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Earthquake creates great devastation in terms of life, money
and failures of structures.
Earthquake Mitigation is an important field of study from a long time now. Seismic Retrofitting is a collection mitigation techniques for Earthquake Engineering.
It is of utmost importance for historic monuments, areas prone
to severe earthquakes and tall or expensive structures.
Definition It is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. The retrofit techniques are also applicable for other natural hazards such as tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and severe winds from thunderstorms.
When is Seismic Retrofitting Needed ?
The two circumstances are:Earthquake damaged buildings, and Earthquake-vulnerable buildings(with no exposure to
This is typically the lowest level of retrofit applied to bridges. 4 . ensuring that the structure will not collapse upon its occupants or passersby.Retrofit Performance Objectives Public safety only: The goal is to protect human life. requiring tear-down and replacement. while remaining safe for exit. Under severe seismic conditions the structure may be a total economic write-off. Structure survivability: The goal is that the structure. and that the structure can be safely exited. may require extensive repair (but not replacement) before it is generally useful or considered safe for occupation.
Retrofit Performance Objectives (Contd. 5 . Structure unaffected: This level of retrofit is preferred for historic structures of high cultural significance.) Structure functionality: Primary structure undamaged and the structure is undiminished in utility for its primary application.
Buildings designed to meet the modern seismic codes. but the code has been upgraded in later years. historical monuments and architectural buildings. Buildings. 6 . Essential buildings must be strengthened like hospitals.Need of Retrofitting in Existing Earthquake Vulnerable Buildings Buildings have been designed according to a seismic code. Important buildings whose services are assumed to be essential just after an earthquake like hospitals. Buildings that are expanded. but deficiencies exist in the design and/or construction. the use of which has changed through the years. renovated or rebuilt.
material condition. 7 . amount of damage .Problems faced by Structural Engineers are :Lack of standards for retrofitting methods Effectiveness of each methods varies a lot depending upon parameters like type of structures. etc.
Increase in the ductility of the structure Increase in strength and ductility 8 .Basic Concept of Retrofitting The aim is at (CEB1997):Upgradation of lateral strength of the structure.
the main members may sustain repairable damage. however building parts that do not carry load may sustain repairable damage. and Under strong but rare shaking. while the other parts of the building may be damaged such that they may even have to be replaced after the earthquake.Earthquake Design Philosophy Under minor but frequent shaking. Under moderate but occasional shaking. but the building should not collapse. the main members may sustain severe (even irreparable) damage. 9 . the main members of the building that carry vertical and horizontal forces should not be damaged.
Classification of Retrofitting Techniques 10 .
11 .Some Conventional Approaches Adding New Shear Walls Frequently used for retrofitting of non ductile reinforced concrete frame buildings. Not preferred in the interior of the structure to Fig: Additional Shear Wall avoid interior mouldings. New elements preferably be placed at the exterior of the building. The added elements can be either cast‐in‐place or precast concrete elements.
Potential advantages for the following reasons: higher strength and stiffness.Some Conventional Approaches (Contd. opening for natural light. amount of work is less since foundation cost may be minimized adds much less weight to the existing structure 12 .) (Contd. Adding Steel Bracings An effective solution when large openings are required.
Adding Shear Walls and Bracings Fig: Effect of Adding Shear Walls and Bracings 13 .
Adding Steel Bracings Fig: RC Building retrofitted by steel bracing 14 .
Reinforced Concrete jacket. Steel jacket. Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite(FRPC) jacket Purpose for jacketing: To increase concrete confinement To increase shear strength To increase flexural strength 15 .) Jacketing (Local Retrofitting Technique) Most popular method for strengthening of building columns Types-1. 3. 2.Some Conventional Approaches (Contd.
Jacketing Fig: Beam Jacketing Fig: Column Jacketing 16 .
17 . and ductility.Retrofit of Structures using Innovative Materials Current research on advanced materials has mainly concentrated on FRP composites. and walls to improve their structural performance such as stiffness. Studies have shown that externally bonded FRP composites can be applied to various structural members including columns. beams. slabs. load carrying capacity.
Effectiveness of FRPC as a Retrofitting Material Fig: A 3-D Model of a Building (a) Wall Stresses before Retrofitting (b) After installation of Steel Window frames (c) Additional FRP Retrofitting Fig: A Retrofit Application combining Conventional and Composites Retrofitting 18 .
It is the most powerful tool for passive structural vibration control technique Fig: Base Isolated Structures 19 .Base Isolation (or Seismic Isolation) Isolation) Isolation of superstructure from the foundation is known as base isolation.
Fig: Spectral Response for a Typical Base Isolation System 20 .Concept of Base Isolation Significantly Increase the Period of the Structure and the Damping so that the Response is Significantly Reduced.
Types of Base Isolations Base isolation systems which uses Elastomeric Bearings Base isolation systems with Sliding System Fig: Elastomeric Isolators 21 .
Elastomeric Base Isolation Systems This is the mostly widely used Base Isolator. The structure is decoupled from the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion A layer with low horizontal stiffness is introduced between the structure and the foundation. The elastomer is made of either Natural Rubber or Neoprene. Fig: Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Isolators 22 .
This works by limiting the base shear across the isolator interface. Fig: Metallic Roller Bearing 23 .Sliding Base Isolation Systems It is the second basic type of isolators.
During an earthquake. Fig: Spherical Sliding Base Isolator 24 .Spherical Sliding Base Isolators The structure is supported by bearing pads that have curved surface and low friction. the building is free to slide on the bearings.
It increases the natural time period of oscillation by causing the structure to slide along the concave inner surface through the frictional interface. Fig: Cross-section of Friction Pendulum Bearing 25 . It also possesses a re-centering capability.Friction Pendulum Bearing These are specially designed base isolators which works on the principle of simple pendulum.
California is one of the largest bridges to date to undertake a seismic isolation retrofit. They have a lateral displacement capacity of 53 inches. Fig: Bearing used in Benicia Martinez Bridge (left) and Benicia Martinez Bridge (right) 26 .000 pounds.Friction Pendulum Bearing (Contd.) Contd.. Largest seismic isolation bearings. measuring 13 feet in diameter. and weighing 40. 8 inches in height and weight being 2000 pounds Benicia Martinez Bridge.) Typically. bearings measure 3 feet in dia. a 5 million pound design dead plus live load. and a 5 second period.
Effectiveness of Base Isolation Fig: A 3-D Model of a building in SAP2000 27 .
Effectiveness of Base Isolation Fig: Comparison Stresses in Z direction for Fixed Base (left) and Isolated Base (right) 28 .
Effectiveness of Base Isolation Fig: Comparison of Shear Stresses in Y-Z direction for Fixed Base(left) and Isolated base (right) 29 .
Does not involve major intrusion upon existing superstructure. Building can remain serviceable throughout construction.Advantages of Base Isolation Isolates Building from ground motion Lesser seismic loads. 30 . hence lesser damage to the structure. Minimal repair of superstructure.
Disadvantages of Base Isolation Expensive Cannot be applied partially to structures unlike other retrofitting Challenging to implement in an efficient manner Allowance for building displacements Inefficient for high rise buildings Not suitable for buildings rested on soft soil. 31 .
Standards New Zealand. Vol. FEMA-273. 1997.Codes and Guidelines for Base Isolation International Code Council. IBC 2006. FEMA-274. 2. International Building Code. Structural Design Actions. Part 5: Earthquake Actions – New Zealand. NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings(1997). USA. NEHRP Commentary on the Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings(1997).5:2004. Uniform Building Code. 32 32 . NZS1170.
33 . like diagonal braces.Seismic Dampers Seismic Dampers are used in place of structural elements. Friction Dampers (energy is absorbed by surfaces with friction between them rubbing against each other). and Yielding Dampers (energy is absorbed by metallic components that yield). It partly absorbs the seismic energy and reduces the motion of buildings. Types: Viscous Dampers (energy is absorbed by silicone-based fluid passing between piston-cylinder arrangement). for controlling seismic damage in structures.
Viscous Dampers Fig: Cross-section of a Viscous Fluid Damper 34 .
It is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. They are frequently used in power transmission. damage. or outright structural failure. Fig: TMD in Taipei 101 35 .Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) Damper(TMD) It is also known as an active mass damper (AMD) or harmonic absorber. automobiles and tall buildings. Their application can prevent discomfort.
Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) (Contd.) Damper(TMD) (Contd. Fig: TMD in Taipei 101 36 .80 billion).) Taipei 101 has the largest TMD sphere in the world and weighs 660 metric tonnes with a diameter of 5.5 metre and costs US$4 million (total structure costs US$ 1.
Energy Dissipation Devices Fig: Some Energy Dissipation Devices 37 .
Guidelines IS: 13827-1993 Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings – Guidelines 38 .Code of Practice IS: 4326-1993 Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings – Code of Practice IS: 13920-1993 Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to Seismic Forces – Code of Practice IS: 13935-1993 Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings – Guidelines IS: 13828-1993 Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonary Buildings .Indian Codes for Earthquake Design IS: 1893-2002 (part-1) Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Part 1 : General Provision and Buildings) .
the expertise needed is not available in the basic level. It has matured in the recent years to a highly reliable technology. Proper Design Codes are needed to be published as code of practice for professionals related to this field. The main challenge is to achieve a desired performance level at a minimum cost. But. Optimization techniques are needed to know the most efficient retrofit for a particular structure.Conclusion Seismic Retrofitting is a suitable technology for protection of a variety of structures. which can be achieved through a detailed nonlinear analysis. 39 .
New Delhi. 40 . Oakland (CA). M. Murty... M. and Shrikhande. 7 (2). Seismic Protection of Light Secondary Systems through Different Base Isolation Systems.V. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Symans. and Dolce. P. 2003. D. Tsopelas. M. Cardone. San Francisco. 1999. New Delhi. D. Fluid Viscous Dampers in Applications of Seismic Energy Dissipation and Seismic Isolation.R.D. IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tip. 2nd Edition. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. M.References Agarwal. 1993. 223-250. Constantinou. and Taylor. USA. 2004. C. Journal of Earthquake Engineering. P. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.C. Applied Technology Council..... 2006. ATC-17-1. EERI. Lessons Learnt Over Time – Learning from Earthquakes Series: Volume II Innovative Recovery in India..P.
THANK YOU… 41 .