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WHAT IS PIPING ABOUT?
We can say PIPING is about designing, fabricating and constructing lines conveying FLUIDS.
What is a FLUID?
It can be any of the following • • • • a GAS a LIQUID a mixture of GAS and LIQUID a SUSPENSION of small SOLID PARTICLES inside a LIQUID.
Basic properties of conveyed FLUIDS • FLUID TYPE with particular attention to ü the CORROSION characteristics ü the DANGER for HEALTH and the ENVIRONMENT • • • FLOW RATE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE .
PIPELINES can also discharge the conveyed fluid into the environment (VENTS and DRAIN) .What is a PIPELINE? A PIPELINE conveys a fluid from one given point of the plant usually called INLET point of the line. A PIPELINE can also connect one PIPELINE to another PIPELINE. to another part of the plant usually called OUTLET point of the line.
Basic characteristics of a PIPELINE • • • SIZE (or DIAMETER) WALL THICKNESS TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES ü welded joints (butt welding / socket welding) ü threaded joints ü flanged joints • • EXTERNAL FINISHING ü Painting ü Insulation QUALITY CHECKS ü Hydraulic Testing ü Non Destructive Examination of Joints .
There are rules and regulations to route a Pipeline according the “Good Engineering Practice” Cold Pipelines connecting static objects (something that does not move like Tanks. Vessels. Hot Pipelines must be flexible enough to adsorb the thermal expansion of the Pipeline from cold to hot condition ü ü . other Pipelines. Cold Pipelines connecting MACHINES that vibrate or rotate may need a flexible part between the inlet and the outlet point. Headers) can be straightly routed between the inlet and the outlet point.Other characteristics of a PIPELINE • ROUTING ü ü ü The routing is how the Pipeline is developed into the space.
SUPPORTING SYSTEM ü ü ü
Every Pipeline must be supported. Not all Pipelines are supported in the same way Cold Pipelines can be supported everywhere with FIXED POINTS Hot Pipelines cannot be supported only with fixed points, but certain points must be only GUIDED, meaning that in those points the Pipeline retains a certain numbers of degree of freedom in certain directions, while are constrained in certain other directions
• Specification of Lines It is a document that summarizes all the characteristics of a PIPELINE. Starting from the PROPERTIES of the CONVEYED FLUID, the document specifies all the CHARACTERISTICS of the PIPELINE
ü Choice of material
Non corrosive fluids Services where impurities are accepted industrial water lines (cooling water) steam lube oil return / before filter lines air lines vents and drains Corrosive fluids Services where impurities are not accepted demineralized water lube oil after filters fuel gas / oil sea water (water containing Chlorine) Agressive Chemicals Strong Acids / Bases Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel (High T)
No Iron (Fe) Copper/Nikel Alloys (Cu-Ni) Plastic: PVC – TEFLON – PE Rubber: NBR, Viton Composites: RESIN GLASS
were leaks cannot occur. ü Choice of NDE For Dangerous Fluids 100% of joints are likely to be X-Ray examined .FLUID TYPE ü Choice of CORROSION ALLOWANCE Thickness increasing taking into account CORROSION Typical corrosion allowance for water is 3 mm that affects THICKNESS ü Choice of joints. DANGEROUS fluids are conveyed in fully welded pipes.
max.FLOW RATE ü Choice of Diameter For a given flowrate .Pressure Losses along the Pipeline Pressure Losses are PROPORTIONAL to the square velocity (v2) . 40 / 50 m/sec Liquid: 2 to 4 m/s . 10 m/sec .BIG DIAMETER means SLOWER VELOCITY of the conveyed fluid Velocity of fluids in Pipelines affects .Vibration of the Pipeline Usual Velocity of Fluids inside pipelines are: Gas: 20 m/s .max.SMALL DIAMETER means HIGHER VELOCITY of the conveyed fluid .
.TEMPERATURE ü Choice of MATERIAL .T>60°C Insulation for Personnel Protection is mandatory for all pipeline parts that can be reached by hands. Provisions shall be taken so that when temperature rises from ambient to Operating Temperature the thermal expansion of Pipelines does not generate stresses too high for the pipes to withstand. ü Application of Thermal Insulation .Hot Lines must be routed properly.Steel for High Temperature (Low Alloy Steel Creep Resistant) ü Calculation of wall THICKNESS ü Routing Design and calculation of SUPPORTS (STRESS ANALYSIS) .
High Pressure pipelines are Butt Welded ü Extension of NDE of the joints Non process Pipelines (For Example Vents and drain lines) may even have no tests at all Low Pressure Pipelines can undergo only the Hydraulic Test For intermediate pressures a 10% to 50% of joints must be examined with X-rays High Pressure Pipelines are usually 100% X-ray examined.Low pressure pipelines can be threaded or socket welded . - .PRESSURE ü Calculation of Wall Thickness ü Choice of the Joint .
AMERICAN STANDARDS FOR PIPING DESIGN ANSI = AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDIZATION INSTITUTE AMERICAN SOCIETY of MECHANICAL ENGINEERS ASME = .
ANSI/ASME B31. .1: POWER PIPING ANSI/ASME B31. ü THEY CONTAINS REGULATIONS FOR STRESS ANALYSIS ü THEY CONTAINS TABLES THAT GIVE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS FOR METALLIC MATERIALS ACCEPTED BY ANSI FOR PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION DEPENDING ON TEMPERATURES.3: PROCESS PIPING THESE STANDARDS GIVE TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGNING PIPING SYSTEM FOR POWER PLANTS AND CHEMICAL PLANTS ü THEY CONTAINS FORMULAS TO CALCULATE THE MINIMUM THICKNESS OF PIPELINES ü THEY CONTAINS FORMULAS TO CALCULATE THE EXTRA THICKNESS THAT A PIPE MUST HAVE WHEN A BRANCH IS CUT INTO IT.
WELDED PIPE have another specification WROUGHT FITTINGS have another specification.STANDARD MATERIALS FOR PIPING ASTM = ü AMERICAN SOCIETY for TESTING MATERIALS ASTM developed a collection of documents called MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS for standardising materials of large use in the INDUSTRY. but also the PROCESS through which the material is shaped into the final product. This is why for a given base material SEAMLESS PIPE have a specification. Brass. Specifications starting with “A” are for STEEL. FORGED FITTINGS have another specification. Specifications starting with “D” are for plastic material. large VALVE bodies (normally CAST) have another specification ü ü . as PVC. Specifications starting with “B” are for non-ferrous alloys (Bronze. Aluminium alloys and so on). An ASTM Specification does not only specify the basic CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of material. Copper Nickel alloys.
CARBON STEEL Steel is basically a solution of carbon (C) into iron (Fe). Carbon steel is a conventional denomination for steel that has almost no other metallic elements added into it. Today the difference is not so big. B is usually choosen. ASTM Specifications belonging to same family of Carbon Steel SEAMLESS PIPES ASTM A53 (Gr. A53 used to be cheaper than A106 and Grade A cheaper than Grade B. A / B) or A106 (Gr. so that for small quantities ASTM A106 Gr. The presences of carbon into the crystal structure of the iron improve very much the mechanical caracteristics of the iron alone. ASTM most employed carbon steel for pipes are ASTM A53 Grade A and B and ASTM A106 Grade A and B. A / B) WELDED PIPES ASTM A134 / A135 / A139 WROUGHT FITTINGS ASTM A234 (WPA / WPB) FORGED FITTINGS A105 CAST PARTS A216 (WCB) .
This Institute is API = AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE Rules. . Practices and Standards for Oil and Gas Industry are issued by this Institute and followed by almost all Oil and Gas Companies in the world.API Standards For Oil and Gas Industry. with denomination API 5L This is a family of Carbon Steels almost equivalent to ASTM A53 / A106. another American Standardization Institute is common and important. Among the many Standards issued by the Institute there is also a Standard for design of Pipelines: API STANDARD 5L Within this Standard Materials for Oil and Gas transportation pipelines are specified.
. proves to improve the strength of the steel and its resistance to corrosion also at high temperatures (>500 °C) or at low temperaturea (< -20 °C). It means that if today the steel can withstand a certain pressure.LOW ALLOY STEEL The introduction of other elements into steel can change very much its mechanical characteristics. ü The introduction of small percentages of chromium (Cr). nichel (Ni). since its resistance is decreasing with time due to the high temperature.20 °C). magnesium (Mg). ü Steel is subject to a process called “creep” at high temperatures (T > 540 °C) Creep is a reduction of strength over time due to high temperature. manganese (Mn). Steel becomes also particurarly fragile if submitted to sudden impacts at low temperatures (< . molybdenum (Mo). after a long time at high temperature same steel can withstand much lower pressures.
5% Mo ) (1.Low Alloy Steel is a conventional denomination for steels where there are small percentages of elements.5% Mo – Si) (1% Cr – 0.5 Mo) (2.25%Cr – 0. Alloy steels are usually identified with denominations that recall composition. other than carbon only. As for example following high temperature resistant steels: Denomination 5Cr-½Mo 1¼Cr-½Mo-Si 1Cr-½Mo 2¼Cr-1Mo Alloy percentage (5% Cr – 0.25 Cr – 1% Mo) Grade P5 P11 P12 P22 Grade for Castings C5 (WC5) (WC5) WC9 ASTM Specifications belonging to same families of Low Alloy Steels SEAMLESS PIPE A335 (P5 – P11 – P12 – P22) WELDED PIPE ASTM A358 WROUGHT FITTINGS ASTM A234 (WP5 – WP11 – WP12 – WP22) FORGED FITTINGS A182 (F5 – F11 – F12 – F 22) CAST PARTS A217 (C5 – WC5 – WC9) . usually metallic.
But as usual for alloy steels. Traditional denomination for stainless steel was given first from AISI (American Institute for Steel and Iron) and is still in the tradition and retained in the Grade of ASTM Specifications. . High percentages of chromium (Cr) and nichel (Ni) added into the steel stop this problem. a more precise denomination can refer to composition.STAINLESS STEEL One of most important problems with carbon and low alloy steels. is that the iron exposed to air and water combines with oxygene (O2) and generates rust (di-iron tri-oxyde Fe2O3) that peels out from the surface. Stainless Steel is conventional generic denomination for steels with high percentages of chromium (minimum 16%) and nichel (minimum 8 %).
ASTM Specifications belonging to same family of Stainless Steel SEAMLESS PIPE A312 TP304 – 304L .316L .316 .316L .316 . Welding of stainless steel can be improved by reducing the content of carbon in it.304L .321 CAST PARTS A351 (CF3 – CF3M / CF8 – CF8M) .316L . but at one cost: stainless steel is very difficult to weld.304L .316 .321 WELDED PIPE ASTM A249 TP304 .321 WROUGHT FITTINGS ASTM A403 WP304 .316L .AISI 304 / 304L 316 / 316L 321 Denomination 18Cr-8Ni 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 18Cr-10Ni-Ti Alloy Percentage Grade for Castings (18%Cr – 8%Ni) CF3 / CF8 (16%Cr – 12%Ni – 2%Mo) CF3M / CF8M (18%Cr – 10%Ni – Ti) Not Available The “L” suffix stands for “Low Carbon”.316 . In fact the presence of high percentages of Cr and Ni improves the resistance of steel against rust.321 FORGED FITTINGS A182 F304 – 304L .
How Pipeline CHARACTERISTICS are defined by the Standards. .
Germany. is adopted.I. UNI . and change Inside Diameter with different thickness. the NPS gives more an idea of the internal diameter. AFNOR – France) are exactly equal of the equivalent NPS Sizes according AMERICAN and BRITISH Standars (BS) EXCEPT 5” (DN125) . NOMINAL DIAMETER : DN Same as NPS. but in mm.Italy. All external diameters pipes according EUROPEAN Standards (DIN . so if the Outside Diameter is bigger of the NPS. But in fluid transportation the internal diameter is more significant. taking away the thickness. but bigger. For smaller sizes the NPS is not usually exactly equal to any real diameter.SIZE NOMINAL PIPE SIZE : NPS It is a conventional size expressed solely in INCHES. This comes from the fact that for uniformity. related to the cross section diameter of the pipeline. It is the usual denomination of Size in Europe where S. pipelines must have same Outside Diameter.
10. 80. Sch. For PIPES and WROUGHT BW FITTINGS. 60S. For example for small diameters. 120. 10S. 40 is equal to Std Weight. 80S. THIS IS NOT A RULE. 40. 20S. 100. . 160. 5S. Some series of thicknesses are standardized.19 5. 60.WALL THICKNESS (1) 1. 30. 20. There are two series of systems of standardized thicknesses. wall thickness is given in INCHES or mm.10 Stainless Steel ANSI B16. and this idea is one of the most common mistakes in piping design. Schedule Carbon Steel ANSI B16. Standard Extra Strong Extra Extra Strong Weight Series Std XS XXS It happens that for a given diameter the thickess of one Schedule is equal to the thickness of one Weight Series. 40S. 30S.
The maximum pressure allowed for a given rating is tabulated in the ANSI standards and depends on ü Temperature ü ASTM Material . It is a NUMBER expressed in POUNDS per SQUARE INCH (PSI symbol #) that refers to the maximum internal pressure acceptable for normal operation inside that part. a different system of indicating the wall thickness is used. 125# Cast Iron 150# 300# 400# (Not in NP Standards) 600# 800# Valves (≤ 2”) ≤ Flanges & Valves Fl. & Valves Forged Small 900# 1500# 2500# 3000# 6000# 9000# Flanges & Valves Forged Fittings This conventional number is not exactly the actual maximum pressure acceptable inside the part. For FLANGES.WALL THICKNESS (2) 2. This is called PRESSURE RATING. VALVES and FORGED FITTINGS.
TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) 1. BUTT-WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to head full penetrating welding .
SOCKET WELDING ENDS A socket is provided where pipe can be inserted .TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (2) 2.
THREADED ENDS Parts to be connected are threaded. this is called “Seal Weld”.TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (3) 3. “Seal” weld . a light weld is carried out at the surface. For services where leaks are strongly undesired.
STANDARDIZED PIPING OBJECTS PIPES FITTINGS FLANGES VALVES .
GASKETS BOLTS AND NUTS .
PIPES: ANSI B36.10 CS / B36.19 SS Seamless Electric Resistance Welded No material is added during welding process Electric Fusion Welded Material (Filler Metal) is added during the process of welding .
HOW TO IDENTIFY A PIPE SIZE (DIAMETER) WALL THICKNESS MATERIAL NPS 12” (DN 300) Sch. 40 ASTM A106 Gr. B .
9 Bends 30° .45 ° .60° .5 D Short Radius R=D Tees Straight Full Tees Reducing Tees Reducers Concentric Reducers Eccentric Reducers Caps .BW FITTINGS : ANSI B16.90° Long Radius R=1.
Straight Fittings TYPE BEND 90° LR SIZE (DIAMETER) WALL THICKNESS MATERIAL NPS 12” (DN 300) Std ASTM A234 WPB .HOW TO IDENTIFY A BW FITTING 1.
2. Reducing Fittings TYPE SIZE (DIAMETER) WALL THICKNESS MATERIAL REDUCING TEE NPS 12”x8” (DN 300x200) Sch. 30x20 ASTM A234 WPB .
FORGED FITTINGS ANSI B16.11 .
HOW TO IDENTIFY A FORGED FITTING TYPE SIZE (DIAMETER) WALL THICKNESS JOINT MATERIAL ELBOW 90° NPS 1” (DN 25) Rating 3000# NPT ASTM A105 .
PIPE NIPPLES They are standardized short pieces of pipe usually 50 mm or 100 mm long normally used between two close fittings. They can come in straight size or in reducing size and can have one end machined in a different way than the other. Such a variety of combinations is summarized using abbreviations B = Bevelled L = Large E = End P = Plain S = Small T = Threaded .
For example a PExBE Pipe Nipple changes a Socket Welding Line into a Buttwelding Line Beveled End Plain End BW SW .Pipe nipples can be used to change among joint types.
5 1. Mating Flat Face Raised Face Ring Joint . Pipe Connection Welding Neck Slip On Lap Joint Socket Welding Threaded 2.FLANGES ANSI B16.
But they do not allow full penetration weld. For this reason they are used for severe applications where failure of welda cannot be accepted. they allow full penetration weld between pipe and flange. SLIP ON Used for all sizes. they are very much economical because they are flat and can be obtained from sheets or plates with minimum waste of material from machining.WELDING NECK Used for all sizes. This does not come free of cost. so that they are use for low ratings (usually 150# only) and unsevere applications . since the shape of the flange obliges to start from a heavy forging and waste a lot of material from machining.
cheap installation (no weld is required) but limited to threadel lines. that means unsevere applications where leaks are not a major issue LAP JOINT A Stub End is welded on the pipe after the flange insertion of it. also a good thing for Stainless Steel lines. since the heavy flange does not come in contact with the conveyed fluid and can be provided in much cheaper Carbon Steel material. Cheap manufacturing. This solution is used for Stainless Steel lines at low pressure. Moreover no weld is required. but are preferably used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”).THREADED Can be used for all sized. .
SOCKET WELDING Used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”) for unsevere services on Socket Welding lines. .
its a wounded spiral of Stainless Steel and Graphite to withstand high temperatures or severely aggressive fluids .Flat Face Gasket: Full Face Flat It covers the entire surface of the flange Raised Face Gasket: Flat It covers the raised surface of the flange Spiral Wound Also known as Spirometallic. or Spirotallic.
Surface Finishing of Flanges To improve the sealing effect of plane gaskets.Ring Joint Gasket: Metallic Ring It is normally made up of Steel. the surface of a flange can be machined. It deforms inside the ring joint grooves assuring sealing at very high pressures. . it penetrates into the scares improving sealing. When the gasket is tightenly squeezed between the flanges. A set of circular scares is machined in the surface.
FINISH MATERIAL SLIP ON NPS 6” (DN 150) Rating 300# RF – R9 ASTM A105 .HOW TO IDENTIFY A FLANGE JOINT TYPE SIZE (DIAMETER) WALL THICKNESS MATING .
VALVES: CAST STEEL Globe Gate Check .
VALVES: FORGED STEEL Globe Gate Check .
Ball Butterfly .
ACTUATION OF VALVES To open and close a valve. you can use Hands Electric Power Compressed Air High Pressure Oil in which case you need a valve provided with Handwheel Electric Actuator Pneumatic Actuator Hydraulic Actuator and the valve is called Manual Electric Pneumatic Hydraulic .
CONTROL VALVES These valves are used to CONTROL one or more of the PROPERTIES of the conveyed fluid in order to mantain the VALUES of the controlled property within a specific range.25. Also connections follows the recognized international standards. . the majority of Control Valve Manufacturers try to respect at least the end to end dimensions given in ANSIB16. The internal parts of these valves are specially designed tu suit the particular control task and are non subject to particular Standards. Anyway.
These valves are designed to open and discharge the conveyed fluid when the pressure in the pipeline becomes greater than a specified value called SET. Personnel intervention is required on the pipeline to check the event and the condition of the area.SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES These valves are installed on pipelines where pressure can exceed by accident the DESIGN PRESSURE of the pipeline. RELIEF The valve opens when the pressure goes over the SET. but never closes again. but close again when the pressure returns under the SET The valve opens when the pressure goes over the SET. before re-arming the valve and starting operation again SAFETY .
The given numbers correspond exactly to the geometrical dimension they refer. . It is normally specified giving the Ouside Diameter (OD) and the thickness. But it can also be specified giving the Inside Diameter (ID) and the thickness. So A 2” OD TUBE has exactly a 2” Outside Diameters.TUBING A TUBE is a circular section of given DIAMETER and THICKNESS.
METRIC TUBES . FRACTIONAL TUBES The INCH is the unit of measure. usually less than 1”. and since tubes for piping purpose (REMEMBER: CONVEYING FLUIDS!) are small. FRACTIONS of inch are used. hence the name FRACTIONAL 2. there are two big families of tubing 1.Dimensionally.
Again the value in mm is the actual ouside diameter of the tube.As per SI requirements. . mm is the unit of measure. so that a DN15 pipe has a rather different OD then a 15 mm tube.
Tubes are not usually used in PIPING DESIGN except for some very particular services. Instrument connecting Lines 3. Parts of HP Hydraulic Lines 2. TUBES are basically used for: 1. like Nuovo Pignone’s. Pneumatic Lines . In typical Oil and Gas Machinery installations.TUBES in PIPING DESIGN.
Passing through steel walls (Bulk Unions) 3. COMPRESSION FITTINGS Tubing is usually BENT.These Lines are small size (usually less than 1”). A large variety of fittings are available for 1. detachment of BRANCHES (Tees) 2. Unite tube to tube (tubing is not welded) .
Connecting Tubing to PIPES (Connectors) 5. Connecting Tubes to Flexible Hoses Connection of TUBING with the fitting is achieved through a particular locking system where a RING (“FERRULE”) is forced to COMPRESS the Tube walls for sealing and joining. .4.
These fittings are not STANDARDIZED. Most popular manufacturers of compression fittings are PARKER SWAGELOCK GARILOCK . but are branding based and patented.