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1) A small book in English “True Ayanamsa” was published around 1994. 2) The book “Rasichakram” in

Malayalam was published in 1996. 3) A detailed book “Hindu Zodiac and Ancient Astronomy” in English was published in 2003. While in his ‘Rasichakram’, he advocated the Zero Ayanamsa year as 238 A.D., with Ayanamsa of 46 minutes more than that of Lahiri, he refined it in his “Hindu Zodiac and Ancient

Astronomy,” to the 231 A.D., as zero Ayanamsa year with the value 44 minutes, more than that of the Ayanamsa of Lahiri. The aim of this article is to compile the ideas of Sri Chandrahari as given in his Malayalam book ‘Rasichakram’ in a systematic manner, keeping the continuity of his mathematical concepts and thoughts. While describing the mathematical models of Sri Chandrahari on the Ayanamsa, ingrained in Surya Sidhantha, an attempt has been made in this article to comprehend his insights into the Rasichakra division. In ‘Rasichakram,’ he proposes a Zero Ayanamsa Year 238 A.D., and this places his Ayanamsa value at a level exceeding that of Lahiri by 46 minutes. Basic Rationale 1: The zodiac was conceptualized considering the revolution of the nodal points Rahu and Sikhi. Thus, the Rasichakra – is in fact ‘Ra-Si chakra’ or Rahu-Sikhi Chakra. He holds that rotation of these nodes is in rhythm with the movement of equinox, if only we care to consider the duration required for precession of 360 degrees. [25758 years means 1385 Nirayana revolutions of Rahu-Sikhi. i.e. Nirayana revolution period of Rahu = 6792.977 days] Theoretically or by intuition, the author gives the following mathematical concept. Rate of precession of equinox per year = 360 degrees/25758 = 120 degrees/8586 = 50.31446541 seconds of arc. He says that, the importance of these numbers can also be proved, considering the modern values of Nirayana and Sayana years. For example: Nirayana Year = 365.2563625 (Modern value) Sayana Year = 365.24219 (Modern value) The difference between 8586 Sayana and Nirayana years will be -121.684 days. i.e. precession of equinox in 8586 years will be 119º56’

?

120º

[This also indicates that the year length used in the old Suryasidhantha is slightly different. The year length considered in old Suryasidhantha is 365.25875 days. For the “why” of it refer Rationale 4] Using the above method we can prove that, 25758 Nirayana years are equal to 25759 Sayana years.

589 -------------------------------------------------------------------Saturn 291 2915 2938110 10776.5 4616 4653263 6795.969389 87.000.2563624 365.000” =1200ºprecessions = 85860 Nirayana years Manvantara = 86400º precessions Kalpa = 3360º precessions .320.9692559 87.728. Therefore.6175 4332.. Complete-revolution & Nirayana-revolution Period -------------------------------------------------------------------Planet In Quarter Yuga In Mahayuga Kalpa Nirayana Rev Period (8586 years) 85860 years) (86546880 yrs) (Modern Value) -------------------------------------------------------------------Sun 8586 85860 86546880 365.2563624 -------------------------------------------------------------------Moon 114784 1147840 1157023263 27.6s) (27d07h43m11. he gives the following table and emphasizes the importance of the number 8586.969256 -------------------------------------------------------------------Jupiter 724 7238 7296284 4331. Kaliyuga = 432.333.000” = 120 x 3600” = 120º = 8586 Years Dwaparayuga = 864.Basic Rationale 2: The importance of Yuga numbers is that they can also be taken as precessional seconds to form a pattern.32167486 27.22908 10759. this period contains the complete revolutions of the 7 planets and the nodes Rahu-Sikhi.6966488 224.000” = 360º precessions = 25758 years Kritayuga = 1.296.32167486 27. we can say.0”x1008 Revolutions Revolutions Revolutions -------------------------------------------------------------------We see that Yuga numbers could actually mean precession seconds.) (3.46934 6793.000” 432.333.97136 87.9798274 686.0” 432.2563624 365.9860082 686.8144 4332.) (3360) 432. To prove it.7007998 224.9582 6793.000” = 120 x 3600” = 120º We have already found that the time to traverse the arc of 120º would be 8586 Years This holds good if and only if..7914787 224. Kaliyuga = 432.000” = 240º precessions = 17172 years Tretayuga = 1.70080 -------------------------------------------------------------------Rahu 461.000.430 6793.5888 4332.2563624 365.23 -------------------------------------------------------------------Venus 13957 13567 140683961 224.32166204 27.46013 10759.94546 10758.469 -------------------------------------------------------------------Vernal 120 deg 1200 deg Equinox (0.97982 -------------------------------------------------------------------Mercury 35649 356498 359350528 87.55s) -------------------------------------------------------------------Mars 4565 45650 46015614 686.000” = 480º precessions = 34344 years Mahayuga = 4.9860082 686.3216615 (27d07h43m11.

9) says of “3339 Devas who worship Agni. It might be possible that 71. “The vernal equinox is 3339 years away from zero point.e. each Yuga-pada (8586 years) starts and ends on a new moon day and that at the start and end of each Yuga-Pada. of the universe and the biological clock in humans come are into mutually The biological clock. consideration.” After 3339 Kali years the Sayana and Nirayana zodiacs conjoin. 52 sec Chaitrapaksha Lahiri Ayanamsa for 1995 = 23 deg 47 min 30 sec Difference = Hari Ayanamsa minus Lahiri Ayanamsa = 46 minutes. Thus. Whether we depend on the above calculation or on the Rigvedic statement. Rohini was also praised as Prajapathi. Here another striking similarity attracts our attention. The “why” of this is in rationale 4) Basic Rationale 3: Kaliyugadi Ayanamsa is 46º40’ [The author depends on the story that the birth of Brahma was in Rohini Nakshatra... then this could mean.55 is the actual value of the heartbeat for a human being.3101 AD + 3339 = AD 238 i.55 = 24. The Number of human heartbeat per minute is 71 or 72. Thus the author points out. i.9. this means that. in Vedas] Vernal equinox at the beginning of Kaliyugadi = 46º40’ Therefore. to which the author draws our attention.55 degrees. we arrive at the same conclusion. the definite formula for determining the Ayanamsa of any year would be Ayanamsa for the year (Y) = (Y-238) x (120 deg/8586) Degrees.e. = (Y-238)/71..Theoretically. we could also prove that the rhythm related. Example for calculating Ayanamsa for any year: Hari Ayanamsa for 1995 = (1995 . it does not happen. Zero Ayanamsa years (elapsed) = 46º40’x (8586/120º) = 3339 years Here a striking similarity attracts our attention. a solar eclipse occurs. . Zero Ayanamsa Year = AD 238. 3339 is a Rigvedic number.e.55625437 = 24 deg 33 min 22.” If Agni really means vernal equinox.238)/71. If so. . (However. Kaliyuga beginning + 3339 = Zero Ayanamsa Year 3102 BC = -3101 AD i. Rigveda (3.. circadian rhythm etc. Brahma.

we can prove that it contains whole number of revolutions. for the perfection of this mathematical model. If we subtract 46 minutes from the sputa arrived at by using Lahiri ephemeris. we can get the number of revolutions of planets per 7200 years.320.033 Venus = 7022388/600 = 11703. Thus we get Sun = 4.00 Rahu = 232226/600 = 387. The author says. He proves how the zodiac was divided into Rasis or Signs and Nakshatras or Stars.i. based on the fiducial star Moola (240º).98 Mercury = 17937000/600 = 29895. whole number of revolutions. we can get the sputa based on Hari Ayanamsa. the mean ..000/ 600 = 7200.00 Mars = 296824/600 = 3828. “As the old Surya Sidhantha takes all the revolution numbers of planets in whole numbers and multiples of 24. Basic Rationale 4: (i) Zodiac is considered and presented as a mathematical model in old Suryasidhantha. If we consider little bigger period. two new ideas are introduced and the author dives deep into old Suryasidhantha to prove them. Sri Chandrahari does not stop here. Kaliyugadi Ayanamsa was considered as 60º (in old Suryasidhantha). for example take.e. For this. (ii) Even though the creator of Suryasidhantha (Mayan) knew about the actual vernal equinox at Kaliyugadi (46º40’). 108 divisions of Nakshatras (3º20’each) and the above-said actual position of vernal equinox at Kaliyugadi (46º40’).000 (Mahayuga) = 21600 x 200 Mahayuga = 200 x 360 deg = 72000 years 120º precession=432000/600=7200 years (instead of 8586 Years) If we divide the number of revolution of planets in a Mahayuga by 600.0433 The results are very near to whole numbers. According to the precession considered in old Suryasidhantha: Precessional Cycle = 21600 years (instead of 25758 years) If we relate this to Yuga years 432000 (Kaliyuga) = 21600 x 20 4.320. Hari Ayanamsa is 46 minutes more than that of Lahiri. That means in 7200 years the mean values for planets complete. in 180000 years. 7200 x 25 = 4320000/24 = 180000 years. trying to comprehend the perfect rhythm of the universe.04 Jupiter = 364200/600 = 607.

it necessitates vernal equinox to be at 60 deg in the beginning of Kali-Yuga (Instead of at 46 deg 40 min). In other words KaliYugadi Ayanamsa should be 60 deg (mathematically).320. one may feel that it is an error. the Precessional Cycle is a mathematical model put forward by the creator of Suryasidhantha. Thus. Suryasidhantha relates the imaginary mean positions of planets at the start of Yuga to the actual planetary positions occurring after 3600 years” As Suryasidhantha takes 4320000 as a Mahayuga. instead of (the real) 46 deg 40 min. .25875 was chosen.” There might be a sufficient reason.000 years.whatever be the name) Some other striking similarities also have been found by him.positions of planets conjunct at zero-point. It was not because that the author did not know the actual Nirayana year length. Therefore Year Length = 1577917800/4320000 = 365. What was the need for such a model? All these mathematical with the new exercises moon day.25875 days [Really I am not able to figure out how he got that “the actual precession considered by Suryasidhantha as 50 sec. It appears as if these facts led Sri Chandrahari to formulate the concepts such as Mooladhara Rahu-Sikhi-chakram and rhythm of the universe. The actual precession according to Suryasidhantha was 50”. Some of them are: (i) Moola is the base of zodiac division . the precessional Cycle (for 360º) becomes 21600 years. This is the basic concept of Vedic astronomy. One Mahayuga is 4. But in reality. comes the Zodiac with stars 13º20’ each and Signs with 30 degrees each.] This goes to clinch the first stellar division (first star) to Jyeshta that falls between the line joining the hypothetical Equinox line of old Suryasidhantha (the line joining 60 deg Vernal equinox and 240 deg fiducial star Moola) and the line joining the actual Equinox line at Yugadi (line joining 46 deg 40 min and 226 deg 40 min). (9º37’) For that only Nirayana year with length 365. to relate Mesha the Yugadi Meshaat the Sankranti the Sankranti beginning of Yuga was considered to happen. 9 days and 37 Ghatis ahead.25875 days? According to Old Suryasidhantha the average number of days in a Mahayuga was 1577917800 days. If we compare with the actual data. were For done this. How can we know that the year length used in Suryasidhantha was 365.Cancer) falls between the line joining the hypothetical Sayana Rahu-Sikhi (line joining 300º SayanaSikhi / planetary conjunction point and 120º Sayana Rahu) and the hypothetical Ecliptic (line joining 330º and 150º) of Old Suryasidhantha. Thus.Mooladhara is the base point from where yoga starts. (music of the stars or biological clock . The first rasi division (sign .

as well as the conjunction of 8 planets at this zero-point in the beginning of every Yuga. It is evident that the meaning of the word Sahasra as 1000. the Epics and Puranas. one day of a human means 21600 prana. This is noteworthy. (iii) The Sayana-Nirayana division is deep seated in Hindu mythology and the Vedas have ample proof of this. and Dharma sasthras like Manusmrithi.In yoga Kundalini (serpent power) is important. 1000 heads may need 2000 eyes and 2000 legs for a superhuman form. “sahasra seersha purusha sahasraksha sahasra path. (Mayan the creator of Suryasidhantha was only a genius compiler of the then prevailing knowledge) At the end. . That is why it was given this much of importance by Old The Suryasidhantha concept is (Includes included in in the Panchasidhanthika Varahamihira).”. (v) The universe is Rhythmic . Conclusion: In the view of Chandrahari (i) The Yuga concept is nothing but an innate theory of Ayanamsa. which postulates the existence of a Sidereal (Nirayana) Zero-point (Meshadi or Aswinyadi). Many astronomical terms are used in this hymn.. In the first hymn of purushasuktha. 360º x 60 = 21600’ We have to consider the importance of the number 71. (iii) Rahu-Sikhi (Serpents-Kalasarpa) is the underlying factor of Rasichakra - Kundalini in yoga is also symbolized as serpent. The following elaboration can clarify the point. Both the Sayana and Nirayana systems existed in Vedic period. does not fit well.55] All these similarities must have prompted him to delve deep into the concepts such as Tantra/Yoga and Circadian-rhythm/Biological-clock etc. As everybody knows. put forward by Rishis.. yuga Panchasiddhantika of Varaahamihira.(ii) Horoscope is also called Kundalini . We have to appreciate the efforts of Sri Chandrahari even though his concepts may be proved correct or not. According to Yoga and Upanishads. let me mention one more point taken form the book Rasichakram. a purusha with 1000 heads. New Suryasidhantha of Aryabhatta I. (ii) Rasichakram (Zodiac) is a mathematical model.. [This needs further clarification.Sankhya and Yoga also speak about Purusha.The human body also functions in rhythm with the universe. some scholars say that Sahasra means ‘circle’.. Prana means 4 seconds. (iv) Kalapurusha is a concept in astrology . (One may escape the confusion by saying that Sahasra means ‘many’) Based on sathapatha Brahmana. 1000 eyes and 1000 legs gets a mention.

if the interpretation of Sri Chandrahari is right. argues vigorously about the concepts he believes in. His ideas are stunning and are capable of capturing the attention of those who are sincerely searching the truth of astrology. with true dedication towards astrological research. The aim of this dissertation is not to advocate the views of Chandra-Hari.Seersha Circle (Sahasra seersha purusha) = Prime meridian Aksha Circle (Sahasraksha) = Celestial Equator Patha Circle (Sahasrapath) = Nodal Circle Bhoomi Circle (Sa-Bhoomim) = Horizon Viswa Circle (Viswatho vrithva) = Ecliptic Now. we may get ample proof for the fact that Vedic Knowledge is really amazing. Note: Sri Chandrahari. It is an appreciation of his mathematical concepts. .

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