Session 4P5a Extended/Unconventional Electromagnetic Theory, EHD (Electro-hydrodynamics)/EMHD (Electro-magneto-hydrodynamics), and Electro

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On Motional Emf Anamitra Palit, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic Sources and Observers in Motion III — Derivation and Solution of the Electromagnetic Motional Wave Equation Selwyn E. Wright, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic Sources and Observers in Motion IV — The Nature of Gravity and Its Effect on the Propagation Medium Selwyn E. Wright, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recent Advances on Interior Permanent Magnet Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Md. Azizur Rahman, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matrix Converter Induction Motor Drive Employing Direct Torque Control Method Jiri Lettl, Dragan Kuzmanovic, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Consequences of the Non-constancy of the Speed of Light in Vacuum for Different Galilean Reference Systems Namik Yener, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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694 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. Interestingly we could deduce the existence of an emf existing along the direction of motion of the conductor a fact that is not highlighted in texts in relation to the topic of motional emf. Cambridge. Of course from the ground frame the velocity of the electron is equal to the velocity of the aircraft or the velocity of the moving conductor for that matter. The above mentioned ideas have been rigorously investigated in this article. Flat C4. USA. If investigations are being carried out from the moving frame for example by a person sitting in the aircraft. the magnetic force on the electron as calculated from the Lorentz force formula is zero since the average velocity of the electron as observed from the moving frame is zero. India Abstract— Motional-Emf is a well discussed topic in elementary courses on electromagnetism. This is due to the effect of relativistic transformations. P-154 Motijheel Avenue. Kolkata 700074. A conductor moving transversely in a magnetic field which is perpendicular to its length and also to the direction of its motion develops an emf along its length. Though the magnetic force on the electron as observed from the moving frame is zero the electric force is not zero. Apart from this we have another interesting issue to explore. This should create another emf which is perpendicular with respect to the axial emf. We may call this the axial emf. When the axial emf is being developed a transient current flows between the ends of the conductor and this should be deflected by the existing magnetic field. . We may call this the transverse emf. July 5–8. 2010 On Motional Emf Anamitra Palit Motijheel Housing Cooperative Society.

according to cause and effect. time is an observed effect. 2. solution and properties of the electromagnetic (EM) motional wave equation are derived. A general Galilean solution for sources and observers moving relative to a propagation medium is applied to the medium based Maxwell equations. in predicting observed events. Without the medium’s reference or means to transmit light. However. E. creating the absurdity that the observed event could occur before the source event. without exceeding light speed in the propagation medium. Kirkburton. Einstein believed that there was no medium. China. March 22–26.. China. It is therefore considered to be irrational (non-causal). slowed and reversed. Similarly. The new theory gives the observed source events for source and observer flight paths through the universe. Thus time travel. Therefore.. This applies whether it’s vibrations in structures or sound propagation in the air. E. not the observations of individual motions relative to the propagation medium. S. is that time and space contract through motion. he considered that there was an unidentified mechanism that allowed light to cross space. removing ambiguity and paradox in Einstein’s SR. which special relativity cannot do. 2010 695 Electromagnetic Sources and Observers in Motion III — Derivation and Solution of the Electromagnetic Motional Wave Equation S. allowing causally only visual time travel to the past. 77–81. “Electromagnetic sources and observers in motion I — Evidence supporting the EM propagation medium for the transmission of light. which is capable of describing only relative motion between moving objects. 2010. the electromagnetic wave equation should be derived relative to its propagation medium. its derivation and solution is treated as two separable motional transforms. For over a century it has been assumed that the medium did not exist. . E. for arbitrary motion relative to the medium. based on the propagation medium. This new motional wave theory. and between stationary and constantly moving systems. according to the speed and direction of the source and observer relative to the medium. UK Abstract— The considerable evidence for the existence of the propagation medium (ether) for the transmission of light (EM waves). To predict events. and the fact that Einstein’s relativity appears not to be supported by causality and the medium based Lorentz transform. 2010. The existence of the propagation medium [1] and the lack of credibility of Einstein’s relativity [2] have been considered in the Xi’an Conference. Xi’an.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. Wright. relying on waves passing through the medium. The solution results in three time scales. Wright ECASS Technologies Ltd. Solving the motional wave equation with respect to the medium establishes causality. However. it appears that SR without a propagation medium cannot be based on the solution of the wave equation. has motivated the development of the electromagnetic (EM) motional wave equation. where the future can be observed/engaged in before it occurs.” PIERS Proceedings. appears untenable. The only difference between EM and classical solutions. He therefore developed his special relativity (SR) based on no medium. the source and observer time compared to the time in the stationary propagation medium. This allows distant galaxies to be reached in a fraction of the time normally associated with space travel. an extension of Lorentz’s medium based theory. HD8 0QS. it is just ageing less and getting there quicker. Xi’an. In this third paper the derivation. In the development of the EM wave equation. This is unlike Einstein’s special relativity. REFERENCES 1. preventing the derivation and solution of the EM motional wave equation relative to its medium. effective speeds greater than the speed of light are possible across hybrid reference frames. future and past. July 5–8. describes observations of systems in motion. a definite direction of time. this is not a form of time travel. Time can be quickened. 71–76. March 22–26. the classical wave equation should be derived and solved with respect to its propagation medium. USA. Restoring the medium forbids material time travel.. S. However. It predicts the complete radiation. SR appears unable to predict an ordered sequence of observed events (time). Moor Lane Laboratory. Wright. between the source and observer.” PIERS Proceedings. Cambridge. Huddersfield. The new medium based theory distinguishes clearly between source and observer motion. propagation and reception processes of systems in motion. The kinematic effect of moving systems is included through the Lorentz contraction of time and space in the moving frame relative to the medium. ‘Electromagnetic sources and observers in motion II — Einstein’s Ether-less relativity versus Lorentz’s medium based theory.

comb like alternate polarity. 2010 Electromagnetic Sources and Observers in Motion IV — The Nature of Gravity and Its Effect on the Propagation Medium S. HD8 0QS.” PIERS Proceedings. E. E. Newton’s claim of absolute acceleration.. explaining why gravitational matter always attracts itself. Wright. 2010. through observer motion. The paper considers the nature of gravity where it recognises the finite structures of atoms and molecules and how they generate finite fields. E. This paper IV investigates the effect of gravity. can be now confirmed. composed of complete atoms and molecules. capable of generating atomic residual difference fields (gravity) (ARDF). and gravitational matter. avoiding singularities in their field equations. it is the medium through which the light travels that is compressed. E. . “Electromagnetic sources and observers in motion III — Derivation and solution of the electromagnetic motional wave equation. or gravitational compression of the propagation medium. These fields attract similar alternate polarity fields. submitted. corresponding to the energy required in constructing the atomic structures. UK Abstract— The evidence for the propagation medium (ether) for the transmission of electromagnetic (EM) waves (light) has been considered [1]. Cambridge. However. gravity compresses the stationary medium and observer motion effectively expands it. It is not that gravity attracts light. Wright. S. They all appear to be connected with expansion or compression of space and time. again time slows and space compresses at the observer. Thus. Mach claimed that it was with respect to the distant matter of the universe. “Electromagnetic sources and observers in motion II — Einstein’s Ether-less relativity versus Lorentz’s medium based theory.. 2010. either through motion relative to. large scales of gravity and the small scales of atomic structures. Xi’an. in the direction of the field. Xi’an. S. submitted.696 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. electrical field from dissimilar charges within these distributed atomic structures. based on the propagation medium. and its time quicken. this makes the stationary medium appear to expand relatively. July 5–8. USA.” PIERS Proceedings. accelerating systems and gravity. The motional wave equation for source and observer motion relative to the medium has been developed [3]. How gravity appears to be a residual difference.. The total gravitational field. submitted.” PIERS Proceedings. If there was no medium there could be no gravitational medium compression or accelerating frame expansion of the medium. Therefore. normal ageing) or be reversed (time advanced. surrounding and moving with gravitational bodies. REFERENCES 1. bending a light ray perpendicular to the field. 2010. This field then appears to provide a link between the electric field. provide an absolute reference for the medium at rest in space and create the inertia for mass in motion. Moor Lane Laboratory. It also appears that the propagation medium is attracted by these local gravitational fields. 3. “Electromagnetic sources and observers in motion I — Evidence supporting the EM propagation medium for the transmission of light. It therefore appears possible to have mass without gravity. in the moving observer frame. This field potential appears to contribute to dark energy. relatively). Here space contracts and time slows. The principle depends on distinguishing clearly between source and observer motion relative to the propagation medium. Wright ECASS Technologies Ltd. 2. and extended to all forms of motion.. then appears to create a net zero field intensity but a finite scalar universal gravitational reference field (UGRF). S. Newton claimed that accelerative motion was with respect to absolute space. This enables absolute motion. Wright. ageing faster. which special relativity cannot do. Kirkburton. gravity can be made to decrease (time quickened). It appears that Einstein’s ether-less special relativity (SR) is not supported by the medium based Lorentz transform [2]. Huddersfield. If now an observer frame is accelerated in the direction of the field. to be measured relative to free space and the medium at rest with in it. disappear (time neutralized. Also distinction is made between binding mass. This is the physical explanation of the Equivalence Principle based here on the propagation medium. including constant motion with respect to the medium and its residual gravity field from the total matter of the universe. The medium provides a link between the Lorentz transform. Xi’an. In the presence of a gravitational field the medium compresses in the direction of the field. It appears that they were both right. from all matter in the universe. making the light ray appear to bend away from the direction of motion.

July 5–8. Memorial University of Newfoundland St. in which NdFeB materials are inserted in the rotor having different magnet orientations. Over the course of this period. have expanded their presence in specialized niche automotive markets for modern energy-efficient electric traction drives for the latest generation of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV). 2010 697 Recent Advances on Interior Permanent Magnet Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicles M. Power ratings of available IPM traction motors and self-charging IPM generators for charging the storage batteries have dramatically increased by approximately few orders of magnitude during the last dozen years. A. The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad explanation of the various factors that lead to the current state-of-the-art IPM technology. Canada Abstract— Past thirty years have been an exciting period with tremendous advances in the development of interior permanent magnet (IPM) electrical machines. Cambridge. to accelerate the development of the impressive IPM synchronous motor drives technology. . sometimes in fortuitous ways. USA. permanent magnets consisting of hard neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) materials have been widely used in synchronous machines. John’s.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. and to illustrate its application success in the automotive industry and future electric locomotives for mass transportation.namely Toyota Prius for ground transportation. Rahman Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science. Newfoundland A1B 3X5. Closer examination reveals that several different power electronics-based technological advancements and market forces have combined. The interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines.

There are several types of DTC: Depenbrock DTC. DTC using the space vector modulation. and V6 will decrease torque but increase flux. DTC using the discrete space vector modulation. In each sector four active and two zero voltage vectors are employed in order to keep the torque and flux values within their limits. flux will remain constant ant torque will slowly decrease. Since it is easier to analyze these tasks separately the matrix converter is often observed as a combination of a virtual current source rectifier and a virtual voltage source inverter connected by a virtual DC link. i. The torque control achieved with the matrix converter using this type of DTC is comparable to the classical indirect AC/AC converters. Anti parallel diodes increase the reverse blocking capability of the switches. Every switching combination of the virtual rectifier/virtual inverter configuration has a corresponding switching combination of the real matrix converter. 2010 Matrix Converter Induction Motor Drive Employing Direct Torque Control Method J. Takahashi DTC. For example in the first sector voltage vector V2 will increase torque and flux. The Takahashi DTC operates on a six sectors flux vector circle. The concept of the matrix converter lies in direct switching of the input phases to the output phases. USA. This modulation method enables generation of desired voltage vectors at the output and at the same time generation of the input current vector that rotates at the same speed like the converter input voltage vector and with the constant angle displacement towards it. A principle of the Direct Torque Control (DTC) is very simple. Kuzmanovic Faculty of Electrical Engineering. July 5–8. As the first step in application of the Takahashi DTC to an induction motor drive fed by the matrix converter a model in MATLAB Simulink was designed and simulation results of the drive dynamic behaviour were obtained. It directly controls motor torque and flux values without using a modulator and without the need of precise output voltage vectors generating like in the case of field oriented control. etc.e. Czech Republic Abstract— The presented paper deals with Takahashi direct torque control method applied on the matrix converter induction motor drive.698 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. . Direct torque control is a modern control technology that uses a simple control algorithm. the Takahashi DTC was applied to a real system consisting of the matrix converter supplying the 4 poles 6 kW induction machine with 22 Nm rated torque. Lettl and D. The absence of the DC link makes the control of the converter much more complex comparing to indirect converters. V5 will decrease torque and flux. That makes it a good candidate for the use in drives fed by the matrix converter. By applying the zero vector. The estimated torque and flux values are constantly compared to their set points and if they are out of the tolerance bands an adequate switching combination is applied to the converter output that will drive the torque and flux to their set values. The gained experimental and simulation results presented in the paper prove that the Takahashi DTC can be successfully applied to the induction machine drive fed by the matrix converter. converters that transform energy from one AC power system into another one without an intermediate DC link with an energy storage. Czech Technical University in Prague. Owing to the “independent” operation of the virtual rectifier and virtual inverter stages. Instead of the constant DC link voltage the matrix converter generates output voltages by combining three input phase voltages that are not of constant values. neuro-fuzzy DTC. Matrix converter belongs to the group of direct AC/AC converters. b) directing the converter output phase currents into the input phases in such a way to provide the sinusoidal input current with a required power factor (usually 1). V3 will increase torque but decrease flux. That is achieved by using a 3 × 3 matrix of bidirectional switches. There are two main tasks that the matrix converter performs in normal operation: a) generating the required output voltages by combining the input phase voltages. Bidirectional switches enable energy flow in both directions. Cambridge. Finally.. indirect space vector modulation can be applied to the matrix converter.

July 5–8. we examine some consequences of the non-constancy of speed of light in vacuum for different Galilean reference systems. Results of the transformation of the electromagnetic field are given. Kocaeli 41380. summation and transformation of velocities are considered. the force transformation also has to be modified accordingly. USA. The invariance of charge no longer applies and charge measured depends on the reference frame the measurement is made from. at least in form.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. i. We consider the modified Lorentz transformation incorporating different speeds of light for different inertial frames and which is a result of the non-constancy of speed of light in vacuum for different Galilean reference systems. Some consequences of this transform including the limit speed concept. transformation of lengths.e. Turkey Abstract— Having established in previous articles that the principle of the constancy of speed of light of Special Relativity Theory is false in general. These include variance of the electric charge. Izmit. transformation of the force. Kocaeli University. all under the modified Lorentz transformation. Force acting on a charge q in an external electromagnetic field has the same form as in Special Relativity Theory. Umuttepe Campus. reference systems in uniform rectilinear motion with respect to each other. Transformation of time intervals and velocities now involve the speeds of light in vacuum for both inertial frames in distinction from Special Relativity Theory. 2010 699 Some Consequences of the Non-constancy of the Speed of Light in Vacuum for Different Galilean Reference Systems Namik Yener Technology Faculty. transformation of the potentials. but now because charge is no longer invariant. Cambridge. Also discussed are some consequences of the relativity of the electromagnetic field. The transformation of lengths abide by the same rule as in Special Relativity Theory. . Some of the highlights of these consequences are as follows.

July 5–8. 2010 . USA.700 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts. Cambridge.

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