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Second Edition Department of Mathematics College of the Redwoods 2012-2013

ii

Copyright All parts of this prealgebra textbook are copyrighted c 2011 in the name of the Department of Mathematics, College of the Redwoods. They are not in the public domain. However, they are being made available free for use in educational institutions. This oﬀer does not extend to any application that is made for proﬁt. Users who have such applications in mind should contact David Arnold at david-arnold@redwoods.edu or Bruce Wagner at bruce-wagner@redwoods.edu. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

Contents

1 The Arithmetic of Numbers 1.1 An Introduction to the Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . The Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integer Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematical Properties of Addition . . . . . . . . Integer Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integer Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematical Properties of Multiplication . . . . . Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphing Calculator: Negating versus Subtracting Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grouping Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute Value Bars as Grouping Symbols . . . . Nested Grouping Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Graphing Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 The Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms . . . . . . . . Multiplying Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dividing Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fractions on the Graphing Calculator . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 16 19 20 20 21 22 23 27 30 31 31 33 35 36 37 39 43 46

iv 1.4 Decimal Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding and Subtracting Decimals . . . . Multiplication and Division of Decimals . Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . Rounding Using the Graphing Calculator Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . The Distributive Property . . . . . . . . . Speeding Things Up a Bit . . . . . . . . . Distributing a Negative Sign . . . . . . . Combining Like Terms . . . . . . . . . . . Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 49 51 52 55 57 59 60 61 62 63 64 66 69 70 73 74 74 75 76 79 82 84 85 87 90 92 96 97 99 100 101 106 109 110 111 113 115 118 120 121 132 134 135 136

1.5

2 Solving Linear Equations and Inequalities 2.1 Solving Equations: One Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wrap and Unwrap, Do and Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . Operations that Produce Equivalent Equations . . . . More Operations That Produce Equivalent Equations Writing Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Solving Equations: Multiple Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables on Both Sides of the Equation . . . . . . . . Simplifying Expressions When Solving Equations . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Clearing Fractions and Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Canceling is More Eﬃcient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearing Fractions from an Equation . . . . . . . . . . Clearing Decimals from an Equation . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearing Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ordering the Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS Set-Builder Notation . . . . . . . . Interval Notation . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Inequalities . . . . . . Reversing the Inequality Sign . . . Multiple Steps . . . . . . . . . . . Summary Table of Set-Builder and Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interval Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 136 138 139 141 143 146 147 149 151 152 152 154 156 157 159 160 165 168 171 174 176 179 180 183 184 185 189 192 196 199 201 206 209 212 213 217 219 222 224 225 228 230 232 234 237

3 Introduction to Graphing 3.1 Graphing Equations by Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cartesian Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . Plotting Ordered Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equations in Two Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphing Equations in Two Variables . . . . . . . . . Guidelines and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the TABLE Feature of the Graphing Calculator Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 The Graphing Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reproducing Calculator Results on Homework Paper Adjusting the Viewing Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Rates and Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring the Change in a Variable . . . . . . . . . . Slope as Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Steepness of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Geometry of the Slope of a Line . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Slope-Intercept Form of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Point-Slope Form of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perpendicular Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Standard Form of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slope-Intercept to Standard Form . . . . . . . . . . . Point-Slope to Standard Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal and Vertical Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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vi

CONTENTS Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

4 Systems of Linear Equations 4.1 Solving Systems by Graphing . . . . . . . . . . . Exceptional Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solving Systems with the Graphing Calculator Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Solving Systems by Substitution . . . . . . . . . Exceptional Cases Revisited . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Solving Systems by Elimination . . . . . . . . . . Exceptional Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Applications of Linear Systems . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Polynomial Functions 5.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . Function Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . Mapping Diagram Notation . . . . . . Function Notation . . . . . . . . . . . Interchanging y and f (x) . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ascending and Descending Powers . . The Degree of a Polynomial . . . . . . Polynomial Functions . . . . . . . . . The Graph of a Polynomial Function Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Applications of Polynomials . . . . . . . Zeros and x-intercepts of a Function . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials . . Negating a Polynomial . . . . . . . . Subtracting Polynomials . . . . . . . . Some Applications . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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245 246 250 253 259 260 262 268 270 272 273 276 279 280 282 290 291 293 294 296 297 299 301 303 305 307 308 309 311 312 313 317 319 321 325 330 333 334 335 336 338 340

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CONTENTS Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laws of Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplying With Like Bases . . . . . . . . Dividing With Like Bases . . . . . . . . . . Raising a Power to a Power . . . . . . . . . Raising a Product to a Power . . . . . . . . Raising a Quotient to a Power . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplying Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . The Product of Monomials . . . . . . . . . Multiplying a Monomial and a Polynomial Multiplying Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . Speeding Things Up a Bit . . . . . . . . . . Some Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The FOIL Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Diﬀerence of Squares . . . . . . . . . . Squaring a Binomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 342 343 344 345 347 349 350 353 355 356 356 357 359 360 362 366 368 370 370 373 375 378 380 382 385 386 388 390 392 394 396 398 399 400 404 410 411 413 413 416 417 424 425 427 428

5.5

5.6

5.7

6 Factoring 6.1 The Greatest Common Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding the Greatest Common Factor of Monomials Factor Out the GCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speeding Things Up a Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factoring by Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Solving Nonlinear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear versus Nonlinear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Graphing Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . The ac-Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speeding Things Up a Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonlinear Equations Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Speeding Things Up a Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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viii Nonlinear Equations Revisited . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factoring Special Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perfect Square Trinomials . . . . . . . . . . . The Diﬀerence of Squares . . . . . . . . . . . Factoring Completely . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonlinear Equations Revisited . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factoring Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Calculator to Assist the ac-Method Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications of Factoring . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 437 438 440 440 444 446 447 452 454 456 462 464 465 467 474 475 477 478 480 482 484 485 488 490 492 493 495 495 497 502 504 505 505 507 508 511 513 514 516 518 521 523 524 525

6.5

6.6

6.7

7 Rational Expressions 7.1 Negative Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laws of Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raising to a Negative Integer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applying the Laws of Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearing Negative Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Scientiﬁc Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplying Decimal Numbers by Powers of Ten . . . . . Scientiﬁc Notation Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placing a Number in Scientiﬁc Notation . . . . . . . . . . Scientiﬁc Notation and the Graphing Calculator . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Simplifying Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions . . . . . . Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions . . . . . . The Least Common Denominator . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Solving Rational Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solving Rational Equations with the Graphing Calculator Numerical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Direct and Inverse Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

ix

Inversely Proportional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 8 Quadratic Functions 8.1 Introduction to Radical Notation . . . . . . . . Using the Graphing Calculator . . . . . . . . Approximating Square Roots . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Simplifying Radical Expressions . . . . . . . . . Simple Radical Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Pythagorean Theorem . . . . . . . . . . Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem . . . . . . Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Completing the Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perfect Square Trinomials Revisited . . . . . Completing the Square . . . . . . . . . . . . Solving Equations by Completing the Square Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 The Quadratic Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 536 539 542 545 546 547 548 549 550 553 555 557 558 561 562 563 568 569 571 580 582 585

Chapter

1

**The Arithmetic of Numbers
**

In 1960, Belgian Geologist Jean de Heinzelein de Braucourt discovered the Ishango bone in central Africa. This bone, dated to be more than 20,000 years old, is believed to be the oldest known artifact indicating the use of arithmetic. The ﬁrst written records indicate the Egyptians and Babylonians used arithmetic as early as 2000 BC. The Mayans used arithmetic to make astronomical computations, and developed the concept of zero over 2,000 years ago. The word “arithmetic” is derived from the Greek word arithmos (translated as “number”). It is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics and is used for a variety of tasks ranging from simple counting to advanced science and business calculations.

1

2

CHAPTER 1. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS

1.1

An Introduction to the Integers

We begin with the set of counting numbers, formally called the set of natural numbers. The Natural Numbers. The set N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .} is called the set of natural numbers. If we add the number zero to the set of natural numbers, then we have a set of numbers that are called the whole numbers. The Whole Numbers. The set W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .} is called the set of whole numbers. The number 0 is special, in that whenever you add it to another whole number, you get the identical number as an answer. Additive Identity Property. If a is any whole number, then a + 0 = a. For this reason, the whole number 0 is called the additive identity. Thus, for example, 3 + 0 = 3, 15 + 0 = 15, and 123 + 0 = 123. These are all examples of the additive identity property. Every natural number has an opposite, so that when you add them together, their sum is zero. Additive Inverse Property. If a is any natural number, then deﬁne the opposite of a, symbolized by −a, so that a + (−a) = 0. The number −a is called the “opposite of a,” or more formally, the additive inverse of a. For example, the opposite (additive inverse) of 3 is −3, and 3 + (−3) = 0. The opposite (additive inverse) of 12 is −12, and 12 + (−12) = 0. The opposite of

. . . On the other hand. However. Because 7 + (−7) = 0. to the left of zero (see Figure 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 3 254 is −254. Because a + (−a) = 0. The integers can be made to correspond to points on a line in a very natural manner. 1. −5. . On the number line. 5. −(−103) = 103. . we have a collection of numbers called the integers. −2. −3. some integers lie to the right of zero and some lie to the left of zero. The Integers If we collect all the natural numbers and their additive inverses.1). −4. . and −(−1255) = 1255. Finally. Note that as we move to the right on the number line. The Integers. 2. −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1. then their opposites (additive inverses) −1. −1. draw a line.1.1: Each integer corresponds to a unique position on the number line. . −3. In symbols. First. The opposite of the opposite.1. . then locate the number zero anywhere you wish. locate the numbers 1. 2. 4. −2. place the number one to the right of zero. . we write: −(−a) = a Thus. for example. . Secondly. 4. 5. Positive and negative integers.} is called the set of integers. If we translate the phrase “the opposite of −7 is 7” into mathematical symbols. This determines the length of one unit. These are all examples of additive inverses and the additive inverse property. 3. we’ve said that −7 is the opposite (additive inverse) of 7. we can also turn that around and say that 7 is the opposite of −7. to the right of zero. . 3. we get −(−7) = 7. the integers get smaller. then include the number zero. −5. as we move to the left on the number line. and 254 + (−254) = 0. −(−11) = 11. −4. . the integers get larger. we can say that a is the opposite of −a. 0. The set Z = {. .

and 142 are positive integers. Hence. Solution: Consider the position of −4 on the number line. Simplify | − 4|. Thus. Note that the absolute value of any number is either positive or zero. 4. You Try It! Simplify: | − 23| EXAMPLE 1. . | − 4| = 4. is deﬁned as the distance between the integer and zero on the number line. written |a|. Note that −4 lies four units away from zero. then the absolute value of a. and −435 are negative integers. The Absolute Value of an Integer. In similar fashion: • The integer 5 lies ﬁve units away from zero. the absolute value of a number is nonnegative (not negative). then a is called a positive integer. Hence. 25. |5| = 5. If a is an integer. while −7. 4 units −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 Answer: | − 23| = 23 Because the absolute value (magnitude) of an integer equals its distance from zero. then a is called a negative integer. That is. |0| = 0. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS • If a is an integer that lies to the right of zero. • If a is an integer that lies to the left of zero. • The integer 0 lies zero units away from zero.4 CHAPTER 1. −53. Absolute Value The absolute value (or magnitude) of an integer is deﬁned as follows.

pdf We consider the ﬁrst of two cases. That is: 7 + 12 = 19 Answer: 41 Simplify: 13 + 28 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. If we preﬁx the common sign. . AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 5 Integer Addition This section is designed to provide a quick review of integer addition. we get −17. Solution: We have like signs. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. then preﬁx the sign of the integer with the larger magnitude. The magnitudes (absolute values) of 7 and 12 are 7 and 12. For a more thorough introduction to integer addition. provided online at the following URL: http://msenux. Adding Integers with Like Signs. If we add the magnitudes. The magnitudes (absolute values) of −8 and −9 are 8 and 9. we consider the case where we have unlike signs. If we preﬁx the common sign. then preﬁx their common sign. we get 19.1.redwoods.1. Solution: We have like signs. To add two integers with unlike signs (one positive and one negative). we get 19. If we add the magnitudes. Simplify 7 + 12.edu/PreAlgText/contents/chapter2/ chapter2. Simplify −8 + (−9). we get 17. respectively. Adding Integers with Unlike Signs. That is: −8 + (−9) = −17 Answer: −33 Simplify: −12 + (−21) Next. subtract the integer with the smaller magnitude (absolute value) from the number with the larger magnitude. respectively. To add two integers with like signs (both positive or both negative). add their magnitudes (absolute values). read section two of chapter two of our prealgebra textbook.

6 CHAPTER 1. The number −14 has the larger magnitude. That is. it does not matter which two we add ﬁrst. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS You Try It! Simplify: 12 + (−29) EXAMPLE 4. so we preﬁx our answer with its negative sign. If we subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger. −20 + 34 gives an answer identical to the sum 34 + (−20). In both cases. That is: Answer: −17 −14 + 11 = −3 You Try It! Simplify: 32 + (−90) EXAMPLE 5. This fact is called the commutative property of addition. Solution: We have unlike signs. If we subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger. if we add the second and third of three numbers ﬁrst. The number 40 has the larger magnitude. The magnitudes (absolute values) of 40 and −25 are 40 and 25. we get: −11 + (−2 + 5) = −11 + 3 = −8 Parentheses ﬁrst: −2 + 5 = 3 Add: −11 + 3 = −8 . we get 15. the answer is 14. so we preﬁx our answer with its positive sign. That is: Answer: −58 40 + (−25) = 15 Mathematical Properties of Addition The order in which we add integers does not matter. The Commutative Property of Addition. Solution: We have unlike signs. respectively. then: a+b=b+a Next. For example. Simplify 40 + (−25). Simplify −14 + 11. If a and b are any two integers. respectively. when we add three integers. we get 3. The magnitudes (absolute values) of −14 and 11 are 14 and 11.

If a. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 7 On the other hand. Simplify: −27 − (−50) Simplify: −18 − (−54) . if we add the ﬁrst and second of three numbers ﬁrst. Answer: −26 You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. Subtracting Integers. or the opposite. subtracting 27 is the same as adding −27. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6.1.1. Simplify: −13 − 27 Simplify: −11 − 15 Solution: The “opposite” (additive inverse) of 27 is −27. The Associative Property of Addition. −13 − 27 = −13 + (−27) = −50 Subtracting 27 is the same as adding −27. b. we get: (−11 + (−2)) + 5 = −13 + 5 = −8 Parentheses ﬁrst: −11 + (−2) = −13 Add: −13 + 5 = −8 Thus. then: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c Integer Subtraction Subtraction is the inverse. So. This fact is called the associative property of addition. −11 + (−2 + 5) = (−11 + (−2)) + 5. then preﬁx the common negative sign. then: a − b = a + (−b) Subtracting b is identical to adding the opposite (additive inverse) of b. of addition. If a and b are any two integers. and c are any three integers. Add the magnitudes.

read section four of chapter two of our prealgebra textbook. subtracting −50 is the same as adding 50. (+)(−) = − (−)(+) = − or or (+)/(−) = − (−)/(+) = − . If a and b are integers with like signs (both positive or both negative). For a more thorough introduction to integer multiplication and division. Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) (2)(3) Answer: 90 (a) (2)(3) = 6 (b) (−12)(−8) (b) (−12)(−8) = 96 (c) −14/(−2) (c) −14/(−2) = 7 Solution: When multiplying or dividing. or 50.redwoods.edu/PreAlgText/contents/chapter2/ chapter2. then preﬁx the sign of the larger magnitude. like signs yield a positive result. then the product ab and the quotient a/b are negative.8 CHAPTER 1. So. (+)(+) = + (−)(−) = + or or (+)/(+) = + (−)/(−) = + You Try It! Simplify: (−18)(−5) EXAMPLE 8. provided online at the following URL: http://msenux. If a and b are integers with unlike signs (one positive and one negative). then the product ab and the quotient a/b are positive. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Solution: The “opposite” (additive inverse) of −50 is −(−50). Integer Multiplication This section is designed to provide a quick review of multiplication and division of integers.pdf Like Signs. Unlike Signs. Subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger magnitude. −27 − (−50) = −27 + 50 = 23 Answer: 36 Subtracting −50 is the same as adding 50.

Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) (2)(−12) (a) (2)(−12) = −24 (b) (−9)(12) (b) (−9)(12) = −108 (c) 24/(−8) (c) 24/(−8) = −3 Answer: −57 Simplify: (−19)(3) Solution: When multiplying or dividing. if we multiply the ﬁrst and second of three numbers ﬁrst. the answer is −40. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 9 You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. we get: (−3)(−4) (−5) = (12)(−5) = −60 Brackets ﬁrst: (−3)(−4) = 12 Multiply: (12)(−5) = −60 Thus. (1)(5) = 5 and (−11)(1) = −11. and c are any three integers. Mathematical Properties of Multiplication The order in which we multiply integers does not matter. then: a·b=b·a Next. This fact is called the commutative property of multiplication. For example. . we get: (−3) (−4)(−5) = (−3)(20) = −60 Brackets ﬁrst: (−4)(−5) = 20 Multiply: (−3)(20) = −60 On the other hand. This fact is known as the multiplicative identity property. (−3) (−4)(−5) = (−3)(−4) (−5). unlike signs yield a negative result. it does not matter which two we multiply ﬁrst. The Commutative Property of Multiplication. In both cases. b. If a and b are any two integers. you get the identical number back as the product. (−8)(5) gives an answer identical to (5)(−8).1. If a. If we multiply the second and third of three numbers ﬁrst.1. The Associative Property of Multiplication. That is. then: a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c When you multiply an integer by 1. when we multiply three integers. This fact is called the associative property of multiplication.

the integer 1 is called the “multiplicative identity. Solution: In the exponential expression (−2)3 . Simplify (−2)3 . note that the product of three negative factors is negative. note that −2 is the base. −2 as a factor. write a as a factor n times.10 CHAPTER 1. We now deﬁne what is meant by an exponent. note that (−1)(5) = −5. Thus. while the number n is called the exponent. three times. multiplying 5 by −1 is identical to taking the “opposite” of 5 or negating 5. (−2)3 = −8. Multiply: (−2)(−2) = 4. n You Try It! Simplify: (−2)2 EXAMPLE 10. Exponents. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS The Multiplicative Identity Property. the number a is called the base. In Example 10. That is: (−1)a = −a Exponents In the exponential expression an . then: an = a · a · a · · · · · a n times That is. Multiplying by minus one is identical to negating. If n = 0. If a is any integer. then: 1·a=a and a·1=a For this reason. The exponent tells us to write the base as a factor three times.” Finally. while 3 is the exponent. Simplify the result by performing the multiplications in order. (−2)3 = (−2)(−2)(−2) = (4)(−2) = −8 Answer: 4 Thus. moving from left to right. Let’s try another example. Let a be an integer and let n be any whole number. The Multiplicative Property of −1. to calculate a . . Multiply: (4)(−2) = −8.

(−2)4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = (4)(−2)(−2) = (−8)(−2) = 16 Thus. Multiply: (−2)(−2) = 4. For example. note that the product of four negative factors is positive. then this is the key to use. while 4 is the exponent. 2. note that −2 is the base.1. Simplify (−2)4 . the result is negative. When a negative integer is raised to an odd exponent. Note that there are two keys that contain some sort of negative sign. The ﬁrst of these buttons is the unary “negation” operator. the result is positive. enter -3 by pressing the following button sequence. and another in the last column of keys on the right.1. −2 as a factor. one on the bottom row of keys. (−2)4 = 16. Odd or Even Exponents. Multiply: (−8)(−2) = 16. four times. When a negative integer is raised to an even exponent. If you want to negate a single (thus the word “unary”) number. Graphing Calculator: Negating versus Subtracting Consider the view of the lower half of the TI84 graphing calculator in Figure 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 11 You Try It! EXAMPLE 11. Multiply: (4)(−2) = −8. The result is shown in Figure 1. 1. moving from left to right. Answer: −32 Simplify: (−2)5 In Example 11.2. (-) and − Figure 1. (-) 3 ENTER . Simplify the result by performing the multiplications in order.3. Examples 10 and 11 reveal the following pattern. The exponent tells us to write the base as a factor four times.2: Lower half of the TI-84. positioned just above the plus symbol. Solution: In the exponential expression (−2)4 .

Use the TI84 graphing calculator to simplify each of the following expressons: (a) −717 − 432 (b) (232)(−313) (c) (−17)3 . To negate a number. Figure 1. If you want to subtract one number from another number (thus the word “binary”). To subtract one number from another. Do not interchange the roles of the unary negation operator and the binary subtraction operator. use: If you interchange the roles of these operators. Important Point. EXAMPLE 12.4. For example. then this is the key to use.6: The resulting syntax error. Figure 1. use: (-) − 2. You Try It! Use the graphing calculator to evaluate (−225)3 . the calculator will respond that you’ve made a “syntax error” (see Figures 1. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS The second button is the binary “subtraction” operator.3: Negating a number.4: Subtract two numbers. The result is shown in Figure 1. 1. enter 7-15 by pressing the following button sequence.6).12 CHAPTER 1. 7 − 1 5 ENTER Figure 1.5 and 1.5: Using the wrong symbol for subtraction. Figure 1.

1.1. Answer: −11390625 . b) The expression (232)(−313) asks us to ﬁnd the product of 232 and “negative” 313.7. c) The expression (−17)3 asks us to raise “negative” to the third power. (-) 7 1 7 − 4 3 2 ENTER Hence.7. The “caret” symbol ∧ is located just above the division key in the rightmost column of the TI84 graphing calculator. a) The expression −717 − 432 asks us to subtract 432 from “negative” 717. Figure 1. (232)(−313) = −72616. Enter the following sequence of keystrokes to produce the result shown in the second image in Figure 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 13 Solution: The minus sign in each of these examples looks exactly the same.7: Calculations made on the graphing calculator. −717 − 432 = −1149. but sometimes it is used as a “negative” sign and sometimes it is used as a “subtraction” sign. Enter the following sequence of keystrokes to produce the result shown in the third image in Figure 1. ( (-) 1 7 ) ∧ 3 ENTER Hence. 2 3 2 × (-) 3 1 3 ENTER Hence.7. (−17)3 = −4913. Enter the following sequence of keystrokes to produce the result shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1.

3. (−4)2 . compute the exact value. |1|. 5. In Exercises 9-24. simplify each of the following expressions as much as possible. −23 + (−13) 11. 37 + (−86) 18. 33 + (−41) 21. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 96 + 145 12. 57 + 20 22. | − 1|. 16 + 127 13. 143 + (−88) 19.14 CHAPTER 1. 33. | − 6|. −82 − 62 29. | − 2|. (−8)6 34. −20 − (−5) In Exercises 33-40. |8|. 66 + 110 23. (−4)6 37. 9. −59 + (−12) 16. 2. −48 + 127 24. 1. −91 + (−147) 10. 66 + (−85) 20. (−9)2 38. −20 − (−10) 26. −20 − (−20) 27. ﬁnd the diﬀerence. 7. −77 − 26 30. 25. | − 4|. −62 − 7 28. −48 + 92 In Exercises 25-32. 8. |2|. 6. −96 − 92 31. (−3)5 35. −40 + (−58) 17. |5|. (−7)5 36. 4. −7 − (−16) 32. −76 + 46 14. simplify each of the following expressions. −11 + 21 15.

2 5. −562 − 1728 42. 77 23. −8176 + 578 45. 5 3. −71 17. 2916885 49. −238 11.1. −10 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 27. −69 29.1. (−18)3 50. −16807 37. (−13)5 52. −5832 51. (753)(−9753) 49. 4 9. −2290 43. 79 25. (−16)4 51. 81 39. (−5)4 15 In Exercises 41-52. 41. (−856)(232) 46. −198592 47. use your graphing calculator to compute the given expression. −103 31. −371293 . AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INTEGERS 39. (−15)6 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 7825 45. 262144 35. (−815)(−3579) 48. (−4)4 40. (−335)(−87) 47. 256 41. 2 7. −49 19. 241 13. −30 15. 9 33. −19 21. −400 − (−8225) 44. −3125 − (−576) 43.

The following guidelines should always be strictly enforced when evaluating expressions. −4 + 2 · 8 = −2 · 8 = −16. For example: 3 + 5(9 − 11) or − 2 − [−2 − 5(1 − 3)] or 6 − 3| − 3 − 4| ? ? ? ? In each case. Evaluate expressions contained in grouping symbols ﬁrst. When evaluating expressions. −4 + 2 · 8 = −4 + 16 = 12. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 1. If we perform the addition ﬁrst. evaluate the expression in the innermost pair of grouping symbols ﬁrst. (−4 + 2) · 8 = −2 · 8 = −16 Parentheses ﬁrst: −4 + 2 = −2 Multiply: −2 · 8 = −16 Another way to avoid ambiguities in evaluating expressions is to establish an order in which operations should be performed. Parentheses. So. evaluate the expression in the innermost pair of grouping symbols ﬁrst. grouping symbols would remove the ambiguity. Rules Guiding Order of Operations. if we perform the multiplication ﬁrst. brackets. proceed in the following order. the rule is “evaluate the expression inside the grouping symbols ﬁrst.” If the grouping symbols are nested. On the other hand. what are we to do? Of course. Take. if the example above is grouped as follows.16 CHAPTER 1. If grouping symbols are nested. the expression −4 + 2 · 8. 1. Thus.2 Order of Operations The order in which we evaluate expressions can be ambiguous. we are forced to evaluate the expression inside the parentheses ﬁrst. then we get 12 as a result. Grouping Symbols. then we get −16 as a result (the question mark over the equal sign indicates that the result is questionable). for example. and absolute value bars can be used to group parts of an expression. .

3. Perform all additions and subtractions in the order that they appear in the expression. After that we invoke rule four. moving left to right. performing all additions and subtractions in the order that they appear. This means that you should not arrange your work horizontally. Add: −3 + (−32) = −35 Answer: 12 Simplify: −4 + 2 · 8 Writing Mathematics. Rather. −3 − 4 · 8 = −3 − 32 = −3 + (−32) = −35 Thus. Simplify: −3 − 4 · 8 Solution: Because of the established Rules Guiding Order of Operations. −2 − 4 · (−8) = −2 − (−32) = −2 + 32 = 30 That’s three equal signs on a single line. Evaluate all exponents that appear in the expression. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. −2 − 4 · (−8) = −2 − (−32) = −2 + 32 = 30 . this expression is no longer ambiguous. observe the following rule to neatly arrange your work: One equal sign per line. ORDER OF OPERATIONS 17 2. When simplifying expressions. keeping equal signs aligned in a column. −3 − 4 · 8 = −35. There are no grouping symbols or exponents present. so we immediately go to rule three. moving left to right.1. moving left to right. evaluate all multiplications and divisions in the order that they appear. Multiply ﬁrst: 4 · 8 = 32 Add the opposite. Perform all multiplications and divisions in the order that they appear in the expression. moving left to right. 4. arrange your work vertically.2.

then negate. (−7)2 = (−7)(−7) = 49. b) There are no grouping symbols in this example. 54/(−9)(2) = −6(2) = −12 Answer: 16 Thus. Warning! Here is what happens if you perform the multiplication in Example 2 before the division. That is. Recall that for any integer a. but −72 = −49. Note that multiplication takes no preference over division. If not. Because negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. the Rules Guiding Order of Operations require that we address grouping symbols and exponents before negation. moving left to right. moving from left to right. Multiplications and divisions have the same level of preference and must be performed in the order that they occur. . (−7)2 = 49. the wrong answer will be obtained.18 CHAPTER 1. You Try It! Simplify: −152 EXAMPLE 3. Divide ﬁrst: 54/(−9) = −6 Multiply: −6(2) = −12 Example 2 can be a source of confusion for many readers. then square. we must square ﬁrst. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS You Try It! Simplify: −24/(−3)(2) EXAMPLE 2. 54/(−9)(2) = −12. Simplify: (a) (−7)2 and (b) −72 Solution. That is. we have (−1)a = −a. moving from left to right. Note: This example demonstrates that (−7)2 is diﬀerent from −72 . Thus. so we immediately go to rule three. a) Because of the grouping symbols. 54/(−9)(2) = 54/(−18) = −3 Multiply: (−9)(2) = −18 Divide: 54/(−18) = −3 This is incorrect! Multiplications and divisions must be performed in the order that they occur. Answer: −225 Thus. Simplify: 54/(−9)(2) Solution: There are no grouping symbols or exponents present. we negate ﬁrst. −72 = −(7 · 7) = −49. evaluate all multiplications and divisions in the order that they appear. nor does division take preference over multiplication.

You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. = −2(1) + 5(−1) = −2 + (−5) = −7 Thus. perform the multiplications. and subtraction. Add: −3 + (−32) = −35 Answer: 27 Grouping Symbols The Rules Guiding Order of Operations require that expressions inside grouping symbols (parentheses.1. ORDER OF OPERATIONS 19 Let’s try an example that has a mixture of exponents. then multiplications.2. Exponent ﬁrst: (−4)2 = 16 Multiply: 2(16) = 32 Add the opposite. Multiply: −2(1) = −2 and 5(−1) = −5. Simplify: −3 − 2(−4)2 Simplify: −5 − 4(−2)3 Solution. then add. Parentheses ﬁrst: 3 + (−4) = −1 and 1 + (−2) = −1. brackets. −3 − 2(−4)2 = −3 − 2(16) = −3 − 32 = −3 + (−32) = −35 Thus. Add: −2 + (−5) = −7 Answer: 373 . Simplify: −2(3 − 4)2 + 5(1 − 2)3 Simplify: −2 − 3(−2 − 3)3 Solution. −2(3 − 4)2 + 5(1 − 2)3 = −7. The Rules Guiding Order of Operations require that we address exponents ﬁrst. then subtractions. The Rules Guiding Order of Operations require that we ﬁrst evaluate the expressions contained inside the grouping symbols. −2(3 − 4)2 + 5(1 − 2)3 = −2(3 + (−4))2 + 5(1 + (−2))3 = −2(−1) + 5(−1) 2 3 Add the opposites. Exponents: (−1)2 = 1 and (−1)3 = −1. or curly braces) be evaluated ﬁrst. Evaluate the exponents next. −3 − 2(−4)2 = −35. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. multiplication.

Nested Grouping Symbols When grouping symbols are nested. You Try It! Simplify: −| − 4 − 6| EXAMPLE 6. You Try It! Simplify: −2 − 2[−2 − 2(−2 − 2)] EXAMPLE 7. we evaluate the expression contained inside the brackets ﬁrst. you must evaluate what is inside them ﬁrst.20 CHAPTER 1. Add: | − 6| = 6. Simplify: −3 − 4[−3 − 4(−3 − 4)] Solution. = −3 − 4[−3 − 4(−7)] Add: −3 + (−4) = −7 Next. Hence. then subtract. Add the opposite. The number −6 is 6 units from zero on the number line. = −8 − 6 = −8 + (−6) = −14 Answer: −10 Thus. That is. then take the absolute value of the result. Simplify: −8 − |5 − 11| Solution. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Absolute Value Bars as Grouping Symbols Like parentheses and brackets. we evaluate the expression contained inside the brackets. −3 − 4[−3 − 4(−3 − 4)] = −3 − 4[−3 − 4(−3 + (−4))] Add the opposite. The Rules Guiding Order of Operations require that we ﬁrst address the expression contained in the innermost grouping symbols. | − 6| = 6. Add: −3 + 28 = 25 . Multiply: 4(−7) = −28 Add the opposite. the Rules Guiding Order of Operations tell us to evaluate the innermost expressions ﬁrst. −8 − |5 − 11| = −8 − |5 + (−11)| = −8 − | − 6| Add the opposite. Add: 5 + (−11) = −6. = −3 − 4[−3 − (−28)] = −3 − 4[−3 + 28] = −3 − 4[25] Now we multiply. We must ﬁrst evaluate what is inside the absolute value bars. −8 − |5 − 11| = −14. Add.

using operations such as addition. subtraction.2. An algebraic expression must be well-formed. 2a. variables. division. being formed by a combination of numbers. Algebraic Expression. are valid algebraic expressions. Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. 2 + 3(2 is not well-formed because parentheses are not balanced. Add: −3 + (−100) = −103 Answer: −14 Evaluating Algebraic Expressions Variable. A variable is a symbol (usually a letter) that stands for an unknown value that may vary. the resulting combination of mathematical symbols is called an algebraic expression. Thus. −3 − 4[−3 − 4(−3 − 4)] = −103. In this section we will evaluate algebraic expressions for given values of the variables contained in the expressions. Multiply: 4{25} = 100 Add the opposite. and y2. For example. ORDER OF OPERATIONS 21 = −3 − 100 = −3 + (−100) = −103 Thus. Similarly.1. When we combine numbers and variables in a valid way. x + 5. Here are some simple tips to help you be successful. . 2 + −5x is not a valid expression because there is no term following the plus sign (it is not valid to write +− with nothing between these operators). exponentiation. Let’s add the deﬁnition of an algebraic expression. multiplication. and mathematical operators.

Solution. then perform the division in the ﬁnal step. Evaluate the expression x2 − 2xy + y 2 at x = −3 and y = 2. x2 − 2xy + y 2 = ( )2 − 2( )( ) + ( )2 = (−3)2 − 2(−3)(2) + (2)2 Finally. You Try It! If x = −2 and y = −1. . multiply: (−6)(2) = −12 Add the opposite. Evaluate the resulting expression according to the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. 3. follow the Rules Guiding Order of Operations to evaluate the resulting expression. )( ) + ( ) 2 2 Replace variables with parentheses. Evaluate exponents ﬁrst.22 CHAPTER 1. Replace all occurrences of variables in the expression with open parentheses. EXAMPLE 8. multiply: 2(−3) = −6 Left to right. = (−3) − 2(−3)(2) + (2) = 9 − 2(−3)(2) + 4 = 9 − (−6)(2) + 4 = 9 − (−12) + 4 = 9 + 12 + 4 = 25 Answer: −7 Thus. then x2 − 2xy + y 2 = 25. Substitute −3 for x and 2 for y. Add. Next. Substitute the given values of variables in the open parentheses prepared in the ﬁrst step. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 1. Evaluating Fractions If a fraction bar is present. if x = −3 and y = 2. x2 − 2xy + y 2 =( ) − 2( 2 2 Original expression. evaluate x3 − y 3 . Left to right. evaluate the numerator and denominator separately according to the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. 2. Leave room between the parentheses to substitute the given value of the variable. substitute the given values of variables (−3 for x and 2 for y) in the open parentheses. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variables in the expression x2 − 2xy + y 2 with open parentheses. Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions.

and −4 for d) in the open parentheses. Answer: −2 If a = −7.1. Next. substitute the given values of variables (5 for a. and d = −4. and d = −4. b = −3. if a = 5. ad − bc ( )( ) − ( )( ) = a+b ( )+( ) (5)(−4) − (−3)(2) = (5) + (−3) −20 − (−6) = 2 = −20 + 6 2 −14 = 2 = −7 Replace variables with parentheses.2. Using the Graphing Calculator The graphing calculator is a splendid tool for evaluating algebraic expressions. −3 for b. . Substitute: 5 for a. 2 for c. b = −3. ( )( ) − ( )( ) ad − bc = a+b ( )+( ) (5)(−4) − (−3)(2) = (5) + (−3) Finally. 2 for c. b = −3. and d = −14. c = 2. Note that we evaluate the expressions in the numerator and denominator separately. ORDER OF OPERATIONS 23 You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. (−3)(2) = −6 Denominator: 5 + (−3) = 2 Numerator: Add the opposite Numerator: −20 + 6 = −14 Divide. follow the Rules Guiding Order of Operations to evaluate the resulting expression. Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variables in the expression (ad − bc)/(a + b) with open parentheses. then divide. −3 for b. evaluate: a2 + b 2 c+d Thus. −4 for d Numerator: (5)(−4) = −20. c = −15. Solution. then (ad − bc)/(a + b) = −7. particularly when the numbers involved are large. c = 2. Evaluate the expression ad − bc a+b at a = 5.

THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS You Try It! Use the graphing calculator to evaluate −2 − 2[−2 − 2(−2 − 2)]. it is a negation symbol. The ﬁrst diﬃculty with this expression is the fact that the graphing calculator does not have a bracket symbol for the purposes of grouping.8. . If the minus sign does not appear between two numbers. The calculator has only parentheses for grouping.24 CHAPTER 1. −213 − 35[−18 − 211(15 − 223)] Solution. Answer: −14 Thus. If the minus sign does appear between two numbers. 663. The next diﬃculty is determining which of the minus signs are negation symbols and which are subtraction symbols. we enter the following keystrokes on our calculator. EXAMPLE 10. −213 − 35[−18 − 211(15 − 223)] = −1. You Try It! Use the graphing calculator to evaluate 10 + 10 10 + 10 EXAMPLE 11. 535. (-) 1 2 1 1 × 3 ( − 1 3 5 5 − × 2 ( 2 (-) 3 1 ) 8 ) − 2 ENTER Figure 1. So we ﬁrst convert our expression to the following: −213 − 35(−18 − 211(15 − 223)) Note that brackets and parentheses are completely interchangeable. Use the graphing calculator to evaluate 5+5 5+5 . it is a subtraction symbol. Use the graphing calculator to simplify the following expression.8: Calculating −213 − 35[−18 − 211(15 − 223)]. Hence. The result is shown in Figure 1.

9. Divide: 10/10 = 1. 5 + 5/5 + 5 is equivalent to 5+ 5 +5 5 Let’s change the order of evaluation by using grouping symbols. 5+5 Answer: 1 . Whoa! How did the calculator get 11? The answer is supposed to be 1! Let’s slow down and apply the Rules Guiding Order of Operations to the expression 5+5/5+5. 5+5 10 = 5+5 10 =1 Simplify numerator and denominator. (5 + 5)/(5 + 5) is equivalent to Figure 1. let’s enter the expression 5+5/5+5 in the calculator and see how well we understand the Rules Guiding Order of Operations (see ﬁrst image in Figure 1. Well. Note that: (5 + 5)/(5 + 5) = 10/10 =1 That is: Parentheses ﬁrst.1. 5 = 1. ORDER OF OPERATIONS 25 Solution.9: Calculating 5+5 . it’s very easy to compute. Divide: 10/10 = 1. 5+5 5+5 Enter (5+5)(5+5) and press the ENTER key to produce the output shown in the second image in Figure 1. 5 + 5/5 + 5 = 5 + 5 +5 5 Divide ﬁrst. You might ask “Why do we need a calculator to evaluate this exceedingly simple expression?” After all. 5 Add: 5 + 1 + 5 = 11.2. Divide: =5+1+5 = 11 Aha! That’s how the calculator got 11.9).

you’ll notice submenus MATH. Storing values in these memory locations is an eﬃcient way to evaluate algebraic expressions containing variables. . in alphabetic order as you move from left to right and down the keyboard. Figure 1. The absolute value function is located in the MATH menu. When you press the MATH key. (-) Figure 1. 8 7 5 STO ALPHA B ENTER The results of these keystrokes are shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1.26 CHAPTER 1. To select the letter B. and PRB across the top row of the MATH menu. You Try It! Use the graphing calculator to evaluate |a − b| at a = −312 and b = −875. store −875 in the variable B with the following keystrokes. NUM. located in the upper left-hand corner of the calculator (see Figure 1. then the MATH key. EXAMPLE 12. Solution. Press the ENTER key to evaluate your expression. CPX. |a| − |b| = −563.10: Upper half of the TI84. Enter the expression abs(A)-abs(B) as shown in the third image in Figure 1. press the ALPHA key. Note that abs( is the ﬁrst entry on this menu. Use the graphing calculator to evaluate |a| − |b| at a = −312 and b = −875.11). then the APPS key. First store −312 in the variable A with the following keystrokes. To select the letter A. Now we need to enter the expression |a| − |b|. Use the ALPHA key as described above to enter the variables A and B and close the parentheses using the right parentheses key from the keyboard.10).11.11: Evaluate |a| − |b| at a = −312 and b = −875. Answer: 563 Thus. Use the ALPHA key to access these memory locations. (-) 3 1 2 STO ALPHA A ENTER Next. They are lettered A-Z and appear on the calculator case.11. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS The graphing calculator has memory locations available for “storing” values. press the ALPHA key. This is the absolute value function needed for this example. Use the right-arrow key to select the NUM submenu (see the second image in Figure 1.

−8 − 7(−3) 17.1. −6 − 5(4 − 6) 32. −(−5)3 5. −4 − 4(2)2 21. −12 + 6(−4) 2. −| − 42| 7. 5 − 5(5 − 6(6 − 4)) 42.2. −5 + 3(4)2 36. |6 − 15| − | − 17 − 11| 40. 8 − (5 − 2)3 + 6 38. 9 − (12 − 11)2 + 4 39. 4 − 3(3 − 5(7 − 2)) 31. −52 − 8(−8) 16. simplify the given expression. 11 + 11(7) 3. (−2)4 18. −4 + 5(−4)3 24. 12 + (8 − 3)3 − 6 35. simplify the given expression. (8 − 10)2 − (4 − 5)3 29. 3 + 3(−4)3 25. −(−50) 10. (10 − 8)2 − (7 − 5)3 28. −24/(−6)(−1) 8. ORDER OF OPERATIONS 27 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-18. 2 + 3(2)2 37. 48 ÷ 4(6) 14. 19. 9 − 3(2)2 20. −(−30) 11. −32 13. 4 − 6(4 − 7(8 − 5)) . 17 − 10|13 − 14| 22. 96 ÷ 6(4) 15. 8 + 5(−1 − 6) 26. 6 − 9(6 − 4(9 − 7)) 30. 9 + (9 − 6)3 − 5 34. 45/(−3)(3) 9. | − 18 − 19| − | − 3 − 12| 41. −5 − 5(−7 − 7) 33. 8 + 4(−5 − 5) 27. −| − 40| 6. −35 12. −(−2)5 4. 1. (−4)4 In Exercises 19-42. 18 − 3| − 20 − 5| 23.

Evaluate the expressions |a||b| and |ab| at a = −3 and b = 5. 3x2 − 3xy + 2y 2 at x = 4 and y = −3 45. −3x2 − 6x + 3 at x = 2 54. b = 25. 60. 61. a−b cd at a = −46. 3x + 3xy − 5y at x = 0 and y = 3 49. −7x2 + 9x + 5 at x = −7 55. evaluate the expression at the given values of x and y. 43. c = 23.28 CHAPTER 1. −5x2 + 5y 2 at x = −4 and y = 0 53. and d = 50. Evaluate a+b c−d at a = −42. and d = 43. −2x2 + 2y 2 at x = 1 and y = −2 52. and d = 11. −6x − 1 at x = 1 56. Evaluate a+b c−d at a = 38. 3x2 − 2y 2 at x = −3 and y = −2 58. c = 26. −12x + 10 at x = 2 47. 4x2 + 3xy + 4y 2 at x = −3 and y = 0 44. Evaluate the expressions a2 + b2 and (a + b)2 at a = 3 and b = 4. Do the expressions produce the same results? . and d = 2. b = 48. Evaluate the expressions a2 b2 and (ab)2 at a = 3 and b = 4. Do the expressions produce the same results? 67. Evaluate the expressions |a| + |b| and |a + b| at a = −3 and b = 5. −3x2 + 2y 2 at x = 2 and y = 2 59. b = 42. c = 5. Evaluate a2 + b 2 a+b at a = 27 and b = −30. c = 10. Evaluate 63. 10x + 7 at x = 9 57. −5x2 + 2xy − 4y 2 at x = 5 and y = 0 48. Do the expressions produce the same results? 66. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS In Exercises 43-58. b = 46. −8x + 9 at x = −9 46. 62. Evaluate 65. Do the expressions produce the same results? 68. a2 + b 2 a+b at a = −63 and b = 77. 2x2 + 6x − 5 at x = 6 2 2 51. 3x2 + 3x − 4 at x = 5 50. 64. Evaluate a−b cd at a = −7.

ﬁnd the area of the trapezoid. L = 8 centimeters. then entering the expression (A^2+B^2)/(A+B). ﬁnd the equivalent Fahrenheit temperature. and if the height is 22 yards. 144 − 400 29 73. If W = 2 centimeters. use a graphing calculator to evaluate the given expression. The kinetic energy (in joules) of an object having mass m (in kilograms) and velocity v (in meters per second) is given by the formula K= 1 mv 2 . The surface area of a cardboard box is given by the formula S = 2W H + 2LH + 2LW. a2 + b 2 at a = −76 and b = 77 by ﬁrst storing a+b −76 in the variable A and 77 in the variable B. The formula 9 C + 32 5 will change a Celsius temperature to a Fahrenheit temperature. 2 Given that the mass of the object is m = 7 kilograms and its velocity is v = 50 meters per second. . then entering the expression (A^2+B^2)/(A+B). 270 − 900 300 − 174 3000 − 952 72. 2 where b1 and b2 are the lengths of the parallel bases and h is the height of the trapezoid. ﬁnd the surface area of the box. respectively. where W and L are the width and length of the base of the box and H is its height. Use a graphing calculator to evaluate the expression 75. 78. 77. If the lengths of the bases are 21 yards and 11 yards. 69. The area of a trapezoid is given by the formula A= 1 (b1 + b2 ) h.2. Use a graphing calculator to evaluate the expression a2 + b 2 at a = −93 and b = 84 by ﬁrst storing a+b −93 in the variable A and 84 in the variable B. and H = 2 centimeters. ORDER OF OPERATIONS In Exercises 69-72.1. Given that the Celsius temperature is C = 60◦ C. −443 + 27(−414 − 22) 71. 74. calculate the kinetic energy of the object. −236 − 324(−576 + 57) 70. F = 76.

16 19. −5 33. 6 53. 32 5. 43 37. 1 63. 4 71. No. 7 23. −125 49. 12 17. −3 21. −324 25. Yes. −4 9. 31 35. −36 3. −27 27. −4 Answers 41. −7 57. −19 73. 72 15. 81 ❧ ❧ ❧ 47. 19 59.30 CHAPTER 1. 86 51. 140◦ F 77. −1 65. −543 61. −1745 75. 36 45. 24 69. 8750 joules . −40 7. −13 39. 67. 40 43. 50 11. −21 55. −243 13. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 167920 31. 29.

18) = 6. The Greatest Common Divisor. b) = 1. −12/1. where p and q are integers. Given two integers a and b. The letter Q is used to represent the set of rational numbers. q = 0 q Because −2/3. Take.3. the greatest common divisor of a and b is the largest integer that divides evenly (with no remainder) into both a and b. and −36/3 being a few. where p and q are integers. where the numerator and denominator are integers. Any number that can be expressed in the form p/q. A fraction a/b is said to be reduced to lowest terms if and only if GCD(a. is a rational number.” you are correct in your thinking. Any number that can be expressed as a fraction. is called a rational number. Rational Numbers. 40) = 8. A common technique used to reduce a fraction to lowest terms is to divide both numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor. 24/(−2). we deﬁne what is meant by the greatest common divisor of two integers. for example. GCD(12. Reduce 8/12 to lowest terms. each is an example of a rational number. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. the integer −12. and GCD(18. The notation GCD(a. Lowest Terms. That is: Q= p : p and q are integers. GCD(32. If you think you hear the word “fraction” when we say “rational number. There are a number of ways we can express −12 as a fraction with integer numerator and denominator. 4/5. and 123/(−12) have the form p/q.3 The Rational Numbers We begin with the deﬁnition of a rational number. For example. 27) = 9. Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms First. Reduce: −48/60 .1. We can now state when a fraction is reduced to lowest terms. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 31 1. q = 0. b) is used to represent the greatest common divisor of a and b. Every integer is also a rational number.

10 = 2 · 5 and 40 = 2 · 2 · 2 · 5. but 14 is not (its divisors are 1. 8 8÷4 = 12 12 ÷ 4 2 = 3 Answer: −4/5 Thus. Alternate solution: Use factor trees to express both numerator and denominator as a product of prime factors. 2. . 3. Simplify numerator and denominator. A natural number greater than one is prime if and only if its only divisors are one and itself. Simplify numerator and denominator. 12) = 4. EXAMPLE 2. and 5 are prime. Recall the deﬁnition of a prime number. and 14). 12) = 4. Prime Number. Now. replace the numerator and denominator with their prime factorizations. Divide numerator and denominator by GCD(8. 15.32 CHAPTER 1. Divide both numerator and denominator by 4. In like fashion. to reduce 10/40 to lowest terms. Divide numerator and denominator by 10. You Try It! Reduce 18/24 to lowest terms. 40) = 10. For example. Solution: Note that GCD(10. and 21 are not prime. 8/12 = 2/3. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Solution: Note that GCD(8. 10 2 5 2 4 2 2 40 10 5 Hence. 7. Reduce 10/40 to lowest terms. 7 is prime (its only divisors are 1 and 7). then cancel factors that are in common to both numerator and denominator. 2. 40) = 10. 10 10 ÷ 10 = 40 40 ÷ 10 = 1 4 Divide numerator and denominator by GCD(10. but 6.

like signs yield a positive answer.1. when necessary. Cancel common factors. Multiplication of Fractions. Of course. the resulting numerator or denominator is equal to one. This explains the 1 in the numerator when all factors cancel. Canceling both 2 and a 5 is equivalent to dividing both numerator and denominator by 10. A similar statement can be made about canceling the 5. to ﬁnd the product of a/b and c/d. When all of the factors cancel in either numerator or denominator. Simplify numerator and denominator. When we cancel a 2 from both the numerator and denominator. the deﬁnition. simply multiply numerators and multiply denominators. For example: 1 3 3 · = 2 4 8 and − 2 7 14 · =− 5 3 15 and − 5 1 · − 8 6 = 5 48 Like integer multiplication. Multiplying Fractions First. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 33 10 2·5 = 40 2·2·2·5 2 5 ¡·¡ = 2·2·2·5 ¡ ¡ 1 = 4 Prime factor numerator and denominator. then their product is deﬁned as follows: a c ac · = b d bd Thus. If a/b and c/d are two fractions. Simplify: − 14 10 · 20 21 Simplify: 27 8 − · − 9 20 . unlike signs yield a negative answer. remember to reduce your answer to lowest terms. When all factors cancel. Answer: 3/4 Example 2 demonstrates an important point. we’re actually dividing both numerator and denominator by 2.3. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3.

34 CHAPTER 1. Thus. (−14/20) · (10/21) = −1/3. Prime factor. 14 15 · − 8 9 = 2·7 3·5 · − 2·2·2 3·3 2 3 ¡·7 ¡·5 · − 2 3 ¡·2·2 ¡·3 35 12 Factor numerators and denominators. Cancel common factors. then cancel a factor in a numerator for an identical factor in a denominator. cancel common factors according to the following rule: “Cancel a factor in a numerator for an identical factor in a denominator. Simplify. then reduce to lowest terms. Cancellation Rule. you are left with a 1. Simplify: 14 15 · − 8 9 Solution: Factor numerators and denominators in place. then cancel common factors in the numerators for common factors in the denominators. − 14 10 140 · =− 20 21 420 2·2·5·7 2·2·3·5·7 2 2 5 7 ¡·¡·¡·¡ =− 2·2·3·5·7 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 1 =− 3 =− Answer: 6/5 Multiply numerators and denominators. Cancel a factor in a numerator for a common.” The rule is “cancel something on the top for something on the bottom. denominators. Thus. You Try It! Simplify: − 35 6 · − 45 14 EXAMPLE 4.” Thus. (15/8) · (−14/9) = −35/12. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Solution: Multiply numerators and denominators. = =− Answer: 1/3 Note that unlike signs yield a negative product. When multiplying fractions. an alternate approach to multiplying fractions is to factor numerators and denominators in place. Note that when all the factors cancel from the numerator. factor in a denominator. . Multiply numerators and.

10 12 35 35 − ÷ − =− · − Invert and multiply. 21 12 21 10 2·2·3 5·7 · − =− Prime factor. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 35 Dividing Fractions Every nonzero rational number has was it called a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal. dividing by c/d is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal d/c. simply invert the number (ﬂip it upside down).3. Simplify: − 10 35 ÷ − Simplify: 21 12 Solution: Invert and multiply. Note that to ﬁnd the reciprocal of a number. =− 3 7 2 5 ¡·¡ ¡·¡ 2 Multiply numerators and denominators. 4 27 − ÷ 9 81 . and: a· 1 =1 a Note that: 2· 1 =1 2 and 3 5 · =1 5 3 and − 4 7 · − 7 4 = 1. If a is any nonzero rational number. = 1 =2 Simplify.” You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. If a/b and c/d are two fractions. the reciprocal of 2 is 1/2.1. Now we can deﬁne the quotient of two fractions. and the reciprocal of −4/7 is −7/4. The Reciprocal. then factor in place and cancel common factors in a numerator for common factors in a denominator. then 1/a is called the multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of a. The above deﬁnition of division is summarized by the phrase “invert and multiply. then their quotient is deﬁned as follows: c a d a ÷ = · b d b c That is. Thus. the reciprocal of 3/5 is 5/3. 3·7 2·5 2·2·3 5·7 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ · − Cancel common factors. Division of Fractions.

If the fractions a/b and c/d do not share a common denominator. 5 3 3 5 2 3 =− · + · Make equivalent fraction with − + 8 12 8 3 12 2 a common denominator of 24. d). =− + 24 24 1 = Add: −9 + 10 = 1. Thus. placing the result over the common denominator. You Try It! Simplify: 5 1 − + 6 9 5 3 EXAMPLE 6. add the numerators and place the result over the common denominator. Addition of Fractions. the least common denominator for b and d. Note also that like signs yield a positive result. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Answer: −4/3 Note that when all the factors in a denominator cancel. 12) = 24. a 1 remains.36 CHAPTER 1. ﬁrst create equivalent fractions with a least common denominator. (−35/21) ÷ (−10/12) = 2. −3/8 + 5/12 = 1/24. In this case. If two fractions have a denominator in common. then add according to the rule above. Least Common Denominator. 10 9 Multiply numerators and denominators. In symbols: a b a+b + = c c c For example: 3 7 4 − + = 5 5 5 and − 4 7 + − 3 3 =− 11 3 and 4 5 + − 7 7 =− 1 7 If the fractions do not posses a common denominator. Adding Fractions First the deﬁnition. Simplify: − + 8 12 Solution: The least common denominator in this case is the smallest number divisible by both 8 and 12. We ﬁrst need to make equivalent fractions with a common denominator of 24. Answer: −13/18 . Thus. LCD(8. 24 Note how we add the numerators in the last step. written LCD(b. is deﬁned as the smallest number divisible by both b and d.

b = 2/3. Rules Guiding Order of Operations. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7.1. 2. and c = −3/4. moving left to right. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variables in the expression xy + yz with open parentheses. Perform all additions and subtractions in the order that they appear in the expression. 1. 3. y = −3/5. xy + yz = = 2 3 − 3 5 + + − 3 5 10 9 Replace variables with parentheses. −3/5 for y. Next.3. moving left to right. 4. If grouping symbols are nested. Solution: Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. When evaluating expressions. . Given a = −1/2. Evaluate all exponents that appear in the expression. Perform all multiplications and divisions in the order that they appear in the expression. Evaluate expressions contained in grouping symbols ﬁrst. substitute the given values of variables (2/3 for x. −3/5 for y. evaluate xy + yz. Substitute: 2/3 for x. evaluate the expression in the innermost pair of grouping symbols ﬁrst. and 10/9 for z) in the open parentheses. and 10/9 for z. proceed in the following order. evaluate the expression a + bc and simplify the result. and z = 10/9. Given x = 2/3. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 37 Order of Operations Rational numbers obey the same Rules Guiding Order of Operations as do the integers.

. − 3 5 − 3 5 Write −3/5 as a factor three times. and z = 10/9. evaluate x2 − y 2 . Thus. Reduce. then substitute −3/5 for x. EXAMPLE 9. Given x = −3/5. Solution: First.38 CHAPTER 1. −x3 = − ( ) =− − 3 3 Replace x with open parentheses. y = −3/5. Solution: Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variables in the expression a2 + 2ab − 3b2 with open parentheses. Given a = −4/3 and b = −3/2. given x = −3/5. The opposite of −27/125 is 27/125. Substitute −3/5 for x. evaluate a2 + 2ab − 3b2 . replace each occurrence of the variable x with open parentheses. You Try It! Given x = −3/4 and y = −4/5. 3 5 3 =− − 5 =− − 27 125 = Answer: 1/81 27 125 Hence. Multiply numerators and denominators. Add. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Use the Rules Guiding Order of Operations to simplify. Make equivalent fractions with a least common denominator. 6 30 + − 15 45 2 2 =− + − 5 3 2 5 2 3 =− · + − · 5 3 3 5 10 6 =− + − 15 15 16 =− 15 =− Answer: −1 Multiply. evaluate −x3 . if x = 2/3. The product of three negative fractions is negative. then xy + yz = −16/15 You Try It! Simplify: (−1/3)4 EXAMPLE 8. −x3 = 27/125.

then add. but for most calculations. it is capable of giving an exact answer. = 16 2 + 9 1 − 4 3 − 3 2 − 3 1 9 4 Next. the best we can hope for is an approximate answer. . 2 2 a2 + 2ab − 3b2 = = − 4 3 +2 2 −3 4 3 − 3 2 −3 − 3 2 2 +2 − Next.1. the calculator gives accurate results for operations involving fractions.” In a small number of situations. 16 24 27 + − 9 6 4 16 27 = +4− 9 4 = Make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. However. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 39 Next. if a = −4/3 and b = −3/2. evaluate the exponents: (−4/3)2 = 16/9 and (−3/2)2 = 9/4. 16 4 36 27 9 · +4· − · 9 4 36 4 9 64 144 243 = + − 36 36 36 35 =− 36 = Thus. then a2 + 2ab − 3b2 = −35/36 Answer: −31/400 Fractions on the Graphing Calculator We must always remember that the graphing calculator is an “approximating machine. perform the multiplications and reduce. as long as we don’t use fractions with denominators that are too large for the calculator to respond with an exact answer.3. substitute the given values of variables (−4/3 for a and −3/2 for b) in the open parentheses.

Thus.12 matches the correct answer of 7/6 found above. Use the graphing calculator to simplify each of the following expressions: (a) 2 1 + 3 2 (b) 2 5 · 3 7 (c) 3 1 ÷ 5 3 Solution: We enter each expression in turn. press the MATH button. then select 1: Frac (see the second image in Figure 1. Equivalent fractions with LCD.12. Note that the result shown in the third image in Figure 1. Hence: 2/3 × 5/7 = 2 × 5/7 3 10 = /7 3 10 1 = × 3 7 10 = 21 Divide: 2/3 = Multiply: 2 3 2 10 ×5= 3 3 Invert and multiply. Enter the expression 2/3+1/2 on your calculator. a) The Rules Guiding Order of Operations tell us that we must perform divisions before additions. moving from left to right. the expression 2/3 + 1/2 is equivalent to: 2/3 + 1/2 = 2 1 + 3 2 4 3 = + 6 6 7 = 6 Divide ﬁrst. b) The Rules Guiding Order of Operations tell us that there is no preference for division over multiplication. Figure 1.12) and press the ENTER key again. Multiply: 10 1 10 × = 3 7 21 . The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1. We must perform divisions and multiplications as they occur. Next. Add. or vice-versa.40 CHAPTER 1.12: Calculating 2/3 + 1/2. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS You Try It! Simplify using the graphing calculator: 4 8 − + 5 3 EXAMPLE 10. then press the ENTER key.

13 matches the correct answer of 10/21 found above. press the MATH button. Enter the expression 3/5/1/3 on your calculator. then press the ENTER key. 3 1 3 3 ÷ = × Invert and multiply. Multiply: 3 1 1 × = 5 3 5 .14 does not match the correct answer of 9/5 found above. Select 1: Frac from the MATH menu and press the ENTER key again. 3 7 21 Hence: 2 5 2/3 × 5/7 is equivalent to × 3 7 Enter the expression 2/3×5/7 on your calculator. What have we done wrong? If we follow the Rules Guiding Order of Operations exactly.3.13) and press the ENTER key again. Figure 1. then select 1: Frac (see the second image in Figure 1. then: 3/5/1/3 = 3 /1/3 5 3 = /3 5 3 1 = × 5 3 1 = 5 3 5 3 3 Divide: /1 = 5 5 Divide: 3/5 = Invert and multiply.13. the correct answer is 9/5. Note that the result in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1. then press the ENTER key. 5 3 5 1 9 = Multiply numerators and denominators. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 41 This is precisely the same result we get when we perform the following calculation.1. The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1.13: Calculating 2/3 × 1/2. Note that the result shown in the third image in Figure 1. We know we need to invert and multiply in this situation. c) This example demonstrates that we need a constant reminder of the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. Next. 5 So. 2 5 10 × = Multiply numerators and denominators.

then press the ENTER key. / is equivalent to ÷. However.14.42 CHAPTER 1. it also show that: 3/5/1/3 is not equivalent to 3 1 ÷ 5 3 We can cure the problem by using grouping symbols. (3/5)/(1/3) is equivalent to Hence: Figure 1. Note that the result in the second image in Figure 1. 3 1 ÷ 5 3 Enter the expression (3/5)/(1/3) on your calculator.14: Calculating (3/5)/(1/3). THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS This explains the answer found in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1. (3/5)/(1/3) = 3 1 / 5 3 3 1 = ÷ 5 3 Parentheses ﬁrst. Answer: 28/15 . Select 1: Frac from the MATH menu and press the ENTER key again.14 matches the correct answer of 9/5.

45 21 6. 5 12 19. 38 10 3. reduce the given fraction to lowest terms by dividing numerator and denominator by the their greatest common divisor. for each of the following problems. 133 In Exercises 13-18.1. 20 50 36 2. ﬁrst prime factor all numerators and denominators. 36 14 24 5. reduce the given fraction to lowest terms by prime factoring both numerator and denominator and cenceling common factors. − 16 19 · 8 6 14 7 · 4 17 15. − 21 36 · − 17 46 . 141 7. 20 18 · − 8 13 2 18 · − 16 5 18 19 · − 4 13 14 3 16. 153 170 198 8. 48 1. 13. − 18. − In Exercises 19-24. multiply numerators and denominators. − · − 2 6 17. 106 140 12. After canceling. − · − 6 49 20. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 43 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 144 188 9. then cancel. multiply numerators and denominators. for each of the following problems. then prime factor and cancel to reduce your answer to lowest terms. 171 144 159 11. 36 In Exercises 7-12.3. 10. 14. 4.

41. − + 7 8 33. 39. as indicated. 48. 47. − + 8 2 1 2 5 8 + 8 5 − 1 2 − 5 3 46. − 27 45 ÷ 28 23 13 7 29. − 22. 5 31. − − − 4 9 1 1 36. divide. add or subtract the fractions. 40. 43. − − 7 4 5 1 3 1 1 34. − 21 12 · 10 55 49 52 · 13 51 CHAPTER 1. − ÷ − 10 28 48 4 ÷ − 13 35 27. 42. and simplify your result. 3 9 + 2 2 − 3 4 7 5 2 3 − − 1 4 + − + − − 9 7 1 2 9 2 − − − 1 4 2 5 2 2 . − 1 3 − 5 7 9 2 + 2 3 − 6 7 5 7 45. − In Exercises 31-38.44 21. 25. − + 9 1 4 5 8 − 1 3 2 1 35. 5 50 ÷ − 39 58 4 31 ÷ − 25 5 60 34 ÷ 17 31 28. simplify the expression. Be sure your answer is reduced to lowest terms. − + 6 1 32. − 30. − − 9 4 38. 26. 24. − − − 2 8 8 37. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 54 55 · − 29 11 55 7 · − 13 49 23. In Exercises 25-30. 5 2 8 − − 9 2 5 8 7 1 − − 5 6 2 − 3 2 − 9 5 7 6 2 2 44. − + − 3 2 In Exercises 39-52.

51. 50. x3 at x = −1/2 64. and z = −5/9 71. y = 1/3. and c = −5/2 2 2 2 2 2 62. and c = −9/7 63. 2x2 − 2xy − 3y 2 at x = 3/2 and y = −3/4.1. and z = 2/3. . 57. In Exercises 53-70. x − yz at x = 2/3. Use the graphing calculator to reduce 2100/945 to lowest terms. ab+bc at a = −4/7. y = 1/6. (a + b)/(c + d) is equivalent to which of the following mathematical expressions? (a) a + b +d c a+b +d (c) c (b) a+b c+d b c+d (d) a + (d) a + 75. x2 + yz at x = 7/2. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 6 2 − 5 5 3 5 − 2 6 − − 4 9 1 3 2 3 − 3 2 − 8 7 1 3 − − 4 7 5 8 − − 9 8 1 8 45 49. and z = −3/5 67. 61. y = −5/4. 59. x−yz at x = −8/5. x2 at x = −3/2 65. 5x − 4xy − 3y at x = 1/5 and y = −4/3. xy −z at x = −1/3. (a + b)/c + d is equivalent to which of the following mathematical expressions? (a) a + b +d c a+b +d (c) c (b) a+b c+d b c+d 74. 52. −x4 at x = −9/7 69. ab+bc at a = −8/5. a + b/(c + d) is equivalent to which of the following mathematical expressions? (a) a + b +d c a+b +d (c) c (b) a+b c+d b c+d (d) a + (d) a + 72. and z = −5/3 70. −x2 at x = −8/3 68. −5x + 2y at x = 3/4 and y = −1/2. x + yz at x = −1/3. y = −1/3. and z = 1/3 55. and z = 5/2 54. 58. xy − z 2 at x = −1/2. −2x2 + 4y 2 at x = 4/3 and y = −3/2. 60. x + yz at x = 1/2.3. b = 7/5. a + b/c + d is equivalent to which of the following mathematical expressions? (a) a + b +d c a+b +d (c) c (b) a+b c+d b c+d 73. 56. and z = −8/5 66. b = 7/2. 53. x2 +yz at x = 1/2. y = 5/6. y = 7/8. y = 2/9. y = 7/4. 76. and z = 2/5. evaluate the expression at the given values. Use the graphing calculator to reduce 4125/1155 to lowest terms.

− 23. 21. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 79. 26 19 17. − 3 19. − 29. − 62 45 . 84 33 78. − 41. 2 45 13. − 39. 5. − 33. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 10 49 126 275 270 29 79 36 53 35 131 8 323 50 45. Use the graphing calculator to simplify 45 70 · . − 47. 3.46 CHAPTER 1. 55 77 80. 77. Use the graphing calculator to simplify 34 13 + . 43. − 49. 9. Use the graphing calculator to simplify − 35 28 ÷ − 33 44 . − 13 171 15. − 35. 7. − 27. − 37. Use the graphing calculator to simplify − 11 11 − − 84 36 . 3 11. 2 5 5 24 8 15 9 10 4 3 Answers 25. ❧ ❧ ❧ 580 39 930 289 98 65 7 12 11 9 1 36 76 45 109 90 31.

− 16 15 47 67. (a) 73. − 43 10 63.3. 16/15 2 59. − 5 61. − 16 57. THE RATIONAL NUMBERS 51. 81 16 71. −1/8 . − 53. (d) 75.1. − 5 42 73 12 65. −64/9 69. 25/7 77. 25/22 79. 43 3 37 55.

4 39 (b) 80 11 Solution: We perform two divisions.055 (b) 3. . However. Express each of the following decimals as fractions. 39/80 = 0. You Try It! Change 0. leaving a zero remainder. the remainders repeat in a pattern and the quotient also repeats in blocks of two. EXAMPLE 1. Vice-versa. count the number of digits after the decimal point and include an equal number of zeros in the denominator. To change a fraction into its decimal equivalent.4875 is called a terminating decimal. In some cases the process will terminate. providing a decimal representation that repeats itself in blocks. (a) 0. any terminating decimal can be expressed as a fraction. Hence. the one on the right to ﬁnd a decimal representation for 4/11. the division process terminates with a zero remainder. Reduce your answers to lowest terms.3636 . 4/11 = 0. Reduce to lowest terms. Change each of the following fractions into decimals. On the right. EXAMPLE 2.0000 32 0 7 00 6 40 600 560 400 400 0 0. the one on the left to change 39/80 to a decimal.36 Solution: In each case. (a) 0.45 to a fraction.4875 80)39.36. We can also use a repeating bar to write 4/11 = 0. the remainders will begin to repeat.428571 On the left.3636 11)4. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 1. in other cases. Hence. .4 Decimal Notation Every rational number can be expressed using decimal notation. The block under the repeating bar repeats itself indeﬁnitely. is called a repeating decimal.48 CHAPTER 1. You Try It! Change 24/7 to a decimal. You need only count the number of digits after the decimal point and use the same number of zeros in your denominator. divide the numerator of the fraction by its denominator.0000 33 70 66 40 33 70 66 4 Answer: 3. .

The set of real numbers includes every single number we will use in this textbook and course. DECIMAL NOTATION In example (a). there are two digits after the decimal point. In future courses you will learn a technique for changing any repeating decimal into an equivalent fraction. 0. 3. 0. so we place the number over 1000. 0. Adding and Subtracting Decimals When adding signed decimals.. When adding two decimal numbers. Indeed. which has two zeros after the one. Because this number neither repeats nor terminates. it cannot be expressed as a fraction. Irrational numbers.142857 = 1/7. use the same rules you learned to use when adding signed integers or fractions.4.42422422242222. so we place the number over 100. If a number cannot be expressed in the form p/q. where p and q are integers. there are three digits after the decimal point..36 is equivalent to the fraction 4/11.1. which neither terminates nor repeats. This number cannot be expressed using repeating bar notation because each iteration generates one additional 2. By including all of the rational and irrational numbers in one set.055 = 55 1000 11 = 200 In example (b). Hence. which has three zeros after the one. consider the decimal 0..42422422242222.3 = 1/3 and 0. q = 0.. For example. . add their magnitudes and preﬁx their common sign. Real numbers. not all decimals terminate or repeat. we form what is known as the set of real numbers. Sign rules for addition. the repeating decimal 0.36 = 336 100 84 = 25 49 Answer: 9/20 As we saw in Example 1. any repeating decimal can be written as a fraction. use the following rules: • To add two decimals with like signs. then the number is called an irrational number. is an example of an irrational number. For example.. However.

we ﬁrst subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger magnitude. ﬁrst we add the oppposite. subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger. 7.45.015) = −2. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS • To add two decimals with unlike signs. Then we note that we have like signs. we ﬁrst subtract the smaller magnitude from the larger magnitude.6 − 8.4 + 6.50 CHAPTER 1. 5. note that we have unlike signs.58 Answer: −41.95 = −1.32) = −2.300 +0.4 and (b) −7.47 EXAMPLE 4.13 Hence. we add the magnitudes and preﬁx the common sign. Hence. Simplify: (a) −5.0 = −14.9 − (−5. Hence.9 − (−5.0 In part (b).6 − 8.4 14.32 2.32) Solution: In part (a).4) +8.40 −6. then preﬁx the sign of the decimal number with the larger magnitude.45 1.315 In part (b).6 −5.90 −7. Simplify: (a) −2. 2. .9 + 5.3 + (−0.45 Answer: −4.3 + (−0.015) and (b) −8.4 = −5.47 EXAMPLE 3.” You Try It! Simplify: −22. Then we note that we have unlike signs.95 Solution: In part (a).0 and −7.015) = −2. then preﬁx the sign of the decimal number having the larger magnitude. Thus. −2. −5.32) = −7. note that we have like signs. we add the magnitudes and preﬁx the common sign.6 + 18.95 −8.3 + (−0. then preﬁx the sign of the decimal number with the larger magnitude. You Try It! Simplify: −22.315 2.315 and −8.4 + 6. ﬁrst we add the opposite.6 − 8.015 −2.32 −5.6 − 18.58. Thus. Subtraction still means “add the opposite.4 + 6.07 Hence.9 − (−5.95 = −1. 8.6 + (−8.4 = −14.58 = −2.

Divide the magnitudes. Thus. This sets the decimal point in the quotient. When dividing signed decimal numbers.96)(2.488 Answer: 292.1.488 Note that unlike signs yield a negative product.5)(−23. Move the decimal in the divisor to the end of the divisor.96)(2. ignore the signs and divide the magnitudes.4.4) (−1.50 Simplify: (−12. then count the number of digits to the right of the decimal point in each factor.76/3.392 ÷ (−0. use the following rules: • Like signs give a positive result. Multiplication of decimal numbers is fairly straightforward.8) Solution: Multiply the magnitudes. we must place a total of three digits to the right of the decimal point in the product. ignoring the decimal points. 1. Sign Rules for multiplication and division.36) Solution.96 ×2. First multiply the magnitudes of the numbers. Simplify: (−1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 5.8 1 568 3 92 5.8) = −5. DECIMAL NOTATION 51 Multiplication and Division of Decimals The sign rules for decimal multiplication and division are the same as the sign rules used for integers and fractions. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. Push the decimal point in the divisor to the end of the divisor. Simplify: −5. Simplify: −4. When multiplying or dividing two decimal numbers. the second has one digit to the right of the decimal point. Place the decimal point in the product so that the number of digits to the right of the decimal points equals the sum of number of digits to the right of the decimal point in each factor.2 . The ﬁrst decimal number has two digits to the right of the decimal point. • Unlike signs give a negative result. Move the decimal in the dividend an equal number of places (two places) to the right. then move the decimal point in the dividend an equal number of spaces.

Hence. If grouping symbols are nested. When evaluating expressions. 12. then divide. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 0. Next. Evaluate expressions contained in grouping symbols ﬁrst. Perform all additions and subtractions in the order that they appear in the expression. Evaluate all exponents that appear in the expression.36 )4. proceed in the following order.12.36) = 12.2 36 79 72 72 72 0 Answer: −1. evaluate −x2 . evaluate the expression in the innermost pair of grouping symbols ﬁrst. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variable x in the expression −x2 with open parentheses. −4.2. Rules Guiding Order of Operations. Solution: Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. Order of Operations Decimal numbers obey the same Rules Guiding Order of Operations as do the integers and fractions. moving left to right.392 ÷ (−0. 4.2 36)439. .52 CHAPTER 1. You Try It! Given y = −0.39 2 Place the decimal point in the quotient directly above the new position of the decimal point in the dividend. 2.8 Like signs yield a positive result. 1. Perform all multiplications and divisions in the order that they appear in the expression. 3. evaluate: −y 4 EXAMPLE 7.2. moving left to right. Given x = −0.

02. Solution: Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions.4x = 1. Solution: Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions.4(−0.108 − (−1. then we negate second.2y ) Replace x with parentheses. You Try It! EXAMPLE 8. Add the opposite. Substitute −0.12 for x in the open parentheses. Next. evaluate: −2. Answer: −0.2(0. then −x2 = −0.4( 2 Given y = −0.3) = 1.3) = −1. DECIMAL NOTATION substitute −0.2 2 5 Given y = −3/4.4.2(0. Substitute −0. if x = −0.12 for x. Given x = 2/5. evaluate: −1.108 + 1.3 for x.3y + 7 +5 +5 Replace x with open parentheses.2 = −3.3 for x in the open parentheses.4x with open parentheses. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variable x in the expression 1. substitute −0.128.108 and 3.12)2 = 0.15.2x2 − 3.4x. −3.09.4(−0. Exponent: (−0.02) = 0.12) = −(0. −x2 = − ( ) 2 2 53 Replace x with open parentheses.3)2 = 0. Thus. evaluate −3.3) − 3. We saw earlier that we can change a fraction to a decimal by dividing. . Substitute 2/5 for x.4(−0.0144.0144) = −0. Given x = −0. evaluate 1.02 = 1. if x = −0.4y 2 + 2.0016 = − (−0. then 1. 1. then simplify.09) = 0.0144 Negate.3615 = 1.2( )2 − 3.2x2 − 3. Next.4x = 1. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variable x in the expression −3.128 Thus. Answer: −0. then simplify.2x + 5 = −3.2x2 − 3. Simplify.1.12.2x + 5 with open parentheses.2x + 5. You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. Multiply: 1. Exponent: (−0.0144 Note that we square ﬁrst.09) − 3.2x2 − 3. substitute 2/5 for x in the open parentheses.3) = 0.3.2(−0.3.

25 with −1/4. ﬁrst replace all occurrences of variable y in the expression −(3/5)y + 4 with open parentheses.2(0.25) + 4 5 Replace y with open parentheses. 5 Solution: Following Tips for Evaluating Algebraic Expressions. Add.25. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS One approach is to change 2/5 to a decimal by dividing the numerator by the denominator. Given y = −0. As we saw in Example 2. The choice of the power of ten should match the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. Thus. Substitute −0.4) = −1.54 CHAPTER 1.4. evaluate − y + 4.28 + 5 = 3.4. =− = 3 5 − 1 4 +4 Replace −0. if x = 2/5.28 + 5 = 3.25 = −25/100. Place 25 over 100 to determine that −0. 3 3 )+4 − y+4=− ( 5 5 3 = − (−0. Thus. if y = −0.72. Multiply: − 3 5 − 1 4 = 3 . we can easily change a terminating decimal into a fraction by placing the number (without the decimal point) over the proper power of ten. Answer: 133/25 Thus.25 = −1/4. Multiply: −3.72. Next.28.725 Replace 2/5 with 0.2x + 5 = 3.25. Add: −1. 20 3 +4 20 3 80 = + 20 20 83 = 20 Make equivalent fractions with LCD.72 Answer: 8.411 = You Try It! Given z = −0. 0.4. . substitute −0.25 for y. then −3.2(0. then −(3/5)y + 4 = 83/20.25 for y in the open parentheses. 2/5 = 0. For example: 411 311 151111 and 3. or after reduction. = −3.11 = and 15.4) + 5 = −1. evaluate: 4 5− z 5 3 EXAMPLE 10.1111 = 1000 100 10000 Note that the number of zeros in each denominator matches the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. −0.

1.15. To round a number to a particular place. (-) 3 . Trailing zeros to the right of the decimal point may be deleted. b) If the test digit is less than 5.13. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate 125x3 −17. 5 X. Rules for rounding.8 at x = −3. 2.θ.5x+44.462125. Test digit −3733. Mark the digit in the place to the immediate right of the rounding digit. Thus. follow these steps: 1. then replace all digits to the right of the rounding digit with zeros.n + 4 ∧ 4 3 .T. We now need to round this answer to the nearest tenth. enter the expression 125x3 − 17. (-) 1 2 × 5 × X. then replace all digits to the right of the rounding digit with zeros. Solution.θ.n ENTER The result is shown in the second image in Figure 1.5x + 44. the answer is approximately −3733.T.012.8 with the following keystrokes. a) If the test digit is greater than or equal to 5. First. Round to the nearest hundredth. store −3. The digit in this place is called the rounding digit. Mark the place you wish to round to. Trailing zeros to the right of the decimal point may be deleted.n ENTER Evaluate x3 − 3x at x = −1. This is called the test digit.15.θ. Round your answer to the nearest tenth. You Try It! EXAMPLE 11.T. Mark the rounding digit in the tenths place and the test digit to its immediate right. DECIMAL NOTATION 55 Rounding Using the Graphing Calculator Here is the algorithm for rounding a decimal number to a particular place. keep the rounding digit the same. Next. 1 3 STO X. The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 1.4. − 8 1 7 .13 in the variable X with the following keystrokes. 4 6 2125 Rounding digit . add 1 to the rounding digit.

This does not change our answer’s value.15: Evaluate 125x3 − 17. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Figure 1. add 1 to the rounding digit.8 ≈ −3733. −3733.500000 Delete the trailing zeros from end of the fractional part of a decimal. then to the nearest tenth: 125x3 − 17.462125 ≈ −3733. then replace all digits to the right of the rounding digit with zeros. if x = −3.13.56 CHAPTER 1.13.5 Answer: 2.8 at x = −3.0 . Because the test digit is greater than or equal to 5.5x + 44.5 Therefore.462125 ≈ −3733.5x + 44. −3733.

9) 9.2378 ÷ (−0.01) 31. 8.395 ÷ (−0.9) 32. (5.09) 27.9 − (−15. −0. 9. 33.05 − 13. (−7. −7.8 − 6. 2.4 − (−6.4508 ÷ 0.04)| 38. −1.1)3 40. 0.4 − 1.6) 26.761 − (−1. 7.93 11. simplify the given expression. (−7.5 − 16. simplify the given expression.6)(1.3(6.9 23. (−8. 8. 1. (−5. (−8. −24.6) 16. −2 − 0.1)(−4.49 14. −2.3) 25.55| − | − 16.1 + 2.2 + (−2) 3.29) 15. −2.43)(0.9)(0. −7.08 ÷ 2.46) 47. (−20. (−1.49 6.3(−5.58 − (−4.64)(4.5) 22.82 + 75.6 + (−10.4. |18.9) 20.2 + (17.24) 18.2 − (−3.7) 5.6) 4. (−4.174 − (−7.13 + 23.1)(−2.5)| 39. 8.49 10.79| 37. 1.8 24. 7.5 − (−1.6) 17. 19.7)2 45.05) 8.9 − 1.8)(−1.04)(−0.8)2 44. 9.16) 46.22 − 8.67)(6.4)2 43.86 − 9 7.1 − 14. 4. 5. −0.4| − | − 15.4 + (−41.8 + 3. (−98. | − 17. −4.835 + (−8. −8.49 + | − 6.5)(8. −1. (86.77) 48.3 − (−6.5) 29.1 + 3.7)(8.42 ÷ (−8.1) 30.1. 61.36) 35.7 − (−8.911 ÷ 4.53) .759) 2.9(3. −30.1) In Exercises 33-60.42)(−3.6)(−1.9) 21.87) 19.8)3 41.184 ÷ (−0. −4.2 − (−7) 28.5 13. DECIMAL NOTATION 57 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-33.3) − (−1.41 ÷ (−9. −3.3 + | − 13. −50. 16.9)(−0.8) − (1.1)2 42.74) 34. (46.2)(−0.7(5. −5. (−1. (5.1 − (−17.205) 12.7)| 36.9)(−0.

Evaluate a − b2 at a = −2. 73.06 − (−1. 79.45.37 − | − 8.35x − 1.67. 7.55. Evaluate (a + b)/c − d at a = −74. Evaluate a + bc at a = 4. c = 1. c = −11.03.36. Evaluate |a − b| − |c − d| at a = 1.9 and b = −5.6.86 Round your answer to the nearest hundredth.31. 74.4.2. Evaluate a − b3 at a = −8. and d = 5. 80.2 − (−4.2)/5. 65.13. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate −4. 66.23 Round your answer to the nearest hundredth.1.4x − 1. 7. −18. 64. Evaluate a+|b−c| at a = −19. Evaluate a−|b| at a = −4.3 and b = −6.3 − 5.5 at x = 2. b = −5.3.41) 58.9 − 7. Evaluate a + b/(c + d) at a = 4.07.27 Round your answer to the nearest thousandth.1 − 4. −8.0 + 2. (8.8 − (−4. and c = −3. b = 8. and d = 7. 16. 75.58 49.7| 54. 77. 62.8 + 0. Evaluate a − bc2 at a = −3. and c = −7.1 − | − 8. −2. 68.8)/5. b = 54.41.97| 56. Evaluate ab − c2 at a = −2. and c = 17. 67.5/(−1.5)2 60. .3. and c = 1.3) 51.5 − 1. Evaluate a + (b − c) at a = 12.42.58 − 17.4x2 − 3.25 Round your answer to the nearest tenth. Evaluate a − |b − c| at a = −8. and c = −15.6.37) 59. 69.09.73.1. 76.5.2 + 7.4. −2.4| 57. 72.5.21. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate −18. Evaluate a − bc at a = 4. b = 3.2x3 at x = 1.6. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate 3.9.5) 50. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate 19.3)2 61.8.14| CHAPTER 1.1. 78.6 + 8. 7.29 Round your answer to the nearest thousandth.6 52.24 − | − 18.5 − 19. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate 1. c = 8.6 + 4.7x2 − 3.8 − |4.74 − (0.7. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 55.7x at x = 1. 70.7 at x = −12. Use your graphing calculator to evaluate 2. b = 5. b = −13. −4. b = −17.5. (35.8. and d = 4. b = 19.4 53.3/(−7. b = −8.4x3 − 7.23 Round your answer to the nearest tenth.5.2x + 4.2x − 18.62.3 + 1.2.7. 63.37.4. and c = −8.1 − 4.9 and b = −2.2x2 at x = −1. 4. b = 3.2 at x = 2. b = 5.5 − 4. 71.32.91. and c = −5. Evaluate a − (b − c) at a = −7.5 + 34. and c = −19.

−9. −7. −8.79 21. 35.57 75.7 71.449 49.54 33.72 65.6 53.014 35. 12. −56.69 31. −24.45 61. DECIMAL NOTATION 59 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 5.4. −8.25 79.92 15. −2. −13. −23. 16. −0.31 37. −22. 2. −13. 21. 34.78 23.805 13. 9. 0.4 77.1 19.49 7.2 29.41 39. 12. −0.83 69. −4. −4.405 67. 29. −11.594 3.06 9.57 59. 12. −21. 23.112 17.44 55.06 63. −164.5 51.61 47.6 25. −10. −0.1 5.1. −32.316 45. 16.424 27.106 43.96 73. 5.991 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 41.948 . 37.36 11.34 57. −2. −8. 1.

ﬁrst multiplying −2 and −4. For example: −2(−4t) = 8t and 2(−5z 2 ) = −10z 2 and − 3(4u3 ) = −12u3 . Simplify: −2(−4xy) Solution: Currently. and c be any numbers. ﬁrst multiplying −3 and 4. However. b. −3(4y) = (−3 · 4)y = −12y Answer: 6x Thus. −3(4y) = −12y. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 1. Simplify: −3(4y) Solution: Currently. we can move quicker if we perform the regrouping mentally. Let a. −2(−4xy) = (−2 · (−4))xy = 8xy Answer: 24u2 Thus. You Try It! Simplify: 2(3x) EXAMPLE 1. Multiply: −3 · 4 = −12 Let’s look at another example. −2(−4xy) = 8xy. the grouping −2(−4xy) demands that we ﬁrst multiply −4 and xy. Associative Property of Multiplication. then simply write down the answer. The associative property of multiplication.60 CHAPTER 1. The associative property of multiplication. the grouping −3(4y) demands that we ﬁrst multiply 4 and y. Multiply: −2 · (−4) = 8 In practice. we can use the associative property of multiplication to regroup. Then: a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c The associative property of multiplication is useful in a number of situations. You Try It! Simplify: −3(−8u2 ) EXAMPLE 2.5 Algebraic Expressions The associative property of multiplication is valid for all numbers. However. we can use the associative property of multiplication to regroup.

You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. This example demonstrates an extremely important property of numbers called the distributive property. 2 · (3 + 5) = 2 · 8 = 16 Add: 3 + 5 = 8 Multiply: 2 · 8 = 16 Alternatively. Let a. namely 16. Then simplify. Expand: −3(2z − 7) .5. we can instead distribute the 2 times each term in the parentheses. Consider the expression 2 · (3 + 5). Multiply: 2(3x) = 6x and 2(7) = 14 Answer: 10y + 35 Expand: 5(2y + 7) Multiplication is also distributive with respect to subtraction. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. That is. 2 · (3 + 5) = 2 · 3 + 2 · 5 = 6 + 10 = 16 Distribute the 2. Solution: First distribute the 2 times each term in the parentheses. multiplication is distributive with respect to addition. The Distributive Property. Then we add the results. The Rules Guiding Order of Operations require that we ﬁrst simplify the expression inside the parentheses. Use the distributive property to expand 2(3x + 7).1. b. 2(3x + 7) = 2(3x) + 2(7) = 6x + 14 Thus. Use the distributive property. 2(3x + 7) = 6x + 14. we will ﬁrst multiply the 3 by 2. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 61 The Distributive Property We now discuss a property that couples addition and multiplication. Then: a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c That is. Multiply: 2 · 3 = 6 and 2 · 5 = 10 Add: 6 + 10 = 16 Note that both methods produce the same result. Use the distributive property to expand −2(5y − 6). then multiply the 5 by 2. and c be any numbers.

then several steps later we were ﬁnished. applied the distributive property. Multiply: −2(5y) = −10y and (−2)(−6) = 12 Speeding Things Up a Bit Some might prefer to “take their time. if you understand that subtraction is really the same as adding the opposite.62 CHAPTER 1. we simply think as follows: “−3(−2x) = 6x. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Solution: Change to addition by adding the opposite. −3(5y) = −15y. You Try It! Expand: −3(−2a + 3b − 7) EXAMPLE 5. Use the distributive property. −2(5y − 6) = −10y + 12. In Example 4. then the result is immediate. −2(5y − 6) = −2(5y + (−6)) = −2(5y) + (−2)(−6) = −10y + 12 Answer: −6z + 21 Thus. only this time think “multiply −2 times 5y. If you look at the expression −2(5y − 6) from Example 4 again. Use the distributive property to expand −5(−2a − 5b + 8). and if you are willing to do a few steps in your head. Add the opposite. we changed the subtraction to addition. and −3(−12) = 36. Use the distributive property to expand −3(−2x + 5y − 12). and −5(8) = −40.” This sort of thinking allows us to write down the answer immediately without any additional steps. Answer: 6a − 9b + 21 −3(−2x + 5y − 12) = 6x − 15y + 36 You Try It! Expand: −4(−x − 2y − 7) EXAMPLE 6. you should be able to simply write down the answer immediately following the given problem.” using the technique shown in Examples 3 and 4 until they feel “ready” to move more quickly. we simply think as follows: “−5(−2a) = 10a. then multiply −2 times −6. −2(5y − 6) = −10y + 12 Let’s try this “speeding it up” technique in a couple more examples. then apply the distributive property. −5(−5b) = 25b. However.” This sort of thinking allows us to write down the answer immediately without any additional steps. Answer: 4x + 8y + 28 −5(−2a − 5b + 8) = 10a + 25b − 40 . Solution: To distribute the −5. Solution: To distribute the −3.

negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. then: (−1)a = −a This means that if we negate an expression. = −7x + 8y + 10 Thus. Expand −(7x − 8y − 10). Answer: a + 2b − 11 While being mathematically precise. we can simply “distribute the minus sign” and write: −(7x − 8y − 10) = −7x + 8y + 10 In similar fashion. −(7x − 8y − 10) = −7x + 8y + 10.1. If a is any number.5. Multiply. −(−3a + 5b − c) = 3a − 5b + c and −(−3x − 8y + 11) = 3x + 8y − 11. −(7x − 8y − 10) = −1(7x − 8y − 10) Negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1 Expand: −(−a − 2b + 11) = −1(7x + (−8y) + (−10)) Add the opposite. Once we understand this. it is equivalent to multiplying the expression by −1. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 63 Distributing a Negative Sign Recall that negating a number is equivalent to multiplying the number by −1. Then we can change subtraction to addition by “adding the opposite” and use the distributive property to ﬁnish the expansion. Solution: First. the technique of Example 7 can be simpliﬁed by noting that negating an expression surrounded by parentheses simply changes the sign of each term inside the parentheses to the opposite sign. Multiplicative Property of Minus One. = −1(7x) + (−1)(−8y) + (−1)(−10) Distribute the −1. .

a(b + c) = ab + ac However. to “unmultiply” or factor an expression. the distributive property can also be used in reverse. Simplify: 7 + 5 = 12 You Try It! Simplify: −5z 3 + 9z 3 EXAMPLE 9.” Examples 8 and 9 also suggest a possible shortcut for combining like terms. 7x + 5x = (7 + 5)x = 12x Answer: 11y Thus. . You Try It! Simplify: 3y + 8y EXAMPLE 8. Factor out an x using the distributive property. Factor out an a2 using the distributive property. Simplify: −8a2 + 5a2 Solution: Use the distributive property to factor out the common factor a2 from each term. −8a2 + 5a2 = (−8 + 5)a2 = −3a2 Answer: 4z 3 Thus. Simplify: −8 + 5 = −3 Examples 8 and 9 combine what are known as “like terms. then simplify the result. ac + bc = (a + b)c We can use this latter technique to combine like terms. −8a2 + 5a2 = −3a2 . Thus. we can start with the expression ab + ac and “factor out” the common factor a as follows: ab + ac = a(b + c) You can also factor out the common factor on the right. Simplify: 7x + 5x Solution: Use the distributive property to factor out the common factor x from each term.64 CHAPTER 1. then simplify the result. 7x + 5x = 12x. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Combining Like Terms We can use the distributive property to distribute a number times a sum.

They contain the same variables. Answer: −11xy Simplify: −3xy − 8xy You Try It! EXAMPLE 12. Two terms are called like terms if they have identical variable parts. Thus: −8w2 + 17w2 = 9w2 Add the coeﬃcients and repeat the variable part. −3st2 and 4s2 t are not like terms. Simplify: −8w2 + 17w2 Solution: These are like terms. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 65 Like Terms. we get −13. 2x2 y and 11x2 y are like terms because they contain identical variables raised to the same exponents. Thus: −4uv − 9uv = −13uv Add the coeﬃcients and repeat the variable part. but the variables are not raised to the same exponents. which means that the terms must contain the same variables raised to the same exponents. For example. If we add the coeﬃcients −8 and 17. factoring out the common factor x2 y. a much quicker approach is simply to add the coeﬃcients of the like terms. we get 9. That is. Simplify: −4uv − 9uv Solution: These are like terms. On the other hand. so: 2x2 y + 11x2 y = 13x2 y This is the procedure we will follow from now on. The numbers 2 and 11 are called the coeﬃcients of the like terms. 2 + 11 = 13. Simplify: −3x2 y + 2xy 2 Simplify: 5ab + 11bc . 2x2 y + 11x2 y = (2 + 11)x2 y = 13x2 y However. keeping the same variable part.5. You Try It! EXAMPLE 10. Consider the like terms 2x2 y and 11x2 y.1. Answer: −11ab Simplify: 4ab − 15ab You Try It! EXAMPLE 11. If we add −4 and −9. We can use the distributive property to combine these like terms as we did in Examples 8 and 9.

That is. Order of Operations Now that we know how to combine like terms. we want to group together the like terms and combine them. They do not have the same variable parts. then combine line terms. simply combining like terms mentally. In Example 13.66 CHAPTER 1. let’s tackle some more complicated expressions that require the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. evaluate the expression in the innermost pair of grouping symbols ﬁrst. When evaluating expressions. Answer: 5ab + 11bc −3x2 y + 2xy 2 Unlike terms. 1. proceed in the following order. You Try It! Simplify: −3z 2 + 4z − 8z 2 − 9z EXAMPLE 13. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS Solution: These are not like terms. Evaluate expressions contained in grouping symbols ﬁrst. Simplify: −8u − 4v − 12u + 9v Solution: Use the associative and commutative property of addition to change the order and regroup. Combine like terms. grouping and combining terms mentally. If grouping symbols are nested. You may skip the reordering and regrouping step if you wish. Already simpliﬁed. Consequently. They do have the same variables. it is entirely possible to order your work as follows: Answer: −11z 2 − 5z −8u − 4v − 12u + 9v = −20u + 5v Combine like terms. . = −20u + 5v Note that −8u − 12u = −20u and −4v + 9v = 5v. −8u − 4v − 12u + 9v = (−8u − 12u) + (−4v + 9v) Reorder and regroup. In that case. Sometimes we have more than just a single pair of like terms. but the variables are not raised to the same exponents. Rules Guiding Order of Operations. the “Alternate solution” allows us to move more quickly and will be the technique we follow from here on. this expression is already simpliﬁed as much as possible. Alternate solution.

then combine like terms.1. Simplify: −2(3x − 4y) − (5x − 2y) Solution: Use the distributive property to multiply −2 times 3x − 4y. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 67 2. moving left to right. combine like terms. Perform all additions and subtractions in the order that they appear in the expression. Simplify: 4(−3a + 2b) − 3(4a − 5b) Solution: Use the distributive property to distribute the 4 and the −3. 4(−3a + 2b) − 3(4a − 5b) = −12a + 8b − 12a + 15b = −24a + 23b Note that −12a − 12a = −24a and 8b + 15b = 23b. After that.5. Simplify: −2(x2 y − 3xy 2 ) − 4(−x2 y + 3xy 2 ) Solution: Use the distributive property to multiply −2 times x y − 3xy and −4 times −x2 y + 3xy 2 . combine like terms. You Try It! EXAMPLE 14. Distribute. Evaluate all exponents that appear in the expression. Combine like terms: Answer: −4u + 2v Simplify: −3(u + v) − (u − 5v) You Try It! EXAMPLE 16. Answer: 4x − 15 Simplify: −2x − 3(5 − 2x) You Try It! EXAMPLE 15. then distribute the minus sign times each term of the expression 5x− 2y. −2(x2 y − 3xy 2 ) − 4(−x2 y + 3xy 2 ) = −2x2 y + 6xy 2 + 4x2 y − 12xy 2 = 2x2 y − 6xy 2 Note that −2x2 y + 4x2 y = 2x2 y and 6xy 2 − 12xy 2 = −6xy 2 . Distribute. 4. −2(3x − 4y) − (5x − 2y) = −6x + 8y − 5x + 2y = −11x + 10y Note that −6x − 5x = −11x and 8y + 2y = 10y. 3. Perform all multiplications and divisions in the order that they appear in the expression. Combine like terms. Answer: 5u2 v − 12uv 2 2 2 Simplify: 8u2 v − 3(u2 v + 4uv 2 ) . After that. moving left to right.

we have the expression −2x − 2[−2x − 2]. we again multiply ﬁrst. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS When grouping symbols are nested. expanding −2(2x + 2) and combining like terms. Simplify: −2x − 2 (−2x − 2 [−2x − 2]) Solution: Inside the parentheses. expanding −2[−2x − 2] and combining like terms. = −2x − 4x − 4 = −6x − 4 Answer: −5x − 8 .68 CHAPTER 1. You Try It! Simplify: x − 2[−x + 4(x + 1)] EXAMPLE 17. The Rules Guiding Order of Operations dictate that we should multiply ﬁrst. evaluate the expression inside the innermost pair of grouping symbols ﬁrst. −2x − 2 (−2x − 2 [−2x − 2]) = −2x − 2 (−2x + 4x + 2) = −2x − 2 (2x + 2) In the remaining expression.

−6(−y + 9) 10. −8(4u2 − 6v 2 ) 16. −19x + 17x − 17x 20. No work. 27. −16x2 y + 7y 3 − 12y 3 − 12x2 y 34.1. use the associative property of multiplication to simplify the expression. 9 − 17m − m + 7 28. 8(5xy) 5. −18q + 12 − 8 − 19q 33. 19q + 5q In Exercises 27-38. −11y 3 − 6y 3 23. −(3u − 3v − 9) 15. simplify each of the following expressions by rearranging and combining like terms mentally. Note: You must show the regrouping step using the associative property on your homewwork. 4x3 − 8x3 + 16x3 25. 9y 2 x + 13y 2 x − 3y 2 x 24. combine like terms by ﬁrst using the distributive property to factor out the common variable part. −3(6a) 2. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 69 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 4(3x − 7y) 8. use the distributive property to expand the given expression. 7. −6(8z) In Exercises 7-18. −10(2y) 3. 6(−10y + 3) 13. −5m − 16 + 5 − 20m 32. 5(−9w + 6) 11. 14y 3 − 11y 2 x + 11y 3 + 10y 2 x . 15m + 14m 26. −9(6ab) 4. −4(5a + 2b) 9. 14x3 − 10x3 22. 11n − 3n − 18n 21. −(7u − 8v − 5) In Exercises 19-26. Note: This means write down the problem. 10x3 + 4y 3 − 13y 3 − 14x3 30. −5(8x − 9y) 17. then write down the answer. 19. −(−3u − 6v + 8) 14. −9(s + 9) 12. −6y − 3x + 4y + 3x 2 3 2 3 31. −(7u + 10v + 8) 18. 1. −11 + 20x + 16x − 14 29.5. −7(3x2 ) 6. and then simplifying. Note: You must show the factoring step on your homework.

8x + 6(3x + 7[−9x + 5]) ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 14 − 16y − 10 − 13y 38. −9s − 5 − 10s + 15 CHAPTER 1. 3(−9n + 10) + 6(−7n + 8) 47. 4(−7y 2 − 9x2 y) − 6(−5x2 y − 5y 2 ) 54. then combine like terms mentally. 12x − 28y 9. −4x − 4 − (10x − 5) 48. −8x − 5(2x − 3[−4x + 9]) 64. 5 − (−10q + 3) 41. 6s − 7 − (2 − 4s) 56. −21x2 7. −18a 3. −9s − 81 13. −19x .70 35. 6x − 4(−3x + 2[5x − 7]) 62. 2(3 − 7x) + (−7x + 9) 45. −8(−8y + 4x ) − 7(3y + x ) 43. use the distributive property to simplify the given expression. −7u − 10v − 8 19. 6(−3s + 7) − (4 − 2s) 53. 18 + 10x + 3 − 18x In Exercises 39-58. 3u + 6v − 8 15. 8y + 9 − (−8y + 8) 2 3 2 3 49. use the distributive property to expand the expression. 6y − 54 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 11. 59. −9x + 2(5x + 6[−8x − 3]) 61. THE ARITHMETIC OF NUMBERS 37. 10 − (6 − 4m) 51. −8(−5y − 8) − 7(−2 + 9y) 52. 4x − 9 − (−6 + 5x) 57. 2x + 4(5x − 7[8x + 9]) 63. −6(x3 + 3y 2 x) + 8(−y 2 x − 9x3 ) 55. −7(6 + 2p) + 5(5 − 5p) In Exercises 59-64. 4(−10n + 5) − 7(7n − 9) 46. −7 − (5 + 3x) 50. −14r + 16 − 7r − 17 36. 9(9 − 10r) + (−8 − 2r) 58. 2(10 − 6p) + 10(−2p + 5) 44. −7x + 7(2x − 5[8x + 5]) 60. −54ab 5. −(9y 2 + 2x2 ) − 8(5y 2 − 6x2 ) 42. 3 − (−5y + 1) 40. −32u2 + 48v 2 17. 39.

16 − 18m 29. −273x − 175 61. −14x + 1 49. −22x + 56 63. −25m − 11 33. 2y 2 − 6x2 y 55. 70 − 32p 45. −23y + 78 53. 73 − 92r 59. −21r − 1 37. −89n + 83 47. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 21. −28x2 y − 5y 3 35. 4x3 23. 10s − 9 57. 29m 27. −49y 2 + 46x2 43. 2 + 5y 41.5. 4 − 29y 39. 19y 2 x 25. −12 − 3x 51. −2y 2 31. −78x + 135 71 .1.

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÷. al-Khwarizmi wrote the book Al-Kitab al-mukhtasar ti Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala. In fact. His book described the rules of “Completion and Reduction” to make it easier to do arithmetic computations needed in human business interactions. a problem might read “Sixteen added to an unknown number is ﬁfty-two. Another pair of inverse operations is multiplication and division.Chapter 2 Solving Linear Equations and Inequalities In this chapter. the word “algebra” is based on the word al-Jabr from the text title. In 9th century AD. mathematicians began writing out equations symbolically as we do today using the symbols +. translated as The Compendious Book on Calculation by Restoration and Reduction. −. ×. We will also be solving inequalities which may have an inﬁnite set of answers that can be expressed in three ways: by graphing on a number line. Humans have been solving problems of this type for thousands of years. In the 1600-1700’s. −. We will be solving equations which can be solved in logical steps by using inverse operations which “undo” each other. and ÷ for operations and = for equals. by using set-builder notation. ×.” Diophantes of Alexandria wrote a series of books Arithmetica demonstrating solutions to equations in which he used some abbreviations for shortcuts. 73 . one pair of inverse operations is addition and subtraction. The earliest records indicate that the problems were written entirely in words with no symbols (such as +. and =) or numbers. we will begin solving linear equations by using inverse operations to solve for the unknown variable. For example. or by using interval notation. For example.

4. Equation. but the algebraic expressions do not. a true statement results. Next we have the deﬁnition of a solution of an equation. . EXAMPLE 1. A solution of an equation is a numerical value that satisﬁes the equation. x − (3 − 2x). The key diﬀerence between a algebraic expression and an equation is the presence of an an equals sign. 5} is a solution of the equation 2y + 3 = 7. 2. An equation is a mathematical statement that equates two algebraic expressions. 8 is a solution of the equation. Substitute 8 for x. and 2(y + 3) − 3(1 − y) are algebraic expressions. Show that 8 is a solution of the equation x − 12 = −4. while 2x + 3 = 0. when the variable in the equation is replaced by the solution. That is. Answer: 2 Since the left.and right-hand sides of the last line are equal. x − (3 − 2x) = 4. for example. and 2(y + 3) − 3(1 − y) = −11 are equations. 3. Substitute 8 for x in the given equation and simplify. this shows that when 8 is substituted for x in the equation a true statement results. 2x + 3. Note that each of the equations contain an equals sign. You Try It! Which of the numbers {1. Solution.74 CHAPTER 2. Simplify both sides. x − 12 = −4 8 − 12 = −4 −4 = −4 The given equation. Therefore. Equivalent Equations Now that we know how to identify a solution of an equation. What it Means to be a Solution of an Equation. let’s deﬁne what it means when we say that two equations are equivalent. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 2. So.1 Solving Equations: One Step Let’s start with the deﬁnition of an equation.

Wrap and Unwrap. Put the decorative bow on. 2. (−1)2 = 1 and (1)2 = 1 2 Are the equations x = 1 and x2 = x equivalent? On the other hand. 3. Take oﬀ the gift paper. By inspection. Are the equations x = 5 and x − 7 = 10 equivalent? Answer: No. Take oﬀ the tape. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. You perform the following steps in order. the equations x2 = 1 and x = 1 do not have the same solution sets and are not equivalent. When we give the wrapped gift to our cousin. equivalent equations play an important role in ﬁnding the solution of an equation. Put the gift paper on. Hence. −1 and 1. Take oﬀ the decorative bow.1. 9 is the only solution of the equation x = 9. The number 9 is the only solution of the equation x − 3 = 6. 3. SOLVING EQUATIONS: ONE STEP 75 Equivalent Equations. 2. As we shall soon see. Answer: No. Two equations are equivalent if they have the same solution set. Similarly. the equation x = 1 has a single solution. he politely unwraps the present. Put the tape on. namely 1.2. Are the equations x − 3 = 6 and x = 9 equivalent? Solution. Do and Undo Suppose that you are wrapping a gift for your cousin. Therefore x − 3 = 6 and x = 9 have the same solution sets and are equivalent. “undoing” each of our three steps in inverse order. . Are the equations x2 = 1 and x = 1 equivalent? Solution. 1. 1. the equation x = 1 has two solutions. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2.

namely 11. then subtract 4. then add 4. we saw that x = 8 was a solution of the equation x − 12 = −4. The inverse of subtraction is addition. Indeed. the equations x = 8 and x − 12 = −4 are equivalent equations because both have the same solution sets. In the case of the equation x − 12 = −4. we would start with the given value of x. it’s fairly easy to “guess” that the solution is x = 8. To evaluate this expression at a particular value of x. arrive at the solution x = 8. If we start with a number x and subtract a number a. subtracting a “undoes” the eﬀect of adding a and returns us to the original number x. If we subtract 4. x − a + a = x. x + a − a = x. .76 CHAPTER 2. we return to our original value of x: 7 The above discussion leads us to two extremely important observations. then subtracting a from the result will return us to the original number x. Consider the mathematical expression x + 4. That is. The inverse of addition is subtraction. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES This seemingly frivolous wrapping and unwrapping of a gift contains some deeply powerful mathematical ideas. • Let’s set x equal to the number 7. • Take our result from above. 11. we arrive at the following result: 11 Now. Operations that Produce Equivalent Equations In Example 1. but as the equations become more complicated. That is. we will want to know just what operations we can perform on the equation that will not change the solution set. In symbols. In symbols. The goal is to start with an equation such as x − 12 = −4. how would we “unwrap” this result to return to our original number? We would start with our result. adding a “undoes” the eﬀect of subtracting a and returns us to the original number x. If we add 4. then adding a to the result will return us to the original number x. then through a series of steps that do not change the solution. If we start with a number x and add a number a.

then subtracting c from both sides of the equation produces the equivalent equation a − c = b − c. Solution: To undo the eﬀect of subtracting 7. The ﬁrst two that we will employ are adding or subtracting the same amount from both sides of an equation. Adding the Same Quantity to Both Sides of an Equation. Let’s look at an example where adding the same amount to both sides of the equation produces an equivalent equation that is the solution to the original equation. adding 7 “undoes” the eﬀect of subtracting 7 and returns x. there are a number of operations that will produce equivalent equations (equations with the same solution set). Adding the same quantity to both sides of an equation does not change the solution set. On the right. . You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. x − 7 = 12 x − 7 + 7 = 12 + 7 x = 19 Original equation. if a = b. we add 7 to both sides of the equation.2. Solve x − 7 = 12 for x. the solution of the equation is 19. SOLVING EQUATIONS: ONE STEP 77 With these thoughts in mind. Solve for x: x−6=4 Therefore.1. Subtracting the same quantity to both sides of an equation does not change the solution set. That is. Subtracting the Same Quantity from Both Sides of an Equation. Adding 7 to both sides of the equation produces an equivalent equation. if a = b. 12 + 7 = 19. On the left. That is. then adding c to both sides of the equation produces the equivalent equation a + c = b + c.

3 2 Solution: To undo the eﬀect of adding 2/3. Check: Let’s use the TI-84 graphing calculator to check this solution. subtracting 2/3 “undoes” the eﬀect of adding 2/3 and returns x. the solution of the equation is −1/6. we use the concept of the “inverse. Substitute 19 for x.n ENTER . We are returned to x because “subtracting 7” and “adding 7” are inverse operations of one another.T. the other “undoes. Answer: 10 The fact that the last line of the check is a true statement guarantees that 19 is a solution of x − 7 = 12.1. then add 7. Simplify both sides.78 CHAPTER 2. Solve x + 1 2 = for x.” If we start with x. we subtract 2/3 from both sides of the equation. You Try It! Solve for x: x+ 1 3 = 2 5 EXAMPLE 5. substitute the solution 19 into the original equation. whatever one does. make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. x − 7 = 12 19 − 7 = 12 12 = 12 Original equation. In symbols. 1. x − 7 + 7 = x. That is. 3 4 1 Subtract: − = − 6 6 6 x=− 1 6 Therefore. Subtracting 2/3 from both sides produces an equivalent equation. (-) 1 ÷ 6 STO X. In the solution of Example 4. On the right. Store the value −1/6 in the variable X using the following keystrokes. On the left. we are returned to the number x. let’s look at an example where subtracting the same amount from both sides of the equation produces an equivalent equation that is the solution to the original equation.” Next.θ. 1 2 = 3 2 2 2 1 2 x+ − = − 3 3 2 3 x+ x= 3 4 − 6 6 Original equation. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Check: To check. subtract 7. The result is shown in Figure 2.

1. 1 2 1 1 . X.2). Use the following keystrokes.n + 2 ÷ 3 ENTER Figure 2. 2 6 3 2 Note that the result is Answer: 1/10 More Operations That Produce Equivalent Equations Here are two more operations that produce equivalent equations. SOLVING EQUATIONS: ONE STEP 79 2. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: x + 2/3. Multiplying both sides of an equation by a nonzero quantity does not change the solution set. The result is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.1: Checking the solution to x + 2/3 = 1/2. That is.2.θ. and c = 0. . then select 1: Frac and press the ENTER button. if a = b. Multiplying Both Sides of an Equation by a Nonzero Quantity.T. Press the MATH button on your calculator (see Figure 2.2). 3.1. showing that − is a solution of x + = . This will convert the decimal result to a fraction (see Figure 2. then multiplying both sides of the equation by c produces the equivalent equation ac = bc.2: Changing the result to a fraction.

then dividing both sides of the equation by c produces the equivalent equation b a = . dividing by a “undoes” the eﬀect of multiplying by a and returns us to the original number x. c c Like addition and subtraction. a·x = x.1x = 0. If we start with a number x and divide by a number a. The inverse of division is multiplication. Let’s look at an example where dividing both sides of the equation by the same amount produces an equivalent equation that is the solution to the original equation.072 EXAMPLE 6.42 for x. In symbols. Dividing both sides of an equation by a nonzero quantity does not change the solution set.1. we divide both sides of . multiplying by a “undoes” the eﬀect of dividing by a and returns us to the original number x. If we start with a number x and multiply by a number a. a That is. Solve −2. In symbols. Solution: To undo the eﬀect of multiplying by −2. then multiplying the result by the same number a returns us to the original number x. multiplication and division are inverse operations. You Try It! Solve for x: −3. The inverse of multiplication is division. then dividing the result by the same number a returns us to the original number x.6x = 0. if a = b. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Dividing Both Sides of an Equation by a Nonzero Quantity. That is. a· x = x. and c = 0. a That is.80 CHAPTER 2.

02 The fact that the last line of the check is a true statement guarantees that −2 is a solution of −2.42 = 0. divide: 0. Dividing both sides by −2. Solve for x: x = −2 7 Therefore. You Try It! x EXAMPLE 7. Multiplying both sides by 5 produces an equivalent equation.θ.1x = −2.n ENTER .42 −2.1(−2) = 0.1x = 0. SOLVING EQUATIONS: ONE STEP the equation by −2. dividing by −2. x = −10 5 x 5 = [−10] 5 5 x = −50 Original equation. 5 Solution: To undo the eﬀect of dividing by 5.1x = 0.42 0. Solve = −10 for x.1.1x = 0. the solution of the equation is −2. Substitute −2 for x.1 “undoes” the eﬀect of multiplying by −2. multiply: −2.42/(−2.42 0.1 and returns x. On the right. lets look at an example where multiplying both sides of the equation by the same amount produces an equivalent equation that is the solution to the original equation. 1. On the right. On the left. Check: To check.1 −2. On the left.42. we multiply both sides of the equation by 5. On the left.1 produces an equivalent equation.2.1.3. Store the value −50 in the variable X using the following keystrokes.T. the solution of the equation is −50. Check: Let’s use the TI-84 graphing calculator to check this solution. (-) 5 0 STO X. −2.1(−2) = 0. −2.42 Answer: −0.42 Original equation. substitute the solution −2 into the original equation.1 x = −2 Original equation.42 −2. multiply: [−10]5 = −50. 81 Therefore. multiplying by 5 “undoes” the eﬀect of dividing by 5 and returns x. Next. The result is shown in Figure 2.1) = −2.

X. work vertically. observe the following rules when presenting your work. x+3=7 x+3−3 = 7−3 x=4 . Use the following 5 keystrokes. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES x 2. Answer: −14 Note that the result is −10.3. One equation per line. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: .T. This means that you should not arrange your work horizontally as follows: x+3=7 x+3−3=7−3 x=4 That’s three equations on a line. In the following presentation. note how we align the equal signs in a column. writing one equation per line.θ.n ÷ 5 ENTER The result is shown in Figure 2. Writing Mathematics When solving equations. showing that −50 is a solution of x/5 = −10. Figure 2.3: Checking the solution to x/5 = −10. 1. Instead.82 CHAPTER 2.

2. Do not add 7 to both sides of the equation in the following manner: x − 7 = 12 + 7 +7 x = 19 Instead.1. SOLVING EQUATIONS: ONE STEP 83 2. Add and subtract inline. add 7 “inline” to both sides of the equation as follows: x − 7 = 12 x − 7 + 7 = 12 + 7 x = 19 .

1. 13 4. x + 11 = 20 18. 16. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 14. 15 = 7 + x 25. x + 6 = 9. solve the given equation for x. x − 9 = 7 28. x2 = 1 and x = 1 12. x + 6 = 10 31. 10. 10 + x = 15 32. 2. solve the equation and simplify your answer. x − 5 = 7. 10 3. 11 5. 16. are the following equations equivalent? 7. 3. 4. 5 2. 9. 15. x − 1 1 = 3 2 . 18 + x = 19 In Exercises 33-40. x + 2 = 4. x − 3 = 6. x − 3 = 5. 13. x − 1 = −7 and x = −8 8. 13. 33. x + 10 = 18 19. x + 15 = 19 30. 18 = 17 + x 24. x − 2 = 8 29. 6. 12 In Exercises 7-12. x − 10 = 5 15. x − 5 = −5 and x = 0 10. 8. which of the numbers following the given equation are solutions of the given equation? Support your response with work similar to that shown in Example 1. 15. 18 = 7 + x 23. 19. 16 + x = 17 27. 9. 9 = x − 19 20. 20 = 9 + x 22. 4 = x − 11 21.84 CHAPTER 2. x − 2 4 = 9 7 34. x − 7 = −8 and x = −15 9. x2 = 16 and x = 4 In Exercises 13-32. 20. 7 + x = 19 26. 12 6. 16 = x − 8 17. x − 20 = 9 14. x − 9 = 4. 16 = x − 3 16. x − 3 = −3 and x = 0 11. 9. 3.

4 43. −5. x + = − 2 7 7 5 37.2. 9 19.1x = −12. 29 15.1. 1 25. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. = 12 8 x 49. = −7 8 50. = −18 8 x = −17 −4 x = 15 51. −3. 41. Yes 11. 2 3.12 46. 16 29. 11 23.5x = −22. 47. 9 7. SOLVING EQUATIONS: ONE STEP 35.6x = −24. No 9. −3.75 42. 46 63 ❧ ❧ ❧ . 5 33.9x = −58. 4 31. −6. 13 5. solve the given equation for x.34 45. 28 21. solve the given equation for x. −7 x 52. x + 7 4 =− 4 9 9 1 36. −6.68 In Exercises 47-52.4x = −39.65 44. x − = − 8 2 2 5 40. x + = 9 2 38. x + 1 1 = 4 3 1 9 39. No 13. 12 27. x = −11 2 x 48. x − = − 9 3 85 In Exercises 41-46. −1. 19 Answers 17.4x = −4.

79 36 43.7 47. − 37.5 . −144 51. 2.5 45. 39. −105 53 18 5 8 41. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 35. 8. 6. −22 49.86 CHAPTER 2.

then add 5.4.4: The second machine “unwraps” the ﬁrst machine. the original integer that was put into the ﬁrst machine. This machine is pictured on the left in Figure 2. imagine a machine that multiplies its input by 3. we must “undo” each of these operations in inverse order. The following argument shows that the second machine “undoes” the operation of the ﬁrst machine. Figure 2. To solve this equation for x. we will ﬁrst subtract 5 from both sides of . then add 5 to the result. x 1. To “unwrap” the eﬀect of the machine on the left.2. Solve for x: 3x + 5 = 14 Solve for x: 2x + 3 = 7 Solution: On the left.1. This machine will ﬁrst multiply 4 by 3. Multiply by 3. then divides the result by 3. SOLVING EQUATIONS: MULTIPLE STEPS 87 2. 2. drop 17 into the machine on the right. Subtract 5. 1. 2. This machine ﬁrst subtracts 5. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. then divide the result by 3. To wrap a present we put the gift paper on. 2. take oﬀ the tape.2 Solving Equations: Multiple Steps Recall the “Wrap” and “Unwrap” discussion from Section 2. Drop the integer 4 into the machine on the left in Figure 2. The result is 3(4) + 5.4. Hence. but in inverse order. and put the decorative bow on. we must “undo” each of these steps in inverse order. we need a machine that will “undo” each of the steps of the ﬁrst machine. and take oﬀ the gift paper.4. but in inverse order. order of operations demands that we ﬁrst multiply x by 3. To unwrap the gift. then adds 5 to the result. or 4. The result is (17 − 5)/3. Now. or 17. Note that each of these operations “undoes” the corresponding operation of the ﬁrst machine. To “unwrap” this result. Add 5. x 1.2. to unwrap the gift we take oﬀ the decorative bow. It will ﬁrst subtract 5 from its input. Divide by 3. put the tape on. Thus. The “unwrapping” machine is pictured on the right in Figure 2.

add 2/3 to both sides of the equation. To “undo” subtracting 2/3. To “undo” multiplying by 3. On the left. we simplify.88 CHAPTER 2. 3x + 5 = 14 3(3) + 5 = 14 9 + 5 = 14 14 = 14 Answer: x = 2 Original equation. Simplify both sides. we will ﬁrst add 2/3 to both sides of the equation. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES the equation. then multiply both sides of the resulting equation by 5. Add: 9 + 5 = 14. EXAMPLE 2. Substitute 3 for x. x 3 4 = + 5 6 6 x 7 = 5 6 Make equivalent fractions Add: 3 4 7 + = . On the right. we must “undo” each of these operations in inverse order. Multiply ﬁrst: 3(3) = 9. Because the last line of the check is a true statement. substitute 3 for x in the original equation and simplify. this guarantees that 3 is a solution of the original equation. 3x + 5 = 14 3x + 5 − 5 = 14 − 5 3x = 9 3x 9 = 3 3 x=3 Original equation. order of operations demands that we ﬁrst divide x by 5. 6 6 6 . divide both sides of the equation by 3. Simplify both sides. Check: To check the solution. Thus. You Try It! Solve for x: 1 x 3 − = 2 5 4 1 x 2 − = 5 3 2 Solution: On the left. subtract 5 from both sides of the equation. To “undo” adding 5. we make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. then divide both sides by 3. To solve this equation for x. then subtract 2/3. Solve for x: 1 x 2 − = 5 3 2 x 2 2 1 2 − + = + 5 3 3 2 3 Original equation. Let’s try an equation with fractions.

θ. On the left. 35 x 2 1 1 . Use the following keystrokes.6: Changing the result to a fraction.n ÷ 5 − 2 ÷ 3 ENTER The result is shown in Figure 2.θ. showing that is a solution of − = .5).T. then press the ENTER button. 2 6 5 3 2 Note that the result is Answer: x = 17/10 Let’s try an equation with decimals. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: x/5 − 2/3. 2. On the right. multiply: 5 = 6 6 Check: Let’s use the TI-84 to check this solution. 1. 7 35 . .T. Figure 2.6). 5 7 x =5 5 6 35 x= 6 Multiply both sides by 5. SOLVING EQUATIONS: MULTIPLE STEPS 89 Now we “undo” dividing by ﬁve by multiplying both sides of the equation by 5. 3 5 ÷ 6 STO X.2. Figure 2. Press the MATH button on your calculator (see Figure 2. simplify. then select 1: Frac.5: Checking the solution to x/5 − 2/3 = 1/2. X. 3.n ENTER The result is shown in Figure 2.2.5.6). Store the value 35/6 in the variable X using the following keystrokes. This will convert the decimal result to a fraction (see Figure 2.

94 −6.2x + 2.24 = 5. Variables on Both Sides of the Equation It is not uncommon that the variable you are solving for appears in terms on both sides of the equation. divide: −6.94 Solution: On the left.24. In cases like this. the equation 2x+3 = 5−7x.37 EXAMPLE 3. order of operations demands that we ﬁrst multiply x by 5.2 x = −1. Because the last line of the check is a true statement. simplify.4 Original equation.2x −6. substitute −1. When asked to solve an equation for x.2 5.3 − 2.94 5.2x + 2.2.24.25 − 1. On the right.94 = −3. it is helpful to have a general understanding of what it means to “solve for x. 5. for example.3 = −3. Add: −6.2) + 2. simplify.24 + 2.2. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES You Try It! Solve for x: 3.2. Check: To check the solution.2x = 0. Consider.3 = −3.94 − 2. To solve this equation for x.2x + 2.94.94 − 2.3 = −3.2. then add 2.24 + 2.2 Original equation.2.2x = −6. To “undo” multiplying by 5.3 = −3. we will ﬁrst subtract 2.94 Answer: x = 2. Solve for x: 5.3 from both sides of the equation.3 5.3 from both sides.2 for x in the original equation and simplify. we must “undo” each of these operations in inverse order. To “undo” adding 2.3.94 5.90 CHAPTER 2. the goal is to manipulate the equation into the ﬁnal form x = “Stuﬀ”. .” Solve for x.2 is a solution of the original equation.3 = −6. Multiply: 5.24/5.3 = −3.3 = −3. On the left. Thus.3 = −3.2) = −6.2x + 2.2(−1. divide both sides by 5.24 5.94 −3. Substitute −1.2(−1.3.2 for x. then divide both sides by 5. this guarantees that −1.2 = −1. On the left. add: −3. 5. subtract 2. On the right.

but it must not contain any occurrence of the variable x. Solution: We need to isolate all terms containing x on one side of the equation. Simplify both sides. Note how we have isolated all terms containing x on one side of the equation.2. Formulae. −7x 6 = −7 −7 6 x=− 7 Divide both sides by −7.. In this section. but in Section 2. Simplify both sides. SOLVING EQUATIONS: MULTIPLE STEPS 91 where “Stuﬀ” is a valid mathematical expression that may contain other variables. Subtract 5x from both sides. When asked to solve an equation for x. 3 − 2x = 5x + 9 3 − 2x − 5x = 5x + 9 − 5x 3 − 7x = 9 Original equation. Solve 3 − 2x = 5x + 9 for x. 3 − 7x − 3 = 9 − 3 −7x = 6 Subtract 3 from both sides.4. mathematical symbols. eliminate 3 from the left-hand side of the last equation by subtracting 3 from both sides of the equation. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. “Stuﬀ” will take on added complexity. etc. “Stuﬀ” will always be a single number. Solve for x: 4x + 7 = 5 − 8x Next. including variables other than x. a common strategy is to isolate all terms containing the variable x on one side of the equation and move all terms not containing the variable x to the other side of the equation. Strategy for solving for x. . We can eliminate 5x from the right-hand side of 3 − 2x = 5x + 9 by subtracting 5x from both sides of the equation. Simplify both sides.2.

. To “undo” subtracting 10. 3 − 2x = 5x + 9 3−2 − 6 6 =5 − +9 7 7 30 12 =− +9 3+ 7 7 Original equation. 7 7 Because the last line of the check is a true statement. 2(3x + 1) − 3(4 − 2x) = −34 6x + 2 − 12 + 6x = −34 12x − 10 = −34 Original equation. 30 63 21 12 + =− + 7 7 7 7 Answer: x = −1/6 33 33 = Add. Add: 6x + 6x = 12x. Check: Let’s use the TI-84 to check this solution. 12x − 10 + 10 = −34 + 10 12x = −24 Add 10 to both sides. You Try It! Solve for x: 2x − (x − 2) = 2(x + 7) EXAMPLE 5. −24 12x = 12 12 x = −2 Divide both sides by 12. Make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. we add 10 to both sides of the equation. substitute −6/7 for x in the original equation. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Check: To check the solution. Multiply: −2(−6/7) = 12/7 and 5(−6/7) = −30/7. Multiply: −3(4 − 2x) = −12 + 6x. To “undo” multiplying by 12. Simplify both sides. Solve for x: 2(3x + 1) − 3(4 − 2x) = −34 Solution: We’ll ﬁrst simplify the expression on the left-hand side of the equation using the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. this guarantees that −6/7 is a solution of the original equation. Add: 2 − 12 = −10. we divide both sides by 12. Multiply: 2(3x + 1) = 6x + 2. Substitute −6/7 for x. Simplify both sides. Simplifying Expressions When Solving Equations Sometimes we need to simplify expressions before we can isolate terms containing x.92 CHAPTER 2.

store −2 in the variable X using the following keystrokes. First.θ. Thus.T. distribute the −5. distribute the 4. Enter the left-hand side of original equation: 2(3x + 1) − 3(4 − 2x).7.7. 2x − 5(3 − 2x) = 4(x − 1) 2x − 15 + 10x = 4x − 4 12x − 15 = 4x − 4 Original equation. Answer: x = −12 You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. 2.n + 1 ) − 3 ( 4 2 × X. Use the following keystrokes.θ. the solution −2 checks. Note that when −2 is substituted for x in the left-hand of the equation. 2 × × ( 3 − × X.T. Figure 2. On the right.7: Checking the solution to 2(3x + 1) − 3(4 − 2x) = −34. On the left. equalling the right-hand side of the equation. Solve for x: 2x − 5(3 − 2x) = 4(x − 1) Solution: We’ll ﬁrst simplify the expressions on each side of the equation using the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. add: 2x + 10x = 12x Solve for x: 5(1 − x) = 2(x + 3) − (x − 1) . (-) 2 STO X.n ) ENTER The result is shown in the second image in Figure 2.θ.2. SOLVING EQUATIONS: MULTIPLE STEPS 1.2.n ENTER 93 The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 2.T. the result is −34. On the left.

θ. 11 8x = 8 8 11 x= 8 Divide both sides by 8. we need to isolate terms containing the variable x on one side of the equation.n − 1 ) ENTER .θ.T. we divide both sides by 8.n × − X. store 11/8 in the variable X using the following keystrokes.θ. Check: Let’s use the TI-84 to check this solution.θ. Use the following keystrokes. Finally. 4 × ( X. 12x − 15 − 4x = 4x − 4 − 4x 8x − 15 = −4 Subtract 4x from both sides. we subtract 4x from both sides of the equation.8. The result is shown in the third image in Figure 2. To remove the term −15 from the left-hand side. Simplify both sides. 8x − 15 + 15 = −4 + 15 8x = 11 Add 15 to both sides. we add 15 to both sides of the equation. 1 1 ÷ 8 STO X.n ENTER The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 2. Enter the right-hand side of the original equation: 4(x − 1). 3. 1.T.94 CHAPTER 2. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: 2x − 5(3 − 2x). to “undo” multiplying by 8.8.8. Simplify both sides. Simplify both sides. To remove the term 4x from the right-hand side. 2.n 5 ) × ( 3 − ENTER The result is shown in the second image in Figure 2.T. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Next. Use the following keystrokes. First.T. 2 × 2 X.

SOLVING EQUATIONS: MULTIPLE STEPS 95 Figure 2.5 when x = 11/8 guarantees that 11/8 is a solution of 2x − 5(3 − 2x) = 4(x − 1). There is no need to use the 1: Frac from the MATH menu this time.2.8: Checking the solution to 2x − 5(3 − 2x) = 4(x − 1). The fact that both sides of the equation evaluate to an identical 1. Answer: x = −1/3 .2.

2x − 7.2x + 2.4 = −48. −4 − 16x = −100 13. 4x − 4 = 64 9. 7 x 20. x 2 x 22.10 27.2 = 38. 20 − 3x = 35 15. −4.96 CHAPTER 2. x 7 x 18.10 30.7 = 3. 3x + 12 = 51 7.2x + 5. 13 − 9x = 11 − 5x 34. solve the equation and simplify your answer. 1. 11 − 10x = 13 − 4x . 3.3x + 1.05 26. 2x − 20 = −12 2. −8 + 14x = −22 5. 33.8 = −45. 5 2 3 4 + 5 9 − 2 8 − 9 + 4 7 3 = 4 = 5 3 3 =− 2 =− In Exercises 26-32. −5. 5 − 13x = 70 10. −4x − 1 = 3 3.7 = 5. −5x + 17 = 112 6. −4x + 15 = 27 In Exercises 17-24.29 32.3x + 1. solve each equation. −4x + 14 = 74 16. 25. 11 + 10x = 81 11. −11 + 3x = −44 4. 5 1 3 8 − 3 4 + 9 1 + 6 − 9 8 4 =− 7 3 = 2 8 = 7 =− 21. −7.65 29.4x − 4. −16x − 14 = 2 8.80 31. 5 x 24.92 28.5x − 3. 7 x 23.2 = 14. −2 − 9x = −74 12. 17. 8 x 19. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-16. −7.7x − 7. 7 − x = −7 14. −1. solve the given equation for x. solve each equation.9 = 64.7 = −26. 1.04 In Exercises 33-44. 0.

8 13. 8(5x − 3) − 3(4x + 6) = 4 46. 4 3. 8(5 − 2x) − (8x − 9) = 4 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 9(3x − 7) − 9(2x + 9) = 6 53. SOLVING EQUATIONS: MULTIPLE STEPS 35. 2x − 4(4 − 9x) = 4(7x + 8) 48.2. − 24 133 19. solve each equation. 1 2 . 4. 13 − 11x = 17 − 5x 39.7 1 2 5 4 35. 2(7 − 9x) − (2x − 8) = 7 56. −11 Answers 21. 9x + 8 = 4 − 19x 40. 2x − 2(4 − 9x) = 8(6x + 2) 54. 45. − 23. 6x + 3 = 16x + 11 97 In Exercises 45-56. 4x − 9(6 − 2x) = 2(5x + 7) 49. −6. 7x + 11 = 16 − 18x 42. 3x − 3(5 − 9x) = 6(8x + 2) 55. 3(5x − 6) − 7(7x + 9) = 3 52. 6(3x − 8) − 6(4x + 6) = 3 47. 18 29. 15. 8. −15 133 17. 11x + 10 = 19x + 20 36.1 9. −5 11. − 37.4 31. 2(6 − 2x) − (4x − 9) = 9 50. 12x + 9 = 4x + 7 44. 8. 11x + 8 = 2 − 17x 43. 14 33. 10x + 8 = 6 − 2x 41. −19 7. 20x + 19 = 10x + 13 37. 11 − 15x = 13 − 19x 38.2. −1 85 6 25. ❧ ❧ ❧ 4 21 5.5 27. 2(8 − 5x) − (2x − 6) = 4 51.

− 3 4 23 14 24 5 55. − 45.98 CHAPTER 2. . 47. − 41. 53. − 43. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 39. 3 2 42 17 6 7 51. 1 5 1 4 1 7 49.

3 Clearing Fractions and Decimals In this section we introduce techniques that clear fractions and decimals from equations.” This approach allows us to write down the answer without doing any work. 24 x 3 = 8x Answer: 9x Example 1 shows all of the steps involved in arriving at the answer. 12 2 x 3 = 8x You should practice this mental calculation until you can write down the answer without writing down any steps. making the resulting equation a lot easier to solve. Multiply 18 and 2 to get 36. Simplify: 12 2 x .3. We use the associative property to regroup. 12 2 x 3 = = 12 · 2 3 x Associative property of multiplication.2. So we just “Multiply 12 and 2 to get 24. CLEARING FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 99 2. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. the goal in this section is to perform this calculation mentally. then divide 36 by 9 to get 4. and x. 18 2 x 9 = 4x Answer: 6x . then divide 24 by 3 to get 8. Multiply: 12 · 2 = 24. such as 12. the associative property of multiplication tells us that it does not matter which two numbers we multiply ﬁrst. Simplify: 18 2 x 9 Simplify: 14 3 x 7 Solution: This time we perform the calculations mentally. When clearing fractions from an equation. 2/3. 3 Simplify: 15 3 x 5 Solution: When we multiply three numbers. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. you will need to simplify products like the ones posed in the following examples. However. then multiply numerators and denominators and simplify the result. Divide: 24/3 = 8.

We also saw that it is a bit diﬃcult to carry the work in our head as the numbers grow larger. but because the intermediate numbers are much smaller. In Chapter 1. then divided 576 by 9 to get 64. then divide 576 by 9 to get 64” is a bit diﬃcult to carry in your head. 9 Solution: In Example 3. the mental calculations become harder. Canceling is More Eﬃcient In Examples 1. and 3. You Try It! Simplify: 64 5 x 8 EXAMPLE 4. 9 Solution: Use your calculator to multiply 72 and 8. 72 8 x 9 = 64x. We get the same answer. For example. the work “multiply 72 and 8 to get 576. In this solution. 2. Enter 72*8/9 and press the ENTER key. consider 8 72 x 9 In this case. then multiply 8 by 8 to get 64. Use your calculator to help simplify 72 8 x . we multiplied numerators. . this is when the calculator comes to the rescue. However. we used our calculator to multiply 72 and 8 to get 576. Section 3. Answer: 45x Thus. then divided by the sole denominator. we divide 9 into 72 to get 8. You Try It! Use your calculator to simplify: 81 5 x 9 EXAMPLE 3. then divide by 9. the calculations are much easier to do mentally. Simplify: 72 8 x . SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES When the numbers get larger.100 CHAPTER 2. we saw that canceling reduces the size of the numbers and simpliﬁes the work.

= (8 · 8) x = 64x Answer: 40x Example 4 shows all of the steps involved in arriving at the answer.” 72 8 x 9 = 64x Not only does this approach allow us to write down the answer without doing any work.3. we can now concentrate on clearing fractions from an equation. then multiply 8 by 8 to get 644. 9 Simplify: 18 27 5 x 9 = 15x Answer: 27x 3 x 2 Solution: Divide 9 into 27 to get 3. multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. Dividing (canceling) ﬁrst is far more eﬃcient. the numerical calculations involve smaller numbers. so we just “Divide 9 into 72 to get 8. . Multiply: 8 · 8 = 64. Divide: 72/9 = 8. Once the fractions are removed from the equation. the smaller numbers allowing us to perform the calculation mentally. To clear fractions from an equation.2. the resulting equivalent equation is far easier to solve than the original. Simplify: 27 5 x . CLEARING FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 101 72 8 x 9 = 72 · 8 9 x Associative property of multiplication. Clearing Fractions from an Equation Now that we’ve done the required fraction work. You should practice this mental calculation until you can write down the answer without writing down any steps. then multiply 3 by 5 to get 15. Clearing fractions from an equation. You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. Again. the goal in this section is to perform this calculation mentally. Note: The technique shown in Examples 4 and 5 is the technique we’ll use in the remainder of this section.

3 2 Solution: The common denominator for 2/3 and 1/2 is 6. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES You Try It! Solve for x: x− 3 1 = 4 2 EXAMPLE 6.102 CHAPTER 2. Solve for x: x+ 1 2 = . Similarly. x+ 6 x+ 6x + 6 2 3 2 3 2 1 = 3 2 =6 =6 1 2 1 2 Original equation. Use the following keystrokes.9. (-) 1 ÷ 6 STO X. 6x −1 = 6 6 1 x=− 6 Divide both sides by 6. Thus. On the left. then multiply 2 by 2 to get 4. Note that the fractions are now cleared from the equation. . 6x + 4 − 4 = 3 − 4 6x = −1 Subtract 4 from both sides. 6 1 2 = 3.θ. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: x + 2/3. To “undo” multiplying by 6. To isolate terms containing x on one side of the equation. divide both sides by 6. divide 6 by 3 to get 2. 1. Store −1/6 in the variable X using the following keystrokes. Simplify both sides. Multiply both sides by 6.T. 6(1/2) = 3. Simplify both sides. To simplify 6(2/3). 6(2/3) = 4. 6x + 4 = 3 Multiply: 6 2 3 = 4. We begin by multiplying both sides of the equation by 6. 2. subtract 4 from both sides of the equation. distribute the 6. Check: Let’s use the TI-84 to check the solution.n ENTER The result is shown in the ﬁrst line in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Reduce to lowest terms.2. The result is identical to the right-hand side of the equation x + 2/3 = 1/2. We begin by multiplying both sides of the equation by 15. 15(−4/3) = −20 12x = −20 Multiply.3. the solution checks.9.9: Checking that −1/6 is a solution of x + 2/3 = 1/2. then multiply 3 by 4 to get 12.θ. Press the MATH key. 5 3 Solve for x: 3 3 − x= 7 2 Solution: The common denominator for 4/5 and −4/3 is 15. we divide both sides by 12. Similarly. The result is shown in the third line in Figure 2. 4 4 x=− 5 3 15 4 x 5 = 15 − 4 3 Original equation. CLEARING FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS X. 3. Answer: x = 5/4 You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. Solve for x: 4 4 x=− . 12x −20 = 12 12 5 x=− 3 Divide both sides by 12. . then select 1: Frac and press the ENTER key.9. Thus.T. Multiply both sides by 15. To simplify 15(4/5). Thus. To “undo” multiplying by 12.n + 2 ÷ 3 ENTER 103 The result is shown in the second line in Figure 2. divide 5 into 15 to get 3. 15(4/5) = 12.

1/2. divide 3 into 12 to get 4. 8x − 9 = 6 − 9x Multiply.104 CHAPTER 2. EXAMPLE 8. 4 4 x=− 5 3 5 4 − =− 3 3 20 4 − =− 15 3 4 4 − =− 3 3 Original equation. and −3x/4 is 12. 3 4 2 4 Solution: The common denominator for 2x/3. Thus. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Check: To check. Substitute −5/3 for x. 12(1/2) = 6. Similarly. To remove the term −9x from the right-hand side. Simplify both sides. add 9x to both sides of the equation. We now need to isolate terms containing x on one side of the equation. Note that the fractions are now cleared from the equation. 3x 4 Distribute the 12 on each side. Solve for x: 2x 3 1 3x − = − 3 4 2 4 2x 3 1 3x 12 − − = 12 3 4 2 4 2x 3 1 − 12 = 12 − 12 3 4 2 Original equation. Multiply numerators and denominators. then multiply 4 by 2x to get 8x. add 9 to both sides of the equation. Reduce. . Multiply both sides by 12. and 12(3x/4) = 9x. We begin by multiplying both sides of the equation by 12. 4 5 Answer: x = −7/2 The fact that the last line is a true statement guarantees the −5/3 is a solution 4 4 of the equation x = − . 12(3/4) = 9. 8x − 9 + 9x = 6 − 9x + 9x 17x − 9 = 6 Add 9x to both sides. 17x − 9 + 9 = 6 + 9 17x = 15 Add 9 to both sides. 5 3 You Try It! Solve for x: 5x 2 5 3x − = − 9 3 9 2 1 3x 2x 3 − = − . To remove the term −9 from the left-hand side. Simplify both sides. 12 To simplify 12(2x/3). 12(2x/3) = 8x. −3/4. substitute −5/3 for x in the original equation.

θ. 3 2x − .θ.n ENTER The result is shown in Figure 2. to “undo” multiplying by 17.11. Enter the right-hand side of the original equation: − .n ÷ 4 ENTER The result is shown in the second image in Figure 2.3.1617647059 when 15/17 is substituted for x.10: Storing 15/17 in X.θ.n ÷ 3 − 3 ÷ 4 ENTER The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 2.2. this guarantees that 15/17 is a solution of the equation 2x/3−3/4 = 1/2−3x/4. Use the 2 4 following keystrokes. Use the fol2. Figure 2. 1 3x 3. Check: Let’s use the TI-84 to check the solution. 2 × X. 1. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: 3 4 lowing keystrokes. 1 ÷ 2 − 3 × X.T. 1 5 ÷ 1 7 STO X. Store the number 15/17 in the variable X using the following keystrokes.T.10. divide both sides of the equation by 17. Because both sides simplify to −.T. Simplify both sides. 17x 15 = 17 17 15 x= 17 Divide both sides by 17.11). Answer: x = 22/37 . CLEARING FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 105 Finally.

345. 100(2.3x − 1. 2. • 10(1. which has six zeros. Multiplying by 10 moves the decimal point one place to the right. ﬁrst recall the following facts about multiplying by powers of ten.25) = 100(0. .5x = 2. Note the pattern: The number of zeros in the power of ten determines the number of places to move the decimal point. this will move the decimal point six places to the right. making the resulting equivalent equation far easier to solve. we multiply both sides of the equation by 100.04x has one decimal place. the second term has two decimal places. Consequently.3x) − 100(1.000.3x − 1. 230x − 125 = 4x Multiplying by 100 moves all decimal points two places to the right.2345) = 1234. we need to move each decimal point two places to the right in order to clear the decimals from the equation.25) = 100(0. Multiplying by 100 moves the decimal point two places to the right.04x) Distribute the 100. and the third and ﬁnal term has two decimal places. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Figure 2. 100(2. At a minimum. for example.04x.000. Clearing Decimals from an Equation Multiplying by the appropriate power of ten will clear the decimals from an equation. Solution: The ﬁrst term of 2.04x Original equation. You Try It! Solve for x: 1.25 = 0.2 EXAMPLE 9. Before we begin.25 = 0. • 100(1.11: Checking 15/17 in 2x/3 − 3/4 = 1/2 − 3x/4. Solve for x: 2.2345) = 123.5.3x − 1.106 CHAPTER 2. Multiplying by 1000 moves the decimal point three places to the right.45. • 1000(1. if we multiply by 1.04x) Multiply both sides by 100.3x − 1.25 = 0.2345) = 12.34 − 4. So.

12. CLEARING FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 107 Note that the decimals are now cleared from the equation. Simplify. 0 4 × X. 125 226x = 226 226 125 x= 226 Divide both sides by 226. Check: Let’s check the answer with the TI-84. 226x − 125 + 125 = 0 + 125 226x = 125 Add 125 to both sides. To remove −125 from the left-hand side.n ENTER The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 2. Use the following keystrokes.12.25. 3.12. .T.θ.3x − 1. Use the following keystrokes. 1. Enter the right-hand side of the original equation: 0. Simplify.04x. Enter the left-hand side of the original equation: 2.θ. Finally. Simplify both sides. 1 2 5 ÷ 2 2 6 STO X. 2 . subtract 4x from both sides of the equation. 230x − 125 − 4x = 4x − 4x 226x − 125 = 0 Subtract 4x from both sides. add 125 to both sides of the equation. We must now isolate all terms containing x on one side of the equation. 3 × X.n − 1 . 2 5 ENTER The result is shown in the second image in Figure 2.2. divide both sides by 226.n ENTER The result is shown in the third image in Figure 2.θ.3. To remove the term 4x from the right-hand side. 0 . to “undo” multiplying by 226. Store 125/226 in the variable X using the following keystrokes. 2.T.T.

Answer: x = −43/225 Note that both sides yield the same decimal approximation 0.108 CHAPTER 2.3x − 1.12: Checking 125/226 in 2.25 = 0.04x. .25 = 0.0221238938 when 125/226 is substituted for x. This guarantees that 125/226 is a solution of 2.3x − 1.04x. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Figure 2.

Your ﬁnal answer should be a fraction reduced to lowest terms.54 = −2.39x + 0. 14 9 x 2 7 x 9 3 x 2 Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 4.5x + 1.49 23.4x + 0.7x = −2. 1.98 = 0.52 = −1. − x − = 7 3 3 3 5 1 8. for each of the following equations. x + = x − 3 9 3 3 9 5 4 2 10. − x − = − 3 9 3 8 3 13.8x − 2. CLEARING FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 109 ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. then solve the resulting equation for x.55x 25.18 = 1.6x + 2.5 = 2.5 30.3x − 2. x − = 4 7 2 2 4 7 12. −27 9 x 4 9 x 7 5 x 3 In Exercises 7-18.12 21. 1 5 9 7. clear decimals from the given equation by multiplying by the appropriate power of ten.7x + 2.12x + 0.4x = 1.3 29.7x − 1. 2.8x + 2. x − = 9 4 4 3 1 17. 0. −2.9 = 0. simplify the expression.6x − 2. − x = 3 7 6 3 15. 2. −4. 0. x + = 4 5 1 2 16.47x − 2.9 31.8x − 2. 4.2.4 = −2.3. − x − = − x − 7 5 7 8 5 1 2 In Exercises 19-32. 27 3.14x 24. −1.4x − 1.1 = −1.7 = −1.4x − 2. Solve the resulting equation for x and reduce your answer to lowest terms.4x + 2.98x + 2.5 27. 0.8 = 2. 1. 70 6.29 20. 3.2x + 0. − x = − 4 3 5 2 14.8 26.14 22. 2. x − = − x − 3 4 8 3 8 3 9 11. − x − = − x − 3 3 4 3 9 6 18.9 28.55 = 2.9x 32. 19. −12 5.8x . clear fractions by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. 0. 16 2.71 = −1. −1. − x − = − 2 4 9 5 2 4 7 9.

72x 3. 74 63 32 9 9 15. 13. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 20 16 17. − 19 16 . − 27. 21x 5. 23. 14 9 17 15 Answers 19. − 29. 90x 7.110 CHAPTER 2. − 9. − 11. − 25 4 33 31. ❧ ❧ ❧ 158 437 369 40 127 237 14 15 1 6 21. 25.

FORMULAE 111 2. When working with scientiﬁc formulae. mathematical symbols. You are not allowed to substitute lower for upper case. Thus. Solution: To undo the eﬀects of adding a.” Solve for x. M the mass of the larger body.4. Solve for x: x + a = b. Note the use of upper and lower case letter M’s in Newton’s Law of Gravitation. you must maintain the case of the given letters.4 Formulae “Formulae” is the plural for “formula. where “Stuﬀ” is a valid mathematical expression that may contain other variables. or upper for lower case in your work. When asked to solve an equation for x. x+a=b x+a−a =b−a x=b−a Original equation. formulae in science typically use several letters. having value 6. The letter G represents 2 the universal gravitational constant. Isaac Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation says that the magnitude of the force of attraction between two celestial bodies is given by the formula F = GM m . we need to isolate the terms containing x on one side of the equation. Variable case.2. and all remaining terms on the other side of the equation.67428 × 10−11 N(m/kg) . You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. Subtract a from both sides. Solve for x: x−c=d . etc. In Section 2.. but it must not contain any occurrence of the variable x. and r is the distance between the two bodies. Indeed. the goal is to manipulate the equation into the ﬁnal form x = “Stuﬀ”.2. to solve an equation for x. Simplify. we described the goal that must be met when we are asked to “solve an equation for x. Answer: x = c + d. r2 where m usually denotes the mass of the smaller body. For example.” The formulae of science usually contain variable letters other than the variable x. subtract a from both sides of the equation.

where “Stuﬀ” is a valid mathematical expression that contains other variables. This means that we must isolate all terms containing the variable k on one side of the equation. subtract x from both sides of the equation. F = kx kx F = x x F =k x Original equation. However. where “Stuﬀ” is a valid mathematical expression that contains other variables. mathematical symbols. what if we were asked to solve the same equation for a. Solution: We are instructed to solve the equation F = kx for k. mathematical symbols. mathematical symbols. instead of x? You Try It! Solve for x: x−c=d EXAMPLE 2. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES In Example 1. etc. Simplify. x+a=b x+a−x=b−x a=b−x Answer: c = x − d. Solve the equation for k. known as “Hooke’s Law”. x = “Stuﬀ”. but it does not contain any occurrence of the variable x. but it may not contain any occurrence of the variable k. Solve for a: x + a = b.112 CHAPTER 2. note that all terms containing the variable k are already isolated on one side of the equation. This means that our ﬁnal answer must have the form a = “Stuﬀ”. Original equation. Note that we have a = “Stuﬀ”. to “undo” the eﬀect of multiplying by x. divide both sides of the equation by x. Simplify. etc. the variable we are solving for.. Terms not containing the variable k are isolated on the other side of the equation.. to undo the eﬀect of adding x. This means that our ﬁnal answer must have the form k = “Stuﬀ”. predicts the force F required to stretch a spring x units. where “Stuﬀ” is a valid mathematical expression that may contain other variables. and all remaining terms on the other side of the equation. Now. Now. Solution: We are instructed to solve the equation x + a = b for a. etc.. Divide both sides by x. Subtract x from both sides. note that the answer x = b − a has the required form. but it does not contain any occurrence of the variable a. and all remaining terms on the other side of the equation. Now. This means that we must isolate all terms containing the variable a on one side of the equation. . The formula F = kx. where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of a. You Try It! Solve for m: E = mc2 EXAMPLE 3.

where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of R. FORMULAE 113 Saying that F/x = k is equivalent to saying that k = F/x. the variable we are solving for. Simplify. . where “Stuﬀ” is a valid mathematical expression that may contain other variables. Now. divide both sides of the equation by I. mathematical symbols. Terms not containing the variable R are isolated on the other side of the equation. However. note that all terms containing the variable R are already isolated on one side of the equation. the variable we are solving for. etc. clear the fractions from the formula by multiplying both sides of the formula by the common denominator. to “undo” the eﬀect of multiplying by I. V = RI RI V = I I V =R I Original equation. s Note that we have R = “Stuﬀ”. We can leave our answer in the form shown in the last step. Divide both sides by I. This means that our ﬁnal answer must have the form R = “Stuﬀ”.” It helps calculate the voltage drop V across a resistor R in an electric circuit with current I. but some instructors insist that we write the answer as follows: k= F x F/x = k is equivalent to k = F/x. Solve for t: d = st This can also be written in the following form: R= V I V /I = R is equivalent to R = V /I. Solution: We are instructed to solve the equation V = RI for R. Solve the equation for R. and all remaining terms on the other side of the equation. E . Answer: t = Clearing Fractions If fractions occur in a formula.. The formula V = RI is called “Ohm’s Law. This means that we must isolate all terms containing the variable R on one side of the equation.2. c2 Note that we have k = “Stuﬀ”. where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of k. d .4. Answer: m = You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. but it may not contain any occurrence of the variable R.

. Simplify. Cancel 2’s. First. Multiply both sides by 2. Solution: We’re asked to solve the equation K = (1/2)mv 2 for m. clear the fractions by multiplying both sides by the common denominator. where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of the variable m. Note that all terms containing m. clear the fractions by multiplying both sides by the common denominator. Solve the equation for m. First. are already isolated on one side of the equation. Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation is described by the formula GM m F = . GM m r2 GM m r2 (F ) = r2 r2 F = r2 F = GM m Original equation. You Try It! Solve for q2 : F = kq1 q2 r2 EXAMPLE 6. We need only divide both sides by v 2 to complete the solution. 1 mv 2 2 1 mv 2 2(K) = 2 2 K= 2K = mv 2 Original equation. Cancel v 2 for v 2 . 2K mv 2 = 2 2 v v 2K =m v2 Answer: g = 2s t2 Divide both sides by v 2 . Note that the ﬁnal answer has the form m = “Stuﬀ”. The formula K = mv 2 is used to calculate the kinetic energy 2 K of a particle of mass m moving with velocity v. Multiply both sides by r2 .114 CHAPTER 2. Simplify. Cancel r2 for r2 . Solution: We’re asked to solve the equation F = GM m/r2 for m. r2 Solve this equation for m. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES You Try It! Solve for g: s= 1 2 gt 2 1 EXAMPLE 5. Simplify. As mentioned earlier. the variable we are solving for.

P = L+W +L+W P = 2W + 2L Summing the four sides. use your result to calculate the length. given that the perimeter is 300 feet and the width is 50 feet. L The perimeter of a rectangle is 160 meters and its width is 30 meters. Answer: q2 = Geometric Formulae Let’s look at a few commonly used formulae from geometry. Cancel GM for GM .4. are already isolated on one side of the equation.2. Simplify. Solution: We’re ﬁrst asked to solve P = 2W + 2L for L. Finds its length. r2 F GM m = GM GM r2 F =m GM Divide both sides by GM . isolate all . and let P represent its perimeter. Let W and L represent the width and length of a rectangle. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. Then. We need only divide both sides by GM to complete the solution. the variable we are solving for. W W L The perimeter (distance around) of the rectangle is found by summing its four sides. First. FORMULAE 115 Note that all terms containing m. F r2 kq1 Note that the ﬁnal answer has the form m = “Stuﬀ”. Combine like terms. Problem: Solve P = 2W + 2L for L. respectively. where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of the variable m. then combining like terms.

50 for W . The second part of this example requests that we ﬁnd the length of the rectangle. Subtract: 300 − 100 = 200. h b The area of the triangle is computed using the formula: A= 1 bh 2 .116 CHAPTER 2. To calculate the length. Divide: 200/2 = 100. substitute P = 300 and W = 50 in L = (P − 2W )/2. and let A represent the area of the triangle. You Try It! The area of a triangle is 140 cm2 and the length of its base is 70 cm. where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of the variable L. Simplify. P − 2W 2 300 − 2(50) L= 2 300 − 100 L= 2 200 L= 2 L = 100 L= Perimeter formula solved for L. Multiply: 2(50) = 100. Answer: L = 50 meters Hence. EXAMPLE 8. Let b and h represent the length of the base and the height of a triangle. given that the perimeter is P = 300 feet and the width is W = 50 feet. the length of the rectangle is 100 feet. P = 2W + 2L P − 2W = 2W + 2L − 2W P − 2W = 2L P − 2W 2L = 2 2 P − 2W =L 2 Original equation. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES terms containing the variable L on one side of the equation. Find the height of the triangle. Substitute 300 for P . Simplify. respectively. Subtract 2W from both sides. Note that the ﬁnal result has L = “Stuﬀ’. Divide both sides by 2.

Because the equation has fractions. Multiply both sides by 2.4. the height of the triangle is 12 inches. Answer: 4 cm Hence. Note that the ﬁnal result has h = “Stuﬀ’. given that the area is 2 A = 90 in2 (90 square inches) and the length of the base is 15 in (15 inches). the area of a triangle is “one-half the base times the height. Now. 1 bh 2 1 2(A) = 2 bh 2 A= 2A = bh Area of a triangle formula. Simplify. we already have all terms containing the variable h on one side of the equation. Simplify. The second part of this example requests that we ﬁnd the height of the triangle. where “Stuﬀ” contains no occurrence of the variable h. the ﬁrst step is to clear the fractions by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. 2A bh = b b 2A =h b Divide both sides by b. so we can solve for h by dividing both sides of the equation by b. 2A b 2(90) h= 15 180 h= 15 h = 12 h= Area formula solved for h. Secondly. substitute A = 90 and b = 15 in h = 2A/b. given that the area is A = 90 in2 and the length of the base is b = 15 in. Multiply: 2(90) = 180. . FORMULAE That is.2. 15 for b. To calculate the height of the triangle. Substitute 90 for A. ﬁnd the height of the triangle.” 117 Problem: Solve the formula A = 1 bh for h. Divide: 180/15 = 12. Solution: We’re ﬁrst asked to solve A = (1/2)bh for h.

and let A represent its area. W W L . F = kx for x 2. F = ma for a 8. Ax + By = C for y 21. I = R 24. V = lwh for l 9. x + d = e for d 31. F = 18. solve the given formulas for the indicated variable. given that the area of the rectangle is A = 1073 square meters and its width is W = 29 meters. E = mc2 for m 4. y = mx + b for b 7. d = vt for v 30. F = 28. A = 1 h(b1 + b2 ) for b1 2 1 23. A = 29. F = 9 C + 32 for C 5 kqQ for q r2 20. y = mx + b for x V for V R 13. A = 19. respectively. Solve this formula for L.118 CHAPTER 2. A = πr1 r2 for r2 6. F = qvB for v 12. V = πr2 h for h 3 16. 32. determine its length. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-30. A = 27. Then. y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) for m 26. I = 14. v = v0 + at for v0 5. Let b1 and b2 represent the parallel bases of a trapezoid and let h represent its height. A = h(b1 + b2 ) for h 2 a+b+c for b 3 1 bh for b 2 GM m for M r2 a+b+c for a 3 25. x + d = e for x 1 15. C = 2πr for r 10. L The area of the rectangle is given by the formula A = LW. Let W and L represent the width and length of a rectangle. A = πr2 for π 3. F = kx for k 11. 1. P = IRT for I V for R 17. P = 2W + 2L for W 22.

d C Since the time of the ancient Greeks. Let b and h represent the length of the base and the height of a triangle. and let A represent the area of the triangle. given that the area is A = 3164 square yards. The diameter of a circle is a line segment drawn through the center of the circle. 35. and the height is h = 54 centimeters. somewhat like the term perimeter. Solve this formula for b1 . denoted by the symbol π.4. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral (foursided ﬁgure) whose opposite sides are parallel. FORMULAE b2 h b1 The area of the trapezoid is given by the formula A= 1 (b1 + b2 )h. 2 119 The area of the trapezoid is given by the formula A= 1 (b1 + b2 )h. 33. Let b1 and b2 represent the parallel bases of a trapezoid and let h represent its height. given that the area is A = 1332 square inches and the height is h = 36 inches. h b The area of the triangle is computed using the formula: A= 1 bh 2 h b The area of the parallelogram is computed using the formula: A = bh Solve this formula for b. is the distance around the circle. the second base is b2 = 68 centimeters. 36. ﬁnd the length of the base of the triangle. b2 h b1 Solve this formula for b. 2 Solve this formula for h. The circumference of a circle. C =π d . respectively.2. Then. 34. given that the area is A = 2418 square feet and the height is h = 31 feet. ﬁnd the height h of the trapezoid. given that the area is A = 2457 square centimeters. Next. Next. it has been known that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is a constant. the bases are b1 = 38 yards and b2 = 75 yards. ﬁnd the length b1 of the ﬁrst base. ﬁnd the length of the base of the parallelogram. Then.

x = 13. m = 27. a = 9. v = d t 31. respectively. q = 21. c2 A πr1 F m C 2π y−b m F qB 3V πr2 V I Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ r2 F kQ P − 2L 2 19. Let W and L represent the width and length of a rectangle. Then. R = . 78 feet 35. 37. r2 = 7. then combining like terms. h = 17. Then. 37 square meters 33. W W L ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. L The perimeter (distance around) of the rectangle is found by summing its four sides. W = 23. P = 2W + 2L Solve P = 2W + 2L for W . v = F k E . m = 5. given C = 188. h = 2A b1 + b2 y − y0 x − x0 r2 F Gm 25. 74 inches 37. ﬁnd the length of the diameter d. M = 29.14. x = 3. r = 11. use your result to calculate the width. given that the perimeter is P = 256 meters and the length is L = 73 meters.120 CHAPTER 2. and let P represent its perimeter. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Solve the formula for d.4 yards and π = 3. 55 meters 15.

but your equation’s solution gives the age of Jane’s sister Liz.5 Applications The solution of a word problem must incorporate each of the following steps. it’s possible that your equation incorrectly models the problem’s situation. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. 3. Answer the Question. Let x represent the unknown number. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. Make sure you answer the original question asked in the problem.5. 2. After all. so you could have a valid solution to an incorrect equation. • Labeling unknown quantities in a sketch or diagram. Three more than ﬁve times a certain number is −62. Look Back.“Three more than ﬁve times a certain number is −62” becomes: 27 more than 5 times a certain number is −148.” • Labeling unknown values with variables in a table. 5. Every solution to a word problem must include a carefully crafted equation that accurately describes the constraints in the problem statement. Solve the Equation. Solution: In the solution. Your solution should be written in a sentence with appropriate units. Find the number. the problem might ask for Jane’s age.” Let’s give these requirements a test drive. You must let your readers know what each variable in your problem represents. You must always solve the equation set up in the previous step. It is important to note that this step does not imply that you should simply check your solution in your equation. What is the number? . 4. 1.2. Set up a Variable Dictionary. This step is easily overlooked. Set up an Equation. APPLICATIONS 121 2. 2. This can be accomplished in a number of ways: • Statements such as “Let P represent the perimeter of the rectangle. The important question is: “Does your answer make sense based on the words in the original problem statement. 1. Set up a Variable Dictionary. Set up an Equation. Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. For example.

Note how each consecutive integer is one larger than the preceding integer. ﬁrst subtract 3 from both sides of the equation.” 3 + 5(−13) = 3 + (−65) = −62 Answer: −35 Hence. Compute “three more than ﬁve times −13. Look Back. 2. 1. Subtract 3 from both sides. then the next two consecutive integers are k + 1 and k + 2. and 36. An example of three consecutive integers is 34. 35. If k is the smallest of three consecutive integers. 4. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Three 3 more than + ﬁve times a certain number 5x is = −62 −62 3. Simplify. To solve for x.122 CHAPTER 2. Find the smallest of these three integers. Our solution is correct. 3 + 5x = −62 3 + 5x − 3 = −62 − 3 5x = −65 −65 5x = 5 5 x = −13 Original equation. Set up an Equation. The sum of three consecutive integers is −66. Divide both sides by 5. 5. These are not the integers we seek. three more than ﬁve times −13 is −62. Answer the Question. Set up a Variable Dictionary. Solve the Equation. Simplify. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. but they serve to help in the understanding of the problem. The unknown number is −13. Solution: In the solution. You Try It! The sum of three consecutive odd integers is −225. What are the integers? EXAMPLE 2. The “sum of three consecutive integers is −66” becomes: . as required. Let k represent the smallest of three consecutive integers.

Our solution is correct. which is three times as long as the ﬁrst piece. which is twice as long as the ﬁrst piece. as required. Subtract 3 from both sides. If k = −23 is the smallest of three consecutive integers. Simplify. −75. Combine like terms. The smallest of three consecutive integers is −23. Answer: −77. and the third piece is three times as long as the ﬁrst piece. The third piece. Look Back. k + (k + 1) + (k + 2) = −66 3k + 3 = −66 3k + 3 − 3 = −66 − 3 3k = −69 3k −69 = 3 3 k = −23 Original equation. Find the length of each piece cut by the carpenter. Let L represent the length of the ﬁrst piece. The second piece is twice as long as the ﬁrst piece. ﬁrst simplify the left-hand side of the equation by combining like terms. A carpenter cuts a board measuring 60 inches in three pieces. Find the length of each piece cut by Han. −73 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. Answer the Question. APPLICATIONS 123 First consecutive integer k plus + second consecutive integer (k + 1) plus + third consecutive integer (k + 2) is = −66 −66 3. Set up a Variable Dictionary. . the sum of the three consecutive integers is −66. Then the second piece. Divide both sides by 3. Solution: In the solution. Let’s check the sum of these three consecutive integers. and the third piece is 30 inches longer than the second piece. Simplify. 4. −23 + (−22) + (−21) = −66 Hence. then the next two consecutive integers are −22 and −21. Han cuts a board measuring 230 inches in three pieces. To solve for k. 5. 1. has length 2L. Solve the Equation.2. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. Let’s construct a little table to help summarize the information provided in this problem. The second piece is twice as long as the ﬁrst piece.5. has length 3L.

In symbols: L + 2L + 3L = 60 3. The third piece has length 3L = 30 inches. In tabular form. The ﬁrst piece has length L = 10 inches. this is even more apparent. . The three sides of a triangle are consecutive even integers. Piece First piece Second piece Third piece Total length Length (in) L 2L 3L 60 Length (in) 10 20 30 60 5. You Try It! The three sides of a triangle are consecutive integers. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. 110 in That’s a total of 60 inches. check the sum of their lengths: 10 + 20 + 30 = 60 Answer: 40. Solve the Equation. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Piece First piece Second piece Third piece Total length Length (in) L 2L 3L 60 2. To solve for L. Combine like terms. As you can see in the table above. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 453 centimeters. the second column shows that the sum of the three pieces is 60 inches. EXAMPLE 4. The second piece has length 2L = 20 inches. Divide both sides by 6. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. 80. We have the correct solution. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 156 centimeters. ﬁrst simplify the left-hand side of the equation by combining like terms. Not only is the second length twice the ﬁrst and the third length three times the ﬁrst. 4. L + 2L + 3L = 60 6L = 60 6L 60 = 6 6 L = 10 Original equation. Look Back. Answer the Question.124 CHAPTER 2. Set up an Equation. Simplify.

1. In this example. Simplify.2. To solve for k. our variable dictionary will take the form of a well-labeled ﬁgure.5. If the perimeter is 156 centimeters. ﬁrst simplify the left-hand side of the equation by combining like terms. Thus. if k is the length of the ﬁrst side of the triangle. APPLICATIONS 125 Solution: In the solution. Simplify. 20. Look Back. These are not the integers we seek. An image helps our understanding. Subtract 6 from both sides. Because the next two consecutive even integers are k +2 = 52 and k +4 = 54. respectively. then the next two sides are k+2 and k+4. Answer the Question. The perimeter of the triangle is the sum of the three sides. k + (k + 2) + (k + 4) = 156 3k + 6 = 156 3k + 6 − 6 = 156 − 6 3k = 150 150 3k = 3 3 k = 50 Original equation. An example of three consecutive even integers is 18. Thus. the three sides of the triangle measure 50. 52. Divide both sides by 3. Note that each consecutive even integer is two larger than the preceding integer. then: k + (k + 2) + (k + 4) = 156 3. and 22. Solve the Equation. k+4 k k+2 2. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. 5. Combine like terms. Set up an Equation. but they do give us some sense of the meaning of three consecutive even integers. the ﬁrst side has length 50 centimeters. 4. and 54 centimeters. . The three sides are consecutive even integers. Set up a Variable Dictionary.

. 151.1) Thus. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. How many degrees are in each angle? EXAMPLE 5. we’ll let θ represent the degree measure of the ﬁrst angle of the triangle. as it should be. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 54 cm 50 cm 52 cm Note that the perimeter (sum of the three sides) is: 50 cm + 52 cm + 54 cm = 156 cm Answer: 150. b. . e. so the third angle is θ + 50. 1. Mathematicians love to use Greek letters. we’ll set up a well-labeled ﬁgure for our variable dictionary. d. . especially in the study of trigonometry. . You Try It! The second angle of a triangle is three times bigger than the ﬁrst angle. A well-known fact from geometry is the fact that the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦. Solution: In the solution. so the second angle is 2θ + 10.126 CHAPTER 2. The second angle is 10 degrees larger than twice the ﬁrst angle. The greek letter θ (pronounced “theta”) is particularly favored in representing an angle of a triangle. c. . 152 cm (2. β. the perimeter is 156 centimeters. δ. γ. So. . 2θ + 10 θ θ + 50 . Find the measure of each angle of the triangle. The third angle of the triangle is a 40 degrees larger than the second angle. Suppose we have a triangle whose second angle is 10 degrees larger than twice its ﬁrst angle and whose third angle is 50 degrees larger than its ﬁrst angle. . in much the same way that the English alphabet start out with the letters a. Set up a Variable Dictionary. The third angle is 50 degrees larger than the ﬁrst angle. . Again. The Greek alphabet starts out with the letters α. . Our solution is correct.

the second angle is 2θ + 10 = 70 degrees. Simplify. 70◦ 30◦ 80◦ Note that the sum of the angles is: 30◦ + 70◦ + 80◦ = 180◦ (2. 60◦ . Combine like terms. 5. To solve for θ. The amount she invests in Jim inherits $15. We have the correct solution. 100◦ Thus. θ + (2θ + 10) + (θ + 50) = 180 4θ + 60 = 180 4θ + 60 − 60 = 180 − 60 4θ = 120 4θ 120 = 4 4 θ = 30 Original equation. An image helps our understanding. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. APPLICATIONS 2. the combined interest from both investments was $4. Note that the second angle is 10 degrees larger than twice the ﬁrst angle. Thus. Solve the Equation. How much did he invest in each fund? . Subtract 60 from both sides. Look Back. Divide both sides by 4.000 and decides to invest the money in three separate accounts. He invests part in a fund that pays 5% per year and the rest in a fund that pays 4% per year. The sum of the angles is 180◦ . Set up an Equation.5. The amount she invests in the second account is twice the amount she invests in the ﬁrst account. the sum of the three angles is 180 degrees. as it should be. the ﬁrst angle is θ = 30 degrees. so: θ + (2θ + 10) + (θ + 50) = 180 127 3. and the third angle is θ + 50 = 80 degrees. Note that the third angle is 50 degrees larger than the ﬁrst angle.2. 4.2) Answer: 20◦ .000. At the end of one year. Martha inherits $21. Answer the Question.250. ﬁrst simplify the left-hand side of the equation by combining like terms. Simplify.

Simplify.000 more than the amount invested in the second account. Account # Account#1 Account#2 Account#3 Total Invested Amount Invested x 2x 2x + 1000 21000 Amount Invested $4. Answer the Question. Combine like terms. How much did she invest in each account? Solution: In the solution. so that is 2x + 1000.000 more than the amount she invests in the second account. Account # Account#1 Account#2 Account#3 Total Invested Amount Invested x 2x 2x + 1000 21000 2.000 $9.000 $21.000 . Subtract 1000 from both sides. The amount invested in the second account is twice that invested in the ﬁrst account.128 CHAPTER 2. Solve the Equation. Substitute x = 4000 in each entry of the second column of the table above to produce the results in the table below. x + 2x + (2x + 1000) = 21000 3. The second column of the table reveals the required equation. The three investments must sum to $21. so 2x is the amount invested in the second account. Set up an Equation. 4. Divide both sides by 5. ﬁrst simplify the left-hand side of the equation by combining like terms. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. x + 2x + (2x + 1000) = 21000 5x + 1000 = 21000 5x + 1000 − 1000 = 21000 − 1000 5x = 20000 5x 20000 = 5 5 x = 4000 Original equation. 1. The third account investment is $1. Simplify.000. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES the third account is $1.000 $8. We’ll use a table in this example to help set up our variable dictionary. Let x be the amount invested in the ﬁrst account. Set up a Variable Dictionary. To solve for x.

Set up a Variable Dictionary. Let’s construct a little table to help summarize the information provided in this problem. ﬁrst simplify the left-hand side of the equation by combining like terms. Solve the Equation. d + 4d = 2650 5d = 2650 2650 5d = 5 5 d = 530 Original equation.000 invested in the third account is %1. the total investment is $21. Because Jeﬀ is four times further from the beginning of the trail than the end. The amount $9. Combine like terms.000 more than the amount invested in the second account.000. as it should be. Divide both sides by 5. 000 + $8. 000 + $9.2.000 at 5% and $10. In symbols: d + 4d = 2650 3. 000 (2. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. Section of Trail Distance to ﬁnish Distance from start Total distance Distance (mi) d 4d 2650 Margaret is cycling along a lane that measures 100 miles. 1.000 invested in the second account is twice the amount invested in the ﬁrst account. Look Back. 000 = $21. . Moreover. As we can see in our answer table. the total investment is: $4. the second column shows that the sum of the two distances is 2650 miles. the amount $8. How much further does he have to hike? Solution: In the solution.5. As you can see in the table above. the distance Jeﬀ already completed is 4d. If Magaret is four times as far from the start of the ride as she is from the ﬁnish. Set up an Equation.3) Thus. Simplify. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. Let d represent the distance left for Jeﬀ to hike. Jeﬀ is hiking the 2.000 at 4%. APPLICATIONS 129 5.650-mile Paciﬁc Crest Trail from Mexico to Canada. how many more miles does she have to go before she ﬁnishes her ride? 2. Shortly before he crosses over from Oregon into Washington he is four times as far from the beginning of the trail as he is from the end. To solve for d. We have the correct solution. Answer: $5.

Because the amount left to hike is d = 530 miles. Divide both sides by 85. 0.85S = 34 85S = 3400 3400 85S = 85 85 S = 40 Original equation. Section of Trail Distance to ﬁnish Distance from start Total distance Answer: 20 miles Thus. or 2. If 15% of Sister Damaris’ class was absent. what is the actual size of Mary’s class? EXAMPLE 8. . If only 36 students are present. Set up a Variable Dictionary.120 miles. 2. Distance (mi) d 4d 2650 Distance (mi) 530 2120 2650 You Try It! 20% of Mary’s class were ill and stayed home from school.85S = 34. ﬁrst clear the decimals by multiplying both sides of the equation by 100.130 CHAPTER 2. it is evident that not only is the distance from the start of the trail four times that of the distance left to the ﬁnish. Answer the Question. what is the actual size of Sister Damaris’ class? Solution: In the solution. Simplify. Look Back. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 4. Today 15% of Sister Damaris’ seventh grade class were ill and stayed home from school. where we’ve changed 85% to a decimal by moving the decimal point two places to the left. Jeﬀ’s distance from the start of the trail is 4d = 4(530). 0. If only 34 students are present. then 85% of her class was present. Set up an Equation. Let S represent the actual size of Sister Damaris’ class. Solve the Equation. so the phrase “85% of Sister Damaris’ class is 34” translates into the equation. 3. 1. Multiply both sides by 100. 5. If we arrange these results in tabular form. There are 34 student present. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. we have the correct solution. To solve for S. Jeﬀ still has 530 miles to hike. but also the sum of their lengths is equal to the total length of the trail.

131 5. so 40−6. Thus. we have the correct solution.5. there were 6 students absent. Sister Damaris’ class size is 40. we get: 0. If we calculate 15% of 40. or 34 students were present.2. APPLICATIONS 4. Answer the Question. We’re told that 15% of Sister Damaris’ class is absent.15(40) = 6 Thus. Look Back. Answer: 45 .

Four less than eight times a certain number is −660. The three sides of a triangle are consecutive even integers. Joe is hiking a trail that is 30 miles long. ﬁnd the lengths of each of the three pieces. 3. Alan is hiking a trail that is 70 miles long. After several days. Suppose you have two supplementary angles such that the second angle is 10 degrees larger than 4 times the measure of the ﬁrst angle. and the third piece is 6 centimeters longer than the ﬁrst piece. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. Nine less than ﬁve times a certain number is 141. 2. what percentage of her class is absent? Round your answer to the nearest percent. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. Find the angles. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 486 yards. The second pieces is 3 times as long as the ﬁrst piece. 4. 14. and the third piece is 5 feet longer than the ﬁrst piece. Two angles are said to be complementary if their sum is ninety degrees. he is four times as far from the beginning of the trail as he is from the end. 15. 6. Find the angles. Suppose you have two supplementary angles such that the second angle is 12 degrees larger than 5 times the measure of the ﬁrst angle. Suppose you have two complementary angles such that the second angle is 10 degrees larger than 3 times the measure of the ﬁrst angle. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. After several days. 12. The second pieces is 7 times as long as the ﬁrst piece. If the total length of the yarn is 211 centimeters. 5. 8. How much further does he have to hike? 10. he is two times as far from the beginning of the trail as he is from the end. Find the number. Lily cuts a piece of yarn into three pieces. Two angles are said to be complementary if their sum is ninety degrees. ﬁnd the lengths of each of the three pieces. Two angles are said to be supplementary if their sum is 180 degrees. If the total length of the twine is 320 feet. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Jane cuts a piece of twine into three pieces. If her actual class size is 36 students. Two angles are said to be supplementary if their sum is 180 degrees. The three sides of a triangle are consecutive integers. The three sides of a triangle are consecutive integers. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 450 yards. How much further does he have to hike? 11. 9. Find the number. what percentage of her class is absent? Round your answer to the nearest percent. Suppose you have two complementary angles such that the second angle is 6 degrees larger than 2 times the measure of the ﬁrst angle. 13.132 CHAPTER 2. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 483 meters. Find the angles. Alice takes roll in her ﬁrst grade grade class and ﬁnds that 7 students are missing. . If her actual class size is 37 students. 7. Find the angles. Martha takes roll in her sixth grade grade class and ﬁnds that 2 students are missing.

29. 22. Find the number. The perimeter of a triangle is 414 yards. 28. 20. Find the smallest of the three consecutive even integers. The sum of three consecutive integers is −384. If the amount invested in the certiﬁcate of deposit is $3. A store advertises that it is oﬀering a 12% discount on all articles purchased at the store. The three sides of a triangle are consecutive even integers. The degree measure of angle C is 60 degrees larger than the degree measure of angle A. ﬁnd the amount invested in each account. The three sides of a triangle are consecutive odd integers. The sum of three consecutive even integers is −486. what was the marked price for the article? 30. In triangle ABC. Find the number. If Roberto pays $560. The three sides of a triangle are consecutive odd integers. APPLICATIONS 16. 34. The sum of three consecutive odd integers is −543. If Yao pays $670. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦ . If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 471 centimeters. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 537 feet. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. 18. He decides to invest part of the inheritance in a mutual fund and the remaining part in a certiﬁcate of deposit. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦ . 25. 27. the degree measure of angle B is 4 times the degree measure of angle A. In triangle ABC. Find the lengths of each of the three sides of the triangle. The second side of the triangle is 2 times as long as the ﬁrst side and the third side of the triangle is 6 inches longer than the ﬁrst side.500. Burt inherits $45. 21. Find the largest of the three consecutive integers. The second side of the triangle is 7 times as long as the ﬁrst side and the third side of the triangle is 9 yards longer than the ﬁrst side. Find the smallest of the three consecutive odd integers. Find the degree measures of each angle of triangle ABC. . The perimeter of a triangle is 54 inches. 23. 133 26.80 for an article. The degree measure of angle C is 30 degrees larger than the degree measure of angle A. Find the smallest of the three consecutive even integers.000. Seven more than two times a certain number is 181. The sum of three consecutive even integers is −354.5. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. 33. If the amount invested in the certiﬁcate of deposit is $3. what was the marked price for the article? 31. He decides to invest part of the inheritance in a mutual fund and the remaining part in a certiﬁcate of deposit.56 for an article. A store advertises that it is oﬀering a 14% discount on all articles purchased at the store. 24.500 more than 6 times the amount invested in the mutual fund. ﬁnd the length of each side of the triangle. Find the degree measures of each angle of triangle ABC.2. 32. Find the largest of the three consecutive integers. the degree measure of angle B is 4 times the degree measure of angle A. 17. If the perimeter (sum of the three sides) of the triangle is 318 feet. The sum of three consecutive integers is −501. Find the lengths of each of the three sides of the triangle. ﬁnd the amount invested in each account. Phoenix inherits $12. Find the smallest of the three consecutive odd integers. 19. Nine more than two times a certain number is 137.000 more than 8 times the amount invested in the mutual fund. The sum of three consecutive odd integers is −225.

123. 179.134 CHAPTER 2. and 47 centimeters 15.500 . 162 meters 7. 146 degrees 5. $6. 150. 45. 34. 315. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.000. 25◦ . 6% Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 19. −183 21. 14 miles 11. $780. 28.00 13. 181 feet 29. 160. 152 yards 17. 161. −82 9. 100◦. 148. 62 degrees 3. −164 33. 177. 41. −127 25. 55◦ 23. 87 27. $39. and 54 yards 31.

every real number is associated with a unique position on the number line.10110111011110 . 3. because each can be expressed in the form p/q. .2. we introduced the rational numbers. −3.5 2 3 −1 4 Figure 2. the rational numbers contain all of the numbers we’ve studied up to this point in the course. whole numbers. . However. The number φ is used in ﬁnancial markets and is also arguably the ratio of beauty in art and architecture. √ The number 2 = 1.. . where p and q are integers. Later in the chapter. For example. and other areas of mathematics.14: Positioning numbers on the number line. not all numbers are rational numbers. and the integers Z = {. For example. In lieu of this correspondence.3 0 1 1.6. called the golden ratio. .}. . which neither terminates nor repeats. . The natural numbers. The number e arises in applications involving compound interest. . . and φ (pronounced “phi”). 2. . where p and q are integers. consider the decimal number −3. . −1.13: Positioning numbers on the number line. Indeed.. probability. −3. we introduced the natural numbers N = {1. Each of these irrational (not rational) numbers also has a unique position on the number line (see Figure 2. . The Real Numbers.6 Inequalities In Chapter 1. . the whole numbers W = {0. numbers of the form p/q.14). . Every point on the number line is associated with a unique real number. which √ equals φ = (1 + 5)/2.}.71828182845904 . . Each of these numbers has a unique position on the number line (see Figure 2. Two other irrational numbers you may encounter in your mathematical studies are e (Euler’s constant ).125 −4 −3 −2 −2 7 −8 32 9 0. 2. the number line is usually called the real line. .010110111 . . −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 √ 2 2 π 3 4 Figure 2. INEQUALITIES 135 2. If we combine all of the rational and irrational numbers into one collection. 3. .}. We noted that both terminating and repeating decimals are rational numbers. .141592653589793 . 0=0/12. Conversely. The set of real numbers is denoted by the symbol R. A similar statement can be made about the number π = 3. 3. and integers are also rational numbers. 0. 1. . 4 = 4/1. . then we have a set of numbers that is called the set of real numbers.414213562373095 . . 1. . 2. −3. which is approximately equal to e ≈ 2..13). also equals a decimal number that never terminates and never repeats. −2. and −3 = −12/4. .

suppose that we want to describe the set of “all real numbers that are less than 2. b > a. then we say that a is “less than or equal to” b and write a ≤ b. Order on the Real Line.” Greater than or equal to. so we can also say that b is “greater than” a. The inequality symbol ≤ is pronounced “less than or equal to.136 CHAPTER 2. The inequality symbol ≥ is pronounced “greater than or equal to.” Here are two more inequality symbols that we will use in this section. Suppose that a and b are real numbers positioned on the real line as shown below. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Ordering the Real Numbers The real numbers are ordered on the real line in a manner identical to how we ordered the integers on the number line in Section 1 of Chapter 1. a b • Because a lies to the “left of” b. If we want to say that a lies to the “left of” b. or shares the same position as b. The inequality symbol > is read “greater than. or in mathematical symbols. The inequality symbol < is read “less than. then we say that b is “greater than ore equal to a and write b ≥ a. or in mathematical symbols.” • Alternately.” Set-Builder Notation Mathematicians use a construct called set-builder notation to describe sets or collections of numbers. b lies to the “right of” a. The general form of set-builder notation looks as follows: {x : some statement about x} For example. we say that a is “less than” b. If we want to say that b lise to the “right of” a. or shares the same position as a.” We could use the following notation: A = {x : x < 2} . a < b. Less than or equal to.

This means that we must shade all the real numbers . we will assume that the notation {x : x < 2} is asking for the set of all real numbers less than 2. as we’ve done in constructing Figure 2.15 is unnecessary (and perhaps distracting).15 is perfectly valid. unless there is a speciﬁc refernce to the set of numbers desired. While the shading in Figure 2. INEQUALITIES 137 This is read aloud as follows: “A equals the set of all x such that x is less than 2. Note that there is an “empty circle” at the number two. this is a valid objection.16: You only need to label the endpoint. One objection could be “What type of numbers x are you referring to? Do you want the integers that are less than two or do you want the real numbers that are less than two?” As you can see. The point representing the number two is not shaded because we were only asked to shade the numbers that are strictly less than two. They mean the same thing. suppose instead that we’re asked to shade the set of real numbers {x : x ≤ 2}. For contrast. much of the information provided in Figure 2. “less than” is the same as saying “left of. 2 Figure 2.” Set-builder Assumption. Because −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 2.” while the second is read “A is the set of all x in N that are less than two. We only need to label the endpoint and shade the real numbers to the left of two.” we’ve shaded (in red) all points on the real line that lie to the left of the number two.6. but feel free to use the vertical bar instead.” Some prefer to use a vertical bar instead of a colon. In this text.2.16. One might still object that the notation {x : x < 2} is a bit vague. In Figure 2. A = {x| x < 2} In this text we use the colon in set-builder notation. One way of addressing this objection is to write: A = {x ∈ R : x < 2} or A = {x ∈ N : x < 2} The ﬁrst is read “A is the set of all x in R that are less than two.15: Shading the numbers less than 2.15. we’ve shaded the set of real numbers {x : x < 2}.

Shade the set {x : x ≥ −3} on the real line. −3 You Try It! Use set-builder notation to describe the following set of real numbers: −10 EXAMPLE 2. that are “less than or equal to 2” or “left of and including 2. so the number 2 is shaded (a ﬁlled-in dot).17.” The resulting set is shaded in Figure 2. This is the set of all real numbers x such that x is “less than” −1. You Try It! Shade {x : x ≤ 4} on the real line. . Note the diﬀerence between Figures 2. so the number 2 is left unshaded (an empty dot).17: You only need to label the endpoint. {x : x ≥ −3}.17. Solution: The notation {x : x ≥ −3} is pronounced “the set of all real numbers x such that x is greater than or equal to −3.138 CHAPTER 2.16 and 2. There is another mathematical symbolism.” Thus.16 we’re shading the set {x : x < 2}. In Figures 2.17. In Figures 2. Only the numbers to the left of −1 are shaded. we need to shade the number −3 and all real numbers to the right of −3. called interval notation. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 2 Figure 2. that can be used to describe these sets of real numbers. Thus. {x : x < −1} Interval Notation In Examples 1 and 2. we used set-builder notation to describe the set of real numbers greater than or equal to −3 and a second set of real numbers less than −1. −1 Solution: The number −1 is not shaded. Consider the ﬁrst set of numbers from Example 1. we describe this set with the following set-builder notation: Answer: {x : x > −10} . Use set-builder notation to describe the set of real numbers that are shaded on the number line below. we’re shading the set {x : x ≤ 2}. Answer: 4 EXAMPLE 1.

As you move toward the left end of the real line. the ∞ symbol (positive inﬁnity) is used to indicate that we are including all real numbers to the right of −3. place the numbers in your interval notation in the same order as they are encountered as you sweep your eyes from “left to right” on the real line. this set of real numbers is described with (−∞. The number −1 is not included in this set. we use a parenthesis. the numbers grow without bound. the −∞ symbol (negative inﬁnity) is used to indicate that we are including all real numbers to the left of −1. A nice summary of set-builder and interval notation is presented in Table 2. INEQUALITIES −3 139 Sweeping our eyes “from left to right”. so we use a parenthesis to indicate that we are not including this “ﬁctional” point. Again. we use [−3. 2. −∞ is not an actual number.6. Sweep your eyes from “left to right”. 2. Hence. −1 Sweeping our eyes “from left to right”. The bracket at the left end means that −3 is included in the set. Some comments are in order: 1. . the numbers decrease without bound. To indicate that it is not included. The set of numbers from Example 2 is {x : x < −1}. two inequalities are equivalent if they have the same solution sets. comments are in order: 1. Again. ∞ is not really a number. Equivalent Inequalities Like equations. However.1 at the end of the section. so we use a parentheses to indicate we are “not including” this ﬁctional point. Hence.2. −1). ∞) to describe this set of real numbers. If you would like to insure that you correctly use interval notation. As you move toward the right end of the real line.

You Try It! Use interval notation to describe the solution of: x − 7 < −8 EXAMPLE 3. Simplify both sides. we have an equivalent inequality. then ac < bc and b a < . Multiplying or Dividing by a Positive Number. Let a and b be real numbers with a < b. If we multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a positive number. Add 2 to both sides. then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution. the solution is {x : x ≤ 9}. we add 2 to both sides of the inequality. −1) Using set-builder notation. Let a and b be real numbers with a < b. Solution: To “undo” subtracting 2. Sketch the solution on the real line. 9]. c c . 9 Answer: (−∞. x−2≤7 x−2+2≤7+2 x≤9 Original inequality. we shade the number 9 and all real numbers to the left of 9. adding or subtracting the same amount from both sides of an inequality produces an equivalent inequality (does not change the solution). If c is any real number. Solve for x: x − 2 ≤ 7. then a+c<b+c and a − c < b − c. If c is a real positive number. Using interval notation. the solution is (−∞. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Adding or Subtracting the Same Quantity from Both Sides of an Inequality.140 CHAPTER 2. That is. To shade the real numbers less than or equal to 9.

3. −2 < 5 −2(−2) < −2(5) 4 < −10 −2 < 5 −3(−2) < −3(5) 6 < −15 −2 < 5 −4(−2) < −4(5) 8 < −20 . Solution: To “undo” multiplying by 3. INEQUALITIES 141 You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. divide both sides of the inequality by 3. in this section we are going to encounter one exception.6. Answer: (−4. Use interval notation to describe the solution of: 2x > −8 Shade the real numbers less than or equal to −3. the solution is {x : x ≤ −3}. and −4. we do not reverse the inequality sign. Because we are dividing both sides by a positive number. Using interval notation. −2 < 5 2(−2) < 2(5) −4 < 10 −2 < 5 3(−2) < 3(5) −6 < 15 −2 < 5 4(−2) < 4(5) −8 < 20 Note that in each case. then we multiply both sides by 2. Caution! We’re about to make an error! Start again with −2 < 5. the solution is (−∞. −3. then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution. Solve for x: 3x ≤ −9 Sketch the solution on the real line. it seems that the technique for solving inequalities is pretty much identical to the technique used to solve equations.2. the resulting inequality is still valid. Simplify both sides. However. −3]. Suppose we start with the valid inequality −2 < 5. and 4. 3x ≤ −9 −9 3x ≤ 3 3 x ≤ −3 Original inequality. −3 Using set-builder notation. Divide both sides by 3. ∞) Reversing the Inequality Sign Up to this point. but this time multiply both sides by −2.

Then: (a − b)c > 0 ac − bc > 0 ac − bc + bc > 0 + bc ac > bc Thus. then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution.142 CHAPTER 2. Now. Shade the real numbers greater than −2. multiply both sides by −2. if c is a negative number. but reverse the inequality symbol. −2 < 5 −2(−2) > −2(5) 4 > −10 −2 < 5 −3(−2) > −3(5) 6 > −15 −2 < 5 −4(−2) > −4(5) 8 > −20 Note that each of the resulting inequalities is now a valid inquality. then ac > bc and a b > . subtracting b from both sides gives the result a − b < 0. c c That is. You Try It! Use interval notation to describe the solution of: −3x ≥ −6 EXAMPLE 5. Starting with −2 < 5. When you multiply both sides of an inequality by a negative number. divide both sides by −2. when multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number. −2x < 4 4 −2x > −2 −2 x > −2 Original inequality. ∞). Let a and b be real numbers with a < b. Suppose that a < b. −3. Solve for x: −2x < 4. This means that a − b is a negative number. Using interval notation. you must reverse the inequality sign. Divide both sides by −2. −2 Using set-builder notation. if you start with a < b and c < 0. the solution is (−2. Multiplying or Dividing by a Negative Number. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Note that in each of the resulting inequalities. Sketch the solution on the real line. Answer: (−∞. the solution is {x : x > −2}. Simplify both sides. Because we are dividing both sides by a negative number. we reverse the inequality sign. 2] . then the product (a − b)c is positive. Solution: To “undo” multiplying by −2. Then. then ac > bc. and −4. you must reverse the inequality sign. Reverse the inequality sign. the inequality symbol is pointing the wrong way! Some readers might prefer a more formal reason as to why we reverse the inequality when we multiply both sides by a negative number. If c is a real negative number.

2] You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. Subtract 5 from both sides. Simplify both sides. Sketch the solution on the real line. Using interval notation. Solve for x: 2x + 5 > −7. 2x + 5 > −7 2x + 5 − 5 > −7 − 5 2x > −12 Original inequality. then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution. Because we are dividing both sides by a positive number. Simplify both sides. Subtract 3 from both sides. Start by subtracting 2x from both sides of the inequality.2. Solution: We need to isolate terms containing x on one side of the inequality. we do not reverse the inequality sign. Solve for x: 3 − 5x ≤ 2x + 17. subtract 5 from both sides of the inequality. the solution is (−6. the solution is {x : x > −6}. ∞). Sketch the solution on the real line. then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution.6. Answer: (−∞. Subtract 2x from both sides. 2x −12 > 2 2 x > −6 Divide both sides by 2. Use interval notation to describe the solution of: 4 − x > 2x + 1 We continue to isolate terms containing x on one side of the inequality. Simplify both sides. −6 Using set-builder notation. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. Shade the real numbers greater than −6. Simplify both sides. 3 − 5x ≤ 2x + 17 3 − 5x − 2x ≤ 2x + 17 − 2x 3 − 7x ≤ 17 Original inequality. Use interval notation to describe the solution of: 3x − 2 ≤ 4 To “undo” multiplying by 2. INEQUALITIES 143 Multiple Steps Sometimes you need to perform a sequence of steps to arrive at the solution. 3 − 7x − 3 ≤ 17 − 3 −7x ≤ 14 Subtract 3 from both sides. Solution: To “undo” adding 5. . divide both sides by 2.

Answer: (−∞.144 CHAPTER 2. 1) We clear fractions from an inequality in the usual manner. Cancel and multiply. . −7x 14 ≥ −7 −7 x ≥ −2 Divide both sides by −7. by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. −2 Using set-builder notation. Because we are multiplying both sides by a negative number. Multiply both sides by 12. Reverse the inequality sign. we reverse the inequality sign. divide both sides by −7. Simplify both sides. Using interval notation. EXAMPLE 8. Solve for x: x 1 3 − > 4 12 3 3 x 1 − 12 > 12 4 12 3 1 3 x > − 12 12 12 4 12 3 9−x> 4 Original inequality. the solution is [−2. 9−x−9 > 4−9 −x > −5 Subtract 9 from both sides. To “undo” adding 9. which in this case is 12. Simplify both sides. Simplify both sides. ∞). but multiplying both sides by −1 will also do the job. the solution is {x : x ≥ −2}. (−1)(−x) < (−5)(−1) x<5 Multiply both sides by −1. Shade the real numbers greater than or equal to −2. subtract 9 from both sides. Distribute the 12. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES To “undo” multiplying by −7. clear the fractions from the inequality by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. 4 12 3 Solution: First. You Try It! Use interval notation to describe the solution of: 2x 3 3 − ≥− 3 4 2 x 1 3 − > . We could divide both sides by −1. Because we are dividing both sides by a negative number. we reverse the inequality sign.

Divide both sides by −120. which moves each decimal point two places to the right. Answer: [−9/8. You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. Multiply both sides by 100. by multiplying both sides by the appropriate power of ten.2.6. Subtract 325 from both sides. Use interval notation to describe the solution of: 2. Reduce to lowest terms. ∞) . the solution is (−∞. Reverse the inequality sign. Using interval notation.25 − 1.62 ≥ −1. 5 145 Using set-builder notation.6. −27/24 Using set-builder notation. ∞) We clear decimals from an inequality in the usual manner. Solve for x: 3. INEQUALITIES Shade the real numbers less than 5. the solution is (−∞.2x > 4.25 − 1. Using interval notation. 3.3x − 5. the solution is {x : x < −27/24}.4 Solution: First.2x > 4. the solution is {x : x < 5}. 5).6 325 − 120x > 460 325 − 120x − 325 > 460 − 325 −120x > 135 −120x 135 < −120 −120 27 x<− 24 Original inequality. Shade the real numbers less than −27/24. clear the decimals from the inequality by multiplying both sides by 100. Answer: [211/115. Simplify both sides. −27/24).

−5] Table 2.1.1: Examples of set-builder and interval notation. −5) (−∞.146 CHAPTER 2. ∞) (−∞. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES Summary Table of Set-Builder and Interval Notation A summary table of the set-builder and interval notation is presented in Table 2. . Shading on the real line −5 −5 −5 −5 Set-builder {x : x > −5} {x : x ≥ −5} {x : x < −5} {x : x ≤ −5} Interval (−5. ∞) [−5.

and 5/2 on your number line. list the numbers in order. then plot the numbers −5. {x : x < 2} 8. and −4/3 on your number line. Finally. {x : x ≥ −1} 7. 3. 7/8. Draw a number line. (5. use set-builder notation to describe the shaded region on the given number line. from smallest to largest. −9) 11. −4. shade each of the following sets on a number line. list the numbers in order. {x : x ≤ 7} 19. 5. 4. 21. then plot the numbers −3. 3. Label each point with its value. list the numbers in order. (6. from smallest to largest. (−∞. 2/3. 27. ∞) 17. [0. {x : x ≥ −7} 6. Draw a number line. (−∞. 2. and −8/3 on your number line. {x : x ≤ −2} 18. −2 −3 −3 . 3] 20. 9 0 −8 26. 5/7. 28. {x : x > 7} 14. Finally. −4. 5.6. Finally. (−∞. 23. INEQUALITIES 147 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Draw a number line. list the numbers in order. 9 22. 24. then plot the numbers 4. In Exercises 5-20.2. ∞) 16. {x : x < −6} 9. 3. ∞) 13. (−∞. {x : x > −8} 15. [7. then plot the numbers 5. 8 25. from smallest to largest. Finally. Label each point with its value. ∞) 12. 1/3. −1] In Exercises 21-28. 2) 10. 4. Draw a number line. and 8/3 on your number line. Label each point with its value. from smallest to largest. Label each point with its value. −2. 4.

then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution. 2 4 −7 −2 33. solve each of the given inequalities. 31. 45.148 CHAPTER 2. −18x + 6 < −12 61. 34. 32. x − 18 > −10 44. −2x ≤ −2 42. −16x − 5 ≥ −11 − 6x 54. −5x − 6 ≥ 4 − 9x 46. −11x − 7 ≥ −15 − 5x 55. 29. 35. Sketch the solution on a number line. 16x ≥ −2 41. 2x − 9 ≥ 5 − 8x 56. then use set-builder and interval notation to describe your solution. 4x < 8 40. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES In Exercises 29-36. −14x − 6 ≥ −10 − 4x 50. −12x + 4 < −56 60. 30. −10x − 4 ≤ 18 58. 12x + 8 < 3x + 5 . 37. 5x + 18 < 38 52. 9x + 16 < 79 53. −3x − 6 ≥ −2 − 9x 57. x − 8 ≤ −18 In Exercises 45-62. 15x + 5 < 6x + 2 62. −18x > −20 43. −13x − 4 ≥ −2 − 5x 51. solve each of the given inequalities. 2x − 7 ≥ −3 − 4x 47. 36. −6x − 14 ≤ 1 59. x + 17 ≥ 7 39. use interval notation to describe the shaded region on the given number line. Sketch the solution on a number line. x + 10 < 19 38. 5 2 1 −2 In Exercises 37-44. 8x − 14 ≤ −12 49. 16x − 6 ≤ 18 48.

6 ❧ ❧ ❧ 8 −4 − 3 7 8 Answers 9.2x 80. 2.9 − 2. −3. −2 −7 2 7. Sketch the solution on a number line.1 ≥ −2. 75. 6 5 5 1 2 3 3.98 ≤ 3.3x 82. 1 2 3 4 13. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. −2.1 > 1.4x + 3. 69.6x + 3.8 79. Sketch the solution on a number line.7x − 1. 67. −1.9 − 1. 65. 66.7x 81. 7 15.2x + 1.5 ≥ 0. 1 2 3 5 74. 63. x − 71. 76. 5. 77.9 > −2. −3. −3. solve each of the given inequalities.6x − 3.5x + 2. 1. 1 7 ≥ 2 5 4 6 x≤− 5 7 4 2 x≤ 3 9 7 5 2 6 − x− ≤ − x 5 3 9 9 3 1 3 2 − x− ≤ − x 7 2 2 7 9 1 7 9 x+ > x+ 7 2 7 2 9 1 5 5 x+ > x+ 7 2 3 2 In Exercises 77-84.9 < −2.6 − 3.6x + 1. . 72.32 ≤ 0.2 78. 0 17.2. 68. INEQUALITIES 149 In Exercises 63-76.8x 83. then use set-builder and interval notation containing fractions in reduced form to describe your solution. 3 2 3 8 3 4 4 4 5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 2 11. 73. then use set-builder and interval notation describe your solution. solve each of the given inequalities.3x + 2.3 84. 64. 2.6.2 < 1.4 − 3. 3 9 x> 2 8 3 6 x> 7 4 3 9 x+ < 2 5 1 1 x+ <− 4 5 4 4 1 − x≤ x− 7 6 3 7 5 3 − x≤ x− 3 4 4 9 3 x− ≥− 8 7 70.

(5. 3 21. ∞) 31. −21/11) 53. (−11/4. ∞) 75. 3/10) 67. [5/7. [1. ∞) 59. −1/3) 63. ∞) 73. [−7/5. −2) 33. 3/2] 49. (−7/8. ∞) 37. (−∞. (−∞. ∞) 45. ∞) 79. (−∞. {x : x ≤ 9} 23. 2/5] 51. [−11/5. {x : x > −2} 27. (8. [1. ∞) 61. (−∞.150 CHAPTER 2. ∞) 69. 2) 41. (−∞. ∞) 57. ∞) 65. [−51/56. 3/5] 55. ∞) 43. (−∞. 9) 39. 13/6] 47. SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 19. (−∞. [10/21. ∞) 83. [−65/22. (−∞. (3/4. (−∞. (4. ∞) 77. [5/2. {x : x < −8} 25. (−∞. (−∞. (−∞. 4) 81. {x : x ≥ −3} 29. ∞) 71. [7/5. 5] 35. ∞) .

151 . The equation of a particular line can be written in several algebraic forms which you will learn to interpret. these tasks will be used to help solve application problems involving speed and distance. Thus. and ﬁnding solutions of equations. One of the easy ways to do this was to use the 2-dimensional geometric plane. the graphs on the following pages are done on a graph named a “Cartesian Coordinate” graph in Rene Descartes’ honor. The geometric aspect of a line will be noted in its position and slope. We will also be focusing on geometric aspects such as parallel and perpendicular lines.Chapter 3 Introduction to Graphing In thinking about solving algebra and geometry problems in the 1600’s. graphing lines quickly. y) would be used to graph speciﬁc points on the plane and/or algebraic expressions and equations. In modern times. we use the graphing calculator to speed up the process of providing tables of data. Ultimately. Then ordered pairs (x. Rene Descartes came up with the idea of using algebraic procedures to help solve geometric problems and to also demonstrate algebraic operations by using geometry. He decided to use the letters near the end of the alphabet to name the axes: “x-axis” for the horizontal axis and “y-axis” for the vertical axis.

y). On a grid.1 is a Cartesian Coordinate System. where x and y are any real numbers. The Cartesian Coordinate System Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was a French philosopher and mathematician who is well known for the famous phrase“cogito ergo sum” (I think. who some call the “Father of Modern Mathematics” Pictured in Figure 3. which appears in his Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison. 4). Descartes introduces his coordinate system. one horizontal labeled x (we’ll refer to this one as the x-axis). is called an ordered pair of real numbers. Two Important Points: Here are two important points to be made about the horizontal and vertical axes in Figure 3. Order Matters. 3).1 Graphing Equations by Hand We begin with the deﬁnition of an ordered pair. because the numbers are presented in a diﬀerent order. Consequently. we’ve created two real lines. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 3. the Cartesian plane of modern day is so named in honor of Rene Descartes. y) is not the same as the ordered pair (y.1.152 CHAPTER 3. et chercher la verite dans les sciences (Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason. the ordered pair (x. Pay particular attention to the phrase “ordered pairs.1: The Cartesian Coordinate System. and the other vertical labeled y (we’ll refer to this one as the y-axis). x). (4. The construct (x. and Seeking Truth in the Sciences). (−3. y 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 Figure 3.” Order matters. Indeed. Ordered Pair. −1) are examples of ordered pairs. and (3. In that same treatise. −3). (−2. x 1 2 3 4 5 . a method for representing points in the plane via pairs of real numbers. therefore I am).

and four). the numbers grow larger.2.1). numbered I. The positive direction is to the right. y 5 4 II 3 2 1 I Origin: (0.2 is called the origin of the coordinate system. as shown in Figure 3. The origin has coordinates (0. 2. three. The horizontal and vertical axes divide the plane into four quadrants.1. As you move from bottom to top along the vertical axis (the y-axis in Figure 3. 0). 0) x 1 2 3 4 5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 III −3 −4 −5 IV Figure 3. the negative direction is to the left. the negative direction is downward. 4. the numbers grow larger.2: Numbering the quadrants and indicating the coordinates of the origin. III. and IV (roman numerals for one. Note that the quadrants are numbered in a counter-clockwise order. The point where the horizontal and vertical axes intersect in Figure 3. II. Additional Comments: Two additional comments are in order: 3. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 153 1. two. The positive direction is upward. . As you move from left to right along the horizontal axis (the x-axis in Figure 3.3.1).

.3: Draw and label each axis.3. if each gridline represents one unit.154 CHAPTER 3. on each axis. Indicate the scale on each axis. as you count to the right from the origin on the x-axis. However. Figure 3.4: Indicate the scale on each axis. Similar comments are in order for the y-axis. For example. The result of this ﬁrst step is shown in Figure 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Plotting Ordered Pairs Before we can plot any points or draw any graphs. then as you count to the left from the origin on the x-axis. Use a ruler to draw the horizontal and vertical axes. Note that the scale indicated on the x-axis indicates that each gridline counts as 1-unit as we count from left-to-right. y 10 y x −5 x 5 −10 Figure 3. each gridline must also represent one unit. where the scale must also be consistent. The scale on the y-axis indicates that each gridlines counts as 2-units as we count from bottom-to-top. y). perform each of the following initial tasks. we would label the horizontal axis as the t-axis and the vertical axis as the v-axis. 2. The scales on the horizontal and vertical axes may diﬀer. Label at least one horizontal gridline with its numerical value. Label at least one vertical gridline with its numerical value.4. In that case. then we would be plotting points (t. if we want to plot the velocity of an object as a function of time. 3. That is. then. 4. whether you are counting up or down. Label the horizontal axis as the x-axis and the vertical axis as the y-axis. we ﬁrst need to set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on a sheet of graph paper? How do we do this? What is required? We don’t always label the horizontal axis as the x-axis and the vertical axis as the y-axis. An example is shown in Figure 3. 1. on a sheet of graph paper. If we are going to plot points (x. Draw and label each axis. v). the scale must remain consistent.

Vice-versa. we begin to use the words “point” and “ordered pair” as equivalent expressions. y) of real numbers is associated with a unique point in the Cartesian plane.5. 3). −3). each ordered pair (x.3. This indicates that the coordinates of the point P are (−3. start at the origin. then 3 units downward in the direction of the vertical axis. Solution: In Figure 3. each point in the Cartesian point is associated with a unique ordered pair of real numbers. then 3 units upward in the direction of the vertical axis. To plot the ordered pair (4. here are two examples of how we plot points on our coordinate system. y). 4). Identify the coordinates of the point P in Figure 3. start at the origin and move 4 units to the right along the horizontal axis. move 3 units to the left and 4 units up to reach the point P . y 5 (4.1. y) and other times to the “ordered pair” (x. sometimes referring to the “point” (x. y 5 −2 5 x (−2. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 155 Now that we know how to set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on a sheet of graph paper. y 5 −5 P −5 5 x .6. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. start at the origin and move 2 units to the left along the horizontal axis. 3) 3 4 −5 x 5 −5 −3 To plot the ordered pair (−2. −3) −5 −5 Continuing in this manner. Because of this association. Identify the coordinates of the point P in the graph below.

6: Start at the origin. Because the last line is a false statement. Substitute: 2 for x. Alternately. y) = (2. 1). y) = (−3. the point (−3. 1) does not satisfy the equation y = x + 1. we get the following result: y =x+1 3=2+1 3=3 Original equation. consider the point (x. the equation v = 2 + 3. 1) is not a solution of the equation y = x + 1. v and t. Answer: (3. 3) is a solution of the equation y = x + 1. we get the following result. Simplify both sides. y =x+1 1 = −3 + 1 1 = −2 Original equation. 1 for y. 4) 5 −4 −5 x 5 −5 x 5 −3 −5 Figure 3. . On the other hand. Simplify both sides. Consider the point (x. Substitute: −3 for x.5: Identify the coordinates of the point P . For example. the point (−3. we say that (2. that is. 3). INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING y P (−3. 3 for y. Equations in Two Variables The variables do not have to always be x and y. 3) satisﬁes the equation y = x + 1. The equation y = x + 1 is an equation in two variables.156 y P 5 CHAPTER 3. If we substitute −3 for x and 1 for y in the equation y = x + 1. move 3 units left and 4 units up. −2) −5 Figure 3.2t is an equation in two variables. If we substitute 2 for x and 3 for y in the equation y = x + 1. in this case x and y. Because the last line is a true statement. we say that (2.

then the point (x. . but the ordered pair (1. y) = (a. 3) and (2. The graph of an equation is the set of all points that satisfy the given equation. Consider (x.3. Substitute 1 for x and 1 for y: y = 3x − 2 1 = 3(1) − 2 1=1 The resulting statement is true. the ordered pair (0. y) = (1. −3) does not satisfy the equation y = 3x − 2. y. 1) satisfy the equation y = 2x + 5? Thus. Alternately. 1) satisfy the equation y = 3x − 2? Solution: Substituting the ordered pairs (0. if upon subsituting a for x and b for y a true statement results. and (x. y) = (0. −3). Sketch the graph of the equation y = −x + 2. Substitute 0 for x and −3 for y: y = 3x − 2 −3 = 3(0) − 2 −3 = −2 The resulting statement is false. y) = (a. b) is said to be a solution of the given equation. we say that the point (x. Sketch the graph of the equation y = x + 1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. b) satisﬁes the given equation. −3) and (1. −3) and (1. Answer: (−1. Let’s ﬁrst create a table of points that satisfy the equation. then select some values for x and put them in the ﬁrst column. Graphing Equations in Two Variables Let’s ﬁrst deﬁne what is meant by the graph of an equation in two variables. Start by creating three columns with headers x. 1) into the equation y = 3x − 2 lead to the following results: Consider (x. b). y). Solution: The deﬁnition requires that we plot all points in the Cartesian Coordinate System that satisfy the equation y = x + 1. 1). The graph of an equation.1. y) = (a. 1) does satisfy the equation y = 3x − 2. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 157 Solutions of an equation in two variables. Given an equation in the variables x and y and a point (x. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Which of the ordered pairs (0. 3) Which of the ordered pairs (−1.

7. y) (−3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 y =x+1 −2 (x. 1) (1. namely x = −3. Continue substituting each tabular value of x into the equation y = x + 1 and use each result to complete the corresponding entries in the table. 0) (0. y) (−3. 2) (2. −2) (−2. and substitute it into the equation y = x + 1. y 5 5 y −5 x 5 −5 x 5 −5 Figure 3. 4) y y y y y y y = −3 + 1 = −2 = −2 + 1 = −1 = −1 + 1 = 0 =0+1=1 =1+1=2 =2+1=3 =3+1=4 The last column of the table now contains seven points that satisfy the equation y = x+1. −5 Figure 3.7. we have y = −2. but let’s calculate and plot a few more points in order to be sure. y =x+1 y = −3 + 1 y = −2 Thus. when x = −3. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 y =x+1 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 (x.158 CHAPTER 3.7: Seven points that satisfy the equation y = x + 1. 3) (3.8: Adding additional points to the graph of y = x + 1. Add the x-values . −1) (−1.7). Enter this value into the table. However. we have plotted seven points that satisfy the given equation y = x + 1. In Figure 3. the deﬁnition requires that we plot all points that satisfy the equation. −2) Take the ﬁrst value of x. Plot these points on a Cartesian Coordinate System (see Figure 3. It appears that a pattern is developing in Figure 3.

then use the equation y = x + 1 to evaluate y at each one of these x-values.5 + 1 = 3. −0. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 159 −2. y 5 y =x+1 Answer: −5 x 5 y = −x + 2 y 5 −5 Figure 3. 1. −0.5 = 2.5.5 = 0.5) y y y y y y = −2. .5) (1.5 1.5. 0.9: The graph of y = x + 1 is a line.8 suggest that if we were to plot the remainder of the points that satisfy the equation y = x + 1. 05. y) (−2. x −2.3.5.5 y =x+1 −1.5.5 = −0.5 + 1 = −1. −5 5 x −5 Guidelines and Requirements Example 3 suggests that we should use the following guidelines when sketching the graph of an equation.5 = −1.5 + 1 = 0.5 −1.5) (0.5 0.5. and 2. the collection of points plotted in Figure 3.5.5 = 1.5 3. we would get the graph of the line shown in Figure 3.5) (2.1.5 + 1 = 1. 3.5.8.7 to produce the image shown in Figure 3. we’ve plotted only 13 points that satisfy the equation.5.5 2.5 1. There are an inﬁnite number of points that satisfy the equation y = x + 1.5 to the x-column of the table.5 −0.5) (−0. −1. However. 1.5 + 1 = −0. In Figure 3.5 2.5 0. 2.5 Add these additional points to the graph in Figure 3.5) (−1.5.5 (x. −1.5 −0.5.8.5 + 1 = 2.9.

. 7. and rulers. then the graph should be drawn freehand. All graphs are to be drawn on graph paper. Fortunately. Set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on graph paper and plot the points in your table on the system. plot them. add more points to your table. If you still cannot predict the eventual shape of the graph. Use a ruler if you believe the graph is a line. The following are requirements for this class: 5. 2. curves. and try again to envision the ﬁnal shape of the graph. If the number of points plotted are enough to envision what the shape of the ﬁnal curve will be. Set up and calculate a table of points that satisfy the given equation. then draw the remaining points that satisfy the equation as imagined. freehand the graph without the use of a ruler. Using the TABLE Feature of the Graphing Calculator As the equations become more complicated. perform each of the following steps: 1. Label each axis (usually x and y) and indicate the scale on each axis. Graph paper. the graphing calculator has a TABLE feature that enables you to easily construct tables of points that satisfy the given equation. lines. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Guidelines for drawing the graph of an equation. If the graph of an equation is a curve instead of a line. 3. When asked to draw the graph of an equation. This includes the horizontal and vertical axes. 6.160 CHAPTER 3. All lines are to be drawn with a ruler. keep adding points to your table and plotting them until you are convinced of the ﬁnal shape of the graph. If the graph appears to be a curve. Here are some additional requirements that must be followed when sketching the graph of an equation. it can become quite tedious to create tables of points that satisfy the equation. 4. If the number of plotted points do not provide enough evidence to envision the ﬁnal shape of the graph. without the aid of a ruler.

1. In this case. Continue this process until your are convinced of the ﬁnal shape of the graph. Opening the Y= Figure 3. Plot the points in your table. Above the WINDOW button you’ll note the phrase TBLSET. The graphing Figure 3. set . The next step is to “set up” the table. Note that it is in the same color as the 2ND button. to open the setup window for the table. The result is shown in Figure 3.12: Entering the equation y = x2 − 7. In this case. then use the following keystrokes to enter the equation y = x2 − 7.3. use the calculator to add more points to your table and plot them. First.13: Arrow keys move the cursor. Solution: The ﬁrst step is to load the equation y = x2 − 7 into the Y= menu of the graphing calculator.11: menu.11. enter −4 after TblStart. Set Tbl to the increment you want for your x-values. If you don’t feel that there is enough evidence to envision what the ﬁnal shape of the graph will be. Use the graphing calculator to help create a table of points that satisfy the equation y = x2 − 7. Use the up-and-down arrow keys (see Figure 3. n ∧ 2 − 7 ENTER Figure 3.10) have the following appearance: Y= WINDOW ZOOM TRACE GRAPH Pressing the Y= button opens the Y= menu shown in Figure 3.13) to move the cursor after Y1= in the Y= menu. θ. X. Finally. The topmost row of buttons on your calculator (see Figure 3.12. note that the calculator has symbolism printed on its case above each of its buttons. set Tbl equal to 1.10: calculator. Thus. enter the following keystrokes. T. Set TblStart (see Figure 3. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 161 You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. 2ND WINDOW Figure 3.14) equal to the ﬁrst x-value you want to see in your table.

2ND GRAPH The result is shown in Figure 3. note the word TABLE above the GRAPH button is in the same color as the 2ND key. To open the TABLE. Next. the eventual shape of the graph of y = x2 − 7 may be evident already.15. Figure 3.16: Plotting nine points that satisfy the equation y = x2 − 7. −7) (1. Open the .14: Opening the TBLSET menu. −6) (2. Figure 3.162 CHAPTER 3. Note that you can use the up-and-down arrow keys to scroll through the table.16. then plot the points in the table. 2) (4. −3) (3. 2) (−2. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING both the independent and dependent variables to “automatic. −3) (−1.” In each case. Next. enter the following keystrokes. use the arrow keys to highlight the word AUTO and press ENTER. y) (−4.15: Table of points satisfying y = x2 − 7. 9) 10 −10 10 x −10 Figure 3. −6) (0. but let’s add a few more points to our table and plot them.16. In Figure 3. The result is shown in Figure 3.14. The results are shown in Figure 3. 9) (−3. enter the results from your calculator’s table into a table on a sheet of graph paper. y x −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 y = x2 − 7 9 2 −3 −6 −7 −6 −3 2 9 (x.

75) (0. y) (−3.5 −2. Figure 3.17: Set Tbl equal to 0.5.5.5. Figure 3. y x −3.5.75 −4.5 1.25) −10 10 x −10 Figure 3.5 2. −0.18: More points satisfying y = x2 − 7. There are an inﬁnite number of points that satisfy the equation y = x2 − 7. Set TblStart to −4 again.17. −6.5. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 163 table “setup” window again by pressing 2ND WINDOW.25 10 (x.5. −4.19.5. .5. we’ve plotted only 17 points that satisfy the equation y = x2 − 7. The result is shown in Figure 3.19 suggest that if we were to plot the remainder of the points that satisfy the equation y = x2 − 7. 5.5 3. the collection of points in Figure 3.5.75 −6.5 0.20.5.75) (−0.75) (3. −4. −6.5 −1. the result would be the curve (called a parabola) shown in Figure 3. Add these new points to the table on your graph paper and plot them (see Figure 3.75 −4.19).75 5.75 −6. then set the increment Tbl to 0.5 −0.75) (2.75) (−1.19: Adding additional points to the graph of y = x2 − 7. However.75) (1.3.1.5 y = x2 − 7 5.25) (−2. −0. In Figure 3. 5.75 −0.25 −0.

INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING y 10 y = x2 − 7 −10 10 x −10 Figure 3.164 CHAPTER 3.20: The graph of y = x2 − 7 is a curve called a parabola. .

set up a Cartesian Coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. and C(−4. −4). −3). and C(−2. B(−4.3. 2). 2) 5. −4). B(−2.1. A(−3. −4). 5 y −5 5 x −5 5 x −5 −5 y P y 8. 4) 3. A(2. and C(−3. 5 P y 9. −4) In Exercises 7-10. A(3. A(3. and C(−3. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 165 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 1. 2) 2. B(−3. −2) 6. −2). −4). B(−3. and C(−4. −4). identify the coordinates of point P in each of the given coordinate systems. A(−2. −2). A(3. P 5 10. 3) 4. −3). 7. B(2. B(−3. 2). −4). and C(2. then plot the given points. 5 −5 5 x −5 P 5 x −5 −5 .

and (−6. y) . 19). y) x −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 y = |x + 2| (x. then draw the graph of the given equation. (1. Which of the points (0. 153). Which of the points (−6. 1) is a solution of the equation y = 8x2 + 3? 16. 29) is a solution of the equation y = 6x2 + 2x? 18. (−9. and (4. (−7. (7. complete the table of points that satisfy the given equation. Which of the points (−9. −1) is a solution of the equation y = −2x2 + 7x? 11. (5. 16) is a solution of the equation y = 3x2 + 6? 17. x 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 y = |x − 5| (x. Which of the points (8. −12) is a solution of the equation y = 5x − 5? 12. 36) is a solution of the equation y = −7x − 7? 13. Which of the points (−7. 400). 49). (6. −46). (7. (4. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 y = 2x + 1 (x. (−6. and (0. 20). (5. −114). and (5. 395). (−7. Which of the points (8. (1. 154). y) 21. Set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. −15). INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 15. −29). 30). 13). 158). 39). x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 y = x−4 22. (x. −14).166 CHAPTER 3. (6. plot the points from the completed table. 19. −11) is a solution of the equation y = −3x + 3? In Exercises 19-26. −3) is a solution of the equation y = −5x + 6? 14. −149). 398). and (2. 3). (−2. (0. and (−2. 36). Which of the points (1. 12). Which of the points (7. and (2. 1). and (2. −9). 21). y) 20. (−6.

starting at −2 and ending at 4. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = −x2 − 2x + 8. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = x2 − 2x − 3. then plot the points in your table. Label and scale each axis. x −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 25. After completing the table. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = x2 − 2x − 3. y) x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 26. y) 27. Label and scale each axis. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. 28. After completing the table. After completing the table. Use integer values of x. y) y = (x + 5)2 y = −2x + 3 (x. Label and scale each axis. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = −x2 − 2x + 8. then plot the points in your table. y) x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 167 y = (x + 1)2 y = −x − 5 (x. Use integer values of x. (x. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. Finally. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = −x2 + 2x + 3. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = x2 − 6x + 5. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. Finally. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = −x2 + 2x + 3. Label and scale each axis. starting at −5 and ending at 3. .1. Finally. After completing the table. (x. then plot the points in your table. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = x2 − 6x + 5. x −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 24. 29. 30. Use integer values of x. then plot the points in your table. starting at 0 and ending at 6. starting at −2 and ending at 4. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 23. Use integer values of x.3. Finally.

then plot the points in your table. Finally. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. Finally. Use integer values of x. Use integer values of x. 32. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = −x3 + x2 + 12x. 31. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = x3 + 3x2 − 13x − 15. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = −x3 + x2 + 12x. 36. Label and scale each axis. 5 C(−3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 34. Finally. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation √ y = 4 − x. then plot the points in your table. −2) A(2. After completing the table. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph √ of y = x + 5. −4) B(−3. −3) −5 5 −5 5 x A(3. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph √ of y = 4 − x. Use integer values of x. starting at −3 and ending at 6. ❧ ❧ ❧ y 5 C(−2. Round your y-values to the nearest tenth. then plot the points in your table. Label and scale each axis. then plot the points in your table. Use integer values of x. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. 35. Label and scale each axis. starting at −4 and ending at 5. then plot the points in your table. After completing the table. After completing the table. Finally. Use integer values of x. After completing the table. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. After completing the table. Use integer values of x. then plot the points in your table. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = x3 − 4x2 − 7x + 10. Label and scale each axis. −4) −5 . starting at −3 and ending at 6. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = −x3 + 4x2 + 7x − 10. Label and scale each axis. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = x3 − 4x2 − 7x + 10. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. 3) −5 B(−4. Round your y-values to the nearest tenth. Finally. 33. starting at −6 and ending at 4. starting at −5 and ending at 10. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation √ y = x + 5. use the plotted points as evidence to draw the graph of y = x3 + 3x2 − 13x − 15. Label and scale each axis. Use a graphing calculator to complete a table of points satisfying the equation y = −x3 + 4x2 + 7x − 10. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper.168 CHAPTER 3. After completing the table. Finally. 2) x y Answers 3. starting at −10 and ending at 4.

20) 25. (1. 395) 17. 13.3. −3) −5 5 C(2. (7. y y = (x + 1)2 y 10 −5 B(−2. GRAPHING EQUATIONS BY HAND 5. (3. (−4. −4) 11. −2) 10 x 7. (8. 10 y = x2 − 6x + 5 y = |x − 5| −10 10 x −10 10 x −10 −10 .1. 5 A(−2. 400) 19. 1) 15. 2) x −10 169 23. 3) 9. (5. 10 y y = 2x + 1 −10 −10 y 10 10 x −10 −10 10 x y = −x − 5 −10 27. 10 y y 21.

10 CHAPTER 3. 10 y √ x+5 x −10 10 −10 10 −50 −10 .170 29. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 33. 35. 50 y y −10 10 x −10 10 x y = −x2 + 2x + 3 y = −x3 + 4x2 + 7x − 10 −10 −50 y 50 y = x3 − 4x2 − 7x + 10 y= x 31.

21. press 2ND MODE again to quit the MODE menu. located immediately below the view screen. Press the ALPHA key to access a command having the same color as the ALPHA key. THE GRAPHING CALCULATOR 171 3. use the up-anddown arrow keys to move to the non-matching line item.3.21).2 The Graphing Calculator It’s time to learn how to use a graphing calculator to sketch the graph of an equation.21: Top half of calculator. Once you’ve completed your changes.22. Locate and push the MODE in the ﬁrst row of Figure 3. This should place a blinking cursor over the ﬁrst item on the line. It is not uncommon that people share their graphing calculators with friends who make changes to the settings in the calculator. In this introduction to the graphing calculator. Let’s take a moment to make sure we have some common settings on our calculators. This will open the window shown in Figure 3. Make sure that the mode settings on your calculator are identical to the ones shown in Figure 3. The upand-down and left-and-right arrow keys are located in the upper right corner of Figure 3. We will use the TI-84 graphing calculator in this section. These are used for moving the cursor on the calculator view screen and various menus. .22. If not. used to clear the view screen and equations in the Y= menu. Immediately below these arrow keys is the CLEAR button.21. Figure 3. The QUIT command is located above the MODE button on the calculator case and is used to exit the current menu. Next. Y= WINDOW ZOOM TRACE GRAPH Above each button are one or more commands located on the calculator’s case. Press the 2ND key to access a command having the same color as the 2ND key. note the buttons across the ﬁrst row of the calculator.2. but the skills we introduce will work equally well on the ancient TI-82 and the less ancient TI-83 graphing calculators. you will need to use several keys on the upper half of the graphing calculator (see Figure 3. Press the ENTER button on the lower-right corner of your calculator to make the selection permanent.

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CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING

Just above the Y= button are the words STAT PLOT, printed in the same color as the 2ND button located near the top left of the calculator (see Figure 3.21). Press the 2ND button, then the Y= button. This opens the stat plot menu shown in Figure 3.23.

Figure 3.22: Settings in the MODE window.

Figure 3.23: menu.

The STAT PLOT

We need all of the stat plots to be “oﬀ.” If any of the three stat plots are “on,” select 4:PlotsOﬀ (press the number 4 on your keyboard), then press the ENTER key on the lower right corner of your calculator. That’s it! Your calculator should now be ready for the upcoming exercises. You Try It! Use the graphing calculator to sketch the graph of y = −x + 3. EXAMPLE 1. Use the graphing calculator to sketch the graph of y = x + 1. Solution: Recall that we drew the graph of y = x + 1 by hand in Example 1 of Section 3.1 (see Figure 3.9). In this example, we will use the graphing calculator to produce the same result. Press the Y= button. The window shown in Figure 3.24 appears. If any equations appear in the Y= menu of Figure 3.24, use the up-and-down arrow keys and the CLEAR button (located below the up-and-down and left-andright arrow keys) to delete them.

Figure 3.24: Press the Y= button to open the Y= menu.

Figure 3.25: Enter y = x + 1 in Y1=.

Next, move the cursor to Y1=, then enter the equation y = x + 1 in Y1 with the following button keystrokes. The result is shown in Figure 3.25.

3.2. THE GRAPHING CALCULATOR X, T, θ, n + 1 ENTER

173

Next, select the ZOOM key on the top row of the calculator. This will open the window shown in Figure 3.26. From the ZOOM menu, select 6:ZStandard. There are two ways to make this selection: 1. Use the down-arrow key to move downward in the ZOOM menu until 6:ZStandard is highlighted, then press the ENTER key. 2. A quicker alternative is to simply press the number 6 on the calculator keyboard to select 6:ZStandard. The resulting graph of y = x+1 is shown in Figure 3.27. Note that the result is identical to the graph of y = x + 1 drawn by hand in Example 3 of Section 3.1 (see Figure 3.9).

Answer:

Figure 3.26: Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu.

Figure 3.27: The graph of y = x + 1 is a line.

You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Use the graphing calculator to sketch the graph of y = x2 −7. Solution: Recall that we drew the graph of y = x − 7 by hand in Example 4 of Section 3.1 (see Figure 3.20). In this example, we will use the graphing calculator to produce the same result. Press the Y= button and enter the equation y = x2 − 7 into Y1 (see Figure 3.28) with the following keystrokes: X, T, θ, n ∧ 2 − 7 ENTER

2

Use the graphing calculator to sketch the graph of y = −x2 + 4.

The caret (∧) symbol (see Figure 3.21) is located in the last column of buttons on the calculator, just underneath the CLEAR button, and means “raised to.” The caret button is used for entering exponents. For example, x2 is entered as X∧2, x3 is entered as X∧3, and so on.

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CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING

Press the ZOOM button, then select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the graph of y = x2 −7 shown in Figure 3.29. Note that the result in Figure 3.29 agrees with the graph of y = x2 − 7 we drew by hand in Example 4 of Section 3.1 (see Figure 3.20).

Answer: Figure 3.28: Enter y = x2 − 7 in Y1. Figure 3.29: The graph of y = x2 −7 is a parabola.

**Reproducing Calculator Results on Homework Paper
**

In this section we delineate recommendations and requirements when reproducing graphing calculator results on your homework paper. Consider again the ﬁnal result of Example 2 shown in Figure 3.29. To determine the scale at each end of each axis, press the WINDOW button on the topmost row of buttons on your calculator. The WINDOW settings for Figure 3.29 are shown in Figure 3.30. Figure 3.31 presents a visual explanation of each of the entries Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax.

y 10 Ymax

Xmin −10

Xmax x 10

Figure 3.30: The WINDOW parameters.

−10

Ymin

Figure 3.31: Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax contain the scale at the end of each axis.

3.2. THE GRAPHING CALCULATOR

175

Xmin and Xmax indicate the scale at the left- and right-hand ends of the x-axis, respectively, while Ymin and Ymax indicate the scale at the bottomand top-ends of the y-axis. Finally, as we shall see shortly, Xscl and Yscl control the spacing between tick marks on the x- and y-axes, respectively. When reproducing the graph in your calculator viewing window on your homework paper, follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines. Calculator Submission Guidelines. 1. All lines (including the horizontal and vertical axes) should be drawn with a ruler. All curves should be drawn freehand. 2. Set up a coordinate system on your homework paper that mimics closely the coordinate system in your calculator’s view screen. Label your axes (usually with x and y). 3. Indicate the scale at each end of each axis. Use Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax in the WINDOW menu for this purpose. 4. Copy the graph from your calculator’s viewing window onto your coordinate system. Label the graph with its equation.

For example, to report the results of Figure 3.29, draw the axes with a ruler, label the horizontal axis with x, the vertical axis with y, then place the values of Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, and Ymax at the appropriate end of each axis (see Figure 3.32). y 10 y = x2 − 7

−10

10

x

−10 Figure 3.32: Reporting the graph of y = x2 − 7 on your homework paper. Because the graph is a curve, make a freehand copy that closely mimics the graph shown in Figure 3.29, then label it with its equation, as shown in

176 Figure 3.32.

CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING

**Adjusting the Viewing Window
**

Note that Figure 3.31 gives us some sense of the meaning of the “standard viewing window” produced by selecting 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu. Each time you select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu, Xmin is set to −10, Xmax to 10, and Xscl to 1 (distance between the tick marks on the x-axis). Similarly, Ymin is set to −10, Ymax to 10, and Yscl to 1 (distance between the tick marks on the y-axis). You can, however, override these settings as we shall see in the next example. You Try It! Approximate the point of intersection of the graphs of y = x − 4 and y = 5 − x using the TRACE button. EXAMPLE 3. Sketch the graphs of the following equations on the same viewing screen. 5 2 y = x−3 and y = x+4 4 3 Adjust the viewing window so that the point at which the graphs intersect (where the graphs cross one another) is visible in the viewing window, then use the TRACE button to approximate the coordinates of the point of intersection. Solution: We must ﬁrst decide on the proper syntax to use when entering the equations. In the case of the ﬁrst equation, note that y= 5 x−3 4

is pronounced “y equals ﬁve-fourths x minus three,” and means “y equals ﬁvefourths times x minus three.” Enter this equation into Y1 in the Y= menu as 5/4*X−3 (see Figure 3.33), using the button keystrokes: 5 ÷ 4 × X, T, θ, n − 3

The division and times buttons are located in the rightmost column of the calculuator. Similarly, enter the second equation into Y2 as 2/3*X+4 using the button keystrokes: 2 ÷ 3 × X, T, θ, n + 4

Select 6:ZStandard in the ZOOM menu to produce the lines in Figure 3.34. When we examine the resulting graphs in Figure 3.34, it appears that their point of intersection will occur oﬀ the screen above and to the right of the upper right-corner of the current viewing window. With this thought in mind, let’s extend the x-axis to the right by increasing the value of Xmax to 20. Further, let’s extend the y-axis upward by increasing the value of Ymin to 20. Press the WINDOW button on the top row of the calculator, then make the adjustments shown in Figure 3.35.

3.2. THE GRAPHING CALCULATOR

177

Figure 3.33: Enter equations.

Figure 3.34: The graphs.

Figure 3.35: Adjusting the viewing window.

Figure 3.36: The point of intersection is visible in the new viewing window.

If we select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu, our changes to the WINDOW parameters will be discarded and the viewing window will be returned to the “standard viewing window.” If we want to keep our changes to the WINDOW parameters, the correct approach at this point is to push the GRAPH button on the top row of the calculator. The resulting graph is shown in Figure 3.36. Note that the point of intersection of the two lines is now visible in the viewing window. The image in Figure 3.36 is ready for recording onto your homework. However, we think we would have a better picture if we made a couple more changes: 1. It would be nicer if the point of intersection were more centered in the viewing window. 2. There are far too many tick marks. With these thoughts in mind, make the changes to the WINDOW parameters shown in Figure 3.37, then push the GRAPH button to produce the image in Figure 3.38.

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CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING

Figure 3.37: A ﬁnal adjustment of the viewing window. The TRACE button is only capable of providing a very rough approximation of the point of intersection. In Chapter 4, we’ll introduce the intersection utility on the CALC menu, which will report a much more accurate result.

Figure 3.38: A centered point of intersection and fewer tick marks.

Finally, push the TRACE button on the top row of buttons, then use the left- and right-arrow keys to move the cursor atop the point of intersection. An approximation of the coordinates of the point of intersection are reported at the bottom of the viewing window (see Figure 3.39). y 25 y= 5 x−3 4 y=

2 x+4 3

(11.914894, 11.893617)

Answer:

(4.68, 0.68)

Figure 3.39: Approximate coordinates of the point of intersection reported by the TRACE button.

−5 −5

25

x

Figure 3.40: Reporting the answer on your homework. In reporting the answer on our homework paper, note that we followed the Calculator Submission Guidelines on page 175.

3.2. THE GRAPHING CALCULATOR

179

❧ ❧ ❧

Exercises

❧ ❧ ❧

In Exercises 1-16, enter the given equation in the Y= menu of your calcuator, then select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce its graph. Follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines outlined in the subsection Reproducing Calculator Results on Homework Paper when submitting your result on your homework paper. 1. y = 2x + 3 2. y = 3 − 2x 1 3. y = x − 4 2 2 4. y = − x + 2 3 5. y = 9 − x2 6. y = x − 4 1 7. y = x2 − 3 2 1 8. y = 4 − x2 3

2

√ x √ 10. y = −x √ 11. y = x + 3 √ 12. y = 5 − x 9. y = 13. y = |x| 14. y = −|x| 15. y = |x + 2| 16. y = −|x − 3|

In Exercises 17-22, the graph of each given equation is a parabola, having a “u-shape” similar to the graph in Figure 3.32. Some of the parabolas “open up” and some “open down.” Adjust Ymin and/or Ymax in the WINDOW menu so that the “turning point” of the parabola, called its vertex, is visible in the viewing screen of your graphing calculator. Follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines outlined in the subsection Reproducing Calculator Results on Homework Paper when submitting your result on your homework paper. 17. y = x2 + x − 20 18. y = −x2 − 2x + 24 19. y = −x2 + 4x + 21 20. y = x2 + 6x − 16 21. y = 2x2 − 13x − 24 22. y = −3x2 − 19x + 14

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CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING

In Exercises 23-28, sketch the given lines, then adjust the WINDOW parameters so that the point of intersection of the two lines is visible in the viewing window. Use the TRACE key to estimate the point of intersection. Follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines outlined in the subsection Reproducing Calculator Results on Homework Paper when submitting your result on your homework paper. Be sure to also include your estimate of the point of intersection in your sketch. 23. y = 2x + 1 and y = x + 8 24. y = 4 − 2x and y = −6 − x 25. y = 2 1 x and y = x − 3 2 3 26. y = 2x + 5 and y = x − 6 27. y = 5 − x and y = −3 − 2x 1 4 28. y = 1 − x and y = −4 − x 2 5

❧ ❧ ❧

1.

10

Answers

5.

❧ ❧ ❧

y 10

y

y = 2x + 3

−10

10

x

−10

10

x

−10

−10

y = 9 − x2

3.

10

y

7.

y 10

y = 1 x2 − 3 2

−10

10

x −10 10 x

y = 1x − 4 2

−10 −10

**3.2. THE GRAPHING CALCULATOR 9.
**

10 y= √ x y

181 15.

10

y

y = |x + 2|

−10

10

x −10 10

x

−10

−10

11.

10

y √

17.

30 y= x+3 x

y

y = x2 + x − 20

−10

10

−10

10

x

−10

−30

13.

10

19.

y y = |x| 30

y

−10

10

x

−10

10

x

−10

−30

y = −x2 + 4x + 21

182 21.

50

**CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 25.
**

20 y

y

y = 2x2 − 13x − 24

−10

10

x y = 1x 2 −5 −5 y = 2x − 3 3

(18.08, 9.04) x 35

−50

23.

20

y

27.

25

y

(6.91, 14.82) (−7.76, 12.76) y = x+8 −5 y = 2x + 1 −5 15 x −25 −5 y =5−x x

5

y = −3 − 2x

3.3. RATES AND SLOPE

183

3.3

Rates and Slope

Let’s open this section with an application of the concept of rate. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. An object is dropped from rest, then begins to pick up speed at a constant rate of 10 meters per second every second (10 (m/s)/s or 10 m/s2 ). Sketch the graph of the speed of the object versus time. Solution: In this example, the speed of the object depends on the time. This makes the speed the dependent variable and time the independent variable. Independent versus dependent. It is traditional to place the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis. Following this guideline, we place the time on the horizontal axis and the speed on the vertical axis. In Figure 3.41, note that we’ve labeled each axis with the dependent and independent variables (v and t), and we’ve included the units (m/s and s) in our labels. Next, we need to scale each axis. In determining a scale for each axis, keep two thoughts in mind: 1. Pick a scale that makes it convenient to plot the given data. 2. Pick a scale that allows all of the given data to ﬁt on the graph. In this example, we want a scale that makes it convenient to show that the speed is increasing at a rate of 10 meters per second (10 m/s) every second (s). One possible approach is to make each tick mark on the horizontal axis equal to 1 s and each tick mark on the vertical axis equal to 10 m/s. v(m/s) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 v(m/s) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Starting from rest, an automobile picks up speed at a constant rate of 5 miles per hour every second (5 (mi/hr)/s). Sketch the graph of the speed of the object versus time.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t(s)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t(s)

Figure 3.41: Label and scale each axis. Include units with labels.

Figure 3.42: Start at (0, 0), then continuously move 1 right and 10 up.

0). 10). This means that every time you move 1 second to the right. then move 1 s to the right and 10 m/s up. as depicted in Figure 3. start at (0. there was a twenty degree increase in temperature from morning to afternoon.42. For example. This is the point (t. Change in temperature = Afternoon temperature − Morning temperature = 60◦ F − 40◦ F = 20◦ F Therefore.184 CHAPTER 3. continuously moving 1 s to the right and 10 m/s upward. suppose that the temperature in the morning is 40◦ F. Note that this constant rate of 10 (m/s)/s forces the graph of the speed versus time to be a line. v(m/s) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Answer: v(mi/hr) 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 t(s) 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t(s) Figure 3. the speed increases by 10 m/s. we take a diﬀerence. Measuring the Change in a Variable To calculate the change in some quantity. This places you at the point (1. . the speed is v = 0 m/s. Then the change in temperature is found by taking a diﬀerence.43. This produces the sequence of points shown in Figure 3. Secondly. 0) plotted in Figure 3. at time t = 0 s. the rate at which the speed is increasing is 10 m/s per second. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Next. Continue in this manner.43: The constant rate forces the graph to be a line. In Figure 3. then in the afternoon the temperature measures 60◦ F (F stands for Fahrenheit temperature). which says that after 1 second. v) = (0.42.42. the speed of the particle is 10 m/s.

we take a diﬀerence. suppose that the evening temperature measures 50◦ F. we again subtract. A. B. For the change in temperature from morning to afternoon. To calculate the change in temperature from the afternoon to the evening. Two ways to pronounce the symbolism ΔT . . correlates with the letter ‘d’ in the English alphabet. we would write ΔT = −10◦ F. the ﬁrst few letters of which are: α. if the dependent . . . subtract the earlier measurement from the later measurement. 1. c. and the word “diﬀerence” starts with the letter ‘d. .” 2. Slope. d. ΔT is pronounced “the change in T . (Greek alphabet. Why did mathematicians make this choice of letter to represent the change in a quantity? Because to ﬁnd the change in a quantity. lower case) (Greek alphabet. The slope of a line is the rate at which the dependent variable is changing with respect to the independent variable. b. For the afternoon to evening change. . a. .” Slope as Rate Here is the deﬁnition of the slope of a line. For example. Mathematicians like to use the symbolism ΔT to represent the change in temperature.” Important Pronunciations. β. Γ. . the Greek letter Δ. Calculating the Change in a Quantity. ΔT is also pronounced “the diﬀerence in T . γ.’ Thus. . Let T represent the temperature.3. Δ. RATES AND SLOPE 185 Now.3. the upper case form of δ. we would write ΔT = 20◦ F. To calculate the change in a quantity. δ. ΔT is also pronounced “the diﬀerence in T . . upper case) (English alphabet) Thus. Change in temperature = Evening temperature − Afternoon temperature = 50◦ F − 60◦ F = −10◦ F There was a ten degree decrease in temperature from afternoon to evening. Mathematicians and scientists make frequent use of the Greek alphabet.

80). as shown in Figure 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING variable is y and the independent variable is x. Solution: Start by selecting two points P (2. 80) on the line. This constant rate forced the graph of the speed versus time to be a line. 20) and Q(8. The constant rate forces the graph of the speed of the object versus time to be a line. 20) to point Q(8. 80) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 v(m/s) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Q(7.45: The slope does not depend on the points we select on the line. 20) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t(s) Figure 3. In Example 1. an object released from rest saw that its speed increased at a constant rate of 10 meters per second per second (10 (m/s)/s or 10 m/s2 ). an automobile picks up speed at a constant rate of 5 miles per hour every second (5 (mi/hr)/s). the change in the speed is: Δv = 80 m/s − 20 m/s = 60 m/s . 70) P (3. the speed changes from 20 m/s to 80 m/s. Thus. the deﬁnition requires that we ﬁnd the rate at which the dependent variable v changes with respect to the independent variable t. the slope is the change in v divided by the change in t. That is. 30) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t(s) P (2.44: Pick two points to compute the slope. Calculate the slope of this line.44. In symbols: Slope = Δv Δt v(m/s) Q(8. shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Now. then the slope of the line is: Slope = Δy Δx You Try It! Starting from rest.186 CHAPTER 3. as we move from point P (2. EXAMPLE 2.43. Calculate the slope of this line. To ﬁnd the slope of this line.

using two diﬀerent points and a more compact presentation of the required calculations. Using these two new points. Let’s try the slope calculation again. the slope of the line is 10 meters per second per second (10 (m/s)/s or 10 m/s2 ).3. RATES AND SLOPE 187 Similarly. as we move from point P (2. 80). 20) to point Q(8. Slope = Δv Δt 70 m/s − 30 m/s = 7s−3s 40 m/s = 4s m/s = 10 s Answer: 5 (mi/hr)/s Again. 30) and Q(7. The slope of a line does not depend upon the points you select. The next example demonstrates that the slope is also independent of the order of subtraction. It does not matter which two points you pick on the line to calculate its slope. the slope is the rate at which the dependent variable v changes with respect to the independent variable t. we can calculate the slope. Slope is independent of the selected points.3. . the slope of the line is 10 (m/s)/s. 70) as shown in Figure 3. Example 2 points out the following fact. Pick points P (3. the change in time is: Δt = 8 s − 2 s = 6s Now that we have both the change in the dependent and independent variables. Slope = Δv Δt 60 m/s = 6s m/s = 10 s Therefore. Thus.45. the time changes from 2 seconds to 8 seconds.

−2) −5 Figure 3. 3) (see Figure 3. sketch the line passing through the points P (−1. −2) and Q(3. we must calculate the change in both the independent and dependent variables. 3). 3) x 5 Answer: 3/5 Note that regardless of the direction of subtraction. −2) and Q(3. −2) from the y-coordinate of point Q(3. y Warning! If you are not consistent in the direction you subtract. EXAMPLE 3. −2) from the coordinates of point Q(3. 3) from the x-coordinate of point P (−1. For example: 5 3 − (−2) =− −1 − 3 4 In this case. To calculate the slope of the line through the points P (−1. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING You Try It! Compute the slope of the line passing through the points P (−3. −5 P (−1. −2) and Q(3. you will not get the correct answer for the slope. −2) and Q(3. Note that we get the negative of the correct answer. Subtract the coordinates of point P (−1. 3) from the coordinates of point P (−1. Slope = Δy Δx −2 − 3 = −1 − 3 −5 = −4 5 = 4 5 Q(3.46). we subtracted the y-coordinate of point P (−1. Solution: First. 3). the slope is 5/4. Compute the slope of the line passing through the points P (−1. −2). 3). We’ll do this in two diﬀerent ways. . −2). 4).188 CHAPTER 3. 1) and Q(2. 3). Slope = Δy Δx 3 − (−2) = 3 − (−1) 5 = 4 Subtract the coordinates of point Q(3. 3).46: Computing the slope of the line passing through the points P (−1. but then we changed horses in midstream. subtracting the x-coordinate of point Q(3.

line passing through the points P (−2. −2) Compute the slope of the and Q(3. R(−2. 189 The direction of subtraction does not matter. 3). 3) −5 R(−1.3.3. slope of the line passing the ﬁrst in Figure 3. Then compute the Solution: The graphs of the two lines through the given points are shown. −2) −5 Figure 3. Note that the line in through the points Figure 3. In both Figure 3. 2) and the second through the points R(−1. If slope is a number that measures the steepness of a line.48. Graph two lines. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. −3) −5 Figure 3. 2) x 5 P (−3. −3) and late the slope of each line and compare the results. Slope and steepness of a line. Q(2. When calculating the slope of a line through two points P and Q. the ﬁrst passing through the points P (−3.47 and Figure 3. Which line is steeper? 5 5 Q(3. provided you remain consistent in your choice of direction. S(1. the slope of the line is the rate at which the dependent variable is changing with respect to the independent variable. x 5 −5 Remember. −3) and S(1.48: This line is steeper than the line on the left.48. RATES AND SLOPE Example 3 demonstrates the following fact.47: This line is less steep than the line on the right. then one would expect that a steeper line would have a larger slope. The slope of a line is a number that tells us how steep the line is. . 3). Calcu. and y y compare the two slopes. the dependent variable is y and the independent variable is x.47 and the second in Figure 3. −1) and S(5. 5).47 is less steep than the line in Figure 3. The Steepness of a Line We need to examine whether our deﬁnition of slope matches certain expectations. it does not matter which way you subtract.48.

Solution: The graphs of the two lines through the given points are shown.50. the steeper of the two lines having the larger slope. both lines slanted uphill and both had positive slopes. the ﬁrst in Figure 3. You Try It! Compute the slope of the line passing through the points P (−3. −4). −1) and the second through the points R(−2. −3) from the point S(1. −1). Slope of second line = Δy Δx 3 − (−3) = 1 − (−1) 6 = 2 =3 Subtract the coordinates of point P (−3. 1) and S(4. −5). Slope of ﬁrst line = Δy Δx 2 − (−2) = 3 − (−3) 4 = 6 2 = 3 Answer: The ﬁrst line has slope 2. 2). 3). Which line is steeper? EXAMPLE 5. Also. −3). Slope of second line = Δy Δx −4 − 4 = 2 − (−2) −8 = 4 = −2 .49 goes downhill less quickly than the line in Figure 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Subtract the coordinates of the point R(−1. and the second line has slope 4/7. and compare the two slopes.49 and the second in Figure 3. the slope of the line is the rate at which the dependent variable is changing with respect to the independent variable. Calculate the slope of each line and compare the results. Note that the line in Figure 3. 1) and Q(3. In both Figure 3.50. −2) from the coordinates of point Q(3. the ﬁrst passing through the points P (−3. 1) from the coordinates of point Q(3. Remember. 4) from the coordinates of point S(2. In Example 4. −4).190 CHAPTER 3. 3) and Q(3.49 and Figure 3. This is consistent with the fact that the second line is steeper than the ﬁrst. The ﬁrst line is steeper. Let’s now look at two lines that slant downhill. note that the slope of the second line is greater than the slope of the ﬁrst line. 4) and S(2. Slope of ﬁrst line = Δy Δx −1 − 1 = 3 − (−3) −2 = 6 1 =− 3 Subtract the coordinates of point R(−2. Graph two lines. Then compute the slope of the line passing through the points R(−4. Subtract the coordinates of point P (−3.50. Note that both lines go uphill and both have positive slopes. the dependent variable is y and the independent variable is x.

4) P (−3. −1) −5 Figure 3. RATES AND SLOPE y 5 R(−2. and the second line has slope −1/2.3. Note that both lines go downhill and both have negative slopes. Answer: The ﬁrst line has slope −4/3. 3) y Calculate the slopes of the vertical and horizontal lines passing through the point (−4. The ﬁrst line is steeper. 3). 5 S(2. . This is consistent with the fact that the second line moves downhill more quickly than the ﬁrst. note that the magnitude (absolute value) of the slope of the second line is greater than the magnitude of the slope of the ﬁrst line.52: A vertical line through (2. 3). 3). What about the slopes of vertical and horizontal lines? You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. select a second point on each line as shown in Figures 3. 1).51 and 3. 1) −5 x 5 Q(3.51: A horizontal line through (2.3. −5 5 y 191 x 5 S(2.50: This line goes downhill more quickly than the line on the left. y 5 P (−2. 3) −5 Q(2. Calculate the slopes of the vertical and horizontal lines passing through the point (2. −5 Figure 3. Also. 3). Next. −4) −5 Figure 3.52. Solution: First draw a sketch of the vertical and horizontal lines passing through the point (2. 3) x 5 −5 x 5 R(2. −3) −5 Figure 3.49: This line goes downhill more slowly than the line on the right.

−3) from the coordinates of the point S(2. To use a geometric approach to ﬁnding the slope of the line. Slope of horizontal line = Δy Δx 3−3 = 2 − (−2) 0 = 4 =0 Subtract the coordinates of the point (2. Division by zero is undeﬁned. which makes sense because a horizontal line neither goes uphill nor downhill. The slope of the second line is 0. Before we begin we’ll ﬁrst calculate the change in y and the change in x by subtracting the coordinates of point P (2. 8) as vertices. draw a right triangle with sides parallel to the horizontal and vertical axes. 3) and Q(8. The Geometry of the Slope of a Line We begin our geometrical discussion of the slope of a line with an example. 3) and Q(8. ﬁrst draw the line through the points P (2. 8). For example. make sure you know the amount each tick mark represents. Hence. . 3). Again. 8) is 5/6. 3) and Q(8. the slope of the horizontal line is zero. note that the change in x is Δx = 6 (count the tick marks1 ). if each tick mark represents two units. 3) and Q(8. this makes sense because as uphill lines get steeper and steeper.53. Next. using the points P (2. 1 When counting tick marks. then Δx = 12.53). 3). Thus. 8). INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING The slopes of the horizontal and vertical lines are calculated as follows. Subtract the coordinates of the point P (−2. Slope of vertical line = Δy Δx 3 − (−3) = 2−2 6 = 0 = undeﬁned Answer: The slope of the vertical line is undeﬁned. Slope = Δy Δx 8−3 = 8−2 5 = 6 Thus. calculating the slope of a line passing through the points P (2. and you count six tick marks when evaluating the change in x.192 CHAPTER 3. 8) (see Figure 3. 3) from the coordinates of the point Q(2. As you move from point P to point R in Figure 3. the slope of the line through the points P (2. their slopes increase without bound. 3) from the coordinates of point Q(8. the slope of a vertical line is undeﬁned.

while the “run” is positive. the slope is still Δy/Δx = 5/6. 3) as vertices.54.55: Determining the slope of the line from the graph. the change in y is Δy = −4 . 8) Δy = 5 P (2. Thus.3. In this case. some like to think of the slope as “rise over run. 7) Δy = −4 Q(8. 8). Figure 3. then “rise” 5 units.55. 3) x 10 Δy = 5 P (2. 3) to point Q(8.55. 3).53: Determining the slope of the line from the graph. precisely what we got in the previous computation. the change in y is Δy = 5 (count the tick marks). we start at the point P (2. 3) x 10 Δy = −4 10 Δx = 6 R(8. the “rise” is negative. then “run” 6 units to the right. y 10 P (2. Hence. using the points P (2. the slope is Δy/Δx = 5/6. y 10 Q(8. 3). 3) R(2. Figure 3. 3) Δx = 6 −1 −1 R(8. the change in y is still Δy = 5 and the change in x is still Δx = 6 as we move from point P (2.3. 3) −1 −1 x 10 Figure 3.55. In Figure 3. we started at the point P (2.56: Determining the slope of the line from the graph. Rise over run. However. we’ve drawn a right triangle with sides parallel to the horizontal and vertical axes. 7) P (2. 8) Δx = 6 Q(8.54. Note that the line slants downhill. RATES AND SLOPE 193 As you then move from point R to point Q. so we expect the slope to be a negative number.” For contrast. 3) −1 −1 Δx = 6 x 10 −1 −1 Q(8. in Figure 3. As you move from point P to point R in Figure 3.54: Determining the slope of the line from the graph. 7) y Figure 3. 8) y 10 R(3. For this reason. then moved upward 5 units and right 6 units. Consider a second example shown in Figure 3. 7) and Q(8. In Figure 3.

Thus.194 CHAPTER 3. We can verify our geometrical calculations of the slope by subtracting the coordinates of the point P (2. we start at the point P (−2.57 is similar to the triangle P Q R in Figure 3. 2) with slope −1/4. Draw the line through the points P and Q and you are done. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING (count the tick marks and note that your values of y are decreasing as you move from P to R). 3). The triangle P QR in Figure 3. Thus. In this case.56. move right 3 units to the point R(1. In Figure 3. 3). we’ve drawn our triangle on the opposite side of the line. Sketch the line passing through the point (−2. as you move from point P to point R in Figure 3. Slope = Δy Δx −4 = 6 2 =− 3 . the slope is Δy/Δx = −4/6. Consequently. Slope = You Try It! Sketch the line passing through the point (−4. then right 6 units to the point Q (4. the change is y is Δy = −4 (count the tick marks and note that your values of y are decreasing as you move from R to Q). move downward 4 units to the point R (−2. 1). In Figure 3.56. Solution: The slope is −2/3. or −2/3. so the line must go downhill.56. as anticipated. Note that the slope is negative.58. 7) from the point Q(8. the slope of the line through points P (−2. In Figure 3. or −2/3. As you move from point R to point Q. Let’s look at a ﬁnal example. the change is x is Δx = 6 (count the tick marks and note that your values of x are increasing as you move from R to Q). then move down 2 units to the point Q(1. we take a diﬀerent approach that results in the same line. the change in x is Δx = 6 (count the tick marks and note that your values of x are increasing as you move from P to R). so their sides are proportional. 3). Draw a line through the points P and Q and you are done. −1). −1). As you move from point R to point Q. 3). Δy Δx 3−7 = 8−2 −4 = 6 2 =− 3 This agrees with the calculations made in Figures 3. the slope is still Δy/Δx = −4/6. 3) and Q (4. 3) with slope −2/3.57.58. Start at the point P (−2. −1).55 and 3. EXAMPLE 7.

−1) 5 P (−2. 5.57: Start at P (−2. 1. then the line with the larger slope rises more quickly. 2. The slope of a line is the rate at which the dependent variable is changing with respect to the independent variable. If a line has negative slope. 3) P (−2.3. 3) Q(1. 3) and moving down 4 and right 6 also yields a slope of −2/3. Figure 3. We present a summary of facts learned in this section. .” If two lines have negative slope. 4. 2) Q(0. −1) Answer: y −5 −5 5 P (−4. Vertical lines have undeﬁned slope. Δx where Δy is the change in y (diﬀerence in y) and Δx is the change in x (diﬀerence in x). Horizontal lines have slope zero.58: Starting at P (−2. If y is the dependent variable and x is the independent variable.57. If a line has positive slope. 1) −5 5 Δy = −2 Δy = −4 x −5 R (−2. then the line slants downhill as you “sweep your eyes from left to right. then the line slants uphill as you “sweep your eyes from left to right.” If two lines have positive slope. −5 A summary of facts about the slope of a line. 3). then move right 3 and down 2.3. RATES AND SLOPE y 5 Δx = 3 R(1. reduces to the slope of the line through the points P and Q in Figure 3. 1) −5 5 x Figure 3. then the line having the slope with the larger magnitude falls more quickly. 3. 3) y 195 Δx = 6 x 5 Q (4. The resulting line has slope −2/3. then the slope is Slope = Δy .

It then begins to lose speed at a rate of 5 meters per second per second (5 m/s/s or 5 m/s2 ). a) Set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on a sheet of graph paper. 2. Then plot a minimum of 5 additional points using the fact that David’s distance from his brother is decreasing at a constant rate of 10 feet per second (10 ft/s). a) Set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on a sheet of graph paper. Include units with your labels. d) Find the slope of the line. Label and scale each axis. c) Sketch the line representing David’s distance from his brother versus time. An object’s initial velocity at time t = 0 seconds is v = 40 meters per second. Label and scale each axis. b) Plot the point representing the initial velocity at time t = 0 seconds. Label and scale each axis. Then plot a minimum of 5 additional points using the fact that the object is losing speed at a rate of 5 meters per second per second. a) Set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on a sheet of graph paper. b) Plot the point representing the initial velocity at time t = 0 seconds. b) Plot the point representing David’s initial distance from his brother at time t = 0 seconds. d) Calculate the slope of the line. Include units with your labels. Then plot a minimum of 5 additional points using the fact that the object is accelerating at a rate of 5 meters per second per second. c) Sketch the line representing the object’s velocity versus time. . c) Sketch the line representing the object’s velocity versus time. Include units with your labels. He begins to run toward his brother. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. David ﬁrst sees his brother when the distance separating them is 90 feet. d) Calculate the slope of the line. It then begins to pick up speed (accelerate) at a rate of 5 meters per second per second (5 m/s/s or 5 m/s2 ).196 CHAPTER 3. decreasing the distance d between him and his brother at a constant rate of 10 feet per second (10 ft/s). 3. An object’s initial velocity at time t = 0 seconds is v = 10 meters per second.

Q(16. 20). P (16. P (11. −17). use the right triangle provided to help determine the slope of the line. P (9. P (19. 11). calculate the slope of the line passing through the points P and Q. 1). Label and scale each axis. 10). 8). 9). Q(−9. 19) 9. −8). 0). increasing the distance d between him and his brother at a constant rate of 10 feet per second (10 ft/s). 3) 13. −1) 10. Q(−6. −15). Q(−13. P (−18. P (9. Q(11. −10) 12. Q(−1. P (−10. Q(−9. c) Sketch the line representing David’s distance from his brother versus time. d) Find the slope of the line. a) Set up a Cartesian Coordinate System on a sheet of graph paper. P (−18. Include units with your labels. 15. 7) 14. 19) 7. He begins to run away from his brother and towards Mary. 10 y 0 x 0 10 0 x 0 20 . 20 y 16. 12) 11. −11) 8. David initially stands 20 feet from his brother when he sees his girl friend Mary in the distance. RATES AND SLOPE 197 4. Be sure to pay good attention to the scale provided on each axis when counting boxes to determine the change in y and the change in x. Then plot a minimum of 5 additional points using the fact that David’s distance from his brother is increasing at a constant rate of 10 feet per second (10 ft/s). b) Plot the point representing David’s initial distance from his brother at time t = 0 seconds. Q(7. 15) 6. Be sure to reduce your answer to lowest terms. P (−7. In Exercises 5-14.3. Q(−11. P (0. 8) In Exercises 15-18. 5.3. Q(3.

P (−4. 3). P (−4. sketch each of the lines that pass through the following pairs of points. m = 3/4 25. P (−3. −3). 0) and (1. 0) and (1. m = −3/5 28. a) (0. 21. −2) c) (0. Label each line with its slope. m = −3/5 27. m = −3/7 22. 5 y y −5 x 5 −10 x 10 −10 −5 19. then explain the relationship between the slope found and the steepness of the line drawn. 0) and (1. P (−1. m = 3/7 24. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 18. 0) and (1. m = 3/4 29. −1) b) (0. m = −3/7 23. sketch each of the lines that pass through the following pairs of points. 3). 1) b) (0. m = 3/7 26. 3). On one coordinate system. On one coordinate system. 10 CHAPTER 3. −3). 0). P (−3. 0). 3) 20. 0). 2) c) (0. 0). −3) In Exercises 21-30. P (−2.198 17. 0) and (1. P (−3. 0) and (1. m = −3/4 . 0). then sketch the line passing through the point P with the slope m. P (−3. a) (0. then explain the relationship between the slope found and the steepness of the line drawn. P (−1. Label each line with its slope. setup a coordinate system on graph paper. P (−3. m = −3/4 30.

− 7. Answers 17. RATES AND SLOPE 199 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 90) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 t(s) 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 6 11 8 −5 21. 5 y P (−4. 0) −5 Δy = −3 Δx = 7 −5 x 5 Q(3. − 1 9.3. 3 2 −5 .3. y 5 Δx = 7 6 7 Δy = 3 −5 P (−3. − 5 3 ❧ ❧ ❧ v(m/s) 50 40 30 20 10 0 (0. 10) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t(s) 19. −3) 5. 5 y =3 m3 m2 = 2 m1 = 1 −5 5 x 3. 0) Q(4. − 3 15. 6 11. − 23. d(ft) 100 (0. 3) 5 x 1 13.

INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING y 29. 0) P (−1. 5 y Δx = 7 −5 Δy = 3 P (−3. −3) 27. 0) −5 Δy = −3 Δx = 4 −5 x 5 Q(3.200 25. −3) −5 x 5 Q(4. 5 CHAPTER 3. 3) Δy = −3 −5 Δx = 5 Q(1. 0) 5 x −5 . y 5 P (−4.

y) (0. mx = y − b . b) and Slope = m. Slope = Δy Δx Slope formula. mx = y−b x x Multiply both sides by x.59: Line with y-intercept at (0. The y-intercept.3. We will now generate the slope-intercept formula for a line having y-intercept (0. Simplify. subtract the coordinates of the point (0. b) and Slope = m (see Figure 3. y Slope = m (x. Let (x. b) where the graph of a line crosses the y-axis is called the y-intercept of the line. Clear fractions from the equation by multiplying both sides by the common denominator. b) from the point (x. To determine both the change in y and the change in x.59). Cancel. The point (0. b) x Figure 3. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM OF A LINE 201 3. Substitute m for the slope. y) be an arbitrary point on the line.4 Slope-Intercept Form of a Line We start with the deﬁnition of the y-intercept of a line. m= m= y−b x−0 y−b x Substitute m for the Slope. Start with the fact that the slope of the line is the rate at which the dependent variable is changing with respect to the independent variable.4. Δy = y − b and Δx = x − 0. y).

b). INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING mx + b = y − b + b mx + b = y Add b to both sides.202 Solve for y. This means that the slope is 3/5 and the y-intercept is (0. this form is called the slope-intercept form of a line. 1). The Slope-Intercept form of a line. then move uward 3 units and right 5 units. Draw the line through the points (0. 1) (5. Start by plotting the y-intercept (0. 4). 1) and (5. CHAPTER 3. Simplify. and note that m = 3/5 and b = 1. 5 Solution: Compare the equation y = 3 x + 1 with the slope-intercept form 5 y = mx + b. 5 Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the graph shown in . 1).60: Hand-drawn graph of y = 3 x + 1. 5 Check: Enter the equation y = 3 x + 1 in Y1 in the Y= menu as 3/5*X+1. Thus. the equation of the line is y = mx + b. You Try It! Sketch the graph of the line having equation 4 y = − x − 2. 4). 5 Figure 3. b) and slope m is: y = mx + b Because this form of a line depends on knowing the slope m and the intercept (0. arriving at the point (5. 4) 10 x y= 3 x+1 5 −10 Figure 3.61: Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to draw the graph of y = 3 x + 1. 3 EXAMPLE 1. Sketch the graph of the line having equation y = 3 x + 1. The equation of the line having yintercept (0. 5 y 10 Δx = 5 Δy = 3 −10 (0. then label it with its equation y = 3 x + 1.

60. 2). 2) and slope −7/3. 1) (5. −6) x y= 3 x+1 5 You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. This diﬀerence is due to the fact that the calculator’s viewing window is wider than it is tall. Label the line with the slope-intercept form of its equation. Sketch the line with y-intercept (0. the slope-intercept form of the line is y = − 7 x + 2. the grid in Figure 3. When we compare the calculator produced graph in Figure 3. so m = −7/3. 2) and (3. .62. 5 When we compare the calculator image in Figure 3. it appears that the lines increase at diﬀerent angles.63 with the hand-drawn graph in Figure 3.61 to the hand drawn graph in Figure 3. Next. Solution: Plot the y-intercept (0. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM OF A LINE 203 Figure 3. we get a better match.64). Figure 3. On the other hand. the y-intercept is (0. so b = 2. Label the line with the slope-intercept form of its equation. the select 5:ZSquare to produce the image in Figure 3. Now use the slope −7/3. then move down seven units.4. −5). Press the ZOOM button.60 is perfectly square.63. Hence. 2). −3) and slope 5/2. Start at (0. Sketch the line with y-intercept (0. −5). Label the line 3 with this equation. Draw the line through the points (0. 2). Substitute these numbers into the slope-intercept form of the line. Further. 2 for b. they look a bit diﬀerent. The graphing calculator has a feature that will cure this distortion. 4) 10 x Answer: 4 y =− x−2 y 3 10 −10 Figure 3.61. y = mx + b 7 y =− x+2 3 Slope-intercept form. the slope is −7/3.63: Select 5:ZSquare from the ZOOM menu to draw the graph of y = 3 x + 1. Therefore. Substitute: −7/3 for m.62: Hand-drawn graph of y = 3 x + 1. (see Figure 3.3. followed by a three unit move to the right to the point (3. −2) −10 10 (3. 5 −10 (0. y 10 Δx = 5 Δy = 3 −10 (0.

2) −10 (0. 2) −10 Δy = −7 (3. followed by 5:ZSquare from the ZOOM menu to produce the graph of the equa7 tion y = − 3 x + 2. . followed by 5:ZSquare from the ZOOM menu to produce the graph shown in Figure 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 7 y =− x+2 3 y 10 (0. −5) Δx = 3 −10 Figure 3. 3 Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu. 7 y =− x+2 3 y 10 10 x (0. −10 10 Δy = −7 (3. This provides a good match of the hand-drawn graph in Figure 3.66.65: Hand-drawn graph of 7 y = − 3 x + 2.66: Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu. enter -7/3*X+2 in Y1 in the Y= menu. −5) Δx = 3 10 x Figure 3.64: Hand-drawn graph of y = − 7 x + 2. 2) Answer: 5 y y = 2x − 3 −10 (2.65 and our graphing calculator result in Figure 3.66. −3) −10 10 x Figure 3.204 CHAPTER 3. 3 Check: To graph y = − 7 x + 2.

y 10 Δx = 5 (5. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM OF A LINE 205 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. or m = 7/5. Next. we try to locate a point on the line that passes directly through a lattice point. the slope is m = Δy/Δx. −1) (see Figure 3.67). In Figure 3. then to the right 5 units. −1) 10 x We could also subtract the coordinates of point (0.67. Now. 6). −1) from the coordinates of point (5. 1). a point where a vertical and horizontal grid line intersect. Use the graph of the line in the ﬁgure below to ﬁnd the equation of the line. Use the graph of the line in the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd the equation of the line. y y 10 10 −10 −10 10 x −10 10 x −10 Solution: Note that the y-intercept of the line is (0. 6) Δy = 7 −10 (0.67: The line has y-intercept (0. we chose the point (5. we move up 7 units. Hence. 7 6 − (−1) = 5−0 5 −10 Figure 3. starting at the y-intercept (0. 6) to determine the slope. . −1) and slope 7/5.3.4.

Figure 3. state the slope-intercept form.5 feet per second (1.69 with the original hand-drawn graph (see Figure 3. located 300 feet away. Express the distance d between the swimmer and the beach in terms of the time t. You Try It! A swimmer is 50 feet from the beach. 5 Check: This is an excellent situation to run a check on your graphing calculator. Substitute: 7/5 for m. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Next. 7 5x − 1 in Figure 3.206 CHAPTER 3. the graph of the distance versus time is a line. we’re conﬁdent we have a good match. Let’s begin . y = mx + b 7 y = x + (−1) 5 Slope-intercept form. b) At what time after Jason begins walking towards Tim are the brothers 200 feet apart? Solution: Because the distance between Jason and his brother is decreasing at a constant rate. and then begins swimming away from the beach at a constant rate of 1.69: Select 6:ZStandard followed by 5:ZSquare (both from the ZOOM menu) to produce this graph. a) Express the distance d between Jason and his brother Tim in terms of the time t. EXAMPLE 4. Thus.5 ft/s). the equation of the line is y = 7 x − 1. He begins walking towards his brother at a constant rate of 2 feet per second (2 ft/s). the substitute 7/5 for m and −1 for b.67). −1 for b. 3 Answer: y = − x + 3 5 When we compare the result in Figure 3. Applications Let’s look at a linear application.68: Enter y = the Y= menu. Jason spots his brother Tim talking with friends at the library.

Thus.70.70). This puts the d-intercept (normally the y-intercept) at the point (0. substitute −2 for m. the equation of the line is y = mx + b. to ﬁnish the solution. Because Jason is walking toward his brother. making the slope negative. Substitute: −2 for m. This means the line must slant downhill. so m = −2 ft/s. 300 for b.70). then descending Δd = −300. Note that the slope is the rate at which the distance d between the brothers is changing with respect to time t. note that we’ve labeled what are normally the x. The equation y = −2x + 300 gives us y in terms of x. The question required that we express the distance d in terms of the time t. y = mx + b y = −2x + 300 Slope-intercept form. d(ft) (0. 300) 300 200 100 0 t(s) 0 50 100 150 200 Figure 3.4. where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-coordinate (in this case the d-coordinate) of the point where the graph crosses the vertical axis. 300) (see Figure 3. then moving to the right Δt = 150. 300).3. and 300 for b in the slope-intercept form of the line. the distance between the brothers decreases at a constant rate of 2 feet per second. the initial distance between the brothers is 300 feet. Let t = 0 seconds be the time that Jason begins walking towards his brother Tim. and we’ve included the units with our labels. This makes the slope Δd/Δt = −300/150 = −2 (see Figure 3. We can construct an accurate plot of distance versus time by starting at the point (0. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM OF A LINE 207 by making a rough sketch of the line. replace y with d and x with t (check the axes labels . One problem remains.70: A plot of the distance d separating the brothers versus time t. At time t = 0. So. In Figure 3.and y-axes with the time t and distance d. Finally.

it takes Jason 50 seconds to close the distance between the brothers to 200 feet. then solve for t. “At what time after Jason begins walking towards Tim are the brothers 200 feet apart?” To ﬁnd this time. Divide both sides by −2. d = −2t + 300 200 = −2t + 300 Solve this last equation for the time t.70) to obtain a solution for part (a): d = −2t + 300 Now that our equation expresses the distance between the brothers in terms of time. substitute 200 for d in the equation d = −2t + 300. Simplify both sides. . Simplify both sides. Distance equation. let’s answer part (b). Thus.5t + 50 Subtract 300 from both sides. 200 − 300 = −2t + 300 − 300 −100 = −2t −100 −2t = −2 −2 50 = t Answer: d = 1. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING in Figure 3. Substitute 200 for d.208 CHAPTER 3.

9/7 12. 7/5 In Exercises 13-20. (0. y = − 11 x + 4 4 4. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM OF A LINE 209 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. y = − 5 x + 7 In Exercises 7-12. Label the line with the slope-intercept form of its equation.4. 6 y 14. then sketch the line having the given equation. y = − 11 x + 4 7 7 6. (0. 13. 6 y −6 6 x −6 6 x −6 −6 . −4/5 9. −6). 1). 1. y = 8 x − 1 7 3. setup a coordinate system on graph paper. (0. −7/5 11. −1). (0. 6/7 10. (0. 9/5 8. y = 9 x − 6 5 2. Label the line with its equation. sketch the line with given y-intercept slope. −5). y = 5 x 4 5. (0.3. −7). 7. determine the equation of the given line in slope-intercept form. 7).

6 20.210 15. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING y 18. 6 y −6 6 x −6 6 x −6 −6 . 6 y −6 6 x −6 6 x −6 −6 y 17. 6 19. 6 CHAPTER 3. 6 y −6 6 x −6 6 x −6 −6 y 16.

placing the time t on the horizontal axis and the velocity v on the vertical axis. b) Use the initial velocity and the rate at which the object’s velocity is increasing to draw the line representing the object’s velocity at time t. Assume that the relation between the volume V of water in the tank and time t is linear. 24. At t = 0 seconds. respectively. c) Replace x and y in the equation found in part (b) with t and V . Use the slope-intercept form to determine the equation of the line. Include units in your labels. the object’s initial velocity is 20 m/s. Use the slope-intercept form to determine the equation of the line. A water tank initially (at time t = 0 min) contains 800 gallons of water. It then begins to speed up at a constant rate of 5 meters per second per second. Label and scale each axis. b) Use the initial volume of water in the tank and the rate at which the volume of water is increasing to draw the line representing the volume V of water in the tank at time t. respectively. b) Use the initial velocity and the rate at which the object’s velocity is increasing to draw the line representing the object’s velocity at time t. Include units in your labels. Use the result to predict how much time must pass until the water tank is empty. c) Replace x and y in the equation found in part (b) with t and v. respectively. Include units in your labels. Use the result to predict how much time must pass until the volume of water in the tank reaches 400 gallons. a) Set up a coordinate system.3. the object’s initial velocity is 80 m/s. Label and scale each axis. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM OF A LINE 21. At t = 0 seconds.4. Label and scale each axis. b) Use the initial volume of water in the tank and the rate at which the volume of water is decreasing to draw the line representing the volume V of water in the tank at time t. placing the time t on the horizontal axis and the volume of water V on the vertical axis. Label and scale each axis. a) Set up a coordinate system. a) Set up a coordinate system. Assume that the relationship between an object’s velocity and its time is linear. placing the time t on the horizontal axis and the velocity v on the vertical axis. Assume that the relation between the volume V of water in the tank and time t is linear. . Use the result to determine the velocity of the object after 14 seconds. respectively. 22. Use the result to determine the velocity of the object after 13 seconds. Use the slope-intercept form to determine the equation of the line. It then begins to lose speed at a constant rate of 4 meters per second per second. A spigot is opened at the bottom of the tank and water pours out at a constant rate of 40 gallons per minute. Assume that the relationship between an object’s velocity and its time is linear. c) Replace x and y in the equation found in part (b) with t and V . A water tank initially (at time t = 0 min) contains 100 gallons of water. c) Replace x and y in the equation found in part (b) with t and v. Use the slope-intercept form to determine the equation of the line. 23. A pipe is opened and water pours into the tank at 211 a constant rate of 25 gallons per minute. Include units in your labels. a) Set up a coordinate system. placing the time t on the horizontal axis and the volume of water V on the vertical axis.

y = − x 3 5 15. −7) −10 Δx = 7 y 10 y = − 11 x + 4 7 9 x 5 7. 10 11. y = − x + 1 4 3 17. y = − x 4 19. 10 P (0. y = 4 x−4 5 Δy −10 = −11 10 Q(7. 10 y P (0. 3) x 10 P (0. 4) y y = 9x − 6 7 Δx = 7 Δy −10 = −11 10 x −10 Δy = 9 Q(4. 10 Δx = 5 −10 Δy = 9 Q(5. c) 90 m/s Δx = 5 −10 Δy = 9 Q(5.212 CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. y= −7 21. −6) −10 5. 3) x 10 P (0. 2)x 10 23. 5) P (0. −7) Δx = 4 y = − 11 x + 4 −10 4 Q(7. ❧ ❧ ❧ y 10 Δx = 7 Δy = 6 −10 y = 6x − 1 7 Q(7. −7) . −6) −10 y Answers 9. c) 12 min −10 P (0. 4) x 4 13. −1) 10 x y= 9 x 5 −6 −10 y 3.

71: A line through the point (x0 . then the equation of the line is y = mx + b. y) Slope = m Figure 3. suppose that the y-intercept is unknown? Instead. Cancel. then use the points (x0 . y0 ) x (x.5. . where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-coordinate of the line’s y-intercept. However.3. y0 ) to calculate the diﬀerence in y and the diﬀerence in x.71). m(x − x0 ) = y − y0 Thus. Clear the fractions from the equation by multiplying both sides by the common denominator. suppose that we are given a point (x0 . Slope = Δy Δx y − y0 m= x − x0 The slope formula. Let (x. Substitute m for the slope. POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE 213 3. y0 ) on the line and we’re also told that the slope of the line is m (see Figure 3. m(x − x0 ) = y − y0 (x − x0 ) x − x0 Multiply both sides by x − x0 . y) and (x0 . y (x0 . y0 ) with slope m. Use (x. y) be an arbitrary point on the line. y) to calculate the slope of the line. y0 ) and (x. the equation of the line is y − y0 = m(x − x0 ).5 Point-Slope Form of a Line In the previous section we learned that if we are provided with the slope of a line and its y-intercept.

then label it with its equation. Which form should I use? The form you should select depends upon the information given. y0 ) is: y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) You Try It! Draw the line passing through the point (1.72). Solution: Plot the point (−3. and −1 for y0 . −1) −5 Figure 3. y0 ) and 3/5 for m in the point-slope form of the line. −1) that has slope 3/5. substitute (−3.214 CHAPTER 3. you may be asking the question “When should I use the slopintercept form and when should I use the point-slope form?” Here is a good tip. −1) for (x0 .72: The line passing through (−3. y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) 3 y − (−1) = (x − (−3)) 5 Point-slope form. the equation of the line is y + 1 = 3 (x + 3). Substitute: 3/5 for m. Draw the line passing through the point (−3. −1) with slope 3/5. The equation of the line with slope m that passes through the point (x0 . −3 for x0 . INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING The Point-Slope form of a line. −2) −5 y+2= 3 (x − 1) 2 5 x 5 (−3. 5 y Answer: y 5 Δy = 3 −5 −5 (1. Tip. To ﬁnd the equation. −1). x 5 y+1= Δx = 5 3 (x + 3) 5 At this point. then move 3 units up and 5 units to the right (see Figure 3. then label it with its equation. . −2) that has slope 3/2. Simplifying. EXAMPLE 1.

use y − y0 = m(x − x0 ). y 5 Find the equation of the line passing through the points P (−2. 2) −5 x 5 Q(3. plot the points P (−1.3. −4). y0 ). let’s calculate the slope of the line by subtracting the coordinates of the point P (−1. use y = mx + b. we get the answer on the left. But which of the two points should we use? If we use the point P (−1. If you are given the y-intercept and the slope. −4) and draw a line through them (see Figure 3. 2) and Q(3. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. 2. 2) for (x0 . use the point-slope form y −y0 = m(x−x0 ) to determine the equation of the line. Find the equation of the line passing through the points P (−1. Solution: First. 2) and Q(3. If you are given a point and the slope. Next.5. 2) from the coordinates of point Q(3. −4) for (x0 . 1) and Q(4. −4).73). P (−1. y0 ).73: The line passing through P (−1. Next. we get the . −4). Slope = Δy Δx −4 − 2 = 3 − (−1) −6 = 4 3 =− 2 Thus. −4) −5 Figure 3. POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE 215 1. It’s clear that we should substitute −3/2 for m. 2) and Q(3. the slope is −3/2. −1). but if we use the point Q(3.

Let’s put the second equation in slope-intercept form. On the right. 1/2). y0 ) = (3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 3 y − 2 = − (x − (−1)) 2 or 3 y − (−4) = − (x − 3) 2 At ﬁrst glance.73. y0 ) = (−1. Does it appear that the y-intercept is (0. when 2 2 compared with the general slope-intercept form y = mx + b. Subtract 4 from both sides. . 1 1 Answer: y = − x + 3 3 Thus. Simplify. are the same. Simplify.216 answer on the right. 3 y − 2 = − (x − (−1)) 2 3 y − 2 = − (x + 1) 2 3 3 y−2=− x− 2 2 3 3 y−2+2=− x− +2 2 2 3 3 4 y =− x− + 2 2 2 1 3 y =− x+ 2 2 Note that the form y = − 3 x + 1 . Distribute −3/2. both equations simplify to the same answer. though 2 2 they look diﬀerent. 1/2)? Using m = −3/2 and (x0 . Add 2 to both sides. −4). 3 y − (−4) = − (x − 3) 2 3 y + 4 = − (x − 3) 2 3 9 y+4=− x+ 2 2 3 9 y+4−4=− x+ −4 2 2 9 8 3 y =− x+ − 2 2 2 3 1 y =− x+ 2 2 Using m = −3/2 and (x0 . y = − 3 x + 1 . This means 2 2 that the equations y − 2 = − 3 (x − (−1)) and y − (−4) = − 3 (x − 3). indicates that the y-intercept is (0. On the right. On the left. CHAPTER 3. 2). Examine Figure 3. simplify. but let’s examine them a bit more closely. Simplify. solving for y to put each in slope-intercept form. these answers do not look the same. make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. Let’s start with the equation on the left. Distribute −3/2. Simplify. On the left. simplify. make equivalent fractions with a common denominator.

move up 3 units. but they are both equations of the same line.75: Adding a line parallel to y = 3 x − 2. right 4 units. When ﬁnding the equation of a line through two points P and Q. 1) that is parallel to the line y = 3 x − 2. 2 Δy = 3 Δx = 4 −5 x Δy = 3 (0. you may substitute either point P or Q for (x0 .5. −2). Find the 4 equation of this parallel line. Parallel lines. If two lines are parallel. Plot the point (−1. If two lines are parallel (never intersect). so it must have the same slope 3/4.75).74: The line y = 3 x − 2. 4 its slope is 3/4 and its y-intercept is (0. 1) −5 5 x The second line must be parallel to the ﬁrst. 4 −5 Figure 3. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. −2) −5 Figure 3. −2). Plot the y-intercept (0. y0 ) in the point-slope form y − y0 = m(x − x0 ). then sketch the line passing 4 through the point (−1. y 5 5 y Δx = 4 Find the equation of the line which passes through the point (2. right 4 units. then draw the line (see Figure 3. move up 3 units. The results look diﬀerent. POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE Example 2 gives rise to the following tip. 1). then draw the line (see the red line in Figure 3. −3) and is parallel to the line y= 3 x + 1. Hence. 4 5 (−1. they have the same slope. Solution: Note that y = 3 x − 2 is in slope-intercept form y = mx + b. Parallel Lines Recall that slope is a number that measures the steepness of the line. 217 Tip. Sketch the line y = 3 x − 2. . they have the same steepness.74).3.

y 5 Δx = 4 Δy = 3 (−1. y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) 3 y − 1 = x − (−1) 4 y−1= 3 (x + 1) 4 Point-slope form. Next.79: Press the GRAPH button then select 5:ZSquare to produce this image.218 CHAPTER 3. then (−1. Next. so we can save ourselves some checking work by writing the equation y−1= 3 (x + 1) 4 in the form y= 3 (x + 1) + 1 4 Figure 3.76: Enter equations of parallel lines. That is.78: Hand-drawn parallel lines. Note the close correlation of the calculator lines in Figure 3.76. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING To ﬁnd the equation of the parallel red line in Figure 3. Answer: y = 3 x−6 2 . Simplify. Substitute: 3/4 for m.79.77: Adjust the WINDOW parameters as shown. substitute −1 for x0 and 1 for y0 . This gives us conﬁdence that we’ve captured the correct answer. Check: In this example. −5 Figure 3. the select 5:ZSquare to produce the image in Figure 3.77.75.78. y0 ). substitute 3/4 for m. then change the WINDOW setting as shown in Figure 3. we were not required to solve for y.79 to the handdrawn lines in Figure 3. 5 x Figure 3. and 1 for y0 . 1) −5 Figure 3. enter each equation as shown in Figure 3. −1 for x0 . 1) for (x0 . use the pointslope form. press the GRAPH button. by adding 1 to both sides of the ﬁrst equation.

Things to note: 1. but the lines L1 and L2 in Figure 3. If we were to rotate line L1 ninety degrees counter-clockwise.81 are not perpendicular. They do not form a right angle (90 degrees). L2 Figure 3. They meet and form a right angle (90 degrees). then L1 would align with the line L2 . Before continuing. consider the perpendicular lines L1 and L2 in Figure 3.3.80 are perpendicular. y L2 −m1 1 1 L1 m1 x Figure 3. as would the right triangles revealing their slopes.80: The lines L1 and L2 are perpendicular. POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE 219 Perpendicular Lines Two lines are perpendicular if they meet and form a right angle (90 degrees). 2. L1 has slope m1 Δy = = m1 .82.81: The lines L1 and L2 are not perpendicular. y y L1 x L1 x L2 Figure 3. the lines L1 and L2 in Figure 3. we need to establish a relation between the slopes of two perpendicular lines. For example.82: Perpendicular lines L1 and L2 .5. So. Δx 1 .

3 Because the line y = − 2 x−3 has slope −2/3. Figure 3.83: The line y = x 5 x Δy = −2 −5 2 − 3 x − 3. −3).84). 1) −5 5 −5 Δx = 3 (0. its slope is −2/3 and its y-intercept is (0. Δx −m1 m1 Slopes of perpendicular lines. to draw the perpendicular line. y 5 5 y Δx = 2 Δy = 3 (2. −3) −5 Figure 3. . Plot the y-intercept (0. You Try It! Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (−3. 1) that is perpendicular to the line y = − 3 x − 3. L2 has slope CHAPTER 3.220 3.83). down two units. namely 3/2. 1) and is perpendicular to the line y = − 1 x + 1. Find the equation of this perpendicular line. Examples: To ﬁnd the slope of a perpendicular line. the L2 has slope −1/m1 . right 2 units. move up 3 units. 1). Thus. then draw the line (see Figure 3. 2 2 EXAMPLE 4. 2 Solution: Note that y = − 3 x−3 is in slope-intercept form y = mx+b. then the slope of the perpendicular line L2 is 4/3. move right 3 units. the slope of L2 is the negative reciprocal of the slope of L1 . then the slope of the perpendicular line L2 is −1/2. • If the slope of L1 is −3/4. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 1 Δy 1 = =− . invert the slope of the ﬁrst line and negate. • If the slope of L1 is 2. If L1 and L2 are perpendicular lines and L1 has slope m1 . then sketch the line through 2 (2. start at the given point (2.84: Adding a line perpendicular to y = − 2 x − 3. Sketch the line y = − 3 x − 3. then draw the line (see Figure 3. −3). Hence. the slope of the line perpendicular 3 to this line will be the negative reciprocal of −2/3. That is.

86. then select 5:ZSquare from the ZOOM menu to produce the image in Figure 3. change the window settings as shown in Figure 3.86: 6:ZStandard produces two lines that do not look perpendicular. Have we done something wrong? The answer is no! The fact that the calculator’s viewing screen is wider than it is tall is distorting the angle at which the lines meet. then select 6:ZStandard to produce the image in Figure 3. Next. Substitute: 3/2 for m.5. substitute 3/2 for m.84.84. so we can save ourselves some checking work by writing the equation y−1= 3 (x − 2) 2 in the form y= 3 (x − 2) + 1 2 by adding 1 to both sides of the ﬁrst equation.84. This gives us conﬁdence that we’ve captured the correct answer. and 1 for y0 . Figure 3. To make the calculator result match the result in Figure 3.87.88 to the hand-drawn lines in Figure 3. we were not required to solve for y. 1) for (x0 . use the pointslope form. substitute 2 for x0 . then 1 for y0 .86 do not appear to be perpendicular.85: Enter equations of perpendicular lines. That is. y0 ).85. Check: In this example. 2 for x0 . POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE 221 To ﬁnd the equation of the perpendicular line in Figure 3. Answer: y = 2x + 7 . y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) 3 y − 1 = (x − 2) 2 Point-slope form. Note the close correlation of the calculator lines in Figure 3. then (2. Figure 3. enter each equation as shown in Figure 3. Note that the lines in Figure 3.3.88.

Secondly. Use the points (32. assuming a linear relationship between the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures. draw a line through these two points (see Figure 3. Reduce. You may either use (32. 0) has smaller numbers.89). Water boils at 212◦ F and at 100◦ C. 100). water freezes at 32◦ F and 0◦ C. Finally.222 CHAPTER 3. C) = (32. giving us the point (F. The point (32. This Fahrenheit temperature is the independent variable. Note how we’ve scaled the axes so that each of these points ﬁt on the coordinate system. 0) . EXAMPLE 5. 0). so it gets placed on the horizontal axis (see Figure 3. If the relationship is linear. 0) or (212. 100) in the point-slope form. ΔC ΔF 100 − 0 m= 212 − 32 m= m= 100 180 5 m= 9 Slope formula. Use the result to ﬁnd the Fahrenheit temperature when the Celsius temperature is 25◦ C. You Try It! Find an equation that expresses the Fahrenheit temperature in terms of the Celsius temperature. Simplify. Figure 3. so it seems easier to substitute (x0 .89). C) = (212. 100). to compute the diﬀerence in C and F . ﬁnd an equation that expresses the Celsius temperature in terms of the Fahrenheit temperature. 0) and (212. Water freezes at 32◦ F (Fahrenheit) and at 0◦ C (Celsius). giving us the point (F. Calculate the slope of the line. Next. y0 ) = (32. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Figure 3. Applications Let’s look at a real-world application of lines. Use the result to ﬁnd the Celsius temperature when the Fahrenheit temperature is 113◦ F.87: Change the WINDOW parameters as shown. Solution: In this example.88: 5:ZSquare produces two lines that do look perpendicular. This makes the Celsius temperature the dependent variable and it gets placed on the vertical axis. water boils at 212◦ F and 100◦ C. the Celsius temperature depends on the Fahrenheit temperature.

to ﬁnd the Celsius temperature when the Fahrenheit temperature is 113◦ F.3.1). substitute 113 for F in equation (3. and m = 5/9 into the point-slope form y − y0 = m(x − x0 ). Answer: 77◦ F Therefore. 0) 0 −20 −40 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 F 223 Figure 3. Simplify. Substitute: 113 for F . then the Celsius temperature is 45◦ C. POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE C 120 (212. Multiply.1). 5 (3. 32 for x0 . Substitute: 5/9 for m. our vertical and horizontal axes are labeled C and F (see Figure 3. if the Fahrenheit temperature is 113◦ F. 100) 100 80 60 40 20 (32.1) C = (F − 32) 9 Finally. so we must replace y with C and x with F to obtain an equation expressing the Celsius temperature C in terms of the Fahrenheit temperature F. C= 5 (F − 32) 9 5 C = (113 − 32) 9 5 C = (81) 9 C = 45 Equation (3.89: The linear relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature.5. Subtract. However. and 0 for y0 . y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) 5 y − 0 = (x − 32) 9 y= 5 (x − 32) 9 Point-slope form.89) respectively. .

and R(−1. −4) 12. 4) 4. P (−4. P (−3. P (−3. −2) 4 15. sketch the given line. 4) and Q(2. 0) 11. 3). Q(1. Plot the point P and draw a line through P that is parallel to the ﬁrst line. and R(−4. 0) and Q(4. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. y = 3 x + 1. 1. P (−2. P (−3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. P (−2. 19. −2) 3 17. 4). and R(−1. on a sheet of graph paper. 0) 21. m = 3/4. m = −5/7. −3). m = 5/3. 4). 4) 2. then sketch the line through the given points. P (−3. sketch the line passing through the points P and Q. 0) 16. P (−4. 3) In Exercises 13-18. Plot the point R and draw a line through R that is perpendicular to the line passing through the points P and Q. Label the line with the point-slope form of its equation. Q(1. y = 3 x. P (−2. P (−2. P (−2. set up a coordinate system on a sheet of graph paper. P (−1. −3) and Q(2. 0) In Exercises 7-12. Q(−1. m = −3/8. P (−4. 0) and Q(4. −1) 5. Q(2. P (−3. P (−2. 0) 4 18. y = 5 x − 4. 3). and R(−3. −1). −1) 22. −1) 9. −4) 6. −4). −4) 24. m = 5/6. 5 13. −4) 3. Q(2. 4) and Q(2. P (−2. −4). then sketch the line through the given point with the given slope. Label the line with its equation in point-slope form. P (−2. 0). P (−4. 2) 3 14. Label this second line with its equation in point-slope form. y = − 4 x + 1. P (−4. −4). 0) 10. 2) 23. and R(−4. Label this second line with its equation in point-slope form. 3). y = 5 x − 1. 1) and Q(4. Q(1.224 CHAPTER 3. 0) 5 In Exercises 19-24. 0) 20. P (−4. P (−1. m = −4/5. 7. 3) 8. P (−1. −3) . P (−3. and R(−4. P (−3. −2). y = − 5 x. on a sheet of graph paper.

respectively. Use the point-slope form of the line to determine the equation of the line. 0) Δx = 5 6 x Q(4.3. −1) 6 y − 4 = − 5 (x + 3) 7 −6 x y − 4 = − 4 (x + 2) 5 −6 −6 . Water freezes at approximately 32◦ F and 273◦ K. Assume that the relationship between an object’s velocity and its time is linear. respectively. At 14 seconds. Water boils at approximately 212◦ F and 373◦ K. 225 26. the object’s velocity is 50 ft/s. a) Set up a coordinate system. POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE 25. c) Replace x and y in the equation found in part (b) with K and F .5. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. the object’s velocity is 30 ft/s. Use the point-slope form of the line to determine the equation of the line. Include units in your labels. where F represents the temperature measured on the Fahrenheit scale and K represents the temperature measured on the Kelvin scale. ❧ ❧ ❧ y 6 P (−2. Label and scale each axis. At 3 seconds. d) Use the result of part (c) to determine the velocity of the object after 6 seconds. y 6 P (−3. Label and scale each axis. placing the time t on the horizontal axis and the velocity v on the vertical axis. placing the Kelvin temperature K on the horizontal axis and the Fahrenheit temperature F on the vertical axis. c) Replace x and y in the equation found in part (b) with t and v. 4) Δy = −4 Q(3. Include units in your labels. b) Plot the points determined by the given data and draw a line through them. then solve the resulting equation for v. Assume that the relation between the Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperatures is linear. a) Set up a coordinate system. b) Plot the points determined by the given data and draw a line through them. 4) Δy = −5 −6 Δx = 7 Answers 3. then solve the resulting equation for F . d) Use the result of part (c) to determine the Fahrenheit temperature of the object if the Kelvin temperature is 212◦ K.

6 y 15. 6 CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING y y+4= 11.226 5. y= Q(4. −4) −6 y − 1 = − 5 (x + 3) 7 Alternate answer: y + 4 = − 5 (x − 4) 7 7. 5 (x 3 y 6 + 1) Δx = 3 −6 Q(2. 1) 6 x Q(4. 1) Δy = 5 P (−1. 2) −6 P (−4. 0) 6 x Alternate answer: y = 3 (x 5 − 2) y = 3x 5 −6 . 0)6 x −6 P (−4. −4) −6 6 x −6 P (−3. 0) 6 −6 −6 Alternate answer: y − 3 = 3 (x − 4) 8 −6 6 x 5 y − 2 = − 4 (x + 3) 9. 3) x 3 (x 8 + 4) y = −5x + 1 4 y 6 P (−3. −3) −6 Q(2. 6 y+3= 3 (x 5 y y = 3 (x + 4) 5 + 3) −6 P (−3. 6 y 13.

−4) −6 −6 25. 6 y = 3 (x + 3) 4 y −6 P (−3. 44. 6 y 227 21. 0) 6 x −6 6 R(−3. 0) 6 x −6 R(−4. −1) 6 x y = 3x + 1 4 −6 −6 y + 1 = − 3 (x + 4) 8 y 23.5.5 ft/s . POINT-SLOPE FORM OF A LINE 17. 19.3. 6 y y = 4 (x + 1) 3 6 y + 4 = 3 (x + 3) 4 x −6 R(−1.

having slope m = −2/3 and y-intercept (0. will be handled at the end of this section. Solve the equation 2x + 3y = 6 for y and plot the result. where either A = 0 or B = 0. then draw the line (see Figure 3. moving or keeping all the remaining terms on the other side of the equation. simplify. y= 6 2x − 3 3 2x 3 On the left. Therefore. Subtract 2x from both sides. Begin by isolating all terms containing y on one side of the equation.228 CHAPTER 3. a+b a b = + c c c Answer: y 5 Original equation. y =2+ − 2x 3 Add the opposite. 2). we can always solve the equation Ax + By = C . On the right. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING 3. plot the y-intercept (0. divide both terms by 3. so too is division distributive with respect to addition. 2x + 3y = 6 2x + 3y − 2x = 6 − 2x 3y = 6 − 2x 3y 6 − 2x = 3 3 Just as multiplication is distributive with respect to addition a(b + c) = ab + ac. use the commutative property to switch the order of the terms on the right-hand side of the last result. 2 y =− x+2 3 x −5 Δy = 1 Δx = 2 (0. When dividing a sum or a diﬀerence by a number. unless B = 0. Simplify. Use the commutative property to switch the order. 2). Let’s begin with a simple example. −3) 5 −5 Because the equation 2x + 3y = 6 is equivalent to the equation y = − 2 x + 2. You Try It! Solve x − 2y = 6 for y and plot the result.6 Standard Form of a Line In this section we will investigate the standard form of a line. to draw the graph of 2x + 3y = 6. Solution: First we solve the equation 2x + 3y = 6 for y. move down 2 and 3 to the right. The form Ax + By = C. In general. EXAMPLE 1.90). we use the distributive property and divide both terms by that number. Simplify. 3 the graph of 2x + 3y = 6 is a line. Divide both sides by 3. y =2− Finally.

is a line. we would clear the fractions from the form 2 1 1 x+ y = 2 3 4 . We have established the following result. On the left. and C are integers. Simplify.6. for example.90: The graph of 2x + 3y = 6. On the right distribute the B. Fact. Subtract Ax from both sides. B. possible if B = 0. 1. y=− Note that the last result is in slope-intercept form y = mx + b. The form Ax + By = C requires that the coeﬃcients A. So. or equivalently.3. 2) Δy = −2 −5 x Δx = 3 5 229 −5 Figure 3. simplify. The graph of the equation Ax + By = C. whose graph is a line. STANDARD FORM OF A LINE y 5 (0. Divide both sides by B. A couple of important comments are in order. y = − 2 x + 2. 3 for y: Ax + By = C Ax + By − Ax = C − Ax By = C − Ax C − Ax By = B B y= Ax C − B B A C x+ B B Original equation. Commutative property. Important points.

12 1 2 x+ y 2 3 = 1 4 12 6x + 8y = 3 Note that the coeﬃcients are now integers. B. Slope-Intercept to Standard Form We’ve already transformed a couple of equations in standard form into slopeintercept form. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. Thus.230 CHAPTER 3. B. thus “reducing” the coeﬃcients. and C are integers. if we have −5x + 2y = 6. . 2. The form Ax + By = C. For example. −24 3x + 12y = 3 3 x + 4y = −8 Standard form. The form Ax + By = C also requires that the ﬁrst coeﬃcient A is nonnegative. and A ≥ 0.. it is recommended that we divide both sides by the common divisor. If A. 3. i.e. then dividing both side by 3 “reduces” the size of the coeﬃcients. where A. arriving at: −1(−5x + 2y) = (6)(−1) 5x − 2y = −6 Note that A = 5 is now greater than or equal to zero. is called the standard form of a line. A ≥ 0. then we would multiply both sides by −1. if we have 3x + 12y = −24. and C have a common divisor greater than 1. Let’s reverse the process and place an equation in slopeintercept form into standard form.

5 2y = 2 − x − 3 2 5 2y = 2 − x − 2 [3] 2 2y = −5x − 6 Multiply both sides by 2.3. 5x + 2y = −5x − 6 + 5x 5x + 2y = −6 Add 5x to both sides.92). That clears the fractions.6. STANDARD FORM OF A LINE 231 You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Multiply. y = mx + b 5 y =− x−3 2 Slope-intercept form. Given the graph of the line in Figure 3. y 5 5 Δx = −2 −5 5 x y Given the graph of the line below.92: The line has yintercept (0. Solution: The line intercepts the y-axis at (0. then left 2 units. . From (0. y 5 −5 x 5 −5 x Δy = 5 5 −5 (0. −5 Figure 3. Substitute: −5/2 for m. −3 for b. ﬁnd the equation of the line in standard form. −3) −5 Figure 3. Distribute the 2. we need to move the term −5x to the other side of the equation. Thus. Simplify. the line has slope Δy/Δx = −5/2 (see Figure 3. To put this last result in the form Ax + By = C. move up 5 units. To put this result in standard form Ax + By = C. −3) and slope −5/2. −3). ﬁrst clear the fractions by multiplying both sides by the common denominator. ﬁnd the equation of the line in standard form. −3).91. Substitute −5/2 for m and −3 for b in the slope-intercept form of the line.91: Determine the equation of the line.

with A ≥ 0. 2) −5 x 5 (−3. 4) and (3. Subtract coordinates of (−3. Simplify.232 CHAPTER 3. EXAMPLE 3. 2). = . y 5 (1. Sketch the line passing through the points (−3. Note that all the coeﬃcients are integers and the terms are arranged in the order Ax + By = C. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Answer: 3x − 4y = −2 Thus.93: The line through (−3. then ﬁnd the equation of the line in standard form. −4) from the coordinates of (1.93). −4) and (1. Reduce. 2). 2). Solution: Plot the points (−3. Use the points (−3. You Try It! Find the standard form of the equation of the line that passes through the points (−2. Point-Slope to Standard Form Let’s do an example where we have to put the point-slope form of a line in standard form. 2) to calculate the slope. the standard form of the line is 5x + 2y = −6. −4) and (1. −4) −5 Figure 3. −3). Slope = Δy Δx 2 − (−4) = 1 − (−3) 6 4 3 = 2 Slope formula. 2). then draw a line through them (see Figure 3. −4) and (1. −4) and (1.

then the equation of the line would be: y−2= 6 (x − 1) 4 Multiplying both sides by 4 would give us the result 4y − 8 = 6x − 6. Multiply.3. y0 ) = (−3. but if we divide both sides by −2. However. Simplify. First we clear the fractions.6. Thus. 2y − 4 − 3x = 3x − 3 − 3x −3x + 2y − 4 = −3 Subtract 3x from both sides. 3x − 2y = −1 This shows the importance of requiring A ≥ 0 and “reducing” the coeﬃcients A. If we fail to reduce the slope to lowest terms. Simplify. It allows us to compare our answer with our colleagues or the answers presented in this textbook. To put this in the form Ax + By = C. The question requests that our ﬁnal answer be presented in standard form. Answer: 7x + 5y = 6 . and C. It appears that −3x + 2y = 1 is in the form Ax + By = C. we must order the terms in the form Ax + By = C. −3x + 2y − 4 + 4 = −3 + 4 −3x + 2y = 1 Add 4 to both sides. −4) and m = 3/2 would yield the same answer. Distribute the 2. y0 ) = (1.) y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) 3 y − 2 = (x − 1) 2 Point-slope form. We have A = −3. the equation of the line in standard form is 3x − 2y = −1. (Note: Substituting (x0 . Distribute the −1. Substitute: 3/2 for m. We need to move the term 3x to the other side of the equation. changing the order on the left-hand side. or equivalently: −6x + 4y = 2 Now that we’ve cleared the fractions. STANDARD FORM OF A LINE 233 Let’s substitute (x0 . Multiply both sides by 2. we do get the same result. This doesn’t look like the same answer. 2) and m = 3/2 in the point-slope form of the line. −1 [−3x + 2y] = −1 [1] 3x − 2y = −1 Multiply both sides by −1. we need to move the term −4 to the other side of the equation. 1 for x0 . and 2 for y0 . we multiply both sides by −1. standard form requires that A ≥ 0. B. 3 3 x− 2 2 3 3 2 [y − 2] = 2 x − 2 2 3 3 2y − 2[2] = 2 x − 2 2 2 y−2= 2y − 4 = 3x − 3 Distribute the 3/2. To ﬁx this.

0) ( . y-Intercepts. To ﬁnd the y-intercepts of the graph of an equation. Find the x. Similarly. Note that each of these y-intercepts has an x-coordinate equal to zero. the point where the graph crosses the y-axis. Each of these crossing points is called an x-intercept. Note that each of these x-intercepts has a y-coordinate equal to zero.95 crosses the y-axis three times. Each of these crossing points is called a y-intercept. the graph in Figure 3.and y-intercepts of the line having equation 3x + 4y = −12. This leads to the following rule. Figure 3.94: Each x-intercept has a y-coordinate equal to zero.and y-intercepts of the line having equation 2x − 3y = 6. Plot the intercepts and draw the line. 0) ( .95: Each y-intercept has an x-coordinate equal to zero. EXAMPLE 4. the graph crosses the x-axis three times. y y (0. In Figure 3. 0) x (0. substitute x = 0 into the equation and solve for y.234 CHAPTER 3. substitute y = 0 into the equation and solve for x. ) x Figure 3.94. x-Intercepts. To ﬁnd the x-intercepts of the graph of an equation. ) (0. but equally important are the x-intercepts. Plot the intercepts and draw the line. the points where the graph crosses the x-axis. Let’s put these rules for ﬁnding intercepts to work. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING Intercepts We’ve studied the y-intercept. . You Try It! Find the x. This leads to the following rule. ) ( .

and y-intercepts of the line 4x + 3y = 12. substitute 0 for y and solve for x. 2x − 3y = 6 2(0) − 3y = 6 −3y = 6 6 −3y = −3 −3 y = −2 Thus.6. 0) and (0. Solution: Let’s ﬁrst ﬁnd the x. . Find the equation of this perpendicular line. 2) and is perpendicular to the line 6x − 5y = 15. then sketch the line through the point (−2.and y-intercepts. 6. −5 (0. 0) y-intercept: (0. −3) −5 3x + 4y = −12 5 x You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. the x-intercept of the line is (3. 0) and the y-intercept (0. Sketch the line 4x + 3y = 12. Furthermore. −3) y 5 (−4.96). −2) 5 x x-intercept: (−4. STANDARD FORM OF A LINE 235 Solution: We know that the graph of 2x − 3y = 6 is a line. −2). substitute 0 for x and solve for y. −2) that is perpendicular to the line 4x + 3y = 12. 0). 0) −5 Figure 3. then draw a line through them. Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (3. This means that we need only plot the x. two points completely determine a line.3. 2x − 3y = 6 2x − 3(0) = 6 2x = 6 2x 6 = 2 2 x=3 Thus. −2). −2) and draw a line through them (see Figure 3. 0) −5 (0.96: The graph of 2x − 3y = 6 has intercepts (3. the y-intercept of the line is (0. y 5 Answer: 2x − 3y = 6 (3. To ﬁnd the y-intercept of 2x − 3y = To ﬁnd the x-intercept of 2x − 3y = 6. Plot the x-intercept (3.

the slope of a line perpendicular to 3x + 4y = 12 will be the negative reciprocal of −4/3. −2).97). and (x0 . 0) −5 Δx = 3 5 x −5 Δy = 3 Δx = 4 5 x (−2. −2) to . To ﬁnd the x-intercept of the line 4x + 3y = 12. substitute 0 for x and solve for y. Start at (−2.98). 4) 5 y Δy = −4 (3. Finally. move 3 units upward. 0) and (0.97: The graph of 4x+3y = 12 has intercepts (3. namely 3/4. the x-intercept of the line is (3. You could also solve for y to put 3x + 4y = 12 in slopeintercept form in order to determine the slope. Plot the intercepts and draw a line through them. use the point-slope form. Note that it is clear from the graph that the slope of the line 3x + 4y = 12 is −4/3 (see Figure 3. substitute 0 for y and solve for x. −2) −5 Figure 3. 4x + 3y = 12 4(0) + 3y = 12 3y = 12 12 3y = 3 3 y=4 Thus. Our perpendicular line has to pass through the point (−2. 4x + 3y = 12 4x + 3(0) = 12 4x = 12 4x 12 = 4 4 x=3 Thus. y0 ) = (−2. then draw the line. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING To ﬁnd the y-intercept of the line 4x + 3y = 12. It should appear to be perpendicular to the line 3x + 4y = 12 (see Figure 3. then 4 units to the right.98: The slope of the perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of −4/3. 4). 0). −2).236 CHAPTER 3. namely 3/4. 4) and slope −4/3. −5 Figure 3. the y-intercept of the line is (0. Because the slope of 3x + 4y = 12 is −4/3. y 5 (0. m = 3/4.

Similarly. Horizontal and Vertical Lines Here we keep an earlier promise to address what happens to the standard form Ax + By = C when either A = 0 or B = 0. if either A = 0 or B = 0. 237 Substitute: 3/4 for m. Distribute the −1. y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) 3 y − (−2) = (x − (−2)) 4 y+2= 3 (x + 2) 4 Point-slope form. As we will see in the next example. Simplify. Clear the fractions. respectively. has B = 0. the form 3x = 6. STANDARD FORM OF A LINE determine the equation of the perpendicular line. the form x = a produces a vertical line. Multiply. For example. Multiply both sides by 4. Simplify. Subtract 8 from both sides. 3 6 x+ 4 4 3 6 4 [y + 2] = 4 x + 4 4 6 3 4y + 4[2] = 4 x + 4 4 4 y+2= 4y + 8 = 3x + 6 Distribute 3/4.6. Distribute the 4. Simplify. −2 for x0 . Multiply both sides by −1. 3x = 6 can be simpliﬁed to x = 2 and 2y = −12 can be simpliﬁed to y = −6. Let’s place our answer in standard form. Of course. when compared with the standard form Ax + By = C. Rearrange the terms to put them in the order Ax + By = C. Rearrange on the left. the equation of the perpendicular line is 3x − 4y = 2.3. Thus. 4y + 8 − 3x = 3x + 6 − 3x −3x + 4y + 8 = 6 −3x + 4y + 8 − 8 = 6 − 8 −3x + 4y = −2 −1(−3x + 4y) = −1(−2) 3x − 4y = 2 Subtract 3x from both sides. and −2 for y0 . when compared with the standard form Ax + By = C. has A = 0. the standard form Ax + By = C takes the form x = a and y = b. Answer: 5x + 6y = 27 Hence. the form 2y = −12. while the form y = b produces a horizontal line. .

1.238 CHAPTER 3.99. recall that the graph of an equation is the set of all points that satisfy the equation. that is. Hence. we must plot all of the points that satisfy the equation x = 3. The result is shown in Figure 3. we must plot all of the points that have an x-coordinate equal to 3. Note that the y-intercept of this graph is (0. The graph of x = 3 in Figure 3. to sketch the graph of y = −3. we plot all points having a ycoordinate equal to −3. to draw the graph of x = 3. being a vertical line. Secondly. Sketch the graphs of x = 3 and y = −3. However. The result is shown in Figure 3. −3). has undeﬁned slope. .100: The graph of y = −3 is a horizontal line. Therefore. the graph of y = −3. If we substitute these numbers into y = mx + b.100.99. y 5 x=3 y 5 −5 x 5 −5 x 5 y = −3 −5 Figure 3. Solution: To sketch the graph of x = 3.100. Simplify. Things to note: A couple of comments are in order regarding the lines in Figures 3. The only way we can obtain the equation is to note that the line is the set of all points (x. we get: y = mx + b y = 0x + (−3) y = −3 Slope-intercept form. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING You Try It! Sketch the graphs of x = −2 and y = 2. so we can use the slope-intercept form to ﬁnd the equation of the line. −5 Figure 3. being a horizontal line.99: The graph of x = 3 is a vertical line. we cannot use either of the formulae y = mx + b or y − y0 = m(x − x0 ) to obtain the equation of the line. EXAMPLE 6. 2. y) whose x-coordinate equals 3.99 and 3. has slope zero. −3 for b. Substitute: 0 for m.

STANDARD FORM OF A LINE 239 −5 −5 y=2 x However.100 and note that it is the collection of all points (x.Answer: x = −2y 5 3. y) with y = 3.6. it is far easier to just look at the line in Figures 3. 5 .

4x − 3y = 9 2.240 CHAPTER 3. 6 10. 1. 6 y −6 6 x −6 6 x −6 −6 . 3x − 2y = 6 4. place the given standard form into slope-intercept form and sketch its graph. 6 y −6 6 x −6 6 x −6 −6 y 8. 2x + 3y = 12 6. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 6 y 9. Label the graph with its slope-intercept form. 5x − 3y = 3 5. 2x − 3y = 3 3. determine an equation of the given line in standard form. 3x + 4y = 8 In Exercises 7-10. 7.

Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−1. 2) that is parallel to the line 3x + 5y = −15. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−2. −2) that is perpendicular to the line 2x + 5y = −10. 4) 15. 27. 2x + 3y = 6 22. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−1. P (2. . STANDARD FORM OF A LINE 241 In Exercises 11-16. Sketch the equation of the vertical line passing through the point P (−4. 4) and label it with its equation. 4) 14. 31. −3) that is perpendicular to the line 3x + 2y = 6. 32. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−1. 33. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−1. −4) and label it with its equation.and y-intercepts of the line having the given equation. P (−1. 4) and Q(3. 34. 2x − 5y = 10 18. −4) 12. 17. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−3. 1) and Q(2. −4) and label it with its equation. 11. −5) that is perpendicular to the line 4x + 3y = −12. Sketch the equation of the vertical line passing through the point P (1. Sketch the equation of the horizontal line passing through the point P (−5. 3) that is parallel to the line 3x + 5y = −15. 3x − 4y = 12 21. then draw the line through the intercepts and label it with its equation. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−3. 5) that is parallel to the line 4x + 5y = −20. 30. 24. 2x + 3y = −6 19. 4) and Q(2. −1) and Q(3. plot the x. 25. P (−1. 2x − 3y = −6 23. 2) that is parallel to the line 5x + 4y = 20. 0) In Exercises 17-22. −3) 16. 1) 13. Label the line with its equation in standard form. 28. Find an equation of the line (in standard form) that passes through the point P (−4.6. 26. 29.3. −1) and Q(4. P (−3. 3) and label it with its equation. −2) that is perpendicular to the line 5x + 2y = 10. 3x − 2y = 6 20. Sketch the equation of the vertical line passing through the point P (−2. sketch the line passing through the points P and Q. P (−4. 3) and Q(0. P (−1.

−3) −6 −6 6 x Q(2. 6 y Answers 11. 4x + 5y = 0 9. 6 Δy = −2 y (0. 1) −6 −6 Q(2. 1) x 6 (0. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. −4) −6 8x + 3y = 4 3. 0) 6 (0.242 CHAPTER 3. 6 y y = 3x − 3 2 13. −3) −6 y 6 Q(3. 2) Δx = 3 −6 x 2 6 y = −3x + 4 −6 15. −1) 6 5. 6 y P (−3. −3) −6 4x + 5y = −7 6 x 7. Δx = 2 −6 Δy = 3 (2. 4) (3. 4) 5x − 4y = −1 x x −6 P (−1. 2x − 5y = 15 . 4) y = 4x − 3 3 Δx = 3 −6 Δy = 4 (3. ❧ ❧ ❧ y 6 P (−1.

**3.6. STANDARD FORM OF A LINE 17. 6 23.
**

4x + 5y = 21 y 6P (−1, 5)

243

y

−6 (0, −2) −6

2x − 5y = 10 x 6 (5, 0)

−6

6

x

−6 4x + 5y = −20

19. 6

y

3x − 2y = 6

25.

6

y

−6

(2, 0) (0, −3) −6

6

x

−6 P (−1, −2) 2x − 5y = 8 −6

6

x

5x + 2y = 10

21. 6

y

27.

6

y

(0, 2) (3, 0) −6 6 x 2x + 3y = 6 −6

P (−4, −5) −6 −6 x

6

3x − 4y = 8

4x + 3y = −12

244 29.

5x + 4y = −7 6 P (−3, 2)

**CHAPTER 3. INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHING
**

y

33.

x = −2 6

y

−6

6

x

−6 (−2, −4) −6

6

x

5x + 4y = 20 −6

31.

6

y

−6 (−5, −4) −6

6

x

y = −4

Chapter

4

Systems of Linear Equations

In 1801, Carl Frederick Gauss (1777-1885) computed the orbit of the newly discovered planetoid Ceres from just a few observations by solving a system of equations. He invented a method (called Gaussian elimination) that is still used today. Solving systems of equations has been a subject of study in many other cultures. The ancient Chinese text Jiuzhang Suanshu (translated as Nine Chapters of Mathematical Art ) written during the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) describes 246 problems related to practical situations such as land measurement, construction, and commerce. Here is one of the problems described in the text: “One pint of good wine costs 50 gold pieces, while one pint of poor wine costs 10. Two pints of wine are bought for 30 gold pieces. How much of each kind of wine was bought?” This problem can be solved by using a system of equations. In this chapter, we will learn how to solve systems of linear equations by using a variety of methods, including Gaussian elimination.

245

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CHAPTER 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

4.1

Solving Systems by Graphing

y 8 x − 3y = −9 (3, 4)

In this section we introduce a graphical technique for solving systems of two linear equations in two unknowns. As we saw in the previous chapter, if a point satisﬁes an equation, then that point lies on the graph of the equation. If we are looking for a point that satisﬁes two equations, then we are looking for a point that lies on the graphs of both equations; that is, we are looking for a point of intersection. For example, consider the the two equations x − 3y = −9 2x + 3y = 18,

2x + 3y = 18 −2 −2 x 8

Figure 4.1: The point of intersection is a solution of the system of linear equations.

which is called a system of linear equations. The equations are linear equations because their graphs are lines, as shown in Figure 4.1. Note that the two lines in Figure 4.1 intersect at the point (3, 4). Therefore, the point (3, 4) should satisfy both equations. Let’s check. Substitute 3 for x and 4 for y. Substitute 3 for x and 4 for y. x − 3y = −9 3 − 3(4) = −9 3 − 12 = −9 −9 = −9 2x + 3y = 18 2(3) + 3(4) = 18 6 + 12 = 18 18 = 18

Hence, the point (3, 4) satisﬁes both equations and is called a solution of the system. Solution of a linear system. A point (x, y) is called a solution of a system of two linear equations if and only if it satisﬁed both equations. Furthermore, because a point satisﬁes an equation if and only if it lies on the graph of the equation, to solve a system of linear equations graphically, we need to determine the point of intersection of the two lines having the given equations. Let’s try an example. You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: 2x − 5y = −10 y =x−1 EXAMPLE 1. Solve the following system of equations: 3x + 2y = 12 y =x+1 (4.1)

Solution: We are looking for the point (x, y) that satisﬁes both equations; that is, we are looking for the point that lies on the graph of both equations. Therefore, the logical approach is to plot the graphs of both lines, then identify the point of intersection. First, let’s determine the x- and y-intercepts of 3x + 2y = 12.

4.1. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING To ﬁnd the x-intercept, let y = 0. 3x + 2y = 12 3x + 2(0) = 12 3x = 12 x=4

247

To ﬁnd the y-intercept, let x = 0. 3x + 2y = 12 3(0) + 2y = 12 2y = 12 y=6

Hence, the x-intercept is (4, 0) and the y-intercept is (0, 6). These intercepts are plotted in Figure 4.2 and the line 3x + 2y = 12 is drawn through them. Comparing the second equation y = x + 1 with the slope-intercept form y = mx + b, we see that the slope is m = 1 and the y-intercept is (0, 1). Plot the intercept (0, 1), then go up 1 unit and right 1 unit, then draw the line (see Figure 4.3). y 8 (0, 6) 8 y

y =x+1

1 1 (4, 0) −2 −2 3x + 2y = 12 8 x (0, 1) −2 −2 Figure 4.3: Drawing the graph of y = x + 1. 8 x

Figure 4.2: Drawing the graph of 3x + 2y = 12.

We are trying to ﬁnd the point that lies on both lines, so we plot both lines on the same coordinate system, labeling each with its equation (see Figure 4.4). It appears that the lines intersect at the point (2, 3), making (x, y) = (2, 3) the solution of System 4.1 (see Figure 4.4).

Check: To show that (x, y) = (2, 3) is a solution of System 4.1, we must show that we get true statements when we substitute 2 for x and 3 for y in both equations of System 4.1.

248

CHAPTER 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS y 8 y =x+1

(2, 3)

−2 −2 3x + 2y = 12

x 8

Figure 4.4: The coordinates of the point of intersection is the solution of System 4.1.

Substituting 2 for x and 3 for y in 3x + 2y = 12, we get: 3x + 2y = 12 3(2) + 2(3) = 12 6 + 6 = 12 12 = 12 Hence, (2, 3) satisﬁes the equation 3x + 2y = 12. Answer: (5, 4)

Substituting 2 for x and 3 for y in y = x + 1, we get: y = x+1 3=2+1 3=3

Hence, (2, 3) satisﬁes the equation y = x + 1.

Because (2, 3) satisﬁes both equations, this makes (2, 3) a solution of System 4.1.

You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: −4x − 3y = 12 x − 2y = −2 EXAMPLE 2. Solve the following system of equations: 3x − 5y = −15 2x + y = −4 (4.2)

Solution: Once again, we are looking for the point that satisﬁes both equations of the System 4.2. Thus, we need to ﬁnd the point that lies on the graphs of both lines represented by the equations of System 4.2. The approach will be to graph both lines, then approximate the coordinates of the point of intersection. First, let’s determine the x- and y-intercepts of 3x − 5y = −15.

4.1. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING To ﬁnd the x-intercept, let y = 0. 3x − 5y = −15 3x − 5(0) = −15 3x = −15 x = −5

249

To ﬁnd the y-intercept, let x = 0. 3x − 5y = −15 3(0) − 5y = −15 −5y = −15 y=3

Hence, the x-intercept is (−5, 0) and the y-intercept is (0, 3). These intercepts are plotted in Figure 4.5 and the line 3x − 5y = −15 is drawn through them. Next, let’s determine the intercepts of the second equation 2x + y = −4. To ﬁnd the x-intercept, let y = 0. 2x + y = −4 2x + 0 = −4 2x = −4 x = −2 Hence, the x-intercept is (−2, 0) and the y-intercept is (0, −4). These intercepts are plotted in Figure 4.6 and the line 2x + y = −4 is drawn through them. y 10 3x − 5y = −15 y 10 Later in this section we will learn how to use the intersect utility on the graphing calculator to obtain a much more accurate approximation of the actual solution. Then, in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, we’ll show how to ﬁnd the exact solution. x To ﬁnd the y-intercept, let x = 0. 2x + y = −4 2(0) + y = −4 y = −4

(0, 3) (−5, 0) −10 10 x

−10

(−2, 0) (0, −4)

10

−10 Figure 4.5: Drawing the graph of the line 3x − 5y = −15.

−10 2x + y = −4 Figure 4.6: Drawing the graph of the line 2x + y = −4.

To ﬁnd the solution of System 4.2, we need to plot both lines on the same coordinate system and determine the coordinates of the point of intersection. Unlike Example 1, in this case we’ll have to be content with an approximation of these coordinates. It appears that the coordinates of the point of intersection are approximately (−2.6, 1.4) (see Figure 4.7). Check: Because we only have an approximation of the solution of the system, we cannot expect the solution to check exactly in each equation. However, we do hope that the solution checks approximately.

250

CHAPTER 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS y 10 3x − 5y = −15

(−2.6, 1.4) −10 10 x

−10 2x + y = −4 Figure 4.7: The approximate coordinates of the point of intersection are (−2.6, 1.4).

Substitute (x, y) = (−2.6, 1.4) into the ﬁrst equation of System 4.2. 3x − 5y = −15 3(−2.6) − 5(1.4) = −15 −7.8 − 7 = −15 −14.8 = −15 Note that (x, y) = (−2.6, 1.4) does not check exactly, but it is pretty close to being a true statement.

Substitute (x, y) = (−2.6, 1.4) into the second equation of System 4.2. 2x + y = −4 2(−2.6) + 1.4 = −4 −5.2 + 1.4 = −4 −3.8 = −4 Again, note that (x, y) = (−2.6, 1.4) does not check exactly, but it is pretty close to being a true statement.

Approximate answer: (−2.7, −0.4)

Because (x, y) = (−2.6, 1.4) very nearly makes both equations a true statement, it seems that (x, y) = (−2.6, 1.4) is a reasonable approximation for the solution of System 4.2.

Exceptional Cases

Most of the time, given the graphs of two lines, they will intersect in exactly one point. But there are two exceptions to this general scenario. You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: x−y =3 −2x + 2y = 4 EXAMPLE 3. Solve the following system of equations: 2x + 3y = 6 2x + 3y = −6 (4.3)

4.1. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING

251

Solution: Let’s place each equation in slope-intercept form by solving each equation for y. Solve 2x + 3y = 6 for y: 2x + 3y = 6 2x + 3y − 2x = 6 − 2x 3y = 6 − 2x 3y 6 − 2x = 3 3 2 y =− x+2 3 Solve 2x + 3y = −6 for y: 2x + 3y = −6 2x + 3y − 2x = −6 − 2x 3y = −6 − 2x 3y −6 − 2x = 3 3 2 y =− x−2 3

Comparing y = (−2/3)x + 2 with the slope-intercept form y = mx + b tells us that the slope is m = −2/3 and the y-intercept is (0, 2). Plot the intercept (0, 2), then go down 2 units and right 3 units and draw the line (see Figure 4.8). Comparing y = (−2/3)x − 2 with the slope-intercept form y = mx + b tells us that the slope is m = −2/3 and the y-intercept is (0, −2). Plot the intercept (0, −2), then go down 2 units and right 3 units and draw the line (see Figure 4.9). 2x + 3y = 6 5 (0, 2) −2 −5 x 3 5 −5 −2 −5 Figure 4.8: Drawing the graph of the line 2x + 3y = 6. −5 3 2x + 3y = −6 x (0, −2) 5 y 5 y

Figure 4.9: Drawing the graph of the line 2x + 3y = −6.

To ﬁnd the solution of System 4.3, draw both lines on the same coordinate system (see Figure 4.10). Note how the lines appear to be parallel (they don’t intersect). The fact that both lines have the same slope −2/3 conﬁrms our suspicion that the lines are parallel. However, note that the lines have diﬀerent y-intercepts. Hence, we are looking at two parallel but distinct lines (see Figure 4.10) that do not intersect. Hence, System 4.3 has no solution.

252

CHAPTER 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 2x + 3y = 6 5 y

−5

x 5

−5

2x + 3y = −6

Figure 4.10: The lines 2x + 3y = 6 and 2x + 3y = −6 are parallel, distinct lines. Answer: No solution.

You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: −6x + 3y = −12 2x − y = 4 EXAMPLE 4. Solve the following system of equations: x−y =3 −2x + 2y = −6 Solution: Let’s solve both equations for y. Solve x − y = 3 for y: x−y =3 x−y−x= 3−x

y 5 −2x + 2y = −6 (3, 0) −5 (0, −3) −5 (1, −2) 5 x

(4.4)

Solve −2x + 2y = −6 for y: −2x + 2y = −6 −2x + 2y + 2x = −6 + 2x 2y = 2x − 6 2y 2x − 6 = 2 2 y =x−3

−y = −x + 3 −1(−y) = −1(−x + 3) y =x−3

x−y =3

Both lines have slope m = 1, and both have the same y-intercept (0, −3). Hence, the two lines are identical (see Figure 4.11). Hence, System 4.4 has an inﬁnite number of points of intersection. Any point on either line is a solution of the system. Examples of points of intersection (solutions satisfying both equations) are (0, −3), (1, −2), and (3, 0).

Figure 4.11: x − y = 3 and −2x + 2y = −6 are the same line.

4.1. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING

253

Alternate solution: A much easier approach is to note that if we divide both sides of the second equation −2x + 2y = −6 by −2, we get: −2x + 2y −2x + 2y −2 −2x 2y + −2 −2 x−y = −6 −6 = −2 −6 = −2 =3 Second equation in System 4.4. Divide both sides by −2. Distribute −2. Simplify. Answer: There are an inﬁnite number of solutions. The lines are identical, so any point on either line is a solution.

Hence, the second equation in System 4.4 is identical to the ﬁrst. Thus, there are an inﬁnite number of solutions. Any point on either line is a solution.

Examples 1, 2, 3, and 4 lead us to the following conclusion.

Number of solutions of a linear system. When dealing with a system of two linear equations in two unknowns, there are only three possibilities: 1. There is exactly one solution. 2. There are no solutions. 3. There are an inﬁnite number of solutions.

**Solving Systems with the Graphing Calculator
**

We’ve already had experience graphing equations with the graphing calculator. We’ve also used the TRACE button to estimate points of intersection. However, the graphing calculator has a much more sophisticated tool for ﬁnding points of intersection. In the next example we’ll use the graphing calculator to ﬁnd the solution of System 4.1 of Example 1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. Use the graphing calculator to solve the following system of equations: 3x + 2y = 12 y = x+1 (4.5) Solve the following system of equations: 2x − 5y = 9 y = 2x − 5

Solution: To enter an equation in the Y= menu, the equation must ﬁrst be

254

CHAPTER 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

solved for y. Hence, we must ﬁrst solve 3x + 2y = 12 for y. 3x + 2y = 12 2y = 12 − 3x 2y 12 − 3x = 2 2 12 3x − y= 2 2 Original equation. Subtract 3x from both sides of the equation. Divide both sides by 2. On the left, simplify. On the right, distribute division by 2.

3 Simplify. y =6− x 2 We can now substitute both equations of System 4.5 into the Y= menu (see Figure 4.12). Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the graphs shown in Figure 4.13.

Figure 4.12: Enter System 4.5 equations into the Y= menu.

Figure 4.13: Select 6:ZStandard to produce the graphs of the system (4.5) equations.

Having the calculator ask “First curve,” “Second curve,” when there are only two curves on the screen may seem annoying. However, imagine the situation when there are three or more curves on the screen. Then these questions make good sense. You can change your selection of “First curve” or “Second curve” by using the up-and-down arrow keys to move the cursor to a diﬀerent curve.

The question now becomes “How do we calculate the coordinates of the point of intersection?” Look on your calculator case just above the TRACE button on the top row of buttons, where you’ll see the word CAlC, painted in the same color as the 2ND key. Press the 2ND key, then the TRACE button, which will open the CALCULATE menu shown in Figure 4.14. Select 5:intersect. The result is shown in Figure 4.15. The calculator has placed the cursor on the curve y = 6 − (3/2)x (see upper left corner of your viewing screen), and in the lower left corner the calculator is asking you if you want to use the selected curve as the “First curve.” Answer “yes” by pressing the ENTER button. The calculator responds as shown Figure 4.16. The cursor jumps to the curve y = x + 1 (see upper left corner of your viewing window), and in the lower left corner the calculator is asking you if you want to use the selected curve as the “Second curve.” Answer “yes” by pressing the ENTER key again. The calculator responds as shown Figure 4.17, asking you to “Guess.” In this case, leave the cursor where it is and press the ENTER key again to signal the calculator that you are making a guess at the current position of the cursor. The result of pressing ENTER to the “Guess” question in Figure 4.17 is shown in Figure 4.18, where the calculator now provides an approximation

1. Figure 4. . 3).15.14: Press 2ND.4.18: Read the approximate coordinates of the point of intersection along the bottom edge of the viewing window. of the the coordinates of the intersection point on the bottom edge of the viewing window. guessing will become more important. we’ll need to use the left-and-right arrow keys to move the cursor near the point of intersection we wish the calculator to ﬁnd. Figure 4.16: Press the ENTER key on your calculator to say “yes” to the “Second curve” selection. In those future cases. when we investigate the intersection of two graphs having more than one point of intersection.17 and reports that the approximate coordinates of the point of intersection are (2. Figure 4.15: Press the ENTER key on your calculator to say “yes” to the “First curve” selection. Then select 5:intersect to produce the screen in Figure 4. Figure 4. Note that the calculator has placed the cursor on the point of intersection in Figure 4.17: Press the ENTER key to signal the calculator that you are satisﬁed with the current position of the cursor as your guess. In later sections. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING 255 Figure 4. then TRACE to open the CALCULATE menu.

21.19: Reporting your result on your homework paper. label the point of intersection with its coordinates (see Figure 4. always report every single digit displayed on your calculator. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Reporting your solution on your homework. as shown in Figure 4. put the appropriate value of Xmin. In reporting your solution on your homework paper. y 10 y =x+1 (2.20.6) 3 y = x−5 5 Solution: Each equation of System 4. 3) −10 10 x −10 3x + 2y = 12 Figure 4. follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines from Chapter 3. Use a ruler to draw the lines and label each with their equations. Xmax. −1) Sometimes you will need to adjust the parameters in the WINDOW menu so that the point of intersection is visible in the viewing window. and Ymax reported in your calculator’s WINDOW menu. You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: y= 3 x+6 2 6 y =− x−4 7 EXAMPLE 6. Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image shown in Figure 4. Ymin. Use the graphing calculator to ﬁnd an approximate solution of the following system: 2 y =− x+7 7 (4. Label your axes x and y. Section 2. so we can proceed directly and enter them in the Y= menu. Make an accurate copy of the image shown in your viewing window. Unless instructed otherwise. .6 is already solved for y. At the end of each axis. Approximate answer: (2. Finally.19).256 CHAPTER 4.

” “Second curve.54837. so we’ll have to increase the value of Xmax (set Xmax = 20) as shown in Figure 4.22: Change xmax to 20. Figure 4. and Ymax reported in your .20: Enter the equations of System 4. y) ≈ (13.1290323). Figure 4. Label your axes x and y. Now that the point of intersection is visible in the viewing window. Ymin. Once you have made that change to Xmax.1. Make an accurate copy of the image shown in your viewing window. press 2ND CALC and select 5:intersect from the CALCULATE menu (see Figure 4. the solution of System 4.25 in the last 2-3 places.4. press the GRAPH button to produce the image shown in Figure 4.22. Make three consecutive presses of the ENTER button to respond to “First curve. In reporting your solution on your homework paper. Xmax.23: Press the GRAPH button to produce this window. Section 2. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING 257 Figure 4. Warning! Your calculator is an approximating machine. 3. It is quite likely that your solutions might diﬀer slightly from the solution presented in Figure 4. Obviously. At the end of each axis. Figure 4. follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines from Chapter 3.25. Thus.” The calculator responds with the image in Figure 4. the point of intersection is oﬀ the screen to the right.21: Select 6:ZStandard to produce this window.23.” and “Guess.6.6 is approximately (x. put the appropriate value of Xmin. Reporting your solution on your homework.25).

Approximate answer: (−4. calculator’s WINDOW menu. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Figure 4.2. Unless instructed otherwise.25: Three consecutive presses of the ENTER key produce the coordinates shown at the bottom of the viewing window. Finally.26: Reporting your result on your homework paper. −0.548387. Select 5:intersect to ﬁnd the point of intersection.24: Press 2ND CALC to open the CALCULATE menu. 3.4) . Use a ruler to draw the lines and label each with their equations.26).258 CHAPTER 4.1290323) −10 20 x y= 3 x−5 5 −10 Figure 4. 2 y =− x+7 7 y 10 (13. always report every single digit displayed on your calculator. Figure 4. label the point of intersection with its coordinates (see Figure 4.

1. 15. 10. 1. Each of these problems have been designed so that the coordinates of the intersection point are integers. 7. Check your solution. solve each of the given systems by sketching the lines represented by each equation of the given system on graph paper. In Exercises 7-18. 13. then estimating the coordinates of the point of intersection to the nearest tenth. . 5. solve each of the given systems by sketching the lines represented by each equation in the system. Check the solution. 18. 6x − 7y = −42 1 y =− x+2 5 7x − 8y = 56 1 y =− x−4 3 6x + 3y = 12 −2x − y = 4 x − 4y = −4 −x + 4y = −4 3x + y = 3 −2x + 3y = −6 2x − y = −2 −x − 2y = 4 14. 6. then determining the coordinates of the point of intersection. 3. 8. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING 259 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 9. −x − 3y = 3 x − 4y = −4 4x − 3y = −12 −x − 4y = 4 −3x + 3y = −9 −3x + 3y = −12 x − y = −2 2x − 2y = 6 11. 12. 6x − 7y = −42 1 y =− x+4 4 4x + 3y = 24 1 y = x+5 7 16.4. x − 2y = −4 5 y = x+6 2 x + 2y = −6 y = −3x − 8 x − 3y = 6 y = 2x − 7 2. 17. 3x − 4y = 24 1 y =− x−1 2 x − 4y = −8 5 y = x+6 4 2x + y = 6 y =x+3 4.

6x + 16y = 96 −6x + 13y = −78 −4x + 16y = −64 5x + 8y = 40 −2x − 11y = 22 8x − 12y = −96 28. 30. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.5) 13. (−2. 3. Lines are parallel. (−1. (−3. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.260 CHAPTER 4. use the graphing calculator to solve the given system. −3) 3. Use the Calculator Submission Guidelines from Chapter 3. No solution. y= y 20. 29.4. 4) 5. −2) 7. 17.1) 9. (−4.5) . 19. 2. when reporting your answer on your homework. y y 24. 0.1) 19.6. y y 3 x+7 4 1 = − x+2 3 7 = x+6 6 1 = − x+3 7 4 = x−3 3 4 = − x−1 7 22. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.4. −6x − 10y = 60 2x − 18y = −36 −6x + 2y = −12 −12x + 3y = −36 −3x + y = −3 −14x + 3y = −42 27.8.8) 15. (−3. 25. use the graphing calculator to solve the given system. y y 8 x−3 3 1 =− x−2 8 1 = x+1 6 3 =− x+5 7 5 = x+3 8 5 =− x−5 6 In Exercises 25-30. Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 11. 4. Lines are parallel. −1. Use the Calculator Submission Guidelines when reporting your answer on your homework. y= y 23. (1. (4. y y 21. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS In Exercises 19-24. 26. Section 2.8. (1. No solution.

SOLVING SYSTEMS BY GRAPHING 21.8. 12. (1.1. (6.3. −1.1) 29.1. 2. 0.6) 27.0) 261 . 0.4. (14.1) 25.0.7.6) 23. (−11. (6.

7). Check: To show that the solution (x. This means that we can substitute the answer x = 1 into either equation to ﬁnd the corresponding value of y. The substitution method is fairly straightforward to use. Solve the following system of equations: 2x − 5y = −8 y = 3x − 1 (4. Substitute 1 for x. Simplify. Substitute equation (4. The result is an equation in a single variable. This means we will substitute 3x−1 for y in equation (4. −13x = −13 x=1 (1. You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: 9x + 2y = −19 y = 13 + 3x Solution: Equation (4. Figure 4.8) is already solved for y.8).8) Equation (4. 2) is a solution of the system. 2) −5 5 x As we saw in Solving Systems by Graphing. Solve that equation. 2x − 5y = −8 2x − 5(3x − 1) = −8 Now solve for x.7). Simplify. We choose to substitute 1 for x in equation (4. 2x − 15x + 5 = −8 −13x + 5 = −8 y 5 2x − 5y = −8 EXAMPLE 1. 2) satisﬁes both equations (4.7) (4.7). y) = (1. Divide both sides by −13. 2).7). you solve either equation for either variable. y) = (1. then substitute the result into any of the other equations to ﬁnd the remaining unknown variable.8).7). Substitute 3x − 1 for y in (4. then solve for y. we need to show that (x. Distribute −5. 2) is the solution of the system. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 4. then substitute the result into the other equation.27: 2x − 5y = −8 and y = x − 3 intersect at (1. (x. the solution to the system is the point of intersection of the two lines represented by the equations in the system.8) into equation (4. . y = 3x − 1 y = 3(1) − 1 y=2 y = 3x − 1 −5 Equation (4.8).7) and (4.2 Solving Systems by Substitution In this section we introduce an algebraic technique for solving systems of two equations in two unknowns called the substitution method.262 CHAPTER 4. but you will get exactly the same result if you substitute 1 for x in equation (4. Subtract 5 from both sides. Hence. y) = (1. First.

(1. Answer: (−3.9) (4. Subtract 4x from both sides.7). Solve either equation for either variable. 263 Substitute (x.8). Substitution method. Solve the resulting equation. 4) Because (x. 2.8): y = 3x − 1 2 = 3(1) − 1 2=3−1 2=2 Thus. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY SUBSTITUTION Substitute (x. solving the second equation (4. 2) in equation (4.10). y) = (1. 3.10) for y seems the easiest way to start. 2) satisﬁes equation (4. it is a solution of the system. but it also means that we could ﬁrst solve the second equation for x or y. Solve the following system of equations: 5x − 2y = 12 4x + y = 6 (4. y) = (1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2.7): 2x − 5y = −8 2(1) − 5(2) = −8 2 − 10 = −8 −8 = −8 Thus.10) Solve the following system of equations: x − 2y = 13 4x − 3y = 26 Solution: The ﬁrst step is to solve either equation for either variable.2. 2) satisﬁes equation (4. y) = (1.4. Substitute the result from step one into the other equation. 2) satisﬁes both equations. Of these four possible choices. The substitution method involves these steps: 1. This means that we can solve the ﬁrst equation for x or y. then solve to ﬁnd the remaining unknown variable. 4x + y = 6 y = 6 − 4x Equation (4. Substitute the result from step two into either of the original system equations or the resulting equation from step one (whichever seems easiest). 2) in equation (4. . (1.

First. substitute 24/13 for x in the equation y = 6 − 4x (you can also substitute 24/13 for x in equations (4. θ.9) or (4.9).28: 5x − 2y = 12 and 4x + y = 6 intersect at (24/13. we store −18/13 in the variable Y with the following keystrokes (see the result in Figure 4. Hence.9). Simplify. 2 4 ÷ 1 3 STO X. Divide both sides by 13. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Next. n ENTER −5 4x + y = 6 Figure 4. T. the solution (x. then enter the left-hand side of equation 4.10 with the following keystrokes (see the result in Figure 4. Finally. Multiply. to ﬁnd the y-value.29). T. −18/13). Check: Let’s use the graphing calculator to check the solution.29). n − 2 × ALPHA 1 ENTER Now enter the left-hand side of equation 4. clear the calculator screen by pressing the CLEAR button. 5 × X.10).10)). y) = (24/13.9). θ. substitute 6 − 4x for y in equation (4. (-) 1 8 ÷ 1 3 STO ALPHA 1 ENTER Now. Next. 5x − 2y = 12 5x − 2(6 − 4x) = 12 5x − 12 + 8x = 12 13x − 12 = 12 13x = 24 24 x= 13 Equation (4. Simplify. .30). Add 12 to both sides. then make equivalent fractions. −18/13) 5 x 24 13 78 96 − y= 13 13 18 y=− 13 y =6−4 Substitute 24/13 for x in y = 6 − 4x. −18/13) is the solution of the system.9) and (4.264 CHAPTER 4. Distribute −2. we store 24/13 in X with the following keystrokes (see the result in Figure 4.9 with the following keystrokes (see the result in Figure 4. y) = (24/13. Thus. Note that each left-hand side produces the number on the right-hand sides of equations (4. y = 6 − 4x y 5 5x − 2y = 12 −5 (24/13.30). Substitute 6 − 4x for y in (4. (x. −18/13) checks.

10). −26/5) You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY SUBSTITUTION 4 × X.2. Figure 4.11). Divide both 6 and −3x by −2 using distributive property. 3x − 2y = 6 −2y = 6 − 3x 6 − 3x y= −2 3 y = −3 + x 2 Equation (4. 4. Solve the following system of equations: 3x − 2y = 6 4x + 5y = 20 (4.9) and (4. θ.29: Storing 24/13 and −18/13 in X and Y.12) Solve the following system of equations: 3x − 5y = 3 5x − 6y = 2 Solution: Dividing by −2 gives easier fractions to deal with than dividing by 3. equa- Answer: (13/5. n + ALPHA 1 ENTER 265 Figure 4. T. Subtract 3x from both sides. Divide both sides by −2.11) for y. so let’s start by solving equation (4. or 5.30: Checking tions (4. .11) (4.4.

Multiply. You could also 2 substitute 70/23 for x in equations (4. Simplify. 36/23) −5 5 x To ﬁnd y. 2 4x + 5y = 20 5y = 20 − 4x 20 − 4x y= 5 4 y =4− x 5 Equation (4. 3 Substitute −3 + x for y. Substitute 70/23 for x. 4x + 5y = 20 5 y (70/23. Let’s also solve equation (4. y) = (70/23. substitute 70/23 for x into equation y = −3 + 3 x.32). Clear fractions by multiplying both sides by 2. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Substitute −3 + 3 x for y in equation (4. 36/23) is the solution of the system. let’s use the graphing calculator to ﬁnd the solution of the system. Divide both 20 and −4x by 5 using the distributive property. Add 30 to both sides.11) or (4.12). 3 y = −3 + x 2 3 70 y = −3 + 2 23 69 105 y=− + 23 23 36 y= 23 3x − 2y = 6 −5 Figure 4. Divide both sides by 23. Simplify. 2 Distribute the 5. Check: To check this solution.33. note how the coordinates of the point of intersection are stored in the variables X and Y. At the bottom of the viewing window in Figure 4.12). Subtract 4x from both sides. We already know that 3x − 2y = 6 is equivalent to y = −3 + 3 x.31: 3x − 2y = 6 and 4x + 5y = 20 intersect at (70/23. then press the ENTER key three times in succession to enter “Yes” to the queries “First curve.12) and get the same result.12). (x. Press the ZOOM button and select 6:ZStandard.” and “Guess.” “Second curve. Without .” The result is shown in Figure 4. select 5:intersect. Divide both sides by 5. Make equivalent fractions.12) for y. Press 2ND CALC to open the CALCULATE menu. 2 4x + 5y = 20 3 4x + 5 −3 + x = 20 2 15 4x − 15 + x = 20 2 8x − 30 + 15x = 40 23x = 70 70 x= 23 Equation (4.33. 36/23).266 CHAPTER 4. Enter y = −3+ 3 x and y = 4− 4 x into the Y= menu of the graphing calculator 2 5 (see Figure 4. Hence.

−9/7) . quit the viewing window by pressing 2ND QUIT.34). SOLVING SYSTEMS BY SUBSTITUTION 267 Figure 4. θ. which is located above the MODE key. Figure 4. n MATH This will open the MATH menu on your calculator (see Figure 4. Select 1: Frac.n key.θ.4. Answer: (−8/7. then the MATH button on your calculator: X.35). Enter: ALPHA 1 MATH Select 1: Frac. T. (the variables X and Y contain the coordinates of the cursor). then press the ENTER key to produce the fractional equivalent of the decimal content of the variable Y (see Figure 4. Now press the X.33: Use 5:intersect on the CALC menu to calculate the point of intersection. Then press the CLEAR button to clear the calculator screen.T. Note that the fractional equivalents for X and Y are 70/23 and 36/23. respec5 tively.2. precisely the same answers we got with the substitution method above. Figure 4. then press the ENTER key to produce the fractional equivalent of the decimal content of the variable X (see Figure 4.35: Changing the contents of the variables X and Y to fractions. Figure 4.35).34: The MATH menu.32: Enter y − 3 + 3 x and 2 y = 4 − 4 x in Y1 and Y2. Repeat the procedure for the variable Y. moving the cursor.

2). −5 Thus. Let’s see what happens should you do that. (4. 4)).13). 2 y =− x+2 3 2 y =− x+4 3 Figure 4. Hence. the other has y-intercept (0. Divide both sides by 3.13). 12 = 6. 2x + 3y = 6 2 2x + 3 − x + 4 3 =6 Equation (4. to help determine the situation.13). is false.15) (4.16) Answer: no solution These lines have the same slope −2/3.14) is already solved for y.268 CHAPTER 4. but diﬀerent y-intercepts (one has yintercept (0. . You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: 4 x= y−7 3 6x − 8y = −3 EXAMPLE 4. 2 Substitute − x + 4 for y. note that the resulting statement. This should give us a clue that there are no solutions.36: 2x + 3y = 6 and 2 y = − 3 x + 4 are parallel. so let’s substitute − 2 x + 4 3 for y in equation (4.14) Solution: Equation (4.13) for y. Perhaps we are dealing with parallel lines? Let’s solve equation (4. our system is equivalent to the following two equations. 3 Distribute the 3. 2x − 2x + 12 = 6 12 = 6 2 y = −3x + 4 y 5 Goodness! What happened to the x? How are we supposed to solve for x in this situation? However. Subtract 2x from both sides.13) (4. no matter what we use for x and y. No solution. putting the equation into slope-intercept form. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Exceptional Cases Revisited It is entirely possible that you might apply the substitution method to a system of equations that either have an inﬁnite number of solutions or no solutions at all. these are two distinct parallel lines and the system has no solution. Solve the following system of equations: 2x + 3y = 6 2 y =− x+4 3 (4. Simplify. 5 2x + 3y = 6 x −5 2x + 3y = 6 3y = −2x + 6 2 y =− x+2 3 Equation (4.

consider: 1. −8 = −8. 2x − 6y = −8 2(3y − 4) − 6y = −8 6y − 8 − 6y = −8 −8 = −8 Equation (4. then you have the same lines and there are an inﬁnite number of solutions. is a true statement this time. Hence.18) is already solved for x. and (−3. Indeed. Thus. 1). Solve equation (4. .17) and (4. 1) (−4. If the resulting statement is true. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY SUBSTITUTION 269 You Try It! EXAMPLE 5.18) into slope-intercept form so that we can compare them. Solve the following system of equations: 2x − 6y = −8 x = 3y − 4 (4. 2. Simplify. 0) −5 2x − 6y = −8 (2. 2) 5 x Goodness! What happened to the x? How are we supposed to solve for x in this situation? However. 0). Substitute 3y − 4 for x. −15).18) for y: x = 3y − 4 x + 4 = 3y x+4 =y 3 1 4 y = x+ 3 3 −5 Figure 4. If the resulting statement is false. and (2. note that the resulting statement.17) (4. Examples of solution points are (0. any point on either line is a solution. Distribute the 2.2. (−1. there are an inﬁnite number of solutions. Answer: There are an inﬁnite number of solutions.17).37: 2x − 6y = −8 and x = 3y − 4 are the same line. Inﬁnite number of solutions. Perhaps this is an indication that we are dealing with the same line? Let’s put both equations (4. Examples of solution points are (−4. 2). Tip. When you substitute one equation into another and the variable disappears. then you have two distinct parallel lines and there is no solution.4.17). the lines have the same slope and the same y-intercept and they are exactly the same lines. 1).18) Solve the following system of equations: −28x + 14y = −126 y = 2x − 9 Solution: Equation (4. −9). so let’s substitute 3y − 4 for x in equation (4. y 5 x = 3y − 4 (−1.17) for y: 2x − 6y = −8 −6y = −2x − 8 −2x − 8 y= −6 4 1 y = x+ 3 3 Solve equation (4. (5.

26. 24. 9. x = −5 − 2y −2x − 6y = 18 x = 15 + 6y 9x + 3y = 21 6x − 8y = 24 y = 15 + 3x 9x + 8y = −45 y = 15 − 8x 4. Check your answer manually. −6x − 6y = 102 9x − y = −63 −4x − 8y = −4 y = −2y − 4 3x + 6y = 2 y = −2y + 2 −2x − 2y = 26 −7x + y = 19 −2x − 8y = −30 −6x + y = 10 3x − 4y = −43 −3x + y = 22 −2x + 8y = 14 8x + y = 43 −8x − 4y = 24 9x − y = −71 −8x − 2y = −14 −6x − y = −9 . 8. In Exercises 9-28. 15. 17. 18. 22. 1. 16. 7. 12. 6. 23. 21. use the substitution method to solve each of the following systems. −x + 9y = 46 7x − 4y = −27 −x + 9y = −12 4x + 7y = −38 −x + 4y = 22 8x + 7y = −20 −x − 2y = 15 3x − 9y = 15 x + 2y = −4 6x − 4y = −56 x + 8y = 79 4x + 6y = 82 x + 6y = −49 −3x + 4y = −7 x − 4y = 33 4x + 7y = −6 −2x + 8y = −50 −9x − y = −3 25. 19. without the use of a calculator. 11. use the substitution method to solve each of the following systems. 13. 2. −7x + 7y = 63 y = 6 − 2x 3x − 8y = 27 y = 4 − 7x x = 19 + 7y 3x − 3y = 3 x = 39 + 8y −9x + 2y = −71 5. 10. 20. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 3.270 CHAPTER 4. 14.

42. y = −12x + 12 120x + 10y = 120 x = 16 − 5y −4x + 2y = 24 x = −18 − 4y 7x − 7y = 49 43. 29. x = 2y + 4 −3x + 6y = 5 47.4. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY SUBSTITUTION 27. 41. −9x + 4y = 73 y = −3 − 2x 6x + 9y = 27 y = 16 − 5x 38. 48. 9x + 4y = −3 9 y =− x+6 4 271 In Exercises 29-36. −8x − 7y = 2 8 y =− x+9 7 28.2. 35. use the substitution method to determine how many solutions each of the following linear systems has. 39. . 32. 36. 34. In Exercises 37-48. −9x + 6y = 9 3 y = x−8 2 3x − 5y = 9 3 y = x+6 5 y = −2x − 16 −14x − 7y = 112 40. 44. 3x − 5y = 3 5x − 7y = 2 4x − 5y = 4 3x − 2y = −1 4x + 3y = 8 3x + 4y = 2 3x + 8y = 3 −4x − 9y = −2 33. 37. Use your graphing calculator to check your solution. y = 7y + 18 9x − 63y = 162 y = 4y − 9 −10x + 40y = 90 x = −2y + 3 4x + 8y = 4 46. 3x + 8y = 6 2x + 7y = −2 3x − 7y = 6 2x − 3y = 1 4x + 5y = 4 −3x − 2y = 1 5x + 4y = 5 4x + 5y = 2 31. 30. 45. use the substitution method to solve each of the following systems.

No solutions 39. Inﬁnite number of solutions 45. −7) 17. Inﬁnite number of solutions 41. (−11/4. (−13/7. (−1.272 CHAPTER 4. 2) 15. (−7. One solution 43. (1. 21. (58/5. (−7. One solution . (−5. (−4. (−8. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. −6) 19. (3. 7) Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 25. −18/5) 35. −3) 5. 16/7) 37. (−2. −16/7) 33. (26/7. (−8. No solution 29. 8) 27. −9) 23. −4) 7. 8) 3. No solutions 47. 4) 13. 5) 11. (−6. −9) 9. (−1. −9/4) 31.

. Elimination is based on two simple ideas.19) will have the same solutions (it’s the same line) as the equation obtained by multiplying equation (4. 2x + 6y = 14 (4.3.19) by 2. The result is a third equation whose graph also passes through the solution. Thus. Adding a multiple of an equation to a second equation produces an equation that passes through the same solution as the ﬁrst two equations. 4 5 9 = = = 4 5 9 Even more importantly. x+y =3 y 5 x + x − 2x x y y = = = = 3 1 4 2 −5 x 5 x−y =1 −5 x=2 Fact. consider what happens when you add 4 = 4 to 5 = 5. 1) as a solution. consider what happens when you add two equations that have (2. Multiplying both sides of an equation by a non-zero number does not change its solutions. Adding two true equations produces another true equation. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY ELIMINATION 273 4.20) 2.4. the ﬁrst of which should be familiar. then a process called elimination is usually the best procedure to use to ﬁnd the solution of the system.3 Solving Systems by Elimination When both equations of a system are in standard form Ax + By = C. For example. the equation x + 3y = 7 (4. 1.

21) (4. Solve the following system of equations.38: x + 2y = −5 and 2x − y = −5 intersect at (−3. Let’s look at an example. −2x − 2x − y 5 4y y 5y = = = 10 −5 5 Multiply equation (4. 4). Solve for x. However. y) = (−3. Check: To check.22). Substitute (x. You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: x + 3y = 14 −8x − 3y = −28 EXAMPLE 1. . y) = (−3.274 CHAPTER 4. y) = (−3. the x terms will be eliminated. Add the equations.22). −1) satisﬁes both equations and is therefore the solution of the system.21) by −2. (−3. y) = (−3. Note that if we multiply equation (4.22) Solution: Our focus will be on eliminating the variable x. −1) 5 −5 x + 2y = −5 Figure 4. −1).21) Substitute −1 for y. To ﬁnd the corresponding value of x.22). The strategy is to somehow add the equations of a system with the intent of eliminating one of the unknown variables. then add the result to equation (4. substitute −1 for y in equation (4.21). SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS One more important thing to notice is the fact that when we added the equations x + y = 3 x − y = 1 2x = 4 the variable y was eliminated.22)) and solve for x. 2x − y = −5 2(−3) − (−1) = −5 −5 = −5 Answer: (2. − 2x − y = −5 Divide both sides of −5y = 5 by −5 to get y = −1. −1) into equation (4. Equation (4. the point (x. x −5 x + 2y = −5 x + 2(−1) = −5 x = −3 Equation (4. −1) into equation (4. This is where the elimination method gets its name. 1) satisﬁes both equations. Thus. we need to show that the point (x.21) (or equation (4. sometimes you need to do a little bit more than simply add the equations. x + 2y = −5 2x − y = −5 (4.21) by −2. x + 2y = −5 −3 + 2(−1) = −5 −5 = −5 Substitute (x.

. Multiply equation (4.23). Sometimes elimination requires a thought process similar to that of ﬁnding a common denominator. Add 3 to both sides. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. is the solution of the system. To ﬁnd the corresponding value of y.26) by −3.4. x + 4x − 5x 2y 2y = −5 = −10 = −15 Equation (4. −1) 5 x Divide both sides of 5x = −15 by 5 to get x = −3. We note that if we multiply equation (4. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY ELIMINATION 275 To show that you have the option of which variable you choose to eliminate. Add the equations.24) y 5 2x − y = −5 Solution: This time we focus on eliminating the variable y. this time eliminating y instead of x. Note that if we multiply equation (4.24)) and solve for y.25) by 2.26) Solve the following system of equations: −14x + 9y = 94 7x + 3y = −62 Solution: Let’s focus on eliminating the x-terms. x + 2y = −5 −3 + 2y = −5 2y = −2 y = −1 Equation (4. −1). y) = (−3. (x. −1). Multiply equation (4.23) (or equation (4. Solve the following system of equations. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2.25) (4. Solve the following system of equations. the y terms will be eliminated. Divide both sides by 2. substitute −3 for x in equation (4.24) by 2.24) by 2. 3x + 4y = 12 2x − 5y = 10 (4.23) Substitute −3 for x.39: x + 2y = −5 and 2x − y = −5 intersect at (−3. −5 (−3. the x-terms will be eliminated when we add the resulting equations. then multiply equation (4. 6x + −6x + 8y 15y 23y = 24 = −30 = −6 Multiply equation (4.23). then add the result to equation (4.3.23) (4.25) by 2. Hence. just as in Example 1. −5 x + 2y = −5 Figure 4.26) by −3. let’s try Example 1 a second time. Add the equations. x + 2y = −5 2x − y = −5 (4.

26). SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Hence. −6/23) checks. Answer: (−8. Exceptional Cases In the previous section. we saw that if the substitution method led to a false statement.26). First. Note that both calculations in Figure 4.28) .26).27) (4. y) = (100/23.40: 3x + 4y = 12 and 2x − 5y = 10 intersect at (100/23. store 100/23 in X. Solve the following system of equations. At this point. −2). this time focusing on eliminating y. working with y = −6/23 is a bit daunting. x = 100/23.25) by 5.276 CHAPTER 4. the y-terms will be eliminated. −6/23 in Y.42: Enter the left-hand sides of equations (4.41).41: Enter 100/23 in X. we could substitute y = −6/23 in either equation. Figure 4. −6/23).25) by 5. then −6/23 in Y (see Figure 4. y 5 15x + 20y 8x − 20y 23x (100/23. Note that if we multiply equation (4. You Try It! Solve the following system of equations: 5x − 4y = −16 15x − 12y = 49 EXAMPLE 4. Check: Let’s use the graphing calculator to check the solution. Thus. So let’s use elimination again. Multiply equation (4. Add the equations. y = −6/23. −6/23) x = = = 60 40 100 Multiply equation (4. y) = (100/23. −2 2x − 5y = 10 −5 8 3x + 4y = 12 Figure 4. The same thing can happen with the elimination method of this section. Thus.26) by 4. particularly in the light of elimination being easier.25) and (4.25) and (4. enter the left-hand sides of equations (4. and the system of the system is (x. −6/23).26) by 4. However. x+y =3 2x + 2y = −6 (4.25) and (4.42 provide the correct right-hand sides for equations (4. Figure 4. then solve the result for x. the solution (x. then we have parallel lines. then multiply equation (4. when we add the results. Next.

30) Solve the following system of equations: 2x − 7y = 4 8x − 28y = 16 . 0) (−3.3. Answer: no solution In the previous section. we saw that if the substitution method led to a true statement. if we ﬁnd the intercepts of each equation and plot them. Note that this last statement is false. Note that if we multiply equation (4. regardless of the values of x and y.4. −3) −5 2x + 2y = −6 Figure 4. Solve the following system of equations. Add the equations.43). SOLVING SYSTEMS BY ELIMINATION 277 Solution: Let’s focus on eliminating the x-terms. then we can easily see that the lines of this system are parallel (see Figure 4. You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. the x-terms will be eliminated when we add the resulting equations. −2x − 2x + 2y 2y 0 = = = −6 −6 −12 Multiply equation (4. then we have the same lines. The same thing can happen with the elimination method of this section. 3) (3. Parallel lines never intersect. x − 7y = 4 −3x + 21y = −12 (4. Hence. so the system has no solutions. Indeed. Equation (4. Because of our experience with this solving this exceptional case with substitution. the system has no solution.27) by −2.43: The lines x + y = 3 and 2x + 2y = −6 are parallel.28). −5 0) 5 x x+y =3 (0. the fact that both variables have disappeared should not be completely surprising.27) by −2.29) (4. y 5 (0.

29) by 3. this time the last statement is true. (9. there are an inﬁnite number of points of intersection. any point on either line is a solution. 2). −2). regardless of the values of x and y.30). Indeed.44: x − 7y = 4 and −3x + 21y = −12 are the same line. 0 = Figure 4.278 y 5 CHAPTER 4.30). Let’s multiply the ﬁrst equation by 3. −3x + 21y −3x + 21y = = −12 −12 Multiply equation (4. we might recognize that the equations 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS (−3. −1) (0. . This will eliminate x the x-terms. all of the variables have disappeared! However. Equation (4. 0) −3x + 21y = −12 −5 3x − 21y −3x + 21y = = 12 −12 0 Multiply equation (4. 0). Inﬁnite number of solutions. and (4. −1). (4.29) by −3. Examples of solution points are (2.29) by 3. Answer: There are an inﬁnite number of solutions. −4/7). Add the equations. then we have two identical equations. and (−5. The equations are identical! Hence. then add. But it’s also conceivable that we don’t see that right away and begin the elimination x − 7y = 4 method. Example points of solution are (−3. (0. 0). Again. Notice that if we multiply equation (4. −4/7) Solution: If we are not on automatic pilot late at night doing our homework.30) are identical.29 and (4. Equation (4.

Check your result manually. 3. use the elimination method to solve each of the following systems. 2.3. 17. 18. use the elimination method to solve each of the following systems. 3x − −2x − −8x + −7x + 7y 2y 3y 8y = = = −75 = −10 = 42 = 26 −63 −34 = −52 = −14 21. 11. 14. 7. 24. 23. 4. without the assistance of a calculator. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY ELIMINATION 279 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 1. 6. 12. 2x − 6y −3x + 18y −8x − 6y 4x + 30y −32x + 8x − 7y 4y = = = = = = = = 28 −60 96 −156 −238 64 30 51 = −96 = 22 = −32 = 15 12x + 6y −2x + 7y In Exercises 17-24. 16. 20. −12x + 9y −6x − 4y −27x − 5y −9x − 3y 27x − −3x − −8x + 2x − 6y 5y 8y 9y = = = = 0 −34 148 60 13. use the elimination method to solve each of the following systems. 15. 19. x + 4y 9x − 7y x + 6y 5x − 9y 6x + y 4x + 2y 4x + −2x + y 6y = = = = = = 0 −43 −53 47 8 0 = 18 = −22 5. 22. −9x − 2y 5x − 3y −8x − 2y 6x + 3y −3x − 5y 7x + 7y −9x − 9y 7x + 4y = = = = = = = = 28 −32 −12 12 −34 56 9 8 9x − 9y 2x − 6y −4x − −7x − 8y 3y . 9. 10. 8. −8x + y 4x + 3y 2x + 7x + y 8y = = −56 56 = 21 = 87 = = = = 41 −50 −31 −36 x + 8y −5x − 9y x − 4y −2x − 6y In Exercises 9-16.4.

26. 9) 19. (8. 2x − 7y 7x + 6y −9x − 5x − 2x + −5x + −5x + −4x − 4y 3y 3y 5y 8y 7y = −2 = 3 = = = = = = 4 −1 −2 2 −3 3 29. 5) . 28. 4) 11. (8. 30. 31. (2. 27. x − 2x − 4y 8y = = −37 54 4x + y 28x + 7y x + −4x − 6x + −5x − 9y 5y y 6y = −13 = 189 = 73 = −44 = 31 = −62 = −256 = 128 = = 42 −84 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. (3. 39. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS In Exercises 25-32. 8) 7. x + −8x − −8x + 56x − 16x − −8x + 3x − −6x + 7y 56y y 7y 16y 8y 3y 6y = −32 = 256 = = −53 371 37. 33. −2) 17. 36. Use your calculator to check your solutions. 35. −2) Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 13. (7. 34. 25. 38. 5) 9.280 CHAPTER 4. 4) 23. 40. use the elimination method to determine how many solutions each of the following system of equations has. use the elimination method to solve each of the following systems. 1) 3. (3. (−4. −2) 15. (−4. (−2. −4) 5. 9x + −7x − −3x − 4x + 2x + 3x − 6x − −4x − 4y 9y 5y 6y 2y 5y 9y 8y = = = −4 = 3 = −4 = 1 4 3 = −2 = 4 In Exercises 33-40. 5) 21. (−4. (1. 32. (−4.

20/61) 27. 1/53) 31. (9/61. (−16/25. SOLVING SYSTEMS BY ELIMINATION 25. One solution . Inﬁnite number of solutions 35.3. −6/25) 29. 3/8) 281 33. No solutions 39. (13/8.4. (−24/53. Inﬁnite number of solutions 37.

naming the two complementary angles α and β. let use the substitution method and substitute 30 + 2α for β in equation (4.4 Applications of Linear Systems In this section we create and solve applications that lead to systems of linear equations.32). Our variable dictionary will take the form of a diagram. β α 2. two angles that sum to 90◦ are called complementary angles. As equation (4. Set up a Systems of Equations. meaning that the sum of the angles is 90◦ . we’ll follow the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions from Chapter 2. Substitute 30 + 2α for β. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 4.32). ﬁnd the degree measure of both angles. If the second of two complementary angles is 30 degrees larger than twice the ﬁrst angle. Section 5. the angles are complementary. The “second angle is 30 degrees larger than twice the ﬁrst angle” becomes β = 30 + 2α (4.31) is already solved for β.31) Secondly. we have a system of two equations in two unknowns α and β. EXAMPLE 1. As we create and solve our models. Solution: In the solution. 3. . Subtract 30 from both sides. You Try It! If the second of two complementary angles is 6 degrees larger than 3 times the ﬁrst angle. Solve the System. In geometry. Divide both sides by 3. we set up a system of equations for each application. α + β = 90 α + (30 + 2α) = 90 3α + 30 = 90 3α = 60 α = 20 Equation (4. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. 1. Combine like terms. However. instead of setting up a single equation. ﬁnd the degree measure of both angles. Set up a Variable Dictionary.282 CHAPTER 4.32) Thus. α + β = 90 (4.

31). Solution: In the solution.4. Set up a System of Equations.4. Look Back. 280 = 2L + 2W . naming the width and length W and L. The length of the rectangle is 10 feet less than twice the width. Find the width and length of the rectangle. Our variable dictionary will take the form of a diagram. 1. Simplify. APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 283 4. The perimeter of a rectangle is 280 feet. The ﬁrst angle is α = 20 degrees. so we can substitute 280 for P in the last equation. Find the width and length of the rectangle. The perimeter is found by summing the four sides of the rectangle. The length of the rectangle is 34 meters more than twice the width. 5. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. Certainly 70◦ is 30◦ larger than twice 20◦ . Set up a Variable Dictionary. Answer the Question. Substitute 20 for α. Also. L The perimeter of a rectangle is 368 meters. Answer: 21 and 69 You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. The second angle is: β = 30 + 2α β = 30 + 2(20) β = 70 Equation (4. note that 20◦ + 70◦ = 90◦ . We have the correct solution. P =L+W +L+W P = 2L + 2W We’re told the perimeter is 280 feet. so the angles are complementary. W W L 2. respectively.

let use the substitution method and substitute 2W − 10 for L in equation (4. Substitute 50 for W . Look Back.34). The length is: L = 2W − 10 L = 2(50) − 10 L = 90 Thus. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS We can simplify this equation by dividing both sides by 2. The width is W = 50 feet. width = 50 . 4. 90 Equation (4. note that the length 90 feet is 10 feet less than twice the width. Remember.33). W + L = 140 W + (2W − 10) = 140 3W − 10 = 140 3W = 150 W = 50 Equation (4.34) is already solved for L. Add 10 to both sides.284 CHAPTER 4. Divide both sides by 3. Simplify. So we have the correct solution. we’re told that the “length is 10 feet less than twice the width.34) 3. Answer the Question.33) (4. As equation (4. Perhaps a picture. we found that the width was 50 feet and the length was 90 feet. Substitute 2W − 10 for L. Secondly.33). labeled with our answers might best demonstrate that we have the correct solution. Solve the System. Answer: length = 134. the system we need to solve is: L + W = 140 L = 2W − 10 (4. 50 50 90 Note that the perimeter is P = 90 + 50 + 90 + 50 = 280 feet. 5. the length is L = 90 feet.” This translates to: L = 2W − 10 Thus. Combine like terms. giving the following result: L + W = 140 Secondly.

1. she has 46 coins in all. Pascal has $3. The previous solution tells us that Pascal has 15 dimes in his pocket. all in dimes and quarters.10 in change in her pocket.36) (4. Equation (4. 2. Set up a Variable Dictionary. Let D represent the number of dimes and let Q represent the number of quarters. Note also how we’ve change $3. Number of Coins Dimes Quarters Totals D Q 22 Value (in cents) 10D 25Q 325 Eloise has $7. Answer the Question. Similarly.4. 4.35) by −25.35) and (4. Dividing both sides of the last equation by −15 gives us D = 15. 10D + 25Q = 325 (4. are worth 25Q cents.25 in change in his pocket. How many dimes does he have? Solution: In the solution. In the ﬁrst column. and the third column contains the value (in cents) of the number of coins in Pascal’s pocket. . all in nickels and quarters. APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 285 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. are worth 10D cents. we list the type of coin. How many quarters does she have? Note that D times. He has 22 coins in all. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions.4. The second column gives the number of each type of coin. Q quarters. Set up a System of Equations. Because equations (4. The second column of the table gives us our ﬁrst equation. we’ll use the elimination method to ﬁnd a solution. −25D 10D −15D − + 25Q = 25Q = = −550 325 −225 Multiply equation (4.35) 3. valued at 25 cents apiece. Because the question asks us to ﬁnd the number of dimes in Pascal’s pocket. Using a table to summarize information is a good strategy. Add the equations.36) are both in standard form Ax + By = C.36).25 to 325 cents. valued at 10 cents apiece. Solve the System. we’ll focus on eliminating the Q-terms and keeping the D-terms. D + Q = 22 The third column of the table gives us our second equation.

part in a certiﬁcate of deposit that pays 3% interest per year. We’ll again use a table to summarize information. because we’re told that Pascal has 22 coins in all.010 in interest.286 CHAPTER 4. summarizing results in a table might help us see if we have the correct solution. 2. EXAMPLE 4. Thus we have the correct solution. and the rest in a mutual fund that pays 5% per year. the interest earned on the mutual fund is 0.05M 420 At 4%. Find the amount invested in each account. At the end of the ﬁrst year. Again. Number of Coins Dimes Quarters Totals 15 7 22 Value (in cents) 150 175 325 Fifteen dimes are worth 150 cents. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. and 7 quarters are worth 175 cents.25. . Solution: In the solution. Set up a Variable Dictionary. 1. First. That’s a total of 22 coins and 325 cents.. her investments earn a total of $2. Rosa inherits $10. and the rest in a mutual fund that pays 6% per year.e. 0.000 Interest 0. Rosa’s investments earn a total of $420 in interest. the interest earned on a C dollars investment is found by taking 4% of C (i.05M . or $3. Rate Certiﬁcate of Deposit Mutual Fund Totals 4% 5% Amount invested C M 10. Answer: 24 You Try It! Eileen inherits $40. Similarly. Set up a System of Equations. and we found that he had 15 dimes. Find the amount invested in each account. this means that he must have 7 quarters.000 and decides to invest the money in two accounts. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 5.04C). Let C represent the amount invested in the certiﬁcate of deposit and M represent the amount invested in the mutual fund. one portion in a certiﬁcate of deposit that pays 4% interest per year.000 and decides to invest the money in two accounts. Look Back.04C 0. At the end of the ﬁrst year.

000 and $2. Thus C = $8. we’ll use the elimination method to ﬁnd a solution. C + M = 10000 The fourth column of the table gives us our second equation. Rate Certiﬁcate of Deposit Mutual Fund Totals 4% 5% Amount invested 8.000 respectively. 5. The total investment is $10. We’ll focus on eliminating the C-terms.4.37) by −4.38) 3. $8. 000 was invested in the certiﬁcate of deposit. −4C 4C − 4M + 5M M = = = −40000 42000 2000 Multiply equation (4. 000. total $10. Add the equations. Let’s calculate the interest on each investment: 4% of $8.38) are both in standard form Ax + By = C.37) and solve for C.000 is $320 and 5% of $2. Equation (4.000 is $100. So. The question asks us to ﬁnd the amount invested in each account. C + M = 10000 C + 2000 = 10000 C = 8000 Equation (4. the amount invested in the mutual fund in M = $2. 000 10.38). note that the investments in the certiﬁcate of deposit and the mutual fund. Subtract 2000 from both sides.37) and (4. Substitute 2000 for M . 4. 4C + 5M = 42000 Thus.000.04C + 0.05M = 420 Let’s clear the decimals from the last equation by multiplying both sides of the equation by 100. Because equations (4. 000 2.37) (4. Thus. the system we need to solve is: C + M = 10000 4C + 5M = 42000 (4. The total interest earned is the sum of the interest earned in each account. Look Back. First.000. Answer the Question. 0.4.37). substitute M = 2000 in equation (4. Solve the System.000 Interest 320 100 420 . APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 287 The third column of the table gives us our ﬁrst equation.

If you were a shop owner.40) . The total number of pounds of mixture is given by the following equation: P + C = 50 The fourth column of the table gives us our second equation.80 per pound? EXAMPLE 5.25C. P pounds of peanuts cost 0.000 in the certiﬁcate of deposit.50 $1. Peanuts retail at $0.50 per pound and cashews cost $1.25 per pound.95(50). SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Note that the total interest is $420. Answer: $13. The total cost is the sum of the costs for purchasing the peanuts and cashews. our solution is correct. Finally.95 per pound? Solution: In the solution.25C 0.50P . 50 pounds of a mixture of peanuts and cashews will cost 0.00 per pound and pecans for $7.000 in the mutual fund.25 per pound. Cost per pound Peanuts Cashews Totals $0. 1. How many pounds of peanuts and how many pounds of pecans should you mix to make a 25-lb mixture costing $5. the system we need to solve is: P + C = 50 50P + 125C = 4750 (4. Let P be the number of pounds of peanuts used and let C be the number of pounds of cashews used. We’ll again use a table to summarize information. 2.50 per pound. 50P + 125C = 4750 Thus.25 $0. Thus. as required in the problem statement. Set up a System of Equations.50 Let’s clear the decimals from the last equation by multiplying both sides of the equation by 100.50 At $0.25C = 47. You Try It! A store sells peanuts for $4. At $1. The third column of the table gives us our ﬁrst equation.39) (4. or $47.00 per pound. C pounds of cashews cost 1.95 Amount (pounds) P C 50 Cost 0. at $0. $27.50P + 1.95 per pound. 0.95(50)=47.50. Set up a Variable Dictionary.288 CHAPTER 4. we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions.50P 1. how many pounds of peanuts and cashews should you mix to make 50 pounds of a peanut-cashew mixture costing $0.

39) and (4. Because equations (4.39) by −50. Divide both sides by 75 to get C = 30 pounds of cashews are in the mix. there are P = 20 pounds of peanuts in the mix. The question asks for both amounts. Answer the Question. Look Back. for the cashews. as required in the problem statement.50 Note that the total cost is $47.39). Answer: 10 pounds of peanuts. our solution is correct. Subtract 30 from both sides.40). Cost per pound Peanuts Cashews Totals $0. Substitute C = 30 in equation (4.95 Amount (pounds) 20 30 50 Cost $10. Substitute 30 for C.50(20). 1.00 $37. −50P 50P − 50C + 125C 75C = = = −2500 4750 2250 Multiply equation (4. 15 pounds of pecans .4.50 $1. First. We’ll focus on eliminating the P -terms. 5.25(30) = 37. Solve the System.50.39) to determine P . or $10. 4. so the total mixture weighs 50 pounds as required.25 $0.50 47. Thus. Let’s calculate the costs: for the peanuts. Thus. APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 289 3. Equation (4.40) are both in standard form Ax + By = C. 0. we’ll use the elimination method to ﬁnd a solution.4. P + C = 50 P + 30 = 50 P = 20 Equation (4.50. note that the amount of peanuts and cashews in the mix is 20 and 30 pounds respectively. peanuts and cashews. Add the equations.

In geometry. 12.42 per pound? 8. part in a certiﬁcate of deposit that pays 3% interest per year. In geometry. 16.40 in change in his pocket. The length of the rectangle is 24 inches more than twice the width.000 and decides to invest the money in two accounts. 2. ﬁnd the degree measure of both angles. How many quarters does she have? 6.00 per pound and pecans for $8. Benjamin has $7. 15.45 in change in his pocket. two angles that sum to 180◦ are called supplementary angles. ﬁnd the degree measure of both angles.00 per pound and raisins for $7. Find the amount invested in each account. If the second of two complementary angles is 42 degrees larger than 3 times the ﬁrst angle. A store sells cashews for $6.00 per pound. and the rest in a mutual fund that pays 5% per year. her investments earn a total of $780 in interest. Find the amount invested in each account. all in nickels and quarters. all in nickels and quarters. How many pounds of cashews and how many pounds of pecans should you mix to make a 50-lb mixture costing $4. A store sells cashews for $3. Maria has $6. two angles that sum to 90 are called complementary angles. The length of the rectangle is 28 feet less than three times the width. all in dimes and quarters. 13. he has 38 coins in all.10 per pound? 9. her investments earn a total of $1. In geometry. Alice inherits $40. The perimeter of a rectangle is 528 inches. ﬁnd the degree measure of both angles. How many quarters does she have? 7. The length of the rectangle is 12 centimeters less than three times the width. he has 44 coins in all. If the second of two complementary angles is 57 degrees larger than 2 times the ﬁrst angle. The length of the rectangle is 28 inches more than twice the width. How many dimes does he have? ◦ 10. Find the width and length of the rectangle.980 in interest. and the rest in a mutual fund that pays 6% per year.290 CHAPTER 4. two angles that sum to 90◦ are called complementary angles. Find the width and length of the rectangle. The perimeter of a rectangle is 376 centimeters. all in dimes and quarters. part in a certiﬁcate of deposit that pays 3% interest per year. If the second of two supplementary angles is 40 degrees larger than 3 times the ﬁrst angle. she has 53 coins in all. Find the width and length of the rectangle. Roberto has $5. Eileen inherits $20. . 5.00 per pound.35 in change in her pocket. At the end of the ﬁrst year. she has 59 coins in all. How many pounds of cashews and how many pounds of raisins should you mix to make a 50-lb mixture costing $6. ﬁnd the degree measure of both angles. 14.000 and decides to invest the money in two accounts. The perimeter of a rectangle is 344 feet. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Amy has $5. The perimeter of a rectangle is 116 inches. two angles that sum to 180◦ are called supplementary angles. Find the width and length of the rectangle. 3. At the end of the ﬁrst year. How many dimes does he have? 11. If the second of two supplementary angles is 114 degrees larger than 2 times the ﬁrst angle.05 in change in her pocket. 4. In geometry.

4. width is 10 inches 5. 21 pounds of raisins 9. 12◦ and 78◦ 3. 17 quarters 7.000 in certiﬁcate of deposit. 35◦ and 145◦ 13. Length is 138 centimeters. $9. 15.000 in mutual fund. 27 dimes Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 11. Length is 48 inches. 29 pounds of cashews. $11.4. width is 50 centimeters . APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 291 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.

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Arab mathematicians solved quadratic equations in 1000 AD. as well as how to manipulate and use them in application problems. In this chapter. The current method of solving equations using more modern notation started in 1557 when Robert Recorde used the equal sign in The Whetstone of Witte.Chapter 5 Polynomial Functions Polynomials appear in a wide variety of applications in mathematics and science. Euclid of Alexandria used geometry to solve quadratic equations in 300 BC. The Babylonians solved quadratic equations as early as 2000 BC. 293 . Solving algebraic equations containing polynomials is among the oldest problems in mathematics. we will learn about the properties of polynomials.

3).1 Functions We begin with the deﬁnition of a relation. 6)} is an example of a relation. 4). (1. Solution: domain: Collect the ﬁrst element of each ordered pair in T to list the Domain of T = {5. The collection of ordered pairs R = {(0. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 5. 5). (2. (2.294 CHAPTER 5. in the relation R = {(0. 2} Although the number zero appears twice as a ﬁrst element in the ordered pairs of R. 6} You Try It! State the domain and range of the relation S = {(−1. For example. (0. 3). 4). if we collect the second element of each ordered pair in R. (1. A relation is a collection of ordered pairs. if we collect the second elements of each ordered pair in a set. we get the range: Range of R = {3. Range. (2. 3). (2. 3)}. if we collect the ﬁrst element of each ordered pair in R. 4). State the domain and range of the relation T = {(5. 7} EXAMPLE 1. note that we list it only once when listing the elements in the domain of R. 7). 5). 5). we have what is called the domain of the relation. Domain. we get the domain: Domain of R = {0. 1. In similar fashion. For example. . The domain of a relation is the set of all ﬁrst elements of the ordered pairs. 3). (1. Relation. 3). (6. we have what is called the range of a relation. 4)}. 4. (0. 5. 6. The range of a relation is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs. 6)}. (7. If we collect the ﬁrst element of each ordered pair in a set. in the relation R = {(0. (2. 5). (0. 6)}.

Range of S = {3. (1. y 5 B A −5 −5 x 5 −5 B 5 A State the domain and range of the relation shown below. −3). and point D has coordinates (1.1. 5. −3). 2.1. S = {(3. y 5 C D x C −5 D Figure 5. 1. point C has coordinates (−4. State the domain and range of the relation shown in Figure 5. −2. 3} Note that it is traditional to list the domain elements in order (smallest to largest). point B has coordinates (−2. −3)} If we collect each element in the ﬁrst position of each ordered pair. We can collect these points in a set. (−4.1: We can present a relation as a collection of ordered pairs in a graph. 3} . (−2. Solution: Point A has coordinates (3. Next. −3). 2}. Domain of S = {−4. 2). we have the range. if we collect each element in the second position of each ordered pair. we have the domain. 7} You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Answer: Domain of S = {−1. FUNCTIONS Collect the second element of each ordered pair in T to list the range: Range of T = {3. 2). 3).5. we list it only once in describing the range. Range of S = {−3. 3). 4} 295 Note that even though the number three appears in the second position twice.

Mapping Diagrams A mapping diagram is a useful construction that helps one to analyze a relation.e. 4)}. • The ordered pair (1.2). Note how the ordred pair (0.e.296 Answer: Domain of S = {−2. Consider the earlier relation R = {(0. 2}. 3} CHAPTER 5. then use arrows to indicate the ordered pairs (see Figure 5. R “maps 1 to 5” or R : 1 → 5. Range of S = {−4. . 4) is indicated by drawing an arrow connecting 0 on the left to 4 on the right. 2. i. the range R = {3. (2. 3). You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. 6) is indicated by drawing an arrow connecting 2 on the left to 6 on the right. We say that the relation “maps 0 to 3” and write R : 0 → 3. • The ordered pair (2. which had domain D = {0. i. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Again. 2} and range R = {3.. (6. To construct a mapping diagram for R. (1. 4. R “maps 0 to 4” or R : 0 → 4. −1. it is traditional to list the elements in order.e. 5). The relation of Example 1 is T = {(5. 4). 6)}. 6. 5. Solution.2: Using a mapping diagram to describe the relation R. Note again that we did not repeat the number −3 in listing the range. In similar fashion: • The ordered pair (0.. List the domain D = {5. 3). 3). 6}. list the elements in the domain of R on the left. 7} on the left. 1. i. 3) is indicated by drawing an arrow connecting 0 on the left to 3 on the right.. then use arrows to indicate the ordered pairs (see Figure 5.3). Create a mapping diagram for the relation in Example 1. even though it is used twice as a second element of an ordered pair in the set S. (0. list the elements of the range of R on the right. (7. 5) is indicated by drawing an arrow connecting 1 on the left to 5 on the right. 1. 4} on the right. R “maps 2 to 6” or R : 2 → 6. R 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 5.

FUNCTIONS T 5 6 7 3 4 297 Figure 5. 6)} whose mapping diagram is pictured in Figure 5. (6.4. 3). The fact that the range object 3 is used twice does not matter. (0. It’s the fact that each domain object gets sent to exactly one range object that matters. relation R is is not a function.4: Is this relation a function? . 4)}. In this example. Hence. 3 and 4. 5). As a ﬁrst example. Note that 0 in the domain is paired with two objects. 3). 6 only gets sent to 3.2. 4). 3). consider the relation R = {(0. the relation T is a function. (1. (2. Hence. As a second example. consider the relation T = {(5.3: A mapping diagram for the relation T . Function A relation is a function if and only if each object in the domain is paired with exactly one object in the range. Consider the relation pictured in Figure 5. Function Deﬁnition A function is a very special type of relation. Is it a function? y 5 E D B A C Consider the relation pictured below.3. (7. and 7 only gets sent to 4. whose mapping diagram is pictured in Figure 5. in the range. Is it a function? y 5 C E A −5 B −5 −1 −1 x 5 D 5 x Figure 5.5. each domain object is paired with exactly one range object: 5 only gets sent to 3.1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4.

Note that each domain object on the left is paired with exactly one range object on the right. Let’s call the relation f . T Bentley Mulsanne Kia Soul Lamborghini Gallardo Smart Fortwo Jaguar XF 18 30 20 41 23 Figure 5. Put the domain on the left. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Solution: The graph in Figure 5. 3). 30). (Smart Fortwo. 22). A mapping diagram (see Figure 5. (Chris. 20). (Lamborghini Gallardo. 2. 2). 23)} Solution: In Figure 5. . we create a mapping diagram indicating the relation between cars and their gas mileage. Determine if the relation is a function. the relation is a function. 4}. Determine if the relation is a function. (Joe.6. You Try It! The following relation pairs people with their age. Hence. 23). Hence. (Kia Soul. 1). 3. 2.6: A mapping diagram for the relation T . 4). (Zoe. The domain is D = {1.5) will help us decide if the relation represented by the graph is a function.4 consists of the points A(1. D(3. 18). this relation is a function. f 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Figure 5. 2 and 3. S ={(Mary. 18). (Maria. and E(4. note how the domain object 3 is “sent to” or paired with two range objects. The following relation pairs automobiles with their gas mileage. C(3. 41). (Alfonzo. T = {(Bentley Mulsanne. 23)} EXAMPLE 5. 20). then use arrows to indicate the ordered pairs. the relation f is not a function. 3. 18)}.5: A mapping diagram for the relation f depicted in Figure 5. Answer: Yes. 4} and the range is R = {1. B(2. In Figure 5. Answer: Yes.298 CHAPTER 5. the range on the right. (Jaguar XF. 2).5. the relation is a function.4.

(Robin.1. (Nene. The mapping diagram in Figure 5. sedan). sport utility). station wagon). we create a mapping diagram indicating the relation between birds and their state adoptions.” hence this relation is not a function. • f maps 2 to 4 or f : 2 → 4. R = {(Yellowhammer. Hawaii). truck). (Gilberto. .8. FUNCTIONS 299 You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. The following relation pairs a particular bird with the state that has adopted that bird as its state bird.8 reveals the following facts: • f maps 1 to 2 or f : 1 → 2. Mapping Diagram Notation The goal of this section is to introduce function notation. the relation is not a function. (Bernard. minivan)} Figure 5. Note that the domain object “Robin” is paired with two range objects. Michigan)} Solution: In Figure 5. Connecticut). Answer: No. Determine if the relation is a function. f 1 2 3 4 2 4 6 8 Figure 5. R Yellowhammer Robin Nene Alabama Connecticut Hawaii Michigan The following relation pairs people with the types of cars they own. sedan). (Kate. S ={(Bernard.7. (Robin. Determine if the relation is a function.8: Mapping diagram . Alabama).7: A mapping diagram for the relation R. “Connecticut” and “Michigan. (Kate.5. (Tina. Let’s begin with the mapping diagram in Figure 5.

f : −7 → −14. twice 3 is 6.” A closer look at the mapping diagram in Figure 5. • f maps 4 to 8 or f : 4 → 8. For example.” substitute 8 for x in the rule f : x → 2x + 3 to get f : 8 → 2(8) + 3. It’s possible to give a general description of this “rule” by writing: f : x → 2x (5. we would replace x with −7 in the rule (5. Note how the notation f : 4 → 8 correlates nicely with the mapping diagram in Figure 5. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS • f maps 3 to 6 or f : 3 → 6. or equivalently. f : 8 → 19. answer the question “where does f send −1?” . Answer: f : −2 → −11 You Try It! Given the rule f : x → 2x2 + 5x. Given the rule f : x → 2x + 3. we would replace x with 15 in the rule (5. answer the question “where does f send −2?” EXAMPLE 7. answer the question “where does f send 8?” Solution: To ﬁnd where “f sends 8. The notation f : 4 → 8 is read “f maps 4 to 8” or “f sends 4 to 8.300 CHAPTER 5.1) That is. or equivalently. etc. or equivalently. We could also ask “where does f send −7?” To answer this question. The “rule” seems to be that the relation f doubles each entry in its domain: twice 1 is 2.1) to get f : 15 → 2(15). You Try It! Given the rule f : x → 3x − 5. we might ask “where does f send 15?” To answer this question. or equivalently.8. Given the rule f : x → x/(x + 3). twice 2 is 4. 2x.8 reveals an interesting pattern.1) to get f : −7 → 2(−7). answer the question “where does f send 3?” EXAMPLE 8. f sends x to twice x. f : 15 → 30.

note that each time you substitute a value for x in the given rule. the standard function notation used is f (x) = 3 − 4x. we write: f : x → 3 − 4x f : 12 → 3 − 4(12) f : 12 → 3 − 48 f : 12 → −45 Hence. Rule of Three. 2 Answer: f : 3 → 33 In Examples 7 and 8. f : 12 → −45.. substitute 12 for x. Function notation uses exactly the same concept. i. • a second set of objects which mathematicians call the range. if we want to answer the question “where does f send 12?”.e. A function consists of three parts: • a set of objects which mathematicians call the domain. With mapping diagram notation. This means that each object in the domain of f is sent to a unique object in the range of f .” substitute −1 for x in the rule f : x → x/(x + 3) to get −1 f : −1 → −1 + 3 or equivalently. making the rules in Examples 7 and 8 functions. f sends 12 to −45. i.5. FUNCTIONS 301 Solution: To ﬁnd where “f sends −1. Function Notation Although the mapping diagram notation f : x → 3 − 4x is quite easy to understand. you get a unique answer. This leads us to an itemized description of a function. • and a rule that describes how to assign each object in the domain to exactly one object in the range.1. 1 f : −1 → − .e. .

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Tips for Using Function Notation. to evaluate f (12). Thus. f sends 12 to −45. Leave room between the parentheses to substitute the given value of the variable. Given f (x) = 3 − 4x. f (x) = 3 − 4x f ( ) = 3 − 4( ) Original function notation. evaluate f (−3). ﬁrst restate the function notation.. Check this on your calculator (see Figure 5. 1. then replace each occurrence of the variable with open parentheses. Replace each occurrence of x with open parentheses. Simplify. 2. Substitute the given values of variables in the open parentheses prepared in the ﬁrst step.9). Replace each occurrence of x with open parentheses.9: Calculator check.e. Solution: Start by replacing each occurrence of the variable x with open parentheses. Evaluate exponent: (−3)2 = 9. f (x) = 4 − 5x − x2 f( ) = 4 − 5( )−( ) 2 Original function notation. f (−3) = 10. Hence. Subtract. f (−3) = 4 − 5(−3) − (−3)2 f (−3) = 4 − 5(−3) − 9 f (−3) = 4 + 15 − 9 f (−3) = 10 Substitute −3 for x in the open parentheses positions. Given f (x) = 4 − 5x − x2 . . 3. Now substitute 12 for x in the open parentheses prepared in the last step. i. You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. Now substitute −3 for x in the open parentheses prepared in the last step. Multiply. Figure 5. Multiply: −5(−3) = 15. Replace all occurrences of variables in the notation with open parentheses. Evaluate the resulting expression according to the Rules Guiding Order of Operations. f (12) = −45. f (12) = 3 − 4(12) f (12) = 3 − 48 f (12) = −45 Substitute 12 for x in the open parentheses positions.302 CHAPTER 5.

Replace each occurrence of x with open parentheses. Simplify. but we’re ﬁrst asked to ﬁnd f (−1). We’re next asked to ﬁnd g(−2). compare and contrast the following two examples. Add the opposite. For example. This means that we must replace each occurrence of x with −1 in the function f (x) = 5 − x. This means that we must replace each occurrence of x with −2 in the function g(x) = x2 − 9. ﬁnd f (−3) and g(2). g(x) = x2 − 9 g( ) = ( )2 − 9 Original function notation.1. it is easy to refer to the function in which you want to substitute the given x-value. f (−1) = 6.5. Exponent ﬁrst: (−2)2 = 4. For example. Simplify. y and f (x) are completely interchangeable. Substitute −2 for x in the open parentheses position. g(−2). f (x) = 5 − x f( ) = 5 − ( ) Original function notation. g(−2) = (−2)2 − 9 =4−9 = −5 Thus. g(−2) = −5. . FUNCTIONS 303 The next example demonstrates one of the advantages of function notation. Solution: We’re given two function deﬁnitions. f (−1) = 5 − (−1) =5+1 =6 Substitute −1 for x in the open parentheses position. Now substitute −1 for x in the open parentheses prepared in the last step. Replace each occurrence of x with open parentheses. Thus. You Try It! EXAMPLE 10. ﬁnd f (−1) and Given f (x) = 3x2 − 20 and g(x) = 4x + 6/x. Now substitute −2 for x in the open parentheses prepared in the last step. Given f (x) = 5 − x and g(x) = x2 − 9. Answer: f (−3) = 7 and g(2) = 10 Interchanging y and f (x) In most cases. f and g.

” The graph is a line. Solution: Replace x with 5. the instruction is identical to “sketch the graph of y = 2x − 3. with slope 2 and y-intercept at (0. the answer y = 22 disguises the fact that an x-value of 5 was used to arrive at the result. then move up 2 and right 1 to create a line with slope 2 (see Figure 5.304 CHAPTER 5. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Question: Given f (x) = 3x + 7. −2) 5 . (0. in the ﬁrst case. This is another advantage of function notation. However. −3) 1 5 x (0. evaluate f (5). the ﬁnal answer f (5) = 22 indicates that we used an x-value of 5 to determine that the y-value is 22. f (x) = 3x + 7 f (5) = 3(5) + 7 f (5) = 15 + 7 f (5) = 22 Question: Given y = 3x + 7. Let’s look at one ﬁnal application demonstrating that y and f (x) are interchangeable. the answer is 22. Note how we’ve labeled the graph with its equation using function notation.10). You Try It! Sketch the graph of 2 f (x) = − x − 2. −3). 3 EXAMPLE 11. when we use function notation. ﬁnd y when x equals 5. y = 3x + 7 y = 3(5) + 7 y = 15 + 7 y = 22 In each case.10: The graph of f (x) = 2x − 3 is a line. y 5 f (x) = 2x − 3 Answer: y 5 −5 2 −5 −2 −5 3 2 f (x) = − x − 2 3 x −5 Figure 5. Solution: Replace x with 5. Plot the y-intercept at (0. −3). Solution: Because y and f (x) are interchangeable. Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2x − 3. On the other hand.

(9. T = {(−8. 8). −3). state the domain and range of the given relation. (3. (3. T = {(4. (−4. R = {(7. (8. T = {(9. 7). T = {(7.1. 8). −2)} 14. 2). (8. 2). (6. 5)} 2. (4. (3. −3)} 13. 0). state the domain and range of the given relation. 4). 5). (9. 1). 6). R = {(−6.5. B 5 y 10. (8. −4). 0). 1)} . (0. (1. 4). 1. R = {(0. B 5 y A x −5 C −5 D 5 −5 C −5 D 5 8. −3). (4. 7)} 3. T = {(−1. (2. (2. (4. 11. (3. 3). 5 B x y A −5 C −5 D 5 −5 A 5 x C −5 D In Exercises 11-18. 1)} 4. (−4. (8. 5 B x y A 9. FUNCTIONS 305 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. (2. −7). 3)} 5. 4). 7)} 6. −5). −4)} 12. S = {(−6. (5. 7. (−4. −6). (2. 0). determine whether the given relation is a function. 4). −4). (9. 2). 0). S = {(6. 1). (8. 8)} In Exercises 7-10.

2 2 2 2 31. 37. evaluate f (2). Given f (x) = |5x + 9|. evaluate f (8). 38. −8). 6). Given f (x) = 3x + x + 6. 28. Given f (x) = −9x + 2. S = {(−7. Given f (x) = −6x − 2. −4). (−8. evaluate f (88). T = {(−8. x − 7. x + 8. evaluate f (4). Given f (x) = |6x − 9|. −9). Given f (x) = |9x − 6|. 26. (−5. (1. Given f (x) = −2x + 8. Given f (x) = 34. 5 y C B A x C B A x −1 −1 5 y −1 −1 5 y 20. evaluate f (41). evaluate f (−8). 24. 25. evaluate f (16). 27. evaluate f (5). 1). Given f (x) = −3x +4x−2. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 17. Given f (x) = 32.306 15. 5 y 21. R = {(−7. Given f (x) = −6x + 7. 1). 0). (1. 36. 8)} 16. evaluate f (8). evaluate f (2). 0)} 18. 30. 5 22. Given f (x) = √ √ √ √ x − 6. 35. Given f (x) = 33. 2)} CHAPTER 5. (1. evaluate f (−3). 19. (1. T = {(−9. evaluate f (42). evaluate f (3). Given f (x) = −3x +4x+1. −6). determine whether the given relation is a function. 9)} In Exercises 19-22. (−5. 29. x + 9. evaluate f (8). . Given f (x) = −4x + 6. Given f (x) = |8x − 3|. evaluate f (−6). evaluate f (5). (−7. 5 C B A −1 −1 B C 5 x −1 −1 A 5 x 23.

Domain = {3. FUNCTIONS 307 39. Domain = {2. Given f (x) = −2x2 + 5x − 9 and g(x) = −2x2 + 3x − 4. −3 29. −41 39. 9 35. 7. 42. Not a function . f (−3) = −15 and g(−3) = 17 45. −1. Given f (x) = 4x − 3 and g(x) = −3x + 8. 4. 46. −26 37. Domain = {−4. 4} {−2. 2. 9} and Range = {1. 6 33. Given f (x) = −3x2 + 5x − 2 and g(x) = 3x2 − 4x + 2. 43. f (−7) = −44 and g(−7) = 65 43. 4} 11. evaluate f (−2) and g(−2). Function 15. 31 31. evaluate f (−1) and g(−1). 4.1.5. 4. 8} 7. 40. 4} 5. Given f (x) = 3x2 − 3x − 5 and g(x) = 2x2 − 5x − 8. 7. evaluate f (−3) and g(−3). Domain = {−2. 41. −10 27. 5} and Range = {0. Given f (x) = −2x2 + 3x + 2 and g(x) = 3x2 + 5x − 5. 2} and Range = Answers 23. evaluate f (−7) and g(−7). Not a function 17. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 45. 7. evaluate f (−9) and g(−9). evaluate f (−2) and g(−2). 39 ❧ ❧ ❧ 25. Given f (x) = 6x − 2 and g(x) = −8x + 9. evaluate f (3) and g(3). 1. 2. 8. f (−2) = −27 and g(−2) = −18 9. 2. f (3) = −7 and g(3) = 37 41. 5} 3. Domain = {0. Given f (x) = 5x − 3 and g(x) = 9x − 9. 8} and Range = {2. 44. 2} and Range = {−2. Function 21. evaluate f (−2) and g(−2). Function 13. Not a function 19. Given f (x) = 8x + 7 and g(x) = 2x − 7.

2 Polynomials We begin with the deﬁnition of a term. Term. 5. we get: Degree of 13a2 bc3 = Degree of 13a2 b1 c3 =2+1+3 =6 Monomial. each of the following is a term. and 6. and 13. note that 13a2 bc3 is equivalent to 13a2 b1 c3 . x. 2. −3. while the remaining terms are products of a number and one or more variables. When a term is a product of a number and one or more variables. the degrees of the terms −5 − 3x2 12y 2 z 3 13a2 bc3 are 0. In the case of a term that is a single number. A constant term (single number with no variables) has degree zero. In the last example. respectively. Thus. so adding exponents. Thus. For example. A term is either a single number (called a constant term) or the product of a number and one or more variables. the coeﬃcients of the terms −5 − 3x2 12y 2 z 3 13a2 bc3 are −5. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 5. the number itself is called the coeﬃcient. −5 are monomials. and x. Thus. − 3x2 12y 2 z 3 13a2 bc3 . for example. The words monomial and term are equivalent. −3x2 is the product of −3. the number is called the coeﬃcient of the term. −5 − 3x2 12y 2 z 3 13a2 bc3 Note how the ﬁrst term is a single number. 12. For example. Degree.308 CHAPTER 5. The degree of a term is the sum of the exponents on each variable of the term. respectively. Coeﬃcient. for example.

Each expression has exactly two terms. a trinomial has three terms. which means “many terms. we should combine any like terms we ﬁnd. respectively. each of the mathematical expressions 2x + 3y − 3a2 − 3b2 xy + 7 − 3x2 y + 5xy 2 is a binomial. A trinomial is a mathematical expression containing exactly three terms.” Polynomial. each of the mathematical expressions 2x2 + 3x + 7 a2 + 2ab + b2 x4 − 2x2 y 2 + 3y 4 is a trinomial. However. The coeﬃcients of a polynomial are the coeﬃcients of its terms. For example. and 1. A bicycle has two wheels.5. But once we get past three terms. Ascending and Descending Powers When asked to simplify a polynomial expression. 6. A binomial is a mathematical expression containing exactly two terms. . A tricycle has three wheels. because the word polynomial means “many terms. separated by plus or minus signs. For example. A polynomial is a many-termed mathematical expression. and when possible. −4.” we can also use the word polynomial to describe mathematical expressions with more than three terms. with terms separated by plus or minus signs. such as: x4 − 4x3 y + 6x2 y 2 − 4xy 3 + y 4 The coeﬃcients of x4 − 4x3 y + 6x2 y 2 − 4xy 3 + y 4 are 1. Each expression has exactly three terms. and trinomial. separated by plus or minus signs. the assignment of special names ceases and we use the generic word polynomial. Trinomial. 12y 2 z 3 − 3a2 − 3b2 x4 − 2x2 y 2 + 3y 4 though assigned the particular names monomial. are also “many-termed” expressions and can also be called polynomials. a binomial has two terms. binomial. arrange the answer in ascending or descending powers. −4. POLYNOMIALS 309 Binomial. Each of the previous expressions.2.

we want to place the term with the highest power of x ﬁrst and the term with the lowest power of x last. and sometimes impossible. x3 + 2xy 2 − 6x2 y + y 3 − 3xy 2 + 4x2 y Solution: We’ll again use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS You Try It! Simplify the following polynomial. 2x3 + 7x − 3x2 + 11x + 8x2 + 11 + 15x = 11 + (7x + 11x + 15x) + (−3x2 + 8x2 ) + 2x3 = 11 + 33x + 5x2 + 2x3 Answer: x + 12x2 − 3x3 Note how we start with the constant term. then go down in order.310 CHAPTER 5. and arrange your answer in ascending powers of x: 3x −5x +8x+9x −7x+2x 2 3 2 3 EXAMPLE 1. 2x3 + 7x − 3x2 + 11x + 8x2 + 11 + 15x = 2x3 + (−3x2 + 8x2 ) + (7x + 11x + 15x) + 11 = 2x3 + 5x2 + 33x + 11 Note how the powers of x start at 3. such as the polynomial in Example 1. make a second arrangement. 2x3 + 7x − 3x2 + 11x + 8x2 + 11 + 15x Solution: In order to arrange our answer in descending powers of x. arranging the terms in ascending or descending order is fairly straightforward. then the highest power of x last. then we combine like terms. However. arranging your answer in descending powers of x. ordering your terms in ascending powers of x. To arrange our ﬁnal answer in ascending powers of x. and arrange your answer in descending powers of x: −4x2 y 2 + 3xy 3 + 6x3 y − xy 3 + 2x2 y 2 EXAMPLE 2. Simplify the following polynomial expression. putting the terms with the highest powers of x . You Try It! Simplify the following polynomial. When we have a polynomial in a single variable. we put the lowest power of x ﬁrst. then arrange your answer in descending powers of x. to arrange in a decent order. a polynomial in two or more variables is a bit more diﬃcult. We use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. regrouping and combining like terms. Simplify the following polynomial expression. then the powers of x increase in order. Once you’ve completed that task.

with the powers of one variable descending while the powers of the other variable simultaneously ascends. POLYNOMIALS ﬁrst. and arrange your answer in ascending powers of b: 5a3 b2 + 4ab3 − 2a2 b+ 3a3 b2 − ab3 The Degree of a Polynomial To ﬁnd the degree of a polynomial.5. Again. a3 b3 + 2a2 b − 3a2 b3 + 4a3 b3 + 5a4 + 3a2 b + b5 Solution: Let’s try to arrange the terms so that the powers of a descend. Simplify the following polynomial expression. but at least we have the powers of a descending. then follow with terms containing lower powers of x in order. the powers of x decrease while simultaneously the powers of y increase. Answer: −2a2 b + 8a3 b2 + 3ab3 Simplify the following polynomial. a3 b3 + 2a2 b − 3a2 b3 + 4a3 b3 + 5a4 + 3a2 b + b5 = 5a4 + (a3 b3 + 4a3 b3 ) + (2a2 b + 3a2 b) − 3a2 b3 + b5 = 5a4 + 5a3 b3 + 5a2 b − 3a2 b3 + b5 Note that in our ﬁnal arrangement. Sometimes we have to make some very subjective choices on the ordering of terms. the powers of a descend. Answer: 6x3 y − 2x2 y 2 + 2xy 3 Not all examples will have nice ordering presented in Example 2. x3 + 2xy 2 − 6x2 y + y 3 − 3xy 2 + 4x2 y = x3 + (−6x2 y + 4x2 y) + (2xy 2 − 3xy 2 ) + y 3 = x3 − 2x2 y − xy 2 + y 3 311 Note that this is a very natural order. The degree of a polynomial is the degree of the term having the highest degree. That should help us spot if we’ve missed a term while simplifying the given problem. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. locate the term of the polynomial having the highest degree. but the powers of b bounce up and down. we use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. The degree of a polynomial. . then arrange your answer in some sort of reasonable order.2.

making 10 the degree of the polynomial. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Finding the degree of a polynomial of a single variable is pretty easy. A polynomial function is a function deﬁned by a rule that assigns to each domain object a range object deﬁned by a polynomial expression. You Try It! What is the degree of the polynomial x2 y 4 − 6x2 y 2 + 5x2 y 5 − 2xy? EXAMPLE 5. let’s arrange the polynomial in descending powers of x. Answer: 4 Finding the degree of a polynomial of more than one variable is a little bit trickier.312 CHAPTER 5. Term x −2x3 y 7 y5 4 Degree 4 10 5 Answer: 7 Hence. the degree of the polynomial is 7. Polynomial Functions First we deﬁne what we mean by a polynomial function. What is the degree of the polynomial x3 − 4x2 + 5 − 6x + 2x7? Solution: First. Therefore. In the following table. You Try It! What is the degree of the polynomial 2x3 + 8x2 + 3x4 + 2x + 10? EXAMPLE 4. the term with the highest degree is −2x3 y 7 . we list the degree of each term. an arrangement that is probably as good as we are going to get. the degree of any term is found by summing the exponents on its variables. Polynomial function. What is the degree of the polynomial x4 − 2x3 y 7 + y 5 ? Solution: Note that the polynomial is already arranged in descending powers of x. 2x7 + x3 − 4x2 − 6x + 5 Arranging the polynomial in descending powers of x makes it easier to see that the term of the polynomial with the highest degree is 2x7 . . Remember.

some open downwards. in this course. our focus will be on polynomial functions of a single variable. Exponent ﬁrst: (−3)3 = −27.11: Calculator Hence. Quadratic polynomial. However. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6.5. then replace each occurrence of the variable x with open parentheses. ) − 11 Replace each occurrence of x with open parentheses.12. Add. Original function deﬁnition. p(−3) = (−3)3 − 8(−3) − 11 p(−3) = −27 − 8(−3) − 11 p(−3) = −27 + 24 − 11 p(−3) = −14 Substitute −3 for x in the open parentheses positions. The graph of this polynomial is called a parabola. evaluate p(−3). p(x) = x3 − 8x − 11 p( )=( ) − 8( 3 Given the polynomial function p(x) = −3x2 + 7x + 4. such as p(x) = 3 − 4x − 9x2 and q(x) = x3 − 9x2 + 11. frequently use polynomial functions of more than one variable such as f (x. depending on the sign of the leading term.2. such as multivariate calculus.11). Answer: 6 The Graph of a Polynomial Function One of the most important polynomial functions in all of mathematics and science is the polynomial having degree two. Multiply: −8(−3) = 24. The parabola is approximately U-shaped. Given the polynomial function p(x) = x3 − 8x − 11. evaluate p(2). the leading term of the parabola p(x) = 2x2 − 8x + 6 has positive two as its . Solution: To evaluate p(−3). Figure check. ﬁrst restate the function deﬁnition. y) = x2 + y 2 . 5. The second degree polynomial having the form p(x) = ax2 + bx + c is called a quadratic polynomial. Next. Some open upwards. p(−3) = −14. POLYNOMIALS 313 Advanced courses. substitute −3 for x in the open parentheses prepared in the last step. In Figure 5. You can easily check this result on your calculator (see Figure 5.

its leading term has negative three as its coeﬃcient.14. so it opens upward. called the vertex of the parabola. so it is a quadratic polynomial and its graph is a parabola. the parabola opens upward. • If a < 0. • If a > 0.12: The graph of p(x) = 2x2 − 8x + 6 opens up. The sign of the leading term of p(x) = ax2 + bx + c determines whether the parabola opens up or down. You Try It! Use your graphing calculator to sketch the graph of the quadratic polynomial p(x) = 2x2 − 5x − 4. the parabola opens downward. In Figure 5. The vertex of a parabola. so we know that the parabola opens downward. coeﬃcient. Its vertex (turning point) is not visible. Moreover.14). The graph of the second degree polynomial p(x) = ax2 +bx+c has a single turning point.314 y 5 CHAPTER 5. EXAMPLE 7. then select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the third image in Figure 5. Enter y = −3x2 + 12x + 25 as Y1=-3*X∧2+12*X+25 in the Y= menu (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 5. Note that the graph in Figure 5.14 appears to have the U-shape of a parabola that opens downwards. Use your graphing calculator to sketch the graph of the quadratic polynomial p(x) = −3x2 + 12x + 25. −5 Figure 5. The turning point of a parabola has a special name. the leading term of the parabola p(x) = −2x2 − 8x − 6 has negative two as its coeﬃcient. but one would .13.13: The graph of p(x) = −2x2 − 8x − 6 opens down. so it opens downward. Solution: The degree of the polynomial p(x) = −3x2 + 12x + 25 is two. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS y 5 −5 x 5 −5 x 5 −5 Figure 5.

and Ymax at the end of each axis. Label the horizontal axis x and the vertical axis y.14: Sketching the graph of p(x) = −3x2 + 12x + 25. We need to adjust the WINDOW parameters so that the vertex of the parabola is visible in the viewing screen. 4. Ymin. −50 x Answer: 50 p(x) = −3x2 + 12x + 25 −10 10 . we settle on the parameters shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 5. Section2. follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines from Chapter 3. In reporting your result on your homework. Xmax. POLYNOMIALS 315 Figure 5.5. 2. Figure 5. then push the GRAPH button to produce the second image in Figure 5. Indicate the WINDOW parameters Xmin. y 1.15. surmise that it lies oﬀ the top of the screen. After some experimentation.2. Freehand the curve and label it with its equation. 3.15.15: Adjust the WINDOW parameters so that the vertex is visible in the viewing screen. Draw axes with a ruler.

Answer: Figure 5. the number of turning points of the graph might increase. Use your graphing calculator to sketch the graph of the polynomial function p(x) = x4 −37x2 +24x+180. This makes for some very interesting curves. then enter the suggested window parameters in the WINDOW menu (see Figure 5. You Try It! Use your graphing calculator to sketch the graph of the quadratic polynomial p(x) = x3 − 14x2 + 20x + 60. Sweet-looking curve! . we will assist you by suggesting a good viewing window for each polynomial. one that will allow you to see all of the turning points of the graph of the polynomial. Ymin = −1000. Xscl = 1. In more advanced courses. in this introductory section.16). Ymax = 1000.316 CHAPTER 5. Solution: Enter the polynomial function in Y1 of the Y= menu. Xmax = 20. Ymin = −200. and Yscl = 20. such as intermediate and college algebra. Set your window parameters as follows: Xmin = −10. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS When the degree of the polynomial is larger than two. Xmax = 10. Push the GRAPH button on the top row of your calculator to produce the graph of the polynomial function shown in Figure 5.16: Enter the polynomial and adjust the WINDOW parameters. Xscl = 1. Figure 5.17: The graph of p(x) = x4 − 37x2 + 24x + 180. Set your window parameters as follows: Xmin = −10.17. you will be introduced to a variety of techniques that will help you determine appropriate viewing windows for the graphs of these higher degree polynomials. Ymax = 200. EXAMPLE 8. and Yscl = 100. However.

−3b5 z 8 3. x2 + 9x − 3 + 7x2 − 3x − 8 30. 8x6 + 2x15 − 3x11 − 2x2 20. −x2 + 8 − 7x + 8x − 5x2 + 4x3 . 8x + 7 + 2x2 − 8x − 3x3 − x2 32. 1. −7b9 c3 8. or trinomial. 8u4 + 5uv + 3v 4 13. sort each of the given polynomials in ascending powers of x. 2x13 + 3x18 + 8x7 + 5x4 24. 6x18 − 6x4 − 2x19 − 7x14 23. 21.5. −3b + 5c 11. 3b4 − 9bc + 9c2 12. 2u3 − 5uv − 4v 4 16. 25. 7x17 + 3x4 − 2x12 + 8x14 22. 9w4 c5 u7 In Exercises 7-16. 5s2 + 9t7 14. 7. binomial. 6y 3 − 4yz + 7z 3 In Exercises 17-20. 2x4 − 8x19 + 3x10 − 4x2 19. 3v 5 u6 2. then arranging your answer in descending powers of x. POLYNOMIALS 317 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. combining like terms.2. 4x3 + 6x2 − 8x + 1 + 8x3 − 7x2 + 5x − 8 28. simplify the given polynomial. 17. −5x + 3 − 6x3 + 5x2 − 9x + 3 − 3x2 + 6x3 26. −2x7 − 9x13 − 6x12 − 7x17 18. state the coeﬃcient and the degree of each of the following terms. 4u + 7v 10. 7b6 c2 9. 2x6 − 6x7 − 7x15 − 9x18 In Exercises 21-24. state whether each of the following expressions is a monomial. −5v 6 4. sort each of the given polynomials in descending powers of x. −2x3 + 8x − x2 + 5 + 7 + 6x2 + 4x3 − 9x 27. −8x6 − 6y 7 15. 2u7 x4 d5 6. −4x2 − 6x + 3 − 3x2 + 3x − 6 31. −8x3 − 2x2 − 7x − 3 + 7x3 − 9x2 − 8x + 9 29. −6x18 − 8x11 − 9x15 + 5x12 In Exercises 25-32. −5c3 5.

evaluate f (−2). In Exercises 61-64. Given f (x) = −2x4 −4x−9. 55. evaluate f (−1). x11 + 7x16 + 8 − 7x10 51. 54. 53. p(x) = −4x2 − 9x + 50 . −8x2 − 4xz − 2z 2 − 3x2 − 8xz + 2z 2 34.318 CHAPTER 5. 59. evaluate f (3). 3x16 − 8x5 + x8 + 7 49. 58. evaluate f (−2). −8y 2 + 6yz − 7z 2 − 2y 2 − 3yz − 9z 2 40. p(x) = −2x2 + 8x + 32 62. evaluate f (2). so adjust the WINDOW parameters until the vertex is visible in the viewing window. −4x6 − 7x16 − 5 + 3x18 47. then arranging your answer in a reasonable order. perhaps in descending powers of either variable. 9a2 + ac − 9c2 − 5a2 − 2ac + 2c2 44. Given f (x) = 5x3 + 4x2 − 6. Given f (x) = −4x4 − 5x2 − 3. Note: Answers may vary. 7a3 + 6a2 b − 5ab2 + 4a3 + 6a2 b + 6b3 37. 45. 3x15 + 4 + 8x3 − 8x19 46. 52. evaluate f (2). −2 − x7 − 5x5 + x10 50. Given f (x) = −2x3 +4x−9. Given f (x) = 3x4 + 5x3 − 9. 60. Given f (x) = −3x3 + 3x2 − 9. p(x) = 2x2 + 6x − 18 63. evaluate f (−2). Given f (x) = 4x3 +3x+7. Given f (x) = 3x4 − 5x2 + 8. 57. depending on which variable you choose to dictate the order. −4b2 c − 3bc2 − 5c3 + 9b3 − 3b2 c + 5bc2 38. −5x2 + 9xz − 4z 2 − 6x2 − 7xz + 7z 2 35. combining like terms. 33. 7b2 c + 8bc2 − 6c3 − 4b3 + 9bc2 − 6c3 42. 7x10 − 3x18 + 9x4 − 6 48. then follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines when reporting your solution on your homework. p(x) = 3x2 − 8x − 35 64. −6u3 + 4uv 2 − 2v 3 − u3 + 6u2 v − 5uv 2 36. evaluate f (−1). 7u2 + 3uv − 6v 2 − 6u2 + 7uv + 6v 2 In Exercises 45-50. In each case the graph is a parabola. Given f (x) = −3x4 + 2x3 − 6. 61. use your graphing calculator to sketch the the given quadratic polynomial. Given f (x) = 5x4 −4x−6. evaluate f (−1). evaluate f (−1). simplify the given polynomial. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS In Exercises 33-44. 7x3 − 9x2 y + 3y 3 + 7x3 + 3xy 2 − 7y 3 43. 8x2 + xy + 3y 2 − x2 + 7xy + y 2 41. 4b3 − 6b2 c + 9bc2 − 9b3 − 8bc2 + 3c3 39. state the degree of the given polynomial. 56.

p(x) = −x3 + 4x2 + 27x − 90 Xmin = −10 Ymin = −150 Xmax = 10 Ymax = 50 68. 2x2 − 14x + 6 27. 4a2 − ac − 7c2 45. −7u3 + 6u2 v − uv 2 − 2v 3 37. Coeﬃcient = 3. 6 − 3x 11 + 8x − 2x 14 6 2 17 21. Degree = 6 5. 19 17. 5x4 + 8x7 + 2x13 + 3x18 25.2. Binomial 11. Monomial 9. p(x) = x4 − 10x3 − 4x2 + 250x − 525 Xmin = −10 Ymin = −1000 Xmax = 10 Ymax = 500 66. −10y 2 + 3yz − 16z 2 41. 12x3 − x2 − 3x − 7 . Binomial 15. p(x) = x3 − 4x2 − 11x + 30 Xmin = −10 Ymin = −50 Xmax = 10 Ymax = 50 67. Trinomial 13. −11x2 − 12xz 35. Coeﬃcient = 2.5. 9b3 − 7b2 c + 2bc2 − 5c3 39. 82 55. −1 57. 10 51. Trinomial Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 29. 65. 8x2 + 6x − 11 31. p(x) = −x4 + 2x3 + 35x2 − 36x − 180 Xmin = −10 Ymin = −50 Xmax = 10 Ymax = 50 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Degree = 11 3. 3x − 2x 12 + 8x + 7x 23. Coeﬃcient = −5. Follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines when reporting your solution on your homework. −4b3 + 7b2 c + 17bc2 − 12c3 43. 18 49. −7 53. use your graphing calculator to sketch the polynomial using the given WINDOW parameters. −3x3 + x2 + 7 33. Degree = 16 7. POLYNOMIALS 319 In Exercises 65-68. −7x17 − 9x13 − 6x12 − 2x7 19. 2x 15 4 47.

50 y p(x) = −2x2 + 8x + 32 CHAPTER 5.320 59. 50 y p(x) = x4 − 10x3 − 4x2 + 250x − 525 y 500 −10 −10 p(x) = −3x2 − 8x − 35 −50 −1000 10 x 10 x . −17 61. 63. p(x) = x3 − 4x2 − 11x + 40 y 50 −10 10 x −10 10 x −50 −50 67. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 65.

The average price of a gallon of gas at the beginning of each month for the period starting in November 2010 and ending in May 2011 are given in the margin. a second horizontal arrow over to the vertical axis (see Figure 5. p(t) = −0.51. Dec. draw a vertical arrow up to the graph.0080556t3 + 0.20 4. p(t) 4.87 4.30671t + 3. The data is plotted in Figure 5.60 3.11881t2 − 0.50 4. APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS 321 5.06 4.36 (5. and from that point of intersection. Jan Mar.10 3 0 Oct 1 Nov 2 Dec 3 Jan 4 Feb 5 Mar 6 Apr 7 May 8 Jun t Figure 5.50 3.19). Solution: Locate February (t = 4) on the horizontal axis.21 3.14 3. .40 4.20 3. From there.30 3.18 and ﬁtted with the following third degree polynomial.40 3. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1.30 4.80 3.10 4 3.90 3. where t is the number of months that have passed since October of 2010.2) Month Nov. Apr.70 3.18: Fitting gas price versus month with a cubic polynomial.3 Applications of Polynomials In this section we investigate real-world applications of polynomial functions.31 3. It would appear that the price per gallon in February was approximately $3.26 Use the graph and then the polynomial to estimate the price of a gallon of gas in California in February 2011.5.3. May Price 3.

36 p(4) = −0.52 per gallon.20 4. the price in February was $3.2 and substitute 4 for t.90 3. Start with the function deﬁned by equation 5.10 3 CHAPTER 5.20: Evaluating p(4). 2011.11881(4)2 − 0.20 3. p(t) = −0.30 4. we’ll use the ﬁtted third degree polynomial to approximate the price per gallon for the month of February.30 3.30671(4) + 3.40 4. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 0 Oct 1 Nov 2 Dec 3 Jan 4 Feb 5 Mar 6 Apr 7 May 8 Jun t Figure 5.322 p(t) 4.30671t + 3.11881t2 − 0. Rounding to the nearest Figure 5.40 3. .36 Use the calculator to evaluate p(4) (see Figure 5.60 3.50 3.0080556t3 + 0.80 3. Next. penny.19: Approximating price of gas during February.0080556(4)3 + 0.20).50 4.70 3.10 4 3.

21.3. at what time will the projectile ﬁrst reach a height of 400 meters (400 m)? Note: Near the earth’s surface. its height above ground at any time is given by the formula 1 y = y0 + v0 t − gt2 . t = time passed since projectile’s ﬁring. So when we set Xmin and Xmax.9t2 as Y1=8+100*X-4.8 (m/s)/s or 9. we’re actually setting bounds on the t-axis.21: Sketching the graph of y = 8 + 100t − 4.8)t2 2 y = 8 + 100t − 4. then simplify to produce the following result: 1 y = y0 + v0 t − gt2 2 1 y = 8 + 100t − (9. If a projectile is ﬁred into the air.5.21.9*X∧2 in the Y= menu (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 5. the acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9. y0 = initial height above ground at time t = 0.9t2 Enter y = 8 + 100t − 4. 2 where y = height above ground at time t. Push the GRAPH button to produce the graph of y = 8 + 100t − 4. Substitute these values in equation 5.21). (5.8 m/s2 ).3) If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 60 meters per second from a rooftop 12 meters above ground level. g = acceleration due to gravity. Solution: We’re given the initial height is y0 = 8 m.8 m/s2 . APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS 323 You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. v0 = initial velocity at time t = 0. After some experimentation. the horizontal axis is actually the t-axis. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 100 meters per second (100 m/s) from a rooftop 8 meters (8 m) above ground level.9t2 shown in the third image Figure 5. and the acceleration due to gravity is g = 9. In this example. the initial velocity is v0 = 100 m/s. . at what time will the projectile ﬁrst reach a height of 150 meters? Figure 5.8 meters per second per second (9.9t2 . we settled on the WINDOW parameters shown in the second image in Figure 5.3.

4) Enter the left-hand side of Equation 5.324 CHAPTER 5. Figure 5. as shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 5.” The result is shown in the third image in Figure 5. y(m) 600 The parabola shown in Figure 5. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. Note that there are two points of intersection.” then press ENTER again in response to “Second curve. The graph only predicts the height of the projectile as a function of time.22.2925359 25 t(s) Figure 5.22. Use a ruler to draw all lines. The projectile ﬁrst reaches a height of 400 meters at approximately 5. . . y = 8 + 100t − 4.23 is not the actual ﬂight path of the projectile. At this point.2925359 seconds after launch. which makes sense as the projectile hits 400 meters on the way up and 400 meters on the way down.” For your guess.23: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. select 5:intersect from the CALC menu.22: Determining when the object ﬁrst reaches 400 meters. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS To ﬁnd when the projectile reaches a height of 400 meters (400 m).4 into Y2 in the Y= menu. but freehand any curves. substitute 400 for y to obtain: 400 = 8 + 100t − 4. press ENTER in response to “Guess.9t2 y = 400 −100 5. use the arrow keys to move the cursor closer to the ﬁrst point of intersection than the second. To ﬁnd the ﬁrst point of intersection.9t2 (5. Push the GRAPH button to produce the result shown in the second image in Figure 5. Press ENTER in response to “First curve.22.

Rounding to the nearest tenth of a second. • Draw a dashed vertical line through the ﬁrst point of intersection.3. 0) −5 (−1.24). 0) (3. Answer: ≈ 3. The points where the graph of f crosses the x-axis are called the x-intercepts of the graph of f . then write the t-value of the point just below the shaded point. . APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS 325 • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with t and y. Include the units (seconds (s) and meters (m)).23). it takes the projectile approximately t ≈ 5.9t2 (see Figure 5.23). The x-value of each x-intercept is called a zero of the function f . • Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 5. 0) 5 x −5 Figure 5. This is the ﬁrst solution of the equation 400 = 8 + 100t − 4.23). y 5 f (−3. Zeros and x-intercepts.3 seconds to ﬁrst reach a height of 400 meters. The phrase “shade and label the point” means ﬁll in the point on the t-axis.5.23). Shade and label the point (with its t-value) where the dashed vertical line crosses the t-axis. Therefore. then we need to ﬁnd the points on the graph of the function that have a y-value equal to zero (see Figure 5. Include the units (seconds (s) and meters (m)).0693987 seconds Zeros and x-intercepts of a Function Recall that f (x) and y are interchangeable. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 5. respectively (see Figure 5.24: Locating the zeros of a function. if we are asked to ﬁnd where a function is equal to zero.

0). Multiply: 1.25 and y = 1.25 = 0 Now we solve for x. 0) • The zeros of f are: −3.25 f (−3.6x − 9. We’re looking for the value of x that makes y = 0 or f (x) = 0.25. we’ll start with f (x) = 0.5x + 5.25 x= 1. Add.25.25/1.5 Subtract 5.25 are equivalent. and 3 Key idea.5.5) = −5. EXAMPLE 3.25. This is why −3. You Try It! Find the zero(s) of the function f (x) = 2. makes the function f (x) = 1.25 from both sides.5) + 5.25). (−1.5 We want the value of x that makes the function equal to zero.5x + 5.5x + 5. So.25. Divide both sides by 1. then replace f (x) with 1. f (x) = 1.25 equal to zero. Divide: −5.326 CHAPTER 5.25).5 = −3.5. Press 2ND CALC to open the the CALCULATE menu (see the third image in Figure 5. (−1. 0). Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the graph of f (see the second image in Figure 5.25 f (−3. Algebraic solution: Remember.5 for x.62.5 is called a zero of the function.24 at (−3. 0). POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS The graph of f crosses the x-axis in Figure 5.5(−3.5) = 1. 0). To ﬁnd the zero of the function f : .5x = −5. Substitute −3.5x + 5.5x + 5.25 −5. Replace f (x) with 1.5 x = −3. −1. when substituted for x.25 + 5. We should be able to ﬁnd the zero by sketching the graph of f and noting where it crosses the x-axis.25 f (−3. Check.25). f (x) = 1.5x + 5. 1. Substitute −3.5) = −5. Find the zero(s) of the function f (x) = 1.25. and (3.5x + 5.5(−3.25 into Y1 in the Y= menu (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 5.5x + 5.5) = 0 The original function. Therefore: • The x-intercepts of f are: (−3. Start by loading the function f (x) = 1. f (x) = 0 1. Note that −3. A function is zero where its graph crosses the x-axis. 0).5x + 5.5 for x in the function f (x) = 1. and (3.5x + 5. Graphing calculator solution.

7 .26). Figure 5. Figure 5.25. Note that the approximation found using the calculator agrees nicely with the zero found using the algebraic technique. 1. 2.5.and right-bound marks at the top of the screen (see the third image in Figure 5.27. Since the cursor already lies between the left. Use the right arrow button to move the cursor so that it lies to the right of the x-intercept of f and press ENTER. you have a valid guess. The calculator responds by asking for a “Guess?” (see the third image in Figure 5. 3. Use the left arrow button to move the cursor so that it lies to the left of the x-intercept of f and press ENTER.and right-bounds. The calculator responds by asking for a “Left Bound?” (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 5. Select 2:zero from the CALCULATE menu. The calculator responds by asking for a “Right Bound?” (see the second image in Figure 5.26).3.25: Finding the zero of f (x) = 1.26: Using 2:zero from the CALCULATE menu.26).5 is a zero of f . Answer: 3. simply press ENTER to use the current position of the cursor as your guess. As long as your cursor lies between the left.26).27: −3. The calculator responds by approximating the zero of the function as shown in Figure 5. APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS 327 Figure 5.5x + 5.

How long will it take the projectile in Example 2 to return to ground level? Solution: In Example 2.28). the height of the projectile above the ground as a function of time is given by the equation y = 8 + 100t − 4.” The result is shown in Figure 5. So when we set Xmin and Xmax.” Leave your cursor where it is and press ENTER in response to “Guess. Enter the equation y = 8 + 100t − 4. the horizontal axis is actually the t-axis.” Move your cursor slightly to the right of the t-intercept. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS You Try It! If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 60 meters per second from a rooftop 12 meters above ground level.9t2 crosses the horizontal axis (in this case the t-axis) . 0 = 8 + 100t − 4. .9t2 into Y1 in the Y= menu of your calculator (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 5. then press ENTER in response to “Left bound. then press ENTER in response to “Right bound.9t2 In this example. Push the GRAPH button to produce the graph of the function shown in the third image in Figure 5.328 CHAPTER 5. Select 2:zero from the CALC menu.29: Finding the time when the projectile hits the ground. Figure 5.29. To ﬁnd the time that this happens. we need to ﬁnd where the graph of y = 8 + 100t − 4. then set the WINDOW parameters shown in the second image in Figure 5.28: Sketching the graph of y = 8 + 100t − 4. To ﬁnd the time when the projectile returns to ground level.9t2 . Use the arrow keys to move the cursor slightly to the left of the t-intercept. we’re actually setting bounds on the t-axis. substitute y = 0 in the last equation and solve for t. Figure 5. its height above ground will be zero meters. When the projectile returns to the ground.9t2 .28. at what time will the projectile return to ground level? EXAMPLE 4.28.

5. • Draw a dashed vertical line through the t-intercept.9t2 −100 20. y(m) 600 y = 8 + 100t − 4.30: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. it takes the projectile approximately t ≈ 20. Answer: ≈ 12. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 5.487852 25 t(s) Figure 5.30).30). • Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 5.9t2 (see Figure 5. This is the solution of the equation 0 = 8 + 100t − 4. Shade and label the t-value of the point where the dashed vertical line crosses the t-axis.30).3. APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS 329 • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with t and y.441734 seconds .30). Rounding to the nearest tenth of a second.5 seconds to hit the ground. Include the units (seconds (s) and meters (m)). respectively (see Figure 5.

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.289 2003 43.7t + 42904 Use the graph and then the polynomial to estimate the number of AIDS cases in the year 2001.8x + 6196 Use the graph and then the polynomial to estimate the ﬁrm’s revenue when the ﬁrm invested $10. x (advertising costs) R (revenue) 0 6347 5 6524 15 7591 20 8251 25 7623 30 7478 The data is plotted then ﬁtted with the following second degree polynomial. The table below lists the estimated number of aids cases in the United States for the years 19992003. A ﬁrm collects data on the amount it spends on advertising and the resulting revenue collected by the ﬁrm. R(x) = −4.171 6.000 7.500 8. Both pieces of data are in thousands of dollars.356 2000 41.14t2 − 1705.500 x (thousands of dollars) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2. Year AIDS Cases 1999 41. where x is the amount invested in thousands of dollars and R(x) is the amount of revenue earned by the ﬁrm (also in thousands of dollars).000 6.000 in advertising. where t is the number of years that have passed since 1998 and N (t) is the number of aids case reported t years after 1998. R (thousands of dollars) 8. .500 7.000 The data is plotted then ﬁtted with the following second degree polynomial. N (t) = 345.1x2 + 166.330 CHAPTER 5.267 2002 41.

000 44.1 1 99.5 78.5 84.000 42. The following table records the concentration (in milligrams per liter) of medication in a patient’s blood after indicated times have passed.35 Use the graph and then the polynomial to estimate the the concentration of medication in the patient’s blood 2 hours after taking the medication.3.31t + 9.000 40. C(t) = −56.8 1.5.6 The data is plotted then ﬁtted with the following second degree polynomial.000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 331 t (Years since 1998) 3.214t2 + 139. where t is the number of hours that have passed since taking the medication and C(t) is the concentration (in milligrams per liter) of the medication in the patient’s blood after t hours have passed.000 41.000 43. C (mg/L) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 t (Hours) . Time (Hours) Concentration (mg/L) 0 0 0. APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS N (Number of AID cases) 45.5 15.4 2.

8 meters per second per second (9.41 Use the graph and then the polynomial to estimate the the population of the United States in the year 1970.8 m/s2 ). If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 229 meters per second (229 m/s) from a rooftop 58 meters (58 m) above ground level.008597t2 + 1. P (millions of people) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 t (years since 1990) 5. at what time will the projectile ﬁrst reach a height of 6592 meters (6592 m)? Round your answer to the nearest second.3 1980 226. 1738t + 76.2 1920 106. where t is the number of years that have passed since 1990 and P (t) is the population (in millions) t years after 1990.8 m/s2 ). POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 4. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 457 meters per second (457 m/s) from a rooftop 75 meters (75 m) above ground level. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 236 meters per second (236 m/s) from a rooftop 15 meters (15 m) above ground level. 6.8 meters per second per second (9.332 CHAPTER 5. at what time will the projectile ﬁrst reach a height of 1838 meters (1838 m)? Round your answer to the nearest second.2 1960 179. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9. The following table records the population (in millions of people) of the United States for the given year. at what time will the projectile ﬁrst reach a height of 1374 meters (1374 m)? Round your answer to .0 1940 132.7 The data is plotted then ﬁtted with the following second degree polynomial.5 2000 281. 7. P (t) = 0.4 2010 307. Year Population (millions) 1900 76.

Approximately $7.5x 12. 15. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.8 meters per second per second (9.9 − 1. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9.5. In Exercises 9-12.8 meters per second per second (9. 17. 6.8 m/s2 ).8 meters per second per second (9. at what time will the projectile return to ground level? Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a second.25x − 4.8 meters per second per second (9.8 meters per second per second (9. 56.454. f (x) = 0. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 234 meters per second (234 m/s) from a rooftop 16 meters (16 m) 333 above ground level.4 13.8 m/s2 ). If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 484 meters per second (484 m/s) from a rooftop 17 meters (17 m) above ground level. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 203 meters per second (203 m/s) from a rooftop 52 meters (52 m) above ground level.6 seconds 7. Use the Calculator Submission Guidelines when reporting the zero found using your graphing calculator. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9. at what time will the projectile return to ground level? Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a second.3.8 m/s2 ).7 seconds 15.8 m/s2 ). 9. Zero: 2.7 seconds Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 9. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9.5x 11. at what time will the projectile ﬁrst reach a height of 1882 meters (1882 m)? Round your answer to the nearest second. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 276 meters per second (276 m/s) from a rooftop 52 meters (52 m) above ground level. f (x) = 3. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9.125 − 2. 16.75x + 2. then use the 2:zero utility on your graphing calculator to locate the zero of the function.8 m/s2 ). 8. 14. Zero: 1.6 13. If a projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 204 meters per second (204 m/s) from a rooftop 92 meters (92 m) above ground level. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9.875 10.8 m/s2 ).8 meters per second per second (9. Approximately 63 mg/L 5. f (x) = 3. at what time will the projectile return to ground level? Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a second.5 11. APPLICATIONS OF POLYNOMIALS the nearest second. 41. ﬁrst use an algebraic technique to ﬁnd the zero of the given function. Note: The acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface is 9. f (x) = 3.000 3.5 seconds . at what time will the projectile return to ground level? Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a second.

Solution: First. Simplify: (a2 + 3ab − b2 ) + (4a2 + 11ab − 9b2 ) Solution: Use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. Combine like terms. f (x) + g(x) = 4x2 − 15x + 7. Let’s try combining like terms mentally in the next example. Then combine like terms. You Try It! Given f (x) = 2x2 + 9x − 5 and g(x) = −x2 − 4x + 3. Let’s begin with an addition example. . POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 5. based on earlier work combining like terms in Ascending and Descending Powers on page 309. Be sure to surround each polynomial with parentheses. (a2 + 3ab − b2 ) + (4a2 + 11ab − 9b2 ) = (a2 + 4a2 ) + (3ab + 11ab) + (−b2 − 9b2 ) = 5a2 + 14ab − 10b2 Answer: 4s2 + 5st − t2 Let’s combine some polynomial functions. it is not necessary to write down all of the steps shown in Examples 1 and 2. = (3x2 + x2 ) + (−4x − 11x) + (−8 + 15) = 4x2 − 15x + 7 Answer: x2 + 5x − 2 Hence. If you are comfortable skipping a step or two.334 CHAPTER 5. replace f (x) and g(x) with their deﬁnitions. because we are asked to add all of f (x) to all of g(x).4 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials In this section we concentrate on adding and subtracting polynomial expressions. simplify f (x) + g(x). f (x) + g(x) = (3x2 − 4x − 8) + (x2 − 11x + 15) Now use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. Given f (x) = 3x2 − 4x − 8 and g(x) = x2 − 11x + 15. You Try It! Simplify: (3s2 − 2st + 4t2 )+ (s2 + 7st − 5t2 ) EXAMPLE 1. EXAMPLE 2. simplify f (x) + g(x).

eliminating the middle step. if we can combine like terms mentally. First recall that negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. That is. If a is any number.5. Simplify: (x3 − 2x2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3 ) + (2x3 − 4x2 y − 8xy 2 + 5y 3 ) Solution: If we use the associative and commutative property to reorder and regroup. it is much more eﬃcient to write: (x3 − 2x2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3 ) + (2x3 − 4x2 y − 8xy 2 + 5y 3 ) = 3x3 − 6x2 y − 5xy 2 + 6y 3 Answer: −3a2 b + 11ab − 4ab2 d Simplify: (−5a2 b + 4ab − 3ab2 )+ (2a2 b + 7ab − ab2 ) Negating a Polynomial Before attempting subtraction of polynomials. let’s ﬁrst address how to negate or “take the opposite” of a polynomial. . then −a = (−1)a. negating is identical to multiplying by −1. First. we get the following result. (x3 − 2x2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3 ) + (2x3 − 4x2 y − 8xy 2 + 5y 3 ) = (x3 + 2x3 ) + (−2x2 y − 4x2 y) + (3xy 2 − 8xy 2 ) + (y 3 + 5y 3 ) = 3x3 − 6x2 y − 5xy 2 + 6y 3 However. Negating. Then we can distribute the −1. then combine like terms. −(a + b) = (−1)(a + b) = (−1)a + (−1)b = −a + (−b) = −a − b Negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS 335 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. Subtraction means add the opposite.4. Simplify: (−1)a = −a and (−1)b = −b. We can use this property to simplify −(a + b). Distribute the −1.

we’re ready to subtract polynomials. So it is much more eﬃcient to write −(−3x2 + 4x − 8) = 3x2 − 4x + 8. Subtracting Polynomials Now that we know how to negate a polynomial (change the sign of each term of the polynomial). Negating a sum. Simplify: (−1)(−3x2 ) = 3x2 . and and (−1)(8) = −8. . Distribute the −1. You Try It! Simplify: −(2x2 − 3x + 9) EXAMPLE 4. (−1)(4x) = −4x. Answer: −2x2 + 3x − 9 simply changing the sign of each term inside the parentheses. negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. Subtraction means add the opposite. When negating a sum of terms. Alternate solution: As we saw above. − (−3x2 + 4x − 8) = (−1)(−3x2 + 4x − 8) = (−1)(−3x2 ) + (−1)(4x) − (−1)(8) = 3x + (−4x) − (−8) = 3x2 − 4x + 8 2 Negating is equivalent to multiplying by −1. it is probably simpler to note that the minus sign in front of the parentheses simply changed the sign of each term inside the parentheses. −(a + b) = −a − b.336 CHAPTER 5. the eﬀect of the minus sign is to change each term in the parentheses to the opposite sign. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Thus. a negative sign in front of a parentheses simply changes the sign of each term inside the parentheses. However. Simplify: −(−3x2 + 4x − 8) Solution: First. −(a + b) = −a − b Let’s look at this principle in the next example. Then distribute the −1.

Given p(x) = −5x3 + 6x − 9 and q(x) = 6x2 − 7x − 11. simplify f (x) − g(x). after distributing the minus sign. changing the sign of each term of the second polynomial.5. then regroup and combine like terms. (y 3 − 3y 2 z + 4yz 2 + z 3 ) − (2y 3 − 8y 2 z + 2yz 2 − 8z 3 ) = y 3 − 3y 2 z + 4yz 2 + z 3 − 2y 3 + 8y 2 z − 2yz 2 + 8z 3 Regroup. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. simplify p(x) − q(x). changing the sign of each term in the second polynomial. it is critical to surround each polynomial with parentheses. = −5x3 + 6x − 9 − 6x2 + 7x + 11 = −5x3 − 6x2 + (6x + 7x) + (−9 + 11) = −5x3 − 6x2 + 13x + 2 However. combining like terms. . distribute the minus sign. You may perform this next step mentally if you wish. Solution: First. replace p(x) and q(x) with their deﬁnitions. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS 337 You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. if we can combine like terms mentally. Simplify: (y 3 − 3y 2 z + 4yz 2 + z 3 ) − (2y 3 − 8y 2 z + 2yz 2 − 8z 3 ) Solution: First. = (y 3 − 2y 3 ) + (−3y 2 z + 8y 2 z) + (4yz 2 − 2yz 2 ) + (z 3 + 8z 3 ) = −y 3 + 5y 2 z + 2yz 2 + 9z 3 Answer: 2a2 b + 3ab − 2ab2 Simplify: (4a2 b + 2ab − 7ab2 )− (2a2 b − ab − 5ab2 ) Let’s subtract two polynomial functions. Because we are asked to subtract all of q(x) from all of p(x).4. eliminating the middle step. p(x) − q(x) = (−5x3 + 6x − 9) − (6x2 − 7x − 11) Distribute the minus sign. it is much more eﬃcient to write: p(x) − q(x) = (−5x3 + 6x − 9) − (6x2 − 7x − 11) = −5x3 + 6x − 9 − 6x2 + 7x + 11 = −5x3 − 6x2 + 13x + 2 Answer: 8x2 + 5x + 2 Given f (x) = 3x2 + 9x − 4 and g(x) = −5x2 + 4x − 6.

You Try It! Find the area of the square shown below by summing the area of its parts.32 by summing the area of its parts. x 3 x x A1 = x2 x A4 = 3x x Figure 5. Solution: Let’s separate each of the four pieces and label each with its area (see Figure 5. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Some Applications Recall that the area of a rectangle having length L and width W is found using the formula A = LW . 3 Figure 5. The two unshaded rectangles in Figure 5.33: Finding the area of each of the four parts. W A = LW A = s2 s L s Figure 5.31). The two shaded squares in Figure 5. The area of a square having side s is found using the formula A = s2 (see Figure 5.33 have areas A2 = 3x and A4 = 3x.32: Find the sum of the parts.338 CHAPTER 5.31: Area formulae for the rectangle and square.33). x 4 4 x x 3 3 3 A2 = 3x A3 = 9 3 EXAMPLE 7. A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 = x2 + 3x + 9 + 3x = x2 + 6x + 9 Answer: x2 + 8x + 16 .33 have areas A1 = x2 and A3 = 9. Summing these four areas gives us the area of the entire ﬁgure. respectively. Find the area of the square in Figure 5.

Figure 5.25x − 100 P (123) = 0. Next.25x − 100.4. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS 339 You Try It! EXAMPLE 8. Use your formula to determine Ginger’s proﬁt if she sells 123 wicker baskets.02x2 − 0. Find a formula for P (x). the proﬁt made from selling x wicker baskets.75x − 100 − 3x + 0.75x − (100 + 3x − 0. replace R(x) and C(x) with their deﬁnitions.34: Determining the proﬁt from selling 123 wicker baskets.02x2 ) Distribute the minus sign and combine like terms. The revenue she earns from selling x wicker baskets is given by the polynomial function R(x) = 2.25x − 100 Thus. Determine the proﬁt if 75 widgets are sold.25(123) − 100 You can now use your graphing calculator to determine the proﬁt (see Figure 5.650 . Her business costs for producing and selling x wicker baskets are given by the polynomial function C(x) = 100 + 3x − 0.02x2.02x2 = 0. Because we are supposed to subtract all of the cost from the revenue. P (x) = 2. to determine the proﬁt if 123 wicker baskets are sold. = 2.75x. In symbols: P (x) = R(x) − C(x) Next. be sure to surround the cost polynomial with parentheses.02(123)2 − 0.5.02x2 − 0. and the revenue for selling x widgets is given by the polynomial function R(x) = 3.34). Answer: $2.83. The costs for producing and selling x widgets are given by the polynomial function C(x) = 50 + 5x − 0.02x2 − 0. Hence. substitute 123 for x in the proﬁt function P (x). the proﬁt function is P (x) = 0.5x2 . P (x) = 0. the proﬁt made from selling 123 wicker baskets is $171. Solution: The proﬁt made from selling x wicker baskets is found by subtracting the costs incurred from the revenue received.5x. Ginger runs a business selling wicker baskets.

−(9r3 − 4r2 t − 3rt2 + 4t3 ) 12. simplify the given expression. −(−8x2 − 5) 11. f (x) = −x2 + 8x + 1 g(x) = −7x3 + 8x − 9 f (x) = −3x2 − 8x − 9 g(x) = 5x2 − 4x + 4 f (x) = −3x2 + x − 8 g(x) = 7x2 − 9 . −(−4u2 − 6uv + 5v 2 ) In Exercises 15-22. −(−5x2 + 9xy + 6y 2 ) 14. simplify the given expression. (−7r2 − 9rs − 2s2 ) − (−8r2 − 7rs + 9s2 ) 20. simplify the given expression by distributing the minus sign. −(7u3 − 8u2 v + 6uv 2 + 5v 3 ) 13. (−2r2 + 3rt − 4t2 ) + (7r2 + 4rt − 7t2 ) 7. f (x) = −8x3 + 6x − 9 g(x) = x3 − x2 + 3x 25. simplify f (x) + g(x). 1.340 CHAPTER 5. (2y 3 − 2y 2 z + 3z 3 ) − (−8y 3 + 5yz 2 − 3z 3 ) 18. 26. Arrange your answer in some sort of reasonable order. (−8r2 t + 7rt2 + 3t3 ) + (9r3 + 2rt2 + 4t3 ) 2. −(5x2 − 4) 10. (−b2 c + 8bc2 + 8c3 ) − (6b3 + b2 c − 4bc2 ) 17. (4a3 + 6ac2 + 5c3 ) − (2a3 + 8a2 c − 7ac2 ) 19. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 15. (−4a2 + 5ab − 2b2 ) − (−8a2 + 7ab + 2b2 ) 21. (−a3 − 8ac2 − 7c3 ) + (−7a3 − 8a2 c + 8ac2 ) 3. f (x) = −2x2 + 9x + 7 g(x) = 8x3 − 7x2 + 5 24. 9. (7y 2 z + 8yz 2 + 2z 3 ) + (8y 3 − 8y 2 z + 9yz 2) In Exercises 9-14. (10x2 + 2x − 6) − (−8x2 + 14x + 17) 22. (7x2 − 6x − 9) + (8x2 + 10x + 9) 4. (−5x2 + 19x − 5) − (−15x2 + 19x + 8) In Exercises 23-28. (−7x2 + 5x − 6) + (−10x2 − 1) 5. 23. (−u3 − 4u2 w + 7w3 ) − (u2 w + uw2 + 3w3 ) 16. Arrange your answer in some sort of reasonable order. 27. for the given polynomial functions f (x) and g(x). f (x) = 5x3 − 5x2 + 8x g(x) = 7x2 − 2x − 9 28. Arrange your answer in descending powers of x. (−8y 3 −3y 2 z −6z 3)+(−3y 3 +7y 2 z −9yz 2) 8. (−2r2 + 7rs + 4s2 ) + (−9r2 + 7rs − 2s2 ) 6.

x 5 5 7 36.45x. Eloise runs a small business selling baby cribs. The revenue she earns from selling x baby cribs is given by the polynomial function R(x) = 33. f (x) = 5x3 − 5x + 4 g(x) = −8x3 − 2x2 − 3x 31. Find a formula for P (x). simplify f (x) − g(x).45x. 33. f (x) = −6x3 − 7x + 7 g(x) = −3x3 − 3x2 − 8x 30. Use your formula to determine Eloise’s proﬁt if she sells 182 baby cribs. the proﬁt made from selling x baby cribs. ﬁnd the area of the given square by summing the areas of its four parts. Arrange your answer in descending powers of x. 38. 32. Rachel runs a small business selling wicker baskets. Round your answer to the nearest cent. for the given polynomial functions f (x) and g(x). f (x) = −7x2 + 12x + 17 g(x) = −10x2 − 17 f (x) = −3x3 − 4x + 2 g(x) = −4x3 − 7x2 + 6 f (x) = −9x2 + 9x + 3 g(x) = 7x3 + 7x2 + 5 In Exercises 35-36. the proﬁt made from selling x wicker baskets. 29. Find a formula for P (x).5. Round your answer to the nearest cent. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING POLYNOMIALS 341 In Exercises 29-34. Her business costs for producing and selling x wicker baskets are given by the polynomial function C(x) = 232 + 7x−0. Use your formula to determine Rachel’s proﬁt if she sells 233 wicker baskets.4.0055x2. f (x) = 12x2 − 5x + 4 g(x) = 8x2 − 16x − 7 34. x 7 x x 37. .0085x2 . Her business costs for producing and selling x baby cribs are given by the polynomial function C(x) = 122 + 8x − 0. 35. The revenue she earns from selling x wicker baskets is given by the polynomial function R(x) = 33.

4x2 + 11x + 11 33. −u − 5u w − uw + 4w 17.392. 10y 3 − 2y 2 z − 5yz 2 + 6z 3 19. 15x2 + 4x 5. 8x3 − 9x2 + 9x + 12 25. −5x2 + 4 11. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. r2 − 2rs − 11s2 . −11y 3 + 4y 2 z − 9yz 2 − 6z 3 9.31 15. −11r2 + 14rs + 2s2 7. x2 + 10x + 25 37. 5x − 9xy − 6y 3 2 2 2 2 3 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 21. $6. 18x2 − 12x − 23 23. 9r3 − 8r2 t + 9rt2 + 7t3 3. 5x3 + 2x2 + 6x − 9 27.342 CHAPTER 5. −9r3 + 4r2 t + 3rt2 − 4t3 13. 2x2 − 12x − 5 29. −3x3 + 3x2 + x + 7 31. x3 + 7x2 − 4x − 4 35.

35). then: an = a · a · a · · · · · a n times That is.5 Laws of Exponents In Chapter 1. LAWS OF EXPONENTS 343 5. we ﬁrst introduced the deﬁnition of an exponent.36). For convenience. If n = 0. we repeat that deﬁnition. to calculate a . Let a be any real number and let n be any whole number.5. the number a is called the base. write a as a factor n times. Exponents. Recall: Use the MATH key to locate the Frac command. In the case where a = 0.5. then we deﬁne: a0 = 1 n For example. (−2)5 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = −32 Raising a number to the fourth power requires that we repeat that number as a factor four times (see Figure 5. raising a number to the ﬁfth power requires that we repeat the number as a factor ﬁve times (see Figure 5. Figure 5.36: Evaluating 100 and 00 on the graphing calculator. . In the exponential expression an .35: Evaluating (−2)5 and (−1/2)4 . but n = 0. but 00 is undeﬁned (see Figure 5. − 1 2 4 = = − 1 16 1 2 − 1 2 − 1 2 − 1 2 As a ﬁnal example. Figure 5.35). section 1. while the number n is called the exponent. note that 100 = 1.

repeat the base and add the exponents. note that a1 = a. (a) y 4 · y 8 = y 4+8 = y 12 (b) 23 · 25 = 23+5 = 28 (c) (x + y)2 (x + y)7 = (x + y)2+7 = (x + y)9 Answer: 36 With a little practice. provided a = 0. and (x + y)2 (x + y)7 = (x + y)9 . First. then four x’s. Frequently. Repeat the base and add the exponents in your head: y 4 · y 8 = y 12 . the number a is called the base and the number n is called the exponent. Thus. However a little thought tells us that it is much quicker to simply add the exponents to reveal the total number of times x occurs as a factor. repeat the base and add the exponents.344 CHAPTER 5. a·a =a Or equivalently: a · a0 = a Now. which is permissable if a = 0. here is a nice argument. First. each of the examples can be simpliﬁed mentally. divide both sides by a. Multiplying With Like Bases. am · an = am+n On the right. such as x3 · x4 . we’ll be required to multiply two exponential expressions with like bases. for a total of seven x’s. To multiply two exponential expressions with like bases. so we can write: x3 · x4 = (x · x · x) · (x · x · x · x) = x·x·x·x·x·x·x = x7 Note that we are simply counting the number of times that x occurs as a factor. Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) y 4 · y 8 (b) 23 · 25 (c) (x + y)2 (x + y)7 Solution: In each example we have like bases. so: a·a =a ·a 0 1 0 In the expression an . Recall that the exponent tells us how many times to write each base as a factor. . a a · a0 = a a Simplify both sides: a0 = 1 0 1 You Try It! Simplify: 34 · 32 EXAMPLE 1. we have three x’s. x3 · x4 = x3+4 = x7 The preceding discussion is an example of the following general law of exponents. the approach will be the same for each example: repeat the base and add the exponents. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Multiplying With Like Bases For those who may be wondering why a0 = 1. 23 · 25 = 28 .

we repeat the base and add the exponents. we will also be frequently asked to divide exponential expressions with like bases. With practice. then we can multiply in the order we prefer. xn+3 · x3−2n = x(n+3)+(3−2n) =x 6−n Repeat the base. Repeat the common bases and add the exponents. Combine like terms. we realize that if all of the operators are multiplication. LAWS OF EXPONENTS 345 You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. so a . Answer: x3n+7 Dividing With Like Bases Like multiplication. then repeat the common bases and add the exponents. (a6 b4 )(a3 b2 ) = a6 b4 a3 b2 = a6 a3 b 4 b 2 = a9 b 6 The associative property allows us to regroup in the order we prefer. Again. the key is to remember that the exponent tells us how many times to write the base as a factor.5. However. so we can write: x·x·x·x·x·x·x x7 = x4 x · x · x · x· x·x·x·x·x·x·x = ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ x · x · x · x· ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ = x3 Note how we cancel four x’s in the numerator for four x’s in the denominator. Simplify: (a6 b4 )(a3 b2 ) Simplify: (x2 y 6 )(x4 y 3 ) Solution: We’ll use the commutative and associative properties to change the order of operation.5. Simplify. add the exponents. Answer: x6 y 9 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. such as x7 /x4 . The commutative property allows us to change the order of multiplication. Simplify: xn+3 · x3−2n Simplify: x5−n · x4n+2 Solution: Again. in a sense we are “subtracting four x’s” from the numerator. repeating the common bases and adding the exponents mentally: (a6 b4 )(a3 b2 ) = a9 b6 .

To divide two exponential expressions with like bases. In the ﬁrst line of the following solution. repeat the base and subtract the exponents. Thus. Start with: a1 =1 a1 Repeat the base and subtract the exponents. a0 = 1 faster way to proceed is to repeat the base and subtract the exponents. Given a = 0. provided a = 0. Repeat the base and subtract the exponents in your head: x12 /x3 = x9 . and (2x + 1)8 /(2x + 1)3 = (2x + 1)5 . the approach will be the same for each example: repeat the base and subtract the exponents. . Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) x12 x3 (b) 57 57 (c) (2x + 1)8 (2x + 1)3 Solution: In each example we have like bases.346 CHAPTER 5. Dividing With Like Bases. am = am−n an Note that the subtraction of the exponents follows the rule “top minus bottom. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Here is another nice argument why a0 = 1. (2x + 1)8 = (2x + 1)8−3 (2x + 1)3 = (2x + 1)5 (a) (b) (c) Answer: 42 You Try It! 15a6 b9 Simplify: 3ab5 EXAMPLE 5. Simplify: 12x5 y 7 4x3 y 2 Solution: We ﬁrst express the fraction as a product of three fractions. as follows: x7 = x7−4 x4 = x3 The preceding discussion is an example of the second general law of exponents. each of the examples can be simpliﬁed mentally.” You Try It! 45 Simplify: 3 4 EXAMPLE 4. x12 = x12−3 x3 = x9 57 = 57−7 57 = 50 =1 With a little practice. a1−1 = 1 Simplify. 57 /54 = 53 . the latter two with a common base.

add the exponents. a much faster way to add “three twos” is to multiply: 3 · 2 = 6. Then repeat the common bases and subtract the exponents. as follows: (x2 )3 = x2·3 = x6 The preceding discussion gives rise to the following third law of exponents.5. we repeat the base and subtract the exponents. Answer: x2n−8 Raising a Power to a Power Suppose we have an exponential expression raised to a second power. Simplify: x5n−4 = x(5n−4)−(3−2n) x3−2n = x5n−4−3+2n =x 7n−7 5n−4 Simplify: x3n−6 xn+2 Repeat the base. 12x5 y 7 12 x5 y 7 · = · 4x3 y 2 4 x3 y 2 = 3x5−3 y 7−2 = 3x2 y 5 Break into a product of three fractions. the product equals the original fraction on the left. Answer: 5a5 b4 You Try It! x x3−2n Solution: Again. However. LAWS OF EXPONENTS 347 note that if you multiply numerators and denominators of the three separate fractions. The second exponent tells us to write x2 as a factor three times: (x2 )3 = x2 · x2 · x2 = x6 Write x2 as a factor three times. Simplify. Distribute the minus sign. Repeat the base. EXAMPLE 6.5. Combine like terms. Thus. Note how we added 2 + 2 + 2 to get 6. Simplify: 12/4=3.” repeat the base and multiply the exponents. . such as (x2 )3 . subtract exponents. when raising a “power to a second power. Simplify.

348 CHAPTER 5. we repeat the base and multiply the exponents. In symbols: (am )n = amn Note that juxtaposing two variables. in each case. multiply exponents. each of the examples can be simpliﬁed mentally. repeat the base and multiply the exponents. as in mn. (a) (z 3 )5 = z 3·5 = z 15 (b) (73 )0 = 73·0 = 70 =1 (c) [(x − y)3 ]6 = (x − y)3·6 = (x − y)18 Answer: 212 With a little practice. means “m times n. Distribute the 4. (73 )4 = 712 . and [(x − y)3 ]6 = (x − y)18 . . Repeat the base and multiply the exponents in your head: (z 3 )5 = z 15 . Simplify: (x2n−3 )4 Solution: Again. we repeat the base and multiply the exponents. Hence.” You Try It! Simplify: (23 )4 EXAMPLE 7. Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) (z 3 )5 (b) (73 )0 (c) [(x − y)3 ]6 Solution: In each example we are raising a power to a power. (x2n−3 )4 = x4(2n−3) =x Answer: a6−3n 8n−12 Repeat the base. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Raising a Power to a Power. When raising a power to a power. You Try It! Simplify: (a2−n )3 EXAMPLE 8.

LAWS OF EXPONENTS 349 Raising a Product to a Power We frequently have need to raise a product to a power. Simplify each of the following expressions: (a) (yz)5 (b) (−2x)3 (c) (−3y)2 Simplify: (−2b)4 Solution: In each example we are raising a product to a power.5. in each case. Raise each factor to the indicated power in your head: (yz)5 = y 5 z 5 . The commutative property allows us to change the order as we please. you raise each factor to that power. . such as (xy)3 . so: (xy)3 = (xy)(xy)(xy) = xyxyxy = xxxyyy = x3 y 3 Write xy as a factor three times. (abc)3 = a3 b3 c3 . In general. (−2x)3 = −8x3 . Invoke the exponent deﬁnition: xxx = x3 and yyy = y 3 . it is easy to show that we should raise each factor to the indicated power. Raising a Product to a Power. each of the examples can be simpliﬁed mentally. When raising a product to a power. To raise a product to a power. and (−3y)2 = 9y 2 Answer: 16b4 When raising a product of three factors to a power. However. it is much simpler to note that when you raise a product to a power. For example. Again. Hence. raise each of the factors to the indicated power. remember the exponent is telling us to write xy as a factor three times. raise each factor to that power. In symbols: (xy)3 = x3 y 3 The preceding discussion leads us to a fourth law of exponents. The associative property allows us to group as we please. In symbols: (ab)n = an bn You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. (a) (yz)5 = y 5 z 5 (b) (−2x)3 = (−2)3 x3 = −8x3 (c) (−3y)2 = (−3)2 y 2 = 9y 2 With a little practice.5. we raise each factor to that power. this is true regardless of the number of factors.

= −12x7 y 3 Answer: −4a13 b14 Simplify: (4)(−3) = −12.350 CHAPTER 5. Raising a Quotient to a Power Raising a quotient to a power is similar to raising a product to a power. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS You Try It! Simplify: (−3xy 4 )5 EXAMPLE 10. Simplify: (−2a3 b2 )3 = (−2)3 (a3 )3 (b2 )3 = −8a b 9 6 (−2a3 b2 )3 Solution: Raise each factor to the third power. = (4x4 y 2 )(−3x3 y) Simplify: (−2)2 = 4 and (x2 )2 = x4 . raising a power to a power requires that we multiply the exponents. Simplify: (−2)3 = 8. Answer: −243x5 y 20 You Try It! Simplify: (−a3 b2 )3 (−2a2 b4 )2 EXAMPLE 11. and y 2 and y. x y 3 = x x x · · y y y x·x·x = y·y·y x3 = 3 y . In this case. Hence. then x4 and x3 . Simplify: (−2x2 y)2 (−3x3 y) Solution: In the ﬁrst grouped product. we’ll multiply 4 and −3. In the remaining factors. raise each factor to the second power. For example. Raise each factor to the third power. we repeat the base and add the exponents. raising (x/y)3 requires that we write x/y as a factor three times. Also. (−2x2 y)2 (−3x3 y) = ((−2)2 (x2 )2 y 2 )(−3x3 y) Raise each factor in the ﬁrst grouped product to the second power. The associative and commutative property allows us to multiply all six factors in the order that we please. then simplify. in that order. x4 x3 = x7 and y 2 y = y 3 .

5. then simplify. 2x5 y3 Solution: Raise both numerator and denominator to the second power. Hence. (a) 2 3 2 2 4 Simplify: 5 4 3 22 32 4 = 9 = (b) x 3 3 x3 33 x3 = 27 = (c) − 2 y 4 24 y4 16 = 4 y = Note that in example (c). Simplify each of the following expressions: x 3 2 2 (b) (a) (c) − 3 3 y Solution: In each example we are raising a quotient to a power. raising a negative base to an even power produces a positive result. Raise numerator and denominator to the indicated power in your head: (2/3)2 = 4/9. With a little practice. LAWS OF EXPONENTS 351 However. Given b = 0.5. To raise a quotient to a power. each of the examples can be simpliﬁed mentally. Simplify: 2x5 y3 2 2 Simplify: a4 3b2 3 = (2x5 )2 (y 3 )2 Raise numerator and denominator to the second power. a b n = an bn You Try It! EXAMPLE 12. Raising a Quotient to a Power. it is much simpler to realize that when you raise a quotient to a power. we raise both numerator and denominator to that power. raise both numerator and denominator to that power. . (x/3)3 = x3 /27. and (−2/y)4 = 16/y 4 Answer: 125 64 You Try It! EXAMPLE 13. in each case. In symbols: x y 3 = x3 y3 This leads to the ﬁfth and ﬁnal law of exponents. you raise both numerator and denominator to that power.

= a12 27b6 Answer: .352 CHAPTER 5. we need to raise each factor of the product to the second power. (x5 )2 = x10 . Then we need to remind ourselves that when we raise a power to a power. we multiply the exponents. and (y 3 )2 = y 6 . = 22 (x5 )2 (y 3 )2 4x10 y6 Raise each factor in the numerator to the second power Simplify: 22 = 4. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS In the numerator.

1. (−19)0 8. 23. simplify each of the given exponential expressions. 6. a9 · a15 17. x8 · x3 16. − − 4 3 2 3 2 2 0 7. (−9)2 3. 9. (8a + 7c)3 · (8a + 7c)19 11. 4n · 48n+3 14. 20. 34 · 30 12. LAWS OF EXPONENTS 353 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 4.5. 25. (7v − 6w)18 · (7v − 6w)17 10. simplify each of the given exponential expressions. simplify each of the given exponential expressions. 5 − 7 2 − 5 0 5. (−4)3 2. 21. 19. (4b + 7c)15 (4b + 7c)5 29n+5 23n−4 24k−9 23k−8 417 49 217 26 . 27. 210 · 23 In Exercises 19-28. 46m+5 · 4m−5 15. 28.5. 22. 25 · 23 18. 26. 416 416 312 312 w11 w7 c10 c8 (9a − 8c)15 (9a − 8c)8 24. (−17)0 In Exercises 9-18. 57 · 50 13.

(−2y)3 42. 3 5 c9 5 u12 2 52. (uw)5 40. . (4u − v)8 33. 50. (9b6n )3 In Exercises 49-56. (3w9 )4 44. simplify each of the given exponential expressions.354 CHAPTER 5. 2 51. 34 35. simplify each of the given exponential expressions. 29. (2x8 z 6 )4 47. 22m−9 7 3 7 34. v 2 t 9 − − 2 u 3 w 3 53. 48m−6 30. (−3x8 y 2 )4 46. 62 38. (9x + 5y)3 32. 39. 89 2 7 5 0 0 31. (−3u9 )4 45. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS In Exercises 29-38. c4 36. 56. 43 2 9 In Exercises 39-48. (ac)4 41. w9 37. 49. (−2b)3 43. (7s6n )3 48. 55. simplify each of the given exponential expressions. 2 r8 − 5 − x11 5 4 4 5 54.

u5 w5 41.5. The speciﬁc answers are: a8 . 34 13. 55. x11 17. 1 5. The general answers are: am+n . amn . 48 29. am bm . 343s18n 49. 456m−42 31. am an = ? am =? an (am )n = ? (ab)m = ? a m =? b a3 a5 = ? a6 =? a2 5 7 (a ) = ? (ab)9 = ? a 3 =? b ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. am /bm . a3 /b3 . 81x32 y 8 47.5. w 4 39. . 46 35. (9a − 8c)7 25. 26n+9 27. a35 . 1 9. then use the results to simplify the expressions to the right of the box. 28 19. 51. LAWS OF EXPONENTS 355 57. am−n . a4 . (9x + 5y)21 57. 49n+3 15. (7v − 6w)35 11. −8y 3 43. c28 37. −64 3. v3 8 4 u2 r32 625 625 c36 23. 1 ❧ ❧ ❧ 7. 81w36 45. Complete each of the laws of exponents presented in the following box. 53. 1 21. 16 9 Answers 33. a9 b9 .

Simplify: −5(7y). Multiply: −5(7y). Regroup. The Product of Monomials As long as all of the operations are multiplication. Simplify: (−2a2 b3 )(−5a3 b). and b3 b = b4 . Solution: Use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup.6 Multiplying Polynomials In this section we will ﬁnd the products of polynomial expressions and functions. Multiply: (−3x2 )(4x3 ). (−3x2 )(4x3 ) = [(−3)(4)](x2 x3 ) = −12x Answer: −14y 7 5 Reorder. You Try It! Multiply: (−6st2 )(3s3 t4 ) EXAMPLE 3. We start with the product of two monomials. x2 x3 = x5 .356 CHAPTER 5. Solution: Use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 5. Regroup. Solution: Use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. You Try It! Multiply: (7y 5 )(−2y 2 ) EXAMPLE 2. (−2a2 b3 )(−5a3 b) = [(−2)(−5)](a2 a3 )(b3 b) = 10a b Answer: −18s4t6 5 4 Reorder. Regroup. . −5(7y) = [(−5)(7)]y = −35y Answer: 12x Reorder. then graduate to the product of a monomial and polynomial. we can use the commutative and associative properties to change the order and regroup. You Try It! Multiply: 3(4x) EXAMPLE 1. Multiply: (−2a2 b3 )(−5a3 b). Multiply: (−5)(7) = −35. a2 a3 = a5 . Multiply: (−3)(4) = 12. Simplify: (−3x2 )(4x3 ). and complete the study by ﬁnding the product of any two polynomials. Multiply: (−2)(−5) = 10.

it is much more eﬃcient to make the required calculations mentally. 5(3x2 − 4x − 8) = 5(3x2 ) − 5(4x) − 5(8) = 15x2 − 20x − 40 Answer: −8y 2 + 12y + 20 Multiply: 4(−2y 2 + 3y + 5) You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. Then we multiply the resulting monomials mentally. 2y(−3y + 5) = 2y(−3y) + 2y(5) = −6y 2 + 10y Answer: −12x + 6x2 Multiply: −3x(4 − 2x) . Multiply: 2y(−3y + 5) Solution: We need to ﬁrst distribute the 2y times each term of the polynomial. then repeat the base x and add exponents to get (−3x2 )(4x3 ) = −12x5 . You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. multiply −5 and 7 mentally to get −5(7y) = −35y. Then we multiply the resulting monomials mentally. multiply −3 and 4 to get −12. Finally. In the case of Example 1.6. In the case of Example 2. (−2a2 b3 )(−5a3 b) = 10a5 b4 Multiplying a Monomial and a Polynomial Now we turn our attention to the product of a monomial and a polynomial. in the case of Example 3. multiply −2 and −5 to get 10.5. then repeat the bases and add their exponents. MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS 357 When multiplying monomials. Multiply: 5(3x2 − 4x − 8) Solution: We need to ﬁrst distribute the 5 times each term of the polynomial.

−2z 2 (z 3 + 4z 2 − 11) = −2z 2(z 3 ) + (−2z 2 )(4z 2 ) − (−2z 2 )(11) = −2z 5 + (−8z 4 ) − (−22z 2 ) = −2z 5 − 8z 4 + 22z 2 Alternate solution: It is far more eﬃcient to perform most of the steps of the product −2z 2 (z 3 + 4z 2 − 11) mentally. we immediately write: −3ab(a2 + 2ab − b2 ) = −3a3 b − 6a2 b2 + 3ab3 Answer: 2x3 y − 8x2 y 3 + 14x2 y You Try It! Multiply: −5y 3 (y 2 − 2y + 1) EXAMPLE 7. Thinking in this manner allows us to write down the answer without any of the steps shown in our ﬁrst solution. Here are our mental calculations: i) −3ab times a2 equals −3a3 b. Here are our mental calculations: . That is. We know we must multiply −3ab times each of the terms of the polynomial a2 + 2ab − b2 .358 CHAPTER 5. Multiply: −2z 2(z 3 + 4z 2 − 11) Solution: We need to ﬁrst distribute the −2z 2 times each term of the polynomial. We know we must multiply −2z 2 times each of the terms of the polynomial z 3 + 4z 2 − 11. Multiply: −3ab(a2 + 2ab − b2 ) Solution: We need to ﬁrst distribute the −3ab times each term of the polynomial. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS You Try It! Multiply: 2xy(x2 − 4xy 2 + 7x) EXAMPLE 6. ii) −3ab times 2ab equals −6a2 b2 . −3ab(a2 + 2ab − b2 ) = −3ab(a2 ) + (−3ab)(2ab) − (−3ab)(b2 ) = −3a3 b + (−6a2 b2 ) − (−3ab3 ) = −3a3 b − 6a2 b2 + 3ab3 Alternate solution: It is far more eﬃcient to perform most of the steps of the product −3ab(a2 + 2ab − b2 ) mentally. iii) −3ab times −b2 equals 3ab3 . Then we multiply the resulting monomials mentally. Then we multiply the resulting monomials mentally.

Answer: 15x2 + 23x + 4 Multiply: (3x + 4)(5x + 1) . where a is the binomial 3x + 2. we will multiply 3x + 2 times both terms of 2x + 5 in the following manner. You Try It! EXAMPLE 8. (2x + 5)(3x + 2) = 6x2 + 19x + 10. both sides equal 14. that is. That is. Multiply: (2x + 5)(3x + 2) Solution: Note that (2x + 5)(3x + 2) has the form (b + c)a. (2x + 5)(3x + 2) = 2x(3x + 2) + 5(3x + 2) Now we distribute monomials times polynomials. then combine like terms. but it can also appear on the right. = 6x2 + 4x + 15x + 10 = 6x2 + 19x + 10 Thus. MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS i) −2z 2 times z 3 equals −2z 5. Before we begin with the examples. whether the monomial appears on the left or right makes no diﬀerence. We know that 2 · (3 + 4) = 2 · 3 + 2 · 4. So. We’re used to having the monomial factor on the left. let’s revisit the distributive property.5. Both sides are equal to 14. In each case. you multiply a times both terms of b + c. (3 + 4) · 2 = 3 · 2 + 4 · 2 Again.6. we can apply what we’ve learned to multiply two arbitrary polynomials. we immediately write: −2z 2 (z 3 + 4z 2 − 11) = −2z 5 − 8z 4 + 22z 2 Answer: −5y 5 + 10y 4 − 5y 3 Multiplying Polynomials Now that we’ve learned how to take the product of two monomials or the product of a monomial and a polynomial. a(b + c) = ab + ac and (b + c)a = ba + ca give the same result. Because (b + c)a = ba + ca. iii) −2z 2 times −11 equals 22z 2. ii) −2z 2 times 4z 2 equals −8z 4 . 359 Thinking in this manner allows us to write down the answer without any of the steps shown in our ﬁrst solution.

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS You Try It! Multiply: (z + 4)(z 2 + 3z + 9) EXAMPLE 9. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = x3 + 2x2 + 7x + · · · The second set of three terms on the right are the result of multiplying 5 times x2 + 2x + 7. Speeding Things Up a Bit Let’s rexamine Example 9 with the hope of unearthing a pattern that will allow multiplication of polynomials to proceed more quickly with less work. where a is the trinomial x2 + 2x + 7. Multiply: (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) Solution: Note that (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) has the form (b + c)a. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = · · · + 5x2 + 10x + 35 These notes suggest an eﬃcient shortcut. then combine like terms. Note the ﬁrst step of Example 9. • multiply x times each term of x2 + 2x + 7. Similarly. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = x3 + 7x2 + 17x + 35. then • multiply 5 times each term of x2 + 2x + 7. . Because (b + c)a = ba + ca. = x3 + 2x2 + 7x + 5x2 + 10x + 35 = x3 + 7x2 + 17x + 35 Answer: z 3 + 7z 2 + 21z + 36 Thus. Next. let’s examine the result of the second step. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = x(x2 + 2x + 7) + 5(x2 + 2x + 7) Note that the ﬁrst product on the right is the result of taking the product of the ﬁrst term of x + 5 and x2 + 2x + 7. the second product on the right is the result of taking the product of the second term of x + 5 and x2 + 2x + 7.360 CHAPTER 5. • Combine like terms. To multiply x + 5 times x2 + 2x + 7. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = x(x2 + 2x + 7) + 5(x2 + 2x + 7) Now we distribute monomials times polynomials. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = x3 + 2x2 + 7x + 5x2 + 10x + 35 The ﬁrst three terms on the right are the result of multiplying x times x2 +2x+7. we will multiply x2 + 2x + 7 times both terms of x + 5 in the following manner.

Finally. then multiply −6 times each term of 3y 2 + 4y + 11. Solution: To simplify (a + b)2 . Use the shortcut technique to simplify (a + b)2 . multiply b times both terms of a + b. Use the shortcut technique to simplify (x2 + x + 1)(x2 − x − 1). we ﬁrst must write a + b as a factor two times. = a2 + ab + ba + b2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 Note that ab = ba because multiplication is commutative. Use the shortcut technique described above to simplify (2y − 6)(3y 2 + 4y + 11) Solution: Multiply 2y times each term of 3y 2 + 4y + 11.5. Answer: 9y 2 − 12y + 4 Multiply: (3y − 2)2 You Try It! EXAMPLE 12.6. multiply a times both terms of a + b. Multiply: (a2 − 2a + 3)(a2 + 2a − 3) . MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS This process would have the following appearance. (x + 5)(x2 + 2x + 7) = x3 + 2x2 + 7x + 5x2 + 10x + 35 = x3 + 7x2 + 17x + 35 361 You Try It! EXAMPLE 10. (2y − 6)(3y 2 + 4y + 11) = 6y 3 + 8y 2 + 22y − 18y 2 − 24y − 66 = 6y 3 − 10y 2 − 2y − 66 Answer: 12x3 + 5x2 + 28x + 20 Multiply: (3x + 2)(4x2 − x + 10) You Try It! EXAMPLE 11. combine like terms. then combine like terms. (a + b)2 = (a + b)(a + b) Next. so ab + ba = 2ab.

(x2 + x + 1)(x2 − x − 1) = x4 − x3 − x2 + x3 − x2 − x + x2 − x − 1 = x4 − x2 − 2x − 1 Answer: a4 − 4a2 + 12a − 9 Some Applications Recall that the area of a circle of radius r is found using the formula A = πr2 . x+1 x x+2 x Figure 5. You Try It! Two concentric circles are shown below.362 CHAPTER 5.38: Find the area of the shaded region. The inner circle has radius x and the outer circle has radius x + 2.37: Formulae for the area and circumference of a circle of radius r. then x times each term of x2 − x − 1. and 1. so we ﬁrst multiply x2 times each term of x2 − x − 1. Find the area of the shaded region as a function of x. The inner circle has radius x and the outer circle has radius x + 1. Find the area of the shaded region (called an annulus) as a function of x. .38 are pictured two concentric circles (same center). x2 .37). A = πr2 r C = 2πr Figure 5. In Figure 5. and 1 times each term of x2 − x − 1. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Solution: This time the ﬁrst factor contains three terms. Then we combine like terms. EXAMPLE 13. The circumference (distance around) of a circle of radius r is found using the formula C = 2πr (see Figure 5. x.

. we’ll expand (x + 1)2 . MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS 363 Solution: We can ﬁnd the area of the shaded region by subtracting the area of the inner circle from the area of the outer circle. we know that the number of units sold is the demand. R = (270 − 0.000. = π(x + 1)(x + 1) − πx2 = π(x2 + x + x + 1) − πx2 = π(x2 + 2x + 1) − πx2 Finally. you multiply the number of widgets sold (x) by the unit price (p).75p (5. Because the outer circle has radius x + 1. then combine like terms. it has area πx2 . Answer: 4πx + 4π You Try It! EXAMPLE 14.6 into equation 5. R = xp (5. it has area π(x + 1)2 . the area of the shaded region is A = 2πx + π.000.5.6) Substitute equation 5.5) However.6. Note how the demand decreases as the unit price goes up (makes sense). Use the graphing calculator to determine the unit price a retailer should charge for widgets so that his revenue from sales equals $20. where x is the demand and p is the unit price. A = Area of outer circle − Area of inner circle We use the formula A = πr2 to compute the area of each circle. then combine like terms.5p. The demand for widgets is a function of the unit price. where the demand is the number of widgets the public will buy and the unit price is the amount charged for a single widget. Use the graphing calculator to determine the unit price a retailer should charge for gadgets so that her revenue from sales equals $12. = π(x + 1)2 − πx2 Next. Because the inner circle has radius x. where x is the demand and p is the unit price.75p. given by the formula x = 270 − 0. distribute π times each term of x2 + 2x + 1.75p)p Suppose that the demand for gadgets is given by the function x = 320 − 1. = πx2 + 2πx + π − πx2 = 2πx + π Hence.5 to obtain the revenue as a function of the unit price. Suppose that the demand is given by the function x = 270 − 0. Solution: To determine the revenue (R).

After some experimentation. two ways we can set the unit price to obtain a revenue of $20.75p2 In this example. To ﬁnd the ﬁrst solution. Figure 5.40.” press ENTER in response to “Second curve. press ENTER in response to “First curve. respectively (see Figure 5. but freehand any curves. Substitute $20. that is. (5.39).40: Finding the points of intersection.39.75p2 . CHAPTER 5. Note that the third image in Figure 5.41).7) We’re asked to determine the unit price that brings in a revenue of $20.000. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 5. The result is shown in the second image in Figure 5.8) Enter each side of equation 5. 20000 = 270p − 0. Use a ruler to draw all lines.364 Expand.” then move your cursor closer to the point of intersection on the left and press ENTER in response to “Guess. .75p2 (5. the horizontal axis is actually the p-axis. So when we set Xmin and Xmax.” The result is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 5. we’re actually setting bounds on the p-axis. select 5:intersect from the CALC menu. Repeat the process to ﬁnd the second point of intersection.000 for R in equation 5.39. After making these settings.39: Solving 20000 = 270p − 0. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. we settled on the WINDOW parameters shown in the second image of Figure 5.39 shows that there are two solutions. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with p and R. push the GRAPH button to produce the graph shown in the third image in Figure 5. Figure 5.000.7. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS R = 270p − 0.8 into the Y= menu of your calculator (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 5.41).40. Include the units (dollars and dollars).

75p2 (see Figure 5.55 or $164.41).41: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. Rounding to the nearest penny.28122 255. MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS R(dollars) 30000 R = 20000 365 R = 270p − 0. Answer: $48.72 will bring in a revenue of $20.79 .41).28 or $255.5.75p2 0 0 104. Shade and label the p-values of the points where the dashed vertical lines cross the p-axis.000.71878 400 p(dollars) Figure 5. • Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 5.6. • Drop a dashed vertical line through each point of intersection. These are the solutions of the equation 20000 = 270p − 0. setting the unit price at either $104.

(3x + 8)(3x − 2) 26. use the technique demonstrated in Examples 8 and 9 to expand each of the following expressions using the distributive property. and 12 to expand each of the following expressions using the distributive property. use the shortcut technique demonstrated in Examples 10. 7(3a) 3. simplify the given expression. (−9y 3 )(3y 5 ) In Exercises 11-22. (3b + 4c)(−8b + 10c) 33. −4(10t2 − 7t − 6) 14. use the distributive property to expand the given expression. (−5b2 c9 )(−8b4 c4 ) 8. −5(−7u2 − 7u + 2) 15. 8u2 (9u3 − 5u2 − 2u + 5) 19. −8u2 (−7u3 − 8u2 − 2u + 10) 16. (x − 6)(−2x2 − 4x − 4) 30. −3(7r) 2. (−6x − 3y)(−6x + 9y) . (−6x + 8)(−x + 1) 27. 11. 31. 7uv(−9u2 − 3uv + 4v 2 ) 21. −2uw(10u2 − 7uw − 2w2 ) 22. 9(−4b2 + 7b − 8) 13. (4x − 10)(−2x − 6) 25. (8u − 9w)(8u − 9w) 32. (−8v 3 )(4v 4 ) 10. (−7r2 t4 )(7r5 t2 ) 6. −3s2 (−7s3 − 9s2 + 6s + 3) 17. (−10s2 t8 )(−7s4 t3 ) 7. −6vw(−5v 2 + 9vw + 5w2 ) In Exercises 23-30. (−9x − 4)(−3x + 2) 24. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-10.366 CHAPTER 5. 1. 23. (−9s2 t8 )(7s5 t4 ) 9. (8s3 )(−7s4 ) 5. (9r − 7t)(3r − 9t) 34. (5x − 10)(−3x2 + 7x − 8) In Exercises 31-50. 2st(−4s2 + 8st − 10t2 ) 20. (2x − 1)(−6x2 + 4x + 5) 28. 10s2 (−10s3 + 2s2 + 2s + 8) 18. 9(−2b2 + 2b + 9) 12. (−9b3 )(−8b6 ) 4. (4x − 6)(−7x2 − 10x + 10) 29. 11.

95p. (7b + 8c)2 46. Your ﬁnal answer must be presented as a second degree polynomial in the form A(x) = ax2 + bx + c. 53. the edge of the inner square. the edge of the inner square. (2b + 9c)2 367 47. What unit price should a retailer charge for widgets in order that his revenue from sales equals $7. The demand for widgets is given by the function x = 289 − 0. (9x − 2z)(4x2 − 4xz − 10z 2 ) 38.804 ? Round your answers to the nearest cent. (7v + 2w)(7v − 2w) 43. b) Given that the edge of the inner square is 5 inches. (4w2 + 3w + 5)(3w2 − 6w + 8) 50. In the image that follows. where x is the demand and p is the unit price.257 ? Round your answers to the nearest cent. (7u + 8v)(7u − 8v) 44. the edge of the outer square is 6 inches longer than 3 times the edge of the inner square. (3a2 − 9a + 4)(3a2 − 9a + 2) 49. use the polynomial in part (a) to determine the area of the shaded region. The demand for widgets is given by the function x = 320 − 0. 52. . MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS 35. (4r − 10s)(−10r2 + 10rs − 7s2 ) 36. b) Given that the edge of the inner square is 4 inches. use the polynomial in part (a) to determine the area of the shaded region. (4s2 + 3s + 8)(2s2 + 4s − 9) 51. (4x + 8z)2 41.91p. the edge of the outer square is 3 inches longer than 2 times the edge of the inner square. where x is the demand and p is the unit price. a) Express the area of the shaded region as a polynomial in terms of x.5. (9r + 3t)2 40. (4y + 5z)(4y − 5z) 42. (5s − 9t)(−3s2 + 4st − 9t2 ) 37. In the image that follows.6. x x a) Express the area of the shaded region as a polynomial in terms of x. (6b + 8c)(6b − 8c) 45. (2t2 + 9t + 4)(2t2 + 9t + 4) 48. What unit price should a retailer charge for widgets in order that his revenue from sales equals $7. Your ﬁnal answer must be presented as a second degree polynomial in the form A(x) = ax2 + bx + c. 54. (r − 4t)(7r2 + 4rt − 2t2 ) 39.

−49r7 t6 7. 35 a) Find the area of the interior rectangular garden as a polynomial in terms of x. 27x2 − 6x − 8 25. 36x3 − 44x2 z − 82xz 2 + 20z 3 39. −2x3 + 8x2 + 20x + 24 31. −40r3 + 140r2 s − 128rs2 + 70s3 37. 55. −21r 3. use the polynomial in part (a) to determine the area of the interior rectangular garden. x 29 x 24 31 a) Find the area of the interior rectangular garden as a polynomial in terms of x. −40t2 + 28t + 24 15. 40b6 c13 9. −32v 7 11. 9x2 + 18x − 16 27. Your ﬁnal answer must be presented as a second degree polynomial in the form A(x) = ax2 + bx + c. −12x3 + 14x2 + 6x − 5 29. The entire rectangular plot measures 31 by 29 feet. The entire rectangular plot measures 35 by 24 feet. 64u2 − 144uw + 81w2 33. −100s5 + 20s4 + 20s3 + 80s2 19. 72b9 5. b) Given that the width of the border is 9. 56u5 + 64u4 + 16u3 − 80u2 17. 81r2 + 54rt + 9t2 .3 feet. use the polynomial in part (a) to determine the area of the interior rectangular garden.368 CHAPTER 5. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. A rectangular garden is surrounded by a uniform border of lawn measuring x units wide. A rectangular garden is surrounded by a uniform border of lawn measuring x units wide. −20u3w + 14u2 w2 + 4uw3 23. b) Given that the width of the border is 1. −8s3 t + 16s2 t2 − 20st3 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 21. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 56.5 feet. 27r2 − 102rt + 63t2 35. Your ﬁnal answer must be presented as a second degree polynomial in the form A(x) = ax2 + bx + c. −18b2 + 18b + 81 13.

A(5) = 416 square inches 55. 12w4 − 15w3 + 29w2 − 6w + 40 51.5. $310.47. 49u2 − 64v 2 45. 899 − 120x + 4x2 . $26. MULTIPLYING POLYNOMIALS 41. 4t4 + 36t3 + 97t2 + 72t + 16 369 49. 16y 2 − 25z 2 43.37 53.96 square feet .6. 49b2 + 112bc + 64c2 47. 128. A(x) = 8x2 + 36x + 36.

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 5. then we multiply 3 times both terms of x + 6. If you multiply the terms in the “First” position. (x + 3)(x + 6) = x2 + 6x + 3x + 18 Normally we combine like terms.” “Outer. you get 18. (x + 3)(x + 6) L . you get x2 . If you multiply the terms in the “Last” positions. you get 6x. we multiply x times both terms of x + 6. These are extremely important patterns that will produce the same products computed in previous sections. • The arrows indicate the terms in the “First” positions in each binomial. you get 3x. If you multiply the terms in the “Inner” positions. (x + 3)(x + 6) I • The arrows indicate the terms in the “Last” positions in each binomial.” Let’s see how we can connect these terms to the product (x + 3)(x + 6). The FOIL Method Consider the product of two binomials (x + 3)(x + 6). We already know how to ﬁnd the product of these two binomials.370 CHAPTER 5. but we halt the process at this point so as to introduce the pattern called the FOIL method. (x + 3)(x + 6) F • The arrows indicate the terms in the “Outer” positions in each binomial. If you multiply the terms in the “Outer” positions. The letters in the word FOIL stand for “First.7 Special Products This section is dedicated to explaining a number of important shortcuts for multiplying binomials.” and “Last.” “Inner. It is essential that readers practice until they become proﬁcient using each of the patterns presented in this section. (x + 3)(x + 6) O • The arrows indicate the terms in the “Inner” positions in each binomial.

Use the FOIL method to simplify: (2x − 7)(x − 4) Solution: Multiply the “First” positions: 2x2 . F (x + 5)(x + 7) = x2 O I 7x + 5x + L 35 Answer: x2 + 13x + 22 Simplify: (x + 2)(x + 11) + Combining like terms. (2x − 7)(x − 4) = 2x(x − 4) − 7(x − 4) = 2x2 − 8x − 7x + 28 = 2x2 − 15x + 28 The FOIL method becomes a true shortcut when we add the “Outer” and “Inner” results in our head. . F (x + 3)(x + 6) = x2 O I 6x + 3x + L 18 + You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. (x + 5)(x + 7) = x2 + 12x + 35. the FOIL method doesn’t look like much of a shortcut.5.” “Outer. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Multiply the “Inner” positions: 5x. if we simply use the distributive property on the product of Example 2. After all. At ﬁrst glance.” and the answer.” “Inner. Multiply the “Inner” positions: −7x. F (2x − 7)(x − 4) = 2x2 O − 8x − I L 7x + 28 Answer: 4x2 + x − 5 Simplify: (x − 1)(4x + 5) Combining like terms. SPECIAL PRODUCTS 371 The following diagram shows the connection between “First. we get the same quick result. Multiply the “Outer” positions: −8x. Multiply the “Last” positions: 35. (2x − 7)(x − 4) = 2x2 − 15x + 28. Multiply the “Outer” positions: 7x. Use the FOIL method to simplify: (x + 5)(x + 7) Solution: Multiply the “First” positions: x2 .7. Multiply the “Last” positions: 28.” “Last.

Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions. Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions: −6 Answer: 14x − 17x − 6 2 Write the answer with no intermediate steps: (4y − 3)(5y + 2) = 20y 2 − 7y − 6. Multiply the terms in the “First” positions. Multiply the terms in the “First” positions: 6x2 2. To multiply two binomials. 2. follow these steps: 1. 1. Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and add the results mentally: −3x + 16x = 13x 3. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS FOIL Shortcut. You Try It! Simplify: (7x + 2)(2x − 3) EXAMPLE 4. . Multiply the terms in the “First” positions: 20y 2 2. Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and combine the results mentally (if they are like terms). Use the FOIL shortcut to simplify: (4y − 3)(5y + 2) Solution: Each of the following steps is performed mentally. Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and add the results mentally: 8y − 15y = −7y 3.372 CHAPTER 5. 3. Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions: −8 Answer: 10z − 17z + 3 2 Write the answer with no intermediate steps: (3x + 8)(2x − 1) = 6x2 + 13x − 8. Use the FOIL shortcut to simplify: (3x + 8)(2x − 1) Solution: Each of the following steps is performed mentally. 1. You Try It! Simplify: (2z − 3)(5z − 1) EXAMPLE 3.

This leads to the following shortcut. You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. SPECIAL PRODUCTS 373 The Diﬀerence of Squares We can use the FOIL shortcut to multiply (a + b)(a − b).5. 3. If you have identical terms in the “First” positions and identical terms in the “Last” positions. with one set separated with a plus sign and the other with a minus sign. Square the term in the “Last” position: (−3)2 = 9 3. For example. Use the diﬀerence of squares shortcut to simplify: (x + 3)(x − 3) Solution: Note how the terms in the “First” position are identical. then proceed as follows: 1. Simplify: (x + 5)(x − 5) .7. Note how the right-hand side a2 − b2 is the diﬀerence of two squares. as are the terms in the “Last” position. Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions: −b2 Thus. Square the term in the “First” position: x2 2. (a + b)(a − b) = a2 − b2 . with one set separated by a plus sign and the other with a minus sign. but one set is separated with a plus sign while the other is separated by a minus sign. 1. but (2y + 3)(2y − 5) is not. Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and add the results mentally: ab − ab = 0 3. Hence. this is the diﬀerence of squares pattern and we proceed as follows: 1. (x + 3)(x − 3) is an example of the diﬀerence of squares pattern. Place a minus sign between the results That is. then you do not have the diﬀerence of squares pattern and you must ﬁnd some other way to multiply. Square the “Last” term. 2. (a + b)(a − b) = a2 − b2 Note: If you don’t have identical terms in the “First” and “Last” positions. Multiply the terms in the “First” positions: a2 2. Separate the squares with a minus sign. Square the “First” term. The diﬀerence of squares.

with one set separated by a plus sign and the other with a minus sign. with one set separated by a plus sign and the other with a minus sign. That is: (8y + 7z)(8y − 7z) = (8y)2 − (7z)2 = 64y 2 − 49z 2 Note: You should practice this pattern until you can go straight from the problem statement to the answer without writing down any intermediate work. as are the terms in the “Last” position. Answer: x2 − 25 You Try It! Simplify: (3a − 6b)(3a + 6b) EXAMPLE 6. Use the diﬀerence of squares shortcut to simplify: (x3 − 5y 2 )(x3 + 5y 2 ) Solution: Note how the terms in the “First” position are identical. Separate the squares with a minus sign. Use the diﬀerence of squares shortcut to simplify: (8y + 7z)(8y − 7z) Solution: Note how the terms in the “First” position are identical. as are the terms in the “Last” position. Answer: 9a2 − 36b2 You Try It! Simplify: (2y 4 + z 3 )(2y 4 − z 3 ) EXAMPLE 7. this is the diﬀerence of squares pattern and we proceed as follows: . POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS (x + 3)(x − 3) = x2 − (3)2 = x2 − 9 Note: You should practice this pattern until you can go straight from the problem statement to the answer without writing down any intermediate work. as in (x + 3)(x − 3) = x2 − 9. Square the term in the “First” position: (8y)2 = 64y 2 2. Hence. as in (8y + 7z)(8y − 7z) = 64y 2 − 49z 2 . this is the diﬀerence of squares pattern and we proceed as follows: 1. Hence.374 That is: CHAPTER 5. Square the term in the “Last” position: (7z)2 = 49z 2 3.

SPECIAL PRODUCTS 1. Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions: b2 Hence. as in (x3 − 5y 2 )(x3 + 5y 2 ) = x6 − 25y 4 . Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and add the results mentally: ab + ab = 2ab 3. This leads us to the following shortcut for squaring a binomial. Substitute 3 for a and 4 for b.5. . Square the term in the “Last” position: (5y 2 )2 = 25y 4 3. Square the term in the “First” position: (x3 )2 = x6 2. we will ﬁrst share one of the most common mistakes made in algebra. We can now use the FOIL shortcut. Separate the squares with a minus sign. Warning! This is incorrect! One of the most common mistakes made in algebra is the assumption that: (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 The fact that this is incorrect is easily checked. (3 + 4)2 = 32 + 42 72 = 32 + 42 49 = 9 + 16 Clearly this is incorrect! So what is the correct answer? First. 1. (a + b)2 = (a + b)(a + b). That is: (x3 − 5y 2 )(x3 + 5y 2 ) = (x3 )2 − (5y 2 )2 = x6 − 25y 4 375 Note: You should practice this pattern until you can go straight from the problem statement to the answer without writing down any intermediate work. Answer: 4y 8 − z 6 Squaring a Binomial Before demonstrating the correct procedure for squaring a binomial. Multiply the terms in the “First” positions: a2 2.7. the correct answer is (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 .

Answer: x2 + 6x + 9 Comment. Unfortunately. Square the “Last” term: 52 = 25 Thus: (x + 5)2 = x2 + 2(x)(5) + (5)2 = x2 + 10x + 25 Note: You should practice this pattern until you can go straight from the problem statement to the answer without writing down any intermediate work. such as (a + b)2 . as this pattern is an important component of many procedures in future mathematics courses. as in (x + 5)2 = x2 + 10x + 25. Square the “First” term: a2 2. You Try It! Simplify: (2y + 3z)2 EXAMPLE 9. Students often refuse to learn the “squaring a binomial” shortcut. Multiply the “First” and “Last” terms and double the result: 2ab 3. Square the “Last” term: b2 That is: (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 You Try It! Simplify: (x + 3)2 EXAMPLE 8. To square a binomial. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Squaring a binomial. Use the squaring a binomial shortcut to expand: (3x + 7y)2 Solution: Follow these steps: . failure to learn the “squaring a binomial” shortcut will severely handicap students. Square the ﬁrst term: x2 2. Multiply the “First” and “Last” terms and double the result: 2(x)(5) = 10x 3.376 CHAPTER 5. noting that they can just as easily use the FOIL technique or a simple application of the distributive property to arrive at the same result. perform the following steps: 1. Use the squaring a binomial shortcut to expand: (x + 5)2 Solution: Follow these steps: 1.

Multiply the “First” and “Last” terms and double the result: 2(4a2 )(−5b3 ) = −40a2b3 3. as in (4a2 − 5b3 )2 = 16a4 − 40a2 b3 + 25b6 . Square the “Last” term: (7y)2 = 49y 2 Thus: (3x + 7y)2 = (3x)2 + 2(3x)(7y) + (7y)2 = 9x2 + 42xy + 49y 2 Note: You should practice this pattern until you can go straight from the problem statement to the answer without writing down any intermediate work.” You Try It! EXAMPLE 10. as in (3x + 7y)2 = 9x2 + 42xy + 49y 2 . Simplify: (3x4 − 5z 2 )2 Answer: 9x8 − 30x4 z 2 + 25z 4 Example 10 shows us that if we are squaring a diﬀerence. That is. the only diﬀerence between (a + b)2 and (a − b)2 is the sign of the middle term. Multiply the “First” and “Last” terms and double the result: 2(3x)(7y) = 42xy 3. SPECIAL PRODUCTS 1. we take care of the minus sign by “adding the opposite.7. Answer: 4y 2 + 12yz + 9z 2 In the next example.5. Square the ﬁrst term: (4a2 )2 = 16a4 2. Now follow these steps: 1. . Use the squaring a binomial shortcut to expand: (4a2 −5b3 )2 Solution: Add the opposite: (4a2 − 5b3 )2 = (4a2 + (−5b3 ))2 . the middle term will be minus. Square the “Last” term: (−5b3 )2 = 25b6 Thus: (4a2 − 5b3 )2 = (4a2 + (−5b3 ))2 = (4a2 )2 + 2(4a2 )(−5b3 ) + (−5b3 )2 = 16a4 − 40a2 b3 + 25b6 Note: You should practice this pattern until you can go straight from the problem statement to the answer without writing down any intermediate work. Square the ﬁrst term: (3x)2 = 9x2 377 2. when squaring a binomial with a minus sign.

42: Find the area of the square. we can simplify the process of ﬁnding the area of the outer square by squaring its side. (x3 − y 3 )2 = (x3 )2 − 2(x3 )(y 3 ) + (y 3 )2 = x6 − 2x3 y 3 + y 6 Answer: a4 − 6a2 b5 + 9b10 An Application In Example 7 on page 348. but all other terms are plus. we found the area of the outer square by summing the areas of its parts (see Figure 5.42). POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Squaring a binomial. That is: A = (x + 3)2 . Now that we have the squaring a binomial shortcut. multiply the “First” and “Last” terms and double the result. The shortcuts for squaring a binomial are: (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 You Try It! Simplify: (a2 − 3b5 )2 EXAMPLE 11. x 3 3 x Figure 5. Because of the minus sign. the middle term will be minus. Square the “First” term.378 CHAPTER 5. then square the “Last” term. Recall that the answer was A = x2 + 6x + 9. Use the squaring a binomial shortcut to expand: (x3 − y 3 )2 Solution: Use the pattern (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 .

7. = x2 + 2(x)(3) + (3)2 = x2 + 6x + 9 379 Note that this is the same as the answer found by summing the four parts of the square in Example 7. . SPECIAL PRODUCTS Now we can use the squaring the binomial technique to expand.5.

(11x − 2)(11x + 2) 30. (11a + 4c)(11a − 4c) . (5x + 2)(3x + 4) 2. 21. use the squaring a binomial shortcut as in Example 8 to expand the given expression. (5x + 2)(4x + 3) 3. (4x − 3)2 In Exercises 29-76. (6x − 2)(4x + 5) 5. (4x − 5)(6x + 3) 12. (9x − 8)2 24. (7x + 2)2 26. (6x + 4)(3x + 5) 10. (2x + 3)2 22. (6x − 3)(5x + 4) 4. (11u − 9w)2 33. use the FOIL shortcut as in Examples 3 and 4 to multiply the given binomials. (3r + 2t)(5r − 3t) 35. (6x + 9)(6x − 9) 16. (10x − 12)(10x + 12) 14. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-12. (10x − 11)(10x + 11) 15. (3u + 5v)(3u − 5v) 36. (6x − 2)(3x − 5) 8. (4x + 2)2 27. use the diﬀerence of squares shortcut as in Example 5 to multiply the given binomials. (6x − 5)2 28. (4x − 5)2 25. use the approrpiate shortcut to multiply the given binomials. (6x − 4)(3x − 2) 7. (3x + 2)(4x + 6) 11. (9x + 2)(9x − 2) 17. (5b + 6c)(3b − 2c) 34. (4x − 6)(4x + 6) In Exercises 21-28. (5x − 6)(3x − 4) 6. (12x + 12)(12x − 12) 19. 1. (2x − 3)(6x − 4) 9. (3x + 10)(3x − 10) 18. (6x − 7)(6x + 7) 31. 13.380 CHAPTER 5. (8x + 9)2 23. 29. (3x − 5)(2x + 6) In Exercises 13-20. (10x − 9)(10x + 9) 20. (7r − 5t)2 32.

compute the area of the square using two methods. SPECIAL PRODUCTS 37. (4r + 3t)(4r − 3t) 60. (10r − 11t)(10r + 11t) 43. (4y + 3z)2 70. (3v + 6w)(2v + 4w) 67. (10x − 10)(10x + 10) 46. (4b − 5c)2 73. (7u − 2v)2 72. (3x − 4)(2x + 5) 64.5. (3b − 2c)(4b + 5c) 51.7. (5r + 6t)2 62. (12x − 7y)(12x + 7y) 41. (7x − 9y)(7x + 9y) 42. (6r − 5t)(2r + 3t) 45. (4u − 4v)(2u − 6v) 56. i) Find the area by summing the areas of its parts (see Example 7 on page 348). (9s − 4t)(9s + 4t) 40. (6x − 5)(3x + 2) 55. (11b + 3c)2 71. ii) Find the area by squaring the side of the square using the squaring a binomial shortcut. (6a − 6b)(2a + 3b) 44. (3r + 4s)(3r − 4s) 61. (2x5 + 5y 2 )2 59. (8r4 + 7t5 )2 58. x 13 x x . (12v + 5w)2 63. (6b + 4c)(2b + 3c) 66. (4u − 5w)(5u − 6w) For each of the following ﬁgure. (9r5 + 7t2 )(9r5 − 7t2 ) 39. (5b − 4c)(3b + 2c) 50. (5y + 3z)(4y + 2z) 75. (11x + 10z ) 3 5 2 381 57. (11r5 + 9t2 )2 54. x 10 10 13 78. (4y − 4z)(5y − 3z) 53. (3v + 2w)(5v + 6w) 74. (4a + 2b)(6a − 3b) 48. (11u2 + 8w3 )(11u2 − 8w3 ) 68. (3u3 + 11w4 )(3u3 − 11w4 ) 69. (9b3 + 10c5 )(9b3 − 10c5 ) 38. 77. (5x − 3)(6x + 2) 76. (4b − 6c)(6b − 2c) 52. (3b + 6c)(2b − 4c) 49. (12x − 8)(12x + 8) 47. (5x − 6)(4x + 2) 65.

30x2 + 9x − 12 5. the measure of the side of each square cut from the four corner of the original piece of cardboard. each having a side of x inches. 9x2 − 100 19. Four squares. The sides are then folded up along the dashed lines to form a box with no top. the measure of the side of each square cut from the four corner of the original piece of cardboard. 24x2 − 18x − 15 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 13. 80. 81x2 − 144x + 64 . x x x x x ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Consider again the box formed in Exercise 79. 18x2 − 36x + 10 9. b) Use the resulting polynomial to determine the surface area of the box if squares of length 1. Multiply to place your answer in standard polynomial form. 100x2 − 81 21. 4x2 + 12x + 9 23. x x 12 x x 12 a) Find the volume of the box as a function of x. 15x2 − 38x + 24 7. A square piece of cardboard measures 12 inches on each side. simplifying your answer as much as possible.25 inches are cut from each corner of the original piece of cardboard. 100x2 − 144 15. Round your answer to the nearest square inch. Multiply to place your answer in standard polynomial form. 36x2 − 81 17. 18x2 + 42x + 20 11. 15x2 + 26x + 8 3. b) Use the resulting polynomial to determine the volume of the box if squares of length 1.382 CHAPTER 5. POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 79.25 inches are cut from each corner of the original piece of cardboard. Round your answer to the nearest cubic inch. a) Find the surface area of the box as a function of x. simplifying your answer as much as possible. are cut and removed from each of the four corners of the square piece of cardboard.

81b − 100c 39. 36x2 − 60x + 25 29. 49u2 − 28uv + 4v 2 73. SPECIAL PRODUCTS 25. 81s − 16t 2 2 41. 12b2 + 26bc + 12c2 67. 121x2 − 4 31. a) V (x) = 144x − 48x2 + 4x3 b) V (1. 30x2 − 8x − 6 77. 24a2 − 6b2 49. 49r2 − 70rt + 25t2 33. 15v 2 + 28vw + 12w2 75. 12a2 + 6ab − 18b2 45. 6x2 + 7x − 20 65. 121u4 − 64w6 69. 16r2 − 9t2 61. 49x2 + 28x + 4 27. A = x2 + 20x + 100 79. 16y 2 + 24yz + 9z 2 71. 64r8 + 112r4 t5 + 49t10 59. 24b2 − 44bc + 12c2 53. 9u − 25v 6 2 2 10 383 55.7.5. 49x2 − 81y 2 43. 25r2 + 60rt + 36t2 63. 8u2 − 32uv + 24v 2 57. 15b2 + 8bc − 12c2 35.25) ≈ 113 cubic inches 37. 15b2 − 2bc − 8c2 51. 100x2 − 100 47. 121r10 + 198r5 t2 + 81t4 .

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Chapter 6 Factoring The ancient Babylonians left the earliest evidence of the use of quadratic equations on clay tablets dating back to 1800 BC. they knew it was possible to store nine times more bales of hay in a square loft if the side of the loft was tripled in length.” the Latin word for “square. they did not know how to calculate the length of the side of a square starting from a given area.” In this chapter. we will learn how to solve certain quadratic equations by factoring polynomials. For example. However. The word “quadratic” comes from “quadratus. They understood how the area of a square changes with the length of its side. 385 .

You Try It! List the positive divisors of 18. note that 2 is also a divisor of 24. 4. 2. 8. List the positive divisors (factors) that 36 and 48 have in Solution: First. 12 is also a divisor of 24. Factors and divisors. the common positive divisors (factors) of 36 and 48 are 1. and 18 or 24 = 2 · 12 or 24 = 3 · 8 or 24 = 4 · 6 Therefore. 48 Answer: 1. with a remainder of zero. 6. 3. 6 . 2. You Try It! List the positive divisors that 40 and 60 have in common. 6 . 24. 18. the positive divisors (factors) of 24 are 1. 4 . 4. 10. 2 . 12 . 3. both 2 and 12 are factors of 24. List the positive divisors (factors) of 24. 3 . 8. and 24. Then m is a divisor (factor ) of n if and only if there exists another integer k so that n = m · k. list all positive divisors (factors) of 36 and 48 separately. 9. EXAMPLE 2. then box the divisors that are in common. The words divisor and factor are equivalent. 2 . 9. However. 6. . 16. They have the same meaning. list all possible ways that we can express 24 as a product of two positive integers: 24 = 1 · 24 Answer: 1. Suppose m and n are integers. 4. EXAMPLE 1. 6. 12 . 3. because when you divide 24 by 2 you get 12. FACTORING 6. Because 24 = 2 · 12. and 20 Therefore. 5. because when you divide 24 by 12 you get 2. and 12. with a remainder of zero. 2. Divisors of 36 are: 1 . 3 . common.386 CHAPTER 6. 2. 4 . Solution: First.1 The Greatest Common Factor We begin this section with deﬁnitions of factors and divisors. 36 Divisors of 48 are: 1 . Similarly.

GCD(30. written GCD(36. it is usually easy to identify the greatest common divisor (factor). we listed the common positive divisors of 36 and 48. greatest common divisor and greatest common factor have the same meaning. Hence. With larger numbers. 48) = 12. b) The largest positive integer that divides evenly into both 30 and 40 is 10. GCD(16.6. b) to represents the greatest common factor of a and b. The largest of these common divisors was 12. Thus. Find the greatest common divisor of 120 and 450.1. GCD(18. 40) = 10. 24) = 6. THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR 387 Greatest common divisor. Answer: 12 State the greatest common divisor of 36 and 60. prime factorization will save the day! You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. We will also use the abbreviation GCF(a. the greatest common divisor (factor) of 36 and 48 is 12. Find the greatest common divisor (factor) of 360 and 756. Solution: Prime factor 360 and 756. Solution: In each case. 24) = 8. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. a) The largest positive integer that divides evenly into both 18 and 24 is 6. writing your answer in exponential form. b). However. it is harder to identify the greatest common divisor (factor). Remember. The greatest common divisor (factor) of a and b is the largest positive number that divides evenly (no remainder) both a and b. (b) 30 and 40. State the greatest common divisor (factor) of each of the following pairs of numbers: (a) 18 and 24. Thus. . Thus. The greatest common divisor of a and b is denoted by the symbolism GCD(a. In Example 2. we must ﬁnd the largest possible positive integer that divides evenly into both the given numbers. and (c) 16 and 24. c) The largest positive integer that divides evenly into both 16 and 24 is 8. With smaller numbers.

FACTORING 756 84 3 7 3 2 12 4 2 Thus: 360 = 23 · 32 · 5 756 = 22 · 33 · 7 To ﬁnd the greatest common divisor (factor). To ﬁnd the greatest common factor of two or more monomials. In this case. Finding the GCF of two or more monomials. note how the second second factors (10 and 21) contain no additional common factors. the greatest common divisor (factor) is GCD(360. the factors 2 and 3 appear in common. the greatest common divisor of 360 and 756 is: GCD(360. 756) = 36. Note what happens when we write each of the given numbers as a product of the greatest common factor and a second factor: 360 = 36 · 10 756 = 36 · 21 Answer: 30 In each case. Finding the Greatest Common Factor of Monomials Example 4 reveals the technique used to ﬁnd the greatest common factor of two or more monomials. list each factor that appears in common to the highest power that appears in common. Therefore. with 22 being the highest power of 2 and 32 being the highest power of 3 that appear in common. proceed as follows: . 756) = 22 · 32 =4·9 = 36 Therefore.388 360 36 4 2 2 3 9 3 2 10 5 3 9 CHAPTER 6.

and 30x2 . Thus. Find the greatest common factor of 6y 3 . You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. and 30 is 6. the greatest common factor is GCF(6x3 y 3 . 2.1. Answer: 4xy 2 Find the greatest common factor of 16xy 3 and 12x4 y 2 . List each variable that appears in common in the given monomials. we note that: 1. and 30x2 have the variable x in common. and 9y 5 . and 30x2 .6. 18. Solution: To ﬁnd the GCF of 12x4 . 15y 2 . You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. Solution: To ﬁnd the GCF of 6x3 y 3 and 9x2 y 5 . THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR 389 1. Find the greatest common factor (divisor) of the coeﬃcients of the given monomials. 2. Use prime factorization if necessary. Find the greatest common factor of 6x3 y 3 and 9x2 y 5 . The greatest common factor (divisor) of 12. The monomials 12x4 . 3. The highest power of x in common is x2 . 18x3 . 2. 3. 9x2 y 5 ) = 3x2 y 3 . The highest power of y in common is y 3 . . The greatest common factor (divisor) of 6 and 9 is 3. The monomials 6x3 y 3 and 9x2 y 5 have the variables x and y in common. The highest power of x in common is x2 . we note that: 1. Note what happens when we write each of the given monomials as a product of the greatest common factor and a second monomial: 6x3 y 3 = 3x2 y 3 · 2x 9x2 y 5 = 3x2 y 3 · 3y Observe that the set of second monomial factors (2x and 3y) contain no additional common factors. 18x3 . 18x3 . Find the greatest common factor of 12x4 . Raise each variable that appears in common to the highest power that appears in common among the given monomials. 3.

If the terms of the given polynomial have a greatest common factor (GCF). We then use the distributive property to factor out 2x from each term of the polynomial.” You are given the product. Factor Out the GCF In Chapter 5. the greatest common factor of 6x3 . then factor out the GCF.390 CHAPTER 6. First rule of factoring. 2x(3x2 + 4x − 7) = 2x · 3x2 + 2x · 4x − 2x · 7 = 6x3 + 8x2 − 14x In this section we reverse that multiplication process. Note what happens when we write each of the given monomials as a product of the greatest common factor and a second monomial: 12x4 = 6x2 · 2x2 18x3 = 6x2 · 3x 30x2 = 6x2 · 5 Answer: 3y 2 Observe that the set of second monomial factors (2x2 . and 5) contain no additional common factors. We present you with the ﬁnal product and ask you to bring back the original multiplication problem. 3x. we multiplied a monomial and polynomial by distributing the monomial times each term in the polynomial. You Try It! Factor: 9y 2 − 15y + 12 EXAMPLE 7. Let’s look at a few examples that factor out the GCF. Factoring is “unmultiplying. FACTORING Thus. then asked to ﬁnd the original multiplication problem. and 14x is 2x. 8x2 . 6x3 + 8x2 − 14x = 2x · 3x2 + 2x · 4x − 2x · 7 = 2x(3x2 + 4x − 7) Factoring. 18x3 . In the case 6x3 + 8x2 − 14x. Factor: 6x2 + 10x + 14 . 30x2 ) = 6x2 . the greatest common factor is GCF(12x4 .

Factor out the GCF. 24a b and 12ab is 12ab. 6x2 + 10x + 14 = 2 · 3x2 + 2 · 5x + 2 · 7 = 2(3x2 + 5x + 7) Checking your work. Factor out the GCF. 10x and 14 is 2.1. Distribute the 2. remultiply to check your work. 12a3 b + 24a2 b2 + 12ab3 = 12ab · a2 − 12ab · 2ab + 12ab · b2 = 12ab(a2 + 2ab + b2 ) 3 2 2 3 Factor: 15s2 t4 + 6s3 t2 + 9s2 t2 . Distribute the monomial 4y 2 . 2(3x2 + 5x + 7) = 2 · 3x2 + 2 · 5x + 2 · 7 = 6x2 + 10x + 14 That’s the original polynomial. We have factored correctly. Answer: 3(3y 2 − 5y + 4) You Try It! EXAMPLE 8. 4y 2 (3y 3 − 8y 2 + 2) = 4y 2 · 3y 3 − 4y 2 · 8y 2 + 4y 2 · 2 = 12y 5 − 32y 4 + 8y 2 That’s the original polynomial.6. Factor: 12y 5 − 32y 4 + 8y 2 Solution: The greatest common factor (GCF) of 12y 5 . Answer: 4x3 (2x3 + 5x − 6) Factor: 8x6 + 20x4 − 24x3 You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. 12y 5 − 32y 4 + 8y 2 = 4y 2 · 3y 3 − 4y 2 · 8y 2 + 4y 2 · 2 = 4y 2 (3y 3 − 8y 2 + 2) Check: Multiply. THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR 391 Solution: The greatest common factor (GCF) of 6x2 . so we factored correctly. Check: Multiply. 32y 4 and 8y 2 is 4y 2 . Factor out the GCF. Factor: 12a3 b + 24a2 b2 + 12ab3 Solution: The greatest common factor (GCF) of 12a b. Every time you factor a polynomial.

We have factored correctly. For example. Factor each of the following polynomials: (a) 24x + 32. 12ab(a2 + 2ab + b2 ) = 12ab · a2 − 12ab · 2ab + 12ab · b2 = 12a3 b + 24a2 b2 + 12ab3 Answer: 3s2 t2 (5t2 + 2s + 3) That’s the original polynomial. 8. mentally distribute 2x2 y times each term of x2 + xy − 3y 2 . and (c) 2x4 y + 2x3 y 2 − 6x2 y 3 . 24x + 32 = 8(3x + 4) b) The GCF of 5x3 . the ﬁrst term in the original polynomial. Multiplying 2x2 y times the ﬁrst term x2 produces 2x4 y. 2x3 y 2 . and 6x2 y 3 is 2x2 y. Speeding Things Up a Bit Eventually. after showing your work on a number of examples such as those in Examples 7. Thus. (b) 5x3 − 10x2 − 10x. Answer: 6p3 q 4 (3p2 − 5pq + 7q 2 ) Remember that the distributive property allows us to pull the GCF out in front of the expression or to pull it out in back. 10x2 . Distribute the monomial 12ab. In symbols: ab + ac = a(b + c) or ba + ca = (b + c)a . and 9. Thus: 2x4 y + 2x3 y 2 − 6x2 y 3 = 2x2 y(x2 + xy − 3y 2 ) As you speed things up by mentally factoring out the GCF. 2x2 y (x2 + xy − 3y 2 ) = 2x4 y + 2x3 y 2 − 6x2 y 3 Continue in this manner. and 10x is 5x. factor out the greatest common factor (GCF): a) The GCF of 24x and 32 is 8. Thus: 5x3 − 10x2 − 10x = 5x(x2 − 2x − 2) c) The GCF of 2x4 y. The check can also be done mentally. mentally checking the product of 2x2 y with each term of x2 + xy − 3y 2 . FACTORING Check: Multiply. making sure that each result agrees with the corresponding term of the original polynomial. Solution: In each case. in checking the third result.392 CHAPTER 6. it is even more important that you check your results. You Try It! Factor: 18p5 q 4 − 30p4 q 5 + 42p3 q 6 EXAMPLE 10. you’ll need to learn how to perform the process mentally.

but because of the commutative property of multiplication. THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR 393 You Try It! EXAMPLE 11.6. factoring out 3 from both 15a and 12. factoring out only the common factor a + b. 15a(a + b) − 12(a + b) = 3(a + b) · 5a − 3(a + b) · 4 = 3(a + b)(5a − 4) Alternate solution: It is possible that you might fail to notice that 15 and 12 are divisible by 3. 2x(3x + 2) + 5(3x + 2) = 2x · (3x + 2) + 5 · (3x + 2) = (2x + 5)(3x + 2) Because of the commutative property of multiplication. the order does not matter. 15a(a + b) − 12(a + b) = 15a · (a + b) − 12 · (a + b) = (15a − 12)(a + b) However.1. the greatest common factor (GCF) is 3x + 2. The answers are the same. Factor: 3x2 (4x − 7) + 8(4x − 7) Answer: (3x2 + 8)(4x − 7) You Try It! EXAMPLE 12. = 3(5a − 4)(a + b) Note that the order of factors diﬀers from the ﬁrst solution. you now need to notice that you can continue. the order does not matter. 2x(3x + 2) + 5(3x + 2) = (3x + 2) · 2x + (3x + 2) · 5 = (3x + 2)(2x + 5) Note that the order of factors diﬀers from the ﬁrst solution. Factor: 2x(3x + 2) + 5(3x + 2) Solution: In this case. Factor: 15a(a + b) − 12(a + b) Solution: In this case. The answers are the same. Factor: 24m(m − 2n) + 20(m − 2n) Answer: 4(6m + 5)(m − 2n) . but because of the commutative property of multiplication. the greatest common factor (GCF) is 3(a + b). it is equally valid to pull the GCF out in front.

The technique for factoring a four-term expression is called factoring by grouping.394 CHAPTER 6. this time factoring a −7 out of the third and fourth terms. Let’s try again. x2 + 4x − 7x − 28 = x (x + 4) + 7 (−x − 4) This does not lead to a common factor. = (x − 7)(x + 4) Answer: (x − 4)(x − 5) . You Try It! Factor by grouping: x2 − 6x + 2x − 12 EXAMPLE 13. x2 + 4x − 7x − 28 = x (x + 4) − 7 (x + 4) That worked! We now factor out a common factor x + 4. = (x + 3)(x + 8) Answer: (x + 2)(x − 6) Let’s try a grouping that contains some negative signs. noting that we can factor 3 out of both of these terms. Then we “group” the third and fourth terms. You Try It! Factor by grouping: x2 − 5x − 4x + 20 EXAMPLE 14. Then we “group” the third and fourth terms. Factor by grouping: x2 + 8x + 3x + 24 Solution: We “group” the ﬁrst and second terms. noting that we can factor an x out of both of these terms. Factor by grouping: x2 + 4x − 7x − 28 Solution: We “group” the ﬁrst and second terms. then try to factor a 7 out of both these terms. x2 + 8x + 3x + 24 = x (x + 8) + 3 (x + 8) Now we can factor x + 8 out of both of these terms. FACTORING Factoring by Grouping The ﬁnal factoring skill in this section involves four-term expressions. noting that we can factor x out of both of these terms.

only this time we’ll factor 15 out of the second two terms. and now we see can factor out an additional 3. note that we can still factor out a 3 from 9x − 12. 24x2 − 32x − 45x + 60 = 8x (3x − 4) − 5 (9x − 12) That did not work. 395 You Try It! EXAMPLE 15. = (8x − 15)(3x − 4) Answer: (12x + 5)(3x − 7) Factor by grouping: 36x2 − 84x + 15x − 35 . as we don’t have a common factor to complete the factoring process. you need to factor out the GCF from each grouping. You Try It! EXAMPLE 16.6. If not. 24x2 − 32x − 45x + 60 = 8x (3x − 4) − 15 (3x − 4) Beautiful! We can now factor out 3x − 4. As we’ve already factored out a 5. Factor by grouping: 6x2 − 8x + 9x − 12 Solution: Note that we can factor 2x out of the ﬁrst two terms and 3 out of the second two terms. Factor by grouping: 24x2 − 32x − 45x + 60 Solution: Suppose that we factor 8x out of the ﬁrst two terms and −5 out of the second two terms.1. to begin with. Let’s start again. this means that we should have factored out 3 times 5. THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR Let’s increase the size of the numbers a bit. or 15. = (2x + 3)(3x − 4) Answer: (3x + 2)(5x + 3) Factor by grouping: 15x2 + 9x + 10x + 6 As the numbers get larger and larger. you won’t get a common factor to ﬁnish the factoring. 6x2 − 8x + 9x − 12 = 2x (3x − 4) + 3 (3x − 4) Now we have a common factor 3x − 4 which we can factor out. However.

63 and 27 In Exercises 19-24. 35z 2 and 49z 7 28. 24 and 28 18. ﬁnd the greatest common factor of the given expressions. 78 and 54 10. from smallest to largest. in order. 76 and 8 14. 8 and 76 12. list all common positive divisors of the given numbers. 36 and 42 8. 32 and 36 16. 42 2. 35b5 c3 and 63b4 c4 . 64 and 76 17. 13. 24w3 and 30w8 29. 540 and 150 23. 44 4. 25. FACTORING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. 28s2 and 36s4 27. 84 and 60 15. 99 and 27 In Exercises 13-18. list all positive divisors of the given number. 51 6. 16b4 and 56b9 26. 7. from smallest to largest. state the greatest common divisor of the given numbers. 54 and 30 9. 1800 and 2250 22. 19. 96 and 78 11. 85 5. 4500 and 1800 In Exercises 25-36.396 CHAPTER 6. 63 In Exercises 7-12. use prime factorization to help calculate the greatest common divisor of the given numbers. 600 and 450 24. in order. 60 3. 600 and 1080 20. 56x3 y 4 and 16x2 y 5 30. 150 and 120 21. 1.

THE GREATEST COMMON FACTOR 31. x2 − 3x − 9x + 27 67. 9r(5r − 1) + 8(5r − 1) 56. 48a(2a + 5) − 42(2a + 5) 58. x2 − 9x + 3x − 27 68. 20v 6 w3 + 36v 5 w4 + 28v 4 w5 In Exercises 53-60.1. 35s2 + 25s + 45 40. 35s7 + 56s6 + 56s5 47. 42s3 + 24s2 + 18s 44. 48r(5r + 3) − 40(5r + 3) In Exercises 61-68. 42x4 y 2 + 42x3 y 3 + 54x2 y 4 51. 5c(4c − 7) + 2(4c − 7) 57. 5s(8s − 1) + 4(8s − 1) 55. 7w(2w − 3) − 8(2w − 3) 54. 53. 15a5 . x2 + 2x − 9x − 18 62. 45y 6 . Do not simplify the expression before factoring. 14b7 + 35b6 + 56b5 48. 45s4 t3 + 40s3 t4 + 15s2 t5 52. x2 − 2x + 7x − 14 . and 24a3 397 In Exercises 37-52. 35s7 + 49s6 + 63s5 46. 12b3 + 12b2 + 18b 43. 24s4 t5 and 16s3 t6 32. 40v(7v − 4) + 72(7v − 4) 59.6. x2 + 3x + 6x + 18 64. 40c2 + 15c + 40 39. 18y 7 . 16c3 + 32c2 + 36c 42. factor by grouping. 36y 3 + 81y 2 + 36y 45. 61. 6a5 . and 27y 5 34. 45b2 + 20b + 35 41. 24r6 . x2 + 6x − 9x − 54 63. 56a(2a − 1) − 21(2a − 1) 60. 54y 5 z 3 + 30y 4 z 4 + 36y 3 z 5 50. 37. 24a4 . factor out the GCF from each of the given expressions. 45x5 + 81x4 + 45x3 49. 9a6 . and 15a4 36. factor out the GCF from each of the given expressions. 10v 4 w3 and 8v 3 w4 33. 25a2 + 10a + 20 38. and 12r5 35. 8r7 . x2 − 6x − 3x + 18 66. x2 + 8x + 7x + 56 65.

9y 5 35. 4 19. 4 17. (x − 3)(x − 6) 67. 4 15. 2. 51} 7. 17. 6x2 − 7x − 48x + 56 74. 2. 8x2 y 4 31. 7. 7z 2 29. 9x2 + 36x − 5x − 20 72. 450 23. 4} 13. 21. FACTORING In Exercises 69-76. 6y 3 z 3 (9y 2 + 5yz + 6z 2 ) 51. 4. (x + 3)(x − 9) 69. 3a4 37. 11. 7x2 + 28x + 9x + 36 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 7(2a − 1)(8a − 3) 61. 3. (9r + 8)(5r − 1) 57. 150 25. 7x2 + 14x − 8x − 16 73. 6} 11. (7w − 8)(2w − 3) 55. 7b5 (2b2 + 5b + 8) 49. 2. 120 21. Do not simplify the expression before factoring. {1. 5(5a2 + 2a + 4) Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 39. 42} 3. {1. 22. 2x2 + 12x + 7x + 42 76. (9x − 5)(x + 4) 73. 2. 3. 8s3 t5 33. 7s5 (5s2 + 7s + 9) 47. 6} 9. 5(7s2 + 5s + 9) 41. (x − 8)(6x − 7) 75. 14.398 CHAPTER 6. 6. (x − 9)(x + 2) 63. {1. 6(2a + 5)(8a − 7) 59. factor by grouping. {1. 2. 8b4 27. 4x2 + 9x − 32x − 72 71. 44} 5. (x − 7)(8x + 3) 71. 3. (2x + 7)(x + 6) . 69. 8x2 + 3x − 56x − 21 70. 6s(7s2 + 4s + 3) 45. {1. (x + 6)(x + 3) 65. 5s2 t3 (9s2 + 8st + 3t2 ) 53. {1. 4c(4c2 + 8c + 9) 43. 3. 8x2 − 7x − 72x + 63 75.

if abc = 0. then solve the resulting equations for x. .6. then at least one of the numbers must equal zero. Using the zero product property. at least one of the factors must equal zero. (x + 3)(x − 5) = 0 Hence. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS 399 6. then a=0 or b = 0. The zero product property also works equally well if more than two factors are present. both x = −3 and x = 5 are solutions of (x + 3)(x − 5) = 0. then either a = 0 or b = 0 or c = 0. Let’s use this idea in the next example. if ab = 0. x+3=0 x = −3 Hence. Let’s use the zero product property to solve a few equations. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. Substitute −3 for x: (x + 3)(x − 5) = 0 (−3 + 3)(−3 − 5) = 0 (0)(−8) = 0 0=0 Substitute 5 for x: (x + 3)(x − 5) = 0 (5 + 3)(5 − 5) = 0 (8)(0) = 0 0=0 Answer: 7. The zero product property. Solve for x: (x + 3)(x − 5) = 0 Solution: The product of two factors equals zero. the solutions are x = −3 and x = 5 Check: Check that each solution satisﬁes the original equation. set each factor equal to zero.2. If the product of two or more numbers equals zero. That is. For example. 2 or x−5=0 x=5 Solve for x: (x − 7)(x − 2) = 0 Because each check produces a true statement.2 Solving Nonlinear Equations We begin by introducing a property that will be used extensively in this and future sections.

then the equation is linear. If the highest power of the variable we are solving for is one.400 CHAPTER 6. x(2x + 9)(3x − 5) = 0 Using the zero product property. Hence the term. let’s ﬁrst make sure we can recognize the diﬀerence between a linear and a nonlinear equation. If the instruction is “solve for x. then solve the resulting equations for x. nonlinear equation. . x = −9/2. then the graphs involved are curves. However.” classify each of the following equations as linear or nonlinear. then the graphs involved are lines. and x = 5/3. −4. Hence the term. if the power on the variable we are solving for exceeds one. Use the following conditions to determine if an equation is linear or nonlinear. then the equation is nonlinear. In this chapter we will learn how to solve nonlinear equations involving polynomials. FACTORING You Try It! Solve for x: 6x(x + 4)(5x + 1) = 0 EXAMPLE 2. Solve for x: x(2x + 9)(3x − 5) = 0 Solution: The product of three factors equals zero. linear equation. If the highest power of the variable we are solving for is one. If the highest power of the variable we are solving for is larger than one. Linear versus Nonlinear All of the equations solved in previous chapters were examples of what are called linear equations. 1. You Try It! Classify the following equation as linear or nonlinear: 2x = x3 − 4 EXAMPLE 3. Linear versus Nonlinear. 2. set each factor equal to zero. However. the solutions are x = 0. We encourage the reader to check the solution. −1/5 Hence. x=0 or 2x + 9 = 0 2x = −9 9 x=− 2 or 3x − 5 = 0 3x = 5 5 x= 3 Answer: 0.

let’s introduce strategies for solving each type. If an equation is linear. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4.2. 3x − 5 = 4 − 7x 3x − 5 + 7x = 4 3x + 7x = 4 + 5 Original equation. then move all terms that do not contain the variable you are solving for to the other side of the equation. Hence. Add 5 to both sides.6.” to determine whether the equation is linear or nonlinear. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS a) 3x − 5 = 4 − 7x b) x2 = 8x 401 Solution: Because the instruction is “solve for x. this equation is linear. Add 7x to both sides. Divide both sides by 10. the ﬁrst of which should already be familiar. b) The equation x2 = 8x contains a power of x higher than one (it contains an x2 ). a) The highest power of x present in the equation 3x − 5 = 4 − 7x is one. Strategy for solving a linear equation. Answer: nonlinear Now that we can classify equations as either linear or nonlinear. start the solution process by moving all terms containing the variable you are solving for to one side of the equation. Answer: 1/4 . Hence. Hence. 10x = 9 9 x= 10 Simplify both sides. then move all the remaining terms to the other side of the equation. Solve for x: 2x + 4 = 6x + 3 Note how we have succeeded in moving all terms containing x to one side of the equation and all terms that do not contain x to the other side of the equation. Readers are encouraged to check this solution. Solve for x: 3x − 5 = 4 − 7x Solution: Because the instruction is “solve for x” and we note that the largest power of x present is one. Hence. the solution of 3x − 5 = 4 − 7x is x = 9/10. we identify the largest power of x present in the equation. the equation 3x − 5 = 4 − 7x is linear. this equation is nonlinear. the strategy is to move all terms containing x to one side of the equation.

Substitute 0 for x: x2 = 8x (0)2 = 8(0) 0=0 Answer: 0. the strategy requires that we move all terms to one side of the equation. −5 Subtitute 8 for x: x2 = 8x (8)2 = 8(8) 64 = 64 Note that both results are true statements. x=0 or x−8= 0 x=8 Hence. making one side equal to zero. x(x − 8) = 0 Factor out the GCF. Continue the solution process by factoring and applying the zero product property.” and the highest power of x is larger than one. You Try It! Solve for x: x2 = −5x EXAMPLE 5. By the zero product property. If an equation is nonlinear. ﬁrst move everything to one side of the equation. Solve for x: x2 = 8x Solution: Because the instruction is “solve for x. Check: Check that each solution satisﬁes the original equation. Subtract 8x from both sides. the solutions are x = 0 and x = 8. Note how we have succeeded in moving all terms to one side of the equation. either the ﬁrst factor is zero or the second factor is zero. the equation x2 = 8x is nonlinear. To ﬁnish the solution. guaranteeing that both x = 0 and x = 8 are solutions of x2 = 8x. Strategy for solving a nonlinear equation. x2 = 8x x − 8x = 0 2 Original equation. making one side of the equation equal to zero. we factor out the GCF on the left-hand side. . FACTORING The situation is much diﬀerent when the equation is nonlinear. making one side zero.402 CHAPTER 6. Hence. Note that we now have a product of two factors that equals zero.

First. Let’s try solving a nonlinear equation that requires factoring by grouping. Solve for x: 6x2 + 9x − 8x − 12 = 0 Solution: Because we are solving for x and there is a power of x larger than one. Use the zero product property to write: 3x − 4 = 0 3x = 4 4 x= 3 or 2x + 3 = 0 2x = −3 3 x=− 2 Solve for x: 5x2 − 20x − 4x + 16 = 0 Hence. so let’s factor the left-hand side by grouping. Hence. the ﬁrst step is to move everything to one side of the equation. Let’s use the graphing calculator to check the solution x = 4/3. 6x2 + 9x − 8x − 12 = 0 3x (2x + 3) − 4 (2x + 3) = 0 Factor out the common factor 2x + 3. Check.2. making one side equal to zero. x = 0. Note that we can factor 3x out of the ﬁrst two terms and −4 out of the second two terms. you will lose answers. . and cancellation occurs. the solutions are x = 4/3 and x = −3/2. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. store the solution 4/3 in the variable X using the following keystrokes (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 6. this equation is nonlinear. (3x − 4)(2x + 3) = 0 We now have a product of two factors that equals zero. This example demonstrates that you should never divide by the variable you are solving for! If you do. Well that’s already done.1.6. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS 403 Warning! The following is incorrect! Consider what would happen if we divided both sides of the equation x2 = 8x in Example 5 by x: x2 = 8x 8x x2 = x x x=8 Note that we have lost the second answer found in Example 5.

x=0 or x+5=0 x = −5 Hence. let’s ﬁrst use an algebraic method to solve the equation x2 = −5x. enter the left-hand side of the equation 6x2 + 9x − 8x − 12 = 0 using the following keystrokes. Make one side zero.n × ∧ X. .404 ÷ CHAPTER 6.θ.T.θ. Therefore. 4 Using the Graphing Calculator In this section we will employ two diﬀerent calculator routines to ﬁnd the solution of a nonlinear equation. x = −3/2.n ENTER Next.T.θ. Answer: 4/5. setting each factor equal to zero. Note that the result in the second image in Figure 6. the solution x = 4/3 checks. Before picking up the calculator. FACTORING 4 3 STO X. the solutions are x = 0 and x = −5. so the ﬁrst step is to move everything to one side of the equation. Factor out the GCF. x2 = −5x x + 5x = 0 x(x + 5) = 0 2 Nonlinear. The equation is nonlinear.n 2 − + 1 9 2 × X. making one side equal to zero. 6 × 8 X.n ENTER − Figure 6. Use the zero product property. Readers are encouraged to use their graphing calculators to check the second solution.1 indicates that the expression 6x2 + 9x − 8x − 12 equals zero when x = 4/3.T.1: Checking the solution x = 4/3.θ.T. then solving the resulting equations for x. Add 5x to both sides.

3: Adjust the WINDOW parameters to reveal both points of intersection. Next.2. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7.2). Figure 6. the settings shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 6. The xcoordinate of each point of intersection will be a solution of the equation x2 = −5x. After some experimentation. Figure 6. Note that the graph of y = x2 is a parabola that opens upward. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS 405 We’ll now use the calculator to ﬁnd the solutions of x2 = −5x. . Solution: Load the left-hand side of x2 = −5x in Y1 and the right-hand side in Y2 (see Figure 6.6. Let’s increase Ymax in an attempt to reveal the second point of intersection. The two graphs obviously intersect at the origin. with vertex (turning point) at the origin. This graph reveals why the equation x2 = −5x is called a nonlinear equation (not all the graphs involved are lines). but it also appears that there may be another point of intersection that is oﬀ the screen.2: Sketch the graphs of each side of the equation x2 = −5x. Pushing the GRAPH button produces the image on the right in Figure 6. Use the 5:intersect utility on the graphing calculator to solve the equation x2 = −5x for x. Selecting 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu produces the graphs shown in the image on the right in Figure 6. To ﬁnd the solutions of the equation x2 = −5x. we must ﬁnd the coordinates of the points where the graphs of y = x2 and y = −5x intersect. Use the 5:intersect utility on the graphing calculator to solve the equation x2 = 4x for x. The ﬁrst technique employs the 5:intersect routine on the calculator’s CALC menu.3 reveal both points of intersection.2.3. the graph of y = −5x is a line with slope −5 and y-intercept at the origin.

4: Use the 5:intersect utility to ﬁnd the points of intersection. but freehand any curves. the solutions of x2 = −5x are x = −5 and x = 0. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. The result is the point (0.” press ENTER. Zeros and x-intercepts. When prompted for a “Guess. 0) shown in the image on the left in Figure 6.4. respectively (see Figure 6. The points where the graph of f crosses the x-axis are called the x-intercepts of the graph of f . When prompted for the “Second curve?”. . When prompted for a “Guess. The result is the point (−5. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. which was ﬁrst presented in Chapter 5. Note now these match the solutions found using the algebraic technique.4. Figure 6. These are the solutions of the equation x2 = −5x (see Figure 6. 25) shown in the image on the right in Figure 6. Hence. When prompted for the “Second curve?”. press ENTER. Answer: Before demonstrating a second graphing calculator technique for solving nonlinear equations. press ENTER. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the x-axis.5). Select 5:intersect from the CALC menu.” use the left-arrow key to move the cursor closer to the leftmost point of intersection. Section 3. When prompted for the “First curve?”.5).5). press ENTER. • Repeat the process a second time. press ENTER. then press ENTER. let’s take a moment to recall the deﬁnition of a zero of a function. Use a ruler to draw all lines.406 CHAPTER 6. The x-value of each x-intercept is called a zero of the function f .5). • Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 6. FACTORING • Start by selecting 5:intersect from the CALC menu. When prompted for the “First curve?”. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each point of intersection.

and the x-values of each of these points are the zeros of the function f . make one side of the equation equal to zero. Load the function f (x) = x2 + 5x in Y1.6. x2 = −5x x + 5x = 0 2 Use the 2:zero utility on the graphing calculator to solve the equation x2 = 4x for x.6: Sketch the graph of p(x) = x2 + 5x. then select 6:ZStandard to produce the image in Figure 6.6. To determine the values of x that make x2 + 5x = 0. Solution: First. These points are the x-intercepts of the graph of f and the x-values of these points are the zeros of the function f . You Try It! EXAMPLE 8. We’ll now employ the 2:zero utility from the CALC menu to ﬁnd the solutions of the equation x2 = −5x. Add 5x to both sides. Select 2:zero from the CALC menu (see Figure 6.7).5: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. Figure 6.2. we must locate the points where the graph of f (x) = x2 + 5x crosses the x-axis. Use the 2:zero utility on the graphing calculator to solve the equation x2 = −5x for x. Make one side zero. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS y y = −5x 50 y = x2 407 −10 −5 −20 0 10 x Figure 6. It’s often easier to ﬁnd the solutions of a nonlinear equation by making one side zero and identifying where the graph of the resulting function crosses the x-axis. Note that the graph of f has two x-intercepts. .

Hence. After making your guess and pressing the ENTER key.408 CHAPTER 6. Because the cursor already lies between these two marks. we usually leave it where it is and press the ENTER key. then press the ENTER key.7: Setting the left and right bounds when using the 2:zero utility to ﬁnd the x-intercepts of the graph of f (x) = x2 + 5x.8 that mark the left.7). 0) (see the third image Figure 6. As long as you place the cursor so that the x-value of the cursor location lies between these two marks. FACTORING • The calculator responds by asking for a “Left Bound?” Use the left-arrow key to move the cursor so that it lies to the left of the x-intercept near (−5. • The calculator responds by asking for a “Guess?” Note the two triangular marks near the top of the viewing window in the ﬁrst image in Figure 6. but freehand any curves. the calculator proceeds to ﬁnd an approximation of the x-intercept that lies between the left. • The calculator responds by asking for a “Right Bound?” Move the cursor so that is slightly to the right of the x-intercept near (−5. this x-intercept is (−5.8: Setting the right bound and making a guess. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. . making −5 a zero of f (x) = x2 + 5x and a solution of the equation x2 + 5x = 0. 0) (see the second image in Figure 6. 0). you’ve made a valid guess. Use a ruler to draw all lines. Figure 6. Figure 6.and right-bounds previously marked (see the second image in Figure 6. then press the ENTER key.7).8). We’ll leave it to our readers to repeat the 2:zero process to ﬁnd the second zero at the origin.and right-bounds.

Shade and label the x-values of each x-intercept. • Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 6.2. These are the solutions of the equation x2 = −5x (see Figure 6. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept. . • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6.6. the solutions of x2 = −5x are x = −5 and x = 0. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS 409 • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y.9).9). Hence. respectively (see Figure 6. y 10 y = x2 + 5x −10 −5 0 10 x Answer: −10 Figure 6.9). Note how nicely this agrees with the solutions found using the algebraic technique and the solutions found using the 5:intersect utility in Example 7.9).9: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework.

19. −5x + 5 = −6x − 7 13. x(9x − 8)(3x + 1) = 0 5. 4x2 = −7x 15. x(4x + 7)(9x − 8) = 0 4. 8x + 5 = 6x + 4 25. 6x − 2 = 5x − 8 12. solve the given equation for x. 6x2 = −14x 31. −9x(9x + 4) = 0 6. (2x − 5)(7x − 4) = 0 3. 7x2 = −2x 14. 9x = −x 22. x2 + 7x = 9x + 63 10. 6x2 = 7x 23. solve each of the given equations for x. 1. 3x2 + 8x = −9 16. 3x + 2 = 6 29. (9x + 2)(8x + 3) = 0 2. 7x + 2 = 4x + 7 34. FACTORING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 5x2 − 2x = −9 17. 8x2 = 18x 2 27. 9x2 = 6x 30. 8x − 5 = 3 In Exercises 19-34. 3x + 9 = 8x + 7 24.410 CHAPTER 6. state whether the given equation is linear or nonlinear. 4x(3x − 6) = 0 7. (x − 4)(x − 1) = 0 In Exercises 9-18. 3x + 4 = 2 21. 4x + 3 = 2x + 8 . 3x + 8 = 9 20. 9x + 2 = 7 28. x2 + 9x = 4x + 36 11. 9. Do not solve the equation. −3x + 6 = −9 18. 8x2 = −2x 26. given that you are solving for x. (x + 1)(x + 6) = 0 8. 7x2 = −9x 33. 7x2 = −4x 32.

x2 + 2x + 9x + 18 = 0 48. Nonlinear . x2 = 6x 53. x2 = 5x 54. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 8. 35. x = − . 15x2 − 24x + 35x − 56 = 0 46. x = 0. 42x2 − 35x + 54x − 45 = 0 39. −6 9. x2 − 3x = 0 58. x = −1. x = 0. − . x2 + 6x − 11x − 66 = 0 44. 18x2 + 21x + 30x + 35 = 0 41. x2 = −6x In Exercises 55-58. 63x2 + 56x + 54x + 48 = 0 36. perform each of the following tasks: i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation. factor by grouping to solve each of the given equations for x. 12x2 − 10x + 54x − 45 = 0 47. − 9 8 7 8 3. ii) Use the 2:zero utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation.2. ii) Use the 5:intersect utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation. x2 + 7x = 0 56. 16x2 − 18x + 40x − 45 = 0 38. 27x2 + 36x + 6x + 8 = 0 37. perform each of the following tasks: i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation. x2 + 2x = 0 ❧ ❧ ❧ 3 2 1. SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS In Exercises 35-50. 45x2 + 18x + 20x + 8 = 0 40.6. x2 + 6x − 2x − 12 = 0 411 45. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 7. x2 − 8x = 0 57. x2 + 4x − 8x − 32 = 0 50. x2 = −4x 52. 55. x2 + 11x + 10x + 110 = 0 43. x2 + 8x − 5x − 40 = 0 In Exercises 51-54. 4 9 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 4 9 5. − 7. x2 + 8x + 4x + 32 = 0 49. x2 + 10x + 4x + 40 = 0 42. 51.

3 5 21.412 11. x = 0. x = 11. x = 0. 3 31. x = − . 2 5 25. −10 43. x = − . Linear 13. x = 0. x = −9. 5 9 1 4 47. 3 . 0 57. − 9 5 41. x = 0. 0 53. FACTORING 8 6 35. Nonlinear 15. − 7 9 5 9 37. Nonlinear 17. Linear 19. 2 8 4 2 39. −6 7 8 45. − 33. x = −4. x = 0. x = 0. 5 3 4 7 55. 5 2 29. x = − . − 27. x = − . −4 51. x = 8. x = −7. − 23. −2 49. 1 3 1 9 CHAPTER 6. x = −4.

Solution: Align the trinomial x2 − 8x − 9 with the standard form ax2 + bx + c. the leading coeﬃcient must equal 1. Note that the understood coeﬃcient of x2 is 1. Because the leading coeﬃcient is 6. and c. Compare 3x + 9 − 7x2 with the form ax2 + bx + c and identify the coeﬃcients a. and c. b = 5. b = −1. Our work in this section will focus only on trinomials of the form x2 + bx + c. then compare coeﬃcients. and c. Answer: a = 2. ax2 + bx + c 6x2 − 1x − 40 We see that a = 6. Compare x2 − 8x − 9 with the form ax2 + bx + c and identify the coeﬃcients a. and c. The ac-Method We are now going to introduce a technique called the ac-method (or ac-test ) for factoring trinomials of the form ax2 + bx + c when a = 1. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Note that the understood coeﬃcient of x is −1. Solution: First. Answer: a = −7. b = 3. this is the type of trinomial that we will learn how to factor in this section.3 Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 In this section we concentrate on learning how to factor trinomials having the form ax2 + bx + c when a = 1. c = 9 In this section.3. that is. then align it with the standard form ax2 + bx + c and compare coeﬃcients. b = −8. and c. we will have to wait until Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 on page 427 before learning how to factor this trinomial. b. the form ax2 + bx + c where a = 1. arrange −40 + 6x2 − x in descending powers of x. b. Compare −40 + 6x2 − x with the form ax2 + bx + c and identify the coeﬃcients a. b. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 413 6. In the upcoming . b. and c = −9. b. Because the leading coeﬃcient is 1. The ﬁrst task is to make sure that everyone can properly identify the coeﬃcients a. and c = −40. ax2 + bx +c 1x2 − 8x−9 We see that a = 1. c = −3 Compare 2x2 + 5x − 3 with the form ax2 + bx + c and identify the coeﬃcients a.6. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1.

Now.414 CHAPTER 6. −8 −1. b. 8 . Solution: Compare x2 +8x−48 with ax2 +bx+c and identify a = 1. 1. if we apply the following procedure. with one minor exception. can we start with x2 + 8x − 48 and place it in its original factored form (x + 12)(x − 4) ? The answer is yes. Note that the leading coeﬃcient is a = 1. 3. determine the coeﬃcients a. −48 2. and c. Circle the pair in the list produced in step 1 whose sum equals b. Factor: x2 + 8x − 48. Simplify. Let’s begin by ﬁnding the following product: (x + 12)(x − 4) = x(x − 4) + 12(x − 4) = x − 4x + 12x − 48 = x + 8x − 48 2 2 Apply the distributive property. the coefﬁcient of the middle term of ax2 + bx + c. The ac-method. List all the integer pairs whose product equals ac. and c = −48. But for the remainder of this section. Let’s follow the steps of the ac-method to factor x2 + 8x − 48. 12 −6. 24 −3. can we reverse the process? That is. −16 4. 5. Note that ac = (1)(−48). we will see that this method can also be employed when a = 1. 16 −4. Distribute again. FACTORING section Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 on page 427. −12 6. b = 8. Compare the given polynomial with the standard form ax2 + bx + c. then proceed as follows: 1. You Try It! Factor: x2 + 11x + 28 EXAMPLE 3. Replace the middle term bx with a sum of like terms using the circled pair from step 2. 2. Factor by grouping. Calculate ac. we focus strictly on trinomials whose leading coeﬃcient is 1. List all integer pairs whose product is ac = −48. 48 −2. so ac = −48. Multiply the coeﬃcients a and c and determine their product ac. −24 3. Check the result using the FOIL shortcut. 4.

3. use these steps: • Multiply the terms in the “First” positions: x2 . 1. 24 −3. 12 seemed to ‘drop in place’ in the resulting factoriztion (x + 12)(x − 4)?” Before we answer that question. so ac = −36. x2 +8x − 48 = x2 −4x + 12x − 48 Factor by grouping. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 Circle the ordered pair whose sum is b = 8. To determine the product (x + 12)(x − 4). let’s try another example. which is the original trinomial. and c = −36. • Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions: −48. Answer: (x + 4)(x + 7) Some readers might ask “Is it a coincidence that the circled pair −4. 12 −6. 48 −2. • Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and combine the results mentally: −4x + 12x = 8x. −8 −1. That is: F (x + 12)(x − 4) = x2 − O I L 4x + 12x − 48 Combining like terms. x2 + 8x − 48 = x(x − 4) + 12(x − 4) = (x + 12)(x − 4) Use the FOIL shortcut to mentally check your answer. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4.6. 8 415 Replace the middle term 8x with a sum of like terms using the circled pair whose sum is 8. Factor: x2 − 9x − 36. −16 4. (x + 12)(x − 4) = x2 + 8x − 48. Note that if you combine the “Outer” and “Inner” products mentally. −12 6. some readers might ask “What if I start listing the ordered pairs and I see the pair I need? Do I need to continue listing the remaining pairs? Factor: x2 + 10x − 24 . the check goes even faster. 16 −4. −24 3. Solution: Compare x2 −9x−36 with ax2 +bx+c and note that a = 1. Calculate ac = (1)(−36). −48 2. At this point. so our solution checks. b = −9.

you can always “drop in place” the circled pair in order to arrive at the ﬁnal factorization.416 CHAPTER 6. Now can you think of an integer pair whose product is ac = −24 and whose sum is b = −5? For some. You Try It! Factor: x2 − 12x + 35 EXAMPLE 5. replace the middle term −9x with a sum of like terms using the circled pair. Solution: Compare x2 −5x−24 with ax2 +bx+c and note that a = 1. Factor: x2 − 5x − 24. the required pair just pops into their head: −8 and 3. −12 seemed to ‘drop in place’ in the resulting factoriztion (x − 12)(x + 3) ?” The answer is “No. but are mindful that we need an integer pair whose sum is b = −9. the original trinomial.” it is not a coincidence. x2 −9x − 36 = x2 +3x − 12x − 36 Factor by grouping. 1. The product of these . Speeding Things Up a Bit Readers might again ask “Is it a coincidence that the circled pair 3.” In this case. b = −5. The integer pair 3 and −12 has a product equaling ac = −36 and a sum equaling b = −9. we start listing the integer pairs whose product is ac = −36. Some readers might also be asking “Do I really have to list any of those ordered pairs if I already recognize the pair I need?” The answer is “No!” If you see the pair you need. −36 2. Our solution checks. −12 Note how we ceased listing ordered pairs the moment we found the pair we needed. Next. Calculate ac = (1)(−24). x2 −9x − 36 = x(x + 3) − 12(x + 3) = (x − 12)(x + 3) Use the FOIL shortcut to check your answer. Provided the leading coeﬃcient of the trinomial ax2 + bx + c is a = 1. (x + 3)(x − 12) = Answer: (x + 12)(x − 2) F x2 − O 12x + I 3x − L 36 Combining like terms. FACTORING The answer is “No. drop it in place. skipping the factoring by grouping. and c = −24. so ac = −24. −18 3. (x + 3)(x − 12) = x2 − 9x − 36.

b.“Drop” this pair in place and you are done. Solve the equation x2 = 2x + 3 both algebraically and graphically. Note: We’ll see in Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 on page 427 why this “drop in place” choice does not work when a = 1.3. then compare your answers. Nonlinear Equations Revisited The ability to factor trinomials of the form ax2 + bx + c. (Only works if a = 1. . FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 417 two integers is −24 and their sum is −5. Write the middle term as a product of like terms using the ordered pair whose product is ac and whose sum is b. increases the number of nonlinear equations we are now able to solve. the original trinomial. Complete the factorization process by factoring by grouping. Answer: (x − 7)(x − 5) The “Drop in Place” technique of Example 5 allows us to revise the acmethod a bit. then compare your answers. then determine a pair of integers whose product equals ac and whose sum equals b. and c. Revised ac-method. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. where a = 1. You then have two options: 1. the factorization is correct.) Simply “drop in place” the ordered pair whose product is ac and whose sum is b to complete the factorization process.6. Solve the equation x2 = −3x + 4 both algebraically and graphically. Our solution checks. 2. x2 − 5x − 24 = (x − 8)(x + 3) Use the FOIL shortcut to check your answer. determine the coeﬃcients a. (x − 8)(x + 3) = x2 − 5x − 24. Compare the given polynomial with the standard form ax2 + bx + c. F (x − 8)(x + 3) = x2 O I 3x − 8x − L 24 + Combining like terms. If this produces the original trinomial. Readers are strongly encouraged to check their factorization by determining the product using the FOIL method.

Press the ENTER key to accept the “First curve. x2 = 2x + 3 x − 2x = 3 x − 2x − 3 = 0 2 2 Original equation. Note that both points of intersection are now visible in the viewing window (see Figure 6. “Drop” these in place to factor. the equation is nonlinear. Make one side zero. x+1=0 x = −1 2 or x−3=0 x=3 Thus.” press ENTER again to accept the “Second curve. Press the WINDOW button and make adjustments to Ymin and Ymax (see Figure 6. Load each side of the equation x2 = 2x + 3 into the Y= menu of your graphing calculator. y = 2x + 3 in Y2 (see Figure 6. select 5:intersect from the CALC menu. Figure 6. the solutions of x = 2x + 3 are x = −1 and x = 3. but the second point of intersection is very near the top of the screen at the right (see Figure 6. The integer pair 1 and −3 comes to mind.10: Sketch y = x2 and y = 2x + 3. only when it comes time to enter your “Guess. We need an integer pair whose product is ac = −3 and whose sum is b = −2.418 CHAPTER 6. To ﬁnd the coordinates of the points of intersection. (x + 1)(x − 3) = 0 Factor. y = x2 in Y1. Subtract 2x from both sides. One of the intersection points is visible on the left.10. The result is shown in the image on the left in Figure 6. Let’s extend the top of the screen a bit. b = −2 and c = −3. Subtract 3 from both sides.10). We have a product that equals zero. Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image at the right in Figure 6. then press the GRAPH button to adopt the changes.11).12. Compare x2 − 2x − 3 with ax2 + bx + c and note that a = 1.10). Repeat the process to ﬁnd the second point of intersection.” use the right-arrow key to move the cursor closer to the second point of intersection than the ﬁrst.” then press ENTER again to accept the current position of the cursor as your guess.11). FACTORING Solution: Because there is a power of x larger than one. Use the zero product property to complete the solution. Graphical solution. .

• Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 6. the solutions x = −1 and x = 3 check in the original equation x2 = 2x + 3. but freehand any curves. Figure 6. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6. match the solutions found using the algebraic method. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each point of intersection. Use a ruler to draw all lines. it doesn’t hurt to check the ﬁnal answers in the original equation. However. Finally.13). Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the x-axis. 1 Because the last two statements are true statements. respectively (see Figure 6. namely x = −1 and x = 3.13).6. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 419 Figure 6. This is solid evidence that both methods of solution are correct.11: Adjusting the view.13).13). These are the solutions of the equation x2 = 2x + 3 (see Figure 6. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. x2 = 2x + 3 (−1)2 = 2(−1) + 3 1 = −2 + 3 and x2 = 2x + 3 (3)2 = 2(3) + 3 9=6+3 Answer: −4. substituting −1 for x and 3 for x.12: Use 5:intersect from the CALC menu to ﬁnd points of intersection. note how the graphical solutions of x2 = 2x + 3. .3.

You Try It! Solve the equation x2 − 21x + 90 = 0 both algebraically and graphically. 1. −48 3. Solve the equation x2 − 4x − 96 = 0 both algebraically and graphically. FACTORING y = 2x + 3 −10 −1 3 10 x −5 Figure 6. the equation x2 − 4x−96 = 0 is nonlinear.13: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. Begin listing integer pairs whose product is ac = −96.420 y y = x2 15 CHAPTER 6. −24 6. mindful of the fact that we need a pair whose sum is b = −4. x2 − 4x − 96 = 0 (x + 8)(x − 12) = 0 Original equation. . We already have one side zero. then compare your answers. −32 4. −16 8. Solution: Because there is a power of x larger than one. EXAMPLE 7. −12 Note that we stopped the listing process as soon as we encountered a pair whose sum was b = −4. Factor. then compare your answers. −96 2. so we can proceed with the factoring. “Drop” this pair in place to factor the trinomial.

x+8=0 x = −8 or x − 12 = 0 x = 12 Thus. but we did not see it turn and come back up. . Repeat the process to ﬁnd the coordinates of the second x-intercept.15. then press ENTER to mark the “Left bound. To ﬁnd the coordinates of the x-intercepts. Note that both x-intercepts of the parabola are now visible in the viewing window (see Figure 6. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 421 We have a product that equals zero.15: Adjusting the view.16.14. In Figure 6.14. Graphical solution.15 reveal the vertex and the x-intercepts. we saw the graph go down and oﬀ the screen. Load the equation y = x2 − 4x − 96 in Y1 in the Y= menu of your graphing calculator (see Figure 6.6. Figure 6.15). The result is show in the image on the right in Figure 6. select 2:zero from the CALC menu.” The result is shown in the image on the left in Figure 6. Use the left.and right-arrow keys to move the cursor to the left of the ﬁrst x-intercept. Let’s adjust the WINDOW parameters so that the vertex (turning point) of the parabola and both x-intercepts are visible in the viewing window.3.14: Sketch the graph of y = x2 − 4x − 96. Use the zero product property to complete the solution. the settings shown in Figure 6. Press the GRAPH button to produce the image at the right in Figure 6.14). Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image at the right in Figure 6. then press ENTER to mark the “Right bound. After some experimentation.” Next. Figure 6.16.” Press ENTER to accept the current position of the cursor as your “Guess. the solutions of x2 − 4x − 96 = 0 are x = −8 and x = 12. move the cursor to the right of the ﬁrst x-intercept. When the degree of a polynomial is two. we’re used to seeing some sort of parabola.

• Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 6. This is solid evidence that both methods of solution are correct. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept. Use a ruler to draw all lines. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the x-axis. respectively (see Figure 6. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. match the solutions found using the algebraic method. note how the graphical solutions of x2 − 4x − 96 = 0. namely x = −8 and x = 12. These are the solutions of the equation x2 − 4x− 96 = 0 (see Figure 6.17).17). Finally.17: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. However.422 CHAPTER 6.16: Use 2:zero from the CALC menu to ﬁnd the x-intercepts.17). but freehand any curves. it doesn’t . • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6.17). y 150 y = x2 − 4x − 96 −15 −8 12 20 x −150 Figure 6. FACTORING Figure 6.

15 hurt to check the ﬁnal answers in the original equation.3. the solutions x = −8 and x = 12 check in the original equation x2 − 4x − 96 − 0. x2 − 4x − 96 = 0 (−8)2 − 4(−8) − 96 = 0 64 + 32 − 96 = 0 and x2 − 4x − 96 = 0 (12)2 − 4(12) − 96 = 0 144 − 48 − 96 = 0 Because the last two statements are true statements.6. substituting −8 for x and 12 for x. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 423 Answer: 6. .

x2 = −7x − 6 . then cease the listing process when you encounter the pair whose sum equals b. x2 − 25x + 84 12. Try to mentally discover the integer pair whose product is ac and whose sum is b. x2 + 12x + 27 5. x2 + 9x + 20 In Exercises 7-12. use an algebraic technique to solve the given equation. 19. Circle the pair whose sum equals b. x2 − 17x + 66 17.424 CHAPTER 6. compare the given trinomial with ax2 + bx + c. x2 − 13x + 36 14. x2 + x − 12 15. x2 + 10x + 21 16. x2 = x + 72 23.” Note: If you ﬁnd you cannot identify the pair mentally. x2 + 14x + 45 6. x2 − 26x + 69 10. x2 = −11x − 10 22. then begin listing integer pairs whose product equals ac. 13. Cease the list process when you discover a pair whose sum equals b. x2 − 10x + 9 4. FACTORING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. x2 − 22x + 57 11. x2 − 16x + 48 9. 1. 7. x2 − 4x − 5 18. x2 − 16x + 39 8. begin listing integer pairs whose product equals ac. x2 + 7x − 18 2. Factor the trinomial by “dropping this pair in place. then compute ac. compare the given trinomial with ax2 + bx + c. x2 = −15x − 50 24. then list ALL integer pairs whose product equals ac. x2 + 18x + 80 3. then circle and use this pair to help factor the given trinomial. x2 = −2x + 35 21. x2 + 13x − 30 In Exercises 13-18. compare the given trinomial with ax2 + bx + c. then use this pair to help factor the given trinomial. x2 = −7x + 30 20. x2 − 20x + 99 In Exercises 19-24.

perform each of the following tasks: i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation. 66 = x2 + 19x 425 In Exercises 31-36. 60 = x2 + 11x 26. (x − 3)(x − 23) 11. use an algebraic technique to solve the given equation. 41. 31. (x + 5)(x + 9) Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 7. x2 − 6x − 16 = 0 42.3. x2 − 9x − 36 = 0 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. use an algebraic technique to solve the given equation. x2 − 12 = 11x 33. x2 + 10x − 24 = 0 44. x2 + 6 = 5x 35. (x − 4)(x − 21) . 25. 56 = x2 + 10x 30. −92 = x2 − 27x 27. 80 = x2 − 16x 29. (x − 1)(x − 9) 5. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 6. 37. x2 + 8 = −6x 36. ii) Use the 2:zero utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation. x2 = x + 12 38. x2 + 12 = 8x 40. x2 + 20 = −12x 32. x2 + 7x − 18 = 0 43. x2 + 77 = 18x In Exercises 37-40. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 In Exercises 25-30. ii) Use the 5:intersect utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation. x2 − 36 = 9x 34. perform each of the following tasks: i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation.6. −11 = x2 − 12x 28. (x − 2)(x + 9) 3. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 7. x2 = 20 − x 39. (x − 3)(x − 13) 9. x2 + 7 = 8x In Exercises 41-44.

x = −2. −2 43. x = −3. FACTORING 29. 6 41. x = −1. x = 4.426 13. x = 2. (x + 1)(x − 5) 19. 4 39. (x − 4)(x − 9) 15. −10 21. −4 37. −10 33. 12 35. x = 4. −10 23. x = 3. x = −5. 2 . x = −3. −14 31. x = 1. x = −12. x = −2. −10 25. 11 CHAPTER 6. (x + 3)(x + 7) 17. −15 27. x = 8.

−6 −1. Right oﬀ the bat. However. Circle the ordered pair whose sum is b = −7. all of our examples had a = 1. List all integer pairs whose product is ac = −30. However. in this section. Factor: 2x2 − 7x − 15. Calculate ac. Solution: We proceed as follows: 1. 30 −2.3. 3. −30 2. the product of the terms in the “First” position does not equal 2x2 . readers will be pleased to learn that the ac-method will still apply. Note that the leading coeﬃcient is a = 2. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. and we were able to “Drop in place” our circled integer pair. b = −7. 15 −3. −6 −1. 10 −5. so ac = −30. −15 3.4 Factoring ax2 + bx + c when a = 1 In this section we continue to factor trinomials of the form ax2 + bx + c. Factor x out of the ﬁrst two terms and −5 out of the second two terms. (x + 3)(x − 10) = 2x2 − 7x − 15. 1. −30 2. 2x2 −7x − 15 = 2x2 +3x − 10x − 15 Now we factor by grouping. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 427 6.6. In the last section.4. −10 5. and we’ll soon see that we will not be able to use the “Drop in place” technique. = (x − 5)(2x + 3) . 1. and c = −15. Note that ac = (2)(−15). 6 Factor: 3x2 + 13x + 14 4. 2. −10 5. 15 −3. 6 5. Compare 2x2 − 7x − 15 with ax2 + bx + c and identify a = 2. a = 1. = x (2x + 3) − 5 (2x + 3) Now we can factor out (2x + 3). 30 −2. we break up the middle term of 2x2 − 7x − 15 into a sum of like terms using our circled pair of integers 3 and −10. Note that if we “drop in place” our circled ordered pair. 10 −5. −15 3. so this case is diﬀerent from all of the cases discussed in Section 6. Instead.

Break up the middle term into a sum of like terms using the pair 2 and −9. (x − 3)(3x + 2) = F 3x2 + O I 2x − 9x − L 6 −7x = 2x − 9x. To multiply (x − 5)(2x + 3). Calculate ac = (3)(−6). Factor out (3x + 2). FACTORING 6. b = −7. Now can you think of an integer pair whose product is ac = −18 and whose sum is b = −7? For some. (x − 5)(2x + 3) = 2x2 − 7x − 15. use it to break up the middle term of the trinomial as a sum of like terms. Answer: (x + 2)(3x + 7) Speeding Things Up a Bit Some readers might already be asking “Do I really have to list all of those ordered pairs if I already see the pair I need?” The answer is “No!” If you see the pair you need. 3x2 −7x − 6 = 3x2 +2x − 9x − 6 = x (3x + 2) − 3 (3x + 2) = (x − 3)(3x + 2) Use the FOIL shortcut to check your answer. use these steps: • Multiply the terms in the “First” positions: 2x2 . • Multiply the terms in the “Last” positions: −15. so our solution checks. Factor by grouping. so ac = −18.428 CHAPTER 6. You Try It! Factor: 2x2 − 9x + 10 EXAMPLE 2. the pair just pops into their head: 2 and −9. Factor: 3x2 − 7x − 6. That is: (x − 5)(2x + 3) = F 2x2 O + 3x − I L 10x − 15 Combining like terms. which is the original trinomial. the check goes even faster. . and c = −6. • Multiply the terms in the “Outer” and “Inner” positions and combine the results mentally: 3x − 10x = −7x. Use the FOIL shortcut to mentally check your answer. Solution: Compare 3x2 −7x−6 with ax2 +bx+c and note that a = 3. Note that if you combine the “Outer” and “Inner” products mentally.

1. and c = 54. If you stumble across the needed pair. Factor out (x − 2). stop the listing process and “drop” your ordered pair in place. Do I have a way of cutting down the work?” The answer is “Yes!” As you are listing the ordered pairs whose product equals ac.6. b = −33. Note that if you combine the “Outer” and “Inner” products mentally. 3x2 − 33x + 54 = 3(x2 − 11x + 18) . (x−3)(3x+2) = 3x2 −7x−6. so we boxed −6 and −27 instead. −27 As soon as we wrote down the pair 6 and 27. Ouch! That’s a big number! However. some readers might be saying “Well. our mind said “the sum of 6 and 7 is 33. 162 2. 3x2 −33x − 54 = 3x2 −6x − 27x − 54 = 3x (x − 2) − 27(x − 2) = (3x − 27)(x − 2) −33x = −6x − 27x. Next. the needed ordered pair is not popping into my head.” However. Factor: 3x2 − 33x + 54. we break up the middle term into a sum of like terms using our circled pair. the check goes even faster. we need the sum to equal b = −33. so ac = 162. start listing the integer pairs whose product is ac = 162.4. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 429 Combining like terms. but be mindful that you need an integer pair whose sum is b = −33. Factor by grouping. only this time let’s do what we are always supposed to do in the ﬁrst step: Factor out the GCF. Our solution checks. Answer: (x − 2)(2x − 5) On the other hand. be mindful that you need the ordered pair whose sum is b. Calculate ac = (3)(54). 27 Factor: 5x2 − 35x − 40 −6. 81 3. Oh-oh! Now we realize we can factor 3 out of each term in the ﬁrst factor! = 3(x − 9)(x − 2) We missed taking out the GCF! Let’s try again. the original trinomial. Solution: Compare 3x2 − 33x + 54 with ax2 + bx + c and note that a = 3. 54 6. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3.

because a = 1. we saw how much more diﬃcult we made the problem by forgetting to ﬁrst factor out the greatest common factor (GCF). Furthermore. and c = 18. 30x3 − 21x2 − 18x = 3x · 10x2 − 3x · 7x − 3x · 6 = 3x(10x2 − 7x − 6) Next. the integer pair −9 and −2 easily comes to mind. .430 CHAPTER 6. b = −11. Factor out a 2x + 1. 3(x2 − 11x + 18) = 3(x − 9)(x − 2) Answer: 5(x − 8)(x + 1) A far simpler solution! In Example 3. We need an integer pair whose product is ac = 18 and whose sum is b = −11. Solution: Note that the GCF of 30x3 . Start listing the integer pairs whose product is ac = −60. First rule of factoring. Factor out this GCF. The ﬁrst step in factoring any polynomial is to factor out the greatest common factor. −7x = 5x − 12x. −60 2. Factor: 30x3 − 21x2 − 18x. and 18x is 3x. −15 5. Because the numbers are smaller. we see that a = 1. b = −7. You Try It! Factor: 12x4 + 2x3 − 30x2 EXAMPLE 4. compare 10x2 − 7x − 6 with ax2 + bx + c and note that a = 10. FACTORING Comparing x2 − 11x + 18 with ax2 + bx + c. and c = −6. −20 4. Note that these numbers are considerably smaller than the numbers we had to deal with when we forgot to ﬁrst factor out the GCF. 30x3 − 21x2 − 18x = 3x(5x − 6)(2x + 1). 21x2 . Factor by grouping. Let’s try not to make that mistake again. we can factor x2 − 11x + 18 by simply dropping the integer pair −9 and −2 in place. −30 3. 1. 3x(10x2 − 7x − 6) = 3x(10x2 + 5x − 12x − 18) = 3x 5x(2x + 1) − 6(2x + 1) = 3x(5x − 6)(2x + 1) Hence. −12 Break up the middle term into a sum of like terms using our circled pair. but be mindful that you need an integer pair whose sum is b = −7.

We have a product that equals zero. y = 2x2 in Y1. the solution checks. Load each side of the equation 2x2 = 13x − 20 into the Y= menu of your graphing calculator. then distribute the monomial factor. Distribute the 3x. Original equation. Make one side zero. then compare your answers. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 431 Check: First. The integer pair −5 and −8 comes to mind. 3x(5x − 6)(2x + 1) = 3x(10x2 − 7x − 6) = 30x − 21x − 18x 3 2 Apply the FOIL shortcut. 2x2 = 13x − 20 2x − 13x + 20 = 0 2 Solve the equation 5x2 = 12x + 9 both algebraically and graphically. Use the zero product property to complete the solution. Make one side equal to zero. Solution: Because there is a power of x larger than one. Solve the equation 2x2 = 13x − 20 both algebraically and graphically. Answer: 2x2 (3x + 5)(2x − 3) Because this is the original polynomial. Nonlinear Equations Revisited Let’s use the factoring technique of this chapter to solve some nonlinear equations. Graphical solution. the equation is nonlinear. Factor by grouping. Factor out 2x − 5. use the FOIL shortcut to multiply the two binomial factors. the solutions of 2x2 = 13x − 20 are x = 4 and x = 5/2. We need an integer pair whose product is ac = 40 and whose sum is b = −13. Compare 2x2 − 13x + 20 with ax2 + bx + c and note that a = 2. Write the middle term as a sum of like terms using this pair. 2x2 − 5x − 8x + 20 = 0 x(2x − 5) − 4(2x − 5) = 0 (x − 4)(2x − 5) = 0 −13x = −5x − 8x.4. x−4=0 x=4 or 2x − 5 = 0 2x = 5 5 x= 2 Thus.6. b = −13 and c = 20. then compare your answers. y = 13x − 20 in Y2 . You Try It! EXAMPLE 5.

press ENTER to use the current position of the cursor for your “Guess.21).” then move the cursor to the right of the x-intercept and press ENTER to mark the “Right bound.” The result is shown in the image on the left in Figure 6. Xmax = 10. However.18.18). Select 2:zero from the CALC menu. Figure 6.432 CHAPTER 6.18. we must identify the x-intercepts of the graph in Figure 6. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. The result is shown in the image on the right in Figure 6. and Ymax = 60).18) does not clearly show the two points of intersection.18: Sketch y = 2x2 and y = 13x − 20.” Finally. respectively (see Figure 6. Let’s switch our strategy and work with the equation 2x2 − 13x + 20 = 0 instead. Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image on the left in Figure 6. To ﬁnd the solutions of 2x2 − 13x + 20 = 0. then select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image at the right in Figure 6.19: Sketch y = 2x2 − 13x + 20. Figure 6. Use a ruler to draw all lines. but freehand any curves.20. . even after adjusting the WINDOW parameters (Xmin = −10. Ymin = −10. Press ENTER to mark the “Left bound. FACTORING (see Figure 6.20. then move the left. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. Load y = 2x2 − 13x + 20 into Y1 in the Y= menu. Repeat the process to ﬁnd the rightmost x-intercept.and right=arrows to move the cursor to the left of the ﬁrst x-intercept.19. the image resulting from pushing the GRAPH button (see the image on the right in Figure 6.

21). • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept. y 10 y = 2x2 − 13x + 20 −10 2. it doesn’t hurt to check the ﬁnal answers in the original equation. • Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 6.4.5 4 10 x −10 Figure 6.21). note how the graphical solutions of 2x2 − 13x + 20 = 0.21: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework.6. These are the solutions of the equation 2x2 − 13x + 20 = 0 (see Figure 6.21). Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the xaxis.5 and x = 4. However. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6. This is solid evidence that both methods of solution are correct. Finally. namely x = 2. . match the solutions x = 5/2 and x = 4 found using the algebraic method. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 433 Figure 6.20: Use 2:zero from the CALC menu to ﬁnd the x-intercepts.

2x3 + x2 = 28x 2x + x − 28x = 0 3 2 Original equation. Compare 2x2 +x−28 with ax2 +bx+c and note that a = 2. Factor out 2x − 7. By the zero product property. The integer pair −7 and 8 comes to mind.434 Answer: −3/5. We have a product of three factors that equals zero. Note that the GCF of 2x3 . and 28x is x. Factor by grouping. then compare your answers. 2x2 = 13x − 20 2 2 5 5 = 13 − 20 2 2 25 5 = 13 − 20 4 2 65 40 25 = − 2 2 2 2 CHAPTER 6. Solve the equation 2x3 + x2 = 28x both algebraically and graphically. Write the middle term as a sum of like terms using this pair. EXAMPLE 6. We need an integer pair whose product is ac = −56 and whose sum is b = 1. x(2x2 − 7x + 8x − 28) = 0 x x(2x − 7) + 4(2x − 7) = 0 x(x + 4)(2x − 7) = 0 x = −7x + 8x. FACTORING and 2x2 = 13x − 20 2(4)2 = 13(4) − 20 2(16) = 13(4) − 20 32 = 52 − 20 Because the last two statements are true statements. Make one side zero. 3 substituting 5/2 for x and 4 for x. x(2x2 + x − 28) = 0 Factor out the GCF. then compare your answers. x=0 or x+4=0 x = −4 or 2x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 7 x= 2 . at least one of the factors must equal zero. x2 . Make one side equal to zero. Factor out x. b = 1 and c = −28. Solution: Because there is a power of x larger than one. You Try It! Solve the equation 4x3 = −x2 + 14x both algebraically and graphically. the equation is nonlinear. the solutions x = 5/2 and x = 4 check in the original equation 2x2 = 13x − 20.

and x = 7/2. we saw the graph rise from the bottom of the screen.and right-arrow keys to move the cursor to the left of the ﬁrst x-intercept. locating where the graph of y = 2x3 + x2 − 28x crosses the x-axis. Figure 6. we must identify the x-intercepts of the graph in Figure 6.23: Adjusting the view so that the turning points of the polynomial are visible. x = −4.” The result is shown in the ﬁrst image on the left in Figure 6. To ﬁnd the solutions of 2x3 + x2 − 28x = 0. Press ENTER to mark the “Left bound. Note that this window now shows the x-intercepts as well as the turning points of the graph of the polynomial. In the image at the right in Figure 6.22. Select 2:zero from the CALC menu. return and leave via the bottom of the screen. graphing each side separately and ﬁnding where the graphs intersect.4. Load y = 2x3 + x2 − 28x into Y1 in the Y= menu.24. leave the top of the screen. and then ﬁnally return and leave via the top of the screen. Figure 6. Set the WINDOW settings as shown in the image on the left in Figure 6. Repeat the process to ﬁnd the remaining x-intercepts. 435 Graphical solution. Rather than working with 2x3 +x2 = 28x.22. press ENTER to use the current position of the cursor for your “Guess. . we will work instead with 2x3 + x2 − 28x = 0. The results are shown in the next two images in Figure 6.” then move the cursor to the right of the x-intercept and press ENTER to mark the “Right bound.” Finally.6.22: Sketch y = 2x3 + x2 − 28x.23. the solutions of 2x3 + x2 = 28x are x = 0.23. Clearly. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 Thus.24.23. there are at least two turning points to the graph that are not visible in the current viewing window. then use the left. then push the GRAPH button to produce the image on the right in Figure 6. then select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image at the right in Figure 6.

25: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. note how the graphical solutions of 2x3 +x2 −28x = 0. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept. and x = 7/2 found using the algebraic method. and x = 3. respectively (see Figure 6.24: Use 2:zero from the CALC menu to ﬁnd the x-intercepts. 0. namely x = −4. Use a ruler to draw all lines. FACTORING Figure 6. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. 7/4 y = 2x3 + x2 − 28x −10 −4 0 3. . x = 0. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the xaxis. x = 0.25). • Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 6.5 10 x −100 Figure 6.25).25). • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6. match the solutions x = −4.25).5. These are the solutions of the equation 2x3 + x2 − 28x = 0 (see Figure 6.436 CHAPTER 6. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. y 100 Answer: −2. Finally. but freehand any curves.

4. 16x4 − 36x3 − 36x2 26. 2x2 − 17x + 21 In Exercises 19-26. begin listing integer pairs whose product equals ac. 6x4 − 33x3 + 42x2 24. compare the given trinomial with ax2 + bx + c. 3x2 + 19x + 28 6. 3x2 + 4x − 32 12. then list ALL integer pairs whose product equals ac. 7. 4x2 + 19x + 21 11. 4x2 − 21x + 5 16. 12x4 − 20x3 + 8x2 21. Use this pair to help factor the given trinomial. 8x2 + 22x + 9 9. then begin listing integer pairs whose product equals ac. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 437 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6. then compute ac. 6x4 − 10x3 − 24x2 23. factor the trinomial. 40x4 − 10x3 − 5x2 . 6x2 − 23x + 7 5. 6x2 + x − 1 15. compare the given trinomial with ax2 + bx + c. 13. 1. 4x2 + x − 14 In Exercises 13-18.6. then circle and use this pair to help factor the given trinomial. 6x2 + 13x − 5 2. Cease the list process when you discover a pair whose sum equals b. Note: If you ﬁnd you cannot identify the pair mentally. 19. 36x4 − 75x3 + 21x2 22. compare the given trinomial with ax2 + bx + c. 4x2 − x − 14 17. 4x2 − x − 3 4. 3x2 + 28x + 9 14. 15x3 − 10x2 − 105x 25. 3x2 − 19x + 20 3. 2x2 − 9x − 18 In Exercises 7-12. then cease the listing process when you encounter the pair whose sum equals b. 16x5 − 36x4 + 14x3 20. 6x2 + 17x + 7 10. 6x2 − 11x − 7 18. Circle the pair whose sum equals b. 12x2 − 23x + 5 8. then use this pair to help factor the given trinomial. Try to mentally discover the integer pair whose product is ac and whose sum is b.

FACTORING In Exercises 27-38. (2x + 1)(3x + 7) Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 11. (3x − 5)(4x − 1) 9. ii) Use the 2:zero utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation. 2x2 − 20 = −3x 31. (3x + 1)(x + 9) 15. perform each of the following tasks: i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation. (x + 4)(3x − 8) 13. ii) Use the 2:zero utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation. 2x2 = 7x − 3 29. −7x − 3 = −6x2 34. 26x − 9 = −3x2 36. 6x3 + 3x2 = 63x ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. −23x + 7 = −6x2 37. use an algebraic technique to solve the given equation. 2x3 = 3x2 + 20x 44. 2x2 + x − 28 = 0 41. (x + 4)(3x + 7) 7. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 6. 2x3 (2x − 1)(4x − 7) . (2x + 5)(3x − 1) 3. 4x2 − 17x − 15 = 0 42. 10x3 + 34x2 = 24x 46. (x − 5)(4x − 1) 17. 39. (x − 1)(4x + 3) 5.438 CHAPTER 6. 6x2 = −25x + 9 38. 6x2 − 7 = −11x 33. 3x2 + 16 = −14x 30. 2x2 = 13x + 45 In Exercises 39-42. 13x − 45 = −2x2 35. 2x3 = 3x2 + 35x 45. 3x2 + 30 = 23x 32. 43. 3x2 + 14x − 24 = 0 In Exercises 43-46. 2x2 − 9x − 5 = 0 40. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 5. 27. 4x2 = −x + 18 28. perform each of the following tasks: i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation. (3x − 7)(2x + 1) 19.

5 43. −5/2. x = −1/2.− 3 2 39. 4 45. x = − . x = 0.6. 3x2 (3x − 1)(4x − 7) 23. x = 35. x = 2. 3/5 29. x = 6. FACTORING AX 2 + BX + C WHEN A = 1 21. − 31. x = −2.4. x = −9. 4x2 (x − 3)(4x + 3) 27. 3x2 (x − 2)(2x − 7) 25. 3 2 . x = −3/4. − 9 4 8 3 37. −4. 5 3 1 3 33. x = 0. 5 41. 1 3 439 1 9 .

Square the ﬁrst term: a2 2. (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 2. Here are two earlier rules for squaring a binomial. FACTORING 6. You Try It! Expand: (2s3 − 7t)2 EXAMPLE 2. 1. then produce the middle term of our answer by multiplying the ﬁrst and second terms and doubling. Multiply the ﬁrst and second term. then double: 2ab 3. the ﬁrst of which was squaring a binomial. we can expand (3u2 −5v 2 )2 as follows: (3u2 − 5v 2 )2 = (3u2 )2 − 2(3u2 )(5v 2 ) + (5v 2 )2 = 9u4 − 30u2 v 2 + 25v 4 . proceed as follows: 1.440 CHAPTER 6. Expand: (3u2 − 5v 2 )2 Solution: Using the pattern (a−b)2 = a2 −2ab+b2.5 Factoring Special Forms In this section we revisit two special product forms that we learned in Chapter 5. we can expand (2x+ 3y)2 as follows: (2x + 3y)2 = (2x)2 + 2(2x)(3y) + (3y)2 = 4x2 + 6xy + 9y 2 Answer: 25a2 + 20ab + 4b2 Note how we square the ﬁrst and second terms. (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 Perfect Square Trinomials To square a binomial such as (a + b)2 . Expand: (2x + 3y)2 Solution: Using the pattern (a+ b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 . Squaring a binomial. Square the last term: b2 You Try It! Expand: (5a + 2b)2 EXAMPLE 1.

because factoring is “unmultiplying. a) 4y 2 − 12y + 9 = (2y − 3)2 b) 16a2 − 24ab + 9b2 = (4a − 3b)2 c) x6 + 10x3 + 25 = (x3 + 5)2 Answer: (5x4 − 3)2 . You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. Factor each of the following trinomials: a) 4y 2 − 12y + 9 b) 16a2 − 24ab + 9b2 c) x6 + 10x3 + 25 Factor: 25x8 − 30x4 + 9 Solution: Because of the work already done in Example 3. Expand each of the following: a) (2y − 3)2 b) (4a − 3b)2 c) (x3 + 5)2 Solution: Using the pattern (a ± b)2 = a2 ± 2ab + b2 . FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 441 Note that the sign of the middle term is negative this time. we expand each binomially mentally.6. Answer: 4s6 − 28s3 t + 49t2 Once you’ve squared a few binomials. and (iii) square the second term. (ii) multiply the ﬁrst and second term and double the result.5. it is a simple task to factor each of these trinomials. a) (2y − 3)2 = 4y 2 − 12y + 9 b) (4a − 3b)2 = 16a2 − 24ab + 9b2 c) (x3 + 5)2 = x6 + 10x3 + 25 Answer: 25x8 − 30x4 + 9 Expand: (5x4 − 3)2 Now. writing down the answer without any intermediate steps. The ﬁrst and last terms are still positive because we are squaring. it’s time to do all of the work in your head. (i) Square the ﬁrst term. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3.” it should be a simple matter to reverse the process of Example 3.

we must check to see if the middle term is correct. Thus. then the trinomial is called a perfect square trinomial. Taking the square roots. how does one recognize a perfect square trinomial? If the ﬁrst and last terms of a trinomial are perfect squares. we suspect that 4x2 − 37x + 9 factors as follows: 4x2 − 37x + 9 = (2x − 3)2 ? . List of Squares n n2 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 25 6 36 7 49 8 64 9 81 10 100 11 121 12 144 13 169 14 196 15 225 16 256 17 289 18 324 19 361 20 400 21 441 22 484 23 529 24 576 25 625 a) In the trinomial 9x2 − 42x + 49. You Try It! Factor: 16x2 + 72x + 81 EXAMPLE 5. we suspect that 9x2 − 42x + 49 factors as follows: 9x2 − 42x + 49 = (3x − 7)2 However. Multiply 7a and 5b. If a trinomial a2 + 2ab + b2 is the square of a binomial. note that (3x)2 = 9x2 and 72 = 49. b) In the trinomial 49a2 +70ab+25b2. Hence. Factor each of the following trinomials: a) 9x2 − 42x + 49 b) 49a2 + 70ab + 25b2 c) 4x2 − 37x + 9 Solution: Note that the ﬁrst and last terms of each trinomial are perfect squares. However. Taking the square roots. the ﬁrst and last terms are perfect squares. So. as in (a + b)2 . the ﬁrst and last terms are perfect squares. FACTORING Each of the trinomials in Example 4 is an example of a perfect square trinomial. Multiply 3x and 7. then you should suspect that you may be dealing with a perfect square trinomial. note that (2x)2 = 4x2 and (3)2 = 9.442 CHAPTER 6. ? ? c) In the trinomial 4x2 − 37x + 9. then double: 2(7a)(5b) = 70ab. then double: 2(3x)(7) = 42x. Perfect square trinomial. the middle term is correct and therefore 9x2 − 42x + 49 = (3x − 7)2 . Hence. the ﬁrst and last terms are perfect squares. Thus. you also have to have the correct middle term in order to have a perfect square trinomial. Hence. we suspect that 49a2 + 70ab + 25b2 factors as follows: 49a2 + 70ab + 25b2 = (7a + 5b)2 However. we must check to see if the middle term is correct. Taking the square roots. note that (7a)2 = 49a2 and (5b)2 = 25b2. the middle term is correct and therefore 49a2 + 70ab + 25b2 = (7a + 5b)2 .

Replace the middle term as a sum of like terms using this ordered pair. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. Factor out 4x − 1. so this factorization is incorrect! We must ﬁnd another way to factor this trinomial. . Multiply 2x and 3. the last factorization is correct only if the middle term is correct. 12x2 y 2 . The ﬁrst step to perform in any factoring problem is factor out the GCF. Answer: (4x + 9)2 Remember the ﬁrst rule of factoring! The ﬁrst rule of factoring. we do have a perfect square trinomial and our result is correct. so we take their square roots and factors as follows. Because 2(x)(3y) = 6xy matches the middle term of x2 + 6xy + 9y 2 . 2x3 y + 12x2 y 2 + 18xy 3 = 2xy(x2 + 6xy + 9y 2 ) We now note that the ﬁrst and last terms of the resulting trinomial factor are perfect squares. ﬁrst factor out the GCF. we need a pair of integers whose product is ac = 36 and whose sum is b = −37. This example clearly demonstrates how important it is to check the middle term. = 2xy(x + 3y)2 Of course. this is not the middle term of 4x2 − 37x + 9. FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 443 However. we must check to see if the middle term is correct. Factor each of the following trinomials: a) 2x3 y + 12x2 y 2 + 18xy 3 b) −4x5 + 32x4 − 64x3 Factor: −4x3 − 24x2 − 36x Solution: Remember. However.6. a) In the trinomial 2x3 y + 12x2 y 2 + 18xy 3 . then double: 2(2x)(3) = 12x. Comparing 4x2 − 37x + 9 with ax2 + bx + c. 4x2 − 37x + 9 = 4x2 − x − 36x + 9 = x(4x − 1) − 9(4x − 1) = (x − 9)(4x − 1) −37x = −x − 36x. We ﬁrst factor out 2xy. we note that the GCF of 2x3 y. Factor by grouping.5. and 18xy 3 is 2xy. The integer pair −1 and −36 comes to mind.

32x4 . The diﬀerence of squares. Let’s begin again. We take their square roots and write: = −4x3 (x − 4)2 Again. Answer: −4x(x + 3)2 The Diﬀerence of Squares The second special product form we learned in Chapter 5 was the diﬀerence of squares. (a + b)(a − b) = a2 − b2 If you are multiplying two binomials which have the exact same terms in the “First” positions and the exact same terms in the “Last” positions. Place a minus sign between the two squares. Square the ﬁrst term: a2 2. −4x5 + 32x4 − 64x3 = 4x3 (−x2 + 8x − 16) However. We ﬁrst factor out 4x3 . and thus are not perfect squares. FACTORING b) In the trinomial −4x5 + 32x4 − 64x3 . this time factoring out −4x3 . the ﬁrst and third terms of −x2 + 8x − 16 are negative. this last factorization is correct only if the middle term is correct.444 CHAPTER 6. then multiply as follows: 1. we do have a perfect square trinomial and our result is correct. . and 64x3 is 4x3 . but one set is separated by a plus sign while the other set is separated by a minus sign. we note that the GCF of 4x5 . Because 2(x)(4) = 8x. −4x5 + 32x4 − 64x3 = −4x3 (x2 − 8x + 16) This time the ﬁrst and third terms of x2 − 8x + 16 are perfect squares. Here is the diﬀerence of squares rule. Square the second term: b2 3.

a) In (3x + 5)(3x − 5). a) 9x2 − 25 = (3x + 5)(3x − 5) b) a6 − 4b6 = (a3 − 2b3 )(a3 + 2b3 ) . FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 445 You Try It! EXAMPLE 7.” is should be a simple matter to reverse the process of Example 7.6. a) Square the ﬁrst term: (3x)2 = 9x2 b) Square the second term: 52 = 25 c) Place a minus sign between the two squares. Hence: (3x + 5)(3x − 5) = 9x2 − 25 b) In (a3 − 2b3 )(a3 + 2b3 ). You Try It! EXAMPLE 8.5. we have the exact same terms in the “First” and “Last” positions. a) Square the ﬁrst term: (a3 )2 = a6 b) Square the second term: (2b3 )2 = 4b6 c) Place a minus sign between the two squares. with the ﬁrst set separated by a plus sign and the second set separated by a minus sign. it is a simple matter to factor (or “unmultiply”) each of these problems. Expand each of the following: a) (3x + 5)(3x − 5) b) (a3 − 2b3 )(a3 + 2b3 ) Expand: (4x − 3y)(4x + 3y) Solution: We apply the diﬀerence of squares pattern to expand each of the given problems. Factor each of the following: a) 9x2 − 25 b) a6 − 4b6 Factor: 81x2 − 49 Solution: Because of the work already done in Example 7. Hence: (a3 − 2b3 )(a3 + 2b3 ) = a6 − 4b6 Answer: 16x2 − 9y 2 Because factoring is “unmultiplying. we have the exact same terms in the “First” and “Last” positions. with the ﬁrst set separated by a minus sign and the second set separated by a plus sign.

x4 − 16 = (x2 + 4)(x2 − 4) . factors remain that can be factored further. x3 − 9x = x(x2 − 9) Note that x2 − 9 is now the diﬀerence of two perfect squares.446 CHAPTER 6. Factor out x. FACTORING Answer: (9x + 7)(9x − 7) In each case. Factor: x3 − 9x Solution: In x3 − 9x. we have the diﬀerence of two squares: (x2 )2 = x4 and 42 = 16. it does not matter which one you make plus and which one you make minus. Always remember the ﬁrst rule of factoring. we take the square roots. = x(x + 3)(x − 3) Answer: 4x2 (x + 2)(x − 2) Factoring Completely Sometimes after one pass at factoring. You Try It! Factor: 4x4 − 16x2 EXAMPLE 9. The ﬁrst rule of factoring. Take the square roots of x2 and 9. You must continue to factor in this case. Factor: x4 − 16 Solution: In x4 − 16. which are x and 3. then separate one set with a plus sign and the other set with a minus sign. then separate one set with a plus sign and the other set with a minus sign. You Try It! Factor: x4 − 81 EXAMPLE 10. then separated one set with a plus sign and the other with a minus sign. The ﬁrst step to perform in any factoring problem is factor out the GCF. First. the GCF of x3 and 9x is x. note how we took the square roots of each term. Because of the commutative property of multiplication.

Solve for x: 25x2 = 169 Solve for x: 16x2 = 121 Solution: Make one side equal to zero.6. making one term plus and one term minus. if an equation is nonlinear. We encourage readers to check each of these solutions. (5x + 13)(5x − 13) = 0 Use diﬀerence of squares to factor. setting each factor equal to zero and solving the resulting equations. factor. = (x2 + 4)(x + 2)(x − 2) Done. However. Note that we have two perfect squares separated by a minus sign.5. Take the square roots. . This is the diﬀerence of squares pattern. Once you’ve completed this important ﬁrst step. Answer: (x2 + 9)(x + 3)(x − 3) Nonlinear Equations Revisited Remember. FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 447 Note that x2 +4 is the sum of two squares and does not factor further. 11/4 Hence. You Try It! EXAMPLE 11. We cannot factor further. the solutions of 25x2 = 169 are x = −13/5 and x = 13/5. x and 2. factor and apply the zero product property to ﬁnd the solutions. 25x2 = 169 25x − 169 = 0 2 Original equation. the ﬁrst step is to make one side equal to zero by moving all terms to one side of the equation. then separate one set with a plus sign and the other set with a minus sign. then apply the zero product property. Take the square roots. Subtract 169 from both sides. Use the zero product property to complete the solution. 5x + 13 = 0 13 x=− 5 or 5x − 13 = 0 13 x= 5 Answer: −11/4. x2 − 4 is the diﬀerence of two squares.

the only solution of 49x2 + 81 = 126x is x = 9/7. one can go directly from (7x − 9)2 = 0 to 7x − 9 = 0. we can use the zero product property to set each factor equal to zero and solve the resulting equations. Subtract 126x from both sides. Solve for x: 2x3 + 3x2 = 50x + 75 Solution: Make one side equal to zero. Factor out 2x + 3. Of course. You Try It! Solve for x: 5x3 + 36 = x2 + 180x EXAMPLE 13. We encourage readers to check this solution.448 CHAPTER 6. This is a four-term expression. taking the square roots of the ﬁrst and last terms. Hence. Solve for x: 49x2 + 81 = 126x Solution: Make one side equal to zero. Factor x2 out of the ﬁrst two terms. factor. . 2x3 + 3x2 = 50x + 75 2x + 3x − 50x − 75 = 0 3 2 Original equation. 7x − 9 = 0 9 x= 7 or 7x − 9 = 0 9 x= 7 Answer: 8/5 Hence. FACTORING You Try It! Solve for x: 25x2 = 80x − 64 EXAMPLE 12. 49x − 126x + 81 = 0 2 Note that the ﬁrst and last terms of the trinomial are perfect squares. Because −2(7x)(9) = −126x. the only solution of 49x2 + 81 = 126x is x = 9/7. Make one side zero. Because (7x − 9)2 = (7x − 9)(7x − 9). it make sense to try and factor as a perfect square trinomial. then apply the zero product property. the middle term is correct. Hence. then apply the zero product property. (7x − 9)2 = 0 Factor as a perfect square trinomial. and −25 out of the second two terms. factor. x2 (2x + 3) − 25(2x + 3) = 0 (x − 25)(2x + 3) = 0 2 Factor by grouping. be sure to check the middle term. Hence. 49x2 + 81 = 126x Original equation. One can also argue that the only number whose square is zero is the number zero. so we try factoring by grouping.

then compare your answers. Although the image in Figure 6. then pressing the GRAPH button will produce a nicer view of the points of intersection. Make one side zero. the solutions of 2x3 + 3x2 = 50x + 75 are x = −5. x = 5. . The zero product property says that at least one of these factors must equal zero. then compare your answers. FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 449 Complete the factorization by using the diﬀerence of squares to factor x2 − 25.26 shows all three points of intersection. and x = 2. Finally. adjusting the WINDOW parameters as shown in Figure 6.5. the solutions of x3 = 4x are x = 0. Solve the equation x3 = 4x. Apply diﬀerence of squares. matching the algebraic and graphical solutions.27. 1/5 Hence. Let’s solve another nonlinear equation. (x + 5)(x − 5)(2x + 3) = 0 Use diﬀerence of squares to factor. Solution: Note that we have a power of x larger than one. You Try It! EXAMPLE 14. x+5=0 x = −5 or x−5=0 x=5 or 2x + 3 = 0 x=− 3 2 Answer: −6. Graphical solution. use the zero product property. We encourage readers to check each of these solutions. Select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the graph in Figure 6.6. Factor out GCF. Make one side zero and factor. Original equation. and x = −3/2. 6. Nonlinear.27. x3 = 4x x − 4x = 0 x(x − 4) = 0 x(x + 2)(x − 2) = 0 2 3 Solve the equation x3 = 16x both algebraically and graphically. Note that we now have a product of three factors that equals zero. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. x = −2. both algebraically and graphically. so the equation x3 = 4x is nonlinear. x=0 or x+2=0 x = −2 or x−2=0 x=2 Hence. as shown in the ﬁgure on the right in Figures 6.26. Load y = x3 and y = 4x into Y1 and Y2 in the Y= menu of your calculator.

• Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 6.28: Finding the points of intersection. Figure 6.29).28. respectively (see Figure 6. x = 0. Repeat the process to ﬁnd the remaining points of intersection. Figure 6. the graphical solutions are x = −2.29). Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 6. Use the 5:intersect tool from the CALC menu to ﬁnd the three points of intersection.27: Adjusting the viewing window.” then press ENTER again in response to “Second curve. but freehand any curves. .28. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y.” then use the left-arrow key to move your cursor close to the leftmost point of intersection and press ENTER in response to “Guess.26: Sketching y = x3 and y = 4x.450 CHAPTER 6. and x = 2.” The result is shown in the ﬁrst image on the left in Figure 6.29). FACTORING Figure 6. Press the ENTER key in response to “First curve. Use a ruler to draw all lines. The results are shown in the last two images in Figure 6. Thus.

note that the graphical solutions x = −2. 4 −5 −2 0 2 5 x −15 Figure 6.29). Finally. x = 0. . y 15 y = x3 y = 4x Answer: −4.29: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework.5. These are the solutions of the equation x3 = 4x (see Figure 6. 0. and x = 2 match our algebraic solutions exactly. FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 451 • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the x-axis.6.

49b6 − 112b3 + 64 18. (3u3 + 16v 3 )(3u3 − 16v 3 ) .452 CHAPTER 6. 9u2 + 24uv + 16v 2 11. expand each of the given expressions. a6 − 16a3 + 64 21. 1. 64u4 − 144u2 w2 + 81w4 15. (21c + 16)(21c − 16) 30. 49b2 − 42bc + 9c2 13. −12z 5 − 36z 4 − 27z 3 In Exercises 29-36. (4a + 7b)2 4. (w3 + 7)2 7. 5s3 t − 20s2 t2 + 20st3 22. 18x3 z − 60x2 z 2 + 50xz 3 25. (5x + 19z)(5x − 19z) 32. (7u2 − 2w2 )2 In Exercises 9-28. (5x3 + z 3 )(5x3 − z 3 ) 35. FACTORING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. −45c3 + 120c2 − 80c 27. 4a4 − 12a2 c2 + 9c4 17. a4 + 18a2 b2 + 81b4 14. 29. −5u5 − 30u4 − 45u3 28. 12r3 t − 12r2 t2 + 3rt3 23. 49s4 − 28s2 t2 + 4t4 16. −48b3 + 120b2 − 75b 26. (s2 + 6t2 )2 8. (s3 − 9)2 6. (19t + 7)(19t − 7) 31. 8a3 c + 8a2 c2 + 2ac3 24. 49r6 + 112r3 + 64 20. 36v 2 − 60vw + 25w2 12. 25s2 + 60st + 36t2 10. (3y 4 + 23z 4)(3y 4 − 23z 4) 34. (8r − 3t)2 2. expand each of the given expressions. 25x6 − 10x3 + 1 19. (11u + 5w)(11u − 5w) 33. (6a + c)2 3. factor each of the given expressions. (4s + t)2 5. (8r5 + 19s5 )(8r5 − 19s5 ) 36. 9.

2x3 + 7x2 = 72x + 252 70. 1444a3 b − 324ab3 52. 144x2 + 121 = 264x 74. solve each of the given equations for x. x4 − 1 453 In Exercises 61-68. 289x2 = 4 77. 81x4 − 256 58. 75y 5 − 147y 3 51. 3u3 + u2 − 48u − 16 63. 36u10 − 25w10 48. 9b2 − 25 39. 81r2 − 169 41. 529r2 − 289s2 44. FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS In Exercises 37-60. 16v 2 − 169 40. 100y 2 − 81z 2 43. 361x2 − 529 38. 4z 5 − 256z 3 57. factor each of the given expressions completely. 16x2 = 169 76. factor each of the given expressions. 361x10 − 484z 10 47. 192u3 v − 507uv 3 55. x3 + 4x2 = 49x + 196 73. 169x2 − 576y 2 42. 2x3 + 7x2 = 32x + 112 71. 49a2 − 144b2 45. 69. 61. 16x2 + 289 = −136x . 49r6 − 256t6 46. x3 + 5x2 = 64x + 320 72. a6 − 81c6 49. 576t4 − 4t2 56. 144x2 = 121 79. x3 − 2x2 y − xy 2 + 2y 3 64. 81x4 − 1 59. x3 + 2x2 z − 4xz 2 − 8z 3 65. 9x2 = 25 78. 81x4 − 16 60. 576x3 z − 1156xz 3 54. r3 − 3r2 t − 25rt2 + 75t3 66. 72y 5 − 242y 3 50. 37. z 3 + z 2 − 9z − 9 62. r3 − 2r2 − r + 2 In Exercises 69-80. 2x3 + x2 − 32x − 16 68. 12b3 c − 1875bc3 53.6. 361x2 + 529 = 874x 75. 256x2 + 361 = −608x 80. 2b3 − 3b2 c − 50bc2 + 75c3 67.5.

s4 + 12s2 t2 + 36t4 9. 4ab(19a + 9b)(19a − 9b) 53.454 In Exercises 81-84. 5st(s − 2t)2 23. x3 = x 82. 4xz(12x + 17z)(12x − 17z) 55. 81. Report the results found using graphing calculator as shown in Example 12. (z + 3)(z − 3)(z + 1) 63. (23r + 17s)(23r − 17s) 45. x3 = 9x 83. (a2 + 9b2 )2 15. (4v + 13)(4v − 13) 41. s6 − 18s3 + 81 7. (9x2 + 16)(3x + 4)(3x − 4) 59. (6u5 + 5w5 )(6u5 − 5w5 ) 49. (r + 5t)(r − 5t)(r − 3t) 67. (x + 4)(x − 4)(2x + 1) . perform each of the following tasks: CHAPTER 6. 9x3 = x ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. (13x + 24y)(13x − 24y) 43. (19x + 23)(19x − 23) 39. 2ac(2a + c)2 25. (9x2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2) 61. 25x2 − 361z 2 33. (6v − 5w)2 13. (7s2 − 2t2 )2 17. 64r2 − 48rt + 9t2 3. (7b3 − 8)2 19. ii) Use the 5:intersect utility on your graphing calculator to solve the given equation. 4t2 (12t + 1)(12t − 1) 57. (5s + 6t)2 11. −5u3 (u + 3)2 29. 2y 3 (6y + 11)(6y − 11) 51. FACTORING i) Use a strictly algebraic technique to solve the given equation. 9y 8 − 529z 8 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 35. 441c2 − 256 31. −3b(4b − 5)2 27. 16a2 + 56ab + 49b2 5. (7r3 + 16t3 )(7r3 − 16t3 ) 47. 64r10 − 361s10 37. (7r3 + 8)2 21. (x + y)(x − y)(x − 2y) 65. 4x3 = x 84.

8. −1/2. x = − . 6. − 7 2 5 5 77.6. 1/2 75. x = −6. 3 3 79. −5 73. FACTORING SPECIAL FORMS 69. x = − 19 16 455 71. x = 0. x = 0. x = −8. 4 4 81. x = − . 1 83. x = 11 12 13 13 .5. −1.

after doing a few you tend to get into a rhythm. use the diﬀerence of squares pattern to factor: a2 − b2 = (a + b)(a − b) b) If you have a trinomial whose ﬁrst and last terms are perfect squares. If you have a trinomial of the form ax2 + bx + c. The goal of this section is to set up a strategy to follow when attacking a general factoring problem. Factor out the greatest common factor (GCF). The factoring process is not complete until none of your remaining factors can be factored further. a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2 Be sure to check that the middle term is correct. Take the square roots of the ﬁrst and last terms and factor as follows. you should suspect that you have a perfect square trinomial. If you have a four-term expression. 4. and the remainder of the exercises. Thus. Once you’ve applied the above strategy to the given polynomial. Factor completely. Then you want to apply the following guidelines.” . it is quite possible that one of your resulting factors will factor further. 2. These steps should be followed in the order that they appear. because they are similar. when you encounter a mixture of factoring problems of diﬀerent types. seem to ﬂow. Look for a special form. This is the meaning of the phrase. we have the following rule. 3. Factoring Strategy. FACTORING 6.6 Factoring Strategy When you are concentrating on factoring problems of a single type. progress is harder. 1.456 CHAPTER 6. If it hasn’t already been done. However. it is helpful to arrange the terms of the given polynomial in some sort of order (descending or ascending). use the ac-method to factor. a) If you have two perfect squares separated by a minus sign. try to factor by grouping. “factor completely.

Check: Multiply to check. so the student’s factorization is incorrect. 2x4 + 8x2 = 2x2 (x2 + 4) The sum of squares does not factor. FACTORING STRATEGY Finally. 2x4 + 8x2 = 2x2 (x2 + 4) = 2x2 (x + 2)2 Note that this student did not bother to check his factorization. It’s a bit more work to check your factorization. . a very good word of advice.6. he might have caught his error. 2x2 (x + 2)2 = 2x2 (x2 + 4x + 4) = 2x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 This is not the same as the original polynomial 2x4 + 8x2 . that he multiplies correctly during the check. Check: Multiply to check. Once you’ve factored the given polynomial completely. Remember. 457 Check your factoring by multiplying. The correct factorization follows. Solution: Factor out the GCF. but it’s worth the eﬀort. when squaring a binomial. and get the original given polynomial as a result. Let’s see what can happen when you don’t check your factorization! Warning! The following solution is incorrect! Factor: 2x4 + 8x2 . there is a middle term. the better you get at factoring. Remember.6. so we are ﬁnished. so this factorization is correct. 2x2 (x2 + 4) = 2x4 + 8x2 This is the same as the original polynomial 2x4 + 8x2 . Had the student performed this check. then you know your factorization is correct.” so the more you multiply. provided of course. Let’s do that for him now. If you multiply to ﬁnd the product of your factors. it is a very good practice to check your result. factoring is “unmultiplying. It helps to eliminate errors and also helps to build a better understanding of the factoring process.

9xy 3 . Let’s factor out −3x2 instead. but we don’t like the fact that the second factor starts with −x4 . FACTORING You Try It! Factor completely: −4x7 + 64x3 EXAMPLE 1. one pair with a minus sign.” The GCF of x3 y. Factor completely: x3 y + 9xy 3 + 6x2 y 2 Solution: The ﬁrst rule of factoring is “Factor out the GCF. −3x6 + 3x2 = −3x2 (x4 − 1) The second factor is the diﬀerence of two squares. But the last factor is the diﬀerence of two squares.” The GCF of −3x6 and 3x2 is 3x2 . = −3x2 (x2 + 1)(x + 1)(x − 1) Check: Multiply to check the result. so we factor out xy. x3 y + 9xy 3 + 6x2 y 2 = xy(x2 + 9y 2 + 6xy) Let’s order that second factor in descending powers of x. −3x2 (x2 + 1)(x + 1)(x − 1) = −3x2 (x2 + 1)(x2 − 1) = −3x2 (x4 − 1) = −3x6 + 3x2 Answer: −4x3 (x2 + 4)(x + 2)(x − 2) The factorization checks. so we could factor out 3x2 . separating one pair with a plus sign.458 CHAPTER 6. −3x6 + 3x2 = 3x2 (−x4 + 1) This is perfectly valid. = −3x2 (x2 + 1)(x2 − 1) The sum of squares does not factor. You Try It! Factor completely: 3a2 b4 + 12a4 b2 − 12a3 b3 EXAMPLE 2. = xy(x2 + 6xy + 9y 2 ) . separating one pair with a plus sign. Take the square roots. and 6x2 y 2 is xy. Factor completely: −3x6 + 3x2 Solution: The ﬁrst rule of factoring is “Factor out the GCF. Take the square roots. one pair with a minus sign.

this result is the same as the given polynomial. Because the coeﬃcient of x2 is one. let’s arrange our terms in descending powers of x right away. Factor completely: 2x3 − 48x + 20x2 Solution: In the last example. The factorization checks. This time. = 2x(x2 + 10x − 24) The last term of the trinomial factor is not a perfect square. this is a “drop in place” situation. this result is the same as the given polynomial. check the middle term. Check: Multiply to check the result. We drop our pair in place and write: = 2x(x − 2)(x + 12) Thus. 2x(x − 2)(x + 12) = 2x(x2 + 10x − 24) = 2x3 + 20x2 − 48x Except for the order. 12 has a product equal to ac = −24 and a sum equal to b = 10. Let’s move to the ac-method to factor. Answer: 3a2 b2 (2a − b)2 You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. The factorization checks. we recognized a need to rearrange our terms after we pulled out the GCF. and write: = xy(x + 3y)2 Thus. Answer: −3x2 (x − 4)(x − 5) Factor completely: 27x3 − 3x4 − 60x2 . 2x3 − 48x + 20x2 = 2x3 + 20x2 − 48x Now. We suspect we have a perfect square trinomial. xy(x + 3y)2 = xy(x2 + 6xy + 9y 2 ) = x3 y + 6x2 y 2 + 9xy 3 Except for the order. Check: Multiply to check the result.6.6. x3 y + 9xy 3 + 6x2 y 2 = xy(x + 3y)2 . so we take the square roots of the ﬁrst and last terms. FACTORING STRATEGY 459 The ﬁrst and last terms of the trinomial factor are perfect squares. We use the FOIL method shortcut and mental calculations to speed things up. let’s factor out the GCF. The integer pair −2. 2x3 − 48x + 20x2 = 2x(x − 2)(x + 12).

this is not a “drop in place” situation. FACTORING You Try It! Factor completely: 8x2 + 14xy − 15y 2 EXAMPLE 4. then factor by grouping. which in this case is 2x2 . Because a = 1. 2a2 − 13ab − 24b2 = 2a2 + 3ab − 16ab − 24b2 = a(2a + 3b) − 8b(2a + 3b) = (a − 8b)(2a + 3b) Thus. −16 comes to mind (if nothing comes to mind. = 2x2 (15x2 − 6x + 25x − 10) Factor by grouping. Check: Multiply to check the result. 30x4 + 38x3 − 20x2 = 2x2 (15x2 + 19x − 10) The ﬁrst and last terms of the trinomial factor are not perfect squares.460 CHAPTER 6. = 2x2 (3x(5x − 2) + 5(5x − 2)) . so let’s apply the ac-method. The integer pair −6 and 25 satisﬁes these requirements. but the ﬁrst and last terms are not perfect squares. 2a2 − 13ab − 24b2 = (a − 8b)(2a + 3b). (a − 8b)(2a + 3b) = 2a2 − 13ab − 24b2 Answer: (2x + 5y)(4x − 3y) This result is the same as the given polynomial. note that ac = (15)(−10) = −150. We have a trinomial. so we need to break up the middle term as a sum of like terms using the pair −6 and 25. The factorization checks. We need an integer pair whose product is −150 and whose sum is 19. start listing integer pairs). Ignoring the variables for a moment. The integer pair 3. Break up the middle term into a sum of like terms using the integer pair 3. Factor completely: 2a2 − 13ab − 24b2 Solution: There is no common factor we can factor out. You Try It! Factor completely: 36x3 + 60x2 + 9x EXAMPLE 5. Factor 3x out of the ﬁrst two terms and 5 out of the third and fourth terms. We use the FOIL method shortcut and mental calculations to speed things up. Factor completely: 30x4 + 38x3 − 20x2 Solution: The ﬁrst step is to factor out the GCF. so let’s move again to the ac-method. Comparing 15x2 +19x−10 with ax2 +bx+c. we need an integer pair whose product is ac = −48 and whose sum is −13. −16.

461 Check: Multiply to check the result. The factorization checks. Check: Multiply to check the result. = 3x3 x2 (5x − 11) − 16(5x − 11) = 3x3 (x2 − 16)(5x − 11) The factor x2 −16 is a diﬀerence of two squares. The factorization checks. Factor completely: 8x5 + 10x4 − 72x3 − 90x2 Solution: Each of the terms is divisible by 3x . Answer: 2x2 (x − 3)(x + 3)(4x + 5) 3 3 Factor completely: 15x6 − 33x5 − 240x4 + 528x3 . factor out the common factor 5x − 2. one pair with a minus. = 2x2 (3x + 5)(5x − 2) Thus.6. Use the FOIL method to ﬁrst multiply the binomials. = 3x3 (x + 4)(x − 4)(5x − 11) Thus. 3x3 (x + 4)(x − 4)(5x − 11) = 3x3 (x2 − 16)(5x − 11) = 3x3 (5x3 − 11x2 − 80x + 176 = 15x6 − 33x5 − 240x4 + 528x3 This result is the same as the given polynomial. separate one pair with a plus. Factor out 3x . Take the square roots. = 30x4 + 38x3 − 20x2 This result is the same as the given polynomial. 2x2 (3x + 5)(5x − 2) = 2x2 (15x2 + 19x − 10) Distribute the 2x2 . 15x6 − 33x5 − 240x4 + 528x3 = 3x3 5x3 − 11x2 − 80x + 176 The second factor is a four-term expression. 15x6 − 33x5 − 240x4 + 528x3 = 3x3 (x + 4)(x − 4)(5x − 11). Factor by grouping.6. 30x4 + 38x3 − 20x2 = 2x2 (3x + 5)(5x − 2). FACTORING STRATEGY Finally. Answer: 3x(6x + 1)(2x + 3) You Try It! EXAMPLE 6.

Set TblStart=1. Use the 2nd key. − 216 ··· Note that the numbers in the second column are found by dividing ac = −432 by the number in the ﬁrst column. Above the GRAPH button you’ll see TABLE.30. because they are not both integers. We’ll now use this fact and the TABLE feature on our calculator to pursue the desired integer pair. Pay attention only when they are both integers. − 432 2.30 is the pair we seek.462 CHAPTER 6. Note that you can ignore most of the pairs. . Use the up. Above the WINDOW button you’ll see TBLSET.30).30: Using the TABLE feature to assist the ac-method. but the process quickly becomes daunting. then highlight AUTO for both the independent and dependent variables. For example.and down-arrow keys to scroll through the contents of the table. 3. Use the 2nd key. Figure 6. 2. consider the trinomial: 12y 2 − 11y − 36 We need an integer pair whose product is ac = −432 and whose sum is b = −11. then press the WINDOW button to access the menu shown in the second image of Figure 6. remember that you are searching for a pair whose sum is b = −11. Enter the expression -432/X into Y1 in the Y= menu (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 6. Tbl=1. −27 shown in the third image of Figure 6. then press the GRAPH button to access the table shown in the third image in Figure 6. then it can be diﬃcult to ﬁnd a pair whose product is ac and whose sum in b. Note that the pair 16.30. FACTORING Using the Calculator to Assist the ac-Method When using the ac-method to factor ax2 + bx + c and ac is a very large number. In this case. 1. We begin listing integer pair possibilities. 1.

12y 2 − 11y − 36 = 12y 2 + 16y − 27y − 36 = 4y(3y + 4) − 9(3y + 4) = (4y − 9)(3y + 4) Check: Use the FOIL method shortcut and mental calculations to multiply. −27. (4y − 9)(3y + 4) = 12y 2 − 11y − 36 The factorization checks.6. . then factor by grouping. FACTORING STRATEGY 463 Now we can break the middle term of 12y 2 − 11y − 36 into a sum of like terms using the ordered pair 16.6.

2b5 + 4b4 + 2b3 18. 25. 75a6 − 210a5 + 147a4 14. 324x4 + 360x3 + 100x2 22. 2u7 − 162u5 6. 2u6 − 40u5 + 200u4 21. 180a5 b3 + 540a4 b4 + 405a3 b5 16. 3z 4 + 33z 3 + 84z 2 34. 5a4 − 40a3 − 45a2 31. factor each of the given polynomials completely. 3v 6 + 30v 5 + 75v 4 19. 3a9 − 48a5 9. 2z 4 − 4z 3 + 2z 2 20. 245v 7 − 560v 6 + 320v 5 15. 13. 3y 7 − 27y 6 + 42y 5 29. factor each of the given polynomials completely. 3y 5 − 9y 4 − 12y 3 27. 4a6 + 64a5 + 252a4 32. 3y 4 − 27y 3 + 24y 2 . 48y 8 z 4 − 3y 4 z 8 In Exercises 13-24. 1. 162a5c4 − 180a4 c5 + 50a3 c6 In Exercises 25-36. 5a6 + 65a5 + 180a4 35. 5z 7 − 75z 6 + 270z 5 36. 4x4 + 64x3 + 252x2 33. 1250u7w3 − 2u3 w7 12. 3z 4 + 12z 3 − 135z 2 30. 3x7 z 5 − 363x5 z 5 4. 192u6 v 4 + 432u5 v 5 + 243u4v 6 17. 405x4 − 320x2 7. 5a5 + 5a4 − 210a3 26.464 CHAPTER 6. 98b4 + 84b3 + 18b2 23. 3x6 − 300x4 10. 75b4 c5 − 240b3 c6 + 192b2 c7 24. 3y 6 − 39y 5 + 120y 4 28. 3v 8 − 1875v 4 8. factor each of the given polynomials completely. FACTORING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-12. 2y 5 − 18y 3 11. 72s4 t4 − 242s2 t6 3. 484y 4 z 2 − 144y 2z 4 2. 5r5 s2 − 80r3 s2 5.

45a3 b3 (2a + 3b)2 17. 2u5 (u + 9)(u − 9) 7. 12u7 w3 + 9u6 w4 − 432u5w5 − 324u4 w6 53. factor each of the given polynomials completely. 2b3 (b + 1)2 19. use your calculator to help factor each of the given trinomials. 8u6 + 34u5 + 30u4 46.6. 9x6 z 5 + 6x5 z 6 − 144x4 z 7 − 96x3 z 8 52. Follow the procedure outline in Using the Calculator to Assist the ac-Method on page 462. 4b3 − 22b2 + 30b 38. 4a4 + 29a3 + 30a2 47. FACTORING STRATEGY In Exercises 37-48. 72z 6 + 108z 5 − 2z 4 − 3z 3 54. 28x2 + x − 144 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 60x2 − 167x + 72 60. 3v (v + 25)(v + 5)(v − 5) 9. 12y 5 + 15y 4 − 108y 3 − 135y 2 50.6. 3a4 (5a − 7)2 15. 2u3 w3 (25u2 + w2 )(5u + w)(5u − w) 4 2 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 13. 12x5 z 2 + 9x4 z 3 − 30x3 z 4 41. 49. 24s4 t3 + 62s3 t4 + 40s2 t5 43. 4b6 − 22b5 + 30b4 39. 57. 37. 216x7 + 324x6 − 6x5 − 9x4 55. 3x4 (x + 10)(x − 10) 11. 12x3 + 9x2 − 30x 44. 6v 4 + 2v 3 − 20v 2 45. 12a4 c4 − 35a3 c5 + 25a2 c6 48. 144a6 c3 + 360a5c4 − 4a4 c5 − 10a3 c6 56. 16x2 − 62x − 45 59. 3b2 c5 (5b − 8c)2 25. 2z 2 (z − 1)2 21. 4y 2 z 2 (11y + 6z)(11y − 6z) 3. 2u4 w5 − 3u3 w6 − 20u2 w7 40. 9b8 + 12b7 − 324b6 − 432b5 51. 5a3 (a − 6)(a + 7) . 12x4 y 5 + 50x3 y 6 + 50x2 y 7 42. 6x2 + 61x + 120 58. factor each of the given polynomials completely. 18x6 z 5 − 39x5 z 6 + 18x4 z 7 465 In Exercises 49-56. 3x5 z 5 (x + 11)(x − 11) 5. 4x2 (9x + 5)2 23. 48a8 c4 + 32a7 c5 − 3a6 c6 − 2a5 c7 In Exercises 57-60.

4a4 (a + 9)(a + 7) 33. a2 c4 (4a − 5c)(3a − 5c) 49. FACTORING 45. 3y 4 (y − 8)(y − 5) 29. 3y 2 (y + 3)(y − 3)(4y + 5) 51. (15x − 8)(4x − 9) . 2x2 y 5 (3x + 5y)(2x + 5y) 43. 2a3 c3 (6a + c)(6a − c)(2a + 5c) 57. 3x(4x − 5)(x + 2) CHAPTER 6. 3z 2 (z + 7)(z + 4) 35. u2 w5 (u − 4w)(2u + 5w) 41. 3x3 z 5 (x + 4z)(x − 4z)(3x + 2z) 53.466 27. 2b(2b − 5)(b − 3) 39. 3z 2 (z − 5)(z + 9) 31. z 3 (6z + 1)(6z − 1)(2z + 3) 55. 5z 5 (z − 6)(z − 9) 37. 2u4 (4u + 5)(u + 3) 47. (2x + 15)(3x + 8) 59.

7 Applications of Factoring In this section we will solve applications whose solutions involve factoring. Solution: We follow the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. Make one side zero.6. then we have the following equation. APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING 467 6. increasing the total area covered by both canvas and frame to 396 square inches. A carefully labeled ﬁgure will help us maintain our focus. Let’s begin. A rectangular canvas picture measures 12 inches by 16 inches. 2. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. A = (16 + 2x)(12 + 2x).7. We start by expanding the right-hand side of the equation. The canvas is mounted inside a frame of uniform width. increasing the total area covered by both canvas and frame to 117 square inches. If the total area is A = 396 square inches. 16 + 2x x 16 12 + 2x x 12 16 x 16 + 2x 12 x 12 + 2x A rectangular canvas picture measures 7 inches by 11 inches. Find the uniform width of the frame. We’ll let x represent the uniform width of the frame. Find the uniform width of the frame. The total area is found by multiplying these outer dimensions. (16 + 2x)(12 + 2x) = 396 3. 1. If the inner rectangular dimensions are 16 inches by 12 inches. Set up an equation. 4x2 + 56x − 204 = 0 . (16 + 2x)(12 + 2x) = 396 192 + 56x + 4x2 = 396 The resulting equation is nonlinear. adding a frame of uniform width x makes the dimensions of the frame plus canvas 16 + 2x inches by 12 + 2x inches. The canvas is mounted inside a frame of uniform width. Set up a variable dictionary. Solve the equation.

the solutions are x = 3 and x = −17. 5. Answer the question. (6. How much time passes before the projectile hits the ground? EXAMPLE 2. Our solution is correct. x2 + 14x − 51 = 0 We need an integer pair whose product is ac = −51 and whose sum is b = 14. The integer pair −3. the area given in the problem statement. Answer: 1 inch You Try It! A projectile’s height (in feet) is given by the equation y = −16t2 + 144t + 576. the uniform width of the frame is 3 inches.468 CHAPTER 6. (x − 3)(x + 17) = 0 Thus. 4. The uniform width of the frame cannot be −17 inches. Since the coeﬃcient of x2 is one. it’s a bit easier to simply divide both sides by 4. Hence. If the uniform width of the frame is 3 inches. A projectile is ﬁred at an angle into the air from atop a cliﬀ overlooking the ocean. 17 comes to mind. The projectile’s distance (in feet) from the base of the cliﬀ is give by the equation x = 120t. Note how we divide each term on the left-hand side by the number 4. FACTORING We could factor out 4 on the left-hand side. then the ﬁnal dimensions will look like the following. so we eliminate this solution from consideration. where time t is measured in seconds. or A = 396 square inches. Look back. 22 3 16 18 3 12 16 3 22 12 3 18 Thus. the combined area of the frame plus canvas is A = (18)(22). but since there is a zero on the right-hand side of the equation.1) . we can simply “drop in place” our ordered pair.

the projectile splashes into the ocean at t = 20 seconds.2) where t is the amount of time (in seconds) that has passed since the projectile’s release. x = Distance from base of the cliﬀ (in feet). y = Height above sea level (in feet). how far is the projectile from the base of the cliﬀ? Solution: We follow the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. (6.6. we can “drop in place” our integer pair.2). In answering question (a). Set up an equation.2 and solve the resulting equation for t. Since the coeﬃcient of t2 is one.1 and equation 6. . but since the left-hand side of this equation is zero. Substitute 0 for y in equation 6. The equations are already set up (see equation 6. Answer the question.7. Set up a variable dictionary. 0 = t2 − 18t − 40 We need a pair of integers so that their product is ac = −40 and their sum is −18. y = −16t2 + 288t + 640 0 = −16t2 + 288t + 640 We could factor out −16. −20 comes to mind. 2. a) How much time passes before the projectile splashes into the ocean? b) At that time. Solve the equation. APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING 469 and the projectile’s height above sea level (in feet) is given by the equation y = −16t2 + 288t + 640. the solution t = −2 seconds makes no sense. The variables are already set up for us. 0 = (t + 2)(t − 20) Hence. it’s a bit easier to divide both sides by −16. Thus. 1. 4. 3. t = Time since projectile’s release (in seconds). When the projectile splashes into the ocean. The integer pair 2. the solutions are t = −2 and t = 20. its height above sea level at that moment is y = 0 feet. Note how we divide each term on the right-hand side by −16.

we have the following equation. substitute t = 20 in equation 6. Find the integers. The best we can do here is check our solution t = 20 in equation 6. FACTORING In addressing question (b). y = −16t2 + 288t + 640 y = −16(20)2 + 288(20) + 640 y = −6400 + 5760 + 640 y=0 Indeed. . Expand the left-hand side of the equation. then set up the table (see Figure 6. The product of two consecutive even integers is 728. at the moment the projectile splashes into the ocean.2. Solve the equation. k 2 + 2k − 728 = 0 See Using the Calculator to Assist the ac-Method on page 462. the projectile does splash into the ocean. k(k + 2) = 728 3. it is 2.31). Let k represent the ﬁrst even integer.1. k 2 + 2k = 728 The equation is nonlinear. We need an integer pair whose product is ac = −728 and whose sum is b = 2. Enter -728/X in Y1. 5. Find the integers. Answer: 12 seconds You Try It! The product of two consecutive positive odd integers is 483. Then k + 2 represents the next consecutive even integer. Set up a variable dictionary.470 CHAPTER 6. EXAMPLE 3. The product of the integers is 728. Make one side zero. at t = 20. Hence. 2. Solution: We follow the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. 1.400 feet from the base of the cliﬀ. x = 120t x = 120(20) x = 2400 Hence. Look back. to ﬁnd the projectile’s distance from the base of the cliﬀ at this moment. Set up an equation.

Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 0 = (k + 28)(k − 26) Hence. −26 is the desired pair. 5. Our second pair is 26 and 28. 4. Note that 28. Their product is also 728. A rectangle has perimeter 54 feet and area 180 square feet. we can “drop in place” the ordered pair. W W L . They have the required product of 728. Find the dimensions of the rectangle. Set up a variable dictionary. Secondly. Because the coeﬃcient of k 2 is one.6.31: Load ac/X. Look back.and down-arrow keys to scroll.7. Both solutions check! Answer: 21 and 23 You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. Our ﬁrst pair is −28 and −26. the solutions are k = −28 and k = 26. the next consecutive even integer is k + 2 = 28. Solution: We follow the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. If k = −28. A sketch will help us keep our focus. Answer the question. APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING 471 Figure 6. Use the up. the next consecutive even integer is k + 2 = −26. if k = 26. 1. Let L represent the length of the rectangle and let W represent its width. L A rectangle has perimeter 62 feet and area 234 square feet. or -728/X into Y1 in the Y= menu.

4) 3. First. the coeﬃcient of L2 is one. The system of equations (equations 6. Solve the equation. Answer the question. −15 has product ac = 180 and sum b = −27.5).3) The area is 180 square feet. Let’s add L = 15 feet and W = 12 feet to a diagram. solve equation 6.3 and 6. The perimeter is 54 feet.472 CHAPTER 6. so we can “drop in place” our integer pair. or dividing both sides by 2: W + L = 27 (6. W = 27 − L W = 27 − 15 W = 12 Both answers give the same 15 by 12 foot rectangle. FACTORING 2. L(27 − L) = 180 27L − L2 = 180 0 = L2 − 27L + 180 The integer pair −12. then make one side zero. Two possibilities for the width. Moreover.5) Substitute equation 6. 15 ft 12 ft 12 ft 15 ft .4) can be solved using the substitution method.5). Substitute L = 12 in (6. So let’s go with the length is L = 15 feet and the width is W = 12 feet. the solutions are L = 12 and L = 15. 4. 0 = (L − 12)(L − 15) Hence. Set up an equation. expand. W = 27 − L W = 27 − 12 W = 15 Substitute L = 15 in (6.3 for W : W = 27 − L (6. Look back.5 in equation 6. 5. so 2W +2L = 54. so: LW = 180 (6. but we usually think of the term “length” as the longer side of the rectangle.4.

the area required in the problem statement. Next. or P = 54 feet. the perimeter required in the problem statement. then A = (15)(12). Our solution is correct! Answer: length = 18 feet and width = 13 feet . or A = 180 square feet.6. if we multiply the dimensions.7. the perimeter is P = 15 + 12 + 15 + 12. APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING 473 If we add the dimensions around the rectangle.

The product of two consecutive positive integers is 552. 11. 7. Find the uniform width of the frame. Find the integers. 2 5. Find the integers. and the projectile’s height above sea level (in feet) is given by the equation y = −16t + 352t + 1664. A rectangle has perimeter 42 feet and area 104 square feet. Find the integers. The canvas is mounted inside a frame of uniform width. If the area of the shaded region is 40π square inches. The product of two consecutive positive integers is 756. Find the integers. 3. The canvas is mounted inside a frame of uniform width. How much time passes before the projectile splashes into the ocean? At that time. How much time passes before the projectile splashes into the ocean? At that time. 2. what is the length of the inner radius? . The projectile’s distance (in feet) from the base of the cliﬀ is give by the equation x = 140t. and the projectile’s height above sea level (in feet) is given by the equation y = −16t2 + 288t + 1408. Find the uniform width of the frame. A rectangular canvas picture measures 10 inches by 32 inches. 10. how far is the projectile from the base of the cliﬀ? 4. A rectangle has perimeter 32 feet and area 55 square feet. 6. The product of two consecutive even integers is 528. Find the dimensions of the rectangle. The projectile’s distance (in feet) from the base of the cliﬀ is give by the equation x = 180t. The product of two consecutive odd integers is 483. A projectile is ﬁred at an angle into the air from atop a cliﬀ overlooking the ocean. Find the dimensions of the rectangle. increasing the total area covered by both canvas and frame to 504 square inches. Find the integers. how far is the projectile from the base of the cliﬀ? 1.474 CHAPTER 6. Find the integers. 13. 8. FACTORING ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ where t is the amount of time (in seconds) that has passed since the projectile’s release. A rectangular canvas picture measures 14 inches by 36 inches. where t is the amount of time (in seconds) that has passed since the projectile’s release. The product of two consecutive even integers is 624. increasing the total area covered by both canvas and frame to 720 square inches. The radius of the outer circle is one inch longer than twice the radius of the inner circle. 9. A projectile is ﬁred at an angle into the air from atop a cliﬀ overlooking the ocean. The product of two consecutive odd integers is 783. 12.

6. If the area of the shaded region is 180π square inches. 8 feet by 13 feet 21. the area of the resulting rectangle is 126 square inches. 3 inches 15. what is the width of the rectangle? 21. Find both positive numbers.680 feet 5. The length of a rectangle is three feet longer than nine times its width. The second number is three more than two times the ﬁrst number. If the area of the rectangle is 165 square feet. 4 inches by 6 inches . −23 and −21. APPLICATIONS OF FACTORING 14. 4 and 9. or 2/3. Two numbers diﬀer by 6. 5 and 13 17. what is the length of the inner radius? 15. 19. Find the width and length of the original rectangle. You have two positive numbers. Two numbers diﬀer by 5. and −4 and −9 19. 16. The sum of their squares is 97. 5 feet 9. 24 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 13. Find the width and length of the original rectangle. what is the width of the rectangle? 20. 22. 2 inches 3. Find both positive numbers. You have two positive numbers. The ratio of the width to the length of a given rectangle is 2 to 3. The radius of the outer circle is two inches longer than three times the radius of the inner circle. −26 and −24. The second number is two more than three times the ﬁrst number. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.7. the area of the resulting rectangle is 80 square inches. Find the two numbers. Find the two numbers. The diﬀerence of their squares is 60. If the width and length are both increased by 4 inches. The ratio of the width to the length of a given rectangle is 3 to 4. The sum of their squares is 146. The length of a rectangle is three feet longer than six times its width. 17. 23. If the width is increased by 3 inches and the length is increased by 6 inches. 475 18. 26 seconds. If the area of the rectangle is 90 square feet. or 3/4. The diﬀerence of their squares is 144. 4. and 24 and 26 7. and 21 and 23 11.

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Maybe it will be your contribution. our ability to conceive new ideas is broadened by notation that the mind can eﬀectively use to organize and recognize patterns. 477 .Chapter 7 Rational Expressions Our ability to communicate and record ideas is enhanced by concise mathematical language and notation. Descartes may have been the ﬁrst to use today’s radical symbol. after centuries of mathematicians ﬂirting with various approaches. Scientiﬁc notation. ﬁrst appearing in the mid-1900’s. combining the check symbol with the bar over the top in 1637. is a relatively new notation. as we deﬁne it today. Exponential notation is a simple example of such notation that expands our thinking. The modern notation we use started seriously in 1636 and 1637 with James Humes and Rene Descartes. More importantly. One may wonder where the next signiﬁcant notational breakthrough will originate.

You Try It! Simplify: 7 4 −1 EXAMPLE 1. Raising to a Power of −1. a) 4−1 = 1 4 b) 2 3 = 3 2 c) − 3 5 −1 =− 5 3 Solution: In each case. inverting a number is known as taking its reciprocal. a) 4−1 = 1 4 1 5 b) (−5)−1 = − c) 2 3 − 3 5 −1 = −1 3 2 =− 5 3 d) Answer: 4 7 . we simply invert the given number. simply invert the object (turn it upside down).1 Negative Exponents We begin with a seemingly silly but powerful deﬁnition on what it means to raise a number to a power of −1. To raise an object to a power of −1. Simplify each of the following expressions: a) 4−1 b) 2 3 −1 −1 c) − 3 5 −1 Solution: In each case.478 CHAPTER 7. −1 = More formally. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 7. we simply invert the given number.

In similar fashion. Start with the fact that multiplying reciprocals yields an answer of one. 4−1 = 1/4.3) (7. then a0 = 1. 4 (7. For example. an · 1 =1 an (7. Provided a = 0. 41 · 4−1 = 40 However. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 479 You might be asking “Why does raising to the power of minus one invert the number?” To answer this question. we would add the exponents (1 + (−1) = 0). it is clear that 4−1 and 1/4 are both reciprocals of the number 4.5.3. 4· 1 = 1. Raising to a negative integer.4 and 7. because 41 = 4 and 40 = 1.2) When you compare Equation 7. recall the product of a number and its reciprocal is one.1) Next.7. we note that both 1/an and a−n are reciprocals of an . one can discover the meaning of a−n . this last equation is equivalent to: 4 · 4−1 = 1 (7.1.4) If we multiply an and a−n . consider what happens when we multiply 41 and 4−1 .5) Comparing Equations 7. an . a−n = 1 . Because reciprocals are unique. so we can write an · a−n = 1 (7. an · a−n = a0 Providing a = 0. we add the exponents as follows.1 and 7. If we apply the usual law of exponents (assuming they work for both positive and negative exponents). a−n and 1/an are equal. Because every number has a unique reciprocal.

Laws of Exponents. am an = am+n 2. . a b n = an bn You Try It! Simplify: t8 · t−4 EXAMPLE 3. Simplify each of the following expressions: a) 2−3 b) (−5)−2 c) (−4)−3 Solution: In each example. a) 2−3 = 1 23 1 = 8 b) (−5)−2 = 1 (−5)2 1 = 25 c) (−4)−3 = 1 (−4)3 1 =− 64 Answer: 1 9 In Raising to a Negative Integer on page 482. Because we are multiplying like bases. Fortunately. Laws of Exponents In the arguments demonstrating that 4−1 = 1/4 and a−n = 1/an . (am )n = amn 4.480 CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS You Try It! Simplify: 3−2 EXAMPLE 2. then: 1. we use the ﬁrst law of exponents (am an = am+n ). we’ll address how you can perform each of the above computations mentally. (ab)n = an bn 5. we appealed to one of the laws of exponents learned in Chapter 5. we use the property a−n = 1/an to simplify the given expression. If m and n are integers. Simplify each of the following expressions: a) y 5 y −7 b) 2−2 · 2−3 c) x−4 x6 Solution: In each case. am = am−n an 3. we repeat the base and add the exponents. the laws of exponents work exactly the same whether the exponents are positive or negative integers. Section 5.

we repeat the base and multiply the exponents. Because we are raising a power to another power. Simplify each of the following expressions: a) x4 x7 b) 3−4 35 c) z −3 z −5 Simplify: y −6 y −2 Solution: In each case. Simplify each of the following expressions: a) (5−2 )3 b) (a−3 )−4 c) (w2 )−7 Simplify: (z 5 )−2 Solution: In each case. we repeat the base and subtract the exponents. Because we are dividing like bases. Recall that subtraction means “add the opposite. we are using the third law of exponents ((am )n = amn ).7. we use the second law of exponents (am /an = am−n ). a) (5−2 )3 = 5(−2)(3) = 5−6 b) (a−3 )−4 = a(−3)(−4) = a12 c) (w2 )−7 = w(2)(−7) = w−14 Answer: z −10 . NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 481 a) y 5 y −7 = y 5+(−7) = y −2 b) 2−2 · 2−3 = 2−2+(−3) = 2−5 c) x−4 x6 = x−4+6 = x2 Answer: t4 You Try It! EXAMPLE 4.1.” a) x4 = x4−7 x7 = x4+(−7) = x−3 b) 3−4 = 3−4−5 35 = 3−4+(−5) = 3−9 c) z −3 = z −3−(−5) z −5 = z −3+5 = z2 Answer: y −4 You Try It! EXAMPLE 5.

we ﬁrst invert. then invert the result. Note that 3−2 is also equivalent to (3−1 )2 . Note that 3−2 is equivalent to (32 )−1 . But what happens when you raise a number to a negative integer other than negative one? As an example. In each case. 3−2 = 1/9. we can write this expression in two equivalent forms. consider the expression 3−2 . you invert the number or turn it upside down. 5−3 = (53 )−1 = 125 1 = 125 −1 b) (−4)−2 c) 3 5 −2 d) − 2 3 −3 Repeat base. then square the result. Using either technique. . Simplify: 53 = 125. 1. Using the third law of exponents ((am )n = amn ). 3−2 = (3−1 )2 = = 1 9 1 3 2 Repeat base and multiply exponents. You can either square and invert. the 2 means “square” and the minus sign means “invert. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS Raising to a Negative Integer We know what happens when you raise a number to −1. 2. Simplify: (1/3)2 = 1/9. Simplify each of the following expressions: a) 5−3 Solution: a) We’ll cube then invert. multiply exponents. 3−2 = (32 )−1 =9 1 = 9 −1 Repeat base and multiply exponents.482 CHAPTER 7.” and this example shows that it doesn’t matter which you do ﬁrst. Invert: 125−1 = 1/125. we ﬁrst square. Finally. Simplify: 32 = 9. They are equivalent because the third law of exponents instructs us to multiply the exponents when raising a power to another power. Finally. note that to evaluate (3−1 )2 . Simplify: 3−1 = 1/3. Simplify: 9−1 = 1/9. note that to evaluate (32 )−1 . You Try It! Simplify: 5 4 −3 EXAMPLE 6. or you can invert and square. They are equivalent because the third law of exponents instructs us to multiply the exponents when raising a power to another power.

7. (−4)−2 = ((−4)2 )−1 = 16 1 = 16 −1 Repeat base. Invert: 16−1 = 1/16. Note that the two means “square” and the minus sign means “invert. multiply exponents. c) Again. Simplify: (−4)2 = 16. then invert to get −27/8. Invert: (−8/27)−1 = −27/8. b) We’ll square then invert.” so it is possible to do all of this work mentally: cube −2/3 to get −8/27. 3 5 −2 = = 3 5 2 −1 Repeat base. then invert to get 25/9. d) This time we’ll cube then invert. Invert: (9/25)−1 = 25/9. − 2 3 −3 = = − − 2 3 3 −1 Repeat base.” so it is possible to do all of this work mentally: square 3/5 to get 9/25.” so it is possible to do all of this work mentally: square −4 to get 16. Note that the two means “square” and the minus sign means “invert. then invert to get 1/125.1. Note that the three means “cube” and the minus sign means “invert. we’ll square then invert. multiply exponents. then invert to get 1/16. −1 9 25 25 = 9 Simplify: (3/5)2 = 9/25. Answer: 64 125 . multiply exponents.” so it is possible to do all of this work mentally: cube 5 to get 125. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 483 Note that the three means “cube” and the minus sign means “invert. −1 8 27 27 =− 8 Simplify: (−2/3)3 = −8/27.

It’s far easier to perform all of these steps mentally. we’ve probably shown way too much work. then repeating bases and adding exponents. so the commutative and associative properties of multiplication allow us to change the order and grouping. Simplify: (2x−2 y 3 )(−3x5 y −6 ) Solution: All the operators involved are multiplication. Simplify: 6x−2 y 5 9x3 y −2 Solution: The simplest approach is to ﬁrst write the expression as a product. Because we are dividing like bases. = −6x−2+5 y 3+(−6) = −6x3 y −3 In the solution above. = 2 −2−3 5−(−2) x y 3 2 = x−2+(−3) y 5+2 3 2 = x−5 y 7 3 . We’ll show this regrouping here. 6x−2 y 5 6 x−2 y 5 = · 3 · −2 3 y −2 9x 9 x y Reduce 6/9 to lowest terms. we repeat the base and subtract the exponents. You Try It! Simplify: (−5x8 y −2 )(−2x−6 y −1 ) EXAMPLE 7. multiplying the 2 and the −3.484 CHAPTER 7. we repeat the base and add the exponents. as in: (2x−2 y 3 )(−3x5 y −6 ) = −6x3 y −3 Answer: 10x2 y −3 You Try It! Simplify: (10x3 y −1 ) (4x−2 y 5 ) EXAMPLE 8. but this step can be done mentally. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS Applying the Laws of Exponents In this section we’ll simplify a few more complicated expressions using the laws of exponents. (2x−2 y 3 )(−3x5 y −6 ) = [(2)(−3)](x−2 x5 )(y 3 y −6 ) When multiplying.

1 (−2)(−3) (4)(−3) x y 8 1 = x6 y −12 8 = In the solution above. you must raise each factor to that power. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 485 In the solution above. Secondly. (2x−2 y 3 )−3 = 2−3 (x−2 )−3 (y 4 )−3 To raise two to the minus three. It is common to hear the instruction “no negative exponents in the ﬁnal answer.1. It’s far easier raise each factor to the minus three mentally: 2−3 = 1/8. raising a power to a power requires that we repeat the base and multiply exponents. . then multiply each exponent on the remaining factors by −3. we’ve probably shown way too much work. reducing 6/9. as in (2x−2 y 4 )−3 = 1 6 −12 x y 8 Answer: 1 −8 6 x y 9 Simplify: (3x4 y −3 )−2 Clearing Negative Exponents Often. Simplify: (2x−2 y 4 )−3 Solution: The fourth law of exponents ((ab)n = an bn ) says that when you raise a product to a power. we’re asked to provide a ﬁnal answer that is free of negative exponents. So we begin by raising each factor to the minus three power.” Let’s explore a couple of techniques that allow us to clear our answer of negative exponents. we must cube two and invert: 2−3 = 1/8.7. we’ve probably shown way too much work. as in: 6x−2 y 5 2 = x−5 y 7 3 y −2 9x 3 Answer: 5 5 −6 x y 2 You Try It! EXAMPLE 9. then repeating bases and subtracting exponents. It’s far easier to imagine writing the expression as a product.

We begin by multiplying numerator and denominator by y 3 . Solution: Raising y to the −3 means we have to cube and invert. EXAMPLE 11.486 CHAPTER 7. EXAMPLE 10. note how we used the fact that y 0 = 1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS You Try It! Simplify the expression y5 x−2 so that the resulting equivalent expression contains no negative exponents. so y −3 = 1/y 3. . You Try It! Simplify the expression x−3 y 2 3z −4 so that the resulting equivalent expression contains no negative exponents. = x2 ÷ 1 y3 x2 y 3 · = 1 1 = x2 y 3 Alternate approach: An alternate approach takes advantage of the laws of exponents. Consider the expression: 2x2 y −2 z3 Simplify so that the resulting equivalent expression contains no negative exponents. we invert and multiply. Consider the expression: x2 y −3 Simplify so that the resulting equivalent expression contains no negative exponents. x2 x2 = −3 y 1 y3 To divide x2 by 1/y 3 . x2 y 3 x2 = −3 · 3 y −3 y y 2 3 x y = 0 y 2 3 =x y Answer: y 5 x2 In the last step.

we can remove all the negative exponents by taking reciprocals. we invert and multiply. .1. We begin by multiplying numerator and denominator by y2. = = = 2x2 ÷ z3 y2 2x2 1 · y2 z 3 2x2 y2z 3 Alternate approach: An alternate approach again takes advantage of the laws of exponents. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 487 Solution: Again. note how we used the fact that y 0 = 1. 2x2 y −2 2x2 y −2 y 2 = · 2 3 z z3 y = = 2x2 y 0 y2z 3 2x2 y2z 3 Answer: y2z 4 3x3 In the last step. In this case y −2 = 1/y 2 (square and invert). 2 −2 2x y z3 2x2 · = z3 2x2 y2 z3 1 y2 = To divide 2x2 /y 2 by z 3 .7.

20. 29 · 2−4 14. 9. 22. a8 4 −7 27. b−9 b8 12. v −7 v −2 13. simplify the given expression. 1 7 3 − 5 8 − 9 −1 4. In Exercises 9-16. 26 2−8 68 6−1 z −1 z9 w−4 w3 21. 18. (7)−1 2. −1 3. x−5 x−5 11. 9−6 · 9−5 16. −1 − 3 2 −1 5. (18)−1 6. 22 · 2−7 15. t−1 26. (−11)−1 7. simplify the given expression. 1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. a−9 a3 10. 17.488 CHAPTER 7. 19. simplify the given expression. (16)−1 8. 6−6 28. simplify the given expression. 24. 23. 25. 2−7 7 −7 . 97 · 9−5 In Exercises 17-24. w−9 w7 r5 r−1 7−3 7−1 6−8 66 In Exercises 25-32.

8−1 3 6 −2 In Exercises 37-36. c6 −9 489 31. In Exercises 41-56. −4 a−5 c−7 −4 u−4 w4 48. (−3)−4 37. 61. simplify the given expression. 41. 5u8 v −8 −8a8 c5 −4x4 y −2 8v −9 w5 49. 3 s−6 t5 51. x5 y −2 z3 x4 y −9 z7 r9 s−2 t3 60. 62. 1 2 −5 38. 33. 6x−6 y −5 44. 3 x−1 y 7 −5 −4 4 3 52. clear all negative exponents from the given expression. 3−2 32. −4 40. −4 v 4 w−9 55. u5 v −3 w2 x3 y −8 z 5 x9 y −4 z 3 58. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 29. z −9 30. 2 a−4 c8 56. 5v −3 w−8 −6 x7 z 9 4 x−9 z −2 2 u−2 v 6 46. 4u−6 v −9 42. 2 v −2 w4 50. 2 x6 z −7 5 54. simplify the given expression. . −4 b−8 c−4 53. 2−4 36.7. 57. 4−3 34. 5−2 35. 59. 8 u−8 w−7 45. 6 u2 v −1 −6 a9 c6 47. 6a−9 c−6 43.1. 11 b9 c−1 −4 3 −2 In Exercises 57-76. 1 3 − 1 2 1 2 −3 −5 39.

(7x−1 )(−7x−1 ) 66. −24x−2 y −7 3 45. 7. b−1 13. w−16 23. 25 15. 8x3 73. 35. (2y 4 )−5 76. (2w4 )−5 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1.490 u9 v −4 w7 a7 b−8 c6 CHAPTER 7. 71. 9 8 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 27. − x16 z 11 2 47. (−3s9 )−4 74. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 2t−8 −6t9 6c2 −4c7 6v −9 −8v −4 63. 32 x30 z −35 . t−4 51. z −10 21. 20u2 v −17 43. (−3s8 )−4 75. 49. a−6 11. (−7u3 )(−8u−6 ) 4x−9 69. 1 64 1 16 1 18 1 16 9. 9 17. 72. 6−42 29. 70. 2 −11 14 37. 7 3. z 81 31. − 5. 7−2 25. (8a−8 )(7a−7 ) 68. 32 39. 3−6 33. 81 x−4 y 28 53. 64. −32 41. 3 14 13 a c 2 1 10 −20 v w 32 19. (3a−8 )(−7a−7 ) 67. 65.

61.1. 71. 56 a15 1 2x12 3 2c5 491 69. 63. 1 81s36 1 32y 20 −49 65. 1 16 −32 a c 16 x5 y2z 3 r9 s 2 t3 x3 y 8 z5 u9 v 4 w7 75. 2 x .7. 59. − 73. NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 55. 57. 67.

Simplify: 109 .492 CHAPTER 7. 10n will be a 1 followed by n zeros. You Try It! Simplify: 106 EXAMPLE 1.01 = 100 1 x = 0. the exponent matches the number of zeros in the answer.001 = 1000 1 = 0. In the expression 10−n . Solution. the ﬁrst n − 1 of which are zeros and the digit in the nth decimal place is a 1. 000. Note that the answer for 103 is a one followed by three zeros. The answer for 104 is a one followed by four zeros. 109 should be a 1 followed by 9 zeros. Answer: 1. . Hence. Do you see the pattern? Nonnegative powers of ten. 10−1 = 10−2 10−3 10−4 1 = 0. the exponent matches the number of decimal places in the answer. 000. In the expression 10n . 000 104 = 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 = 10. 000 Next.1 10 1 = 0. Hence. 10−n will have n decimal places.2 Scientiﬁc Notation 101 = 10 102 = 10 · 10 = 100 103 = 10 · 10 · 10 = 1. 000 We begin this section by examining powers of ten. 000 109 = 1. 000. let’s examine negative powers of ten.0001 = 10000 Note that the answer for 10− 3 has three decimal places and the answer for 10−4 contains four decimal places. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 7. Negative powers of ten.

Simplify: 1. Multiplying by 102 will move the decimal point two places to the right. by 1. . or equivalently. 1. Therefore. 2.234567 ×1000 1234.25 × 105 . Simplify: 2. 1. Thus: 325. Multiplying by a nonnegative power of ten. where n = 0.00001 Simplify: 10−5 Multiplying Decimal Numbers by Powers of Ten Let’s multiply 1.567000 The sum total of digits to the right of the decimal point in 1. we place the decimal point in the product so that there are six digits to the right of the decimal point. Solution. 10−7 = 0. and the digit in the seventh decimal place is a 1. Multiplying a decimal number by 10n .234567 and 1000 is 6.35 × 104 .7. will move the decimal point n places to the right.567.234567 times 1000 is 1234. Simplify: 325.2.83 Simplify: 23. 567. . That is.57889 × 103 Answer: 23. . . You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. Simplify: 10−7 . 1.6783 × 102 = 32. the trailing zeros may be removed without changing the value of the product. Note that the decimal point in the product is three places further to the right than in the original factor. However. 10−7 should have seven decimal places. This observation leads to the following result. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 493 You Try It! EXAMPLE 2.234567 by 103 .89 You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. 3.6783 × 102 . Solution.0000001 Answer: 0. 578. the ﬁrst six of which are zeros.000.

Simplify: 14. Simplify: 4. Multiplying by 10−4 will move the decimal point four places to the left. or equivalently.00043 Answer: 0. 2. In this case. This observation leads to the following result. 4. Thus: 14.8 × 10−3 = 14. 453.539.01. . . Multiplying by a negative power of ten. 854.3 × 10−4 = 0.2 × 10−1 EXAMPLE 5. by 0. Multiplying by 105 will move the decimal point two places to the right. Therefore.8 × 10−3 . Multiplying a decimal number by 10−n . Although .9 × 10−2 = 4.00043 is preferred in mathematics and science.539 The sum total of digits to the right of the decimal point in 453. . . 000 Let’s multiply 453.25 × 105 = 125.01 is 3. Solution. Solution.01 4. where n = 1. You Try It! Simplify: 3. 500 1. That is. Answer: 23.9 by 10−2 . 3.9 and 0.9 ×0. 453. 567. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS Solution. we place the decimal point in the product so that there are 3 digits to the right of the decimal point.2 × 10−2 EXAMPLE 6.42 You Try It! Simplify: 2.00043 is an equivalent number. we need to add zeros at the end of the number to accomplish moving the decimal 5 places to the right. Multiplying by 10−3 will move the decimal point three places to the left.3 × 10−4 . we need to add some leading zeros at the beginning of the number to accomplish moving the decimal 4 places to the left. the form 0.022 Note also the leading zero before the decimal point. .5678 Answer: 385.494 CHAPTER 7. Note that the decimal point in the product is two places further to the left than in the original factor. In this case. 567. will move the decimal point n places to the left.

7.2. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

495

**Scientiﬁc Notation Form
**

We start by deﬁning the form of a number called scientiﬁc notation. Scientiﬁc notation. A number having the form a × 10b , where b is an integer and 1 ≤ |a| < 10, is said to be in scientiﬁc notation. The requirement 1 ≤ |a| < 10 says that the magnitude of a must be a least 1 and less than 10. • The number 12.34 × 10−4 is not in scientiﬁc notation because |12.34| = 12.34 is larger than 10. • The number −0.95 × 103 is not in scientiﬁc notation because | − 0.95| = 0.95 is less than 1. • The number 7.58 × 10−12 is in scientiﬁc notation because |7.58| = 7.58 is greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. • The number −1.0 × 1015 is in scientiﬁc notation because | − 1.0| = 1.0 is greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. After contemplating these examples, it follows that a number in scientiﬁc notation should have exactly one of the digits 1, 2, 3, . . . , 9 before the decimal point. Exactly one, no more, no less. Thus, each of the following numbers is in scientiﬁc notation. 4.7 × 108 , −3.764 × 10−1 , 3.2 × 100 , and − 1.25 × 10−22

**Placing a Number in Scientiﬁc Notation
**

To place a number into scientiﬁc notation, we need to move the decimal point so that exactly one of the digits 1, 2, 3, . . . , 9 remains to the left of the decimal point, then multiply by the appropriate power of 10 so that the result is equivalent to the original number. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7. Place the number 1,234 in scientiﬁc notation. Solution. Move the decimal point three places to the left so that it is positioned just after the 1. To make this new number equal to 1,234, multiply by 103 . Thus: 1, 234 = 1.234 × 103 Place the number 54,321 in scientiﬁc notation.

496

CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Check: Multiplying by 103 moves the decimal three places to the right, so: 1.234 × 103 = 1, 234 Answer: 5.4321 × 104 This is the original number, so our scientiﬁc notation form is correct.

You Try It! Place the number 0.0175 in scientiﬁc notation. EXAMPLE 8. Place the number 0.000025 in scientiﬁc notation. Solution. Move the decimal point ﬁve places to the right so that it is positioned just after the 2. To make this new number equal to 0.000025, multiply by 10−5 . Thus: 0.000025 = 2.5 × 10−5 Check: Multiplying by 10−5 moves the decimal ﬁve places to the left, so: 2.5 × 10−5 = 0.000025 Answer: 1.75 × 10−2 This is the original number, so our scientiﬁc notation form is correct.

You Try It! Place the number 756.98 × 10−5 in scientiﬁc notation. EXAMPLE 9. Place the number 34.5 × 10−11 in scientiﬁc notation. Solution. First, move the decimal point one place to the left so that it is positioned just after the three. To make this new form equal to 34.5, multiply by 101 . 34.5 × 10−11 = 3.45 × 101 × 10−11 Now, repeat the base 10 and add the exponents. = 3.45 × 10−10 Answer: 7.5698 × 10−3

You Try It! Place the number 0.00824 × 108 in scientiﬁc notation. EXAMPLE 10. Place the number 0.00093 × 1012 in scientiﬁc notation. Solution. First, move the decimal point four places to the right so that it is positioned just after the nine. To make this new form equal to 0.00093, multiply by 10−4 . 0.00093 × 1012 = 9.3 × 10−4 × 1012

7.2. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Now, repeat the base 10 and add the exponents. = 9.3 × 108

497

Answer: 8.24 × 105

**Scientiﬁc Notation and the Graphing Calculator
**

The TI-84 graphing calculator has a special button for entering numbers in scientiﬁc notation. Locate the “comma” key just about the number 7 key on the calculator’s keyboard (see Figure 7.1). Just above the “comma” key, printed on the calculator’s case is the symbol EE. It’s in the same color as the 2nd key, so you’ll have to use the 2nd key to access this symbol.

Figure 7.1: Locate the EE label above the “comma” key on the keyboard. We know that 2.3 × 102 = 230. Let’s see if the calculator gives the same interpretation. 1. Enter 2.3. 2. Press the 2nd key, then the comma key. This will put E on the calculator view screen. 3. Enter a 2. 4. Press ENTER. The result of these steps is shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 7.2. Note that the calculator interprets 2.3E2 as 2.3 × 102 and gives the correct answer, 230. You can continue entering numbers in scientiﬁc notation (see the middle image in Figure 7.2). However, at some point the numbers become too large and the calculator responds by outputting the numbers in scientiﬁc notaiton. You can also force your calculator to display numbers in scientiﬁc notation in all situations, by ﬁrst pressing the MODE key, then selecting SCI on the ﬁrst

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Figure 7.2: Entering numbers in scientiﬁc notation.

line and pressing the ENTER key (see the third image in Figure 7.2). You can return your calculator to “normal” mode by selecting NORMAL and pressing the ENTER key. You Try It! Use the graphing calculator to simplify: (3.42 × 106 )(5.86 × 10−9 ) EXAMPLE 11. Use the graphing calculator to simplify: (2.35 × 10−12 )(3.25 × 10−4 ) Solution. First, note that we can approximate (2.35 × 10−12)(3.25 × 10−4) by taking the product of 2 and 3 and adding the powers of ten. (2.35 × 10−12 )(3.25 × 10−4 ) ≈ (2 × 10−12 )(3 × 10−4 ) ≈ 6 × 10

−16

Approximate: 2.35 ≈ 2 and 3.25 ≈ 3. 2 · 3 = 6 and 10−12 · 10−4 = 10−16 .

The graphing calculator will provide an accurate answer. Enter 2.35E-12, press the “times” button, then enter 3.25E-4 and press the ENTER button. Be sure to use the “negate” button and not the “subtract” button to produce the minus sign. The result is shown in Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.3: Computing (2.35 × 10−12 )(3.25 × 10−4 ). Thus, (2.35 × 10−12)(3.25 × 10−4) = 7.6375 × 10−16. Note that this is fairly close to our estimate of 6 × 10−16 .

Answer: 2.00412 × 10

−2

7.2. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

499

Reporting your answer on your homework. After computing the answer to Example 11 on your calculator, write the following on your homework: (2.35 × 10−12 )(3.25 × 10−4 ) = 7.6375 × 10−16 Do not write 7.6375E-16.

You Try It! EXAMPLE 12. Use the graphing calculator to simplify: 6.1 × 10−3 (2.7 × 104 )(1.1 × 108 ) Solution. Again, it is not diﬃcult to produce an approximate answer. 6.1 × 10−3 (2.7 × 104 )(1.1 × 108 ) 6 × 10−3 ≈ (3 × 104 )(1 × 108 ) 6 × 10−3 ≈ 3 × 1012 6 10−3 ≈ · 12 3 10 ≈ 2 × 10−15 Use the graphing calculator to simplify: 2.6 × 104 (7.1 × 10−2 )(6.3 × 107 )

6.1 ≈ 6, 2.7 ≈ 3, and 1.1 ≈ 1. 3 · 1 = 3 and 104 · 108 = 1012 . a c ac = · . bd b d 10−3 6 = 2 and = 10−15 . 3 1012

Let’s get a precise answer with our calculator. Enter the numerator as 6.1E3, then press the “division” button. Remember that we must surround the denominator with parentheses. So press the open parentheses key, then enter 2.7E4. Press the “times” key, then enter 1.1E8. Press the close parentheses key and press the ENTER button. The result is shown in Figure 7.4.

Figure 7.4: Computing 6.1 × 10−3 /(2.7 × 104 × 1.1 × 108 ). Thus, 6.1 × 10−3 /(2.7 × 104 × 1.1 × 108 ) = 2.05387205 × 10−15 . Note that this is fairly close to our estimate of 2 × 10−15 .

Answer: 5.8126537 × 10−3

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

You Try It! The mass of the International Space Station is 450,000 kg, and its average distance to the center of the earth is 387,000 m. Find the force of attraction between the earth and the station (in newtons (N)). EXAMPLE 13. the formula Isaac Newton’s universal law of gravitation is deﬁned by F =

GmM r2 where F is the force of attraction between two objects having mass m and M , r is the distance between the two objects, and G is Newton’s gravitational constant deﬁned by: G = 6.67428 × 10−11 N(m/kg)2 Given that the mass of the moon is 7.3477 × 1022 kilograms (kg), the mass of the earth is 5.9736 × 1024 kilograms (kg), and the average distance between the moon and the earth is 3.84403 × 108 meters (m), ﬁnd the force of attraction between the earth and the moon (in newtons (N)). Solution. Plug the given numbers into Newton’s universal law of gravitation. GmM r2 (6.673 × 10−11 )(7.3477 × 1022 )(5.9736 × 1024 ) F = (3.84403 × 108 )2 F = Enter the expression into your calculator (see Figure 7.5) as: (6.673E-11*7.3477E22*5.9736E24)/(3.84403E8)∧2.

Figure 7.5: Computing force of attraction between earth and the moon. Hence, the force of attraction between the earth and the moon is approximately 1.98 × 1020 newtons (N).

Answer: ≈ 1.20 × 109 N

You Try It! The star Sirius is 8.58 light-years from the earth. How many miles from the earth is Sirius? EXAMPLE 14. The closest star to the earth is Alpha Centauri, 4.37 lightyears from the earth. A light-year is the distance that light will travel in

7.2. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

501

one-year’s time. The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second. How many miles from the earth is Alpha Centauri? Solution: Because the speed of light is measured in miles per second, let’s ﬁrst compute the number of seconds in 4.37 years. Because there are 365 days in a year, 24 hours in a day, 60 minutes in an hour, and 60 seconds in a minute, we can write: hr min s day × 24 × 60 × 60 4.37 yr = 4.37 yr × 365 yr day hr min ¨ & day min s hr & ¨¨ = 4.37 & × 365 ¨ × 24 ¨ × 60 yr × 60 ¨ & & min day hr yr & ¨ ¨ & & Note how the units cancel, indicating that the ﬁnal answer is in seconds. With our calculator mode set to scientiﬁc notation (see the image on the right in Figure 7.2), we multiply the numbers to get the result shown in Figure 7.6. Rounding, the number of seconds in 4.37 years is approximately 1.38 × 108 seconds. Next, we compute the distance the light travels in 4.37 years. Using the fact that the distance traveled equals the speed times the time traveled, we have: Distance = Speed × Time mi · 1.38 × 108 s = 1.86 × 105 s mi · 1.38 × 108 s = 1.86 × 105 £ s £ Note how the units cancel, indicating that our answer is in miles. Again, with our calculator set in scientiﬁc notation mode, we compute the product of 1.86 × 105 and 1.38 × 108 . The result is shown in the image on the right in Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.6: Computing the distance to Alpha Centauri in miles. Thus, the star Alpha Centauri is approximately 2.5668 × 1013 miles from the earth, or 2.5668 × 1013 miles ≈ 25, 668, 000, 000, 000 miles, pronounced “twenty-ﬁve quadrillion, six hundred sixty-eight trillion miles.” Answer: ≈ 5.2425 × 1013 miles

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

❧ ❧ ❧

Exercises

❧ ❧ ❧

In Exercises 1-8, write each of the following in decimal format. 1. 10−4 2. 10−13 3. 10−8 4. 10−9 5. 108 6. 1014 7. 107 8. 109

In Exercises 9-16, write each of the following in decimal format. 9. 6506399.9 × 10−4 10. 19548.4 × 10−2 11. 3959.430928 × 102 12. 976.841866 × 104 13. 440906.28 × 10−4 14. 9147437.4 × 10−4 15. 849.855115 × 104 16. 492.4414 × 103

In Exercises 17-24, convert each of the given numbers into scientiﬁc notation. 17. 390000 18. 0.0004902 19. 0.202 20. 3231 21. 0.81 22. 83400 23. 0.0007264 24. 0.00395

In Exercises 25-32, convert each of the given expressions into scientiﬁc notation. 25. 0.04264 × 10−4 26. 0.0019 × 10−1 27. 130000 × 103 28. 738 × 10−1 29. 30.04 × 105 30. 76000 × 10−1 31. 0.011 × 101 32. 496000 × 10−3

7.2. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

503

In Exercises 33-38, each of the following numbers are examples of numbers reported on the graphing calculator in scientiﬁc notation. Express each in plain decimal notation. 33. 1.134E -1 34. 1.370E -4 35. 1.556E -2 36. 1.802E 4 37. 1.748E -4 38. 1.402E 0

In Exercises 39-42, ﬁrst, use the technique of Example 11 to approximate the given product without the use of a calculator. Next, use the MODE button to set you calculator in SCI and FLOAT mode, then enter the given product using scientiﬁc notation. When reporting your answer, report all digits shown in your calculator view screen. 39. (2.5 × 10−1 )(1.6 × 10−7 ) 40. (2.91 × 10−1 )(2.81 × 10−4 ) 41. (1.4 × 107 )(1.8 × 10−4 ) 42. (7.48 × 107 )(1.19 × 106 )

In Exercises 43-46, ﬁrst, use the technique of Example 12 to approximate the given quotient without the use of a calculator. Next, push the MODE button, then highlight SCI mode and press ENTER. Move your cursor to the same row containing the FLOAT command, then highlight the number 2 and press ENTER. This will round your answers to two decimal places. Press 2nd MODE to quit the MODE menu. With these settings, enter the given expression using scientiﬁc notation. When entering your answer, report all digits shown in the viewing window. 43. 44. 3.2 × 10−5 2.5 × 10−7 6.47 × 10−5 1.79 × 108 45. 46. 5.9 × 103 2.3 × 105 8.81 × 10−9 3.06 × 10−1

47. Overall the combined weight of biological material – animals, plants, insects, crops, bacteria, and so on – has been estimated to be at about 75 billion tons or 6.8 × 1013 kg (http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Nature). If the Earth has mass of 5.9736 × 1024 kg, what is the percent of the Earth’s mass that is made up of biomass?

48. The Guinness World Record for the longest handmade noodle was set on March 20, 2011. The 1,704-meter-long stretch of noodle was displayed during a noodle-making activity at a square in Southwest China’s Yunnan province. Meigan estimates that the average width of the noodle (it’s diameter) to be the same as her index ﬁnger or 1.5 cm. Using the volume formula for a cylinder (V = πr2 h) estimate the volume of the noodle in cubic centimeters.

504

CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 50. The population of the USA in mid-2011 was estimated to be 3.12 × 108 people and the world population at that time to be about 7.012 × 109 people. What percentage of the world population live in the USA?

49. Assume there are 1.43×106 miles of paved road in the United States. If you could travel at an average of 65 miles per hour nonstop, how many days would it take you to travel over all of the paved roads in the USA? How many years?

❧ ❧ ❧

1. 0.0001 3. 0.00000001 5. 100, 000, 000 7. 10, 000, 000 9. 650.63999 11. 395943.0928 13. 44.090628 15. 8498551.15 17. 3.9 × 105 19. 2.02 × 10

−1

Answers

❧ ❧ ❧

27. 1.3 × 108 29. 3.004 × 106 31. 1.1 × 10−1 33. 0.1134 35. 0.01556 37. 0.0001748 39. 4 × 10−8 41. 2.52 × 103 43. 1.28 × 102 45. 2.57 × 10−2 47. 1.14 × 10−11 49. 916.7 days, 2.5 yr

21. 8.1 × 10−1 23. 7.264 × 10−4 25. 4.264 × 10−6

7.3. SIMPLIFYING RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

505

7.3

**Simplifying Rational Expressions
**

Readers are strongly encouraged to review the material on fractions presented in Section 3 of Chapter 1. You will ﬁnd that material quite helpful for this section.

Any time you divide a polynomial by a second polynomial, you form what is known as a rational expression. Rational expression. The expression p(x) , q(x) where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials, is called a rational expression. For example, each of the following is a rational expression. a) x+2 3x b) x2 x+3 − 2x − 4 c) 2x 3y 2

In example a), the rational expression is composed of a binomial over a monomial. Example b) is constructed by dividing a binomial by a trinomial. Example c) is composed of a monomial over a monomial, the type of rational expression that will gain the most attention in this section.

**Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
**

We will concentrate on rational expressions with monomial numerators and denominators. Recall that to form the product of two rational numbers, we simply multiply numerators and denominators. The same technique is used to multiply any two rational expressions. Multiplying rational expressions. Given a/b and c/d, their product is deﬁned as: a c ac · = b d bd

Remember, you need only multiply numerators and denominators. For example: 2x x 2 · = , 3 y 3y 2a 5a 10a2 · = , 2 9b3 3b 27b5 and 3x x · − 2 2y 4y =− 3x2 8y 3

Of course, as the next example shows, sometimes you also need to reduce your answer to lowest terms. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1. Simplify: 2 x · x 4

2

Simplify:

9 x · x2 6

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Solution: Multiply numerators and denominators. 2 x2 2x5 · = 3 x 4 4x Now, there several diﬀerent ways you can reduce this answer to lowest terms, two of which are shown below. You can factor numerator and denominator, then cancel common factors. Or you can write the answer as a product, repeat the base and subtract exponents.

Answer:

3 2x

2·x·x·x·x·x 2x5 2 x5 2x5 = = · 3 4x3 2·2·x·x·x 4x3 4 x 2·x·x·x·x·x 1 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ = = · x5−3 2 2 ¡·2·x·x·x ¡ ¡ ¡ 1 x2 = x2 = 2 2 As dividing by 2 is the same as multiplying by 1/2, these answers are equivalent. Also, note that the right-hand method is more eﬃcient.

Recall that when dividing fractions, we invert the second fraction and multiply. Dividing rational expressions. Given a/b and c/d, their quotient is deﬁned as: a c a d ÷ = · b d b c ad = bc

You Try It! 3y y2 Simplify: 3 ÷ x 4x x4 x2 ÷ 2 y 2y Solution: Invert, then multiply. EXAMPLE 2. Simplify: x4 x2 2y 2 x2 ÷ 2 = · y 2y y x4 2x2 y 2 = 4 x y Now, there several diﬀerent ways you can reduce this answer to lowest terms, two of which are shown below.

7 7 7 2 3 5 + = . 12 x2 y Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions First.3. add the numerators and place the result over the common denominator. placing the result over the common denominator.7. repeat the base and subtract exponents. then cancel common factors. 2x2 y 2 2·x·x·y·y = x4 y x·x·x·x·y 2·x·x·y·y ¡ ¡ ¡ = x·x·x·x·y ¡ ¡ ¡ 2y = 2 x 507 Or you can write the answer as a product. SIMPLIFYING RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS You can factor numerator and denominator. then place the result over the common denominator. then we multiply numerators and denominators. x x x and x 3y x + 3y + = y y y You Try It! EXAMPLE 3. x−2 is the same as 1/x2 . We add the numerators. Adding rational expressions. x2 y 2 2x2 y 2 =2· 4 · 1 x4 y x y = 2x−2 y 1 2y = 2 x In the last step. recall the rules for adding or subtracting fractions that have a “common” denominator. 2y 3x + 2y 3x + = xy xy xy Answer: 4x + 5y 2 x2 y . 6 5 1 + = . their sum is deﬁned as: a+b a b + = c c c That is. The following examples each share a common denominator. Given a/c and b/c. Simplify: 3x 2y + xy xy Simplify: 5y 2 4x + 2 x2 y x y Solution: Add the numerators. Answer: Note that the right-hand method is more eﬃcient.

then the least common denominator for b and d is deﬁned as the smallest number (or expression) divisible by both b and d. 7 5 2 − = . RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS Subtracting rational expressions. LCD(b. then place the result over the common denominator. if the rational expressions do not share a common denominator. 9 9 9 5a 3a 2a − = . placing the result over the common 5xy − 3xy 5xy 3xy − = 2z 2z 2z 2xy = 2z To reduce to lowest terms. subtract the numerators and place the result over the common denominator. The following examples each share a common denominator.508 CHAPTER 7. you must ﬁrst make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. b b b and 3x 5y 3x − 5y − = xy xy xy As the next example shows. We subtract the numerators. If the fractions a/b and c/d do not share a common denominator. . their diﬀerence is deﬁned as: a−b a b − = c c c That is. You Try It! Simplify: 8x 2x − 3yz 2 3yz 2 EXAMPLE 4. d) represents the least common denominator of b and d. divide both numerator and denominator by 2. Simplify: Solution: denominator. Answer: 2x yz 2 = xy z The Least Common Denominator When adding or subtracting. In symbols. sometimes you may have to reduce your answer to lowest terms. Least common denominator. Given a/c and b/c. 5xy 3xy − 2z 2z Subtract the numerators.

.e. 9) = 18. A similar statement might apply to Example 6. it was not diﬃcult to imagine the smallest number divisible by both 6 and 9. LCD(8x. SIMPLIFYING RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 509 You Try It! EXAMPLE 5.. then place the diﬀerence of the numerators over the common denominator. You Try It! EXAMPLE 7.7. Simplify: 8x 12x Solution: The smallest expression divisible by both 8x and 12x is 24x. This is not the case in all situations. We must ﬁrst make equivalent fractions with a common denominator of 18.3. 12x) = 24x. Simplify: 5y y − 72 108 Simplify: 7x 3x − 36 40 . y y 3 y 2 y − = · − · 8x 12x 8x 3 12x 2 3y 2y = − 24x 24x y = 24x Answer: x 40y Simplify: x x − 8y 10y In Example 5. i. LCD(6. = 7x 18 Answer: 29x 24 You Try It! y y − EXAMPLE 6. i.e. We must ﬁrst make equivalent fractions with a common denominator of 24x. x 3 2x 2 x 2x + = · + · 6 9 6 3 9 2 3x 4x = + 18 18 We can now add the numerators and put the result over the common denominator. Simplify: x 2x 3x 5x + + Simplify: 6 9 8 6 Solution: The smallest number divisible by both 6 and 9 is 18.

. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS Solution: In this example. we list the prime factorization of each denominator in exponential form. proceed as follows: 1. it is not easy to conjure up the smallest number divisible by both 72 and 108. To determine the LCD. To ﬁnd the least common denominator for two or more fractions. prime factorization will come to the rescue. Prime factor 108. 72 = 23 · 32 and 108 = 22 · 33 . Highest power of 2 is 23 . the LCD is 23 · 33 = 8 · 27 or 216. 72 9 3 3 2 2 8 4 2 2 4 2 3 3 108 27 9 3 Thus.510 CHAPTER 7. The highest power of 2 that appears is 23 . 72 = 23 · 32 108 = 2 · 3 LCD = 2 · 3 3 2 3 3 Prime factor 72. putting your answers in exponential form. Hence: 5y y 5y 3 y 2 − = · − · 72 108 72 3 108 2 15y 2y = − 216 216 13y = 216 Answer: 43x 360 Make equivalent fractions. Prime factor each denominator. Simplify. Therefore. write down each factor that appears in your prime factorizations to the highest power that it appears. 2. As we shall see. Procedure for ﬁnding the least common denominator (LCD). Highest power of 3 is 33 . Following the procedure above. The highest power of 3 that appears is 33 . Subtract numerators.

LCD = 22 · 3 · 5 · x2 · y 2 Simplify.3. then: a+b a b = + c c c . If a. Simplify: 7 11 − 15xy 2 20x2 Solution: Prime factor each denominator. b. a(b + c) = ab + ac. We use this property to perform multiplications such as: x2 (2x2 − 3x − 8) = 2x4 − 3x3 − 8x2 However. 15xy 2 = 3 · 5 · x · y 2 20x2 = 22 · 5 · x2 To ﬁnd the LCD. it is also true that division is distributive with respect to addition.7. place the diﬀerence of the numerators over this common denominator. Distributive property for division. 7 11 3y 2 11 7 4x − − = · · 2 2 2 4x 15xy 20x 15xy 20x2 3y 2 28x 33y 2 = − 2y2 60x 60x2 y 2 28x − 33y 2 = 60x2 y 2 Answer: 55 + 21x2 90x2 y Simplify: 7x 11 + 2y 18x 30xy Dividing a Polynomial by a Monomial We know that multiplication is distributive with respect to addition. list each factor that appears to the highest power that it appears. LCD = 60x2 y 2 After making equivalent fractions. SIMPLIFYING RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 511 You Try It! EXAMPLE 8. placing the results in exponential form. and c are any numbers. that is.

RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 4+6 4 6 = + .512 For example. 2x3 − 3x + 12 2x3 3x 12 = 3− 3+ 3 6x3 6x 6x 6x Now we reduce each term of the last result to lowest terms. = Answer: − 2 3 9 + 3− 4 2 x x x 1 2 1 − + 3 3 2x2 x . x2 − 2x − 3 x2 2x 3 = 2− 2 − 2 2 x x x x Now we reduce each term of the last result to lowest terms. Divide x2 − 2x − 3 by x2 . Divide 2x3 − 3x + 12 by 6x3 . canceling common factors. Solution: We use the distributive property. EXAMPLE 9. dividing each term by x2 . EXAMPLE 10. Solution: We use the distributive property. note that CHAPTER 7. You Try It! Divide 9x3 + 8x2 − 6x by 3x2 . canceling common factors. =1− Answer: 3x + 8 2 − 3 x 3 2 − x x2 You Try It! Divide −4x2 + 6x − 9 by 2x4 . 2 2 2 This form of the distributive property can be used to divide a polynomial by a monomial. dividing each term by 6x3 .

7.3. SIMPLIFYING RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

513

❧ ❧ ❧

Exercises

❧ ❧ ❧

In Exercises 1-8, simplify each of the given experssions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 12 s5 · s2 9 6 x2 · x4 10 12 v 4 · v 3 10 10 t5 · t4 12 5. 6. 7. 8. 9s2 s5 ÷ 2 4 t t s2 6s4 ÷ 4 2 t t b4 9b2 ÷ 2 4 c c b5 8b2 ÷ 2 c4 c

In Exercises 9-14, simplify each of the given expressions. 10s 19s + 18 18 14y 10y + 10. − 2 2 17 5 − 11. 9c 9c 9. − 12. 17 19 − 14r 14r 16x 8x − 13. − 15yz 15yz 9a 17a − 20bc 20bc

14. −

In Exercises 15-20, simplify each of the given expressions. 9z 5z + 10 2 7u 11u + 16. 2 6 4 3 − 17. 10v 5v 15. 18. 7 9 − 10v 2v 9r 8r − 19. − 5st 10st 3x 7x − 20. − 6yz 2yz

In Exercises 21-32, simplify each of the given expressions. 21. 22. 11 5 + 18rs2 24r2 s 5 13 + 2 12uw 54u2 w 23. 24. 5 17 + 24rs2 36r2 s 13 19 + 2 54vw 24v 2 w

514 7 11 + 36y 3 48z 3 19 5 + 3 36x 48y 3

CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 29. 30. 9 11 − 50xy 40yz

25. 26. 27.

5 13 + 48v 3 36w3 7 17 28. + 3 72r 48s3

13 9 − 50rs 40st 17 19 − 31. 50ab 40bc 11 9 − 32. 50rs 40st

In Exercises 33-48, use the distributive property to divide each term in the numerator by the term in the denominator. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 6v + 12 3 28u + 36 4 25u + 45 5 16x + 4 2 2s − 4 s 7r − 8 r 3r − 5 r 4u − 2 u 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 3x2 − 8x − 9 x2 4b2 − 5b − 8 b2 2x2 − 3x − 6 x2 6u2 − 5u − 2 u2 12t2 + 2t − 16 12t2 18b2 + 9b − 15 18b2 4s2 + 2s − 10 4s2 10w2 + 12w − 2 10w2

❧ ❧ ❧

1. 3. 4s3 3 6v 5 s3 9t2

Answers

❧ ❧ ❧

b2 9c2 s 2 4 3c

7. 9.

5.

11. −

7.3. SIMPLIFYING RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 13. − 15. 8x 5yz 31. 76c − 85a 200abc

515

17z 5

33. 2v + 4 35. 5u + 9 37. 2 − 39. 3 − 41. 3 − 43. 2 − 45. 1 + 4 s 5 r 8 9 − 2 x x 6 3 − 2 x x 1 4 − 6t 3t2 5 1 − 2s 2s2

1 17. − 2v 19. − 5r 2st

44r + 15s 21. 72r2 s2 15r + 34s 23. 72r2 s2 28z 3 + 33y 3 25. 144y 3 z 3 15w3 + 52v 3 27. 144v 3 w3 44z − 45x 29. 200xyz

47. 1 +

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

7.4

Solving Rational Equations

In Section 3 of Chapter 2, we showed that the most eﬃcient way to solve an equation containing fractions was to ﬁrst clear the fractions by multiplying both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. For example, given the equation 1 1 1 x+ = , 2 3 4 we would ﬁrst clear the fractions by multiplying both sides by 12. 12 1 1 1 x+ = 12 2 3 4 6x + 4 = 3

This procedure works equally well when the the denominators contain a variable. You Try It! Solve for x: 1 − 8 6 =− 2 x x EXAMPLE 1. Solve for x: 1− 3 2 = 2 x x

Solution: The common denominator is x2 . We begin by clearing fractions, multiplying both sides of the equation by x2 . 3 2 = 2 x x 3 2 1− = 2 x2 x x 1− Original equation. Multiply both sides by x2 .

x2

Now we use the distributive property. x2 [1] − x2 2 3 = 2 x2 x x Distribute x2 .

Now we cancel common factors and simplify. x2 − 2x = 3 Cancel. Simplify.

The resulting equation is nonlinear (x is raised to a power larger than 1. Make one side zero, then factor. x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 (x − 3)(x + 1) = 0 Nonlinear. Make one side zero. Factor.

7.4. SOLVING RATIONAL EQUATIONS

517

Use the zero product property to complete the solution. Either the ﬁrst factor is zero or the second factor is zero. x−3=0 x=3 Hence, the solutions are x = −1 and x = 3. Check. Substitute −1 for x, then 3 for x in the original equation and simplify. or x+1=0 x = −1

3 2 = 2 x x 3 3 2 2 = = 1− 1− (−1) (−1)2 (3) (3)2 3 2 1+2=3 1− = 3 9 3=3 1 1 = 3 3 Note that both result in true statements, showing that both x = −1 and x = 3 check in the original equation. 1− 1−

2 3 = 2 x x

Answer: 2, 4

You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. Solve for x: 6 − 22 29 = 2 x x Solution: The common denominator is x2 . 22 29 Original equation. 6− 2 = x x 29 2 22 x2 6 − 2 = Multiply both sides by x2 . x x x 22 29 2 x2 [6] − x2 2 = Distribute x2 . x x x 6x2 − 22 = 29x Cancel and simplify. Solve for x: 7 30 +8=− 2 x x

This last equation is nonlinear. Make one side zero. 6x2 − 29x − 22 = 0 The integer pair 4 and −33 has product ac = −132 and sum b = −29. Break up the middle term into a sum using this pair, then factor by grouping. 6x2 + 4x − 33x − 22 = 0 2x(3x + 2) − 11(3x + 2) = 0 (2x − 11)(3x + 2) = 0

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Finally, use the zero product property to write: 2x − 11 = 0 2x = 11 11 x= 2 or 3x + 2 = 0 3x = −2 2 x=− 3

Check: Let’s check these solutions with our calculators. Enter 11/2, push the STO button, push the X,T,θ,n button and the ENTER key (see the calculator screen on the left in Figure 7.7). Next, enter the left-hand side of the equation as 6-22/X^2 and press ENTER. Enter the right-hand side of the equation as 29/X and press ENTER. The results are the same (see the calculator screen on the left in Figure 7.7). This veriﬁes that 11/2 is a solution of 6 − 22/x2 = 29/x. The calculator screen on the right in Figure 7.7 shows a similar check of the solution x = −2/3.

Figure 7.7: Checking the solutions of 6 − Answer: −1/4, −7/2

22 29 = . 2 x x

**Solving Rational Equations with the Graphing Calculator
**

Let’s use the graphing calculator to solve an equation containing rational expressions. You Try It! Solve the equation 2+ 12 5 = 2 x x EXAMPLE 3. Consider the following equation: 2− 5 9 = 2 x x

both algebraically and graphically, then compare your solutions.

Solve the equation algebraically, then solve the equation graphically using your graphing calculator. Compare your solutions.

7.4. SOLVING RATIONAL EQUATIONS

519

Algebraic solution: First, an algebraic approach. Multiply both sides of the equation by the common denominator x2 . 9 5 = 2 x x 5 9 2 x 2− = 2 x2 x x 9 5 x2 [2] − x2 = 2 x2 x x 2− 2x2 − 9x = 5 Original equation. Multiply both sides by x2 . Distribute x2 . Cancel and simplify.

The last equation is nonlinear. Make one side zero. 2x2 − 9x − 5 = 0 Make one side zero.

The integer pair −10 and 1 have product equaling ac = −10 and sum equaling b = −9. Break up the middle term using this pair, then factor by grouping. 2x2 − 10x + x − 5 = 0 2x(x − 5) + 1(x − 5) = 0 (2x + 1)(x − 5) = 0 Now use the zero product property to write: 2x + 1 = 0 2x = −1 1 x=− 2 Hence, the solutions are x = −1/2 and x = 5. Graphical solution: We could load each side of the equation separately, then use the intersect utility to ﬁnd where the graphs intersect. However, in this case, it’s a bit easier to make one side of the equation zero, draw a single graph, then note where the graph crosses the x-axis. 9 5 = 2 x x 5 9 2− − 2 = 0 x x 2− Original equation. Make one side zero. or x−5=0 x=5 −10x + x = −9x. Factor by grouping. Factor out x − 5.

Load the left-hand side of the equation into Y1 as 2-9/X-5/X∧2 (see the image on the left in Figure 7.8), then select 6:ZStandard from the ZOOM menu to produce the image at the right in Figure 7.8. Next, the solutions of 9 5 2− − 2 =0 x x

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Figure 7.8: Sketch the graph of y = 2 −

5 9 − . x x2

are found by noting where the graph of y = 2 − 9/x − 5/x2 cross the x-axis. Select 2:zero from the CALC menu. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor to the left of the ﬁrst x-intercept, then press ENTER to set the “Left bound.” Next, move the cursor to the right of the ﬁrst x-intercept, then press ENTER to set the “Right bound.” Finally, leave the cursor where it is and press ENTER to set your “Guess.” The calculator responds with the result shown in the ﬁgure on the left in Figure 7.9. Repeat the zero-ﬁnding procedure to capture the coordinates of the second x-intercept (see the image on the right in Figure 7.9).

Figure 7.9: Locating the zeros of y = 2 −

5 9 − 2. x x

Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page. Use a ruler to draw all lines, but freehand any curves. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y, respectively (see Figure 7.10). • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 7.10). • Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 7.10). • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the xaxis. These are the solutions of the equation 2 − 9/x − 5/x2 = 0 (see Figure 7.10).

7.4. SOLVING RATIONAL EQUATIONS y 10

521

y = 2 − 9/x − 5/x2 −10 −0.5 5 10 x

Answer: −4, 3/2

−10 Figure 7.10: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework.

Thus, the calculator is reporting that the solutions of 2 − 9/z − 5/x2 = 0 are x = −0.5 and x = 5, which match the algebraic solutions x = −1/2 and x = 5.

Numerical Applications

Let’s apply what we’ve learned to an application. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 41/20. Find the number. Solution: In the solution, we address each step of the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. 1. Set up a variable dictionary. Let x represent the unknown number. 2. Set up an equation. If the unknown number is x, then its reciprocal is 1/x. Thus, the “sum of a number and its reciprocal is 41/20” becomes: x+ 41 1 = x 20 The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 53/14. Find the number.

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

3. Solve the equation. Clear the fractions by multiplying both sides by 20x, the least common denominator. 1 41 = x 20 1 41 20x x + = 20x x 20 1 41 20x [x] + 20x = 20x x 20 x+ 20x2 + 20 = 41x Model equation. Multiply both sides by 20x. Distribute 20x. Cancel and simplify.

The equation is nonlinear. Make one side zero. 20x2 − 41x + 20 = 0 Make one side zero.

The integer pair −16 and −25 has product ac = 400 and sum b = −41. Break up the middle term in the last equation into a sum of like terms using this pair, then factor by grouping. 20x2 − 16x − 25x + 20 = 0 4x(5x − 4) − 5(5x − 4) = 0 (4x − 5)(5x − 4) = 0 −16x − 25x = −41x. Factor by grouping. Factor out 5x − 4.

We can now use the zero product property to write: 4x − 5 = 0 4x = 5 5 x= 4 or 5x − 4 = 0 5x = 4 4 x= 5

4. Answer the question. There are two possible numbers, 5/4 and 4/5. 5. Look back. The sum of the unknown number and its reciprocal is supposed to equal 41/20. The answer 5/4 has reciprocal 4/5. Their sum is: 5 4 16 25 + = + 4 5 20 20 41 = 20 Thus, 5/4 is a valid solution. The second answer 4/5 has reciprocal 5/4, so it is clear that their sum is also 41/20. Hence, 4/5 is also a valid solution. Answer: 2/7, 7/2

7.4. SOLVING RATIONAL EQUATIONS

523

❧ ❧ ❧

In Exercises 1-8, solve the equation. 1. x = 11 + 26 x 60 2. x = 7 + x 27 12 =− 2 3. 1 − x x 7 6 4. 1 + = 2 x x

Exercises

❧ ❧ ❧

11 10 = 2 x x 96 20 =− 2 6. 1 − x x 44 7. x = 7 + x 99 8. x = 2 + x 5. 1 −

In Exercises 9-16, solve the equation. 8 x 10 10. 7x = −19 − x 3 19 =− 2 11. 20 + x x 1 8 12. 33 − = 2 x x 9. 12x = 97 − 11 x 3 14. 28x = 25 − x 1 6 15. 40 + = 2 x x 1 11 =− 2 16. 18 + x x 13. 8x = 19 −

In Exercises 17-20, solve each equation algebraically, then use the calculator to check your solutions. 17. 36x = −13 − 18. 9x = 43 + 10 x 1 x 19. 14x = 9 − 1 x 20 20. 3x = 16 − x

In Exercises 21-24, solve the equation algebraically, then solve the equation using the graphing calculator using the technique shown in Example 3. Report your solution using the Calculator Submission Guidelines demonstrated in Example 3. 21. 1 − 12 1 = 2 x x 28 11 =− 2 22. 1 + x x 44 x 4 24. 2x = 9 − x 23. 2x = 3 +

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CHAPTER 7. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

25. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 5/2. Find the number. 26. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 65/8. Find the number.

27. The sum of a number and 8 times its reciprocal is 17/3. Find all possible solutions. 28. The sum of a number and 4 times its reciprocal is 17/2. Find all possible solutions.

❧ ❧ ❧

1. −2, 13 3. 3, 9 5. 11, −1 7. −4, 11 9. 8, 1/12 11. −3/4, −1/5 13. 11/8, 1

Answers

❧ ❧ ❧

15. −1/4, 1/10 17. −1/9, −1/4 19. 1/2, 1/7 21. −3, 4 23. −4, 11/2 25. 2, 1/2 27. 3, 8/3

Next. Substitute 10 for x. You Try It! EXAMPLE 1.” Proportional. Answer: 63 . we write s = kt2 . Because we are given that y = 12 when x = 5.5. Substitute 12 for y. we write d = kt. Given that y is proportional to x and that y = 21 when x = 9. determine the value of y when x = 27. where k is a constant. • Given that y is proportional to the cube of x. DIRECT AND INVERSE VARIATION 525 7. where k is a constant. we know immediately that y = kx. The phrase “y varies directly as x” is an equivalent way of saying “y is proportional to x. • Given that s is proportional to the square of t. Divide both sides by 5.7. we write y = kx3 . where k is the proportionality constant. 5 for x.5 Direct and Inverse Variation We start with the deﬁnition of the phrase “is proportional to. substitute the constant of proportionality 12/5 for k in y = kx. y = kx 12 = k(5) 12 =k 5 y is proportional to x. We say that y is proportional to x if and only if y = kx. we can substitute 12 for y and 5 for x to determine k. We are not restricted to always using the letter k for our constant of proportionality. 12 x 5 12 y= (10) 5 y = 24 y= Substitute 12/5 for k. then substitute 10 for x to determine y when x = 10. where k is a constant. Given that y is proportional to x and the fact that y = 12 when x = 5. Cancel and simplify.” Here are a few examples that translate the phrase “is proportional to. determine the constant of proportionality. where k is a constant called the constant of proportionality.” • Given that d is proportional to t. then determine the value of y when x = 10. Solution: Given the fact the y is proportional to x.

how far will a 0. We’re told that the distance y the spring stretches is proportional to the amount of weight W hung on the spring. Because we are given that the ball falls 144 feet during the ﬁrst 3 seconds. Tony and Paul are hanging weights on a spring in the physics lab. Substitute 9 for t.526 CHAPTER 7. Let y represent the distance the spring stretches.75 pound weight stretches a spring 5 inches. If the ball falls 50 feet during the ﬁrst 5 seconds. we know immediately that s = kt2 . Thus. substitute the constant of proportionality 16 for k in s = kt2 . Divide both sides by 9. the ball falls 1. Next. and then substitute 9 for t to determine the distance fallen when t = 9 seconds.2 pound weight stretch the spring? EXAMPLE 3. If the ball falls 144 feet during the ﬁrst 3 seconds.5 pound weight stretches the spring 3 inches. they measure the distance the spring stretches. They discover that the distance y that the spring stretches is proportional to the weight hung on the spring (Hooke’s Law). how far does the ball fall in 9 seconds? Solution: Given the fact the s is proportional to the square of t. 3 for t. s = 16t2 s = 16(9) s = 1296 Answer: 128 feet 2 Substitute 16 for k. The distance s the ball falls is proportional to the square of the time t that has passed since the ball’s release. The distance s the ball falls is proportional to the square of the time t that has passed since the ball’s release. If a 0. Hence. You Try It! If a 0. s = kt2 144 = k(3) 144 = 9k 16 = k 2 s is proportional to the square of t. .296 feet during the ﬁrst 9 seconds. Simplify. Substitute 144 for s. A ball is dropped from a balloon ﬂoating above the surface of the earth. we can write: y = kW y is proportional to W . we can substitute 144 for s and 3 for t to determine the constant of proportionality. where k is the proportionality constant. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS You Try It! A ball is dropped from the edge of a cliﬀ on a certain planet. Simplify: 32 = 9.75 pound weight stretch the spring? Solution: Let W represent the weight hung on the spring. Each time a weight is hung. how far does the ball fall in 8 seconds? EXAMPLE 2. how far will a 1.

0. .” • Given that d is inversely proportional to t. The phrase “y varies inversely as x” is an equivalent way of saying “y in inversely proportional to x. To determine the distance the spring will stretch when 0. and 3. the second quantity also increased. not all real-world situations follow this pattern. Answer: 8 inches Thus. you may have noticed that when one quantity increased.5 for W . DIRECT AND INVERSE VARIATION Substitute 3 for y.5 inches. consider the situation where you increase the number of workers on a job and note that the time to ﬁnish the job decreases. Simplify. 0.” Here are a few examples that translate the phrase “is inversely proportional to. the spring will stretch 4. when one quantity decreased. the second quantity also decreased.75) y = 4. we write d = k/t. Inversely proportional. Vice-versa.5 Substitute 0. However. 2. 527 Substitute 6 for k in y = kW to produce: y = 6W Substitute 6 for k in y = kW . We say the y is inversely proportional to x if and only if k y= . substitute 0. where k is a constant.5. This is an example of a quantity being inversely proportional to a second quantity.5 k=6 Substitute 3 for y. then solve for k.75 for W . y = 6(0.75 for W . Simplify.75 pounds are hung on the spring. Inversely Proportional In Examples 1. 3 = k(0. There are times when as one quantity increases. Divide both sides by 0. where one quantity was proportional to a second quantity. x where k is a constant called the constant of proportionality. the related quantity decreases.5.5) 3 =k 0. For example.5 for W .7.

we write s = k/t2 . EXAMPLE 4. Given that y is inversely proportional to x and the fact that y = 4 when x = 2. where k is a constant. we can substitute 4 for y and 2 for x to determine k. Multiply both sides by 2. determine the value of y when x = 10. Substitute 4 for y. Solution: Given the fact the y is inversely proportional to x. You Try It! Given that y is inversely proportional to x and that y = 5 when x = 8.528 CHAPTER 7. We are not restricted to always using the letter k for our constant of proportionality. The intensity I of light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance d from the light source. then substitute 4 for x to determine y when x = 4. 2 for x. what is the intensity of the light 15 feet from the light source? . 8 x 8 y= 4 y=2 y= Answer: 4 Substitue 8 for k. • Given that s is inversely proportional to the square of t. Note that as x increased from 2 to 4. then determine the value of y when x = 4. y= k x k 4= 2 8=k y is inversely proportional to x. we know immediately that k y= . Substitute 4 for x. You Try It! If the light intensity 4 feet from a light source is 2 foot-candles. If the light intensity 5 feet from the light source is 3 foot-candles. what is the intensity of the light 8 feet from the light source? EXAMPLE 5. determine the constant of proportionality. Reduce. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS • Given that y is inversely proportional to the cube of x. Because we are given that y = 4 when x = 2. where k is a constant. Substitute 8 for k in y = k/x. y decreased from 4 to 2. we write y = k/x3 . x where k is the proportionality constant.

5 for d. k d2 k 3= 2 5 k 3= 25 75 = k I= I is inversely proportional to d2 . then substitute 15 for d to determine I when d = 15. Multiply both sides by 25. If 8 people sign up. Substitute 3 for I. d where k is the proportionality constant. Because we are given that the intensity is I = 3 foot-candles at d = 5 feet from the light source. we know immediately that k I = 2. Thus.5. we can write: p= k . Substitute 15 for d. the price per person is $70. If 10 people sign up. the price per person is $350. Simplify. DIRECT AND INVERSE VARIATION 529 Solution: Given the fact that the intensity I of the light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance d from the light source. Answer: 1/2 foot-candle You Try It! EXAMPLE 6.7. Suppose that the price per person for a camping experience is inversely proportional to the number of people who sign up for the experience. 75 d2 75 I= 2 15 75 I= 225 1 I= 3 I= Substitute 75 for k. we can substitute 3 for I and 5 for d to determine k. Simplify. the intensity of the light 15 feet from the light source is 1/3 foot-candle. Because we are told that the price per person is inversely proportional to the number of people who sign up for the camping experience. What will be the price per person if 20 people sign up? . Reduce. Substitute 75 for k in I = k/d2 . What will be the price per person if 50 people sign up? Solution: Let p represent the price per person and let N be the number of people who sign up for the camping experience. N Suppose that the price per person for a tour is inversely proportional to the number of people who sign up for the tour.

Substitute 350 for p.530 CHAPTER 7. then substitute 50 for N to determine p when N = 50. Because we are given that the price per person is $350 when 10 people sign up. Substitute 50 for N . Simplify. Thus. Multiply both sides by 10. . k N k 350 = 10 3500 = k p= p is inversely proportional to N . the price per person is $70 if 50 people sign up for the camping experience. Substitute 3500 for k in p = k/N . 10 for N . RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS where k is the proportionality constant. 3500 N 3500 p= 50 p = 70 p= Answer: $28 Substitute 3500 for k. we can substitute 350 for p and 10 for N to determine k.

Given that d is inversely proportional to t and the fact that d = 21 when t = 16. 3. 17. Given that d is proportional to the cube of t and the fact that d = 2465195 when t = 79. determine the value of y when x = 10. Given that s is proportional to t and the fact that s = 264 when t = 66. Given that s is inversely proportional to the square of t and the fact that s = 11 when t = 8. 7. 5. 13. Given that h is inversely proportional to x and the fact that h = 16 when x = 29. Given that q is proportional to the square of c and the fact that q = 13448 when c = 82. Given that q is proportional to the square of c and the fact that q = 3125 when c = 25. determine the value of s when t = 63. 11. determine the value of d when t = 45. 2. determine the value of s when t = 60. 14. determine the value of s when t = 50. determine the value of q when c = 3. 15. Given that q is inversely proportional to the square of c and the fact that q = 11 when c = 9. determine the value of y when x = 79. determine the value of h when x = 20. Given that s is proportional to the cube of t and the fact that s = 1588867 when t = 61. determine the value of F when x = 16. 8. Given that y is proportional to the square of x and the fact that y = 14700 when x = 70. Given that d is proportional to the cube of t and the fact that d = 318028 when t = 43. determine the value of d when t = 60.7. Given that d is proportional to t and the fact that d = 496 when t = 62. determine the value of F when x = 36. determine the value of d when t = 65. 9. 12. Given that y is inversely proportional to x and the fact that y = 23 when x = 15. Given that F is inversely proportional to x and the fact that F = 19 when x = 22. 4. Given that y is proportional to the square of x and the fact that y = 2028 when x = 26. 10. determine the value of s when t = 10. Given that s is proportional to t and the fact that s = 632 when t = 79.5. 16. DIRECT AND INVERSE VARIATION 531 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. determine the value of d when t = 76. determine the value of q when c = 29. . determine the value of q when c = 87. 6. determine the value of y when x = 45. Given that d is proportional to t and the fact that d = 405 when t = 45. 18. Given that F is proportional to the cube of x and the fact that F = 214375 when x = 35. determine the value of d when t = 24.

determine the value of y when x = 10. 20. Given that d is inversely proportional to the cube of t and the fact that d = 18 when t = 2. how far will a 12 pound weight stretch the spring? 27. If the light intensity 5 feet from the light source is 10 footcandles. the price per person is $213. If 18 people sign up. Suppose that the price per person for a camping experience is inversely proportional to the number of people who sign up for the experience. determine the value of d when t = 3. Given that d is inversely proportional to the square of t and the fact that d = 21 when t = 8. what is the intensity of the light 10 feet from the light source? 29. Given that q is inversely proportional to the cube of c and the fact that q = 15 when c = 6. 25. The intensity I of light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance d from the light source. what is the intensity of the light 18 feet from the light source? 28. If a 2 pound weight stretches the spring 16 inches. Joe and Mary are hanging weights on a spring in the physics lab. If 17 people sign up. 21. They discover that the distance that the spring stretches is proportional to the weight hung on the spring. the price per person is $204. They discover that the distance that the spring stretches is proportional to the weight hung on the spring. Given that y is inversely proportional to the square of x and the fact that y = 14 when x = 4. determine the value of q when c = 2. The intensity I of light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance d from the light source. . determine the value of q when c = 6. 24. 23. 30. Liz and Denzel are hanging weights on a spring in the physics lab.5 inches. they measure the distance the spring stretches. Given that q is inversely proportional to the cube of c and the fact that q = 16 when c = 5. What will be the price per person if 27 people sign up? Round your answer to the nearest dollar. Given that q is inversely proportional to the cube of c and the fact that q = 10 when c = 5. how far will a 5 pound weight stretch the spring? 26. Each time a weight is hung. they measure the distance the spring stretches. If the light intensity 4 feet from the light source is 20 footcandles. determine the value of q when c = 6. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 22. determine the value of d when t = 12. If a 5 pound weight stretches the spring 12. Each time a weight is hung. Suppose that the price per person for a camping experience is inversely proportional to the number of people who sign up for the experience.532 CHAPTER 7. 19. What will be the price per person if 35 people sign up? Round your answer to the nearest dollar.

16/3 23. 1750329 5. 233280 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 17. 56/25 21.0 foot-candles 13.7. $105 . 1. DIRECT AND INVERSE VARIATION 533 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 400 3. 250/27 25. 116/5 15. 480 27. 99 29. 209/8 19. 40 inches 11. 1682 7. 6075 9.5.

.

In addition.Chapter 8 Quadratic Functions In this chapter. The Greek mathematician Pythagoras did geometrical studies of which the Pythagorean theorem for right triangles is well known even in modern times. Frenchman Rene Descartes wrote a geometric proof of the quadratic formula which simpliﬁed the previous information. His generation of mathematicians formulated the symbols which make it easier for us to solve problems with radicals and higher powers. we will learn how use the technique of “completing the square” to develop the quadratic formula to help solve quadratic equations that are not factorable by methods of previous chapters. Four thousand years ago. In circa 250 BC Diophantes of Alexandria and in 750 AD al Khwarizmis of Arabia also wrote quadratic equations with solutions. These earlier mathematicians limited their work to positive rational numbers. We will be using the familiar Pythagorean theorem to solve problems with right triangles. In the 1600’s. 535 . we will be solving equations using the inverse operations of squaring and square roots (radicals). the Babylonians were solving selected quadratic equations. but in medieval times the Hindu Brahmagupta included solutions using positive and negative numbers and also included irrational numbers as well.

1 Introduction to Radical Notation We know how to square a number. Thus. You Try It! Find the square roots of 100. Answer: 8 and −8 Hence. • The negative square root of 25 is −5. • Because (−9)2 = 81. For example: • 52 = 25 • (−5)2 = 25 Taking the square root of a number is the opposite of squaring. Find the square roots of −36. the nonnegative square root of 81 is 9. . Hence. • Because 02 = 0. the negative square root of 81 is −9. You Try It! Find the square roots of −25. Answer: 10 and −10 No other number squared will equal zero. 81 has two square roots. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 8. • The nonnegative square root of 25 is 5.536 CHAPTER 8. Find the square roots of 81. −9 and 9. Find the square roots of 0. when searching for a square root of a number. • Because 92 = 81. zero has exactly one square root. Solution: We are looking for a number whose square is 0. namely zero. You Try It! Find the square roots of 64. Solution: We are looking for a number whose square is 81. EXAMPLE 3. the nonnegative square root of 0 is 0. we are searching for number whose square is equal to our number. EXAMPLE 2. EXAMPLE 1.

” Answer: 4. we need to understand the following facts: √ • 9 calls for the nonnegative square root√ 9. Hence.1 Answer: no real square roots The introductions in Examples 1. However. √ √ Two answers: − 9 and 9 Solve x2 = 16 for x. a set of numbers that are usually introduced in advanced courses such as college algebra or trigonometry. Thus. √ • − 9 calls for the negative square root of 9. every time you square a real number. The equation x2 = a has no real solutions. Solve x2 = 9 for x. then simplify your answers. √ Case: a > 0. Case: a = 0. Hence. which is equivalent to saying “x = −3 or x = 3. The solutions of x2 = a are called square roots of a. Because (−3)2 = 9. namely x = 0. √ • The notation − a calls for the negative square root. Case: a < 0. the solutions of x2 = 9 are x = ±3. . the √ negative square root of 9 is −3. The equation x2 = 0 has exactly one solution. −4 1 When we say that −36 has no real square roots. Because (3)2 = 9. Solution: Because the right-hand side of x2 = 9 is positive. INTRODUCTION TO RADICAL NOTATION 537 Solution: We are looking for a number whose square is −36. Deﬁning the square roots of a number. the of nonnegative square root of 9 is 3. The reason we emphasize the word real in this situation is the fact that −36 does have two square roots that are elements of the complex numbers.8. √ • The notation a calls for the nonegative square root. −36 has no real square roots. To simplify these answers. 9 = 3. the equation has two solutions. and 3 lead to the following deﬁnition. then simplify your answers.1. 2. x2 = 9 √ x=± 9 Original equation. we mean there are no real numbers that are square roots of −36. the result is never negative. namely x = ± a. Hence. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. − 9 = −3. The equation x2 = a has two real solutions.

then simplify the answer.538 CHAPTER 8. x2 = 0 x=0 Answer: 7. Simplify each of the following: √ √ √ √ c) −100 a) 121 b) − 225 d) − 324 √ Solution: Remember. You Try It! √ Simplify: − 144 EXAMPLE 7. a) Because 112 = 121. Therefore. the notation a calls for the nonnegative square root √ of a. a real number. Thus: √ 121 = 11 b) Because (−15)2 = 225. Consequently. Solution: There is only one number whose square equals 0. then simplify the answers. Thus: √ − 225 = −15 c) You cannot square a real number and get −100. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS You Try It! Solve x2 = 49 for x. Thus: √ − 324 = −18 . the only solution of x2 = 0√ x = 0. √ x2 = −4 has no real solutions. the nonnegative square root of 121 is 11. Solve x2 = −4 for x. Solve x2 = 0 for x. Hence. You Try It! Solve x2 = −9 for x. Therefore. the nonnegative is square root of zero is zero. Answer: no real solutions EXAMPLE 6. then simplify the answer. EXAMPLE 5. then simplify the answers. One answer: (0)2 = 0. while the notation − a calls for the negative square root of a. √ −100 is not Answer: −12 d) Because (−18)2 = 324. Solution: You cannot square a real number and get a negative result. −4 is not a real number. the negative square root of 225 is −15. −7 Original equation. 0 = 0. the negative square root of 324 is −18. Thus. Hence. namely 0.

However. If a > 0. For example. Because 7 is not a perfect square. −11 is not a real number. the equation x2 = a has involved perfect √ squares. we can simplify further. if we square − 7. Consequently. √ √ a) Because 5 is a solution of x2 = 5. Advanced courses such as college algebra or trigonometry will introduce the complex number system and show how to handle this expression. if we square 5. if we substitute each of them into the equation x2 = a. Because 25 is a perfect square. then both − a and a are solutions of x2 = a. √ ( 5)2 = 5 √ √ b) Because − 7 is a solution of x2 = 7. the equation x2 = 7 has two real solutions. we get: √ 2 √ 2 − a =a and a =a EXAMPLE 8. we should get 5. √ (− 7)2 = 7 √ c) Because x2 = −11 has no real answers.8. x = ± 7. In the next example. the right-hand side of x2 = a does not have to be a √ For example.1. if we start with x2 = 25. perfect square. we should get 7. INTRODUCTION TO RADICAL NOTATION Squaring “undoes” taking the square root. we cannot simplify further. Simplify each of the following expressions: √ √ √ c) ( −11)2 a) ( 5)2 b) (− 7)2 Solution: We’ll handle each case carefully. then the solutions are x = ± 25. You Try It! √ Simplify: (− 21)2 Answer: 21 Using the Graphing Calculator Up to this point. arriving at x = ±5. 539 √ √ Squaring square roots. . we’ll use the graphing calculator to compare this algebraic solution √ a graphical with √ solution and hopefully provide some assurance that − 7 and 7 are perfectly valid solutions of x2 = 7.

Figure 8. Repeat the procedure to ﬁnd the point of intersection in the image on the right in Figure 8. • Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 8. then compare your answers. Figure 8. Use the 5:intersect utility on the CALC menu to ﬁnd the points of intersection. These are the solutions of the equation x2 = 7 (see Figure 8. Use a ruler to draw all lines.2.3). Press ENTER in response to “First curve.6457513.3).1).3).645751 and x ≈ 2. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each point of intersection.3).540 CHAPTER 8. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the x-axis. respectively (see Figure 8. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 8. The approximate solutions of x2 = 7 are x ≈ −2.1.1: Sketch each side of x2 = 7. Then solve the equation algebraically and compare answers. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page.” This will produce the point of intersection shown in image on the left in Figure 8. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y.” press ENTER in response to “Second curve. EXAMPLE 9. Solution: Enter each side of the equation x2 = 7 in the Y= menu (see Figure 8. . then select 6:ZStandard to produce the image in Figure 8.2: Finding points of intersection. Use the graphing calculator to solve x2 = 7. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS You Try It! Solve the equation x2 = 5 both algebraically and graphically.2. Press ENTER in response to “Guess.” then use the arrow keys to move the cursor closer to the point of intersection on the left than the one on the right. but freehand any curves.

645751 2.3: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework.4. INTRODUCTION TO RADICAL NOTATION y 10 y = x2 y=7 541 −10 −2. √ √ Thus. the question is: “Do these algebraic solutions match the graphical solutions in Figure 8. . − 7 ≈ −2. √ Then enter (7) and press ENTER. Now we solve the equation algebraically.3?” Let’s use our calculator to compare results. √ √ Figure 8.8.3.645751311. Note how these closely match the graphical approximations in Figure 8. Enter − (7) and press ENTER.4: Computing − 7 and 7.1.645751311 and 7 ≈ 2. x2 = 7 √ x=± 7 √ √ Answer: − 5.6457513 10 x −10 Figure 8. √ Locate the square root symbol on the calculator case above the x2 key in the leftmost column on the calculator keyboard. Note that we will have √ to use the 2nd key to access this operator. 5 At this point. The results are shown in Figure 8.

the graph in Figure 8. Solution: Enter each side of the equation x2 = −5 in the Y= menu (see Figure 8. in the case of 24. you cannot square a real number and get a negative answer. Each is the square of a whole number. For example. • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. respectively (see Figure 8. Now we solve the equation algebraically. Because there are no points of intersection. • Label each graph with its equation (see Figure 8. Use the graphing calculator to solve x2 = −5.6). . x2 = −5 However.1: Figure 8. However. then select 6:ZStandard to produce the image in Figure 8. this does not prevent 24 from being a perfectly good number. But not all numbers are √ perfect squares.542 CHAPTER 8. but freehand any curves.6. Use a ruler to draw all lines. List of Squares n n2 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 25 6 36 7 49 8 64 9 81 10 100 11 121 12 144 13 169 14 196 15 225 16 256 17 289 18 324 19 361 20 400 21 441 22 484 23 529 24 576 25 625 Table 8.5).6). Approximating Square Roots The squares in the “List of Squares” shown in Table 8.6). This agrees completely with the graph in Figure 8.5: Sketch each side of x2 = −5. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS You Try It! EXAMPLE 10.5. Then solve the equation algebraically and compare answers. Hence. the equation x2 = −5 has no real solutions.6 informs us that the equation x2 = −5 has no real solutions. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 8.1 are called perfect squares. there is no whole number √ whose square is equal to 24. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page.

8. We can use the “List of Squares” to ﬁnd decimal approximations when the radicand is not a perfect square. let’s square 4. using the square root button.8)2 = (4.6: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. From our calculator. √ EXAMPLE 11. √ 16 4 Let’s guess As a check. √ 24 4.8) = 23. Solution. Let’s use a scientiﬁc calculator to get a better approximation.8.8.8. 24 must be a little bit bigger than 4.” note that 24 lies betwen 16 and 25. with 24 much closer to 5 than it is to 4. INTRODUCTION TO RADICAL NOTATION y 10 y = x2 543 −10 10 x y = −5 −10 Figure 8.8 √ 25 5 You Try It! √ Estimate: 83 . From the “List of Squares.8)(4.1. so √ √ 24 will lie between 4 and 5. Estimate 24 by guessing.89897948557.04 √ 24 ≈ 4. we ﬁnd √ 24 ≈ 4. Use a calculator to ﬁnd a more accurate result and compare this result with your guess. (4. √ Not quite 24! Clearly.

you would get a number that is extremely close to 24.wolframalpha. but it would not be exactly 24. There would still be a little discrepancy.com/.8. . 4. it is still only an approximation. the exact decimal representation of 24 is an inﬁnite decimal that never terminates and never establishes a pattern of repetition. of However.544 CHAPTER 8. √ Just for fun. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Even though this is better than our estimate of 4. here is a decimal approximation of 24 that is accurate to 1000 places.8989794855663561963945681494117827839318949613133402568653851 3450192075491463005307971886620928046963718920245322837824971773 09196755146832515679024745571056578254950553531424952602105418235 40446962621357973381707264886705091208067617617878749171135693149 44872260828854054043234840367660016317961567602617940145738798726 16743161888016008874773750983290293078782900240894528962666325870 21889483627026570990088932343453262850995296636249008023132090729 18018687172335863967331332533818263813071727532210516312358732472 35822058934417670915102576710597966482011173804100128309322482347 06798820862115985796934679065105574720836593103436607820735600767 24633259464660565809954782094852720141025275395093777354012819859 11851434656929005776183028851492605205905926474151050068455119830 90852562596006129344159884850604575685241068135895720093193879959 87119508123342717309306912496416512553772738561882612744867017729 60314496926744648947590909762887695867274018394820295570465751182 126319692156620734019070649453 Answer: 9. courtesy of http://www.1 If you were to multiply this number by itself (square the number). Our calculator was only capable √ providing 11 decimal places.

List all real square roots of 49. List all real solutions of x2 = 625. 8. 17. 13. List all real solutions of x2 = −225. List all real square roots of 324. 3. List all real solutions of x2 = −25. 23. 43 2 2 √ 35.1. √ −361 √ − 100 √ − 196 √ 441 √ 49 In Exercises 31-38. 7.8. 30. 18. 25. 14. − 29 √ 36. List all real solutions of x2 = −100. List all real square roots of 64. List all real square roots of −100. √ 31. List all real solutions of x2 = 324. 28. 11. 27. List all real square roots of −400. 19. INTRODUCTION TO RADICAL NOTATION 545 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. List all real square roots of 0. List all real solutions of x2 = −400. 24. − 31 √ 2 33. Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ 6. 2. List all real solutions of x2 = 256. List all real solutions of x2 = 0. − 89 √ 2 37. 29. 4. List all real solutions of x2 = 361. 10. List all real square roots of 81. 16. simplify each of the given expressions. 9. simplify each of the given expressions. 21. 15. 20. 5. 59 √ 2 34. − 17 √ 32. List all real square roots of −225. List all real square roots of −25. 3 2 2 . √ 64 √ − −529 √ − −256 √ −529 √ − 361 26. 79 √ 2 38. List all real solutions of x2 = 169. List all real square roots of 36. In Exercises 21-30. 22. 12.

ﬁrst use the 5:intersect utility on the CALC menu of the graphing calculator to determine the solutions. then use your calculator to ﬁnd approximations of your answers and compare this second set with the ﬁrst set of answers.082763 41. 21 31. 25 21. −19. 19 15.316625 3. −10 29. x2 = 32 41. solve the equation algebraically. −18. There are no real square roots. 79 39. 17. 8 23. There are no real solutions. There are no real solutions. 30 y y = x2 −50 y = 11 −10 −3. 25.082763 x √ Answers: ± 37 ≈ ±6. 18 9.546 CHAPTER 8. ❧ ❧ ❧ y 50 y = x2 y = 37 −10 −6.082763 10 6.316625 x 10 √ Answers: ± 11 ≈ ±3. There are no real square roots. 5. x2 = 42 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Follow the Calculator Submission Guidelines. 3. −13. −25. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS In Exercises 39-42. 59 Answers 35. as demonstrated in Example 9 in reporting the solution on your homework paper. x2 = 11 42. Second. 13. 13 19. 17 33. 11. There are no real square roots. 39. for each of the given equations. −7.316625 −30 . −19 27. The expression is not a real number. x2 = 37 40. 7 7. 29 37.

The above discussion leads us to the following result. If a ≥ 0 and b ≥ 0. 9 16 = 9 · 16. SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS 547 8. It appears that a pattern is forming. First enter 2 3. placing the product under a single square root. Figure 8. You Try It! √ √ Simplify: 2 8 .8. √ √ √ √ 9 16 = 3 · 4 9 · 16 = 144 = 12 = 12 √ √ √ √ √ √ Note that both 9 16 and 9 · 16 equal 12.7: Note that √ √ √ 2 3 = 2 · 3. Therefore.7). then: √ √ √ a b = ab EXAMPLE 1. √ √ √ √ 4 9=2·3 4 · 9 = 36 =6 =6 √ √ √ √ √ √ Note that both 4 9 and 4 · 9 equal 6. use the property a b = ab. multiply the two numbers under the square root sign. Hence. 2 3 = √ 2 · 3. Note that they produce the same result. 4 9 = 4 · 9. namely: √ √ √ a b = ab √ √ √ Let’s try an example on our calculator. That is.2.2 Simplifying Radical Expressions Let’s begin by comparing two mathematical expressions. Let’s look at another example. Multiplication property of radicals. Hence. Simplify each of the following expressions as much as possible: √ √ √ √ √ √ b) 12 3 c) 2 13 a) 3 11 √ √ √ Solution: In each case. then enter √2 · 3 √ (see Figure 8.

√ √ Solution: From 8. You Try It! √ Place 12 in simple radical form. √ √ =3 8 Simplify: 9 = 3. always factor out a perfect square. If possible. √ √ Solution: From 72. √ √ √ 72 = 9 8 Factor out a perfect square. √ The expression 5 2 is said to be in simple radical form. Simple radical form.548 CHAPTER 8. you should always look to factor out a perfect square when possible. in this case 4. you can still factor out another perfect square. √ √ √ 8= 4 2 Factor out a perfect square. √ Answer: 2 3 Sometimes. after factoring out a perfect square. Like reducing a fraction to lowest terms. . we can factor out a perfect square. √ EXAMPLE 2. Place 8 in simple radical form. in this case 9. √ √ =5 2 Simplify: 25 = 5. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS a) Answer: 4 √ √ √ 3 11 = 3 · 11 √ = 33 b) √ √ √ 12 3 = 12 · 3 √ = 36 =6 c) √ √ √ 2 13 = 2 · 13 √ = 26 Simple Radical Form √ √ √ We can also use the property a b = ab in reverse to factor out a perfect square. Place 72 in simple radical form. √ √ =2 2 Simplify: 4 = 2. For example: √ √ √ 50 = 25 2 Factor out a perfect square. You Try It! √ Place 200 in simple radical form. we can factor out a perfect square. √ EXAMPLE 3.

√ Answer: 10 2 The Pythagorean Theorem An angle that measures 90 degrees is called a right angle. Although the second solution is more eﬃcient.8). the ﬁrst solution is still mathematically correct. It is traditional to mark the right angle with a little square (see Figure 8. from 549 √ √ 8 we can factor out another perfect square. in this case 4.2. Alternate solution. • The remaining two sides of the right triangle are called the legs of the right triangle.8: Right triangle b C ABC has a right angle at vertex C. √ √ √ 72 = 36 2 Factor out a perfect square. Our answer is not in simple radical form until we can no longer factor out a perfect square.8. . If one of the angles of a triangle is a right angle. the side directly opposite the right angle. The point to make here is that we must continue to factor out a perfect square whenever possible. √ √ =6 2 Simplify: 36 = 6. SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS However. We can simplify the process by noting that we can factor √ √ out 36 from 72 to start the process. =3·2· 2 √ =6 2 Multiply: 3 · 2 = 6. =3 4 2 √ √ Simplify: 4 = 2. • The longest side of the right triangle. B c a A Figure 8. √ √ Factor out another perfect square. is called the hypotenuse of the right triangle. Right triangle terminology. then the triangle is called a right triangle.

one of length a.e. i. A second approach to ﬁnding the area of the square is to sum the areas of the geometric parts that make up the square. Hence. In the interior. Simplify: 4((1/2)ab) = 2ab. Its area is found by squaring its side. Squaring a binomial pattern. they must be equal to one another. shaded in light red. b a a c c b b c c a b a Figure 8. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem Each side of the square in Figure 8. A = (a + b)2 A = a + 2ab + b 2 2 Square a side to ﬁnd area. That is: A = c2 + 4 A = c2 + 2ab 2 1 ab 2 Adding the area of the interior square and the area of four right triangles. Subtract 2ab from both sides. i. we have a smaller square with side c. the area of each triangles is (1/2)ab. .. one smaller square and four congruent triangles.550 CHAPTER 8.e.. a + 2ab + b2 and c2 + 2ab. the total area of the square is A = a2 + 2ab + b2 . The total area of the square is the sum of its parts. Thus. with base a and height b.9: Proving the Pythagorean Theorem. both represent the total area of the large square. a2 + 2ab + b2 = c2 + 2ab a2 + b 2 = c2 Each side of this equation represents the area of the large square. the other of length b.9 has been divided into two segments. The two expressions. the area of the smaller square is c2 . We can ﬁnd the total area of the square by squaring any one of the sides of the square. We have four congruent right triangles. The area of each of these triangles is found by taking one-half times the base times the height.

write out the Pythagorean Theorem. Hence: c=5 Nonnegative square root. the length of the hypotenuse is 5. Substitute: 4 for a. Find the length of the missing side of the right triangle shown below. then substitute the given values in the appropriate places. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. Let’s put the Pythagorean Theorem to work. c = −5 and c = 5. is called the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 25 = c2 The equation c2 = 25 has two real solutions. then: a2 + b 2 = c2 We say “The sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of its hypotenuse. a2 + b2 = c2 . . in this situation. Add: 16 + 9 = 25.2. c represents the length of the hypotenuse and must be a positive number. Note that the hypotenuse sits by itself on one side of the equation a2 + b2 = c2 . (3)2 = 9. a2 + b 2 = c2 (4) + (3) = c 16 + 9 = c 2 2 2 2 Find the missing side of the right triangle shown below.” Good hint. SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS The last equation. c 12 Pythagorean Theorem. Square: (4)2 = 16. If a and b are the legs of a right triangle and c is its hypotenuse. Answer: 13 Thus. 551 The Pythagorean Theorem. 3 for b. c 3 4 Solution: First. The legs of the hypotenuse are on the other side.8. However.

x represents the length of each leg and must be a positive number. Find the lengths of the legs. However. In this case. EXAMPLE 5. We must factor out a perfect square when possible. x for b. An isosceles right triangle has a hypotenuse of length 8. Substitute: x for a. Combine like terms: x + x = 2x. Divide both sides by 2. Solution: In general. your ﬁnal answer must be in simple radical form. x = − 32 and x = 32. the length of each leg is 4 2. an isosceles triangle is a triangle with two equal sides. a2 + b 2 = c2 x +x =8 2 2 2 2 2 Pythagorean Theorem. 2x = 64 x = 32 √ √ The equation x2 = 32 has two real solutions. √ Simplify: 16 = 4. We’ll let x represent the length of each leg. x= √ √ 16 2 √ x=4 2 Factor out a perfect square.552 CHAPTER 8. an isosceles right triangle has two equal legs. x 8 x Use the Pythagorean Theorem. Find the lengths of the legs. 8 for c. . substituting x for each leg and 8 for the hypotenuse. Remember. in this situation. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS You Try It! An isosceles right triangle has a hypotenuse of length 10. Hence: x= √ 32 Nonnegative square root. Answer: √ Each leg has length 5 2. √ Thus.

SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS 553 Applications Let’s try a word problem. You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. Solution: As always. We’ll create a well-marked diagram for this purpose. Square: 82 = 64 and 202 = 400.8. h will be the nonnegative square root. Using the Pythagorean Theorem. we obey the Requirements for Word Problem Solutions. √ Simplify: 16 = 4. how high up the wall does the ladder reach? Use your calculator to round your answer to the nearest tenth of a foot. 20 ft h 8 ft 2. how high up the garage wall does the ladder reach? Find an exact answer. then use your calculator to round your answer to the nearest tenth of a foot.3 feet. If the base of the ladder is 8 feet from the garage wall. rounded to the nearest tenth of a foot. 2 Pythagorean Theorem. A ladder 15 feet long leans against a wall. this is about 18. Using a calculator. letting h represent the distance between the base of the garage wall and the upper tip of the ladder. h2 = 336 √ h = 336 √ √ h = 16 21 √ h = 4 21 Subtract 64 from both sides. Set up a variable dictionary. Factor out a perfect square. √ 4. . 1.2. If the base of the ladder is 6 feet from the wall. Solve the equation. A ladder 20 feet long leans against the garage wall. we can write: 82 + h2 = 202 64 + h = 400 3. Answer the question. Set up an equation. The ladder reaches 4 21 feet up the wall.

32 = 202 64 + 334.89 = 400 The approximation is not perfect.554 CHAPTER 8.7 feet ? ? ? . Look back. 20 ft 18.89 = 400 398.3 ft. Answer: 13. Understand that when we use 18. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 5. but it seems close enough to accept this solution. an approximation. our solution will only check approximately.3 ft 8 ft Using the Pythagorean Theorem: 82 + 18.

23. 18. 17 2 4. 15. 25. simplify the given expression. Check the result with your graphing calculator. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 153 125 50 88 18 117 44 20 104 27 In Exercises 27-34. ﬁnd the length of the missing side of the right triangle. 17 3 In Exercises 7-26. 10. 24. 22 b 14 20 . 20. 13. 5 17 √ √ 6. 12. 1. 9. Your ﬁnal answer must be in simple radical form. 19. √ 56 √ 45 √ 99 √ 75 √ 150 √ 90 √ 40 √ 171 √ 28 √ 175 17. convert each of the given expressions to simple radical form. 11. 16. 27. 21. 7. 16 b 28. 2 7 √ √ 3. √ √ 5 11 √ √ 5. writing your answer using a single square root symbol. SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS 555 ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-6.8. 8.2. √ √ 5 13 √ √ 2. 14. 22. 26.

In the ﬁgure below. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 32. c 14 7 10 31. If the base of the ladder is 5 feet from the garage wall. 4 3 A O B 36. A ladder 19 feet long leans against the garage wall. What is the area of the shaded region? C 12 A O 5 B 37. In the ﬁgure below. c 12 34. a right triangle is inscribed in a semicircle. 38. c 14 3 4 30. c 12 2 15 35. 40. Find the lengths of all three sides of the right triangle. how high up the garage wall does the ladder reach? Use your calculator to round your answer to the nearest tenth of a foot. If the base of the ladder is 6 feet from the garage wall. The longest leg of a right triangle is 10 feet longer than twice the length of its shorter . Find the lengths of all three sides of the right triangle. 39. A ladder 19 feet long leans against the garage wall. how high up the garage wall does the ladder reach? Use your calculator to round your answer to the nearest tenth of a foot. The longest leg of a right triangle is 2 feet longer than twice the length of its shorter leg. 15 b 33. a right triangle is inscribed in a semicircle. The hypotenuse is 3 feet longer than twice the length of the shorter leg. The hypotenuse is 4 feet longer than three times the length of the shorter leg.556 29. 25 b CHAPTER 8. What is the area of the shaded region? C leg.

5 2 37.8. 3 2 √ 23. 2 15 √ 29. 24. 2 26 √ 27. 5 6 √ 13.2. 3. √ 65 √ 34 √ 85 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ √ 21. 18. 2 10 √ 15. 2 74 35. 7. 2 37 √ 33. 2 14 √ 9. 3 11 √ 11. SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS 557 ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. 2 11 √ 25. 25 π−6 8 √ 7.3 feet . 2 154 √ 31. 3 17 √ 19. 2 7 √ 17. 25 39. 5.

8284 10 √ x=± 8 √ √ x=± 4 2 √ x = ±2 2 x −10 √ √ Readers should use their calculators to check that −2 2 ≈ −2.558 CHAPTER 8. Indeed. but not required. Now. EXAMPLE 1. we showed how to solve equations such as x2 = 9 both algebraically and graphically. there are two answers. A perfect square is nice. You Try It! Solve for x: (x + 6)2 = 16.3 Completing the Square In Introduction to Radical Notation on page 536. There are two square roots. one negative and one positive. let’s extend this solution technique to a broader class of equations.8284. we use a similar approach on (x − 4)2 = 9 to obtain: (x − 4)2 = 9 x − 4 = ±3 Original equation. y y = x2 10 y=9 x2 = 9 x = ±3 −10 −3 3 10 x −10 Note that when we take the square root of both sides of this equation. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 8. Solution: Much like the solutions of x2 = 9 are x = ±3. . we may even have to factor out a perfect square to put our ﬁnal answer in simple form.8284 and 2 2 ≈ 2. Solve for x: (x − 4)2 = 9.8284 −10 −2. y y = x2 10 x2 = 8 y=8 −2.

Solve for x: (x − 4)2 = 5. √ x = −5 ± 7 Subtract 5 from both sides. However.8. √ √ Substitute −5 + 7 for x: Substitute −5 − 7 for x: (x + 5)2 = 7 √ ((−5 − 7) + 5)2 = 7 √ (− 7)2 = 7 (x + 5)2 = 7 √ ((−5 + 7) + 5)2 = 7 √ ( 7)2 = 7 . To complete the solution. namely: x=4−3 x=1 or x=4+3 x=7 Check: Check each solution by substituting it into the original equation. subtract 5 from both sides of the equation. −10 Because the last statement in each check is a true statement. 559 Note that this means that there are two answers. this is not required. There are two square roots. the right-hand side of the equation (x− 4)2 = 9 was a perfect square. Solution: Using the same technique as in Example 1. as the next example will show. Substitute 1 for x: Substitute 7 for x: (x − 4)2 = 9 (1 − 4)2 = 9 (−3)2 = 9 (x − 4)2 = 9 (7 − 4)2 = 9 (3)2 = 9 Answer: −2. Note that this means that there are two answers.3. In Example 1. we obtain: (x + 5)2 = 7 √ x+5=± 7 Original equation. both x = 1 and x = 7 are valid solutions of (x − 4)2 = 9. namely: √ √ or x = −5 + 7 x = −5 − 7 Check: Check each solution by substituting it into the original equation. x=4±3 Add 3 to both sides. You Try It! EXAMPLE 2. COMPLETING THE SQUARE To complete the solution. add 4 to both sides of the equation. Solve for x: (x + 5)2 = 7.

10: Checking −4 − 2 5 and −4 + 2 5 in the equation (x + 4)2 = 20. √ Simplify: 4 = 2. There are two square roots. EXAMPLE 3. showing that −4 − 2 5 is a solution of (x + 4)2 = 20. enter the left-hand side of the equation (x + 4)2 = 20 (see image on the left in Figure 8.10). √ In similar fashion. You Try It! Solve for x: (x + 7)2 = 18. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS √ Because the last statement in each check is a true statement. both x = −5− 7 √ and x = −5 + 7 are valid solutions of (x + 5)2 = 7. 4 − 5 CHAPTER 8. First. Sometimes you will have to factor out a perfect square to put your answer in simple form. let’s use our cal√ culator instead. Factor out a perfect square. To complete the solution.560 √ √ Answer: 4 + 5. Answer: √ √ −7 + 3 2. the solution −4 + 2 5 also checks in (x + 4)2 = 20 (see image on the right in Figure 8. Note that this means that there are two answers.10). Next. we obtain: (x + 4)2 = 20 √ x + 4 = ± 20 √ √ x+4=± 4 5 √ x + 4 = ±2 5 Original equation. namely: √ √ x = −4 − 2 5 or x = −4 + 2 5 Check: Although it is possible to check the exact answers. Solution: Using the same technique as in Example 1. Solve for x: (x + 4)2 = 20. store −4 − 2 5 in X. −7 − 3 2 . subtract 4 from both sides of the equation. √ x = −4 ± 2 5 Subtract 4 from both sides. √ √ Figure 8. Note that √ (x + 4)2 simpliﬁes to 20.

Hence. then square the third term. you square the ﬁrst term. COMPLETING THE SQUARE 561 Perfect Square Trinomials Revisited Recall the squaring a binomial shortcut. You Try It! EXAMPLE 4. Hence. The solution checks. The solution checks. take the product of the ﬁrst and second terms and double the result. If a and b are any real numbers.” it is a simple matter to reverse the multiplication process and factor these perfect square trinomials. which is the middle term on the left. . Factor each of the following trinomials: a) x2 − 12x + 36 b) x2 + 10x + 25 c) x2 − 34x + 289 Factor: x2 + 30x + 225 Solution: Whenever the ﬁrst and last terms of a trinomial are perfect squares. b) The ﬁrst and third terms of x2 + 10x + 25 are perfect squares.3. we take their square roots and try: x2 − 12x + 36 = (x − 6)2 Note that 2(x)(6) = 12x. Squaring a binomial. Reminder examples: (x + 3)2 = x2 + 2(x)(3) + 32 = x2 + 6x + 9 (x − 8)2 = x2 − 2(x)(8) + 82 = x2 − 16x + 64 Because factoring is “unmultiplying.8. a) The ﬁrst and third terms of x2 − 12x + 36 are perfect squares. we should suspect that we have a perfect square trinomial. x2 + 6x + 9 = (x + 3)2 x2 − 16x + 64 = (x − 8)2 Note how in each case we simply take the square root of the ﬁrst and last terms. then: (a ± b)2 = a2 ± 2ab + b2 That is. we take their square roots and try: x2 + 10x + 25 = (x + 5)2 Note that 2(x)(5) = 10x. which is the middle term on the left.

Hence. Add the result of step two to x2 + 12x: . Answer: (x + 15)2 Completing the Square In this section we start with the binomial x2 + bx and ask the question “What constant value should we add to x2 + bx so that the resulting trinomial is a perfect square trinomial?” The answer lies in this procedure. Take one-half of 12: 6 62 = 36 x2 + 12x + 36 2. Take one-half of the coeﬃcient of x: 2. square trinomial. Square the result of step one: 3.562 CHAPTER 8. the result will be a perfect square trinomial which will factor as follows: 2 b b2 x2 + bx + = x+ 4 2 You Try It! Given x2 + 16x. we take their square roots and try: x2 − 34x + 289 = (x − 17)2 Note that 2(x)(17) = 34x. To calculate the constant required to make x2 + bx a perfect square trinomial: 1. which is the middle term on the left. complete the square to create a perfect Solution: Compare x2 + 12x with x2 + bx and note that b = 12. EXAMPLE 5. complete the square to create a perfect square trinomial. Add the result of step two to x2 + bx: If you follow this process. Completing the square. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS c) The ﬁrst and third terms of x2 − 34x + 289 are perfect squares. The solution checks. Given x2 + 12x. Square the result of step one: b 2 2 b 2 = b2 4 x2 + bx + b2 4 3. 1.

Take the square roots of the ﬁrst and last terms and factor as follows: x2 + 12x + 36 = (x + 6)2 Note that 2(x)(6) = 12x. so the middle term checks. Given x2 − 3x. x2 = 2x + 2 The standard approach is to make one side zero and factor. Answer: x2 + 16x + 64 = (x + 8)2 You Try It! EXAMPLE 6. 2. one quickly realizes that there is no integer pair whose product is ac = −2 and whose sum is b = −2. COMPLETING THE SQUARE 563 Check: Note that the ﬁrst and last terms of x2 + 12x + 36 are perfect squares. complete the square to create a perfect square trinomial. complete the square to create a perfect square trinomial. what does one do in this situation? The answer is “Complete the square. Square the result of step one: = 9 4 9 4 3.” . So. Take one-half of −3: − 3 2 − 3 2 2 Given x2 − 5x. Solution: Compare x2 − 3x with x2 + bx and note that b = −3. x2 − 2x − 2 = 0 However.3. Take the square roots of the ﬁrst and last terms and factor as follows: x2 − 3x + 9 = 4 x− 3 2 2 Note that 2(x) (3/2) = 3x. 1.8. Add the result of step two to x2 − 3x: x2 − 3x + Check: Note that the ﬁrst and last terms of x2 − 3x + 9/4 are perfect squares. so the middle term checks. Answer: x2 − 5x + 10/4 = (x − 5/2)2 Solving Equations by Completing the Square Consider the following nonlinear equation.

add 1 to both sides of the equation. Square the result: (−1)2 = 1. √ Check: Let’s use the calculator to check the solutions.11).11: Checking 1 − √ √ 3 and 1 + 3 in the equation x2 = 2x + 2.and right-hand on sides of the equation x2 = 2x + 2 and compare the results (see the image √ the left in Figure 8. as in Examples 1. note that the left. there are two square roots. Then enter the left.and right-hand sides of x2 = 2x+2 produce the √ √ same result. check the second answer 1 + 3 (see the image on the right in Figure 8. store 1 − 3 in X (see the image on the left in Figure 8. . √ x−1=± 3 Finally. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS You Try It! Use completing the square to help solve x2 = 3 − 6x. First. (x − 1)2 = 3 Now. Solution: First.11). x2 − 2x + 1 = 2 + 1 x2 − 2x + 1 = 3 We can now factor the left-hand side as a perfect square trinomial. Answer: √ √ −3 + 2 3. we can take the square root of both sides of the equation.11). −3 − 2 3 In both cases. both 1 − 3 and 1 + 3 are valid solutions of x2 = 2x + 2. Add this result to both sides of the equation.564 CHAPTER 8. √ √ 3 and x = 1 + 3. Hence. move 2x to the left-hand side of the equation. 2. x2 − 2x = 2 On the left. the equation x2 = 2x + 2 has two answers. EXAMPLE 7. Remember. take one-half of the coeﬃcient of x: (1/2)(−2) = −1. In similar fashion. keeping the constant 2 on the right-hand side of the equation. Use completing the square to help solve x2 = 2x + 2. and 3. x = 1 − x=1± √ 3 Figure 8. Thus.

Now add 16 to both sides of the equation. move the constant 12 to the right-hand side of the equation.” Move the cursor slightly to the right of the ﬁrst x-intercept . Square: (−4)2 = 16. We’re looking for solutions of x2 − 8x − 12 = 0. Compare your answer from each method. both algebraically and graphically. There are two square roots. Figure 8. push the GRAPH button to produce the rightmost image in Figure 8. √ Simplify: 4 = 2. then compare your answers. so we need to locate where the graph of y = x2 − 8x − 12 intercepts the x-axis. we need to ﬁnd the zeros of y = x2 − 8x − 12. √ √ x−4=± 4 7 √ x − 4 = ±2 7 √ x=4±2 7 Factor out a perfect square.12). we settled on the WINDOW parameters shown in the middle image of Figure 8. Original equation. Graphical solution: Enter the equation y = x2 − 8x − 12 in Y1 of the Y= menu (see the ﬁrst image in Figure 8.12. x2 − 8x + 16 = 12 + 16 (x − 4) = 28 √ x − 4 = ± 28 2 Add 16 to both sides. That is. Factor left-hand side. After some experimentation. Take half of the coeﬃcient of x: (1/2)(−8) = −4.8. Add 12 to both sides.12. x2 − 8x − 12 = 0 x − 8x = 12 2 Solve the equation x2 + 6x + 3 = 0 both algebraically and graphically.12: Drawing the graph of y = x2 − 8x − 12. Add 4 to both sides. Select 2:zero from the CALC menu. move the cursor slightly to the left of the ﬁrst x-intercept and press ENTER in response to “Left bound. Note that the answer is not in simple radical form. Solve the equation x2 − 8x − 12 = 0. Once you’ve entered these WINDOW parameters. Algebraic solution: First.3. COMPLETING THE SQUARE 565 You Try It! EXAMPLE 8.

y 50 y = x2 − 8x − 12 −1.14). These are the solutions of the equation x2 − 8x− 12 = 0 (see Figure 8.2915026 x 15 −50 Figure 8.13.” Leave the cursor where it sits and press ENTER in response to “Guess. Repeat the process to ﬁnd the second x-intercept of y = x2 − 8x − 12 shown in the second image in Figure 8.13.566 CHAPTER 8. Reporting the solution on your homework: Duplicate the image in your calculator’s viewing window on your homework page.291503 −5 9. • Place your WINDOW parameters at the end of each axis (see Figure 8.” The calculator responds by ﬁnding the x-coordinate of the x-intercept.14).14: Reporting your graphical solution on your homework. • Label the graph with its equation (see Figure 8. Use a ruler to draw all lines. as shown in the ﬁrst image in Figure 8. • Drop dashed vertical lines through each x-intercept.14). • Label the horizontal and vertical axes with x and y. .14). respectively (see Figure 8. but freehand any curves. Figure 8. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS and press ENTER in response to “Right bound.13: Calculating the zeros of y = x2 − 8x − 12. Shade and label the x-values of the points where the dashed vertical line crosses the x-axis.

15: Approximating exact solutions x = 4 − 2 7 and x = 4 + 2 7. .3.2915026.8. How well do the √ graphing calculator solutions compare with the exact solutions.291503 and x ≈ 9. x = 4 − 2 7 √ and x = 4 + 2 7? After entering each in the calculator (see Figure 8. −3 + 6 Thus.15). the graphing calculator reports that the solutions of x2 − 8x − 12 = 0 are x ≈ −1. COMPLETING THE SQUARE 567 Answer: −3 − √ √ 6. the comparison is excellent! √ √ Figure 8. Comparing exact and calculator approximations.

x2 − 16x + 64 21. (x − 15)2 = 100 In Exercises 13-18. x2 = 88 3. x2 − 20x + 100 24. 1. (x + 23)2 14. (x − 5)2 15. ﬁnd all real solutions of the given equation. x2 = 112 5. (x + 19)2 = 36 10. complete the square to form a perfect square trinomial. Place your ﬁnal answers in simple radical form. x2 + 8x + 16 23. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. x2 = −16 6. 13. x2 − 34x + 289 22. ﬁnd all real solutions of the given equation. square each of the following binomials.568 CHAPTER 8. x2 = 124 8. (x + 11)2 16. (x − 7)2 17. x2 = 68 4. x2 = 84 2. for each expression. x2 = −104 7. 25. factor each of the following trinomials. x2 = 148 In Exercises 9-12. 9. (x + 4)2 In Exercises 19-24. x2 + 16x + 64 In Exercises 25-36. Be sure to check your middle term. Check your answer by factoring your result. 19. Place your ﬁnal answers in simple radical form. x2 − 20x 26. x2 − 6x 28. (x − 25)2 18. (x + 14)2 = 100 12. x2 + 24x + 144 20. (x − 4)2 = 400 11. x2 − 40x . x2 − 10x 27.

x2 − 3x 569 In Exercises 37-52. x2 + 19x 33. ±2 17 5. use the graphing calculator to solve the equation. solve the given equation algebraically. as demonstrated in Example 8. x2 = 16x − 10 45. 37. x2 = −18x − 1 52. Next. x2 + 26x 31. stating your ﬁnal answers in simple radical form. x2 + 25x 35. x2 − 4x − 14 = 0 55. x2 = −16x − 4 42. x2 = −12x − 12 43. ±2 21 √ 3. COMPLETING THE SQUARE 29. when reporting the solution on your homework. ±2 31 Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 9. x2 = 18x − 18 38. Use the Calculator Submission Guidelines. −13 11. x2 + 22x + 121 . −25. x2 = 12x − 18 39. Place your ﬁnal answers in simple radical form. of the given equation.8. x2 + 15x 34. No real solutions √ 7. x2 = −10x − 17 49. x2 − 2x − 17 = 0 54. x2 − 4x − 16 = 0 ❧ ❧ ❧ √ 1. following the technique outlined in Example 8. Compare the solutions determined by the two methods. 53. x2 − 6x − 3 = 0 56. x2 = 16x − 8 46. x2 = 12x − 4 41. ﬁnd all real solutions. x2 + 20x 30. if any. x2 = 18x − 9 44. x2 = −12x − 8 In Exercises 53-56. x2 + 46x + 529 15. x2 = 10x − 5 47. x2 = −16x − 12 51.3. x2 + 7x 32. x2 = −16x − 20 50. −24. −4 13. x2 = 16x − 16 40. x2 = −18x − 18 48. x2 − 5x 36.

8 − 2 14. x2 + 7x + 49/4 33. 3 − 2 3. 9 + 3 7 √ √ 39. −8 + 2 11 √ √ 51.570 17. 8 + 2 14 √ √ 47. x2 + 20x + 100 31. (x − 10)2 25. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS √ √ 37. 1 + 3 2 √ √ 55. −8 − 2 11. −9 + 3 7 √ √ 49. −9 + 4 5 √ √ 53. x2 + 15x + 225/4 35. −9 − 4 5. 9 + 6 2 √ √ 45. x2 − 6x + 9 29. 3 + 2 3 . 8 − 4 3. −8 − 2 15. (x + 12)2 21. x2 − 5x + 25/4 CHAPTER 8. 9 − 3 7. x2 − 20x + 100 27. 1 − 3 2. −8 + 2 15 √ √ 43. (x − 17)2 23. 9 − 6 2. x2 − 50x + 625 19. −9 − 3 7. 8 + 4 3 √ √ 41.

Subtract c from both sides. We start by moving the constant term to the other side of the equation. The goal of this section is to develop a formulaic shortcut that will provide exact solutions of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. we make equivalent fractions with a common denominator. Now we complete the square. On the left. b. then square the result.4 The Quadratic Formula We ﬁrst start with the deﬁnition of a quadratic equation. On the right. On the right.8. we next divide both sides of the equation by a. x+ x+ b 2a b 2a 2 =− 2 = b2 − 4ac 4a2 . we factor the perfect square trinomial. factor. ax2 + bx + c = 0 ax + bx = −c 2 Quadratic equation. Add fractions. x+ b 2a 2 b2 c 4a + 2 =− · a 4a 4a 4ac b2 + 2 4a2 4a On the left. and c are any real numbers. where a. Take one-half of the coeﬃcient of x. is called a quadratic equation in x. x2 + c b x=− a a Divide both sides by a. x2 + b2 b2 b c x+ 2 =− + 2 a 4a a 4a Add b2 /(4a2 ) to both sides. In preparation for completing the square. THE QUADRATIC FORMULA 571 8. 1 b b · = 2 a 2a when squared gives b 2a 2 = b2 4a2 We now add b2 /(4a2 ) to both sides of the equation. A second degree polynomial equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Multiply numerators and denominators. Quadratic equation.4. create equivalent fractions with a common denominator.

Solution: The integer pair 1. x= −b ± √ b2 − 4ac 2a The quadratic formula. we can add and subtract numerators and put the answer over the common denominator. x=− ± 2a 2a Because both fractions have the same denominator. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS When we take the square root. You Try It! Solve for x: x2 − 8x + 12 = 0 EXAMPLE 1. The equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is called a quadratic equation. x+ b =± 2a b2 − 4ac 4a2 Two square roots. this trinomial factors. −5 has product ac = −5 and sum b = −4. x2 − 4x − 5 = 0 (x + 1)(x − 5) = 0 Now we can use the zero product property to write: x+1=0 x = −1 or x−5=0 x=5 . Whew! Fortunately. the result is a lot easier to apply than it is to develop! Let’s try some examples. Solve for x: x2 − 4x − 5 = 0. √ b2 − 4ac b =± √ x+ 2a 4a2 √ 2 − 4ac √ b b =± Simplify: 4a2 = 2a. Its solutions are given by √ −b ± b2 − 4ac . x+ 2a 2a √ b2 − 4ac b Subtract b/(2a) from both sides. Hence. you take the square root of both the numerator and denominator. x= 2a called the quadratic formula. When you take the square root of a fraction.572 CHAPTER 8. there are two answers.

b = −4. replace each occurrence of a. and −5 for c. then multiplication. x= −(−4) ± 4± 4± √ √ (−4)2 − 4(1)(−5) 2(1) Substitute: 1 for a. let’s give the quadratic formula a try. 4−6 2 −2 x= 2 x = −1 x= or 4+6 2 10 x= 2 x=5 x= Answer: 2. we must compare our equation with the quadratic equation. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac The quadratic formula. b. we have two answers. x= 16 + 20 2 36 x= 2 4±6 x= 2 Note that because of the “plus or minus” symbol. we see that a = 1. . b.8.4. Now we can substitute: 1 for a. and c with x= 2( ) open parentheses. We will now plug these numbers into the quadratic formula. b. and c in the quadratic formula with open parentheses. Simplify. Simplify: √ 36 = 6. and c. −4 for b. the solutions are x = −1 and x = 5. Add: 16 + 20 = 36. First. −4 for b. ax2 + bx + c = 0 x2 − 4x − 5 = 0 Comparing equations. Exponent ﬁrst. x= 2a −( ) ± ( )2 − 4( )( ) Replace a. 6 Note that these answers match the answers found using the ac-test to factor the trinomial. THE QUADRATIC FORMULA 573 Thus. and −5 for c. then determine the values of a. Now. and c = −5. First.

b = −5. (−7 − 89)/2 In each image in Figure 8. b. Substitute 1 for a. and c = −7. after storing the solution in X. −5 for b. and c with x= 2( ) open parentheses. note that the leftand right-hand sides of the original equation x2 = 5x + 7 produce the same number. Simplify. we must surround the numerator in parentheses. b = −5. Compare x2 − 5x − 7 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0 and note that a = 1. and −7 for c. c = −7. x= 2a −( ) ± ( )2 − 4( )( ) Replace a. . and c with open parentheses to prepare the quadratic formula for substitution. x= −(−5) ± 5± (−5)2 − 4(1)(−7) 2(1) Substitute: a = 1. x2 = 5x + 7 x − 5x − 7 = 0 2 Original equation. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac The quadratic formula. Nonlinear. Replace each occurrence of a. Make one side zero. √ 25 + 28 x= √2 5 ± 53 x= 2 Check: Use the calculator to check each solution (see Figure 8. make one side zero. Solution: The equation is nonlinear. verifying that our solutions are correct.16: Check (5 − √ √ 53)/2 and (5 + 53)/2. Note that √ in storing (5 − 53)/2 in X.16). b. Answer: √ √ (−7 + 89)/2.574 CHAPTER 8. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS You Try It! Solve for x: x2 + 7x = 10 EXAMPLE 2.16. Exponents and multiplication ﬁrst. Figure 8. Solve for x: x2 = 5x + 7.

and c = 1. −10 for b. and 1 for c Exponent. note that we can factor out a perfect square. x= −(−10) ± 10 ± √ (−10)2 − 4(7)(1) 2(7) Substitute: 7 for a. √ 10 ± 6 2 2 Divide numerator and x= 14 denominator by 2. 2 √ 10 6 2 ± 2 2 x= Distribute the 2. notice that both numerator and denominator are divisible by 2. namely √ √ √ √ √ 10 ± 36 2 72 = 36 2. Solution: Compare 7x2 − 10x + 1 = 0 with ax2 + bx + c = 0 and note that a = 7. Replace each occurrence of a. Solve for x: 3x2 + 8x + 2 = 0 x= 100 − 28 14 √ 10 ± 72 x= 14 In this case. 7 . b.4. and c with open parentheses to prepare the quadratic formula for substitution. −10 for b. THE QUADRATIC FORMULA 575 In addition to placing all square roots into simple radical form. b = −10. 14 2 √ 5±3 2 x= Simplify. Simplify. and 1 for c. Substitute 7 for a. b. x= 2a −( ) ± ( )2 − 4( )( ) x= Replace a. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac The quadratic formula. √ 36. Solve for x: 7x2 − 10x + 1 = 0. then multiplication. You Try It! EXAMPLE 3.8. x= 14 √ √ 10 ± 6 2 x= Simplify: 36 = 6 14 Finally. and c with 2( ) open parentheses. sometimes you need to reduce your answer to lowest terms.

b = −12. To ﬁnd the time when this occurs. How much time must pass after the launch before the object returns to ground level? After placing the answer in simple form and reducing. Solution: When the object returns to ground level. y = 320 + 192t − 16t2 0 = 320 + 192t − 16t 2 Original equation. b. 0 = t2 − 12t − 20 Divide both sides by −16. An object is launched vertically and its height y (in feet) above ground level is given by the equation y = 320 + 192t− 16t2. How much time must pass after the launch before the object returns to ground level? EXAMPLE 4. its height y above ground level is y = 0 feet. not x. 2(7) √ 2(5 ± 3 2) Cancel. and c with x= 2( ) open parentheses. and c with open parentheses to prepare the quadratic formula for substitution. 14 √ 2(5 ± 3 2) x= Factor out a 2.576 CHAPTER 8. Each of the coeﬃcients is divisible by −16. √ 10 ± 6 2 x= Original answer. You Try It! An object is launched vertically and its height y (in feet) above ground level is given by the equation y = 160 + 96t − 16t2 . as follows. x= ¡ 2(7) ¡ √ 5±3 2 x= Simplify. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac The quadratic formula. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Alternate simpliﬁcation. Note that we are solving for t this time. substitute y = 0 in the formula y = 320 + 192t − 16t2 and solve for t. and c = −20. Set y = 0. (−4 − 10)/3 Note that we get the same answer using this technique. use your calculator to round the answer to the nearest tenth of a second. where t is the time (in seconds) that has passed since its launch. b. some prefer to factor and cancel. where t is the time (in seconds) that has passed since its launch. Compare t2 − 12t − 20 = 0 with at2 + bt + c = 0 and note that a = 1. x= 2a −( ) ± ( )2 − 4( )( ) Replace a. Replace each occurrence of a. . Rather than dividing numerator and denominator by 2. 7 Answer: √ √ (−4 + 10)/3.

let t represent the time that Arnie has been riding since noon. so to the nearest tenth of a second.4 seconds You Try It! EXAMPLE 5. √ 16. Barbara gets on her bike at the same starting point and begins to ride due east at a constant rate of 8 miles per hour. then multiplication. 577 144 + 80 √2 12 ± 224 t= 2 t= The answer is not in simple form. and −20 for c Exponent. Simplify. as we can factor out √ 16 14 t= 2 √ 12 ± 4 14 t= 2 12 ± √ √ √ √ 224 = 16 14. correct to the nearest minute. √ 12 4 14 t= ± 2 √ 2 t = 6 ± 2 14 Divide both terms by 2. THE QUADRATIC FORMULA Substitute 1 for a. Simplify. Solution: At the moment they are 50 miles apart. correct to the nearest minute. she has been riding for one hour less than Arnie. we have two solutions. At what time of the day will they be 50 miles apart (as the crow ﬂies)? Don’t worry about simple form.5. t= −(−12) ± 12 ± √ (−12)2 − 4(1)(−20) 2(1) Substitute: 1 for a. −12 for b. √ √ Thus. Use your calculator to ﬁnd decimal approximations. a freight train passes through Sagebrush Junction heading west at 40 miles per hour. −12 for b. At 6:00 am. then round to the nearest tenth. Arnie gets on his bike at noon and begins to ride due north at a constant rate of 12 miles per hour. At what time of the day.5 The negative time is irrelevant. just report the time of day. 13. a passenger train passes through the junction heading south at 60 miles per hour. let t − 1 represent the numbers of hours that Barbara has been riding at the moment they are 50 miles apart. t ≈ −1.8. Simplify: √ 16 = 4 Use the distributive property to divide both terms in the numerator by 2. it takes the object approximately 13. Answer: √ 3 + 19 ≈ 7. So. At 8:00 am. Because Barbara started at 1 pm. At 1:00 pm.4. will the two trains be 180 miles apart? . t = 6 − 2 14 and t = 6 + 2 14. and −20 for c.5 seconds to return to ground level.

then multiplication. (12t)2 + [8(t − 1)]2 = 502 . not x. Use the Pythagorean Theorem. and −609 for c. The distance and direction traveled by Arnie and Barbara are marked in Figure 8. she has traveled a distance of 8(t − 1) miles.17. b. and c = −609. 8(t − 1) Figure 8. if Arnie has been riding at a constant rate of 12 miles per hour for t hours. 144t2 + 64t2 − 128t + 64 = 2500 208t − 128t + 64 = 2500 2 Square each term. Make one side equal to zero. t= −(−32) ± 32 ± (−32)2 − 4(52)(−609) 2(52) Substitute: 52 for a. we won’t bother with simple form and reduction. but proceed immediately to the calculator to approximate . Simplify. Distribute the 8. Compare 52t2 − 32t − 609 = 0 with at2 + bt + c = 0 and note that a = 52. That is. Replace each occurrence of a.578 CHAPTER 8. and c with open parentheses to prepare the quadratic formula for substitution. Divide both sides by 4. Square each term. Substitute 52 for a. b = −32. x= 2a −( ) ± ( )2 − 4( )( ) x= Replace a. and c with 2( ) open parentheses. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac The quadratic formula. Note that we have a right triangle. then he has traveled a distance of 12t miles. Because Barbara has been riding at a constant rate of 8 miles per hour for t − 1 hours. Use (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 to expand (8t − 8)2 . QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 12t 50 Now. Simplify: 144t2 + 64t2 = 208t2 The resulting equation is nonlinear.17: 50 miles apart. (12t)2 + (8t − 8)2 = 502 Distribute the 8. −32 for b. √ 1024 + 126672 t= √ 104 32 ± 127696 t= 104 Now. −32 for b. b. Note that we are solving for t this time. and −609 for c Exponent. 208t2 − 128t − 2436 = 0 52t − 32t − 609 = 0 2 Subtract 2500 from both sides. as the request is for an approximate time. so the sides of the triangle must satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem.

THE QUADRATIC FORMULA 579 Figure 8. Thus. To change the fractional part 0. this last result (see Figure 8. the time at which he and Barbara are 50 miles apart is approximately 3:45 pm.743709336 hours to minutes. Because Arnie started riding at noon.743709336 hr × 60 min = 44.8. Arnie has been riding for approximately 3.18: Approximate time that Arnie has been riding.62256016 min hr Rounding to the nearest minute. multiply by 60 min/hr.4.743709336 hours. 0. Arnie has been riding for approximately 3 hours and 45 minutes.18).743709336 hr = 0. Answer: 9:42 am .

5x2 + x − 2 = 0 In Exercises 17-24. 12x2 + 10x − 1 = 0 26. 7x2 − 10x + 1 = 0 28. use the quadratic formula to solve the given equation. Your ﬁnal answers must be reduced to lowest terms and all radical expressions must be in simple radical form. x2 − 4x − 12 = 0 3. 9. 3x2 − 3x − 4 = 0 11. Secondly. x2 − 9x + 9 = 0 20. x2 − 8x + 15 = 0 4. 2x2 + x − 4 = 0 12. x2 − 7x − 19 = 0 24. Your ﬁnal answers must be reduced to lowest terms and all radical expressions must be in simple radical form. x2 + 5x − 5 = 0 21. 7x2 + 6x − 3 = 0 27. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS ❧ ❧ ❧ Exercises ❧ ❧ ❧ In Exercises 1-8. 1. 17. x2 − 11x + 19 = 0 19. x2 − 3x − 28 = 0 2. then applying the zero product property. x2 + 13x + 4 = 0 In Exercises 25-32. x2 − 3x − 9 = 0 22. solve the given equation by factoring the trinomial using the ac-method. 25. x2 + x − 30 = 0 8. x2 − 6x + 8 = 0 5. 2x2 − 12x + 3 = 0 30. 13x2 − 2x − 2 = 0 32. 2x2 − 6x − 13 = 0 31. craft a second solution using the quadratic formula. 9x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 . x2 − 17x + 72 = 0 In Exercises 9-16. x2 − 5x − 5 = 0 23. 7x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 29. x2 − 7x − 5 = 0 10. 2x2 + 7x − 3 = 0 13. Your ﬁnal answers must be reduced to lowest terms and all radical expressions must be in simple radical form. Compare your answers. x2 − 7x − 4 = 0 14.580 CHAPTER 8. use the quadratic formula to solve the given equation. x2 − x − 11 = 0 18. use the quadratic formula to solve the given equation. x2 − 5x + 1 = 0 15. x2 − 2x − 48 = 0 6. 4x2 − x − 2 = 0 16. x2 + 9x + 8 = 0 7.

37. 40.25x. How much time must pass after the launch before the object returns to ground level? After placing the answer in simple form and reducing. A manufacturer’s revenue R accrued from selling x widgets is given by the equation R = 6000x − 5x2 . At 1:00 pm.000? Round your answers to the nearest widget. THE QUADRATIC FORMULA 581 33. correct to the nearest minute.8. The length of the ﬁeld is 7 feet longer than its width. correct to the nearest minute. The area of a rectangular ﬁeld is 76 square feet. where t is the time (in seconds) that has passed since its launch. 35. 38. correct to the nearest tenth of a foot. correct to the nearest tenth of a foot. The manufacturer’s costs for building x widgets is given by the equation C = 500000 + 5. where t is the time (in seconds) that has passed since its launch. At what time of the day will they be 60 miles apart (as the crow ﬂies)? Don’t worry about simple form. At 2:00 pm. Mikaela gets on her bike at noon and begins to ride due north at a constant rate of 4 miles per hour. . Todd gets on his bike at the same starting point and begins to ride due east at a constant rate of 8 miles per hour. The break even point for the manufacturer is deﬁned as the number of widgets built and sold so the the manufacturer’s revenue and costs are identical. just report the time of day. 34. The area of a rectangular ﬁeld is 50 square feet.25x2 . An object is launched vertically and its height y (in feet) above ground level is given by the equation y = 192 + 288t − 16t2 . Rosemarie gets on her bike at the same starting point and begins to ride due east at a constant rate of 6 miles per hour. A manufacturer’s revenue R accrued from selling x widgets is given by the equation R = 4500x − 15. Find the dimensions of the ﬁeld. 39.” Round your answers to the nearest widget. just report the time of day. use your calculator to round the answer to the nearest tenth of a second. Mike gets on his bike at noon and begins to ride due north at a constant rate of 6 miles per hour. Find the dimensions of the ﬁeld.4. How much time must pass after the launch before the object returns to ground level? After placing the answer in simple form and reducing. How many widgets must be sold so that the manufacturer’s revenue is $125. 36. Find the number of widgets required to be built and sold so that the manufacturer “breaks even. use your calculator to round the answer to the nearest tenth of a second. At what time of the day will they be 20 miles apart (as the crow ﬂies)? Don’t worry about simple form. The length of the ﬁeld is 8 feet longer than its width. An object is launched vertically and its height y (in feet) above ground level is given by the equation y = 240 + 160t − 16t2 .

01375t2 + 0. 17. 25. .200. Round your answer to the nearest year.582 CHAPTER 8. Use the model to ﬁnd the year when the number of Americans over the age of 85 was 2. −6. Year 1962 1982 2002 Concentration (ppm) 318 341 373 A quadratic model is ﬁtted to this data.7 A quadratic model is ﬁtted to this data. where t is the number of years since 1962 and C is the mean annual concentration (in parts per million) of carbon dioxide over Mauna Loa.925t + 318. yielding C = 0. −4. 42. 5 √ 69 9. 5 5. 1982. Use the model to ﬁnd the year when the mean concentration of carbon dioxide was 330 parts per million. 23. and 2002 are shown in the following table.0 5.4. where t is the number of years since 1970 and P is number of Americans (in millions) over the age of 85. 3. Mean concentrations of carbon dioxide over Mauna Loa. 7 3. yielding P = 0. Hawaii. Round your answer to the nearest year. 2 √ −1 ± 33 11. −6. 8 7. Census Bureau provides historical data on the number of Americans over the age of 85.000.01125t2 + 0. The U. are gathered by the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) in conjunction with the National Oceacnic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA). 19. ❧ ❧ ❧ 1. Mean annual concentrations in parts per million for the years 1962. Year 1970 1990 2010 Population over 85 (millions) 1. 4 √ 7 ± 65 13.4 3. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 41.S. 21.0525t + 1. 2 7± Answers ❧ ❧ ❧ 1± √ 33 8 √ 1±3 5 2 √ 9±3 5 2 √ 3±3 5 2 √ 7±5 5 2 √ −5 ± 37 12 15.

3 seconds .8. 13 35. 1973 583 27. 11.9 by 12. THE QUADRATIC FORMULA √ 5±3 2 7 √ 6 ± 30 29.4.9 feet 41. 90 widgets. 2 √ 1±3 3 31. 5. 1109 widgets 37. 33. 7:12 pm 39.

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6 commutative property of multiplication. 566 585 canceling. 101. 51 rounding. 60 binomial. 4. 308 combining like terms. 309 brackets. 325 y-intercept. 51 multiplication. 363 dependent variable. 485 coeﬃcient. 7 associative property of multiplication. 121 approximating square roots. 558 procedure. 2 algebraic expression. 122 constant of proportionality. 339 decimals. 408. 563 consecutive even integers. 48 addition. 234 x-intercept and zero of a function. 5 additive identity property. 113. 99. 311 demand. 118 area of triangle. 414 graphing calculator. 520. 21 algebraic expressions. 16 adding fractions. 419. 9 complementary angles. 116 ascending powers. 308. 106 clearing fractions. 471 consecutive integers. 542 area rectangle. 175. 234 absolue value. 118 area of trapezoid. 16 calculator submission guidelines. 36 adding integers. 99. 20 absolute value. 100 cancellation. 309 associative property of addition. 433. 60 applications. 49 degree. 417 x-intercept. 463 revised. 525. 152 circumference of circle. 9. 55 subtraction. 201. 183 . 34 Cartesian Coordinate System. 527 constant rate.Index ac-method. 124. 49 division. 119 area of rectangle. 516 clearing negative exponents. 119 clearing decimals. 562 solving equations. 64 commutative property of addition. 472 area of parallelogram. 184 cost. 282 completing the square.

370. 33 free fall. 485 deﬁnition. 309 diﬀerence of squares. 21 exponents clearing negative exponents. 561 special forms. 74 equivalent. 386 domain. 80 multiplying both sides by same amount. 511 dividing fractions. 100 division. 343 dividing like bases. 157 equations with more than one variable. 111 operations producing equivalent equations. 431 ﬁrst rule of factoring. 74 equations clearing decimals. 390. 63 distributive property. 139 evaluating algebraic expressions. 526 function deﬁnition. 99. 101. 304 subtracting. 443. 445 distributing a negative sign. 91 meaning of “solve for x”. 77. 372 formulae.586 descending powers. 61 distributive property for division. 468 by grouping. 457 factoring completely. 111 fractions addition. 303 zero. 297 rule of three. 447 perfect square trinomials. 478 INDEX raising a power to a power. 80 simplify using order of operations. 99. 301 function notation. 481 raising to −1. 479 factor. 273 equation. 111 equivalent equations. 294 y and f (x) are equivalent. 79 subtracting same amount to both sides. 428 applications. 75 isolate terms containing x. 478 raising to a negative integer. 390 ﬁrst rule of factor. 458 deﬁnition. 10. 77 equivalent inequalities. 394 checking the solution. 113 diﬀerent from expressions. 92 equations in two variables. 35 multiplication. 481 multiplying like bases. a = 1. 325 geometric formula . 294 elimination method. 457 FOIL method. 301 functions. 413 ax2 + bx + c. 373. 441 strategy. 79. 444. 337 using diﬀerent letters for different functions. 90. 75 adding same amount to both sides. 390 diﬀerence of squares. 77 dividing both sides by same amount. 445 factor out GCF. 386 factoring ax2 + bx + c. 156 solution. 334 sketching the graph. 36 canceling. a = 1. 35 divisor. 74 equivalent equations. 106 clearing fractions. 303 adding. 447. 480 negative. 482 raising to negative integer. 75 solution.

253. 316 evaluating expressions. 92 checking solutions of equations. 565 graphing equations by hand. 115 area of a circle. 136 greater than or equal to. 118 area of trapezoid. 387 two monomials. 183 graphing an equation guidelines. 387 using prime factorization. 160 graphing calculator. 172 reproducing results on homework. 362 area of parallelogram. 116 circumference of circle. 237 hypotentuse. 526 horizontal line. 160 TRACE button. 39 intersect utility. 23 evaluating functions. 135 add or subtract same amount. 314 drawing polynomial of degree four. 136 greatest common divisor. 323 ﬁnding zero of a function. 160 Hooke’s Law. 112. 89 checking solutions of systems. 172 submissioin guidelines. 118 area of triangle. 144 multiply or divide by positive number. 78. 406. 519 solving systems. 152 graphing equations in two variables. 264 checking solutions to nonlinear equation. 183 inequalities. 574 drawing parabola. 450. 174 rounding decimals. 11 plotting equation. 175 table feature. 19 nested. 418. 549 independent variable. 518 checking fractional solutions. 145 clearing fractions. 20 guidelines for graphing an equation. 171 ac-method. 140 multiplying or dividing by negative number. 157 greater than. 386. 386. 178 WINDOW menu. 157 graphing scaling each axis. 388 greatest common factor. 407. 421. 115 graph of an equation. 105 checking solutions. 176 zero utility. 540 solving nonlinear equations. 126 geometric formulae. 403 checking solutions with radicals. 267 check solutions of rational equation. 256 changing system solutions to fractions. 16. 31. 302 evaluating polynomial function. 388 grouping symbols. 463 adjusting the viewing window. 119 area of rectangle. 326 fractions. 55 scientiﬁc notation. 436. 119 perimeter of rectangle. 142 . 253 STAT PLOT. 560. 176 adjusting WINDOW parameters. 497 solving x2 = a.INDEX sum of angle of a triangle. 140 clearing decimals. 433. 326. 405 solving rational equations. 171 587 negation versus subtraction. 540 mode button.

139 summary table. 540 interval notation. 135 kinetic energy. 135 natural. 114 Newton’s law of gravitation. 65 linear equations strategy for solving. 8 multiplying radicals. 141 integers.588 reversing inequality sign. 448 solving by factoring. 2 Ohm’s Law. 547 natural numbers. 20 Newton’s Law of Gravitation. 296 notation. 402 nonlinear equations versus linear equations. 480. 136 origin. 16. 404. 500 nonlinear equaitions graphing calculator solution. 308 multiplicative identity property. 478 nested grouping symbols. 348 raising a product to a power. 152 ordered pairs plotting. 136 light intensity. 286 intersect utility. 201 intercepts. 406. 80 inverse of subtraction. 37. 500 like terms. 299 INDEX mass on a spring. 418. 135 numbers integers. 2. 234 interest. 76 inverse of division. 146 inverse of addition. 288 monomial. 66 ordered pair. 417. 153 parabola. 399 graphing calculator solution. 31. 344 raising a power to a power. 37. 36. 7 intercept. 508 procedure for ﬁnding. 5 multiplication. 336 negative exponents. 549 less than. 543 lowest terms. 349 raising a quotient to a power. 113 order of operations. 400 number line. 76 irrational numbers. 33 multiplying integers. 10 multiplying fractions. 314 opens upward. 343. 450. 52. 66 rules. 404 nonlinear equations. 135 whole. 346 multiplying like bases. 401 linear equations versus nonlinear equations. 114 laws of exponents. 3 addition. 31 mapping diagram. 80 inverse of multiplication. 2 negating a sum. 154 ordering real numbers. 135 real. 16. 432. 510 legs. 136 less than or equal to. 526 measuring change in variable. 448 strategy for solving. 351 least common denominator. 52. 432. 8 subtraction. 313 opens downward. 138 eyes “left to right”. 528 light-year. 2 rational. 314 . 64. 400 list of squares. 185 mixture. 484 dividing like bases. 417. 3 irrational. 433.

536 range. 356 multiplying a monomial and polynomial. 60 commutative. 2 associative. 316 graph. 321 term. 309 binomial. 6. 217 perpendicular lines. 213. 553 proof. 511 monomial products. 9 distributive. 309 ascending powers. 32 projectile motion. 525. 516 solving with graphing calculator. 359 negation. 309 coeﬃcient. 220 to standard form. 7. 16 perfect square trinomial. 115 perpendicular. 551. 357 589 multiplying polynomials. 235 perpendicular lines.INDEX vertex. 232 polynomial. 576 property additive identity. 313 monomial. 338 applications of multiplication. 547 radical notation. 283 rectangle. 294 rate. 183 constant. 219 plotting ordered pairs. 321 applications of addition and subtraction. 323. 313 reading the graph. 313 radical expressions simplifying. 308 adding. 472 perimeter of rectangle. 312 evaluating. 519 rational expression. 61 multiplicative identity. 153 quadratic equation. 309 distribution shortcut. 577 applications. 308 degree. 505 subtracting. 321 polynomials. 309 polynomial function. 572 quadratic polynomial. 335 subtracting. 10 proportional. 550 quadrants. 510 ﬁnding greatest common divisor. 328. 214 applications. 222 determine equation of line through two points. 214 parallel lines. 507 dividing. 388 prime number. 334 applications. 9. 308 quadratic. 571. 571 quadratic formula. 337 prime factorization. 508 . 508 multiplying. 356 multiplication. 360 division of polynomial by a monomial. 521 checking solution with graphing calculator. 308. 314 parentheses. 506 least common denominator. 334 adding and subtracting. 549. 518 solving. 525 proportionality constant. 516 rational equations applications. 505 adding. 154 point-slope form. 527 Pythagorean Theorem. 362 descending powers. 311 degree four. 469. 184 rational equation clearing fractions. 308 trinomial. 443 perimeter. 387.

563 multiple steps. 189 vertical line. 548 . 230 solution of an equation. 543 multiplication property. 294 range. 301 scaling each axis. 294 domain. 499 multiply decimal numbers by negative power of ten. 492 nonnegative powers of ten. 549 rounding. 537 square roots approximations. 189 summary table. 201. 146 simple radical form. 205 sketching line from given equation. 194 INDEX horizontal line. 183 scientiﬁc notation. 187 parallel lines. 501 square root negative. 542 deﬁnition. 492 placing a number in scientiﬁc notation. 549 legs. 493 negative powers of ten. 152 reproducing calculator results on homework. 191 slope as rate. 537 list of squares. 31. 136 summary table. 495 graphing calculator. 135 ordering. 191 independent of direction of subtraction. 220 steepness of line. 135 real numbers. 497 how to report your answer. 189 independent of selected points. 202 applications. 294 Rene Descartes. 55 rule of three. 217 perpendicular lines. 31 relation. 378 speed of light. 370 squaring a binomial. 537 nonnegative. 174 requirements for word problem solutions. 193 downhill. 495 set-builder notation. 548 simplifying radical expressions. 521 reducing fractions. 373 FOIL method. 372 special products. 494 multiply decimal numbers by nonnegative power of ten. 121 revenue. 548 factor out perfect square. 35. 246 solve for x. 547 slope. 195 uphill. 547 simple radical form. 492 form deﬁnition. 87 one step. 188 slope-intercept form. 206 determine equation from graph. 190 drawing a line with given slope. 185 slope of line through two points. 136 reciprocal. 375. 74 solving rational equations.590 rational numbers. 363 right angle. 157 solution of linear system. 74 solution of equation in two variables. 516 special product FOIL method. 111 solving equations completing the square. 370 diﬀerence of squares. 202 to standard form. 183 determining slope from graph of the line. 339. 549 right triangle hypotenuse.

565 zeros and x-intercepts. 111 variable part. 421. 282 checking solution with graphing calculator. 378. 269. 277 interpretation tip. 250. 250 same lines. 121 wrap and unwrap. 64 variable. 269 no solutions. 21 change. 406 591 . 230 identifying intercepts. 525 direct. 527 vertex of parabola. 436. 276 number of solutions. 252 inﬁnite solutions. 21 tips for using function notation. 273 solving by graphing. 17. 183 maintaining case. 525 inverse. 234 to slope-intercept form. 262. 2 word problem investment. 253 parallel lines. 64 variation. 252 solution. 121 requirements. 309 unit price. 302 trinomial. 87 writing mathematics. 246 solving by substitution. 126 systems applications. 264 inﬁnite number of solutions. 184 dependent. 253 table feature of graphing calculator. 308 tips for evaluating algebraic expressions. 228 substitution method. 375.INDEX squaring a binomial. 263 solving using graphing calculator. 407. 325 zero product property. 228 deﬁnition. 246 solving by elimination. 263 subtracting integers. 399 zero utility. 82 zero of a function. 268. 183 independent. 127 word problems. 561 standard form. 75. 441. 237 whole numbers. 7 sum of angles of a triangle. 363 unlike terms. 262. 314 vertical line. 160 term.

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