This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
These columns of ICJ offer an opportunity to the engineering fraternity to express their views on the current practices in design, construction and management being followed in the industry. To share your opinion with our readers, you may send in your inputs in about 1500 words via e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
Design of confinement reinforcement for RC columns
Transverse reinforcements in columns in the form of hoops, cross-ties, or spirals play an important role in safeguarding the columns, especially when they are subjected to strong earthquakes or accidental lateral loads. They are required in any column-whether they are parts of a moment resistant frame or the gravity system in order for them to deform laterally and provide the required ductility. The current equations for connement reinforcement in IS 13920 code do not provide consistent level of safety against deformation and damage associated with exural yielding during earthquakes. Hence an equation for the design of connement reinforcement for ductile earthquake resistant rectangular and circular columns is suggested for inclusion in the next revision of the code. These equations take into account the various parameters that affect the performance of conning reinforcement, such as effective conning pressure or ratio of concrete strength to tie strength, axial load level, unconned cover concrete thickness, longitudinal reinforcement and spacing, and curvature ductility factor. Some detailing of these reinforcements is also discussed. Reinforced concrete columns are the main load bearing elements of any structure. They support the beams and slabs and transfer the loads to the foundations. Hence they have to be designed and detailed adequately to resist both gravity and lateral loads. In India columns are more abused than other structural elements; minimum size
as per codes not provided, rebars are kinked for better alignment (see Figure 1a), they are made porous due to the difculty of concreting and vibrating in narrow, tall formwork, they are not cured properly, due to the difculty of curing vertical elements (see Figure 1b), only minimum transverse reinforcement are provided and o only 90 hooks are provided (See Figure 1c). However, we do not witness many failures because the working loads are only about 67% of the failure loads and also due to the partial safety factors of materials. However, during earthquakes or accidental lateral loading, plastic hinges will form in columns and beams. With inadequate design, detailing or construction, the columns are bound to fail, as we have witnessed in several earthquakes (e.g., like the ones in Bhuj, and Haiti). In order to prevent plastic hinges to form in columns, traditionally codes suggest designers to adopt the concept of strong column and weak axis’, in which columns are proportioned in such a way that the exural capacity of column is at least 20% more (only 10% more as per clause 7.2.1 of the draft IS 13920) than the exural capacity of beams meeting the column. It is important to appreciate that during severe earthquakes some column hinging and some yielding of columns will occur even if the strong column-weak beam philosophy is followed. Hence it is important to design the transverse reinforcement of columns and detail them to provide the required amount of ductility.
..... 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL
The design criterion adopted in ACI 318 for column connement is based on the premise that conned columns should maintain their concentric load carrying capacities even after spalling of concrete cover. The article addresses mainly the connement requirements.85 fc'(Ag . assumed that the strength gain in core concrete as4 .85f'c). we get 0.. The equation for required area of rectangular hoops. (b) to resist shear forces and to avoid shear failure. (c) to conne the concrete core to provide sufcient deformability (ductility).. Ag = gross area of column cross-section.As ) . and As = area of longitudinal steel reinforcement.. Even though ACI 318 code is being revised every three years (the 2011 version of the code is due for publication in a few weeks). rectangular hoops are often less efcient than spirals in conning the core Where fcc = strength of conned core concrete.(2) Where f c' is the compressive cylinder strength of concrete. Note that none of these functions are effective till the concrete cracks or spalls.1..Ac ) = 4.4.2011 . equating the concentric capacity of cover concrete to strength gain in the core.. fcp = compressive strength of plain concrete in column (fcp ≈ 0. 2 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL . as shown below . as given in equation 2.. Based on the results of extensive experimental program. Ac = area of concrete core within perimeter transverse reinforcement (commonly taken as centre-to-centre). and fl = passive compressive pressure provided by transverse reinforcement..3 However it may not be a good idea to revise it based on ACI 318-08 provisions.. 2 and 3).. ties or spirals restrain slip between the spliced bars.1 fl(Ac .6. All are critical for the column to maintain vertical or lateral capacities under earthquake displacements in the post-yield range.2 They suggested that the provisions be revised in line with ACI 318-08.. Thus.4) of ACI code has not been revised recently! Because the pressure on the sides of the hoops causes the sides of hoops to deect outward....(1) Need to revise conning reinforcement provisions of IS 13920 In a recent paper Ranjith and Jain outlined the importance of revising the clauses related to connement reinforcement for columns and shear walls in IS 13920. (d) to clamp together lap splices-after splitting cracks form parallel to the splices.. Richart et al.Point of View Purpose of transverse reinforcement Transverse reinforcement are specified in design codes for beams and columns to serve the following four functions: (a) to prevent buckling of longitudinal reinforcing bars. the particular clause (clause 21. of concrete column (see Fig.4 of ACI code is based on the equation for spirals 4 derived by Richart et al in 1929.
.(4c) Thus the strength enhancement in the core (f cc-fcp) implied by these formula are 3..8 fl for circular column with spirals and rectangular or square columns . to give the following formulae.(4d) Where Asp = area of spiral reinforcement. we get... fyt = yield strength of transverse reinforcement.... Substituting fl into equation 2 and dividing both sides by 2.. 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL 3 .....(3) For large columns. and h = column sectional dimension.. .... as below3.....45. .... the ratio of cross-sectional area to conned core area (Ag/Ac) may approach unity.. as3 .Point of View The lateral pressure fl for spirally reinforced circular column at yield is given by fl . recognising that rectangular/square hoops are not as effective as spirals.. Thus the constants in equation 4c and 4d were changed to give hoops with about one-third more cross-sectional area than those of spirals.. and the above equation results in small values ρst.8fl and 2. It was assumed that the rectangular/square hoops will be 75 percent as effective as circular spirals..05 fytAc.... Hence a lower-bound expression is provided by setting a limit to the (Ag/Ac) ratio. ....3 ....(5b) The above equation was adopted in ACI code after dropping the last term and changing the coefcient 0.(5a) Denoting [4Asp/(sh)] as ρst and rearranging. s = centre-to-centre spacing of transverse reinforcement along column height.415 to 0....(4b) .(4a) The connement steel requirements for square and rectangular columns were derived as an arbitrary extension of the above formulae.
it may require more conning steel.6 These equations are not new and are present in ACI 318 even in the 1999 or may be in still earlier versions of the code. Hence this effect has to be included in the connement provisions. Effective confining pressure or ratio of concrete strength to tie strength: The required Ash will be proportional to sbc fc'/fyt . since the inclusion of the term Asfyl . limits are often placed on the value of fyt that can be used in the calculations (see Table 1).5-9 1. Note that as the yield strength is increased.8 The moment-curvature response of members subjected to axial tensions would be dominated by the behaviour of longitudinal reinforcement.1. 3. does not appreciably change the value of conning reinforcement. This loss will be considerable when the area of unconned concrete cover is a larger proportion of the total concrete.005.11-12 The following parameters are found to affect the required amount of connement reinforcement. Elwood et al.9 10 and Sharma et al. the quantity of required conning reinforcement will be reduced. 2. resulting in loss of strength. when the compressive strain in concrete reaches about 0.. Various design parameters.5. are cited here. Unconned cover concrete thickness: As the load is increased.1 fl as suggested by Richart et al). and a large volume of experimental data has been generated and a number of improved analytical models have been developed. as done in the Canadian code.003 to 0.7) in the equation. Due to space limitations. suggest that it is enough to include the term Pu /Ag fc' (which is having a range of 0. Axial load level: It has been well established that columns with low compressive axial loads may require less connement than those with high axial loads.8 A good review of the research in this area is provided by Sakai and Sheikh. the unconned concrete in the cover portion of the column will begin to spall. which formed the basis of New Zealand and Canadian codes.2011 .Point of View respectively (as against 4.4 Equations 4d and 5b govern for large-diameter columns. As high strength concrete is more brittle than normal strength concrete.. hence columns with axial tension are not critical as they will sustain large ultimate curvatures. 4 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL ..7. where Ag is the gross area and Ac is the area of conned core (the normal range for this Parameters that affect the amount of connement reinforcement The state of knowledge on concrete connement has improved substantially since the pioneering work of Richart et al in 1929. by specifying the ratio Ag /Ac. only a few of these important papers. and are intended to ensure adequate exural curvature capacity in yielding regions. The Canadian and New Zealand codes include the effect of axial load. Based on the assumption of how much strain will occur in transverse reinforcement..0. that are overlooked by the ACI code have been identied and studied.
Hence ACI and IS codes have a factor of (Ag /Ac -1) instead of Ag /Ac. this effect is reected in the factor kn. were set up to equate the concentric capacity of cover concrete to strength gain in the core. the ratio Ag /Ac should not exceed 1. if they are able to sustain a curvature ductility factor μΦ of approximately 20. rather than considering the effect of Ag /Ac on lateral deformation capacity.. Longitudinal reinforcement and spacing: It has been found from experiments that the amount and transverse support of longitudinal reinforcement will also inuence the connement of concrete core (see also Figure 3).Point of View 5. though the approach taken and the resultant impact on the requirements are different in these codes. µ Φ = curvature ductility (=Фu/Фy)..8 The Canadian code and the proposed equation. The fact that Ash will be directly proportional to Ag/Ac.. Also included are the equations as suggested by . as shown earlier.16 Comparison of different codal 2-3.. Lp. L = length of column and Lp = plastic hinge length..13 This order of curvature ductility should enable the plastic hinges at the bases of columns to undergo sufcient plastic rotation to reach a displacement ductility factor of 4 to 6 (see Figure 5).5. (nl)... 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL 5 . 4..11-12 equations A comparison of various code equation is provided in Table 1. h. The kn factor also encourages good column detailing for connement as well as providing effective restraint to prevent bar buckling. which relates to the number of longitudinal bars restrained by corners of hoops or hooks of seismic cross-ties. rebar slip and shear deformations as given below:15 .3. The plastic hinge length. effectiveness of connement is improved. has been conrmed using moment-curvature studies. The required conning reinforcement increases when exural steel content ρl decreases (see NZS 3101 equation in Table 1). For larger columns to have sufcient connement. neglecting P-∆ effect. In both these equations. For frames where limited ductility is sufcient. steel congestion problems will arise. and hence a larger size of column is preferable in such cases. Canadian and New Zealand codes allow for this. should be able to sustain a curvature ductility factor μΦ of approximately 10.7-0. will be typically in the range of 0.5 to 1. where µ ∆ = displacement ductility (=∆ u /∆y). recognizes the fact that when more longitudinal bars are restrained by hoops or cross-ties. Columns are considered to have adequate ductility.5.13 However ACI (as well as IS 13920) equations.8 Note that when longitudinal reinforcement ratio is high.14 The relationship between the curvature and displacement ductility was derived by Park and Paulay..(6) ratio is 0.81). Curvature ductility factor: It is well known that the quantity of conning reinforcement provided in the potential plastic hinge zones of columns has a signicant effect on the curvature ductility factor μΦ = u/y . as shown in Figure 4. since the conned concrete arches horizontally between restrained longitudinal bars (see Figure 3).5 times the member depth.
.8 A comparison of the four codal equations. ρ s is the volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcement.. the following confinement equation is proposed for circular columns8: . is proposed for the Indian code. Note that the There are 4 numbers of legs.8 The equation developed by Elwood et al. h = 525/3 =175 mm Area of one leg of hoop = Similarly.2011 .Point of View Li and Park for high strength concrete columns and by Elwood et al. kp = 0. as it incorporates all the parameters discussed above and found to correlate with experimental results and provides adequate safety and ductility.. hence we get 6 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL .. Elwood et al. the above value for high strength concrete (HSC) and high strength steel (HSS) has been calculated and compared with other codal values in Figure 6.14..8 Pu/Ag fck ≥ 0. Note that IS 13920 gives area of one leg only.. with a core size of 525 x 525 mm (Ag /Ac = 1.2.. Hence the value of Ashsbc is calculated as below for normal strength concrete (NSC): For the arrangement of hoops shown in Figure 6..3) and reinforced with 12 numbers of 30 mm diameter longitudinal bars.(13) where. also compared the proposed equation with the available experimental results and found that this equation results in improved performance.8 Connement of circular columns: Based on the reasoning given earlier. for a column of size 600 mm x 600 mm. along with the proposed equation is provided in Figure 6..
and Ag = gross area of column.4. fc'= specied cylinder compressive strength of concrete. μ∆ = maximum considered earthquake drift ductility ratio.4. fyl = specied yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. Li and Park14 where m = (10) μФ (with μФ = 20) fyt ≤ 900 MPa fyt ≤ 500 MPa CSA A23.Point of View Table 1.4. n= total number of longitudinal bars. Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross hoops) with spacing s and perpendicular to dimension bc ..311 04 (Clause 21. and Park) plm ≤ 0. db = diameter of longitudinal bar. hx = center-tocenter horizontal spacing of cross ties or hoop legs.. P0 = nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity [P0 = 0. 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL 7 .85 fc' (Ag-Ac) + Asfyl]. fyt = specied yield strength of transverse reinforcement. bc is the cross-sectional dimension of column core measured to the outside edges of transverse reinforcement composing area Ac. μf = maximum considered earthquake curvature ductility ratio. Zahn. fck = specied cube compressive strength of concrete. m = mechanical reinforcing ratio (m = fyl / 0. Summary of connement equations for rectangular columns as per different codes Reference IS 13920:1993 2 Ash/sbc= Deformation parameter None Comments fyt ≤ 415 MPa h < 300 mm fyt ≤ 689 MPa ACI 318-08 3 None (8a) (8a) NZS 3101-06 12 μФ (with μФ = 20) where m = (9a) plm ≤ 0.85 fc' ). 2009 (proposed for IS code) 8 μ∆ (with μ∆ ≥3) and (12) *In IS code h is used instead of bc . (9b) fyt ≤ 800 MPa (based on Watson.4. ρl = total area of longitudinal reinforcement divided by Ag .. s = centre-to-centre spacing of transverse reinforcement along column height. where h is the longer dimension of the rectangular conning hoop measured to its outer and gives area of one leg only. ΣAb = Sum of the areas of longitudinal bars.2) and where (11a) μ∆ (with μ∆ ≥4) (11b) (based on Paultre and Légeron) fyt ≤ 689 MPa where Elwood et al. Ac = area of concrete core within perimeter transverse reinforcement. nl = number of longitudinal bars laterally supported by corner of hoops or by seismic hooks of crossties that are ≥ 135 degrees. Pu = factored load on column..
____ACI 318:2008. pp. The ACI permits the use of cross-ties having 135o hook at one end and 90o hook at the other end provided these cross-ties are alternated on the same longitudinal bar. 2009. --.The Design of Concrete Structures and Part 2 Commentary on the Design of Concrete Structures. Elwood. June 2011.Point of View term kn is not required for circular columns. and “Part 2: Proposed new provisions for the ACI 318 Building Code”. Hence an equation has been proposed. 12. Richart. Shetty R. “Confinement reinforcement design for reinforced concrete columns”. ACI.CSA A23. The arrangement as suggested in the ACI code is easy to implement at site and hence may be adopted in IS 13920 also.. pp.. P.. A. “Improving column connement.11.R. Mississauga. The failure of plain and spirally reinforced concrete in compression.6. Michigan. Vol.12.E. Canadian Standards Association... Zahn. Sakai. 10. R. 134. K. hoops shall be provided at spacing so over a length lo measured from the joint face. detailed and constructed such that they perform as desired during strong earthquakes. it was found that several columns failed by shear at the location of the point of infection near the mid-height of columns. Vol. S. New Zealand. pp.18 Hence it may be advisable to provide conning reinforcement through out the column length at least in the ground oor columns.. A. ACI Structural Journal. No. University of Illinois. India. Indian standards code of practice for Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic forces.3-04. U. pp. 6. R. F. This equation can be applied to NSC and HSC also. 86. as spirals provide effective connement than rectangular hoops. However IS 13920 does not allow such arrangement and o insists that both the ends of cross-ties should have 135 only.K. F. A.L.14 with International standards. F. Maffei.K.. and Jain A. The Indian concrete Journal. Spacing so shall not exceed six times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed or 1/4 of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the column. the least dimension of the compression member or 300mm. References: 1. their arrangement is also important for their effectiveness. and Razvi. “Displacement-Based Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns for Connement”.. The Indian Concrete Journal.51-59. 5. Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin no. 3. 74pp. Vol.1. Part 1: assessment of Design provisions”. R. and Bhowmick. “What Do We Know about Connement in Reinforced Concrete Columns? (A Critical Review of Previous Work and Code Provisions)... Vol. p. pp. Bhargava. American Concrete Institute. 31. Canada. May 2008. A few detailing methodologies for the efcient functioning of conning reinforcement are also presented.J. Sharma.. and Telleen. But during the September 1999 Athens earthquake. 437. 6. Jan-Feb 2002. March 2005. P. It should also be noted that very high strength concrete is extremely brittle when not conned adequately and the required connement may be considerably greater than for NSC columns. No. Mar.. Clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 75 mm. ASCE. Dec. “Special confinement reinforcement in RC columns and shear walls”. and Vol.J. Riederer. and suggested possible 19 improvements. Journal of Structural Engineering. Rohit et al. Length lo shall not be less than the largest of (a) one-sixth of the clear span of the column.. --.. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.2011 .738-749 7.. 192-207. pp. Summary and conclusions Columns have to be properly designed. 4. 2008. and Park. 2. The minimum diameter of transverse reinforcement should be 8 mm for longitudinal bars less than 25 mm and 10 mm for longitudinal bars greater than 25 mm. No. Vol. “Conning Reinforcement for Concrete Columns. Paultre. 31. M. S. and Sheikh.. Part 1. Outside the length lo. S. and (c) 450 mm. ___IS 13920:1993.. No. pp. 190. 2009. “Evaluation of connement reinforcement requirements of IS 13920:1993 for RC columns”. avoid shear failure and provide sufcient ductility. 32-39.” ACI Structural Journal. and Brown. (b) maximum cross-sectional dimension of the column. 14pp. according to IS 456.1 The arrangement of hoops (type II) shown in Figure 7b is not preferable according to NZS 3101-2006.. K. 2004. pp. Watson. recently reviewed column and wall detailing provisions of IS codes critically by comparing them 8 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL . 2.. and Légeron. 3-11. pp. Kaushik.” Journal of Structural Engineering. Wellington.-Apr. 99. 258 pp. Bureau of Indian Standards. ON. Concrete Structures Standard. 646. K. nor be less than 25 mm. 1798-1824. Brandtzaeg. K. Standards Association of New Zealand. Vol. S. No.. June 1994.. New Delhi. 11. The formula provided in IS 13920:1993 code has to be revised as it does not consider all the parameters that affect the behaviour. Nov.. which considers all the parameters and found to correlate with the existing experimental results as well as provides sufficient deformation ductility. Properly designed and detailed conning transverse reinforcements prevent buckling of longitudinal bars.A.5. Farmington Hills..K. 85.NZS 3101:2006.. At both ends of the column. No.41-38 9. 2006. No. No. 1989. The rst hoop shall be located not more than so /2 from the joint face. but need not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100mm as per IS 13920. 19-29.. Vertical spacing of ties shall not exceed 16 times smallest diameter of longitudinal bar. 8. Concrete International. Saatcioglu. Detailing of transverse reinforcement In addition to the quantity of connement steel. 3. This code also states that not all longitudinal bars need to be laterally supported by a bend in a transverse hoop or cross-tie. Design of Concrete Structures. Vol. 120. 1929.
Rohit. India. is the former chief executive of Computer Design Consultants.J. 105. Narahari. C. No. R. and teaching... and Eberhard. 2007. 2004. 2011 THE INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL 9 .290-300 and discussion by Subramanian. A reputed author of more than 200 technical papers in National and International journals & seminars. May-June 2004. Dr. S. 314-324 15.C. and Park.O. A doctorate from IITM.. Munich for 2 years as Alexander von Humboldt Fellow. 104. Bae. 1975. 5.. 85. New York. . pp.. he is a recipient of several awards including the Tamilnadu Scientist award. steel towers..D.-Dec. ACI Structural Journal. A mentor in Structural Engineering Forum of India. ACCE (India) and Institution of Engineers (India) and a past vice president of the Indian Concrete Institute and Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India). R. 14. D. Discussions by Moretti. No.R. 997. 645-647 19. Vol.. 101.O.. pp.. May-June 2008. Elwood.35-45.. O.L. R. 106. Sharma. August 1-6.H. ACI. 18.5. Concepts underlying reinforced concrete design: Time for reappraisal.. 476484. p. ACI Structural Journal.. “What do we know about the performance-based design of Columns?”. “Conning reinforcement for high strength concrete columns”. Li. he designed several multi-storey concrete buildings. and Murty.233-34 17. including the ASCE.V. Bayrak. He has more than 35 years of professional experience which include consultancy. 675-684.. No. research..P. E. “When RC Columns become RC structural walls”. 16. He has also been a reviewer for many Indian and international journals. N. a consulting engineer living in Maryland. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.-Oct. Serving as consultant to leading organizations. May 2011. The Indian Concrete Journal. Vol. No. Bae. 6. and Williamson. N. pp... No. T. Sept. and Bayrak.3. 15pp. he also worked with the Technical University of Berlin and the Technical University of Bundeswehr. B. Vol. ICI. Jaiswal. 2008. Subramanian. 105. USA. John Wiley and Sons.. B. He is a Member/Fellow of several professional bodies. Reinforced Concrete Structures. M. 2009.H.. Mar-Apr 09. pp. “Effective stiffness of reinforced concrete columns”.106.4. M. Vol. ACI Structural Journal. K. A. Paper no. No. Park. Canada. Vol. Vol. M.. Vancouver. S. July-Aug. Nov. 769. Dr Subramanian has also published 25 wide selling books.3. Vol.. “Plastic hinge length of reinforced concrete columns”. No. pp. industrial buildings and space frames.. and Pauley.Point of View 13. pp. ACI Structural Journal. Kotsovos.2.. pp.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.