
γ
5
+ B(v · ǫ k −v · k ǫ) P
f
γ
5
_
U(P
i
),
(5.10)
and using the following relations
U(P
f
)
_
A k ǫ P
f
γ
5
_
U(P
i
) = A[M
4
−M
3
+ 2MM
1
] −AMM
1
U(P
f
)
_
B(v · ǫ k −v · k ǫ) P
f
γ
5
_
U(P
i
) = BM
2
−BMM
3
(5.11)
finally gives our M-matrix in terms of the CGLN basis
M
fi
= −BtM
1
+ BM
2
+ AM
4
. (5.12)
Now substitute our expressions for A and B from above (5.8), and we have our
CGLN amplitudes given in the following subsection.
63
5.2.1 Vector Meson Amplitudes
The vector mesons do not contribute to the A
(−)
amplitudes.
A
(0)
1
=
eg
t,ρ
f
γπV
(ρ)
2Mm
π
t
t −M
2
ρ
A
(0)
2
= −
eg
t,ρ
f
γπV
(ρ)
2Mm
π
1
t −M
2
ρ
A
(0)
3
= 0
A
(0)
4
= −
eg
v,ρ
f
γπV
(ρ)
m
π
1
t −M
2
ρ
(5.13)
A
(+)
1
=
eg
t,ω
f
γπV
(ω)
2Mm
π
t
t −M
2
ω
A
(+)
2
= −
eg
t,ω
f
γπV
(ω)
2Mm
π
1
t −M
2
ω
A
(+)
3
= 0
A
(+)
4
= −
eg
v,ω
f
γπV
(ω)
m
π
1
t −M
2
ω
(5.14)
The values used for the couplings are given in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Couplings used for the vector meson exchange terms
Coupling Numerical value
g
t,ρ
16.05
g
v,ρ
2.63
g
t,ω
-7.98
g
v,ω
7.98
f
γπV
(ρ) 0.11
f
γπV
(ω) 0.36
5.3 Results
We show the contribution of vector meson exchange to the neutral and charged pion
production reactions in Figures 5.4 through 5.7.
The approximate effect as compared to the total multipoles from all contributions
(see Table 8.2 in Chapter 8 below) can be seen for E
0+
as about ∼ 4% for p(γ, π
0
)p,
∼ 13% for n(γ, π
0
)n and very low contribution (∼ 0.4%) to the charged pion reactions.
The main contribution from the vector mesons comes in the p-wave multipoles where
it ranges from ∼ 10% for M
1+
to ∼ 25% of the total E
1+
and M
1−
. For neutral pion
production from neutrons we also have a large effect to the p-waves coming from the
64
vector mesons, whereas the contribution to the p-waves in charged pion production
is small.
This indicates that it is quite important to include the vector meson exchange
even near threshold in neutral pion production calculations.
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.9100
0.9120
0.9140
0.9160
0.9180
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Vector Meson M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.0170
-0.0165
-0.0160
-0.0155
-0.0150
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Vector Meson E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
0.160
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Vector Meson E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.740
0.750
0.760
0.770
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Vector Meson M
1+
Multipole
Figure 5.4: Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ + p →
π
0
+ p. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
65
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.540
0.550
0.560
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Vector Meson M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0150
0.0155
0.0160
0.0165
0.0170
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Vector Meson E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.160
-0.140
-0.120
-0.100
-0.080
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Vector Meson E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.7120
0.7140
0.7160
0.7180
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Vector Meson M
1+
Multipole
Figure 5.5: Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ + n →
π
0
+ n. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
66
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.2400
0.2450
0.2500
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Vector Meson M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.0230
-0.0225
-0.0220
-0.0215
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Vector Meson E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.120
0.140
0.160
0.180
0.200
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Vector Meson E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0240
0.0290
0.0340
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Vector Meson M
1+
Multipole
Figure 5.6: Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ + p →
π
+
+ n. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
67
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.2400
0.2450
0.2500
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Vector Meson M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.0230
-0.0225
-0.0220
-0.0215
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Vector Meson E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.120
0.140
0.160
0.180
0.200
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Vector Meson E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0240
0.0290
0.0340
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Vector Meson M
1+
Multipole
Figure 5.7: Multipoles for the vector meson exchange terms in the reaction γ + n →
π

+ p. They are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
68
Chapter 6
Integrating Out the Resonance Fields
If we were to view the baryon resonances as very heavy static sources, we could
integrate them out of the theory, resulting in mass corrections to the vertices

.
The invariant mass at threshold is W = M + m
π
∼ 1.080 GeV, and any particle
whose mass is significantly larger than this can presumably be treated as ‘heavy’ near
threshold.
We proceed to examine this technique for the relatively low mass resonances stud-
ied in the previous chapters in the hope that it will motivate the inclusion of higher
mass resonances in a simple way without the complications involved in an explicit
treatment. In the present chapter we will show how to integrate out the resonance
fields in our effective theory and compare this with our previous results to see how
significant the change is. We will first exemplify the technique with the N(1440)
resonance, and then examine the slightly more complicated ∆(1232) resonance.
6.1 The Decoupling Theorem
Two S-matrices are equivalent if they have the same single particle singularities. If
two fields φ
1
and φ
2
are related nonlinearly as φ
2
= φ
1
f(φ
1
) with f(0) = 1, then the
two fields have the same single particle singularities and free field behavior. Hence
the S-matrices are equivalent, and any experimental observables are invariant to this
non-linear transformation of the fields

. This representation independence, called
Haag’s theorem, is very powerful, and allows us to use whichever representation of the
field is most convenient to a particular problem. This is why the linear, square-root
and exponential representations of the sigma model give the same M-matrices.
When one studies physics at some fixed energy scale, one must explicitly consider
all the particles which can be produced at that energy. When a field is too heavy
to be produced, such as the resonances and vector mesons discussed in the present
thesis, they may still be felt through virtual effects. These effects are isolated in the
couplings between the light fields. The process of removing heavy fields from the
Lagrangian is called integrating out the fields.
There is a theorem called the decoupling theorem which states: If the remaining
low energy theory is renormalizable, then all of the effects of the heavy particle appear
either as a renormalization of the coupling constants or else are suppressed by powers
of the heavy particle mass. We are merely looking for the approximate magnitude of
the effect at tree level only and hence renormalization is not an issue here. However,
in theories which are (order by order) renormalizable (CHPT), it is assumed that one
can use this technique at all orders.

For example of this procedure using boson fields see reference [38].

This is a statement of the fact that if two isolated particles have the same mass and charge,
then they are experimentally indistinguishable.
69
6.2 Integrating Out the N(1440) Resonance
Let us examine our Lagrangian for the free N(1440) resonance

. It is given simply
by the Dirac Lagrangian
L = R(i ∂ −M
R
) R + η
a
R
a
+ R
a
η
a
(6.1)
where the isospin index a will henceforth be suppressed. The action governing the
resonance is given by
S =
_
d
4
x L(R, R, η, η) + ηR + Rη
=
_
d
4
x
_
RDR + ηR + Rη
¸
=
_
d
4
x
_
(R −ηD
−1
)D(R −D
−1
η) + ηD
−1
η
¸
(6.2)
where we have “completed the square” in the last line and made the following conve-
nient definitions,
D =(i ∂ −M
R
)
D
−1
D =−δ
4
(x −y)
D
−1
η =−
_
d
4
y S
F
(x −y)η(y)
ηD
−1
=−
_
d
4
y η(y)S
F
(x −y)
(6.3)
which allow us to work without explicitly showing the integrations which are taking
place. We now make the change of variables
R

=R +
_
d
4
y S
F
(x −y)η(y) = R −D
−1
η
R

=R +
_
d
4
y η(y)S
F
(x −y) = R −ηD
−1
(6.4)
which gives our action as
S =
_
d
4
x
_
R

DR

+ ηD
−1
η
¸
. (6.5)
If we recall our expression for the path integral in Chapter 1 (1.1), we see that
the integration ranges over all possible fields R and R and hence DR = DR

and

The results derived here are also valid for any spin-
1
2
resonance, since it depends only on the
form of the free particle propagator (i.e. free Lagrangian). There are differences in the treatment of
the spin-
3
2
resonance due to the different free Lagrangian and hence propagator.
70
DR = DR

. Our generating functional is then
Z =
_
DR

DR

e
i

d
4
x L(R

,R

,η,η)
_
DR DR e
i

d
4
x L(R,R,0,0)
=
_
DR

DR

e
i

d
4
x
[
R

DR

]
e
i

d
4
x
[
ηD
−1
η
]
_
DR DR e
i

d
4
x
[
RDR
]
=e
i

d
4
x
[
ηD
−1
η
]
.
(6.6)
Since Z = e
iS
we have our effective action as
S
eff
=
_
d
4
x ηD
−1
η
=−
_
d
4
x d
4
y ηS
F
(x −y)η.
(6.7)
The Lagrangian implicit in (6.7) can be made local by noticing that the heavy
field propagator S
F
(x −y) is peaked at small distances, and we can therefore Taylor
expand η(y) as
η(y) = η(x) + (y −x)
µ
[∂
µ
η(y)]
y=x
+ . . . (6.8)
and keep the leading term.
Using the fact that
§
_
d
4
x S
F
(x −y) =
_
d
4
p
(2π)
4
d
4
x e
−ip·(x−y)
p + M
R
p
2
−M
2
R
=
_
d
4
p
(2π)
4
e
ip·y
(2π)
4
δ
4
(p)
p + M
R
p
2
−M
2
R
=−
1
M
R
.
(6.9)
We have from (6.7)
S
eff
=−
_
d
4
x d
4
y η(x)S
F
(x −y)η(x) + . . .
=−
_
d
4
x
−1
M
R
η(x)η(x) + . . .

_
d
4
x
1
M
R
η(x)η(x)
(6.10)
which gives an expression for our effective Lagrangian with the resonance field inte-
grated out
L
eff
=
1
M
R
η(x)η(x). (6.11)
§
This is where the difference occurs between various heavy fields which may have different prop-
agators.
71
We now look at our resonance Lagrangians given in Chapter 3 (3.1, 3.2)
L
πNR
=
f
πNR
m
π

µ
γ
5
τ
a
R∂
µ
π
a
+
f
πNR
m
π

5
γ
µ
τ
a

µ
π
a
N
L
γNR
=−
e
2(M + M
R
)
_
R(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

µν
NF
µν
+ N(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

µν
RF
µν
_
(6.12)
and for γ +N →π +N we make the identification for the S- and U-channels respec-
tively as

η
(s)
=
f
πNR
m
π

µ
γ
5
τ
a

µ
π
a
η
(s)
=−
e
2(M + M
R
)
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

µν
NF
µν
η
(u)
=−
e
2(M + M
R
)
N(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

µν
F
µν
η
(u)
=
f
πNR
m
π
γ
5
γ
µ
τ
a
R∂
µ
π
a
N.
(6.13)
Our effective Lagrangian (6.11) for the S-channel, becomes
L
eff
= −
ef
πNR
2m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)

µ
γ
5
τ
a

µ
π
a
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

αβ
NF
αβ
(6.14)
which gives the M matrix as
iM
fi
=
ef
πNR
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
U(p
f
) qγ
5
τ
c
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3
) k ǫU(p
i
) (6.15)
and from this we use the CGLN basis expansion
4

λ=1
A
λ
M
λ
=
ef
πNR
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
[M
3
+ M
4
] (6.16)
and adding this to the similar expression for the U channel we have
A
1
=0
A
2
=0
A
3
=
ef
πNR
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
_
τ
c
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3
) −(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

c
_
A
4
=
ef
πNR
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
_
τ
c
(k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3
) + (k
S
R
+ k
V
R
τ
3

c
_
(6.17)

If we wanted a π+N →π+N or a γ +N →γ +N effective theory with the N(1440) integrated
out, we would simply choose the currents in the appropriate manner.
72
which gives in the isospin channels
A
(0)
1
=A
(+)
1
= A
(−)
1
= 0
A
(0)
2
=A
(+)
2
= A
(−)
2
= 0
A
(0)
3
=A
(+)
3
= 0
A
(−)
3
=
2ef
πNR
k
V
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
A
(0)
4
=
2ef
πNR
k
S
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
A
(+)
4
=
2ef
πNR
k
V
m
π
M
R
(M + M
R
)
A
(−)
4
=0.
(6.18)
We can see that the amplitudes formed in Chapter 3 can be made equal to these if we
set s = u ≃ small and M
R
≫M. Essentially what has happened is that the effect of
the resonance field has been isolated into a mass correction factor on the vertex and
the internal resonance interaction diagram has become a point interaction similar to
the Kroll-Ruderman diagram. In Figure 6.1 we see by comparison with Figure 3.3
that the effect of integrating out the N(1440) is a reduction in the multipoles. The
energy dependence does not seem to have changed much (although it is quite flat
to begin with) but the E
0+
and M
1−
amplitudes have both been reduced by about
50% from their original values, the E
1+
amplitude reduced by about 66% and the
M
1+
amplitude by about 75% from their original values. So it seems the higher
multipoles are affected more severely, which seems quite reasonable as this is a low
energy procedure.
73
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) M
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.0025
-0.0020
-0.0015
-0.0010
-0.0005
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0000
0.0050
0.0100
0.0150
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) E
0+
Multipole
Full calculation
Calculation with resonance integrated out
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.000
0.050
0.100
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
N(1440) M
1-
Multipole
Figure 6.1: Multipoles for the reaction γ+p →π
0
+p with the integrated out N(1440)
resonance terms.
6.3 Integrating Out the ∆(1232) Resonance
The ∆(1232) resonance can be integrated out in an exactly parallel manner to the
method used above. The only real difference is that (6.9) becomes
_
d
4
xP
µν
(x −y) =
_
d
4
P
(2π)
4
d
4
x e
−iP·(x−y)
P + M

P
2
−M
2

_
g
µν

1
3
γ
µ
γ
ν

2P
µ
P
ν
3M
2

+
P
µ
P
ν
−P
ν
P
µ
3M

_
=
_
d
4
P
(2π)
4
(2π)
4
δ(P)
P + M

P
2
−M
2

_
g
µν

1
3
γ
µ
γ


2P
µ
P
ν
3M
2

+
P
µ
P
ν
−P
ν
P
µ
3M

_
= −
1
M

_
g
µν

1
3
γ
µ
γ
ν
_
= −
1
M

Θ
µν
_

1
3
_
(6.19)
74
which gives our effective Lagrangian as
L
eff
=
1
M

η
µ
(x)Θ
µν
(−
1
3

ν
(x) (6.20)
where we have re-defined Θ
µν
(a) = g
µν
+ aγ
µ
γ
ν
.
Our Lagrangians L = R
ν
η
ν

µ
R
µ
are given by (4.14). This gives us the definitions
of the following currents
η
µ
πN∆
=
f
πN∆
m
π

β
π
c

βµ
(a)T

c
η
ν
πN∆
=
f
πN∆
m
π
T
c
Θ
να
(a)N∂
α
π
c
η
µ
g1
=
ieg
1
2M
F
ρλ
NT

3
γ
5
γ
λ
Θ
ρµ
(b)
η
ν
g1
=
ieg
1
2M
Θ
νρ
(b)γ
λ
γ
5
T
3
NF
ρλ
η
µ
g2
= −
eg
2
4M
2
F
λρ
(∂
ρ
N)T

3
γ
5
Θ
λµ
(c)
η
ν
g2
=
eg
2
4M
2
Θ
νλ
(c)γ
5
T
3
(∂
ρ
N)F
λρ
.
(6.21)
Now using (6.20) and (6.21) we form the g
1
and g
2
effective Lagrangians. The M
matrix which results from the g
1
S channel is given by
iM
g
1
,s
fi
= −
eg
1
f
πN∆
2MM

m
π
U(P
f
)T

c
T
3
_
q
β
Θ
βµ
(a)Θ
µν
(−
1
3

νρ
(b)γ
λ
γ
5
(k
ρ
ǫ
λ
−k
λ
ǫ
ρ
)
_
U(P
i
)
= −
eg
1
f
πN∆
2MM

m
π
U(P
f
)T

c
T
3
_
q
β
Θ
βρ
(h)(k
ρ
ǫ− kǫ
ρ

5
¸
U(P
i
)
(6.22)
where we have used the multiplication rule to define h = −
1
3
(1 + a + b + 4ab) =

1
3
(1 + Y + Z + 4Y Z). This expression is quite easily reduced into the invariant
amplitudes. Combining these with the U channel results we have
A
(g
1
,s)
3
=
eg
1
f
πN∆
6MM

m
π
T

c
T
3
(1 −2(Y + Z + 4Y Z))
A
(g
1
,s)
4
=
eg
1
f
πN∆
3MM

m
π
T

c
T
3
(1 + Y + Z + 4Y Z)
A
(g
1
,u)
3
=
eg
1
f
πN∆
6MM

m
π
T

3
T
c
(1 −2(Y + Z + 4Y Z))
A
(g
1
,u)
4
=
eg
1
f
πN∆
3MM

m
π
T

3
T
c
(1 + Y + Z + 4Y Z)
(6.23)
From here we can proceed to find the charge channels in the usual manner. Before
doing this, however, let us take another look at the amplitudes for the g
1
S- and
75
U-channels in (4.3.1). We make the approximation M

≫M and keep only terms of
order
1
M

, and we also set s = u < M
2

leaving

A
g
1
,s
1

eg
1
f
πN∆
12M

[M −M] = 0
A
g
1
,s
2
→0
A
g
1
,s
3
→−
eg
1
f
πN∆
3Mm
π
M

T
3
T
c
_

1
2
+ Y + Z + 4Y Z
_
A
g
1
,s
4
→−
eg
1
f
πN∆
3Mm
π
M

T
3
T
c
[1 + Y + Z + 4Y Z] .
(6.24)
We see above that the amplitudes reduce to exactly those which we derived by in-
tegrating out the resonance fields. The same thing occurs in the U-channel as can
easily be shown.
In g
2
coupling, the amplitudes reduce to
A
(g
2
,s)
1
=
eg
2
f
πN∆
24M

m
π
T
c
T
3
(s −M
2
) (1 + a + c + 4ac)
A
(g
2
,s)
2
=
eg
2
f
πN∆
8M
2
M

m
π
T
c
T
3
A
(g
2
,u)
1
=
eg
2
f
πN∆
24M

m
π
(u −M
2
) (1 + a + c + 4ac)
A
(g
2
,u)
2
=
eg
2
f
πN∆
8M
2
M

m
π
.
(6.25)
We see that the invariant amplitudes with the resonance integrated out (6.25) are
not the same as the corresponding expressions (4.26, 4.26, 4.26, 4.26) in the explicit
treatment in Chapter 4. The multipoles for the various reactions (shown below) are
quite different from the explicit treatment. In many cases both the energy dependence
of the multipole (slope of the graph) as well as the numerical values have changed. We
see E
0+
in g
1
coupling changing sign as well as dropping by about half in magnitude
as it approaches 170 MeV, and it drops even more drastically in g
2
coupling. M
1−
drops by about 75% from its explicit value for both couplings. Also, E
1+
drops by 90%
and 80% from the explicit value in g
1
and g
2
coupling respectively and M
1+
drops
by 90% in both couplings. The disagreement is therefore quite pronounced for this
resonance, which is not surprising since the mass is only 152 MeV above the invariant
mass at threshold (CM frame). This means that it is not far off shell near threshold
and the approximation s ≪ M
2

is not very good. This implies that it is necessary
to include the ∆(1232) as an explicit degree of freedom in order that the correct

Setting M

very large while leaving s and u small reduces the explicit treatment of the resonances
to the integrated out treatment. There is an inherent flaw in this reasoning, since the Taylor
expansion of
1
s−M
2

is not rapidly converging. The origin of this problem is in equation (6.10) and
may not be a good approximation at first order.
76
contributions to the multipoles be found. The result for the more massive N(1440)
resonance showed much better agreement, which implies that for even higher mass
resonances one should be able to use this method with less concern. For the above
two resonances, one must resort to the explicit treatment or one could separate the
resonance field into a “heavy” and a “light” component, and then integrate out the
heavy part (see Appendix C). One can treat the remaining light part in a similar
manner as other light fields like the pion and the heavy part can be isolated into mass
corrections to the vertices as above. (See Figures on the following pages)
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
M
1
-


(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
Full calculation
Calculation with resonance integrated out
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 6.2: Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ + p → π
0
+ p. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the
dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated out.
77
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.20
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 6.3: Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction
γ + p → π
0
+ p. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the
dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated out.
78
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 6.4: Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ + n → π
0
+ n. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the
dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated out.
79
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.20
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 6.5: Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction
γ + n → π
0
+ n. The solid line gives the explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the
dashed line gives the amplitude with the resonance integrated out.
80
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.020
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-3.0
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 6.6: Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ + p → π
+
+ n (the g
2
integrated out multipoles are zero). The solid line gives the
explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the dashed line gives the amplitude with the
resonance integrated out.
81
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.080
-0.060
-0.040
-0.020
0.000
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π

)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 6.7: Multipoles for the integrated out ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction
γ + n →π

+ p (the g
2
integrated out multipoles are zero). The solid line gives the
explicit amplitude of Chapter 4 and the dashed line gives the amplitude with the
resonance integrated out.
82
Chapter 7
The ∆(1232) Off-shell Parameters
The ∆(1232) Lagrangian depends on the values of three off-shell parameters (X,Y
and Z) which must be fixed from observables. These parameters are known to lie
only in certain numerical ranges and we would therefore like to see how sensitive
our resulting multipoles are to the values of these parameters in order to estimate the
overall effect on the observables. In the main body of this thesis, we have used the off-
shell parameters recommended in [39]. In this chapter we give the ∆(1232) multipoles
when using the different values for the off-shell parameters as recommended in [36],
which are used in the CHPT calculations of the resonance amplitudes. These values
are given in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1: Couplings and off-shell parameters for the ∆(1232) resonance terms
Coupling Numerical value
f
πN∆
2.16
g
1
5.05
g
2
6.71
X 2.75
Y 0.10
Z -0.21
In Figure 7.1 below, we compare the total cross section given by these off-shells
with the π
0
data of SAL [1]. The new curve does not differ significantly from the
previous one.
Figures 7.2 through 7.9 show the multipoles as compared with the previous multi-
poles of Chapter 4. One can immediately notice that the graph for E
0+
has changed
from the one given in Chapter 4. Both the sign and the slope have changed, which
implies that E
0+
in g
1
coupling is quite sensitive to the value of the off-shell pa-
rameter Y . The total E
0+
for p(γ, π
0
)p has changed from −2.017 found with our
previous off-shell parameters to −1.839 found with the present off-shell parameters,
giving a closer agreement to the experimental value of −1.32 ± 0.08. The values of
the p-waves are not as significantly affected by the change in off-shell parameters.
Some comments are in order here. In Reference [40] it is suggested that a theoretical
“confidence level” be given for the p-waves by examining the effect of varying the
off-shell parameters. Of particular interest are the combination 2M
1+
+M
1−
and the
multipole E
1+
, which still show a marked discrepancy from the experimental values
(see Table 8.2). Our value for the combination 2M
1+
+ M
1−
using the values for the
off-shell parameters given above (Table 7.1) is ∼ 11.32, whereas the value calculated
while using the off-shell parameters of Chapter 4 is ∼ 12.81. If we take the average of
the two, we have a value, along with theoretical uncertainty, of 12.07 ±0.75 which is
83
144.0 148.0 152.0 156.0 160.0 164.0 168.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
σ

(
µ
b
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total Cross Section
Calculation with original off-shell parameters
Calculation with new off-shell parameters
Bergstrom (1997)
Figure 7.1: The total cross section for γ + p →π
0
+ p. The solid line uses the Born,
N(1440), Vector Mesons and the ∆(1232) where we use the previous values for the
off-shell parameters (Chapter 4). The thick dashed line (almost identical) is the same
graph with the above values for the off-shell parameters (see Table 7.1). The squares
are data from SAL [1].
now within uncertainty of the experimental value of 11.58 ±0.20 given by [40]. E
1+
,
which is dominated by g
2
coupling, still remains a mystery, since both our estimate of
−0.026 and that of CHPT, −0.12, both show a large difference from the experimental
value of −0.67±0.15. Using the new off-shells our value is modified to −0.045, which
is moving in the proper direction, but is still only 6% of the experimental value.
The change in the off-shell parameters only has a minuscule effect on the total
cross section for π
0
production from protons, as can be seen by Figure 7.1.
For the charged pion reactions, we also see E
0+
being the most affected multipole
by the change in the off-shell parameters. In g
1
coupling, the threshold value is halved
from our previous value, and in g
2
coupling it is increased by about 25%. The p-waves
in g
1
coupling are not noticeably affected, but in g
2
coupling they are changed quite
84
significantly but result in very little overall effect, since their magnitudes are quite
small to begin with.
It seems, then, that the values for the off-shell parameters given here are the more
appropriate ones to use.
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.220
-0.200
-0.180
-0.160
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.220
-0.200
-0.180
-0.160
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.2: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ+p →π
0
+p. They
are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
. The calculation
of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present calculation (dashed
line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
85
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.180
0.190
0.200
0.210
0.220
0.230
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.090
0.100
0.110
0.120
0.130
0.140
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.190
-0.180
-0.170
-0.160
-0.150
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.3: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ+p →π
0
+p. They
are given from top left to bottom right as E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
, and E
1+
. The calculation
of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present calculation (dashed
line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
86
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.220
-0.200
-0.180
-0.160
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.10
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60
4.80
5.00
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.4: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + n → π
0
+ n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present
calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
87
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.180
0.190
0.200
0.210
0.220
0.230
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
0.160
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.200
-0.190
-0.180
-0.170
-0.160
-0.150
-0.140
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.5: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + n → π
0
+ n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present
calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
88
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.050
0.055
0.060
0.065
0.070
0.075
0.080
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.40
0.90
1.40
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.60
-2.50
-2.40
-2.30
-2.20
-2.10
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.6: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + p → π
+
+ n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present
calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
89
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.120
0.170
0.220
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.080
-0.075
-0.070
-0.065
-0.060
-0.055
-0.050
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.7: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + p → π
+
+ n.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present
calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
90
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.60
-1.55
-1.50
-1.45
-1.40
-1.35
-1.30
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.080
-0.075
-0.070
-0.065
-0.060
-0.055
-0.050
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-1.60
-1.10
-0.60
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
1
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.8: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
1
coupling in the reaction γ + n → π

+ p.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present
calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
91
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.220
-0.170
-0.120
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1-
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.050
0.055
0.060
0.065
0.070
0.075
0.080
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
1+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
E
0+
Multipole
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.035
-0.030
-0.025
-0.020
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
∆(1232) g
2
M
1+
Multipole
Figure 7.9: Multipoles for the ∆(1232) g
2
coupling in the reaction γ + n → π

+ p.
The calculation of chapter 4 (solid line) is given for comparison with the present
calculation (dashed line) using the modifed off-shell parameters.
92
Chapter 8
Results and Discussion
In this chapter we will state our main results for the combined contributions of the
previous chapters. We will discuss the important observables that have been measured
experimentally, such as the total and differential cross sections, as well as the electric
dipole amplitude and other multipoles. Our emphasis will be on the reaction p(γ, π
0
)p,
since it has been the subject of recent interest.
In Figures 8.5 through 8.21 below, we graph our complete results for the total
cross sections, the p-waves and E
0+
in the four reaction channels from threshold to
170 MeV. The contributions due to the separate particle channels can be found in
the preceeding chapters where each is discussed (Chapters 2, 3, 4 & 5).
We conclude this chapter with tables giving the numerical values of the multipoles
at threshold from the present calculation, experimental results, and CHPT.
8.1 Neutral Pion Production
Neutral pions, in contrast to charged pions, can be produced coherently from nucleons
(the final nucleon remains in the same isospin state as the initial one). The cross
section for π
0
photoproduction from a single nucleon is very small near threshold (see
Figures 8.1 and 8.13 below). This is due to the absence of the large contribution
from the Kroll-Ruderman terms of Chapter 2 which are only present in charged pion
production. It is for this reason that neutral pion production is ideal for investigating
the fine details of the photoproduction amplitude without the Kroll-Ruderman term.
8.1.1 Photoproduction from the Proton
We see in Figure 8.1 the total cross section for π
0
production from the proton com-
pared with various data. It is interesting to note that the curve starts to disagree
somewhat below the π
+
threshold, and then remains too high until around 170 MeV
as shown by Figure 8.2. We can begin to understand this disagreement when we
realize that rescattering diagrams have been neglected, which should contribute sig-
nificantly near the π
+
threshold, since the electric dipole amplitude E
0+
is much
larger for π
+
production than for π
0
production (see Figures 8.5 and 8.17). This is
the origin of the isospin-violating “unitarity cusp” that is seen in the experimental
s wave electric dipole amplitude (see Figure 8.12). We will also see this quite clearly
in the differential cross sections below, which give better agreement both below and
well above the charged pion threshold (see Figures 8.6 through 8.11). The agreement
well above the π
+
threshold (∼ 170 MeV), as shown in Figure 8.2, seems to be due to
the diminishing importance of the Born terms and the increasing importance of the
∆-resonance, which soon contributes on the same order as the Born terms in the cross
section, effectively smothering the contribution from the rescattering diagrams, thus
93
giving closer agreement between our calculation and experiment at these energies.
We notice that the differential cross sections do not agree very well at back angles
in particular. This must be due to the neglect of rescattering contributions, which
must diminish the effect of the Born terms which are peaked at back angles. The
resonances peak at ∼ 80

for near threshold energies, but the peak quickly moves to
∼ 90

at higher energies. The data show fairly good agreement near 90

at higher
energies.
144.0 146.0 148.0 150.0 152.0 154.0 156.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
σ

(
µ
b
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total Cross Section (144 to 157 MeV)
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
Fuchs (1996)
Beck (1990)
Mazzucato (1971)
Figure 8.1: The total cross section for γ + p →π
0
+ p. The solid line uses the Born,
N(1440), Vector Mesons and the ∆(1232), the circles are data from [2], the squares
are from [3], the triangles are from [4] and the stars are from [5].
It has also been found that a certain combination of the p-wave multipoles called

F
0
, defined by 2F
2
0
=
_
2M
2
1+
+ M
2
1−
+ 6E
2
1+
_
, is important experimentally due to
its being nearly energy independant near threshold [4]. F
0
, therefore, gives us a
valuable tool for investigating the various contributions to the p-waves. In Figure 8.3
we have plotted the separate contributions to this p-wave combination due to each of

This multipole is defined as f
0
in Reference [4].
94
144.0 148.0 152.0 156.0 160.0 164.0 168.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
σ

(
µ
b
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total Cross Section (144 to 170 MeV)
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
Fuchs (1996)
Beck (1990)
Mazzucato (1971)
Figure 8.2: This figure shows an expanded view of the previous figure with energy
ranging to 170 MeV to take full advantage of the SAL data.
the separate particle channels and we have compared their sum with the experimental
determination of F
0
found in [4].
We see in particular that the contribution due to the ∆-resonance cancels the
energy dependence of the contribution due to the Born terms, resulting in a flat
curve which is very close to the data. This emphasizes the importance of including
the ∆ resonance even near threshold.
The multipoles for neutral pion production from the proton are compared with
dispersion relations [6] and shown in Figure 8.12. The unitarity cusp is clearly visible
in the E
0+
multipole given by dispersion relations and our curve is quite different. The
difference is due to our neglect of the 1-loop rescattering diagrams (see Figure 8.4).
The unitarity cusp is a result of the requirement that the total S-matrix be unitary
or, in other words, the total probability of scattering into all possible final states
must be 1. This requires the S-matrix to have an imaginary piece and leads to the
development of dispersion relations. In our formalism the requirement of unitarity is
satisfied by the presence of loop diagrams, and these loop diagrams give rise to the
95
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(GeV)
-1.0
1.0
3.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
F
0

(
1
0
-
3

q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Contributions to F
0
Bergstrom (1997)
Born
∆(1232) (g
1
+g
2
)
N(1440)
Vector Mesons
Total Calculation
Figure 8.3: The contributions to F
0
due to each of the channels separately and the
total given by the solid line. The data are taken from J. C. Bergstrom et al.(1997)
[4]. It is interesting to note the cancellation of the energy dependence between the
∆(1232) and the Born terms.
96
unitarity cusp at the the opening of the charged pion production channel. At the
charged pion threshold, the rescattering contribution from loops, such as the ones
shown in Figure 8.4 become important since the internal pion becomes real

.
The p-wave multipoles, plotted in Figure 8.12, show a difference in magnitude,
between our calculated curve and that of the dispersion relations, but the energy
dependence, on the other hand, is very similar for both sets of curves.

The E
0+
multipole has an imaginary part due to the rescattering diagrams. Since the neutral
pion has a smaller mass than the charged pion, a real neutral pion can be produced without their
being sufficient energy to produce a real charged pion (isospin splitting). At the charged pion
threshold, the momentum of the charged pion inside the loop can become real, giving E
0+
an
imaginary piece and causing the real part of the multipole to change in magnitude. The appearance
of the unitarity cusp is one of the most gratifying experimental confirmations of field theoretical
methods.
97
Figure 8.4: The above Feynman diagrams are examples of the 1-loop diagrams, re-
quired by unitarity, in the reactions γ + N →π + N.
9.4
9.6
9.8
10
10.2
10.4
10.6
10.8
11
11.2
11.4
0.14 0.145 0.15 0.155 0.16 0.165 0.17 0.175
P
-
w
a
v
e

C
o
m
b
in
a
t
io
n

P
1

(
1
0
^
-
3

q
k
/
m
p
i+
^
3
)
Photon Lab Energy
p(gamma, pi0)p
pi0p.graph1
"Bergstrom.p1"
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
12.80
13.00
13.20
13.40
13.60
13.80
P
3

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total Multipole Combination P
3
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.10
-2.00
-1.90
-1.80
-1.70
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total Multipole E
0+
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-11.60
-11.10
-10.60
P
2

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total Multipole Combination P
2
Figure 8.5: P-waves and E
0+
multipole for the reaction γ +p →π
0
+p. The data are
taken from J. C. Bergstrom et al.(1997) [4].
98
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 146.99 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.020
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 147.6 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 147.83 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 145.30 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 146.12 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.050
-0.030
-0.010
0.010
0.030
0.050
0.070
0.090
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 146.8 MeV
Calculation
Beck (1990)
Figure 8.6: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p.
99
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 149.9 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 150.87 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.05
-0.03
-0.01
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 151.4 MeV
Calculation
Beck (1990)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 148.97 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.050
-0.030
-0.010
0.010
0.030
0.050
0.070
0.090
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 149.1 MeV
Calculation
Beck (1990)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 149.84 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
Figure 8.7: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p.
100
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 153.37 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 153.7 MeV
Calculation
Beck (1990)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 154.20 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 151.70 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 152.2 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 152.54 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
Figure 8.8: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p.
101
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 156.1 MeV
Calculation
Beck (1990)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 156.5 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 156.66 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 154.4 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 155.04 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 155.85 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
Figure 8.9: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p.
102
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 159.18 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 160.02 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 160.7 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 157.48 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 158.36 MeV
Calculation
Bernstein (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 158.6 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
Figure 8.10: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p.
103
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 166.7 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 168.6 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 162.7 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Differential Cross Section at 164.7 MeV
Calculation
Bergstrom (1997)
Figure 8.11: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ + p →π
0
+ p.
104
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total M
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.30
-0.25
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.5
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-3.8
-3.6
-3.4
-3.2
-3.0
-2.8
-2.6
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
0
)p
Total M
1-
Multipole
Figure 8.12: Total p(γ, π
0
)p multipoles (solid line) compared with dispersion relations
[6] (dashed line).
105
8.1.2 Photoproduction from the Neutron
The photoproduction of neutral pions from the neutron is a very difficult process to
study experimentally, due to the short lifetime of the neutron (see Table A.4). For
this reason, one cannot construct a target of pure neutrons, and the lack of neutron
charge means that they cannot be formed into a beam. Hence the only way to study
the neutral pion photoproduction amplitude from the neutron is through bound state
nuclei such as the deuteron, wherein one attempts to extract the amplitude from the
experimental data by subtracting the proton amplitude. In photoproduction from
the deuteron there is also a rescattering contribution in which a charged pion is
produced from one nucleon and is subsequently rescattered from the other nucleon
producing a π
0
. This is a significant contributor to the scattering amplitude from the
deuteron, and therefore in order to compare our neutral pion production results from
the present thesis with experimental results from deuteron experiments, one would
have to use a model involving the deuteron which implicitly uses our present single
nucleon operator (i.e. the impulse approximation [41]), and compare predictions that
way. This is done in Reference [41] using a single nucleon operator similar to ours,
and those authors have found reasonable agreement with the available data. They
do suggest that better data are needed for a more rigid test. Very recently a theory
has been developed [42] wherein the single nucleon amplitudes can be extracted in
a much more reliable way from the deuteron amplitudes. This method will allow a
much more useful comparison with future data. Also, there have recently been new
and more precise experiments measuring π
0
production from deuterium [43] and a
more rigid test is now possible. Qualitatively we can see (Figure 8.13) that the total
cross section for the neutron is smaller and less energy dependent than that of the
proton (Figure 8.2) and that the E
0+
multipole has changed sign. The multipoles for
neutral pion production from the neutron are compared with dispersion relations [6]
and shown in Figure 8.14. The unitarity cusp is clearly visible in the E
0+
multipole,
as was the case with p(γ, π
0
)p, and again the cusp causes quite a difference between
our curve and that of dispersion relations. The other multipoles plotted in Figure 8.14
show a similar energy dependence between the calcuated multipole and the dispersion
relations.
106
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
8.20
8.30
8.40
8.50
8.60
8.70
8.80
P
1

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total Multipole Combination P
1
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-9.00
-8.90
-8.80
-8.70
-8.60
-8.50
P
2

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total Multipole Combination P
2
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
12.00
12.50
13.00
P
3

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total Multipole Combination P
3
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total Multipole E
0+
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
7.080
7.100
7.120
7.140
7.160
F
0

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total Multipole Combination F
0
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
σ

(
µ
b
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total Cross Section
Figure 8.13: P-waves, E
0+
multipole and cross section for the reaction γ+n →π
0
+n.
107
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
M
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total M
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-0.30
-0.25
-0.20
-0.15
-0.10
-0.05
E
1
+

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total E
1+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total E
0+
Multipole
145.0 150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
M
1
-

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
0
)n
Total M
1-
Multipole
Figure 8.14: Total n(γ, π
0
)n multipoles (solid line) compared with dispersion relations
[6] (dashed line).
108
8.2 Charged Pion Production
The photoproduction of charged pions has been studied by many groups in the ∆
resonance region and beyond, but modern near threshold data is more difficult to
find. In this section we will give comparisons with π
+
production data given by
Adamovich et al. in References [7] and [8]. Modern π
+
data will be available shortly
from an experiment that is currently being analysed at SAL [44]. For π

production
we use recent data from the inverse reaction (π

+p →γ +n) given by Hutcheon et
al. at TRIUMF [9], as well as data from [8].
Figures 8.17 and 8.21 show our complete results for the cross section and multipole
observables for the two reactions.
Our total cross section (Figure 8.15) shows quite reasonable agreement over the
entire energy range although the data set only contains four points. The differential
cross sections shown in Figure 8.16 agree somewhat, but the error bars leave much
to be desired.
The charged pion production cross section is much larger than that of the neutral
pion, which means that the effects of the higher loops near threshold will not have as
great a relative effect. Hence we see that our agreement is much closer in the charged
pion cross section.
Figure 8.18 shows the E
0+
multipole plotted along with the dispersion relation
curve. The two curves agree in both magnitude and energy dependence. This is
in contrast to the neutral pion production reactions where the unitarity cusp effect
destroys the agreement.
The total cross section for π

production (Figure 8.19) shows quite good agree-
ment with the new data given in Reference [9], and the differential cross sections in
Figure 8.20 show moderate agreement at low energies and quite good agreement at
∼ 160 MeV.
The E
0+
multipole is plotted in Figure 8.22 along with the results of dispersion
relations. We see that both the magnitude, and energy dependence, are very similar
for both curves.
Charged pion photoproduction data shows good agreement overall with the pre-
dictions of the present low energy model.
109
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
σ

(
µ
b
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Total Cross Section
Calculation
Adamovich (1968)
Figure 8.15: Total cross section for the reaction γ +p →π
+
+n. The data are taken
from Adamovich et al. [7]
110
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Differential Cross Section at 155.6 MeV
Calculation
Adamovich (1969)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
d
σ
/
d


(
µ
b
/
s
r
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Differential Cross Section at 165 MeV
Calculation
Adamovich (1969)
Figure 8.16: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ +p →π
+
+n. The data are
taken from Adamovich et al. [8].
111
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-4.5
-4.0
-3.5
-3.0
-2.5
-2.0
P
1

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Total Multipole Combination P
1
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-14.00
-13.50
-13.00
P
3

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Total Multipole Combination P
3
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Total Multipole E
0+
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
26.0
28.0
30.0
32.0
34.0
P
2

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Total Multipole Combination P
2
Figure 8.17: P-waves E
0+
multipole for the reaction γ + p →π
+
+ n.
112
152.0 157.0 162.0 167.0
E
γ
(MeV)
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
29.0
30.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
p(γ,π
+
)n
Total E
0+
Multipole
Figure 8.18: E
0+
multipole (solid line) and dispersion relation result [6] (dashed line)
for the reaction p(γ, π
+
)n.
113
148.0 152.0 156.0 160.0 164.0 168.0
E
γ
(MeV)
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
σ

(
µ
b
)
n(γ,π

)p
Total Cross Section
Calculation
Adamovich (1968)
Hutcheon (1998)
Figure 8.19: Total cross section for the reaction γ + n → π

+ p. The data are
calculated by Legendre polynomial fits to the angular distribution of Hutcheon et al.
[9] and from Adamovich et al. [8]
114
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
d
σ
/
d


(
k
/
q

µ
b
/
s
r
)
n(γ,π

)p
Differential Cross Section at 149.45 MeV
Calculation
Hutcheon (1998)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
d
σ
/
d


(
k
/
q

µ
b
/
s
r
)
n(γ,π

)p
Differential Cross Section at 154.20 MeV
Calculation
Hutcheon (1998)
0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0
θ
π
(deg.)
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
d
σ
/
d


(
k
/
q

µ
b
/
s
r
)
n(γ,π

)p
Differential Cross Section at 159.42 MeV
Calculation
Hutcheon (1998)
Figure 8.20: Differential cross sections for the reaction γ +n →π

+p. The data are
taken from Hutcheon et al. [9].
115
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
6.0
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.2
7.4
P
1

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Total Multipole Combination P
1
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
14.00
14.50
15.00
P
3

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Total Multipole Combination P
3
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-32.0
-31.0
-30.0
-29.0
-28.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Total Multipole E
0+
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0 170.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-38.0
-36.0
-34.0
-32.0
-30.0
P
2

(
1
0
-
3
q
k
/
m
π
+
3
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Total Multipole Combination P
2
Figure 8.21: P-waves E
0+
multipole for the reaction γ + n →π

+ p.
116
150.0 155.0 160.0 165.0
E
γ
(MeV)
-32.0
-31.0
-30.0
-29.0
-28.0
E
0
+

(
1
0
-
3
/
m
π
+
)
n(γ,π
-
)p
Total E
0+
Multipole
Figure 8.22: E
0+
multipole (solid line) and dispersion relation result [6] (dashed line)
for the reaction n(γ, π

)p.
117
Channel Multipole

p(γ, π
0
)p n(γ, π
0
)n p(γ, π
+
)n n(γ, π

)p
Born E
0+
-2.45821 0.38664 27.6478 -31.5086
Born M
1−
-6.56509 -4.7141 5.8065 -8.3196
Born E
1+
0.04118 0.000 5.4671 -5.4168
Born M
1+
3.38342 2.3412 -8.6540 10.0654
∆(1232), g
1
E
0+
-0.05936 -0.0598 1.2300 -1.2300
∆(1232), g
1
M
1−
2.01840 2.0219 1.5780 -1.5780
∆(1232), g
1
E
1+
-0.15413 -0.1549 0.0596 -0.0596
∆(1232), g
1
M
1+
4.01179 4.0379 -2.2997 2.2997
∆(1232), g
2
E
0+
0.40840 0.4080 -1.4831 1.4831
∆(1232), g
2
M
1−
0.19266 0.1925 0.1272 -0.1272
∆(1232), g
2
E
1+
0.10250 0.1030 -0.0561 0.0561
∆(1232), g
2
M
1+
-0.14854 -0.1489 0.0219 -0.0219
N(1440) E
0+
0.00733 0.0045 0.0343 -0.0296
N(1440) M
1−
0.11548 0.0715 0.2243 -0.1606
N(1440) E
1+
-0.00022 -0.0001 0.0002 -0.0003
N(1440) M
1+
0.05325 0.0329 -0.0461 0.0748
ρ & ω E
0+
0.08474 -0.085 0.1312 0.1312
ρ & ω M
1−
0.91712 0.5679 0.2501 0.2501
ρ & ω E
1+
-0.01512 0.0152 -0.0220 -0.0220
ρ & ω M
1+
0.76786 0.7174 0.0335 0.0335
Table 8.1: Threshold values for the multipoles separated into particle channels.

The units for E
0+
are
10
−3
m
π
+
and the units for the others are
10
−3
|q||k|
m
π
+
3
118
Channel Multipole p(γ, π
0
)p n(γ, π
0
)n p(γ, π
+
)n n(γ, π

)p
Total E
0+
-2.0171 0.6544 27.5602 -31.1538
Total M
1−
-3.3214 -1.8604 7.9861 -9.9353
Total E
1+
-0.0259 -0.0368 5.4488 -5.4426
Total M
1+
8.0678 6.9804 -10.9445 12.4516
Total P
1
11.312 8.730 -2.584 6.059
Total P
23
12.159 10.643 26.812 29.350
Total F
0
8.403 7.104 15.516 17.125
Disp. relations E
0+
-1.22 1.19 28.0 -31.7
Disp. relations M
1−
-3.92 -2.16 6.1 -8.3
Disp. relations E
1+
-0.15 -0.17 4.9 -4.9
Disp. relations M
1+
7.07 5.97 -9.6 11.2
Disp. relations P
1
10.54 7.62 -1.00 4.80
Disp. relations P
23
10.847 9.228 23.407 26.158
Disp. relations F
0
7.598 6.169 13.520 15.229
Expt.(I) E
0+
-1.32 ± 0.08 27.6 ± 0.3 -31.8 ± 0.2
Expt.(I) P
1
10.26 ± 0.10
Expt.(I) P
23
11.62 ± 0.08
Expt.(I) F
0
7.91 ± 0.03
Expt.(I) E
1+
-0.67 ± 0.15
Expt.(II) E
0+
-1.31 ± 0.08 28.3 ± 0.02 -34.7 ± 1.0
Expt.(II) P
1
10.02 ± 0.15
Expt.(II) P
23
11.44 ± 0.09
Expt.(II) F
0
7.77 ± 0.03
CHPT E
0+
-1 → -1.5 2.13 28.2 -32.7
CHPT P
1
10.3
CHPT P
23
11.25
CHPT F
0
7.738
CHPT E
1+
-0.12
Table 8.2: Total threshold values for the multipoles and p-waves in the reactions
γ + N → π + N. Numerical values are given for our totals, dispersion relations [6],
experimental data and chiral perturbation theory.
119
Chapter 9
Summary and Conclusions
We have studied the photoproduction of charged and neutral pions near threshold
using an effective chiral Lagrangian that includes the Born terms and the exchange
of nucleon resonances and vector mesons.
We have restricted our attention to photoproduction at low energy by considering
only the tree level contributions from the Lagrangian, and focusing on the lowest
order electric and magnetic multipoles (E
0+
, M
1−
, M
1+
and E
1+
).
The predictions of this theory have been compared with experimental data and
good agreement is found for the charged pion reactions near threshold. The neutral
pion reactions show good agreement for the p-wave multipoles, but there is a discrep-
ancy for the s-wave E
0+
multipole. The total cross section has been calculated, and
compared with data; for both the charged and neutral pion production reactions and
close agreement is found near threshold. Moving away from threshold, one can clearly
see the calculated cross section diverging from the experimental one in the case of
neutral pion production. This is attributed to the higher order effects such as rescat-
tering which become large near the charged pion threshold and which we have not
considered here (see Appendix C). The differential cross sections for the various reac-
tion channels have also been compared with experimental data (Chapter 8) and show
close agreement at forward angles and low energies. This can also be attributed to our
neglecting the rescattering diagrams. The resonances are peaked

at 80

to 90

which
causes a slight broadening of the peak given by the Born terms. The higher energies
(∼ 170 MeV) begin to show agreement again for small pion scattering angles, but the
intermediate energies show a discrepancy with the data. The agreement at higher
energies is due to the tree level Born contribution becoming large quite quickly and
completely dominating the cross section, effectively smothering other contributions
such as rescattering which do not grow so quickly.
We have compared our calculated multipoles with the results of dispersion relation
theory, and found moderate agreement for the p-waves in neutral pion production (see
Figures 8.12 and 8.14). The E
0+
multipole does not agree due to the magnitude of
the unitarity cusp in the dispersion relation graph. The energy dependence of the
multipoles agrees quite well with dispersion relations for all reaction channels.
The ∆-resonance has been treated as an explicit degree of freedom in this theory,
and we have examined the effect of changing the off-shell parameters inherent to the ∆
Lagrangian (Chapter 7). Changing the ∆ resonance off-shell parameters to the values
recommended by Kaiser et al. [36] has been shown to affect mainly the E
0+
electric
dipole amplitude. The new values for the off-shell parameters give closer agreement
with experimental measurements of both E
0+
at threshold, and the combination
2M
1+
+ M
1−
given, with theoretical uncertainty, in Chapter 7. The multipole E
1+
,

The resonance peak is at 80

right at threshold and quickly moves over to 90

as the energy
increases.
120
which is quite different from experimental results in both the present calculation and
CHPT (see Table 8.2), is improved slightly by the new choice of off-shell parameters.
It has been suggested that this multipole could be examined more effectively by a
measurement of the photon asymmetry [40]. We will have to await the completion of
this measurement to decide the true source and magnitude of this discrepancy.
In Reference [36], Bernard et al. have suggested that it may not be necessary to
treat the ∆(1232) resonance as a dynamical degree of freedom as we have done in
Chapter 4, although those authors do express the importance of the ∆ as a dominant
contributor to the P
3
p-wave multipole combination. We have shown above that, as
mentioned in [1], the energy dependence of the ∆(1232) contribution to the p-wave
combination F
0
very nearly cancels the energy dependence of the Born contribution,
leaving F
0
nearly energy independant over a large range from threshold to ∼ 170
MeV. We see that using the ∆-resonance as a dynamical degree of freedom does, in
fact, allow a much better fit to experimental data. It is possible that other methods
of dealing with the ∆-resonance may also reproduce this cancellation effect on F
0
,
which would validate the suggestion of [36] in that the effect may be due to a general
feature of the resonance and not to the exact method of treatment. A calculation of
F
0
, using the ‘integrated out’ treatment of Chapter 6 does, in fact, show a similar
energy dependence of F
0
(along with a reduction in the overall magnitude) as the
explicit treatment in Chapter 4.
We have also explored the effect of treating the resonances as very heavy particles
(Chapter 6). In this approximation (called ‘integrating out’ the resonance), the res-
onances are static particles and the dynamics of the interactions are independent of
resonance effects. A large difference is seen in the the ∆(1232) resonance amplitudes
derived using this method from the explicit, dynamic treatment. The amplitudes of
the higher mass N(1440) resonance, when integrated out, also show a difference from
the explicit treatment, but this difference is not as large, indicating that the heavy
mass approximation is a better one in this case. This implies that this treatment of
resonances could be used to include higher mass resonances.
Chiral perturbation theory has been used to calculate the corrections to the low
energy effective theory presented in this thesis. These corrections have been found to
be significant. This seems to indicate a convergence that is not as rapid as hoped and
although the present state of the CHPT calculation shows much better agreement
with data than our method, it may be that the next order in the calculation removes
this agreement. This point, however, remains to be validated by higher order CHPT
calculations.
121
Appendix A
Units and conventions
A.1 General Definitions
We work in the standard units, setting ¯ h = c = 1 in which we have the relations
[length] = [time] = [energy]
−1
= [mass]
−1
. The metric tensor is given in the usual
Bjorken and Drell convention
g
µν
= g
µν
=
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 −1 0 0
0 0 −1 0
0 0 0 −1
_
_
_
_
(A.1)
where we let Greek indices range from 0 to 4 and Latin indices from 1 to 3. Four-
vectors given in contravariant and covariant forms as
x
µ
=
_
x
0
, x
_
, x
µ
= g
µν
x
ν
=
_
x
0
, −x
_
. (A.2)
The inner product is then naturally
p · x = p
µ
x
µ
= g
µν
p
µ
x
ν
= p
0
x
0
−p · x (A.3)
and a massive particle has
p
2
= p
µ
p
µ
= E
2
−|p|
2
= m
2
. (A.4)
The derivative operator and the quantum mechanical energy and momentum opera-
tors are given respectively as

µ
=

∂x
µ
=
_

∂t
, ∇
_
E = i

∂t
p = −i∇
p
µ
= i∂
µ
(A.5)
The Pauli spin matrices that generate SU(2) are
σ
1
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
2
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
3
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
(A.6)
and they satisfy the algebra

i
, σ
j
] = 2iǫ
ijk
σ
k
(A.7)
122
where ǫ
ijk
is the usual Levi-Civita totally anti-symmetric tensor which reverses sign
under interchange of any two indices and is equal to ±1 for cyclic/anti-cyclic permuta-
tions of the indices. A useful relation involving this symbol is ǫ
ijk
ǫ
abk
= δ
ia
δ
jb
−δ
ib
δ
ja
where δ
ij
is the usual Kronecker delta symbol. The Pauli matrices are traceless, have
determinant equal to -1 and have anticommutation relation

i
, σ
j
} = 2Iδ
ij
= Tr(σ
i
σ
j
) (A.8)
where I is the unit 2 ×2 matrix. The completeness relation for the Pauli matrices is
given by

i

i
)
ab

i
)
cd
= 2(δ
bc
δ
ad

1
2
δ
ab
δ
cd
) (A.9)
The gamma matrices that act on the Dirac spinors to couple spin angular momenta
are given in the Dirac representation as the following 4 ×4 matrices
γ
0
=
_
I 0
0 −I
_
, γ
i
=
_
0 σ
i
−σ
i
0
_
(A.10)
and the axial matrix
γ
5
=
_
0 I
I 0
_
= iγ
0
γ
1
γ
2
γ
3
. (A.11)
The following relations satisfied by the γ-matrices will be found useful
γ
5
γ
µ
= −γ
µ
γ
5

µ
, γ
ν
} = γ
µ
γ
ν
+ γ
ν
γ
µ
= 2g
µν
_
γ
5
_
2
= 1
γ
µ
γ
µ
= 4
γ
µ
γ
ν
γ
µ
= −2γ
ν
γ
µ
γ
ν
γ
λ
γ
µ
= 4g
µν
Tr{a b} = 4a · b
Tr{a b c d} = 4 (a · b c · d −a · c b · d + a · d b · c)
Tr{γ
5
a b} = 0
Tr{γ
5
a b c d} = 4iǫ
µνλρ
a
µ
b
ν
c
λ
d
ρ
a b = a · b −iσ
µν
a
µ
b
ν
Tr{γ
µ
1
...µ
n
} = 0; n = odd
(A.12)
where the slash indicates contraction with the γ-matrix (i.e. a = γ · a) and
σ
µν
=
i
2

µ
, γ
ν
] . (A.13)
123
The Dirac spinors are the following 4×2 matrices, u(p, s) for the fermions and v(p, s)
for the anti-fermions.
u(p, s) =
_
p
0
+ m
_
I
σ·p
p
0
+m
_
χ
(s)
v(p, s) =
_
p
0
+ m
_
σ·p
p
0
+m
I
_
η
(s)
(A.14)
where the χ
(s)
and the η
(s)
are vectors in spin space given by
χ
(
1
2
)
=
_
1
0
_
, χ
(−
1
2
)
=
_
0
1
_
η
(
1
2
)
= −iσ
2
χ
(−
1
2
)
=
_
0
1
_
, η
(−
1
2
)
= −iσ
2
χ
(
1
2
)
=
_
−1
0
_ (A.15)
and we also have the conjugate spinors
u(p, s) = u

(p, s)γ
0
v(p, s) = v

(p, s)γ
0
(A.16)
and the spin sum relations

s
u(p, s)u(p, s) =
p + M
2M
= Λ
+
(p)

s
v(p, s)v(p, s) =
p −M
2M
= Λ

(p).
(A.17)
The on-shell spinors satisfy the Dirac equation
(p −m) u(p) = 0 , (p + m) v(p) = 0
u(p) (p −m) = 0 , v(p) (p + m) = 0. (A.18)
Note that the matrix elements formed out of diagrams with initial and final nucleon
spinors will always be of the form
u(P
f
, s
f
)Γu(P
i
, s
i
) = χ

s
f
M(P
f
, P
i

s
(A.19)
with the Γ containing one of 1, γ
5
, γ
µ
, γ
µ
γ
5
, σ
µν
. One can then write down the
124
M(P
f
, P
i
) by substituting the following two component forms
1 →N

N
_
1 −
(σ · P
f
)(σ · P
i
)
(E
f
+ M)(E
i
+ M)
_
,
γ
5
→N

N
_
(σ · P
i
)
(E
i
+ M)

(σ · P
f
)
(E
f
+ M)
_
,
γ
0
→N

N
_
1 +
(σ · P
f
)(σ · P
i
)
(E
f
+ M)(E
i
+ M)
_
,
γ →N

N
_
σ
(σ · P
i
)
(E
i
+ M)
+
(σ · P
f
)
(E
f
+ M)
σ
_
,
γ
0
γ
5
→N

N
_
(σ · P
i
)
(E
i
+ M)
+
(σ · P
f
)
(E
f
+ M)
_
,
γγ
5
→N

N
_
(σ · P
i
)
(E
i
+ M)
+
(σ · P
f
)
(E
f
+ M)
_
,
σ
0j
→N

Ni
_
σ
j
(σ · P
i
)
(E
i
+ M)

(σ · P
f
)
(E
f
+ M)
σ
j
_
,
σ
ij
→N

N
_
σ
k

(σ · P
f
)
(E
f
+ M)
σ
k
(σ · P
i
)
(E
i
+ M)
_
ǫ
ijk
.
(A.20)
The photon polarization vectors ǫ
µ
and ǫ
µ∗
give the following polarization sum

λ
ǫ
λ∗
· ǫ
λ
= −2. (A.21)
Note also the product ǫ

µ
ǫ
µ
= 1.
A.2 Isospin
The proton and neutron form an SU(2) isospin doublet, so that a proton can be
rotated into a neutron and vice-versa via transformations generated by the SU(2)
gauge group. The isospin basis for the nucleon is given by
|p >=
_
1
0
_
, |n >=
_
0
1
_
(A.22)
which are usually denoted by isospinors ξ
+
1
2
= |p > and ξ

1
2
= |n >. The nucleon
wavefunction can then be written as N = (ψ
p
, ψ
n
) where ψ
p
and ψ
n
are the individual
proton and neutron wavefunctions.
The pions form a T = 1 iso-triplet and therefore can be grouped as a vector in a
3-dimensional isospin space
π = (π
1
, π
2
, π
3
). (A.23)
It is useful to describe the pion in this fashion because it allows us to connect the
iso-space of the pion with that of the nucleon through SU(2) transformations. To
125
see this we look at the isospin matrices τ
i
which generate SU(2) and have a repre-
sentation known as the Pauli spin matrices. These 2 ×2 matrices form a vector in a
3-dimensional space so that
τ = (τ
1
, τ
2
, τ
3
). (A.24)
We see immediately that if one uses this representation then
τ
3
|p > = |p >
τ
3
|n > = −|n > .
(A.25)
Then |p > and |n > are eigenvectors of τ
3
with eigenvalues +1 and -1 respectively. If
we define
Q
+
=
1
2
(1 + τ
3
) (A.26)
we see that Q
+
is a charge operator whose expection value between the nucleons
returns their respective charges as eigenvalues
< p|Q
+
|p >= 1 , < n|Q
+
|n >= 0. (A.27)
We now want to show that the τ-matrices can rotate the nucleon vector in isospace.
To do this we form the ‘raising’ and ‘lowering’ operators
τ
±
=
1
2

1
±iτ
2
) (A.28)
so that
τ
+
=
_
0 1
0 0
_
, τ

=
_
0 0
1 0
_
(A.29)
that when applied to the nucleon basis vectors gives
τ

|p > = |n > , τ
+
|n >= |p >
τ

|n > = τ
+
|p >= 0.
(A.30)
This gives us a method of changing protons and neutrons into each other, which is
precisely what we need if we are to conserve charge in a given reaction.
We are now ready to make the connection between the τs and the 3 dimensional
pion isospin space. We denote the pions by |π
λ
>, where λ = 0, +, − is the charge
index, by forming the following combinations of the Cartesian components

±
> =
1

2
(|π
1
> ±i|π
2
>)

0
> = |π
3
>
(A.31)
for which the useful reverse formula is

1
> =
1

2
(|π
+
> +|π

>)

2
> =
i

2
(|π

> −|π
+
>)

3
> = |π
0
> .
(A.32)
126
In parallel with the formalism for the angular momentum operator L in quantum
mechanics, we can define the z-component of the isospin operator T to give
T
3

λ
> = λ|π
λ
>
T
2

λ
> = T(T + 1)|π
λ
>= 2|π
λ
>
(A.33)
and the matrix elements of

T = (T
1
, T
2
, T
3
) in a Cartesian isospin basis are given by
< π
a
|T
b

c
>= iǫ
abc
. (A.34)
The scalar product τ · π with the nucleon isospin matrix has the form
τ · π = τ
1
π
1
+ τ
2
π
2
+ τ
3
π
3
=

2(τ
+
π

+ τ

π
+
) + τ
3
π
0
. (A.35)
We now have the connection necessary for relating pion and nucleon charge conserva-
tion in strong interactions. To see this explicitly we simply need to make the definition
that
π

kills positive pions and creates negative ones.
π
+
kills negative pions and creates positive ones. Whenever a positive pion (π
+
)
is created in an interaction with nucleons using τ · π, it will be associated with a τ

which will lower the charge of the initial nucleon and conserve charge.
In order that all of this formalism be useful for actual physical processes we must
introduce the wavefunctions describing the spatial part of the particles and then allow
electromagnetic interactions as well.
A.3 Fields
We give the spatial wave functions as follows
Fermions (Proton, Neutron, corresponding anti-particles and resonances)
ψ(x) =

r
_
d
3
p
(2π)
3
2
¸
M
p
0
_
b
r
( p)U
r
( p)e
−ip·x
+ d

r
( p)V
r
( p)e
ip·x
¸
. (A.36)
The resonances that we are interested in are the ∆(1232), which is an isospin
3
2
object, and the Roper resonance, N(1440). The ∆(1232) is a 4-component object in
isospin-space represented by ∆ = (∆
++
, ∆
+
, ∆
0
, ∆

).
Mesons (Pions, Vector mesons, ρ(770) and ω(783))
φ
λ
(x) =
_
d
3
q
(2π)
3
2
1
_
2q
0
_
a
λ
(q)e
−iq·x
+ a

λ
(q)e
iq·x
_
(A.37)
127
Photons
A
µ
(x) =

α
_
d
3
k
(2π)
3
2
1

2k
0
_
ǫ
α
µ
a
α
(

k)e
−ik·x
+ ǫ
α∗
µ
a

α
(

k)e
ik·x
_
(A.38)
where α is the polarization index and µ is the 4-dimensional vector index. The
polarization vectors ǫ
α
µ
and ǫ
α∗
µ
are defined above.
The direct product of these spatial wavefunctions with the isospin wavefunctions
give us the description of the particles that we need.
A.4 Interactions
In order to describe the full interactions between these various particles, of which
a few in particular are the subject of this thesis, we need to give the Lagrangians,
the equations governing the free, non-interacting particles and the propagators which
describe the particle traveling between vertices off-mass-shell.
The mesons are described by the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian
L =
1
2
_

µ

φ · ∂
µ

φ −m
2

φ ·

φ
_
. (A.39)
Application of the Euler-Lagrange equations gives the following equation of motion
_

µ

µ
+ m
2
_
φ = 0 (A.40)
which is the Klein-Gordon equation. The propagator, which propagates the particle
between two points in space-time is defined as the vacuum expectation value of the
time ordered product
< 0|T(φ
i
(x)φ
j
(y))|0 >= i∆
ij
F
(x −y) (A.41)
where

ij
F
(x −y) =
_
d
4
q
(2π)
4
δ
ij
e
−iq·(x−y)
q
2
−m
2
+ iǫ
(A.42)
The slight complex piece iǫ added in the denominator moves it into the complex plane
to avoid the singularity at q
2
= m
2
. This is what is meant by ‘off-mass-shell’. The
expression is computed using the residue theorem in complex analysis, where one
integrates around a closed curve in the complex plane surrounding the singularity
and computes the residue.
Photons are descibed by the following Lagrangian, which is the most general
Lagrangian consistant with U(1) gauge invariance
L = −
1
4
F
µν
F
µν
(A.43)
128
where F
µν
= ∂
µ
A
ν
−∂
ν
A
µ
. The photon propagator is slightly different from the meson
one due to the presence of the polarization vectors and the fact that the wavefunction
is a vector field. It is given by
< 0|T(A
µ
(x)A
ν
(y))|0 >= iD
µν
F
(x −y) (A.44)
where
D
µν
(x −y) =
_
d
4
k
(2π)
4
e
−ik·(x−y)
−k
2
−iǫ
_
g
µν

k
µ
k
ν
k
2
(1 −α)
_
(A.45)
α is the gauge parameter. In what follows, we will use the Feynman gauge α = 1.
The nucleons are fermions and are described by the Dirac Lagrangian
L = ψ
_
i
2
γ
µ


µ
−m
_
ψ (A.46)
which gives the Dirac equation as the equation of motion describing the free particle
(iγ
µ

µ
−m)ψ = (γ
µ
p
µ
−m)ψ = 0. (A.47)
The propagator, again defined as the renormalized 2-point function is
< 0|T(ψ
α
(x)ψ
β
(y))|0 >= iS
αβ
(x −y) (A.48)
where
S
αβ
(x −y) =
_
d
4
p
(2π)
4
e
−ip·(x−y)
(p + m)
αβ
p
2
−m
2
+ iǫ
. (A.49)
The spin-3/2 Lagrangian given by (4.14) contains θ
µν
defined by
θ
µν
= g
µν
+
_
1
2
(1 + 4X)A + X
_
γ
µ
γ
ν
(A.50)
where A is an arbitrary parameter, subject to the restriction that A = −
1
2
. This pa-
rameter drops out of the observables and is usually chosen as A = −1 for calculational
ease.
T
a
is the spin
1
2

3
2
transition operator, which is a 2 × 4 matrix defined by its
matrix element
<
3
2
λ

|T
+
λ

1
2
λ
N
>= C
3
2
1
2
1
2
λ

λλ
N
(A.51)
where C
I
1
I
2
I
m
1
m
2
m
is a Clebsch-Gordon coefficient. Another important relation is

λ

T
b
|
3
2
λ

><
3
2
λ

|T
+
a
= δ
ab

1
2
τ
b
τ
a
(A.52)
relating the spin-
3
2
to spin-
1
2
transition operator T
a
to the Pauli matrices.
129
The offshell parameters X,Y and Z have been given the following ranges [33] by
fitting to experimental data sets
−0.80 ≤ Z ≤ 0.28
−0.75 ≤ Y ≤ 1.67 (A.53)
−3.00 ≤ X ≤ 3.80
and the electromagnetic coupling constants are given the ranges
3.94 ≤ g
1
≤ 5.30 (A.54)
4.49 ≤ g
2
≤ 9.24. (A.55)
The propagator for the spin-3/2 ∆(1232) resonance is given by [33]
P
µν
=
γ · P + M

P
2
−M
2

_
g
µν

1
3
γ
µ
γ
ν

2P
µ
P
ν
3M
2

+
P
µ
P
ν
−P
ν
P
µ
3M

_
. (A.56)
The particle properties are given in Table A.4.
Table A.1: Particle properties as given by the particle data group.
Particle Mass (MeV) I
G
J
P
Mean Lifetime (s) [Full width (MeV)]
π
±
139.56995 ±0.00035 1

0

(2.6030 ±0.0024) ×10
−8
π
0
134.9764 ±0.0006 1

0
−+
(8.4 ±0.6) ×10
−17
ρ 769.9 ±0.8 1
+
1
−−
[151.2 ±1.2]
ω 781.94 ±0.12 0

1
−−
[8.43 ±0.10]
p 938.27231 ±0.00028
1
2
1
2
+

n 939.56563 ±0.00028
1
2
1
2
+
887.0 ±2.0
∆(1232) 1230 →1234
3
2
3
2
+
[115 →125]
N(1440) 1430 →1470
1
2
1
2
+
[250 →450]
130
Appendix B
Multipoles and observables
When the invariant amplitudes for a given process have been found, they can then
be used to find observable quantities.
The multipoles can be found by first writing the M-matrix in terms of the centre
of momentum scattering amplitude F
M
fi
=
4πW
M
χ

f

i
(B.1)
where χ
i
and χ
f
are the initial and final Pauli spinors quantized along the z-axis.
The scattering amplitude is given by
F = iσ · ǫF
1
+σ · q σ · k ×ǫ F
2
+ iσ · k q · ǫ F
3
+ iσ · q q · ǫ F
4
(B.2)
the bold face indicating 3-vectors and k and q are the CM momenta of the photon and
pion respectively. This can also be written in terms of the multipoles in a convenient
way
F = iσ · ǫ
_
E
0+
+
ˆ
k · ˆ qP
1
_
+ iσ ·
ˆ
k ˆ q · ǫP
2
+ ˆ q ×
ˆ
k · ǫP
3
(B.3)
with the P
i
being the p-wave multipoles defined in (B.13) below.
The amplitudes F
i
are obtained from the following linear combinations of the As
F
1
=
abc
8πW
_
A
1
−cA
4
+
q · k
c
(A
3
−A
4
)
_
F
2
=
qkd
8πWab
_
−A
1
+ dA
4
+
q · k
d
(A
3
−A
4
)
_
F
3
=
qkbd
8πWa
[cA
2
+ A
3
−A
4
]
F
4
=
abc
8πW
[−dA
2
+ A
3
−A
4
]
(B.4)
where a =

E
i
+ M, b =
_
E
f
+ M, c = (W −M) and d = (W + M).
The multipoles are then obtained using the formulae
E
l+
=
1
2(l + 1)
_
1
−1
dx
_
P
l
F
1
−P
l+1
F
2
+
l
2l + 1
(P
l−1
−P
l+1
) F
3
+
l + 1
2l + 3
(P
l
−P
l+2
) F
4
_
, (B.5)
131
E
l−
=
1
2l
_
1
−1
dx
_
P
l
F
1
−P
l−1
F
2
+
l + 1
2l + 1
(P
l+1
−P
l−1
) F
3
+
l
2l −1
(P
l
−P
l−2
) F
4
_
, (B.6)
M
l+
=
1
2(l + 1)
_
1
−1
dx
_
P
l
F
1
−P
l+1
F
2

1
2l + 1
(P
l−1
−P
l+1
) F
3
_
, (B.7)
M
l−
=
1
2l
_
1
−1
dx
_
−P
l
F
1
+ P
l−1
F
2
+
1
2l + 1
(P
l−1
−P
l+1
) F
3
_
. (B.8)
where the Legendre polynomials are defined by
P
0
= 1
P
1
= x
P
2
=
1
3
(3x
2
−1)
P
3
=
1
2
(5x
2
−3x)
.
.
.
P
n
(x) =
M

m=0
(−1)
m
(2n −2m)!
2
n
m!(n −m)!(n −2m)!
x
n−2m
(B.9)
where M =
n
2
or M =
n+1
2
whichever is integral and P
n
(0) = 0 for n ≥ 1.
The total cross section is given by [14]
σ =
|q|
|k|
_
|E
0+
|
2
+|M
1−
|
2
+ 6|E
1+
|
2
+ 2|M
1+
|
2
_
(B.10)
and the differential cross section is

dΩ
=
|q|
|k|
_
A + Bcosθ
π
+ Ccos
2
θ
π
_
. (B.11)
The coefficients A, B and C are given in terms of the p-wave multipoles as
A = E
2
0+
+
1
2
_
P
2
2
+ P
2
3
_
B = 2Re{E
0+
P

1
}
C = P
2
1

1
2
_
P
2
2
+ P
2
3
_
(B.12)
132
and the p-wave multipoles are functions of the multipoles and defined as
P
1
= 3E
1+
+ M
1+
−M
1−
P
2
= 3E
1+
−M
1+
+ M
1−
P
3
= 2M
1+
+ M
1−
P
2
23
=
1
2
(P
2
2
+ P
2
3
).
(B.13)
The p-wave combination F
0
is defined from (B.13) as
F
2
0
=
1
6
_
P
2
1
+ P
2
2
+ P
2
3
_
. (B.14)
Finally the respective definitions of the polarized photon asymmetry, the polarized
target asymmetry, and the recoil polarization are
Σ(θ) = Γsinθ
_
|P
3
|
2
−|P
2
|
2
_
T(θ) = 2Γ Im[(E
0+
+ cosθP
1
) (P
3
−P
2
)

]
P(θ) = 2Γ Im[(E
0+
+ cosθP
1
) (P
3
+ P
2
)

]
(B.15)
where
Γ =
|q|sinθ
2|k|
_

dΩ
_
−1
CM
. (B.16)
To compare the cross sections obtained from experiments using the inverse process
(e.g. π

+p →γ +n), with the cross section for our process of interest (e.g. γ +p →
π

+n) we use the following reciprocity theorem derived from time reversal invariance.
dσ(a
1
+ a
2
→b
1
+ b
2
)
dσ(b
1
+ b
2
→a
1
+ a
2
)
=
p
2
b
(2b
1
+ 1)(2b
2
+ 1)
p
2
a
(2a
1
+ 1)(2a
2
+ 1)
(B.17)
where a
1
, a
2
, b
1
, b
2
are the spins of the initial and final particles and p
a
, p
b
are their
momenta and (2a
1
+ 1) = 2 for massless particles (such as the photon).
133
Appendix C
Introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory
In the pion production processes off nucleons that we have studied in this thesis, we
have neglected the loop contributions to the amplitudes. This is a problem, since the
rescattering diagram in which one nucleon emits a charged pion which is subsequently
re-absorbed is a one loop diagram which significantly affects the observables. This was
apparent in the examination of the differential cross sections in Chapter 8, wherein
the opening of the charged pion channels causes a reduction of the cross section at
backward angles.
To resolve this, one would begin to compute the necessary loop diagrams. We
have mentioned in previous chapters that the effective theory we have used is non-
renormalizable. A significant reason for this is that at higher loop order, one encoun-
ters divergences that must be absorbed by counterterms. These counterterms must
have the same form as terms already contained in the original Lagrangian in order to
be absorbed into the physical observables of the theory. In computing loop diagrams
with our Lagrangian, we soon discover that we need counterterms of types different
from the terms in the Lagrangian. One way to resolve this would be to add terms to
the original Lagrangian containing all possible interactions amongst the pions, and
then the divergences can be absorbed order by order via counterterms. This is the
method used in chiral perturbation theory (CHPT). The infinite number of counter
terms necessary to absorb all of the divergences of the theory would seem to upset the
predictabilty of such a theory since, in principle, an infinite number of measurements
would have to be made to fix the arbitrary constants. The reason why such a theory
works (at low energy) is that each higher order is suppressed by higher powers in
small pion momenta due to the derivative interactions in the Lagrangian. Also, to
clarify this further, CHPT is an effective theory modeling QCD at low energies. Since
QCD is renormalizable in terms of a finite number of constants, we can presume from
the start that the CHPT counterterms taken as a whole amount to nothing more
than the finite number of QCD counterterms. In principle then, we can separate the
CHPT counterterms into various series so that when each is summed, it corresponds
to a given counterterm in QCD. Therefore CHPT is a valid method for investigating
the low energy region of QCD.
Another problem inherent in our ‘effective’ theory, as well as in CHPT, is that
when interactions with nucleons are included the one-to-one correspondence between
the loop expansion, and the expansion in powers of momenta and masses, fails. The
problem originates from the nucleon mass term in the Lagrangian. This represents
an extra mass scale in the loop expansion which does not become small in the chiral
limit (limit of vanishing pion mass). The result is diagrams with arbitrarily high
numbers of loops contributing to each order in the energy expansion and one could
no longer approximate the entire amplitude, to a given order, with only a small num-
134
ber of diagrams. Hence, a perturbative solution becomes impossible. This indicates
that we need a better method for counting the contributing diagrams than the naive
loop expansion. A method for doing this has been developed in heavy baryon CHPT
(HBCHPT) wherein the baryon field is separated into a ‘heavy’ and a ‘light’ com-
ponent, and then the heavy part is integrated out (as we did in Chapter 6). This
gives mass corrections to the vertices and leaves the nucleon fields in states that
now become small in the chiral limit, and thus allows for a well defined expansion
formalism.
In this appendix we will give a cursory introduction to CHPT and show how that
theory has developed corrections to the low energy theorems that we have found using
our relativistic theory. We begin by reviewing chiral symmetry and then proceed with
CHPT and finally HBCHPT.
C.1 Chiral Symmetry
The state of a relativistic free fermion is completely characterized by its 4-momentum
and its helicity
ˆ
h =
σ·p
|p|
. In the case of massless fermions helicity is identical to
chirality and one can decompose a massless fermion spinor into left and right handed
components
ψ =
1
2
(1 −γ
5
)ψ +
1
2
(1 + γ
5

= P
L
ψ + P
R
ψ
= ψ
L
+ ψ
R
(C.1)
where P
L,R
are projection operators. The ψ
L,R
are helicity eigenstates,
ˆ
h
2
ψ
L,R
=
±
1
2
ψ
L,R
, that in the massless limit do not mix due to the massless Dirac Lagrangian
being separable
L = iψ
L
∂ψ
L
+ iψ
R
∂ψ
R
. (C.2)
This means the Lagrangian is invariant to separate U(1)
L,R
transformations (the
number of left and right fermions is constant) and from Noether’s theorem we have
two separate conserved currents
J
L,R
µ
= ψ
L,R
γ
µ
ψ
L,R
,

µ
J
µ
L,R
= 0.
(C.3)
Equivalently we can use P
L,R
=
1
2
(1 ±γ
5
) to separate these currents into vector and
axial vector currents as
V
µ
= ψγ
µ
ψ,
A
µ
= ψγ
µ
γ
5
ψ,

µ
A
µ
= 0,

µ
V
µ
= 0.
(C.4)
135
Now since ψ
L,R
= P
L,R
ψ and ψ
L,R
= ψ

L,R
γ
0
= (P
L,R
ψ)

γ
0
= ψ
† 1
2
(1 ± γ
5

0
=
ψ

γ
0 1
2
(1 ∓γ
5
) = ψP
R,L
, if we have a mass term in the Lagrangian then
ψMψ →
_
ψ
R
+ ψ
L
_
M
_
ψ
R
+ ψ
L
_
= ψ
R

R
+ ψ
L

L
+ ψ
L

R
+ ψ
R

L
= ψ
L

R
+ ψ
R

L
(C.5)
due to the property of the projection operators P
L
MP
R
= P
L
P
R
M = 0. We see
that the chiral symmetry is broken since the mass term allows left handed and right
handed fermions to change into one another and the corresponding number of each
type is no longer conserved. The mass term is an example of “explicit” symmetry
breaking.
In QCD we have a global SU(3)
L
× SU(3)
R
× U(1)
V
× U(1)
A
symmetry in the
massless limit. The transformations of the corresponding left and right handed quarks
are
q
L,R
→e
i
λ
a
2
α
a
L,R
q, a = 1, ..., 8 (C.6)
where the λ
a
are the 8 Gell-Mann matrices. In two flavour QCD (u,d) we have the
same thing with the 3 Pauli matrices replacing the Gell-Mann matrices

.
There are 16 conserved currents corresponding to the 16 generators of SU(3) ×
SU(3). If SU(3) × SU(3) were a good symmetry we would see a particle spectrum
where every hadron (bound state of quarks) would have a partner with the opposite
parity due to the two distinct sets of quarks out of which they can be formed. We
do not see these parity doublets in the physical spectrum, which implies that the
symmetry has been “spontaneously” broken (as opposed to the “explicit” symmetry
breaking mentioned above). This means that the SU(3)
A
symmetry has been hidden
inside n
2
− 1 massless pseudoscalar bosons (Goldstone bosons) which make up the
low lying meson octet of the physical spectrum.
The QCD mass term explicitly breaks the symmetry leading to quark masses
and in turn meson masses. Since the interaction between the mesons is weak, an
effective field theory can be developed in which they are the degrees of freedom and a
perturbation expansion created in terms of small meson masses and momenta. This
effective field theory technique is useful for the SU(2) subgroup which gives rise to
the pions, since their masses are much smaller than the typical hadronic scale (i.e the
mass of the first non-Goldstone boson, the ρ(770) meson).

There are n
2
− 1 generating matrices for SU(n). This can be seen as follows. The unitary
condition, U

U = 1 ⇒U = e
iH
where H

= H (hermitian) and the condition det(U) = det(e
iH
) =
e
iTr(H)
= 1 ⇒ H is traceless. There are 2n
2
independent real numbers in an n × n matrix with
complex entries. The hermitian nature gives n
2
conditions on them and the tracelessness gives 1
condition, leaving n
2
− 1 independent elements which can be used as a basis. The tracelessness
implies that these matrices will have rank n −1 meaning n −1 of them will be diagonal.
136
C.2 Chiral Perturbation Theory
In 1958, Goldberger and Triemann [45] developed the technique of partial conserva-
tion of axial vector current (PCAC) which, along with current algebra, were used
to deduce many soft pion low energy theorems. It was found that these techniques
soon became prohibitively complicated and this motivated Weinberg in 1967 [46] to
develop a Lagrangian which automatically gave the same low energy theorems as
current algebra with less work. This “phenomenological” Lagrangian approach (see
Weinberg’s interesting summary in [47]) was shown to be equivalent to the current
algebra approach to leading order by Dashen and Weinstein in 1969 [48][49] and was
subsequently developed into CHPT by Gasser and Leutwyler in the early 1980’s [50]
[51] and has since been used quite effectively in investigating the low energy properties
of QCD.
CHPT is an effective field theory of strong interactions with the pions as the
relevant degrees of freedom. One writes the generating functional with an effective
Lagrangian L
eff
(U, v, a, s, p) as
e
iZ[v,a,s,p]
=
_
DU e

d
4
x L
eff
[U;v,a,s,p]
(C.7)
where v, a, s, p are external vector, axial vector, scalar and pseudoscalar fields respec-
tively which are contained in the interaction part of the Lagrangian. U is a matrix
containing the meson fields which is unitary and transforms linearly under chiral
gauge transformations (U

= RUL

) and is defined as
U =
(σ + iτ · π)
F
, F
2
= σ
2
+ π
2
, (C.8)
where F is the pion decay constant in the chiral limit defined by F
π
= F (1 +O( ˆ m)) =
92.4MeV and ˆ m = m
u
= m
d
is the average quark mass.
The effective action can be expanded as
L
eff
= L
(2)
+L
(4)
+· · · (C.9)
with the superscript denoting the number of derivatives (momenta) and/or mass
terms. For example
L
(2)
=
F
2
4
Tr
_

µ
U∇
µ
U

_
+
F
2
M
2
4
Tr
_
U + U

_
, (C.10)
where the trace is defined in isospin space and the covariant derivative is defined (for
an external vector field) as ∇
µ
U = ∂
µ
U −ieA
µ
[Q, U]; Q =
_
1+τ
3
2
_
.
Interactions with baryons are added with the effective Lagrangian that follows
L
πN
= L
(1)
+L
(2)
+· · · , (C.11)
137
with

L
(1)
πN
= ψ
_
i D −

M +

g
A
2
γ
µ
γ
5
u
µ
_
ψ,
D
µ
ψ = ∂
µ
ψ +
1
2
_
u

(∂
µ
−ieA
µ
Q)u + u(∂
µ
−ieA
µ
Q)u

_
ψ,
= ∂
µ
ψ + Γ
µ
ψ,
(C.12)
where u
µ
= iu


µ
Uu

and U = u
2
.
To lowest order we have
L
(1)
πN
= ψ
_
i ∂ −

M
_
ψ −

g
A
2F
ψγ
µ
γ
5
τψ · ∂
µ
π + . . . (C.13)
which is exactly the interaction Lagrangian that we used for our Born terms (2.1)
which explains why we refer to CHPT results as “corrections” to ours.
With the above Lagrangians one can proceed to construct all possible diagrams
involving nucleons and mesons. These lead to higher order corrections to our result
of Chapter 2 due to loop diagrams. The difference at this point between the effective
LET that we have used in this thesis and the CHPT Lagrangian is that CHPT
has more general interactions leading to many more possible loop diagrams that do
not exist in our formalism (e.g. we can never have two mesons interacting with
two nucleons at a single point to form a rescattering diagram). Obviously CHPT
is non-renormalizable in the usual sense, but it is renormalizable order by order
by introducing low energy constants (LECs) which are fixed phenomenologically or
through the principle of resonance saturation wherein certain LECs are completely
fixed by a particular resonance.
An important difficulty with the LET that we used is that the loop expansion
does not have a one-to-one correspondence with powers of momentum and mass.
This allows contributions from higher loops to enter at a given chiral order and
one can never be sure that all of the important diagrams have been included in a
calculation. This problem is related to the presence of the nucleon mass as an extra
mass dimension in the Lagrangian which does not become small in the chiral limit.
This problem still exists in the CHPT formalism that we have discussed above, and
it has been solved in the development of heavy baryon CHPT as shown below.
C.3 Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory
Heavy baryon CHPT restores the loop-chiral correspondence by shifting the nucleon
mass to the vertices of an effective Lagrangian. Let us begin the discussion of this
procedure first by giving the form of the HBCHPT Lagrangian [52].
L
ππ
+
ˆ
L
πN
= L
(2)
ππ
+L
(4)
ππ
+· · · +
ˆ
L
(2)
πN
+
ˆ
L
(2)
πN
+
ˆ
L
(2)
πN
+· · · , (C.14)

◦ above a quantity denotes the chiral limit, i.e. m =

m(1 +O( ˆ m)).
138
The pion field is represented by u(x) or U(x) where
U(x) =
¸
1 −
φ
2
(x)
F
2
+ i
τ · φ
F
. (C.15)
The nucleon field is decomposed with a time-like unit 4-vector v as
N
v
(x) = e
iMv·x
P
+
v
N(x)
H
v
(x) = e
iMv·x
P

v
N(x)
P
±
v
=
1
2
(1± v)
v
2
= 1
(C.16)
where M is the nucleon mass in the chiral limit and the “heavy” component of the
nucleon field H
v
(x) is integrated out.
The Lagrangian (C.14) is constructed from the following
u
µ
= i[u

(∂
µ
−ir
µ
)u −u(∂
µ
−il
µ
)u

]
Γ
µ
=
1
2
[u

(∂
µ
−ir
µ
)u + u(∂
µ
−il
µ
)u

]
χ
±
= 2B[u

(s + ip)u

±u(s + ip)

u]

µ
= ∂
µ
+ Γ
µ
−iv
(s)
µ
(C.17)
where B is a LEC of the Lagrangian L
(2)
ππ
and s, p, l
µ
, r
µ
, v
(s)
µ
are external scalar, pseu-
doscalar, left-handed and right-handed vector isotriplet and vector isosinglet fields
respectively. In the isospin limit where m
u
= m
d
for up and down quarks we have
2Bs = ˜ m
2
π
where ˜ m
π
is the bare pion mass.
One now renormalizes the above Lagrangian (C.14) to express it in terms of renor-
malized rather than bare quantities (see [52]) and then uses phenomenology to fix the
resulting low energy constants. The Lagrangian can then be used to make a host
of predictions for physical processes with the only restriction being the increasing
complexity of calculating higher orders in the Lagrangian. The M-matrix for a given
diagram will have the chiral order of the highest order Lagrangian used in its con-
struction, and thus emerges a well defined method for finding all of the diagrams to
a given order. The M-matrix can be formed as a series
iM
fi
= iM
(1)
fi
+ iM
(2)
fi
+ iM
(3)
fi
+· · · (C.18)
where, for example, the term iM
(2)
fi
will be formed from the diagrams which have one
vertex from the Lagrangian
ˆ
L
(2)
πN
and all other vertices from lower order Lagrangians.
This allows for the consistent inclusion of loops that was lacking in the relativistic
formalism we have used in this thesis. A difficulty that we have mentioned several
139
times is that the nucleon mass destroys the loop expansion and needs therefore to be
integrated out. To show how this is resolved, we turn once again to the generating
functional technique that we used in Chapter 6 to integrate out the resonance fields
(see equations (1.1) and (6.6)) and we write the generating functional as
Z[η, η] =
_
DN DN Du e
i{S
ππ
+S
πN
+

d
4
x (ηN+Nη)}
. (C.19)
We now decompose the nucleon fields and currents into heavy and light components
using (C.16) and
ρ
v
(x) = e
iMv·x
P
+
v
η(x)
R
v
(x) = e
iMv·x
P

v
η(x)
(C.20)
which allows us to integrate out the heavy component using the technique of Chap-
ter 6, leaving only the light components in the effective action and giving a set of
terms which now contain the nucleon mass at the vertices. It turns out that the heavy
source terms are two chiral orders higher than the light source terms, and therefore
start to contribute only at third order.
We are now in a position to calculate the loop corrections to the processes de-
scribed in the present thesis. In fact this has already been done [31] and better
agreement is found with the near threshold data. One aspect of this method that
still remains unclear is how rapidly the loop expansion converges. As higher and
higher orders are calculated one would like to see the added effect of each order be-
come increasingly minute so that one can get a good description of near threshold
phenomenon after calculating only a few terms. This aspect remains to be seen, but
looks very promising at present with calculations to O(p
4
) already completed [53].
140
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