Chapter 8

Classification of thermodynamics cycles Thermodynamics cycles can be classified into different categories depending on fluid used or the different processes: Gas and vapor cycles 1- Gas cycle: the working fluid remains in gaseous phase throughout the entire cycle. 2- Vapor cycle: the working fluid exists in the vapor phase during one part of the cycle and in the liquid phase during another part. Open and closed cycles 1- Open cycle: the working fluid is returned to the initial state at the end of the cycle and is recirculated. 2- Closed cycle: the working fluid is renewed at the end of each cycle instead of recirculated. Internal and external combustion engines 1- External combustion engine: an external supplied of the heat to the fluid (ex: from the furnace to the steam within the boiler). 2- Internal combustion engine: an internal supplied of the heat to the fluid (internal combustion). Isentropic relations

 T2  v  = 1     T1  s =cte  v2 

k −1

 T2  P  = 2     T1  s =cte  P  1  P2  v  = 1     P  s =cte  v2  1 C k= p Cv

k −1 k

k

Gas power cycles

9

8.Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 OTTO cycle Definitions: BDC: bottom dead center (maximum volume).1. would produce an amount of work equal to that actually done during the entire cycle. Bore: diameter of the piston. Mean effective pressure (MEP): the pressure that if acting on the piston during the power stroke. Otto cycle parameters Gas power cycles 10 . Wcycle = MEP (VBDC − VTDC ) MEP = Compression ratio (r): (VBDC − VTDC ) Wcycle r= Volume occupied by the air at BDC >1 Volume occupied by the air at TDC TDC Bore BDC Stroke Figure. Stroke: the distance the piston travels in one direction. TDC: top dead center (clearance volume).

the first engine to burn fuel directly in a piston chamber. One Day he set himself on fire and jumped out a plane. which continuously circulates in a closed loop and always behaves as an ideal gas. Alphonse Beau de Rochas. all engines were external-combustion engines and fuel was burned in a separate compartment. 1891) was the German inventor of the internal-combustion engine. we will apply to our cycle the following assumptions. Otto's first atmospheric engine was completed in May 1867. which was first described in 1876.January 28.The working fluid is air. (ref. 4. the ideal Otto cycle consists of four processes: 1 – Isentropic compression [1-2] 2.The exhaust process is replaced by a heat rejection process that restores the working fluid to its initial state. 3.Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 A bit of history Nikolaus August Otto (June 14. we will try to analyze a simple idealized model of the Otto cycle. Up until his invention.Constant-volume heat rejection [4-1] Gas power cycles 11 . 1832 .All the processes that make up the cycle are internally reversible. Under the above assumptions. Wikipedia) Thermodynamics analysis of the OTTO cycle: First. 2. called air-standard assumptions: 1.Constant-volume heat addition [2-3] 3. had already described the four-stroke cycle principle in a privately published pamphlet. The Otto Cycle engine patent was invalidated in 1886 when it was discovered that another inventor. Five years later Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach joined his company for a while and together they produced the idea of the four-stroke cycle or. For convenience. Otto cycle engine.The combustion process is replaced by a heat-addition process from an external source. and because it will take more than a lecture of one hour to develop a real cycle!!!.Isentropic expansion [3-4] 4.

8.3.2. (P-v) and (T-s) diagrams for the ideal Otto cycle. Comparison between the actual and the ideal Otto cycle.8. Figure.Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 Figure. Gas power cycles 12 .

1) m Cv ( T3 − T2 )  T3  T2  − 1 T   2  Using isentropic relations: v T T3  v4  =   and 2 =  1 T4  v3  T1  v 2  But v1 = v 4 and v 2 = v3 Then T3 T2 T T = ⇔ 3 = 4 T4 T1 T2 T1 Replacing in eq. However.1. how far can we increase the compression ratio? Gas power cycles 13 . an increase in the compression ratio induces an increase in the thermal efficiency. T  T1  4 − 1 T  m Cv ( T4 − T1 )  1  η th = 1 − = 1− (eq. QL = m C v ( T4 − T1 ) and QH = m C v ( T3 − T2 ) Therefore.8. Finally.4] ↑ r ⇒ ↑η and ↑ k ⇒ ↑η Increase thermal efficiency by increasing the compression ratio (r) Theoretically. gives v T η th = 1 − 1 = 1 −  1 v T2  2     1− k k −1     k −1 = 1 − r 1− k r is the compression ratio.8. η th = 1 − 1 r k −1 Note that the thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle depends only upon the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio k (CP/ Cv) [for air k=1.Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 Computation of the Otto cycle efficiency: η th = Wnet QH − QL Q = =1− L QH QH QH But.

Increase in thermal efficiency with compression ratio. 0.1 0 η 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Compression ratio Figure.6 Thermal efficiency 0. it is difficult to replace air by Argon. Examples: Canadian fuels octane rating (reference Petro-Canada) Regular 87 octane Mid-grad 89 octane Premium 91 octane Super premium 94 octane Increase thermal efficiency by increasing the specific heat ratio (k) The maximal efficiency is obtained with monatomic gas such as Argon (k=1. as the real Otto cycle is an open cycle. For example. the compression ratio is between 7 and 10. go further by choosing the appropriate gasoline with a high octane rating. We can.667). However. the temperature of the air-fuel mixture rises and can reach the auto-ignition temperature (temperature at which the fuel ignites without the help of a spark).Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 At high compression ratios. This will lead to an inhomogeneous combustion. an octane rating of 95 means that the air-fuel behaves at 95% as a mixture of air and iso-octane (which doesn’t auto-ignites) and 5% as air and Heptane mixture (which auto-ignites easily).2 0. it is clear that for practical reasons.4 0. high-pressure waves and an audible noise called engine knock. however. Gas power cycles 14 . So the higher octane rating is the better.5 0.3 0. Octane rating: determines the amount of air-fuel mixture that can be compressed without auto-ignition. So usually.4.8.

6 0.1 0 0 2 4 6 8 Compression ratio η 10 12 Figure.667 k=1.3 Thermal efficiency 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 0.6.8.3 0. Figure. Actual Otto cycle. Real Otto cycle The real or actual Otto cycle differs from the ideal Otto cycle due to irreversibilities associated with friction and with pressure and temperature gradients and due to the fact that heat addition doesn’t occur at constant pressure.8. Gas power cycles 15 .4 k=1.2 0.5.9 0.7 k=1. Increase in thermal efficiency with compression ratio and specific heat ratio.

is 1800 kJ/kg. At the onset of the compression stroke.The pressure and the temperature for each state. Gas power cycles 16 .7. per cycle. The heat supplied to air.The thermal efficiency 3.8. 2. Example The compression ratio of an ideal Otto cycle is 8.Chapter 8 Lyes KADEM [Thermodynamics II] 2007 Cycle Pad Expansion Combustion Cooling Compression Figure.The mean effective pressure. CyclePad diagram for the Otto cycle. Determine: 1.1 MPa and the temperature is 15°C. the pressure is 0.