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Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 2:

The Lecture deals with:

Elementary Finite Difference Quotients

1 of 1

6/19/2012 4:36 PM

. (2.3) Eq. is smaller than . Hence. (2. and higher order are neglected. Eq.2) Eq. (2. (2.3) are and It is now obvious that the truncation error can be reduced by retaining more terms in the Taylor series expansion of the corresponding derivative and reducing the magnitude of 1 of 2 6/20/2012 12:16 PM . (2.2) and (2. (2. For example.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 2: Elementary Finite Difference Quotients Finite difference representations of derivatives are derived from Taylor series expansions. Eq. In Eqns.3) is first-order accurate.1) is an exact expression for In practice. (2.2) is second-order accurate.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_2. for Eq.3) the neglected higher-order terms represent the truncation error.1) Mathematically. the truncation errors for Eqns.2) and (2. Therefore.1) becomes (2. Eq. because terms of order neglected. if is the .2) is reduced to (2. (2.1) can be truncated after a finite number of terms. (2. at point as can be expressed in terms of Taylor series expansion about point .. If terms if order and higher have been and higher are neglected.component of the velocity. any function is small and any higher-order term of if the series converges. Example: In terms of magnitude.

htm . 2 of 2 6/20/2012 12:16 PM .Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_2.

Now consider a Taylor series expansion for .7) we obtain 1 of 2 6/20/2012 12:16 PM .5) Solving for .6) is a first-order backward expression for the derivative at grid point Subtracting Eq.1) and solve for as: or (2. we obtain (2.4) In Eq.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_3. (2. (2.4) ” .htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 2: Elementary Finite Difference Quotients Let us return to Eq.5) from (2. expressing the order the magnitude of the truncation error.4) the symbol order of is a formal mathematical nomenclature which means “terms of expressed by Eq. (2.6) Eq. and or (2. (2. The first-order- accurate difference representation for the derivative can be identified as a first-order forward difference.1) (2.7) And solving for from Eq. (2. (2.

Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_3.8) Eq.8) is a second-order central difference for the derivative at grid point 2 of 2 6/20/2012 12:16 PM . (2.htm (2.

Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_4.1) and 2. (2. The derivatives.10) is a second-order central difference form for the derivative point Difference quotients for the at grid derivatives are obtained in exactly the similar way. This produces (2.9) for we obtain (2.9) Solving Eq.10) Eq. results are analogous to the expression for the [Forward difference] [Backward difference] [Central difference] [Central difference derivative] of second 1 of 1 6/20/2012 12:17 PM . (2.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 2: Elementary Finite Difference Quotients In order to obtain a finite difference for the second-order partial derivative add Eq. (2.5).

if we write the derivative as a central difference of derivatives.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 2: Elementary Finite Difference Quotients Central difference given by Eq. (2. at grid point .Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_5. (2.12) 1 of 2 6/20/2012 12:17 PM . we obtain (2. with backward difference in terms of dependent variables for the first-order derivatives. and further make use of central differences to find out the derivatives. This is because or or The same approach can be made to generate a finite difference quotient for the mixed derivative Example.10) can be interpreted as a forward difference of the first order derivatives. (2.11).11) In Eq.

2 of 2 6/20/2012 12:17 PM . To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side menu of the page or click the next button. you have finished Lecture 2.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture2/2_5.htm Congratulations.

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