P. 1
Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform

# Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform

4.88

|Views: 1,529|Likes:

### Availability:

See more
See less

02/22/2013

pdf

text

original

For a length N complex sequence x(n), n = 0,1,2,...,N−1, the discrete
Fourier transform (DFT) is deﬁned by

X(ωk) ∆

=

N−1
n=0

x(n)e−jωktn

=

N−1
n=0

x(n)e−j2πkn/N

, k = 0,1,2,...N −1

tn

= nT = nth sampling instant (sec)

ωk

= kΩ = kth frequency sample (rad/sec)

T ∆

= 1/fs = time sampling interval (sec)

Ω ∆

= 2πfs/N = frequency sampling interval (sec)

We are now in a position to have a full understanding of the transform
kernel:

e−jωktn

= cos(ωktn)−j sin(ωktn)

The kernel consists of samples of a complex sinusoid at N discrete fre-
quencies ωk uniformly spaced between 0 and the sampling rate ωs

= 2πfs.

97

Page 98

6.2. SIGNALS AS VECTORS

All that remains is to understand the purpose and function of the summa-
tion over n of the pointwise product of x(n) times each complex sinusoid.
We will learn that this can be interpreted as an inner product opera-
tion which computes the coeﬃcient of projection of the signal x onto the
complex sinusoid cos(ωktn) + j sin(ωktn). As such, X(ωk), the DFT at
frequency ωk, is a measure of the amplitude and phase of the complex
sinusoid at that frequency which is present in the input signal x. This
is the basic function of all transform summations (in discrete time) and
integrals (in continuous time) and their kernels.

scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->